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Sample records for acacia glomerosa benth

  1. Pollination ecology of Acacia gerrardii Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae under extremely hot-dry conditions

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    Abdulaziz Saad Alqarni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Talh trees (Acacia gerrardii Benth. are acacias that are native to the arid and semiarid Africa and west Asia. We investigated the flowering biology, pod set and flower visitors of Talh and discussed the role of these visitors in pollen transfer. The Talh trees blossomed laterally on the nodes of one-year-old twigs. Each node produced 21 flower buds seasonally. Each flower bud opened to a flower head (FH of 60 florets. The bagged FHs podded significantly (p ⩽ 0.05 less than did the unbagged FHs. The FHs were visited by 31 insect species (25 genera, 16 families and 5 orders. The major taxa were honeybees, megachilids, butterflies, ants, beetles and thrips. Each of honeybees, megachilids and beetles showed a significant (p ⩽ 0.05 hourly pattern, while each of butterflies, ants and thrips had no hourly pattern (p > 0.05. Furthermore, some birds and mammals touched the Talh FHs. Talh trees evolved a mass flowering behavior to face pre- and post-flowering obstacles. Megachilids seemed to play the major effort of zoophily because of their relatively high numbers of individuals and species and their effective movement behavior on the FH surface. Nevertheless, honeybees and other insects and vertebrate taxa also contributed to the pollen transfer. These results greatly contribute to our understanding of the pollination ecology of acacias, especially Arabian acacias.

  2. Arsenic toxicity in Acacia mangium willd. and mimosa Caesalpiniaefolia benth. seedlings

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    Henrique Nery Cipriani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia are fast-growing woody fabaceous species that might be suitable for phytoremediation of arsenic (As-contaminated sites. To date, few studies on their tolerance to As toxicity have been published. Therefore, this study assessed As toxicity symptoms in A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia seedlings under As stress in a greenhouse. Seedlings of Acacia mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia were grown for 120 d in an Oxisol-sand mixture with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 As, in four replications in four randomized blocks. The plants were assessed for visible toxicity symptoms, dry matter production, shoot/root ratio, root anatomy and As uptake. Analyses of variance and regression showed that the growth of A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia was severely hindered by As, with a reduction in dry matter production of more than 80 % at the highest As rate. The root/shoot ratio increased with increasing As rates. At a rate of 400 mg kg-1 As, whitish chlorosis appeared on Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia seedlings. The root anatomy of both species was altered, resulting in cell collapse, death of root buds and accumulation of phenolic compounds. Arsenic concentration was several times greater in roots than in shoots, with more than 150 and 350 mg kg-1 in M. caesalpiniaefolia and A. mangium roots, respectively. These species could be suitable for phytostabilization of As-contaminated sites, but growth-stimulating measures should be used.

  3. PENGARUH UMUR BAHAN SETEK TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN SETEK AKOR (Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth

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    nurmawati siregar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Akor (Acacia auriculiformis termasuk salah satu jenis sumber energi biomassa mempunyai prospek yang baik untuk dikembangkan. Salah satu faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan untuk pengembangannya adalah ketersediaan bibit bermutu. Bibit bermutu dapat diperoleh dari perbanyakan generatif (biji dan vegetatif (setek. Melalui setek dapat diproduksi bibit bermutu dalam jumlah yang cukup, setiap waktu dan tidak tergantung dengan musim. Salah satu faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan perbanyakan vegetatif dengan setek adalah juvenilitas (umur bahan setek, oleh karena itu dilakukan penelitian pengaruh umur bahan setek. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK dengan perlakuan umur bahan setek yaitu umur 2,3,4 dan 5 bulan, ulangan tiga kali dan setiap unit perlakuan terdiri dari 45 setek. Respon pertumbuhan yang diamati meliputi: waktu tumbuh tunas setek, persentase tumbuh setek, panjang akar, jumlah akar, panjang tunas, berat kering akar, berat kering tunas, ratio tunas dengan akar dan analisis ratio C/N. Umur bahan setek berpengaruh nyata terhadap semua parameter yang diamati kecuali persen tumbuh setek. Bahan setek yang paling optimal digunakan untuk jenis akor adalah pada umur 3 - 4 bulan.

  4. Biodiversity of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Acacia gerrardii Benth in different habitats of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, A.; Huqail, A.A.; Alqarawi, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are the most influential and ubiquitous rhizosphere microbiome. AMF improve the soil characteristics and assist the symbiotic plants by improving plant absorption of soil nutrients particularly phosphorus. The biodiversity of native AMF highly influenced by soil nature and plant composition. The present investigation studied the enumeration and biodiversity of AMF associated with rhizosphere soil and roots of Acacia gerrardii (Talh trees) grown natively in different habitats of Saudi Arabia (SA). Soil analysis were varied with locations nonetheless, there are no distinct correlations has been estimated among the root colonization with AMF, spores number of AMF and soil properties. Fifteen mycorrhizal fungal species belong to seven genus (Funneliformis; Glomus; Rhizophagus; Septoglomus; Acaulospora; Claroideoglomus; Archaeospora) and four families (Glomeraceae; Acaulosporaceae; Claroideoglomeraceae; Archaeosporaceae) were identified from forty soil samples collected from four different locations belong to Riyadh region (Rawdhat Khuraim, Houta Bani Tamim) and Holy Madina region (Ola city, Werqaan Mountain) in SA. The present investigation extends our knowledge on the biodiversity of AMF associated with rhizosphere soil of Talh trees (A.gerrardii) grown natively in different Saudi locations. (author)

  5. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71

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    Abeer Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth. against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR.

  6. Biological activity and LC-MS/MS profiling of extracts from the Australian medicinal plant Acacia ligulata (Fabaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Diana Jæger; Simpson, Bradley S.; Ndi, Chi P.

    2018-01-01

    Acacia ligulata A.Cunn. ex Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) is a native Australian plant used traditionally by Australian Aboriginal groups. This study was undertaken to investigate the bioactivity of A. ligulata extracts and to evaluate their chemical composition. Potential antibacterial, cytotoxic...

  7. Chemical and pharmacological investigation of Acacia and Santalum species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Diana Jæger

    compounds from plants still have a huge potential for investigation for medicinal properties as possible drug leads. Humans have a long history of using plant medicine in treatments and indigenous cultures are a remarkable source for immense knowledge about plants and the uses of them - knowledge that has...... often only exists amongst members of communities or groups of the land where it has arisen. In this PhD project the three Australian plant species Acacia ligulata A.Cunn. ex Benth, Santalum spicatum (R.Br.) A.DC and Santalum lanceolatum R.Br were investigated for their bioactivity and chemistry...

  8. Anatomia da madeira de Acacia nitidifolia Spreg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae.

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    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa o estudo anatômico da madeira de Acacia mitidifolia Spreg. A estrutura anatômica apresenta porosidade difusa, elementos vasculares curtos, placas de perfuração simples, pontuações intervasculares ornamentadas e em arranjo alterno, parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico e marginal cristalífero, raios homogêneos comumente 2-3-seriados e fibras libriformes separadas. A preseça de canais intercelulares axiais e de canais celulares na estrutura radial, tem grande importância taxonômica. Este último caráter era desconhecido para o gênero Acacia. A estrutura anatômica da madeira indica que a espécie em estudo pode ser classificada na séire Vulgares Benth.,  que corresponde, em linhas gerais, ao sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.

  9. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA DE Acacia nitidifolia Speg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae. Wood anatomy of Acacia mitidifolia Spreg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae.

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    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa o estudo anatômico da madeira de Acacia nitidifolia Speg. A estrutura anatômica apresenta porosidade difusa, elementos vasculares curtos, placas de perfurações simples, pontuações intervasculares ornamentadas e em arranjo alterno, parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico e marginal cristalífero, raios homogêneos comumente 2-3 seriados e fibras libriformes septadas. A presença de canais intercelulares axiais e de canais celulares na estrutura radial, tem grande importância taxonômica. Este último caráter era desconhecido para o gênero Acacia. A estrutura anatômica da madeira indica que a espécie em estudo pode ser classificada na série Vulgares Benth., que corresponde, em linhas gerais, ao sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.

  10. Anatomia da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. Wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn.

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    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é a descrição anatômica da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. Hook. et Arn. A estrutura anatômica é comparada com outras espécies sul-brasileiras do mesmo gênero. A presença de raios multisseriados estreitos e fibras septadas permitem classificar a espécie na série Vulgares Bentham ou sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.The wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. is described and compared with other south-american Acacias. The presence of narrow multisseriate rays and libriform fibres, observed in the wood, are commonly found among species of the series Vulgares Benth. or sub-genus Aculeiferum Vassal.

  11. Australian blackwood acacia

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    Samraj, P; Chinnamani, S

    1981-01-01

    An account of the silviculture and uses of Tasmanian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon). The species is grown in the hills of Nilgiris and Pulneys (above altitude 1500 metres). It can also be grown near centre of livestock farming where the land is unsuitable for intensive cultivation of grasses and legumes, and planted as field boundaries, shelterbelts and ornamental or shade trees. The leaves are used as livestock fodder, twigs as fuelwood, and the wood for pulp, cabinet making, agricultural implements and construction timber.

  12. Rauwolfia serpentina Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Рибонуклеаза Bacillus intermedius (биназа), внесенная при многократном пассировании на поверхность питательной среды в концентрации 10-5 мг/мл, вызывала существенные изменения в первичном и вторичном обмене каллусной культуры раувольфии змеиной Rauwolfia serpentina Benth, особенно на начальном этапе роста и при старении культуры. В начале культивирования биназа стимулировала процесс деления и дифференцировки клеток, увеличивая их интенсивность и время протекания. Действие биназы в конце пасса...

  13. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  14. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Chu, Kedan; Li, Huang; Zhang, Yuqin; Zheng, Haiyin; Chen, Ruilan; Chen, Lidian

    2012-12-03

    An ionic liquids (IL)-based microwave-assisted approach for extraction and determination of flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. was proposed for the first time. Several ILs with different cations and anions and the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) conditions, including sample particle size, extraction time and liquid-solid ratio, were investigated. Two M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim] Br) solution with 0.80 M HCl was selected as the optimal solvent. Meanwhile the optimized conditions a ratio of liquid to material of 30:1, and the extraction for 10 min at 70 °C. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (CHRE) and the regular MAE, IL-MAE exhibited a higher extraction yield and shorter extraction time (from 1.5 h to 10 min). The optimized extraction samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS. IL extracts of Bauhinia championii (Benth.)Benth consisted mainly of flavonoids, among which myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, β-sitosterol, triacontane and hexacontane were identified. The study indicated that IL-MAE was an efficient and rapid method with simple sample preparation. LC-MS/MS was also used to determine the chemical composition of the ethyl acetate/MAE extract of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth, and it maybe become a rapid method to determine the composition of new plant extracts.

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF THE PRODUCT AND QUALITY OF POGOSTEMON CABLIN BENTH

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    Allwar Allwar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin benth is an economic source of farmer communities which are presence in several provinces in Indonesia. In general, the production and quality of the Pogostemon cablin benth produced by the farmers are still low or under the standard ISO. The chelating method, the influence of pH and adsorption method with activated carbon and montmorilonite  were carried out to improve the production and quality of Pogostemon cablin benth. The results show that the production and the quality tends to be better proved by the color changes to yellow bright, reduced metal contents and an increase in Pogostemon cablin benth

  16. Acacia Gender Learning and Capacity Strengthening | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will serve a dual purpose: to develop a process of learning and reflection on gender within IDRC's Acacia (Communities and the Information Society in Africa) program initiative; and to undertake an evaluation of Acacia's gender strategy. This will be accomplished in three phases. During the preparatory phase, ...

  17. Acacia Gender Learning and Capacity Strengthening | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will serve a dual purpose: to develop a process of learning and reflection on gender within IDRC's Acacia (Communities and the Information Society in Africa) program initiative; and to undertake an evaluation of Acacia's gender strategy. This will be accomplished in three phases. During the preparatory phase, ...

  18. Wood Quality of Acacia Hybrid and Second-Generation Acacia mangium

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    Ismail Jusoh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new tree variants, namely Acacia hybrid and second-generation Acacia mangium, have been introduced in plantation forests in Sarawak, Malaysia, and their wood qualities were examined. The mean basic density of Acacia hybrid was comparable with Acacia mangium. However basic density and strength properties of second-generation A. mangium were significantly lower compared to Acacia hybrid. The mean fibre length and fibre wall thickness in the hybrid were found to be greater than that of second-generation A. mangium. Fibre diameter and fibre lumen diameter of Acacia hybrid were smaller compared to second-generation A. mangium. Runkel and slenderness ratios of Acacia hybrid and second-generation A. mangium fibres showed that they were suitable for pulp and paper production. Acacia hybrid was more resistant to Coptotermes curvignathus attack than second-generation A. mangium. A laboratory soil block test showed that Acacia hybrid and second-generation A. mangium were moderately durable timbers. In summary, marked differences in wood properties and qualities were observed between Acacia hybrid and second-generation A. mangium.

  19. Effects of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. polysaccharides on the proliferation and cell cycle of chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liangliang; Ye, Hongzhi; Yu, Fangrong; Li, Huiting; Chen, Jiashou; Liu, Xianxiang

    2013-05-01

    It has been recently shown that polysaccharides isolated from plants exhibit a number of beneficial therapeutic properties. Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. has been widely used for the clinical treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in China. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of knee OA treatment have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. polysaccharides (BCBPs) on the proliferation and cell cycle of chondrocytes on 4-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats. Immunohistochemical staining was used to identify chondrocytes and an MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis. The mRNA and protein expression levels of cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6 in chondrocytes were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. The data demonstrate that BCBP treatment increased the viability of chondrocytes. In addition, BCBP treatment reduced the cell population in the G0/G1 phase, whereas the cell population was increased in the S phase. Furthermore, BCBP treatment enhanced the expression of cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6. These results indicate that BCBP treatment promotes cell proliferation by accelerating the G1/S transition.

  20. (acacia senegal) in jigawa state, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    tapping and tapping methods.Forest products may be ... the management practices, the precise technique and ... The gum production potential of this species (Acacia senegal) is still ..... Manual on gum Arabic production Pp. 20-23. Wekesa, C ...

  1. Mass propagation of Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, U; Rahman, M S M; Islam, S; Haque, N; Khatun, M; Jubair, T A; Paul, B C

    2008-05-01

    A protocol for mass propagation through axillary bud proliferation was established for Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth. (Apocynaceae). MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) BA and 0.2 mg L(-1) NAA elicited the maximum number of shoots (4 multiple shoots) from nodal explants. These adventitious shoots were best rooted on half strength MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) each of IBA and IAA. The in vitro raised plants were acclimatized in glass house and successfully transplanted to field condition with almost 95% survival.

  2. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA DE Mimosa eriocarpa Benth.

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    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os caracteres anatômicos da madeira de Mimosa eriocarpa Benth. e fornecidos 31 dados quantitativos de sua estrutura xilemática. A descrição é ilustrada com fotomicrografias tomadas nos três planos anatômicos. A estrutura da madeira é comparada com referências da literatura para espécies afins, em uma análise de caráter taxonômico-filogenética.

  3. Anatomia da madeira de Mimosa eriocarpa Benth.

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    Celso Carnieletto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 São descritos os caracteres anatômicos da madeira de Mimosa eriocarpa Benth. e fornecidos 31 dados quantitativos de sua estrutura xilemática. A descrição é ilustrada com fotomicrografias tomadas nos três planos anatômicos. A estrutura da madeira é comparada com referências da literatura para espécies afins, em uma análise de caráter taxonômico-filogenética.

  4. Inducible defences in Acacia sieberiana in response to giraffe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The resultant browsing pressure has led to the evolution of both physical and chemical responses in Acacia trees. In an observational study, we investigated the physical and chemical defenses in Acacia sieberiana var. woodii in response to ...

  5. Chemical constituents of Licania tomentosa Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Licania tomentosa Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae)

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    Castilho, Rachel Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Produtos Farmaceuticos]. E-mail: roc2006@farmacia.ufmg.br; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora Coelho [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the chemical constituents isolated from leaves and fruits of Licania tomentosa Benth. The plant materials were successively extracted with hexane and methanol. From the extracts the following compounds were obtained: betulinic acid; licanolide, a new triterpene lactone; oleanolic acid, lupeol; palmitoleic and hexadecanoic acid; a mixture of stigmasterol and sitosterol; and a mixture of tormentic, ursolic and betulinic acid. The structures of the natural products were identified on the basis of spectral data. (author)

  6. Determination of Tannins of Three Common Acacia Species of Sudan

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    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze and compare tannins of three common Acacia species of Sudan, since vegetable tannins are important in leather industry. Acacia nilotica and Acacia seyal samples were collected from Sunt Forest in Khartoum State, while Acacia senegal samples were collected from the Debabat Forest in South Kordofan State. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with boiled deionized water. The amount of tannins present in these bulk samples was determined by Folin-Denis method for total phenolic materials, followed by precipitation with hide-powder. The difference between the amount of phenolic materials present before and after addition of hide-powder represents the amount of tannins present. The percentage of tannins in the leaves, bark, and mature and immature fruits of collections of individuals of Acacia species was estimated; mature and immature fruits of Acacia nilotica contain tannins (22.15% and 22.10%, resp.. The leaves of Acacia nilotica and Acacia seyal contain tannins (11.80% and 6.30%, resp.. The barks of Acacia seyal, Acacia nilotica, and Acacia senegal contain tannins (12.15%, 10.47%, and 3.49%, resp..

  7. Bauhinia championi (Benth.) Benth. polysaccharides upregulate Wnt/β-catenin signaling in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiting; Li, Xihai; Liu, Guozhong; Chen, Jiashou; Weng, Xiaping; Liu, Fayuan; Xu, Huifeng; Liu, Xianxiang; Ye, Hongzhi

    2013-12-01

    Bauhinia championi (Benth.) Benth. polysaccharides (BCBPs), extracted from Bauhinia championi (Benth.) Benth., which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA), are the bioactive constituents of Bauhinia championi (Benth.) rattan. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for their effects on OA are poorly understood. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in the proliferation of chondrocytes. In the present study, the effects of BCBPs on Wnt/β-catenin signaling in chondrocytes were investigated. BCBPs were obtained by hot-water extraction and identified by the modified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Chondrocytes were isolated from the knees of Sprague‑Dawley rats and identified by type II collagen immunohistochemistry. The chondrocytes were treated with or without BCBPs for 48 h. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. The mRNA and protein levels of Wnt-4, β-catenin, Frizzled-2, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, cyclin D1 and collagen II were detected by western blot analysis and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. We found that the BCBPs contained at least seven monosaccharides, including D-mannose, rhamnose, D-(+) glucuronic acid, D-(+) galacturonic acid, D-glucose, galactose and arabinose. The cell viability of the chondrocytes treated with 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml BCBPs was significantly higher than that of the chondroctyes in the control group (treated with 0 µg/ml BCBPs). Furthermore, compared with the control group, the mRNA and protein expression of Wnt-4, β-catenin, Frizzled-2 and cyclin D1 in the BCBP-treated groups markedly increased, whereas the mRNA and protein expression of GSK-3β significantly decreased. Of note, the dose of 100 µg/ml BCBPs was more effective than the dose of 50 µg/ml BCBPs and 200 µg/ml BCBPs. In addition, we found that treatment with BCBPs upregulated the protein levels of collagen II in the

  8. Genetic improvement of tropical acacias: achievements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential for genetic improvement in form traits and wood properties has also been demonstrated. Genetic improvement objectives must now give heavy weighting to improving disease resistance and tolerance. Ganoderma root rot and Ceratocystis stem wilt have destroyed large areas of acacia plantations in Indonesia ...

  9. A photographic guide to Acacia koa defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Betsy S. Porterfield

    2013-01-01

    Acacia koa (A. Gray), native to the Hawaiian Islands, has both cultural and economic significance. Koa wood is world-renowned for its extensive use in furniture, tone wood for musical instruments, and other items of cultural importance. Old-growth koa is decreasing in supply, yet dead and dying koa is still being harvested for manufacture of...

  10. Performance of two honey bee subspecies during harsh weather and Acacia gerrardii nectar-rich flow

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    Awad Mohamed Awad

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Both climatic factors and bee forage characteristics affect the population size and productivity of honey bee colonies. To our knowledge, no scientific investigation has as yet considered the potential effect of nectar-rich bee forage exposed to drastic subtropical weather conditions on the performance of honey bee colonies. This study investigated the performance of the honey bee subspecies Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (Yemeni and Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann (Carniolan in weather that was hot and dry and in an environment of nectar-rich flora. The brood production, food storage, bee population and honey yield of Yemeni (native and Carniolan (imported colonies on Talh trees (Acacia gerrardii Benth., a nectar-rich, subtropical, and summer bee forage source in Central Arabia were evaluated. Owing to their structural and behavioral adaptations, the Yemeni bees constructed stronger (high population size colonies than the Carniolan bees. Although both groups yielded similar amounts of Talh honey, the Yemeni bees consumed their stored honey rapidly if not timely harvested. A. m. jemenitica has a higher performance than A. m. carnica during extremely hot-dry conditions and A. gerrardii nectar-rich flow.

  11. Occurrence and structure of extrafloral nectariesin Pterodon pubescens Benth. and Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth.

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    Paiva Élder Antônio Sousa e

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs are structurally variable and widely spread among the angiosperms. The occurrence of EFNs in leaves of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth. and Pterodon pubescens Benth. (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae were detected in adult specimens, at the time of production of new buds and flowers. The goals of the present study are to register the occurrence of the EFNs in P. pubescens and P. polygalaeflorus, and provide comparative data on the anatomical structures. The EFNs occur in the rachis and are located under the insertion of each petiolule. Each nectary consists of a small elevation whose apical portion is deeply invaginated, resulting in a depression (secretory pole, a common characteristic of both species. Unicellular, nonglandular trichomes occur along the rachis, being less numerous in P. polygalaeflorus while in P. pubescens they cover the EFNs. The secretory tissue consists of parenchyma cells with dense cytoplasm compactly arranged. The nectar reaches the surface of the EFNs by rupturing the thin cuticle which covers the secretory pole, since both species lack stomata or any other interruption at the epidermis. The basic difference between the two species, in relation to the EFNs, is the density of the pubescence, which is always greater in P. pubescens. Structural and dimensional modifications may be observed, even between basal and apical nectaries in the same rachis, so it does not constitute a taxonomical tool.

  12. SERIANTHES Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae-Ingeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. FOSBERG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Serianthes was erected by Bentham to accomodate plants which Wallich had called Inga grandiflora, from Singapore, and those which Bertero had called Acacia myriadenia, from Tahiti. It has been accepted from the first, as it is amply distinct from Acacia and reasonably so from Inga. though it is usually placed in the tribe Ingeae. Serianthes is widespread in the southwest Pacific, usually, though not always, occurring on islands, frequently on calcareous or serpentine rocks or their derived soils. It is seldom abundant, though in places common. In habit it varies from a dwarf tree or large shrub to a forest giant. It is reported to be an excellent timber tree, but seems nowhere to be abundant enough to be important commercially. Since Bentham's original description in 1844, eleven additional species and one variety have been ascribed to it in addition to the original S. grandiflora. Three of these do not belong in Serianthes. Most of the specimens in herbaria, excepting those called S. grandiflora, have been misidentified, usually being placed in S. myriadenia. Although I first saw this genus growing and collected it in Raivavae and Rurutu in 1934, my interest in it was aroused by failure, in 1950, to find a satisfactory disposition for specimens collected in Palau, similar to those that Kanehira had referred to S. grandiflora, which they clearly were not. The more I tried to make sense of the herbarium material available in a number of herbaria the more frustrating the problem became. Notes were accumulated in a most haphazard and unsystematic manner, as I had no intention of doing more than identifying my Micronesian material. Finallyit became evident that over half of the entities discernible in the material examined were undescribed, and I felt a certain obligation to work up at least a synopsis of the genus.

  13. Antioxidant Flavonoids from Nepeta floccosa Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaqat Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are the substances which significantly delay or prevent the development of age-related degenerative and chronic diseases caused by oxidative damage. Due to this, there is a considerable interest in the identification of lead molecules, which can inhibit the oxidation process or slow it down considerably. Based on the spectrofluorimetric analysis of superoxide and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability, the bio-assay guided isolation of methanolic extract of Nepeta floccosa Benth. was carried out. As a result of this study, one new flavanonol named nepetavanol (1 and four known flavonoids; dihydrokaempferol (2, naringenin (3, caulesnarinside (4, and poncirin (5 have been isolated. The structure of the new flavanonol was assigned on the basis of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra including two-dimensional NMR techniques such as COSY, HMQC, and HMBC experiments and FABMS, EIMS, HR-MS data. Compound 1 , 2, and 3 showed significant activity whereas compounds 4 and 5 showed moderate activity against antioxidant assays.

  14. Albizzia lebbeck Benth. (Hindi: Siris) of Leguminosae is a large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Albizzia lebbeck Benth. (Hindi: Siris) of Leguminosae is a large deciduous tree with greyish bark and compound leaves. Flowers are greenish-yellow in head inflorescences. Fruit pods are yellowish-brown, flat and carry 6-10 seeds (Inset shows the entire crown of the tree covered with previous season's dry pods).

  15. In vitro propagation of Acacia hybrid through alginate-encapsulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed collected from Acacia hybrid trees yields highly variable and poorly performing offspring and are not commonly used in regeneration. The present study described the incapsulation of Acacia hybrid shoots and axillary buds in the calcium alginate gel. The aim of the study was to evaluate the germination of the buds in ...

  16. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a topical application of a cream formulation containing extract of. Acacia nilotica bark extract on human cheek skin texture. Methods: A cream containing 3 % concentrated extract of Acacia nilotica bark was developed by entrapping the extract in the internal aqueous phase of the cream ...

  17. Investigation into nanocellulosics versus acacia reinforced acrylic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunqiao Pu; Jianguo Zhang; Thomas Elder; Yulin Deng; Paul Gatenholm; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2007-01-01

    Three closely related cellulosic acrylic latex films were prepared employing acacia pulp fibers, cellulose whiskers and nonocellulose balls and their respective strength properties were determined. Cellulose whisker reinforced composites had enhanced strength properties compared to the acacia pulp and nanoball composites. AFM analysis indicated that the cellulose...

  18. Performance of Broilers Given Different Dietary Levels of Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at evaluating the seeds of a leguminous plant, Acacia sieberiana DC as an alternative source of dietary plant protein for broilers. Five experimental diets containing 0 (control), 5, 10, 15 and 20% Acacia sieberiana seeds (ASS) were formulated and fed to 5 groups of birds during starter (0 - 4 weeks), ...

  19. Phylogenic analysis in Acacia senegal using AFLP molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) DNA markers were used to characterize the genetic diversity and relationships in gum Arabic tree (Acacia senegal). Twenty eight samples of Acacia senegal collected from populations distributed throughout the Gum Arabic belt were tested in comparison with samples of ...

  20. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of Acacia nilotica Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    that had maximum bactericidal activity against all the tested isolates, but showed < 30 % host cell cytotoxicity. Conclusion: The lysate of Acacia nilotica ... cytotoxic effects on human cells. EXPERIMENTAL. Plant material. Acacia nilotica Lam .... a detergent that permeabilizes eukaryotic cells and results in HBMEC damage.

  1. Acacia Prospectus 2006-2011 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Executive Summary. The Acacia Prospectus (2006-2011) represents the third generation of Acacia programming, which began in 1996. Much has changed with respect to ICTs and African development in that time. While Africa still has the lowest teledensity of any region on earth, it is now the fastest ...

  2. Dormancy break in Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Elder Carlos Bezerra Pereira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate different methods for breaking dormancy in seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth., arboreal species of multiple use in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil. The treatments were: control – intact seeds (T1; immersion in water until it reaches 80 °C (T2, and 100 °C (T3, concentrated sulfuric acid for five minutes (T4, 10 minutes (T5 , and 15 minutes (T6, mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 (T7, mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 + immersion in water for six hours (T8, and for 12 hours (T9, soaking in water for 24 hours (T10, and for 48 hours (T11. The characteristics evaluated were such: emergency, mean emergency time, shoot length, root length, number of leaves, leaf area and total dry matter. The best method for breaking dormancy of seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb. Benth. is mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80.

  3. Volatile Components of Oiti Fruit (Licania tomentosa Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. C. Kaplan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The fresh fruits from Licania tomentosa Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae , were submitted to hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. Analysis of volatile oil were performed by GC and GC-MS. Comparison of results with literature data allowed the chemical characterization of 83% of compounds of mixture. Thirteen compounds were identified, three monoterpenes, five aliphatic esters, two alcohols, two ketones and one aldehyde. The alcohols were the major compounds (35.6%, but the esters showed great diversity.

  4. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  5. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER DIMENSION OF PRICKLY ACACIA (Acacia nilotica L. FROM BALURAN NATIONAL PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdianto Krisdianto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (L. Willd. ex. Delile growing in Baluran National Park has dramatically altered the ecological balance of grasslands and thereby threatens the existence of local biodiversity. Prickly acacia is able to spread rapidly and remains uncontrollable. Baluran National Park authorization has been struggling to control this prickly acacia trees. One possible action that can be taken to encounter this problem is allowing wood based industries, and local people take advantages of this nilotica timber utilization. This paper studies the anatomical properties and fiber dimensions of nilotica timber and discusses the possible utilization of  nilotica timber.   This timber is characterized by dark brown heartwood which is clearly distinct from reddish brown color of sapwood. The denser cell wall shows attractively streaked in tangential surfaces. The length of  wood fiber decreases from pith toward periphery portion. Longitudinally, higher stem has shorter fiber. Nilotica wood has second class quality of fiber, which means its fiber is moderately thick with narrow lumen diameter. Due to small log diameter and branches, the nilotica timber is not recommended for construction material. The timber is suitable for carved and turnery products. Nilotica timber is suitable for charcoal manufacture and fuel wood due to its high calorific value.

  6. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Keywords: Acacia nilotica, Cream, Visioscan VC 98, Skin texture, Anti-aging. Tropical Journal of .... volunteer (A) before and (B) after application of extract cream for 3 months The .... Antioxidants and vitamins in Cosmetics. Clin. Dermatol. 2001 ...

  7. Germination Response of Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to Hot Water Pre-Treatment in Maiduguri, ... of Maiduguri under tree shade, to study the effect of hot water pre-treatment duration. ... Germination response, pre-sowing treatment, gum Arabic, orthodox seeds.

  8. Fitness and its variation among populations of Acacia tortilis subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-07-23

    Jul 23, 2008 ... Habitat destruction and fragmentation has been an increasingly dominant process shaping landscapes over the last 100 - 150 years ..... not only to estimates for other tropical acacias but for plants in ..... pollinated prairie forb.

  9. Antibacterial activity of six indigenous Indian plants: Acacia nilotica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... The antibacterial activity of extracts (water, acetone and methanol) from six indigenous Indian plants: Acacia ... attention to traditional methods, looking for novel ... Five grams powder of each plant was equally divided into.

  10. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of Acacia nilotica Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Keywords: Acacia nilotica, ESBLs, MRSA, E. coli, Klebsiella, Antibacterial resistance, Cytotoxicity. Received: ... infectious diseases, is an age-long practice, especially ... used in a variety of infections. ... E. coli K1 [14] and MRSA [15] were used.

  11. Diploflavone, a New Flavonoid from Diplotropis ferruginea Benth. (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jackson Roberto G.S. [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Cabral, Analucia G.S.; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Silva, Marcelo S. da [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica]. E-mail: jbarbosa@ltf.ufpb.br; Da Cunha, Emidio V. Leitao [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Nascimento, Silene C. do [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2005-11-15

    The chemical examination of Diplotropis ferruginea Benth. resulted in the isolation of a new 3-methoxyflavone, 3-methoxy-6-O-prenyl-6,6-dimethylchromene-(7,8,2,3)-flavone, to which was given the trivial name diploflavone (1); as well as the known 3,6-dimethoxy-6,6- dimethylchromene-(7,8,2,3)-flavone (2). The structure of the new compound was established by spectral analyses. Cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was tested against the cells NClH292 (lung carcinoma), HEp-2 (larynx carcinoma) and KB (oral epidermoid carcinoma). The cells HEp-2 were the most affected by the substances tested. (author)

  12. Diploflavone, a New Flavonoid from Diplotropis ferruginea Benth. (Fabaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Jackson Roberto G.S.; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Cabral, Analucia G.S.; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Silva, Marcelo S. da; Da Cunha, Emidio V. Leitao; Nascimento, Silene C. do; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2005-01-01

    The chemical examination of Diplotropis ferruginea Benth. resulted in the isolation of a new 3-methoxyflavone, 3-methoxy-6-O-prenyl-6 , 6 - dimethylchromene-(7,8,2 , 3 ) -flavone, to which was given the trivial name diploflavone (1); as well as the known 3,6-dimethoxy-6 , 6 - dimethylchromene-(7,8,2 , 3 ) -flavone (2). The structure of the new compound was established by spectral analyses. Cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was tested against the cells NClH292 (lung carcinoma), HEp-2 (larynx carcinoma) and KB (oral epidermoid carcinoma). The cells HEp-2 were the most affected by the substances tested. (author)

  13. Chemical constituents from Piptadenia rigida Benth., Fabaceae, "angico"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário G. de Carvalho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the roots of Piptadenia rigida Benth., Fabaceae, known as "angico", afforded sitosterol, lupeol, betuline, the chalcone isoliquiritigenin, the flavonoids, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone, 7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone, 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and methyl-3,4-dihydroxy-benzoate. Both flavones were also isolated from the branches of this plant. Five derivatives of the aldehyde were obtained by diazomethane treatment. The structures of compounds were identified by IR, NMR and mass spectral data analysis of natural compounds and some derivatives, and by comparison with literature data.

  14. Chemical constituents from Piptadenia rigida Benth., Fabaceae, "angico"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário G. de Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the roots of Piptadenia rigida Benth., Fabaceae, known as "angico", afforded sitosterol, lupeol, betuline, the chalcone isoliquiritigenin, the flavonoids, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone, 7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone, 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and methyl-3,4-dihydroxy-benzoate. Both flavones were also isolated from the branches of this plant. Five derivatives of the aldehyde were obtained by diazomethane treatment. The structures of compounds were identified by IR, NMR and mass spectral data analysis of natural compounds and some derivatives, and by comparison with literature data.

  15. Phytochemical and Bioactivity Evaluation of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardalan Pasdaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth. is an Iranian endemic species of the genus Scrophularia, which comprises ca. 200 medicinally important herbaceous flowering plants . Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of this species afforded two iridoid glycosides, scropolioside D (1 and scrophuloside B 4 (2, and two phenylalkanoid glycosides, salidroside (3 and verbascoside (4. S tructures of these compounds were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. Free-radical-scavenging activity, potential antimalarial property, and contact toxicity as well as general toxicity of the extract and fractions were assessed.

  16. Estudio genecológico en prosopis laevigata, acacia farnesiana y acacia schaffneri (leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Luz Gómez Acevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se emplea una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire (splash para cromosomas vegetales a fin de analizar la posible respuesta genotipo-ambiente de tres especies de leguminosas típicas de las zonas áridas y semiáridas mexicanas, ubicadas en poblaciones con características climáticas diferentes. Las especies estudiadas fueron Prosopis laevigata y Acacia schaffneri del municipio de Santiago de Anaya, estado de Hidalgo (20o 16’ N y P. laevigata y Acacia farnesiana del municipio de Bermejillo, estado de Durango (25o 49’ N. Los parámetros evaluados fueron las longitudes cromosómicas totales, el cariotipo, la frecuencia de polisomatía y el peso de las semillas. En Prosopis laevigata se corrobora un 2n=28 y diferencias interpoblacionales estadísticamente significativas (a=0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales, sin modificación de la fórmula cariotípica (2m+10sm+2st con frecuencia de polisomatía que no rebasó el 10%. En las especies del género Acacia se registraron números cromosómicos diploides 2n=26 sin diferencias interespecíficas estadísticamente significativas (a= 0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales; no obstante se obtuvieron fórmulas cariotípicas diferentes, reportadas por primera vez empleando una técnica de extendido y secado al aire: 9m+4sm para A. schaffneri y 9m+2sm+2st para A. farnesiana. En ambas especies la polisomatía tuvo una frecuencia similar sin rebasar el 30%. Para Prosopis y Acacia no se encontraron diferencias significativas (a= 0,01 en relación al peso de la semilla. Los resultados obtenidos señalan una clase de adaptación en estrecha

  17. Root yield and reserpine content of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. on media under the plant with potential allelopathic effect by nutrient addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULANDJARI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The root of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth (pule pandak contains more than 50 kinds of alkaloid which is useful to treat many kinds of diseases and reserpine is ones to treat of hypertension. Eucalyptus deglupta and Acacia mangium have become release an allelochemy to ecosystem that are can reduce the growth of the plant association. The purpose of this research is to know about the influence of nutrient and media under the plant with potential allelopathic effect to root yield and reserpine content. The research was arranged in Complete Random Block Design. Nutrient was nested on media. Media are: under Tectona grandis, A. mangium, and E. deglupta. Nutrient is 30 t ha-1 organic fertilizers, 200 ha-1 inorganic (NPK fertilizers and control. Polybag with 30 cmx30 cm plant densities and 20% of shading. The result are that beside under the T. grandis, pule pandak was capable to growth under the A. mangium and E. deglupta. Thirty ton per hectare organic fertilizers was increased of growth and yield more than 200 ha-1 inorganic (NPK fertilizers. Allelocemy from A. mangium and E. deglupta was decreased dry root yield but was not effect to reserpine content.

  18. The birds of the alien Acacia thickets of the South-western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 1876, the Cape Superintendent of Plantations began using the Australian Acacia cyanophylla and A. ... Strandveld; but 38 % of all nests recorded in the South-western Cape are in Acacia. S. senegalensis is .... of mixed exotic trees, often including some Acacia but also Eucalyptus, Pinus, Quercus,. Populus and other ...

  19. 77 FR 63311 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR13-1-000] Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on October 9, 2012, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) filed a Petition for Rate Approval pursuant to 284.123(b)(2) of the...

  20. Tree invasion in a semi-arid savanna in Zimbabwe : seedling recruitment of Acacia karroo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirara, C. (Chipangura)

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis Chirara reports on his study on the competitive interaction between savanna grasses and young tree seedlings of Acacia karroo, from hereon indicated as ' Acacia seedlings' . Acacia is one of the tree species that dominates savanna grassland in situations of overgrazing (bush

  1. Extracts of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. attenuate the inflammatory response in a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, WEI; HUANG, MINGQING; ZHANG, YUQIN; LI, HUANG; ZHENG, HAIYIN; YU, LISHUANG; CHU, KEDAN; LIN, YU; CHEN, LIDIAN

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is considered a serious public health problem, which is commonly treated with traditional Chinese or herbal medicine. The present study evaluated the effects of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. extraction (BCBE) on a type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. Wistar rats with CIA received either 125 or 500 mg/kg BCBE, after which, paw swelling was markedly suppressed compared with in the model group. In addition, BCBE significantly ameliorated pathological joint alterations, including synovial hyperplasia, and cartilage and bone destruction. The protein and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-κB in synovial tissue were determined by immunohistochemical staining, western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that the expression levels of these factors were significantly downregulated in the BCBE-treated group compared with in the model group. These results indicated that BCBE may exert an inhibitory effect on the CIA rat model, and its therapeutic potential is associated with its anti-inflammatory action. PMID:27035125

  2. Alkaline Pulping and Bleaching of Acacia auriculiformis Grown in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    JAHAN, M. Sarwar; SABINA, Rowshan; RUBAIYAT, Arjumand

    2014-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and morphological characteristics of Acacia auriculiformis were evaluated in terms of its suitability for papermaking. The fiber length (1.1 mm) of A. auriculiformis in this study was within the range of tropical hardwoods. The lignin content in A. auriculiformis was 19.4% and a-cellulose 44.1%, which was within the range of other acacias, but that of extractives was higher. Soda, soda-AQ, and kraft processes were studied in pulping. Screened pulp yield was increased w...

  3. Propagação vegetativa de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae Vegetative propagation of Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. and Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Hyptis (Lamiaceae apresenta metabolismo especial de notável variabilidade, possuindo predominância de óleos essenciais, que têm muito valor junto a diversas comunidades que utilizam essas plantas pelas propriedades terapêuticas. Diversos estudos com esse gênero têm demonstrado que os óleos essenciais apresentam propriedades antimicrobiana, antifúngica, citotóxica, antiinflamatória, anti-HIV e inseticida, entretanto, poucos são os estudos voltados para a exploração sustentável dessas espécies. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de estaca e diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB sobre a taxa de sobrevivência, crescimento e enraizamento de estacas de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth., espécies endêmicas do semi-árido nordestino cujo valor medicinal tem sido amplamente comprovado. O experimento teve duração de quatro meses. Foram utilizadas estacas apicais, médio-apicais, médio-basais e basais tratadas com soluções de 0, 1000, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB, durante 5 minutos. A utilização de estacas apicais, médio/apicais e médio/basais induzidas com 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de AIB possibilitaram melhores resultados para propagação vegetativa de Hyptis leucocephala. Para Hyptis platanifolia os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a utilização de estacas médio/basais e basais tratadas com AIB na concentração de 2000 e 4000 mg L-1.The genus Hyptis (Lamiaceae has a special metabolism with remarkable variability and predominance of essential oils of great value to the various communities that use these plants due to their therapeutic properties. A number of studies on this genus have demonstrated that its essential oils present antimicrobial, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and insecticidal activities. However, few studies have focused on the sustainable exploitation of these species

  4. Physiochemical screening and antimicrobial potential of otostegia limbata benth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, S.; Farooq, U.; Khan, A.; Sarwar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Otostegia limbata (Benth.) has been used in treatment of gums diseases, dental disorders, healing of wounds, hypertension, eye inflammation, and most importantly as anticancer. The present investigation deals with the physiochemical screening of crude extract of O. limbata and antimicrobial activities of its various fractions. The results showed the presence of alkaloids, catecholic tannins, phenols, sugars, flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins. Antimicrobial activities of four fractions of O. limbata namely n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol were performed by using disc diffusion method against Salmonella setubal, Pseudomonas pickettii, Staphlococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus to evaluate its therapeutic value. All the fractions showed significant antibacterial activities but none of the fractions showed antifungal activity against Aspergilus niger and Aspergilus flavus. (author)

  5. Study of Volatile Components of Acacia farnesiana Willd . Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaefthimiou Evangelia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil and the absolute of five populations of Acacia farnesiana, cultivated in Greece, have been investigated. The saturated hydrocarbons tricosane, nonadecane and heneicosane, along with methyl salicylate, characterized the chemical analysis of the essential oils and the absolutes, while hexadecanoic acid and α -amyrine were important constituents of some absolutes.

  6. Sprout selection and performance of goats fed Acacia karroo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Casper Nyamukanza

    Goats are important browsers in the Eastern Cape Province, which keeps ... Acacia karroo Hayne (Fabaceae = Leguminosae) trees are abundant and able to ... savanna and consists of subtropical thicket vegetation dominated by deciduous woody shrubs shorter than ..... National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., USA.

  7. Evaluation of heavy metal uptake and translocation by Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Acacia mangium as a phytoremediator of copper contaminated soil. Nik M. Majid, M. M. Islam*, Veronica Justin, Arifin Abdu and Parisa Ahmadpour. Department of ... The different levels of Cu were: T0 (control, soil), T1 (50 ppm Cu), T2 (100 ppm ..... aspects such as photosynthesis and respiration rate need.

  8. Genetic variability in Sudanese Acacia senegal (L.) assessed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Genetic variability in Sudanese Acacia senegal (L.) assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Rami S. Habeballa*, Nada B. Hamza and Eisa I. El Gaali. Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan. P. O. Box.

  9. Characterization of tannin-based adhesives from Acacia mangium barks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Fatahiyah Mohamada; Pizzi, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate the performances of Acacia Mangium tannin-based tannin designed as adhesive in the particleboard production. The tannin was extracted from acacia mangium barks in differences medium extraction. Three difference medium, (1)Water (Control), (2)Na 2 SO 3 (4 %) / Na 2 CO 3 (0.4 %) and (3) Na 2 SO 3 (8 %) / Na 2 CO 3 (0.8 %) used, the (3) medium extraction produce then highest yield (25.8 %) follow the (2) medium extraction (21.6%) and the less yield (17.7%). To evaluate the mechanical performances of optimal Acacia mangium tannin-based adhesives, particleboard were produced using 3 differences hardener and mechanical properties (Internal bonding) were investigated. The performance of these panels is comparable to those of particle panels commercial. The results showed that particleboard panels bonded with parafomaldehid (0.392 Mpa) exhibited better mechanical properties, continue particleboard panel hardened with hexamine (0.367 MPa) and particleboard panel bonded with glyoxol-tannin based adhesives (0.244 MPa). This show the suitable harder for acacia mangium tannin are formaldehyde > hexamine > glyoxol. (author)

  10. Simulating browse production and response of Acacia karroo to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even if it is possible to reduce stock in times of drought, this was shown to be of very little benefit. Keywords: acacia karroo; browse production; browsing; defoliation; drought; eastern cape; goats; growth; management; management strategy; model; number of camps; production; productivity; simulation model; south africa; ...

  11. Ecology and Conservation of Acacia senegal in the Rangelands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecology and Conservation of Acacia senegal in the Rangelands ofLuwero and Nakasongola Districts. Jacob Godfrey Agea, Joseph Obua, Sara Namirembe, Mukadasi Buyinza, Daniel Waiswa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  12. Genetic diversity in Kenyan populations of Acacia senegal (L.) willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia senegal belongs to the subgenus, Aculeiferum. It is an African arid and semi arid zone multipurpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production, agroforestry and desertification control besides other multiple uses. Genetic variation and resulting variable groupings were assessed using combined ...

  13. Agroforestry potential of Acacia senegal in the rangelands of luwero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agroforestry potential of Acacia senegal in the rangelands of luwero and Nakasongola districts. Jacob Godfrey Agea, Joseph Obua, Sara Namirembe, Mukadasi Buyinza, Daniel Waiswa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Analysis of dendrometric characteristics of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study gives an analysis of the dendrometric parameters of a middle Sahelian species (Acacia senegal) in semi-arid environment to get better knowledge of its behavior. The research lays the principle that the species behaves differently according to the ecogeographical stations. So, its characteristics change from one ...

  15. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the beetle Agrilus nubeculosus and gum arabic production by Acacia senegal. Some trees were tapped and left open to facilitate infestation by A. nubeculosus and others were covered with wire mesh as control. Gum yield, physical and chemical properties of ...

  16. Allelopathic potential of Robinia pseudo-acacia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Habib; Iqbal, Zahida; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2005-09-01

    Robinia pseudo-acacia L. (black locust) is a nonindigenous species currently invading the central part of Japanese grasslands. Several allelochemicals were identified and characterized from the leaf tissue. The growth of both radicle and hypocotyl in the tested species (barnyard grass, white clover, lettuce, and Chinese cabbage) was reduced when grown in soil mixed with the leaves of R. pseudo-acacia at various concentrations. Aqueous leaf extracts, when bioassayed, exhibited a significant suppression of radicle growth. Chromatographic separation of an ethanolic extract of R. pseudo-acacia leaves resulted in isolation of three compounds, identified as robinetin (1), myricetin (2), and quercetin (3) by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. All inhibited root and shoot growth of lettuce. Robinetin, found in a large amount, caused 50% suppression of the root and shoot growth of lettuce at 100 ppm. The presence of these bioactive substances in leaf tissue suggests a potential role for flavonoids in R. pseudo-acacia invasion in introduced habitats.

  17. The response of Acacia karroo plants to defoliation by hand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoot production of all plants defoliated by hand was no different to that of the undefoliated control plants and was considerably less than that of the plants defoliated by goats. Keywords: acacia karroo; browse production; browsing; clipping; defoliation; goats; growth stimulation; leaf growth; leaves; shoot growth; shoot ...

  18. Evaluation Support and Follow Up (Acacia) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The IDRC program initiative, Acacia (communities and the information society in Africa), seeks to integrate an evaluation process within its activities and those of its partners. This project aims to ... A new website and resource library will help improve developing country registration and information systems for vital events.

  19. The effect of Acacia karroo supplementation and thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation and thermal preparation on consumer sensory scores of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goat breed. 18 castrated four-month-old Xhosa lop-eared kids were kept at the University of Fort Hare Farm until slaughter. Sample ...

  20. Gum acacia coating with garlic and cinnamon as an alternate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madhumita

    The antibacterial activity of gum arabic coating with ... Key words: Gum acacia coating, garlic, cinnamon, antioxidant, antimicrobial, meat, ... cinnamaldehyde and eugenol inhibit production of an ... antioxidant activity because these two properties are ... temperatures .... activity of these spices but no report on its application.

  1. Soil nutrient ecology associated with Acacia sieberana at different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports on a study conducted on three aspects of soil nutrient ecology in an Acacia sieberana savanna. Information was collected about the effects of a savanna tree species on soil fertility, and the influence of savanna trees on mycorrhizal abundance was investigated. Mycorrhizal dependence of the indigenous African ...

  2. Antipyretic and analgesic activities of aqueous extract of Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the scientific basis for the use of Acacia nilotica root extract for treatment of fever and pain in traditional medical practice. Anti-Pyretic study was carried out using Brewerʼs yeast suspension to induce pyrexia. The hot plate, tail immersion and acetic acid-induced writhing tests were the ...

  3. Acacia plantations in Vietnam: Research and knowledge application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greater efforts are required on surveillance of major diseases and tree breeding to improve disease resistance. Because acacia plantations deliver high economic benefits and there are opportunities for improving productivity, an R&D strategy focused on underpinning sustainable management and application would serve ...

  4. Inhibition of Asthma in OVA Sensitized Mice Model by a Traditional Uygur Herb Nepeta bracteata Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic lung inflammation which affects many people. As current therapies for asthma mainly rely on administration of glucocorticoids and have many side effects, new therapy is needed. In this study, we investigated Nepeta bracteata Benth., a traditional Uygur Herb, for its therapeutics effect in OVA induced asthmatic mice model. Treatment of OVA sensitized asthma mice with extract from Nepeta bracteata Benth. demonstrated improved lung pathology, as well as reduced infiltration of eosinophil and neutrophil. Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract also contributed to the rebalance of Th17/Treg cell via decreasing the Th17 cell and increasing the Treg, which was corresponding with the inhibited Th17 cytokine response and increased IL-10 level. Moreover, the reduced TGF-β level and Smad2/3 protein level also suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. extract could inhibit TGF-β mediated airway remodelling as well. Taken together, these data suggested that Nepeta bracteata Benth. may be a novel candidate for future antiasthma drug development.

  5. Cadmium tolerance and phytoremediation potential of acacia (Acacia nilotica L.) under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabir, Rahat; Abbas, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Akram, Muhammad; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Hussain, Munawar; Ashraf, Farah

    2018-06-07

    In this study, we explored the effect of salinity on cadmium (Cd) tolerance and phytoremediation potential of Acacia nilotica. Two-month-old uniform plants of A. nilotica were grown in pots contaminated with various levels of Cd (0, 5, 10, and 15 mg kg -1 ), NaCl (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% (hereafter referred as salinity), and all possible combinations of Cd + salinity for a period of six months. Results showed that shoot and root growth, biomass, tissue water content and chlorophyll (chl a, chl b, and total chl a+b) contents decreased more in response to salinity and combination of Cd + salinity compared to Cd alone. Shoot and root K concentrations significantly decreased with increasing soil Cd levels, whereas Na and Cl concentrations were not affected significantly. Shoot and root Cd concentrations, bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) increased with increasing soil Cd and Cd + salinity levels. At low level of salinity (0.5%), shoot and root Cd uptake enhanced, while it decreased at high level of salinity (1.0%). Due to Cd tolerance, high shoot biomass and shoot Cd uptake, this tree species has some potential for phytoremediation of Cd from the metal contaminated saline and nonsaline soils.

  6. Carbon isotopes confirm the competitive advantages of Prosopis over Acacia erioloba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, I.; Woodborne, S.

    2002-01-01

    The landscape of the Kalahari Desert is changing as the indigenous Acacia erioloba E.Mey. is being replaced by the invasive Prosopis spp. Although both species are phreatophytic, the disproportionately large taproot of Prosopis enables it to survive extreme moisture stress. δ 13 C values were determined on annually resolved Prosopis and Acacia erioloba samples to investigate adaptation to changing edaphic conditions. The results confirm that the Acacia erioloba sample died during a period of water stress

  7. Conversion Efficiency of Photosynthetically Active Radiation Into Acacia mearnsii Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Eloy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this experiment was to determine the conversion efficiency of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation into biomass of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. seedlings. A forest species, plastic tubes (90 cm3, and 11 evaluation periods (up to 180 days after emergence were used in this study. The leaf area index (LAI, total dry biomass (BIO, global solar radiation (GSR, cumulative intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PARic, and conversion efficiency of radiation (εb were determined using a pyranometer (LI200X, LICOR. The value of εb in BIO seedlings of Acacia mearnsii was 7.76 g MJ-1. LAI was directly related to the efficiency of PARic, and this influenced the development, production potential and accumulation of BIO. The value of GSR flow was 11.81 MJ m-2 day-1, while the value inside the greenhouse was 6.26 MJ m-2 day-1.

  8. Methods for extraction and characterization of tannins from some acacia species of sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgailani, I.E.H.; Ishak, C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The study is aimed to analyze and compare extraction methods of tannins from three common Acacia species of Sudan. The Acacia species selected were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with water, 80% methanol and 70% acetone. Two sets of extraction were made, one by boiling and a second by shaking the samples in the respective solvents for eight hours at room temperature. Although the amount of material extracted by these two procedures did not differ greatly (P > 0.05), 70% acetone was a more efficient solvent than either water or 80% methanol. The tannins of mature fruits extract of Acacia nilotica were identified by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Ultraviolet and Infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons of absorption spectra and TLC of the reference tannins and some phenolics with that of Acacia nilotica extracts revealed the presence of both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, since it consists of catechin, tannic and gallic acids. Catechin considered to be the phenolic precursor of condensed tannins. Hydrolysis of Acacia nilotica extract, tannic and gallic acids by butanolic-hydrochloric acid yielded gallic acid which is considered to be a chemical precursor of hydrolyzable tannins. (author)

  9. Methods for Extraction and Charaterization of Tannins from Some Acacia Species of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to analyze and compare extraction methods of tannins from three common Acacia species of Sudan. The Acacia species selected were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with water, 80% methanol and 70% acetone. Two sets of extraction were made, one by boiling and a second by shaking the samples in the respective solvents for eight hours at room temperature. Although the amount of material extracted by these two procedures did not differ greatly (P > 0.05, 70% acetone was a more efficient solvent than either water or 80% methanol. The tannins of mature fruits extract of Acacia nilotica were identified by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, Ultraviolet and Infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons of absorption spectra and TLC of the reference tannins and some phenolics with that of Acacia nilotica extracts revealed the presence of both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, since it consists of catechin, tannic and gallic acids. Catechin considered to be the phenolic precursor of condensed tannins. Hydrolysis of Acacia nilotica extract, tannic and gallic acids by butanolic-hydrochloric acid yielded gallic acid which is considered to be a chemical precursor of hydrolyzable tannins

  10. Anatomia do xilema secundário de Mimosa pilulifera Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O presente trabalho trata da primeira descrição detalhada do xilema secundário de Mimosa pilulifera Benth. São fornecidas medições de 30 características anatômicas e fotomicrografias da estrutura lenhosa. A anatomia da madeira indica um alto grau de especialização filogenética e reúne diversos caracteres indicativos da família Leguminosae, sub-família Mimosoideae, série Lepidotae Benth. e gênero Mimosa L.

  11. ANATOMIA DO XILEMA SECUNDÁRIO DE Mimosa incana (Spreng. Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os caracteres anatômicos do xilema secundário de Mimosa incana (Spreng. Benth. e fornecidas 29 medições de sua estrutura. A descrição é ilustrada com fotomicrografias. A estrutura anatômica indica um alto grau de especialização filogenética e reúne diversos caracteres indicativos da família Leguminosae, sub-família Mimosoideae e série Lepidotae Benth

  12. STUDIUL COMPLEX Al ULEIULUI VOLATIL DIN SPECIA PEROVSCHIA ATRIPLICIFOLIA BENTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricica COLŢUN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available În lucrare sunt prezentate rezultatele unui studiu vast privind biologia, compoziția chimică, fitochimia cantitativă și calitativă a uleiului volatil din specia Perovskia atriplicifolia, care se comportă ca plantă perenă, erbacee din familia Lamiaceae. În R. Moldova nu este cercetată ca plantă aromatică şi medicinală. Are o plasticitate ecologică mare, nu are cerinţe deosebite faţă de factorii climaterici. Se utilizează pentru proprietăţile sale febrifuge, în medicină – pentru scăderea febrei, deține proprietăți culinare dar şi decorative ori de purificare a aerului.THE COMPLEX STUDY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF THE SPECIESPEROVSCHIA ATRIPLICIFOLIA BENTH.The paper presents the results of a vast study on the biology, chemical composition and qualitative phytochemistry of the essential oil of the species Perovskia atriplicifolia, which behaves like a perennial, herbaceous plant in the Lamiaceae family. In theRepublic ofMoldova, it has not been investigated as an aromatic and medicinal plant. It has a high ecological plasticity and no special requirements to climatic factors. It has febrifuge properties and is used in medicine to reduce fever. Besides, this plant is used for culinary, ornamental purposes and for air purification.

  13. Biostimulant on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedling vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the effects of biostimulant doses, applied through seeds, on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedlings vigor. Seeds were previously sulfuric acid scarified in two consecutive years experiments. On 2006 August (first experiment seeds were submitted on Stimulate®: 0; 3.5; 7.0; 10.5 and 14 mL.0.5 Kg-1 doses (first experiment; and seeds picked in August, 2007, were Stimulate:0; 15; 20 and 25 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds treated (second experiment. After the biostimulant treatment seeds were sowed in cells trays containing 1:1 (v:v distroferric red latosol + plantmax®. The effect of different Stimulate® doses on Dimorphandra mollis seeds collected in different years were evaluated on the emergency percentage, speed emergency index, root length, aerial part height and dry seedling weight. It was conducted on entirely casualized with four repetitions of 25 seeds each treatment. The 14 mL (2006 lot and 15 mL (2007 lot 0.5Kg-1 of seeds doses provided larger percentage (50% and 66%, respectively and speed emergency indexes (0.67 and 0.9 respectively. The 20 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds dose treatment favored the aerial part length, but it didn't influenced the other Dimorphandra mollis seedlings vigor indexes.

  14. Kemampuan Ganoderma dan Trichoderma Mendekomposisi Serasah Acacia mangium (The Ability of Ganoderma and Trichoderma to Decompose Acacia mangium Litter)

    OpenAIRE

    SAMINGAN, Samingan

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition ability of fungi has an important role in forest floor ecosystem. The abilities of Ganoderma sp and Trichoderma sp to decompose Acacia mangium leaf litters at laboratory scale were observed. Litters from L and F layers in the field ca. 100 g were used as substrates in plastic bags. Each fungus was inoculating onto substrates and incubates at room temperature, then observed each month during six months. Weight losses (WL) of litter, lignin and cellulose contents during dec...

  15. Extracts of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. inhibit NF-B-signaling in a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis and primary synovial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Huang, Mingqing; Zhang, Yuqin; Li, Huang; Zheng, Haiyin; Yu, Lishuang; Chu, Kedan

    2016-06-05

    Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. is used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat arthritis, especially has been used a long time ago on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in She ethnic minority group. To investigate the anti-RA effect of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth ethyl acetate extract (BCBEE) and the molecular bases of it. BCBEE was studied on a rat model of RA induced by Ⅱcollagen in vivo, as well as on primary synovial cells in vitro. After BCBEE treatment, in vivo, it was showed that paw and joint edema was inhibited, pathological joint changes was ameliorated and the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-α) was decreased significantly. The protein and mRNA expressions of nuclear factor-B (NF-κB)(p65), IκB, p-IκB and IκB kinase beta (IκKβ) were also down-regulated. Moreover, the in vitro study revealed that BCBEE treatment inhibited primary synovial cells proliferation, and promoted down-regulation of NF-κB(p65), IκB, p-IκB and IκKβ. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that BCBEE produces a protection in a rat model of RA induced by Ⅱcollagen via inhibiting paw and joint edema, ameliorating pathological joint changes and regulating the levels of cytokines and its action mechanism maybe is via down-regulating NF-κB(p65), IκB, p-IκB and IκKβ expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker (Fabaceae, a New Record for Central and North-West Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker is reported for the first time from Central (Nepal and North-West Himalayas (India. Earlier the species was known from East Himalaya (Sikkim-India, Bhutan and China. The description and illustrations of the species are provided.

  17. Diversity and frequency of Acacia spp. in three regions in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bismillha

    2012-06-28

    Jun 28, 2012 ... effect of soil texture on the frequency of Acacia spp. ... structure. There were great differences between species in relation to diameter distribution. The study shows the scarcity of large diameter trees and also in some cases ... Key words: Acacia, diversity, soil texture, diameter at breast height (DBH) classes.

  18. 75 FR 24940 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted its baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for the interruptible transportation services provided under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-16-000] Acacia Natural...

  19. 75 FR 28599 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a corrected baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for the interruptible transportation services provided under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-16-002] Acacia Natural...

  20. EVALUACIÓN DE LA REGENERACION DE Acacia decurrens, Acacia melanoxylon Y Ulex europaeus EN ÁREAS EN PROCESO DE RESTAURACIÓN ECOLÓGICA

    OpenAIRE

    SOLORZA BEJARANO, JAIRO HERNÁN

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó la regeneración de Acacia decurrens, Acacia melanoxylon y Ulex europaeus, en una zona sujeta a un proceso de restauaración ecológica. En las áreas con presencia de individuos arboreos de Acacia decurrens y Acacia melanoxylon se presenta expresión del banco de semillas con formación periódica de la capa de hojarasca que detiene o desvía el proceso sucesional. En las áreas de claro se presenta regeneración de Ulex europaeus, ocupando rápidamente los espacios libres de vegetación. La p...

  1. Effect of Rhizobium and Mycorhiza inoculation on the nursery growth of Acacia and Teline monspessulana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, G; Lozano de Yunda, A; Chaparro, H

    1999-01-01

    In an experiment accomplished in the tree nursery Tisquesusa located in Madrid (Cundinamarca) was evaluated the effect of the inoculation with strains selected of foreign and Indigenous rhizobium and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi am (Glomus folescutolum) on the growth, nitrogen fixation, and micorrization of Acacia (Acacia decurrens) and Retamo (Teline monspessulana) that they are used In soils recovery by the Corporacion Autonoma Regional de Cundinamarca CAR. The studied species presented positive response to the inoculation with rhizobium; the indigenous strain DQ6-09, isolated in Guatavita (Cundinamarca), presented the better results in Retamo and also in Acacia alone and in mixture with the foreign strain T1881. The inoculation with fungi AM increased the heights, dry weights, phosphorus content and percentage of micorrization in Acacia and Retamo. The double inoculation with fungi ma and rhizobium it did not increase the nitrogen fixing of Acacia while in Retamo was presented a positive effect with the strain DQ6-09

  2. Formulation of microbes inoculum: AMF, PSB and Rhizobium isolated of ex-coal mining site for Acacia crassicarpa Cunn. Ex-benth seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENNY WIDYATI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The shoddier succeed land revegetation particularly caused by least adaptability of the seedlings planted on this site. To encourage their growth and survival rate it can be achieved by means do inoculation with the compatible functional microbes such as rhizobium, Psolubilizing bacteria (PSB and/or arbuscular-mycorrhiza fungy (AMF. This reserach is aimed to formulate the most compatible inoculant to support the growth of A. crassicarpa seedlings. Compatibility study is carried out in RCB design with 3 replications, each contain 5 seedlings. Height and biomass are accessed to measure the growth responses of the seedlings. The result showed that the best reponse is given by consortia that consist of the three kinds of these microbes. This increase the shoot biomass (137% compare to the control. The consortia also improved N 164%, P 335% and K 167% in the plant tissues. While pure AMF improved absorption of N plants 80%, P 383% and K 51% compare to the control. It is suggested that to prepare the A. crassicarpa seedlings is better inoculated by consortium of microbes or AMF as a sole inoculant.

  3. Effects of fire and fire intensity on the germination and establishment of Acacia karroo, Acacia nilotica, Acacia luederitzii and Dichrostachys cinerea in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somers Michael J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While fire has been used in some instances to control the increase of woody plants, it has also been reported that fire may cause an increase in certain fire-tolerant Acacia tree species. This study investigated germination of Acacia karroo, A. luederitzii and Dichrostachys cinerea, thought to be increasing in density, as well as the historically successful encroaching woody species, A. nilotica, in savanna grassland, Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa. A. karroo is thought to be replacing A. nilotica as the dominant microphyllous species in the park. We tested the hypothesis that observed increases in certain woody plants in a savanna were related to seed germination and seedling establishment. Germination is compared among species for burnt and unburnt seeds on burnt and unburnt plots at three different locations for both hot and cool fires. Results Acacia karroo showed higher germination (A. karroo 5.1%, A. nilotica 1.5% and A. luederitzii 5.0% levels and better establishment (A. karroo 4.9%, A. nilotica 0.4% and A. luederitzii 0.4%. Seeds of the shrub Dichrostachys cinerea did not germinate in the field after fire and it is thought that some other germination cue is needed. On average, burning of A. karroo, A. nilotica and A. luederitzii seeds did not affect germination. There was a significant difference in the germination of burnt seeds on burnt sites (4.5% and burnt seeds on unburnt plots (2.5%. Similarly, unburnt seeds on unburnt sites germinated better (4.9% than unburnt seeds on burnt sites (2.8%. Conclusion We conclude that a combination of factors may be responsible for the success of A. karroo and that fires may not be hot enough or may occur at the wrong time of year to control A. karroo establishment in HiP. Although germination and establishment of A. karroo was higher than for A. nilotica a competitive advantage after fire could not be shown.

  4. Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Mayana Jantan (Coleus Atropurpureus Benth) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Streptococcus SP. Dan Pseudomonas SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Muljono, Patrick; Fatimawali; Manampiring, Aaltje E

    2016-01-01

    : The painted nettle (Coleus atropurpureus benth) is a plant that is known to have medicinal properties, especially the leaf. The active compounds that are contained in the leafs are thought to work as an antibacterial. This study aims to measure the inhibitory strength of painted nettle leaf (Coleus atropurpureus benth) extract against the growth of Streptococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. This was an experimental laboratory study. The polar extract of painted nettle leaf (Coleus atropurpureus ...

  5. PROPAGACIÓN IN VITRO DE Acacia mangium Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ ANGELA TORRES

    Full Text Available Acacia Acacia mangium Willd es una de las especies forestales más plantadas por la calidad de su madera y rápido crecimiento; sin embargo, los estudios de propagación clonal son pocos. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo desarrollar un protocolo de micropropagacion a partir de explantes con meristemos preexistentes. Los explantes consistieron de brotes de plantas de tres meses de edad mantenidas en invernadero. La desinfección se realizó con diferentes concentraciones de hipoclorito de sodio y antibióticos, y fueron establecidos en medio MS con diferentes concentraciones (0; 0,44; 0,88 y 2,22 µM de BAP. Los brotes micropropagados fueron enraizados con diferentes dosis de ANA y AIB, finalmente los brotes, con o sin raíces, fueron transferidos a condiciones ex vitro para evaluar el porcentaje de supervivencia. Los datos mostraron que 1,0% NaOCl y cefalexina (2 mg L-1 permitieron obtener el mayor porcentaje de explantes libres de contaminación (67%. El mayor número promedio de brotes ocurrió con 2,22 µM de BAP y el mayor número promedio de raíces se observo al utilizar 2,69 µM de ANA. La adaptación de las plantas en condiciones ex vitro fue exitoso lográndose obtener un 87% de supervivencia

  6. Colloids removal from water resources using natural coagulant: Acacia auriculiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Roslan, A.; Kamarulzaman, M. F. H.; Erat, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    All waters, especially surface waters contain dissolved, suspended particles and/or inorganic matter, as well as several biological organisms, such as bacteria, algae or viruses. This material must be removed because it can affect the water quality that can cause turbidity and colour. The objective of this study is to develop water treatment process from Seri Alam (Johor, Malaysia) lake water resources by using natural coagulant Acacia auriculiformis pods through a jar test experiment. Jar test is designed to show the effectiveness of the water treatment. This process is a laboratory procedure that will simulate coagulation/flocculation with several parameters selected namely contact time, coagulant dosage and agitation speed. The most optimum percentage of colloids removal for each parameter is determined at 0.2 g, 90 min and 80 rpm. FESEM (Field-emission Scanning Electron Microscope) observed the small structures of final floc particles for optimum parameter in this study to show that the colloids coagulated the coagulant. All result showed that the Acacia auriculiformis pods can be a very efficient coagulant in removing colloids from water.

  7. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Assis Castro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000 km2 along all the coast. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphorous. Bacteria that tested positive for both of these tests were examined further to determine their level of indole acetic acid production. Two strains with high indole acetic acid production were selected for use as inoculants for reforestation trees, and then the growth of the plants was evaluated under field conditions. The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain MCR1.10 had a low phosphorus solubilization index, while this index was higher in the other strain used, Enterobacter sp. (strain MCR1.48. We used the reforestation tree Acacia polyphylla. The results indicate that inoculation with the MCR1.48 endophyte increases Acacia polyphylla shoot dry mass, demonstrating that this strain effectively promotes the plant's growth and fitness, which can be used in the seedling production of this tree. Therefore, we successfully screened the biotechnological potential of endophyte isolates from mangrove, with a focus on plant growth promotion, and selected a strain able to provide limited nutrients and hormones for in plant growth.

  8. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Mattana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and ethanolic extract (EE of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings.

  9. Invasive acacias experience higher ant seed removal rates at the invasion edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Montesinos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal is a key process for the invasion of new areas by exotic species. Introduced plants often take advantage of native generalist dispersers. Australian acacias are primarily dispersed by ants in their native range and produce seeds bearing a protein and lipid rich reward for ant mutualists (elaiosome. Nevertheless, the role of myrmecochory in the expansion of Australian acacias in European invaded areas is still not clear. We selected one European population of Acacia dealbata and another of A. longifolia and offered elaiosome-bearing and elaiosome-removed seeds to local ant communities. For each species, seeds were offered both in high-density acacia stands and in low-density invasion edges. For both acacia species, seed removal was significantly higher at the low-density edges. For A. longifolia, manual elimination of elaiosomes reduced the chance of seed removal by 80% in the low-density edges, whereas it made no difference on the high-density stands. For A. dealbata, the absence of elaiosome reduced seed removal rate by 52%, independently of the acacia density. Our data suggests that invasive acacias have found effective ant seed dispersers in Europe and that the importance of such dispersers is higher at the invasion edges.

  10. Hepatics alterations and genotoxic effects of Croton cajucara Benth (SACACA in diabetic rats Alterações hepáticas e efeitos genotóxicos do Croton cajucara Benth (SACACA em ratos diabéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Rodrigues

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusions of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated effects hepatics alterations and genotoxic and antidiabetic effect of Croton cajucara Benth bark extracts treatment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: control rats; control rats treated with Croton cajucara Benth extract during 5 and 20 days; diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with Croton cajucara Benth during 5 and 20 days. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (70 mg/kg. Eight weeks later we measured glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and hepatic transaminases on blood. The bone marrow micronucleus assay was used to assess the genotoxic activity of Croton cajucara Benth. RESULTS: Treatment with aqueous extrat of Croton cajucara was able to significantly reduce levels of triglycerides in diabetic animals, however, did not modify significantly the levels of glucose and cholesterol in these animals. There was no significant elevation in liver transaminases in the control group treated with Croton cajucara Benth, as there was no genotoxic effect of treatment in this model. Our results did not show a significant effect on glucose and cholesterol reduction, the treatment was able to significantly reduce triclycerides plasmatic level. There was no significant alterations on hepatic transferase in the animals from the control group treated with Croton cajucara Benth. It was observed no genotoxic effect of the treatment in the model studied. CONCLUSION: In this study Croton cajucara bark extract showed absence of hepatotoxicity in this animal model and presented a hypolipidemic activity, and could be used to reverse dyslipidemia associated with diabetes and to prevent the cardiovascular complications that are very prevalent in diabetic

  11. Pedicularis gracilis Wall. Ex Benth. (Scrophulariaceae Complex in the Himalayas – A Taxonomic Reinvestigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Husain

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the complex nature of Pedicularis gracilis Wall. ex Benth. in the Himalayas and enumerates two subspecies and four varieties of this species. Morphological and distributional data have been appended to show that the subspecies – gracilis and brunoniana (Wall. ex Pennell Husain & Garg and varieties – gracilis and stricta (Wall. Husain & Garg (under subsp. gracilis and brunoniana and macrocarpa (Prain Husain & Garg (under subsp. brunoniana are distinct.

  12. Ultrastructural Studies on Root Nodules of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Raiha Qadri; A. Mahmood; Mohammad Athar

    2007-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies were conducted on Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb) Benth. root nodules collected from trees growing under natural conditions. Rhizobial infection on root surface of P. dulce started with curling of root hair. Both curled and straight root hairs were observed. The internal structure of a mature nodule showed an epidermis, cortex, vascular region and a bacteriod region. Vascular bundles were amphicribral. A distinct periderm consisted of sclereid tissue could be observed in t...

  13. A preliminary report on decay and canker of Acacia richii caused by Inonotus rickii in China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cui, B.K.; Zhao, C.L.; Vlasák, Josef; Dai, Y.C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2014), s. 82-84 ISSN 1437-4781 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : wood-decaying fungus * Inonotus rickii * Acacia richii Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.373, year: 2014

  14. Controlled dual release study of curcumin and a 4-aminoquinoline analog from gum acacia containing hydrogels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderibigbe, BA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential of gum acacia containing hydrogels as controlled dual-drug delivery systems for antiprotozoal agents was investigated. 4-Aminoquinoline analog and curcumin were selected as model drugs because they exhibit antiprotozoal activity...

  15. Tannins quantification in barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its chemical complexity, there are several methodologies for vegetable tannins quantification. Thus, this work aims at quantifying both tannin and non-tannin substances present in the barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii by two different methods. From bark particles of both species, analytical solutions were produced by using a steam-jacketed extractor. The solution was analyzed by Stiasny and hide-powder (no chromed methods. For both species, tannin levels were superior when analyzed by hide-powder method, reaching 47.8% and 24.1% for A. mearnsii and M. tenuiflora, respectively. By Stiasny method, the tannins levels considered were 39.0% for A. mearnsii, and 15.5% for M. tenuiflora. Despite the best results presented by A. mearnsii, the bark of M. tenuiflora also showed great potential due to its considerable amount of tannin and the availability of the species at Caatinga biome.

  16. Antifungal Activity from Leaves of Acacia Nilotica against Pythium Aphanidermatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Khan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallic acid and methyl ester of gallic acid has been identified as antifungal compounds against the mycelial growth of Pythium aphanidermatum from acetone-water extracts of Acacia nilotica leaves. The growth of fungus was completely ceased by gallic acid and its methyl ester at 1000 ppm and 750 ppm, respectively. Antifungal properties of both compounds were found to be higher in combination than alone. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both compounds was 1000 ppm. No phytotoxic effect of the compounds was observed on watermelon seed germination. The growth of roots and shoots of watermelon seedlings was promoted by gallic acid but decreased with methyl ester of gallic acid. Nitrate reductase activity of the fungus was significantly inhibited by both compounds.

  17. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Renata Assis; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Almeida, Jaqueline Raquel de; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Nave, André; Melo, Itamar Soares de; Azevedo, João Lucio de; Quecine, Maria Carolina

    Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000km 2 along all the coast). Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphorous. Bacteria that tested positive for both of these tests were examined further to determine their level of indole acetic acid production. Two strains with high indole acetic acid production were selected for use as inoculants for reforestation trees, and then the growth of the plants was evaluated under field conditions. The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain MCR1.10) had a low phosphorus solubilization index, while this index was higher in the other strain used, Enterobacter sp. (strain MCR1.48). We used the reforestation tree Acacia polyphylla. The results indicate that inoculation with the MCR1.48 endophyte increases Acacia polyphylla shoot dry mass, demonstrating that this strain effectively promotes the plant's growth and fitness, which can be used in the seedling production of this tree. Therefore, we successfully screened the biotechnological potential of endophyte isolates from mangrove, with a focus on plant growth promotion, and selected a strain able to provide limited nutrients and hormones for in plant growth. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. The Importance of Acacia Trees for Insectivorous Bats and Arthropods in the Arava Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Talya D.; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis) are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitats available in the Arava desert of Israel. We assessed bat activity and species richness through acoustic monitoring for entire nights and concurrently collected arthropods using light and pit traps. Dense green stands of acacia trees were the most important natural desert habitat for insectivorous bats. Irrigated gardens and parks in villages and fields of date palms had high arthropod levels but only village sites rivalled acacia trees in bat activity level. We confirmed up to 13 bat species around a single patch of acacia trees; one of the richest sites in any natural desert habitat in Israel. Some bat species utilised artificial sites; others were found almost exclusively in natural habitats. Two rare species (Barbastella leucomelas and Nycteris thebaica) were identified solely around acacia trees. We provide strong evidence that acacia trees are of unique importance to the community of insectivorous desert-dwelling bats, and that the health of the trees is crucial to their value as a foraging resource. Consequently, conservation efforts for acacia habitats, and in particular for the green more densely packed stands of trees, need to increase to protect this vital habitat for an entire community of protected bats. PMID:23441145

  19. The importance of Acacia trees for insectivorous bats and arthropods in the Arava desert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talya D Hackett

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitats available in the Arava desert of Israel. We assessed bat activity and species richness through acoustic monitoring for entire nights and concurrently collected arthropods using light and pit traps. Dense green stands of acacia trees were the most important natural desert habitat for insectivorous bats. Irrigated gardens and parks in villages and fields of date palms had high arthropod levels but only village sites rivalled acacia trees in bat activity level. We confirmed up to 13 bat species around a single patch of acacia trees; one of the richest sites in any natural desert habitat in Israel. Some bat species utilised artificial sites; others were found almost exclusively in natural habitats. Two rare species (Barbastella leucomelas and Nycteris thebaica were identified solely around acacia trees. We provide strong evidence that acacia trees are of unique importance to the community of insectivorous desert-dwelling bats, and that the health of the trees is crucial to their value as a foraging resource. Consequently, conservation efforts for acacia habitats, and in particular for the green more densely packed stands of trees, need to increase to protect this vital habitat for an entire community of protected bats.

  20. Analysis of Leucaena mimosine, Acacia tannins and total phenols by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M N.V. [Hyderabad Univ. (India). Dept. of Plant Sciences

    1995-11-01

    The mimosine contents of Leucaena foliage, Acacia tannins and total phenols from leaf, bark and pod were analyzed by a near infrared relectance spectrophotometer (Compscan 3000). A calibration equation (linear summation regression) was developed with near infrared spectral analysis software, using 30 spectra from old and young leaves of Leucaena and 23 spectra from different samples of Acacia. The near infrared analyzer calculated that the percentages of mimosine, total phenols and tannins are closely comparable to laboratory results. (author)

  1. Extracts of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. attenuate the inflammatory response in a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Huang, Mingqing; Zhang, Yuqin; Li, Huang; Zheng, Haiyin; Yu, Lishuang; Chu, Kedan; Lin, Yu; Chen, Lidian

    2016-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is considered a serious public health problem, which is commonly treated with traditional Chinese or herbal medicine. The present study evaluated the effects of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. extraction (BCBE) on a type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. Wistar rats with CIA received either 125 or 500 mg/kg BCBE, after which, paw swelling was markedly suppressed compared with in the model group. In addition, BCBE significantly ameliorated pathological joint alterations, including synovial hyperplasia, and cartilage and bone destruction. The protein and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑8, tumor necrosis factor‑α and nuclear factor‑κB in synovial tissue were determined by immunohistochemical staining, western blot analysis and reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that the expression levels of these factors were significantly downregulated in the BCBE‑treated group compared with in the model group. These results indicated that BCBE may exert an inhibitory effect on the CIA rat model, and its therapeutic potential is associated with its anti-inflammatory action.

  2. Estudo anatômico do xilema secundário de Mimosa trachycarpa Benth Anatomy of the secondary xylem of Mimosa trachycarpa Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os caracteres microscópicos da madeira de Mimosa trachycarpa Benth., fornecidos dados quantitativos, determinações estereológicas e fotomicrografias de sua estrutura anatômica. Foram encontrados raios muito finos, parênquima paratraqueal, fibras libriformes não septadas, pontoações ornamentadas e poros agrupados em cachos, com arranjo tendente a diagonal. A estrutura da madeira é comparada com referências da literatura para a família Leguminosae e gênero Mimosa, em análise filogenética, taxonômica e ecológica.The wood anatomy of Mimosa trachycarpa Benth. is described. Photomicrographs as well as quantitative and stereological data of its minute structure were furnished. Very fine rays, paratracheal parenchyma, libriform and not septated fibres, vestured pits and pores in clusters, tending to a diagonal pattern, were found. The wood anatomy was checked with literature of the Leguminosae family and genus Mimosa, considering its phylogenetical, taxonomical and ecological aspects.

  3. Preparation and physicochemical properties of protein concentrate and isolate produced from Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaby, Hassan E; Swailam, Hesham M; Rayan, Ahmed M

    2018-02-01

    The composition and physicochemical properties of defatted acacia flour (DFAF), acacia protein concentrate (APC) and acacia protein isolate (API) were evaluated. The results indicated that API had lower, ash and fat content, than DFAF and APC. Also, significant difference in protein content was noticed among DFAF, APC and API (37.5, 63.7 and 91.8%, respectively). Acacia protein concentrate and isolates were good sources of essential amino acids except cystine and methionine. The physicochemical and functional properties of acacia protein improved with the processing of acacia into protein concentrate and protein isolate. The results of scanning electron micrographs showed that DFAF had a compact structure; protein concentrate were, flaky, and porous type, and protein isolate had intact flakes morphology.

  4. Pharmacological evidence of neuro-pharmacological activity of Acacia tortilis leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha

    2016-08-01

    Acacia tortilis is abundantly present in Saudi Arabia but its neuro-pharmacological activity has not yet been evaluated. In this study, the antidepressant by Forced swim test, Anxiolytic (Light and Dark box) and sedative effects (by using Open Field) of Acacia leaves extract were evaluated in mice. Aqueous extracts of the Acacia tortilis leaves were prepared. Two different doses (400 and 800 mg/kg) of the extracts were administered to the mice orally (p.o.). In exploratory behavior, Acacia leave extract (800 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 46.33 ± 3.24 p < 0.05) similar to the effect observed with chlorpromazine (CPZ) (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; CPZ 1.0 mg/kg, 24.20 ± 3.40 p < 0.05). A dose-dependent significant decrease in immobility time was also observed in mice and this effect was comparable to its positive control (Imipramine). However, In light-dark box test, mice treated with high dose (800 mg/kg/day) spent significant (p < 0.05) time on the light side of the light-dark box similar to positive control DZP. (Veh, 114.40 ± 6.30 s; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 162.2 ± 14.9; DZP 1.0 mg/kg, 184.20 ± 9.24 p < 0.05). The present research propounded that Acacia tortilis leave extract contains some active ingredients with potential anxiolytic activity at low doses and antidepressant and sedative activity at high doses.

  5. Termites, vertebrate herbivores, and the fruiting success of Acacia drepanolobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Alison K; Palmer, Todd M; Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Doak, Dan F

    2010-02-01

    In African savannas, vertebrate herbivores are often identified as key determinants of plant growth, survivorship, and reproduction. However, plant reproduction is likely to be the product of responses to a suite of abiotic and biotic factors, including nutrient availability and interactions with antagonists and mutualists. In a relatively simple system, we examined the role of termites (which act as ecosystem engineers--modifying physical habitat and creating islands of high soil fertility), vertebrate herbivores, and symbiotic ants, on the fruiting success of a dominant plant, Acacia drepanolobium, in East African savannas. Using observational data, large-scale experimental manipulations, and analysis of foliar N, we found that Acacia drepanolobium trees growing at the edge of termite mounds were more likely to reproduce than those growing farther away, in off-mound soils. Although vertebrate herbivores preferentially used termite mounds as demonstrated by dung deposits, long-term exclusion of mammalian grazers did not significantly reduce A. drepanolobium fruit production. Leaf N was significantly greater in trees growing next to mounds than in those growing farther away, and this pattern was unaffected by exclusion of vertebrates. Thus, soil enrichment by termites, rather than through dung and urine deposition by large herbivores, is of primary importance to fruit production near mounds. Across all mound-herbivore treatment combinations, trees that harbored Crematogaster sjostedti were more likely to fruit than those that harbored one of the other three ant species. Although C. sjostedti is less aggressive than the other ants, it tends to inhabit large, old trees near termite mounds which are more likely to fruit than smaller ones. Termites play a key role in generating patches of nutrient-rich habitat important to the reproductive success of A. drepanolobium in East African savannas. Enhanced nutrient acquisition from termite mounds appears to allow plants to

  6. Early Growth of Improved Acacia mangium at Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrating tree improvement into silvicultural practices is essential in forest plantation. Concerning this fact, Acacia mangium spacing trial planted using genetically improved seed was established in West Java. This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of ages and planting density on early growth of improved seed A. mangium in the spacing trial. Improved seed from 2 seed orchards (SSO-5 and SSO-20 and a control of unimproved seed from seed stand (SS-7 were tested together in spacing 3 × 3 m and 2 × 2 m. Height, diameter, stem volume, and stand volume were observed at 3 ages. The results showed that improved seed consistently outperformed to unimproved seed. Ages were highly significant for all traits, but the significant difference varied among traits and seed sources for planting density and the interactions. High density performed better growth than low density at first year, and they were varied in subsequent ages depending on traits and seed sources. Improved seed from less intensity selection orchard was less tolerance to high density than that from high intensity selection orchard, but the tolerance was reversed in low density. Improved seed A. mangium from different level of genetic selection has responded differently in behavior to the changes of planting density.

  7. Field grown Acacia Mangium: how intensive is root growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Rasidah Kadir; Azizol Abdul Kadir; Van Cleemput, O.; Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    1998-01-01

    Under rainfed conditions, root development of trees can be very unpredictable and variable, depending on the amount and distribution of rainfall received. This becomes more critical when the rainfall is seasonal and the soil has a high clay content. Our investigation dealt with the root development of Acacia mangium established as plantation forest on a soil with heavy clay texture in Kemasul Forest Reserve, Malaysia. The distribution of active roots was measured at 9- and 21- month-old plantations using the radioactive P injection method. Growth at different distances from the tree base and at different soil depths was studied. After nine months of field planting, we found that roots were mostly concentrated at the surface within 1000 mm distance from the tree base. At one year after the first measurement, roots were traced as far as 6400 mm away. A large part of these roots, however, were detected within 3700 mm distance in the upper 300 mm soil. At this stage, roots can still did not go deeper than 450 mm depth, probably due to the high clay content at lower depth and low pH. This rapid root growth indicates that below-ground competition can be very intense if this species is established as a mixed-species plantation

  8. Cellulose nanocrystals from acacia bark-Influence of solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taflick, Ticiane; Schwendler, Luana A; Rosa, Simone M L; Bica, Clara I D; Nachtigall, Sônia M B

    2017-08-01

    The isolation of cellulose nanocrystals from different lignocellulosic materials has shown increased interest in academic and technological research. These materials have excellent mechanical properties and can be used as nanofillers for polymer composites as well as transparent films for various applications. In this work, cellulose isolation was performed following an environmental friendly procedure without chlorine. Cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from the exhausted acacia bark (after the industrial process of extracting tannin) with the objective of evaluating the effect of the solvent extraction steps on the characteristics of cellulose and cellulose nanocrystals. It was also assessed the effect of acid hydrolysis time on the thermal stability, morphology and size of the nanocrystals, through TGA, TEM and light scattering analyses. It was concluded that the extraction step with solvents was important in the isolation of cellulose, but irrelevant in the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Light scattering experiments indicated that 30min of hydrolysis was long enough for the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Transient behaviour and control of the ACACIA plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikstra, J.F.; Heek, A.I. van; Verkooijen, A.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    This article deals with dynamic modelling and control of the ACACIA plant. A one-dimensional flow model describing the helium flow and the two-phase water flow is used through the whole plant, with different source terms in different pieces of equipment. A stage-by-stage model is produced for the radial compressor and axial turbine. Other models include the recuperator, water/helium heat exchangers, a natural convection evaporator, valves, etc. The models have been checked by comparison of the transient behavior with several other models, e.g. produced in RELAP. The dynamic behavior of this plant is analysed and a control structure is designed. First the requirements and options for a control system design are investigated. A number of possible control valve positions in the flowsheet are tested with transients in order to make an argued choice. The model is subsequently used to determine the optimal working conditions for different heat and power demands, these are used as set-points for the control system. Then the interaction between manipulated and controlled variables is mapped and based on this information a choice for coupling them in decentralised feedback control loops is made. This control structure is then tuned and tested. It can be concluded that both heat and power demand can be followed with acceptable performance over a wide range. (author)

  10. Controle de Acacia farnesiana e de Mimosa pteridofita em pastagem Control of Acacia farnesiana and of Mimosa pteridofita in pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carmona

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento com o objetivo de estudar a eficácia agronômica e econômica de herbicidas para o controle de duas sérias plantas daninhas de pastagens: Acacia farnesiana e Mimosa pteridofita. Os produtos utilizados, por meio de pincelamento no toco, foram o óleo diesel, óleo lubrificante usado de trator, solução aquosa de 2,4-D + picloram e solução oleosa de 2,4-D + picloram. À exceção do óleo lubrificante, os herbicidas foram testados em dois tamanhos de planta daninha e duas alturas de corte. Avaliaram-se a porcentagem de controle e o vigor de brotação das plantas não-controladas. Concluiu-se que o corte das plantas só é eficiente no controle das duas espécies, quando realizado no nível do solo e seguido da aplicação de herbicida específico, como o 2,4-D + picloram. O óleo diesel também controla totalmente ambas as espécies, e com menores custos que o 2,4-D + picloram, porém apenas quando aplicado nas plantas mais jovens. Há incompatibilidade entre o óleo diesel e o 2,4-D + picloram no controle das duas espécies. O óleo lubrificante usado não apresenta nenhum efeito herbicida em plantas adultas destas espécies.An experiment was carried out to study the efficacy of herbicide treatments in controlling two serious pasture weeds: Acacia farnesiana and Mimosa pteridofita. The following herbicides were applied to the stump, after cutting: diesel oil, used engine lubricant oil, 2,4-D + picloram diluted in water or diesel oil and a control treatment without herbicide. All herbicide treatments were tested on two sizes of the plants and two heights of cutting, except the lubricant oil. The shrub control and sprouting vigor were evaluated in all treatments. The results showed that cutting of plants is effective only when it is carried out at the soil surface level and followed by a specific herbicide treatment, such as 2,4-D + picloram. Diesel oil controlled 100% of the younger plants of both species, at lower

  11. Evaluation of antipyretic activity of ethanolic extract of plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The plant Geniosporum prostratum (L. Benth. belongs to the family of "Lamiaceae," which is widely available in Tamil Nadu. Traditionally, plant extract is used to treat fever and common cold for children. The plant has not been yet studied pharmacologically for antipyretic activity. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antipyretic activity of alcoholic extract of the bark of plant G. prostratum (L. Benth. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 healthy white albino rats weighing 200 to 250 g were taken and divided into four groups of six animals each. The initial rectal temperature of each animal was recorded by digital thermometer and its hourly variation was noted for 4 hours. The pyrexia was induced by injecting a suspension of 12% of brewer′s yeast (at the dose 1 ml/100 g of animal weight in normal saline subcutaneously below the nape of neck. Ethanolic extract was given orally to groups II and III at the dose 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The results are presented as mean΁SEM. Statistical analysis of data was performed using Dunnett′s test to study the difference among the mean. Results: The difference in temperature between 0 hour and respective time interval was found out by statistical method. The potency of extract to bring down the temperature was compared with that of the control group. The present results showed that ethanolic extract of bark of G. prostratum plant possess a significant antipyretic effect in yeast-induced elevation of body temperature in experimental rats. It was revealed that the extract showed dose-dependent antipyretic activity. At a dose of 200 mg/kg, it showed significant antipyretic activity. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of G. prostratum (L. Benth. plant has significant antipyretic activity when compared with the standard drug. So, it can be recommended for further studies.

  12. Evaluation of antifungal activity of standardized extract of Salvia rhytidea Benth. (Lamiaceae) against various Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, S; Bakhshi, T; Sharififar, F; Naseri, A; Ghasemi Nejad Almani, P

    2016-12-01

    Salvia species have long been described in traditional medicine for various indications. Owing to the widespread use of this genus by ethnic populations, especially for various infections ranging from skin disease to gastrointestinal disorders, we were encouraged to determine whether Salvia rhytidea could be effective against fungal infections. Given the increased incidence of candidiasis in the past decade, limits on the use of antifungal drugs, emergence of azole-resistant Candida species and increased incidence of treatment failures, it is necessary to identify a novel agent with antifungal properties. Aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of S. rhytidea against various Candida isolates. In this study, at first rosmarinic acid content of plant extract was determined. A total of 96 Candida isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (n=42), Candida glabrata (n=16), Candida tropicalis (n=11), Candida krusei (n=9), Candida parapsilosis (n=9), Candida lusitaniae (n=7) and Candida guilliermondii (n=2). The in vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of S. rhytidea Benth. was evaluated against Candida isolates and compared with that of the standard antifungal drug nystatin by using a broth microdilution method, according to CLSI. Phytochemical screening results showed that the methanolic extract of S. rhytidea Benth. was rich in flavonoids and tannins. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of S. rhytidea Benth. ranged from 3.125 to>100μg/ml and 6.25 to>100μg/ml respectively. The growth inhibition value displayed that C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans isolates were most susceptible to S. rhytidea. Findings show that S. rhytidea possesses an antifungal effect against Candida isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Potential of Acacia senegal Seeds in Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heera Ram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal L. (Fabaceae seeds are essential ingredient of “Pachkutta,” a specific Rajasthani traditional food. The present study explored antiatherosclerotic and cardioprotective potential of Acacia senegal seed extract, if any, in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis in rabbits was induced by feeding normal diet supplemented with oral administration of cholesterol (500 mg/kg body weight/day mixed with coconut oil for 15 days. Circulating total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides, and VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels; atherogenic index (AI; cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO; planimetric studies of aortal wall; and histopathological studies of heart, aorta, kidney, and liver were performed. Apart from reduced atherosclerotic plaques in aorta (6.34±0.72 and increased lumen volume (51.65±3.66, administration with ethanolic extract of Acacia senegal seeds (500 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 45 days to atherosclerotic rabbits significantly lowered serum TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and VLDL-C levels and atherogenic index as compared to control. Atherogenic diet-induced cardiac LPO and histopathological abnormalities in aorta wall, heart, kidney, and liver were reverted to normalcy by Acacia senegal seed extract administration. The findings of the present study reveal that Acacia senegal seed extract ameliorated diet-induced atherosclerosis and could be considered as lead in the development of novel therapeutics.

  14. Sideritis romana L. subsp. purpurea (Tal. ex Benth.) Heywood, a new chemotype from Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzoli, Stefania; Božović, Mijat; Baldisserotto, Anna; Andreotti, Elisa; Pepi, Federico; Tadić, Vanja; Manfredini, Stefano; Ragno, Rino

    2018-05-01

    A study on essential oil fractions of the Western Balkan endemic Sideritis romana L. subsp. purpurea (Tal. ex Benth.) Heywood collected in Montenegro is reported. The 24-h systematic steam distillation extraction procedure was performed. The gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analysis of the fractions showed γ-elemene and spathulenol as two main constituents, revealing a new chemotype of this plant species. Although varying in the content of these two main compounds, which makes the fractions quite different between each other, evaluation of the anti-Candida activity showed the lack of any significant efficacy.

  15. Alternaria Leaf Spot on Mealycup Sage (Salvia farinacea Benth.) Caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromitsu, NEGISHI; Kazuo, SUYAMA; Faculty of Agriculture,Tokyo University of Agriculture; Faculty of Agriculture,Tokyo University of Agriculture

    2002-01-01

    In June 1995, a disease causing round to irregular-shaped, water-soaked, brown to blackish brown spots on mealycup sage (Salvia farinacea Benth.) was found in Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. The symptoms were seen only on leaves, not on neither flower petals or stems. The disease was also found in Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Memambetsu-cho, Hokkaido and Shimoda-shi and Matsuzaki-cho, Shizuoka. An Alternaria sp. was frequently isolated from these diseased plants. The isolates were severely pat...

  16. Fluorescence Analysis on the Roots of Rauvolfia Serpentina (L.) Benth. Ex Kurz Under UV Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, A.B.D; Bandyopadhyay, S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study deals with an analysis of the roots of Rauvolfia serpentine (L) Benth. Ex Kurz under ultraviolet radiation and also under daylight. The coarsely powdered roots were treated with various chemical reagents and the characteristic fluorescence patterns emitted were recorded and are reported in this paper. This study was undertaken as a pharmacognostic standardization to ascertain the authenticity of the roots of this plant in its crude form and also to check any adulteration that may be used in trade. PMID:22557172

  17. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Lepechiniaradula Benth Epling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Morocho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil (EO was obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Lepechiniaradula Benth Epling (Lamiaceae from Ecuador. Thirty-four compounds accounting to 93.4% of the total oil were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil were δ-3-carene (19.9%, β-pinene (17.0%, (E-β-caryophyllene (9.7% and (E-E-α-farnesene (9.4%. The essential oil of L.radula possessed strong antifungal activity against Trichophytonrubrum (ATCC® 28188 and Trichophytonmentagrophytes (ATCC® 28185.

  18. Superação de dormência em sementes de Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Francisco Elder Carlos Bezerra; Universidade Federal do Ceará; Guimarães, Isaías Porfírio; Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido; Torres, Salvador Barros; Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido; Benedito, Clarisse Pereira; Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate different methods for breaking dormancy in seeds of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth., arboreal species of multiple use in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil. The treatments were: control – intact seeds (T1); immersion in water until it reaches 80 °C (T2), and 100 °C (T3), concentrated sulfuric acid for five minutes (T4), 10 minutes (T5 ), and 15 minutes (T6), mechanical scarification with sandpaper number 80 (T7), mechanical scarification with sandpaper...

  19. Effect of Rhizobium and Mycorhiza inoculation on the nursery growth of Acacia and Teline monspessulana; Efecto de la aplicacion de biofertilizantes en Acacia decurrens y Teline monspessulana en vivero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, G; Lozano de Yunda, A; Chaparro, H

    1999-12-01

    In an experiment accomplished in the tree nursery Tisquesusa located in Madrid (Cundinamarca) was evaluated the effect of the inoculation with strains selected of foreign and Indigenous rhizobium and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi am (Glomus folescutolum) on the growth, nitrogen fixation, and micorrization of Acacia (Acacia decurrens) and Retamo (Teline monspessulana) that they are used In soils recovery by the Corporacion Autonoma Regional de Cundinamarca CAR. The studied species presented positive response to the inoculation with rhizobium; the indigenous strain DQ6-09, isolated in Guatavita (Cundinamarca), presented the better results in Retamo and also in Acacia alone and in mixture with the foreign strain T1881. The inoculation with fungi AM increased the heights, dry weights, phosphorus content and percentage of micorrization in Acacia and Retamo. The double inoculation with fungi ma and rhizobium it did not increase the nitrogen fixing of Acacia while in Retamo was presented a positive effect with the strain DQ6-09.

  20. Low chitinase activity in Acacia myrmecophytes: a potential trade-off between biotic and chemical defences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, M; Staehelin, C; McKey, D

    2000-12-01

    We determined chitinase activity in leaves of four myrmecophytic and four non-myrmecophytic leguminous species at the plants' natural growing sites in Mexico. Myrmecophytic plants (or 'ant plants') have obligate mutualisms with ants protecting them against herbivores and pathogenic fungi. Plant chitinases can be considered a reliable measure of plant resistance to pathogenic fungi. The myrmecophytic Acacia species, which were colonised by mutualistic ants, exhibited at least six-fold lower levels of chitinase activity compared with the non-myrmecophytic Acacia farnesiana and three other non-myrmecophytes. Though belonging to different phylogenetic groups, the myrmecophytic Acacia species formed one distinct group in the data set, which was clearly separated from the non-myrmecophytic species. These findings allowed for comparison between two recent hypotheses that attempt to explain low chitinase activity in ant plants. Most probably, chitinases are reduced in myrmecophytic plant species because these are effectively defended indirectly due to their symbiosis with mutualistic ants.

  1. Evaluation of field resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. The relationship with strigolactones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohemed Ahmed Mohamed, Nasr Eldin; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Bakker, Evert J.; Ast, van Aad; Babiker, Abdelgabar Gt; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Significant losses in sorghum biomass and grain yield occur in sub-Saharan Africa owing to infection by the root-parasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. One strategy to avoid these losses is to adopt resistant crop varieties. For further delineation of the role of germination

  2. Penstemon lanceolatus Benth. or P. ramosus Crosswhite in Arizona and New Mexico, a peripheral or endemic species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. L. Anderson; S. Richmond-Williams; O. Williams

    2007-01-01

    The red-flowered member of Penstemon sect. Chamaeleon from southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico has been treated taxonomically both as part of the Mexican species, P. lanceolatus Benth., and as a separate species, P. ramosus Crosswhite. Under the former treatment the Arizona and New Mexico populations are peripheral populations of a primarily Mexican...

  3. Delayed colonisation of Acacia by thrips and the timing of host-conservatism and behavioural specialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Michael J; Miller, Joseph T; Mound, Laurence A

    2013-09-09

    Repeated colonisation of novel host-plants is believed to be an essential component of the evolutionary success of phytophagous insects. The relative timing between the origin of an insect lineage and the plant clade they eat or reproduce on is important for understanding how host-range expansion can lead to resource specialisation and speciation. Path and stepping-stone sampling are used in a Bayesian approach to test divergence timing between the origin of Acacia and colonisation by thrips. The evolution of host-plant conservatism and ecological specialisation is discussed. Results indicated very strong support for a model describing the origin of the common ancestor of Acacia thrips subsequent to that of Acacia. A current estimate puts the origin of Acacia at approximately 6 million years before the common ancestor of Acacia thrips, and 15 million years before the origin of a gall-inducing clade. The evolution of host conservatism and resource specialisation resulted in a phylogenetically under-dispersed pattern of host-use by several thrips lineages. Thrips colonised a diversity of Acacia species over a protracted period as Australia experienced aridification. Host conservatism evolved on phenotypically and environmentally suitable host lineages. Ecological specialisation resulted from habitat selection and selection on thrips behavior that promoted primary and secondary host associations. These findings suggest that delayed and repeated colonisation is characterised by cycles of oligo- or poly-phagy. This results in a cumulation of lineages that each evolve host conservatism on different and potentially transient host-related traits, and facilitates both ecological and resource specialisation.

  4. Acacia shrubs respond positively to high severity wildfire: Implications for conservation and fuel hazard management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher E; Price, Owen F; Tasker, Elizabeth M; Denham, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    High severity wildfires pose threats to human assets, but are also perceived to impact vegetation communities because a small number of species may become dominant immediately after fire. However there are considerable gaps in our knowledge about species-specific responses of plants to different fire severities, and how this influences fuel hazard in the short and long-term. Here we conduct a floristic survey at sites before and two years after a wildfire of unprecedented size and severity in the Warrumbungle National Park (Australia) to explore relationships between post-fire growth of a fire responsive shrub genera (Acacia), total mid-story vegetation cover, fire severity and fuel hazard. We then survey 129 plots surrounding the park to assess relationships between mid-story vegetation cover and time-since-fire. Acacia species richness and cover were 2.3 and 4.3 times greater at plots after than before the fire. However the same common dominant species were present throughout the study. Mid-story vegetation cover was 1.5 times greater after than before the wildfire, and Acacia species contribution to mid-story cover increased from 10 to 40%. Acacia species richness was not affected by fire severity, however strong positive associations were observed between Acacia and total mid-story vegetation cover and severity. Our analysis of mid-story vegetation recovery showed that cover was similarly high between 2 and 30years post-fire, then decreased until 52years. Collectively, our results suggest that Acacia species are extremely resilient to high severity wildfire and drive short to mid-term increases in fuel hazard. Our results are discussed in relation to fire regime management from the twin perspectives of conserving biodiversity and mitigating human losses due to wildfire. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biological application of green silver nanoparticle synthesized from leaf extract of Rauvolfi serpentina Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Panja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs from the leaf extract of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth and examination of their various biological activities. Methods: An ecofriendly, easy, one step, non-toxic and inexpensive approach is used, where aqueous plant extract acts as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent of AgNPs. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Results: Surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles was observed at 427 nm in UV-vis spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy result confirms that the plant extract acts as the reducing as well as the capping agent of the AgNPs. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are spherical in shape and approximately 7–10 nm in size, whereas the crystalline nature with face-centered cubic structure of the AgNPs was detected by X-ray diffraction analysis. Presence of silver in the AgNPs is 31.43% by weight, as confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The synthesized AgNPs have antimicrobial activities against human pathogenic microorganisms. It also shows larvicidal activity and cytotoxicity against HeLa, MCF-7 cell lines. Conclusions: Synthesized spherical shaped AgNPs from the leaf extract of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth have antimicrobial and larvicidal activities as well as cytotoxicity against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines.

  6. Estudos preliminares de uma lectina de sementes de Parkia platycephala Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B Grangeiro

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de Parkia platycephala Benth.possuem uma lectina que é melhor extraída a pH 4,0 e pode ser isolada por cromatografia de afinidade em coluna de Sephadex G-50. A lectina aglutina eritrócitos de coelho mas não aglutina hemácias humanas (A, B e O, de boi, de carneiro ou de galinha. D-glicose, D-manose, D-frutose e derivados mostraram ser açúcares inibidores da atividade hemaglutinante, sendo que alfa-metil-glicosídeo e alfa-metil-manosídeo foram os mais potentes inibidores entre os açúcares testados.Seeds of Parkia platycephala Benth. have a lectin which is best extracted at pH 4,0 and partially purified using a Sephadex G-50 column as an affinity adsorbent. The lectin .agglutinates rabbit erythrocytes but not those of cow, sheep, chicken or human D-glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose and derivatives act as inhibitors of the lectin with o-methyl-glucopyranoside and O-methyl-mannopyranoside being the most potent ones.

  7. Effect of efficient microorganisms on cation exchange capacity in acacia seedlings (Acacia melanoxylon) for soil recovery in Mondonedo, Cundinamarca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barragan Olga Angelica; Montero Robayo Diana Mercedes; Lagos Caballero Jesus Alberto

    2009-01-01

    We determined the effect of efficient microorganisms (EM) on the cation exchange capacity for soil recovery in the municipality of Mondonedo, Cundinamarca. A greenhouse unit was installed in order to maintain stable conditions. After harvesting, sifted and homogenization of the soil sample, initial physical and chemical analyses were made. For the experimental units we used Acacia melanoxylon seedlings from Zabrinsky. A completely randomized design was done with eight treatments and three repetitions. For the maintenance and monitoring of the seedlings behaviour, a frequency of irrigation of three times per week was found. The application of the EM was done during three months: in the first month, it was applied four times (once a week); during the second month, it was applied twice (biweekly), and during the third month there was only one application. Additionally, every 15 days morphological analyses were made (number of leaves, branches and stem diameter). In the end, soil samples were taken from each plant pot. In the laboratory we analysed the cation exchange capacity, alkali ion exchange, saturation alkali, relations between elements and plant tissue. These were done using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analyses consisted on multiple comparisons test and variance tests, in order to find whether or not treatments exhibited significant differences. In that way, the best alternative for improving environmental quality of eroded soils as the Zabrinsky desert is the efficient microorganisms in 5% doses in irrigation water. Additionally, the cation exchange capacity must be enhanced using organic fertilizers (compost, mulch and gallinaza) in one pound doses, and chemical fertilizers: electrolytic Mn (0.0002 g), Cu (0.0002 g), Zn (0.0001 g), URFOS 44 (166.66 g) and klip-boro (5 g).

  8. Morfologia e anatomia foliar de Bauhinia curvulha Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae Morphology and anatomy of Bauhinia curvula Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Rezende

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o estudo morfológico e anatômico da folha de Bauhinia cumula Benth., espécie de cerrado. As observações foram feitas em folhas adultas, tratadas segundo a metodologia usual utilizada em anatomia vegetal. Foi observado que a espécie apresenta as seguintes características: folhas bilobadas cuja incisão foliar chega próximo à região motora; um par de estipulas membranáceas; um par de nectários extraflorais, localizadaos na base do pulvino proximal; a venação possui padrão acródomo; o pecíolo, que possui dois pulvinos, um proximal e um distai, apresenta epiderme contendo grande quantidade de tricomas tecto res simples e glândulas; a lâmina foliar é anfiestomática com predomínio de estômatos dos tipos anomocítico e paracítico; a epiderme adaxial é monoestratificada, subpapilosa, desprovida de tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; a epiderme abaxial é subpapilosa, apresentando numerosos tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; e o mesofilo é formado predominantemente por parênquima paliçádico.A morphological and anatomical study of Bauhinia curvula Benth. leaf, a cerrado spe-cies, was perfomed. The observations, in grown up leaves, prepared according to the costumary methodology used in plant anatomy, showed the following characteristics of the species: bilobed leaves with foliar incision close to the motor region; one pair of membranaceous stipules; one pair of extrafloral nectaries located on the basis of the proximal pulvinus; acrodromous patterns of leaf venetion; the petiole, which has two pulvinus, one proximal and one distal, has an epidermis containing large quantities of simple tector trichomes and glands; the leaf blade, amphiestomatic, with predominance of anomocytic and paracytic stomata; the adaxial epidermis uniserial, sub papillose, without tector trichomes and glands; the abaxial epiderms, sub-papillose, presents a high number of simple trichomes and glands; and the mesophyll with a basic

  9. Modeling relaxation length and density of acacia mangium wood using gamma - ray attenuation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamer A Tabet; Fauziah Abdul Aziz

    2009-01-01

    Wood density measurement is related to the several factors that influence wood quality. In this paper, density, relaxation length and half-thickness value of eight ages, 3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 13 and 15 year-old of Acacia mangium wood were determined using gamma radiation from 137 Cs source. Results show that Acacia mangium tree of age 3 year has the highest relaxation length of 83.33 cm and least density of 0.43 gcm -3 , while the tree of age 15 year has the least Relaxation length of 28.56 cm and highest density of 0.76 gcm -3 . Results also show that the 3 year-old Acacia mangium wood has the highest half thickness value of 57.75 cm and 15 year-old tree has the least half thickness value of 19.85 cm. Two mathematical models have been developed for the prediction of density, variation with relaxation length and half-thickness value of different age of tree. A good agreement (greater than 85% in most cases) was observed between the measured values and predicted ones. Very good linear correlation was found between measured density and the age of tree (R2 = 0.824), and between estimated density and Acacia mangium tree age (R2 = 0.952). (Author)

  10. Performance of Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances in soils low in phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamai, D.O.; Juma, P.O.

    1996-01-01

    Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances were screened to determine their potential for adaptability under P limiting conditions as a strategy to exploit genotypic differences in terms of utilization and uptake efficiencies. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse at the Kenya Forestry Research Institute using soils taken from the field which are critically low in available P. The experimental treatments comprised of P application at 0 and 60 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha for 11 provenances of Acacia, 6 Prosopis and 4 Casuarina spp. Trait for adaptability to P deficiency was determined by measuring the growth performance, P uptake and utilization efficiencies at zero and moderate application of P. The results indicated considerable differences in the growth performance and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE). Acacia provenances showed the highest PUE compared with Prosopis and Casuarina spp although this was not reflected in the total dry matter yield. However, it was observed that P application resulted in an increase in shoot dry matter, height, root collar diameter and root dry matter in the case of Casuarina. Similarly, the highest total P uptake was obtained in Casuarina and Prosopis spp. The results further indicated that P application probably contributed to the reduction in root dry matter and root: shoot ratios of Acacia and Prosopis but not Casuarina spp. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from Acacia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    The results show that significant inter-species variation of the properties of the gum exudates from the two species exist, whereas only some parameters show significant intra-species variation. The specific optical rotations of the gum exudates have been found to vary from ---43.2o to ---52o for Acacia senegal var. senegal ...

  12. In vitro biological activity of tannins from Acacia and other tree fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate impact of tannins on in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters as well as relationships between concentration and in vitro biological activity of tannins present in tree fruits. Dry and mature fruits of known phenolic content harvested from Acacia nilotica, A. erubescens, A. erioloba, ...

  13. Early growth and survival of Acacia galpinii after planting in a semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foliage transparency was in excess of 80% for all age groups while crown dieback and stem damage was below 5%. A. galpinii was found to be suitable for dry-zone afforestation. Key Words: Indigenous tree planting; Acacia galpinii; Growth rate; Survival rate; Tree health. Southern African Forestry Journal Issue 202 2004: ...

  14. STRATEGI DIVERSIFIKASI PRODUK KAYU OLAHAN Acacia mangium (studi kasus : PT. Musi Hutan Persada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Hamzah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objective of this study is to suggest  the best wood  products of Acacia mangium  that have  high value-added as an alternative business and to formulate the fitting  strategy. This study  is descriptive case study applying  purposive sampling method which involved wood product Experts and Senior PT. Musi Hutan Persada Management.  Data have been analyzed through Exponential Compare Method (MPE to select the best product alternative based on eleven set criteria, using AHP method, Hayami value-added Analysis, and Cost Analysis.  The study shows that there are five superior Acacia mangium based products, namely 1 Sawnwood and woodworking (KGKO, 2 Furniture, 3 Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF, 4 Tannin-glue of Acacia mangium  bark and 5 Wood Charcoal.  And  Sawnwood and Woodworking (KGKO, Furniture, and   Tannin-glue  have the best chance.  Best business strategy to be adhered by MHP, “related-diversification”, then is  to continue utilizing  Acacia mangium wood  as renewable resources,  integrated and sustainable business.

  15. Aboveground biomass equations for 7-year-old Acacia mangium Willd in Botucatu, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo A. A. Veiga; Maria A. M. Brasil; Carlos M. Carvalho

    2000-01-01

    The biomass of steins, leaves, and branches was determined for 152 sample trees of Acacia mangium Willd were in a 7-year-old experimental plantation in Botucatu, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After felling, dimensional measurements were taken from each tree. Cross sections were collected in 125 sample trees at ground level (0 percent), 25 percent, 50...

  16. Antioxidant capacities of extracts in relation to toasting oak and acacia wood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Híc, P.; Soural, I.; Balík, J.; Kulichová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2017), s. 129-137 ISSN 1336-8672 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : oak * acacia * toasting wood * barrique extract * antioxidant capacity * weight loss Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.950, year: 2016

  17. Performance of Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances in soils low in phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyamai, D O; Juma, P O [Kenya Forestry Research Inst., Nairobi (Kenya). Agroforestry Research Programme

    1996-07-01

    Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances were screened to determine their potential for adaptability under P limiting conditions as a strategy to exploit genotypic differences in terms of utilization and uptake efficiencies. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse at the Kenya Forestry Research Institute using soils taken from the field which are critically low in available P. The experimental treatments comprised of P application at 0 and 60 Kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ha for 11 provenances of Acacia, 6 Prosopis and 4 Casuarina spp. Trait for adaptability to P deficiency was determined by measuring the growth performance, P uptake and utilization efficiencies at zero and moderate application of P. The results indicated considerable differences in the growth performance and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE). Acacia provenances showed the highest PUE compared with Prosopis and Casuarina spp although this was not reflected in the total dry matter yield. However, it was observed that P application resulted in an increase in shoot dry matter, height, root collar diameter and root dry matter in the case of Casuarina. Similarly, the highest total P uptake was obtained in Casuarina and Prosopis spp. The results further indicated that P application probably contributed to the reduction in root dry matter and root: shoot ratios of Acacia and Prosopis but not Casuarina spp. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Preparation and Evaluation of Pellets Using Acacia and Tragacanth by Extrusion-Spheronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pirmoradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Extrusion-spheronization is an established technique for the production of pellets for pharmaceutical applications. In this study, the feasibility and influence of the incorporation of acacia, by itself and in combination with tragacanth, on the ability of formulations containing 2 model of drugs (ibuprofen and theophylline to form spherical pellets by extrusion-spheronization was investigated.Material and Methods: Formulations containing different ratios of acacia and tragacanth (8:2, 9:1, and 10:0 and different drug concentrations (20%, 40%, and 60% were prepared, on the basis of a 32 full factorial design. Pellet properties, such as aspect ratio, sphericity (image analysis, crushing strength and elastic modulus (mechanical tests, mean dissolution time, and dissolution profiles were evaluated. The effect of particular factors on responses was determined by linear regression analysis.Results: The sphericity, drug release rate, and the mechanical properties of the pellets were affected by the amounts and types of the drugs, and the ratio of the gums. Acacia, relative to tragacanth, produced pellets with higher mechanical strength and a faster drug release rate. Addition of small amounts of tragacanth to ibuprofen formulations resulted in matrix pellets with slow drug release.Conclusion: The results showed that acacia and tragacanth can be used successfully as 2 natural binders in the pellet formulations.

  19. Trial production of fuel pellet from Acacia mangium bark waste biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirta, R.; Anwar, T.; Sudrajat; Yuliansyah; Suwinarti, W.

    2018-04-01

    Fuel pellet is one of the innovation products that can be produced from various sources of biomass such as agricultural residues, forestry and also wood industries including wood bark. Herein this paper, the potential fuel pellet production using Acacia mangium bark that abundant wasted from chip mill industry was studied. Fuel pellet was produced using a modified animal feed pellet press machine equipped with rotating roller-cylinders. The international standards quality of fuel pellet such as ONORM (Austria), SS (Sweden), DIN (Germany), EN (European) and ITEBE (Italy) were used to evaluate the optimum composition of feedstock and additive used. Theresults showed the quality offuel pellet produced were good compared to commercial sawdust pellet. Mixed of Acacia bark (dust) with 10% of tapioca and 20% of glycerol (w/w) was increased the stable form of pellet and the highest heating value to reached 4,383 Kcal/kg (calorific value). Blending of Acacia bark with tapioca and glycerol was positively improved its physical, chemical and combustion properties to met the international standards requirement for export market. Based on this finding, production of fuel pellet from Acacia bark waste biomass was promising to be developed as an alternative substitution of fossil energy in the future.

  20. intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    . 1997, 11, 493. 22. Food Chemicals Codex III. Acacia (Gum arabic), National Academy of Sciences,. Washington D.C.; 1981, p 7. 23. Mhinzi, G.S.; Mosha, D.M.S. J. Chem. Soc. Pak. 1993, 15, 269. 24. Mhinzi, G.S.; Mosha, D.M.S. J.Food Sci.

  1. Acacia saligna: an invasive species on the coast of Molise (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calabrese V

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the European countries most affected by biological invasions. In this study, we focused on the impact of Acacia saligna, an Australian invasive plant species, on the coastal ecosystem’s ecology and biodiversity along the sandy coasts of Molise (southern Italy. We analyzed data from 61 vegetation plots recorded in coastal pine forest and Mediterranean scrub habitats of Molise throughout the preparatory actions of the “LIFE Maestrale” project (NAT/IT/000262. In order to study the ecological impact of Acacia saligna comparing invaded and non-invaded areas, we first assigned the Ellenberg’s indicator values to each plant species, which were then used to relate the presence of Acacia saligna with ecological characteristics of sites through a generalized linear model (GLM. Our results showed a significant positive relationship between the presence of Acacia saligna and high levels of soil nutrients and, on the contrary, a negative relationship with the presence of mesophilic species, which are typical of the community interest habitats of pine forest (2270*. The use of ecological indicators is effective to pinpoint the ecological effects of biological invasions, as well as to evaluate habitat conservation state and to identify vulnerable native species.

  2. The response of Acacia karroo plants to defoliation of the upper or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the canopy. Plants were very sensitive to defoliation in the early-flush phenophase. This probably masked the positive effects of the partial defoliations applied at this phenophase. Keywords: acacia karroo; browse production; defoliation; eastern cape; goats; growth stimulation; leaves; south africa; university of fort hare ...

  3. Preparation and evaluation of pellets using acacia and tragacanth by extrusion-spheronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhgari, A; Abbaspour, M R; Pirmoradi, S

    2011-01-01

    Extrusion-spheronization is an established technique for the production of pellets for pharmaceutical applications. In this study, the feasibility and influence of the incorporation of acacia, by itself and in combination with tragacanth, on the ability of formulations containing 2 model of drugs (ibuprofen and theophylline) to form spherical pellets by extrusion-spheronization was investigated. Formulations containing different ratios of acacia and tragacanth (8:2, 9:1, and 10:0) and different drug concentrations (20%, 40%, and 60%) were prepared, on the basis of a 3(2) full factorial design. Pellet properties, such as aspect ratio, sphericity (image analysis), crushing strength and elastic modulus (mechanical tests), mean dissolution time, and dissolution profiles were evaluated. The effect of particular factors on responses was determined by linear regression analysis. The sphericity, drug release rate, and the mechanical properties of the pellets were affected by the amounts and types of the drugs, and the ratio of the gums. Acacia, relative to tragacanth, produced pellets with higher mechanical strength and a faster drug release rate. Addition of small amounts of tragacanth to ibuprofen formulations resulted in matrix pellets with slow drug release. The results showed that acacia and tragacanth can be used successfully as 2 natural binders in the pellet formulations.

  4. Impact of Hurricane Iniki on native Hawaiian Acacia koa forests: damage and two-year recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. Harrington; James H. Fownes; Paul G. Scowcroft; Cheryl S. Vann

    1997-01-01

    Damage to Hawaiian Acacia koa forest by Hurricane Iniki was assessed by comparison with our previous measures of stand structure and leaf area index (LAI) at sites along a precipitation/elevation gradient on western Kauai. Reductions in LAI ranged from 29 to 80% and were correlated with pre-hurricane LAI and canopy height. The canopy damage...

  5. Operational disease screening program for resistance to wilt in Acacia koa in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick Dudley; Robert James; Richard Sniezko; Phil Cannon; Aileen Yeh; Tyler Jones; Michael Kaufmann

    2012-01-01

    In Hawaii, koa (Acacia koa A. Gray) is a valuable tree species economically, ecologically, and culturally. With significant land use change and declines in sugarcane, pineapple, and cattle production, there is an opportunity and keen interest in utilizing native koa in reforestation and restoration efforts. However, moderate to high mortality rates...

  6. PRODUCTION OF MANGIUM (Acacia mangium WOOD VINEGAR AND ITS UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjutju Nurhayati

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Production  of  wood vinegar from mangium (Acacia  mangium wood bolts/pieces  with their diameter of 3  17 cm, length of 30  67 cm, moisture content of 84.4%, and specific gravity of 0.52 conducted in a dome-shaped kiln with 1.2 m'-capacity afforded a yield of 40.3%.   The mangium wood vinegar was produced  through condensation  (cooling of  smoke/gas fractions released during the charcoaling (carbonization process  of  mangium wood.    The  process  could be regarded  as an integrated production of wood vinegar and charcoal.  The yield of wood vinegar combined with the resulting charcoal was 73.9%  based on  the dry weight of  inputed  mangium wood.    Results of chromatography analysis on mangium wood vinegar as conducted in Japan revealed its organic acid content at 73.9 ppm, phenol content 8.09 ppm, methanol 3.34 ppm, acidity degree 4.91  ppm, and pH 3.89.   Similar analysis on the mangium wood vinegar was conducted in Indonesia's laboratories, and the results were comparable with  those  of  Japan.     Results of  inhibition  testings  on  particular microorganisms   (i.e.  Pseudomonas  aerogjnosa,  Stafi/ococms   attreus,  and  Candidi   albicans  fimgz indicated that the mangium wood vinegar could inflict antirnicrobe action on those microorganism with its effectiveness somewhat below that of  liquid betel soap which could be purchased  from drugstores.  The experimental use of mangium wood vinegar at 3-5% concentration on ginger (Zingiber officinale var. white ginger plants revealed significantly positive growth responses/  characteristics with respect to their height, leaf length, and sprout/ shoot development, in comparison with the untreated ginger plants (control.   Such responses/characteristics were not significantly different from those using atonik's growth hormone.  Likewise, the preliminary use of mangium wood vinegar at 2-percent concentration on teak

  7. Peningkatan kadar patchouli alcohol pada minyak nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth dengan metode distilasi fraksinasi vakum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Isfaroiny

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth oil depend on it patchouli alcohol value. At there time nilam farmers just has produced nilam oil with patchouli alcohol value about 26–28%. To increase this value, fractional vacuum distillation had been done in this study. Nilam oil has been isolated from drying leaf of nilam plant. Patchouli alcohol in this oil was analyzed by gas chromatography, next the oil was distillated by fractional vacuum and the patchouli alcohol was determined from each fraction. This study showed that fractional vacuum distillation of nilam oil gives a higher patchouli alcohol value. The increasing was 23.3387%; from 35.022% at nilam oil before fractination vacuum distillation to 58.3515% at the third fraction from fractional vacuum distillation. In fact, the fourth fraction had the highest patchouli alcohol, but it had dark colour so isn’t fill the standard quality.

  8. Studies on the efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract for domestic wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Kolawole

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Bridelia ferruginea Benth bark extract in wastewater treatment was investigated. Chemical analysis found the bark to contain potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iron and copper. Phytochemical tests revealed the bark to contain tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, alkaloids, and steroids. Comparative studies using varying concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 % w/v with alum and ferric chloride showed that the bark extract was effective in the clarification and sedimentation of total solids in the waste water sample. The optimum dose achieved was 2.5 % w/v with a minimum of 24 hours contact time. The total bacteria counts were reduced by 46 % after 24 hours when the extract was used whereas ferric chloride achieved 50 % reduction and alum achieved 55 % reduction under similar conditions. The feasibility of using the bark extract as an additional coagulant is therefore discussed.

  9. GERMINAÇÃO IN VITRO DE DALBERGIA NIGRA VELL. FR. ALL. EX BENTH

    OpenAIRE

    João Otávio Silva Malaquias; Aline Tintori Mantovani; Tabatta Caroline Cerri França; Geisiele Silva Martins; Renan Carrari dos Santos; Mariana Spala Corrêa; Elias Terra Werner

    2017-01-01

    A história do Brasil é inteiramente ligada a espécies nativas que moveram a economia do país por décadas, entre essas espécies está o jacarandá-da-bahia (Dalbergia nigra Vell. Fr. All. Ex Benth), cuja madeira possui alto valor comercial. Sua exploração aliada à falta de manejo levou essa espécie a figurar na lista das espécies ameaçadas de extinção da flora brasileira. Diante do exposto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as condições mais favoráveis à germinação e estabelecimento in...

  10. Studies on water soluble polysaccharides from Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, S; Kumar, K Jayaram

    2016-03-15

    In this existing experimental work, water soluble PDP polysaccharides were secluded from Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. seeds. The physicochemical properties were analyzed in terms of swelling power, solubility, pH and water holding capacity. Micromeretic studies proved the polysaccharide may be used a potential pharmaceutical adjuvant. The polysaccharide was characterized by FT-IR, SEM, TGA and NMR techniques. Methylation analysis confirmed that the polysaccharide is composed of Arabinose (Araf) units. The chemical shifts of anomeric proton region were found in the region of 4.4-5.5ppm. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that PDP polysaccharide was thermally stable. The in vitro antioxidant capacities of the polysaccharide were investigated in terms of scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and reducing power assay. The polysaccharide fractions showed activity in a concentration dependent manner which was comparable to the standard, ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. STUDI PRODUKTIVITAS DAN RENDEMEN INDUSTRI PENGGERGAJIAN KAYU AKASIA DAUN LEBAR (Acacia mangium Willd DI KECAMATAN LANDASAN ULIN KOTA BANJARBARU KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosidah R Radam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The activity of sawmill have been long enough done by local society because very assistive and add production socialize, some of owner of bandsaw/sawmill also make this effort as effort remain to and there is also making it as effort peripheral.  Intention of this research is to know industrial and rendemen productivity of sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood (Acacia mangium Willd.  The method that being used is method of direct measurement and observation in industrial location of sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood and method of direct interview and also record data that related to this research.  The analyse data is productivity calculation, rendemen and waste.  Productivity mean of industrial sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood is equal to 6,38 m3/day or 0,0160 m3/hours. Rendemen mean of industrial sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood is equal to 80,011%.  Mean of industrial disposal of sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood is equal to 19,99% (1,62 m3, this matter is caused by a quality wood of good Acacia (not many experiencing of handicap of wood.  From result of research suggested to conduct research of continuation hit influence of other factor to productivity and rendemen at acacia wide leaf wood sawmill like age, environmental work (arrange situation, and the worker education. Keyords :  productivity, rendemen, waste, sawmill, acacia wide leaf wood (Acacia mangium Willd

  12. The water extract of Coleus barbatus Benth decreases gastric secretion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia A. Fischman

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Coleus barbatus (Labiatae Benth is popularly used in Brazil "for the healing of liver and stomach diseases". The water extract (WE 1 to 10 g/Kg, p.o. of stem and leaves given to rats and mice did not induce signs of intoxication. Preveious treatment of mice with WE (1 g/kg, p.o. shortened the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg, i.p. by 37 por cento, althoyugh the extract alone did not increase the spontaneous activity nor did it induce hyperexcitability. In mice WE (2 g/Kg, p.o. increased the intestinal transit of charcoal by 30 por cento, while reduced gastric secretions ion rats treated with WE (2g/Kg intraduodenal 3,9 ± 1.0 to 0.5 ± 0.2 ml/4h, respectively. The treatment also reduced the total acid secretion from 34.4 ± 11.0 to 2.7 ± 0.5 mEq/l and raisedgastric pH from 2.2 ± 0.3 to 6.5 ± 0.8. Treatment with WE (2g/Kg, p.o. protected against gastric ulcers induced by stress (5.3 ± 1.6 and 1.5 ± 0.5 ulcers/cm², but did nor protect against indonethacin induced ulcers. The results show that the water extract of C barbatus Benth produces mild stimulation of thecentral nervous system and increases intestinal movements. The extract also reduces gastric secretion indicating an antidyspeptic activity, and protects against gastric ulcers induced by stress.

  13. Cytotoxic activity of acyl phloroglucinols isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. cultivated in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Fathy M.; Fathy, Magda M.; Salama, Maha M.; Al-Abd, Ahmed M.; Saber, Fatema R.; El-Halawany, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Two acyl phloroglucinol compounds namely; Sideroxylonal B (1) and Macrocarpal A (2) were isolated from the Sideroxylonal-Rich Extract (SRE) of the juvenile leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea; F. Muell. ex Benth cultivated in Egypt. Identification of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of physico-chemical properties and spectral analysis (1D & 2D NMR). The two compounds were isolated for the first time from this species. The SRE alongside with the isolated compounds were tested again...

  14. A comparison of the stability of beverage cloud emulsions formulated with different gum acacia- and starch-based emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, S J; Reineccius, G A; Peppard, T L

    2010-06-01

    The performance of several hydrocolloids (3 gum acacias, 1 modified gum acacia, and 3 modified starches) in stabilizing beverage emulsions and corresponding model beverages was investigated employing different core materials, emulsifier usage levels, and storage temperatures. Concentrated emulsions were prepared using orange terpenes or Miglyol 812 (comprising medium-chain triglycerides, MCT) weighted 1:1 with ester gum, stored at 25 or 35 degrees C, and analyzed on days 0, 1, and 3. On day 3, model beverages were made from each emulsion, stored at both temperatures, and analyzed weekly for 4 wk. Stability of concentrated emulsions was assessed by measuring mean particle size and by visual observations of ringing; beverage stability was judged similarly and also by loss of turbidity. Particle size measurements showed concentrated emulsions containing gum acacia or modified gum acacia with either core material were stable over 3 d storage at both temperatures whereas those made with modified starches were not, destabilization being faster at 35 degrees C. Beverages based on orange terpenes, in contrast to Miglyol, yielded smaller mean particle sizes, both on manufacture and during storage, regardless of hydrocolloid used. Visual observations of ringing generally supported this finding. Modified gum acacia was evaluated at both recommended and higher usage levels, stability increasing in the latter case. In general, all gum acacia and modified gum acacia emulsifiers were superior in stability to those based on modified starches, at either temperature, for orange terpene-based beverages. In Miglyol-based beverages, similar results were seen, except 1 modified starch performed as well as the gum acacia products.

  15. Isolation of Abscisic Acid from Korean Acacia Honey with Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SeGun; Hong, InPyo; Woo, SoonOk; Jang, HyeRi; Pak, SokCheon; Han, SangMi

    2017-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is linked to the development of the majority of peptic ulcers and some types of gastric cancers, and its antibiotic resistance is currently found worldwide. This study is aimed at evaluating the anti- H. pylori activity of Korean acacia honey and isolating the related active components using organic solvents. The crude acacia honey was extracted with n -hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n -butanol. The EtOAc extract was subjected to octadecyl-silica chromatography. The extracts and fractions were then examined for anti- H. pylori activity using the agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of abscisic acid against H. pylori was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and by performing a time-kill assay. Abscisic acid related to the botanical origins of acacia honey from Korea has been analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The MICs and MBCs of abscisic acid were 2.7 ± 1.3 and 6.9 ± 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. The bactericidal activity of abscisic acid (at 10.8 μg/mL corresponding to 4 × MIC) killed the organism within 36-72 h. These results suggest that abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey has antibacterial activity against H. pylori . Abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey can be therapeutic and may be further exploited as a potential lead candidate for the development of treatments for H. pylori -induced infections. The crude acacia honey was extracted with n -hexane, dichloromethane, EtOAc, and n -butanolThe EtOAc extract yielded eight fractions and four subfractions were subsequently obtained chromatographicallyAbscisic acid was isolated from one subfractionAll the solvent extracts and fractions showed antibacterial activity against H. pylori Abscisic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against H. pylori . Abbreviations used: MeOH: Methanol; EtOAc: Ethyl acetate; TSB: Trypticase

  16. Immunochemical Characterization of Acacia Pollen Allergens and Evaluation of Cross-Reactivity Pattern with the Common Allergenic Pollens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsbiranvand, Mohammad-Hosein; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Borsi, Seyed Hamid; Amini, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora. PMID:24949020

  17. Identification of lignin genes and regulatory sequences involved in secondary cell wall formation in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium via de novo transcriptome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannon Charles H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrids are commercially important trees for the timber and pulp industry in Southeast Asia. Increasing pulp yield while reducing pulping costs are major objectives of tree breeding programs. The general monolignol biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation pathways are well-characterized but genes in these pathways are poorly characterized in Acacia hybrids. RNA-seq on short-read platforms is a rapid approach for obtaining comprehensive transcriptomic data and to discover informative sequence variants. Results We sequenced transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium from non-normalized cDNA libraries synthesized from pooled young stem and inner bark tissues using paired-end libraries and a single lane of an Illumina GAII machine. De novo assembly produced a total of 42,217 and 35,759 contigs with an average length of 496 bp and 498 bp for A. auriculiformis and A. mangium respectively. The assemblies of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium had a total length of 21,022,649 bp and 17,838,260 bp, respectively, with the largest contig 15,262 bp long. We detected all ten monolignol biosynthetic genes using Blastx and further analysis revealed 18 lignin isoforms for each species. We also identified five contigs homologous to R2R3-MYB proteins in other plant species that are involved in transcriptional regulation of secondary cell wall formation and lignin deposition. We searched the contigs against public microRNA database and predicted the stem-loop structures of six highly conserved microRNA families (miR319, miR396, miR160, miR172, miR162 and miR168 and one legume-specific family (miR2086. Three microRNA target genes were predicted to be involved in wood formation and flavonoid biosynthesis. By using the assemblies as a reference, we discovered 16,648 and 9,335 high quality putative Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium

  18. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de caule e do eixo das inflorescências foram analisados em microscopias de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e capitado subséssil foram observados no caule, nas folhas, no eixo da inflorescência e na superfície adaxial das sépalas. Nas sépalas foi encontrado, além dos tricomas secretores peltados e capitados subsésseis, o tricoma glandular capitado pedunculado. A ontogenia inicia-se com a expansão de uma célula protodérmica que, de acordo com a seqüência de divisões periclinais e anticlinais (ora simétricas, ora assimétricas, dá origem aos tricomas. A diferenciação dos tricomas glandulares peltados e capitados não é sincrônica e ocorre muito cedo no desenvolvimento da folha, do caule e do eixo floral.Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae is native to South America and in traditional medicine has been used due to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties. The aim of this study was to identify the types of glandular trichomes that occur on the vegetative and reproductive organs of O. selloi and to determine trichome ontogeny. Lateral branches at the initial formation phase, fully opened leaves, flowers at different differentiation stages, and stem and inflorescence axes were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy. Glandular trichomes of the peltate and subsessile capitate types were observed on the stem, leaves, inflorescence axis and the adaxial surface of the

  19. LICOR DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth CON DIFERENTES PORCENTAJES DE PULPA BLACKBERRY LIQUOR (Rubus glaucus Benth WITH DIFFERENT PULP PERCENTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Montoya Gómez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth es una fruta de interés comercial y altamente perecedera, que presenta deterioro debido a su fragilidad e inadecuado manejo poscosecha, cantidades apreciables de fruta son afectadas, básicamente en sus características físicas, siendo este producto apto para el procesamiento industrial. Veinte kg de mora fueron despulpados, homogenizados y caracterizada la pulpa, determinando; grados brix de 6,0; porcentaje de acidez de 2,91 % y densidad de 0,991 g/ml en promedio. Se formularon licores, con una participación de la pulpa del 25 %, 30 %, 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 % y 55 % iniciando con 35 °Brix, para todos los casos en el mosto fermentable, ajustando las formulaciones con sacarosa; la levadura inoculada fue Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen en concentración del 0,2 %; la fermentación se llevó a cabo en reactores con capacidad de 2 litros, con desfogue de manguera de látex, el mosto fermentable fue dejado en los reactores durante 20 semanas, luego los licores fueron filtrados y caracterizados físico-químicamente, evaluando el porcentaje de alcohol por destilación, encontrando que el porcentaje de 40 % de participación de pulpa, fue el de mayor concentración con 8,36 % de volumen de alcohol en promedio. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron una diferencia significativa entre los porcentajes de participación de pulpa y su influencia sobre la producción de alcohol para los valores de 25 % y 30 % con respecto a los porcentajes 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 % y 55 %. Un modelo matemático lineal apropiado para la producción de alcohol en función de la participación de pulpa fue obtenido. La prueba sensorial con 10 jueces, mostró que el licor preparado con 35 % de participación de pulpa, fue el de mayor aceptación.The blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth is a fruit of commercial interest that is highly perishable, showing appreciable damage due to fragileness and inadequate pos-harvesting handling

  20. Nitrogen fixation in Acacia auriculiformis and Albizia lebbeck and their contributions to crop-productivity improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbaya, N.; Mwange, K.Nk.; Luyindula, N.

    1998-01-01

    Pot and field experiments assessed N 2 fixation by Albizia lebbeck and Acacia auriculiformis and contributions from prunings to yields of corn and hibiscus. Nitrogen fixation in these tree legumes was poor, with less than 50% N derived from fixation (%Ndfa) when grown in pots, but higher (>70%) in field conditions, after inoculation with compatible Bradyrhizobium strains. Prunings from A. lebbeck, as green manure improved growth of maize and hibiscus, inducing greater corn-kernel yields than did urea. Acacia auriculiformis prunings were similarly beneficial when mixed with leaves of A. lebbeck or L. leucocephala. Application of slow- and fast-nutrient-releasing leaves is required to maximize their contributions to crop productivity. (author)

  1. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Balmeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS) in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl), and sucrose, on water absorption (WA), water absorption index (WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM). Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure. PMID:26904639

  2. Neem Gum as a Binder in a Formulated Paracetamol Tablet with Reference to Acacia Gum BP

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing ...

  3. Mekanisme Parasitisme Trichoderma Harzianum Terhadap Fusarium Oxysporum Pada Semai Acacia Mangium

    OpenAIRE

    Tasik, Susanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah; Harjono

    2015-01-01

    Mechanism of parasitism of Trichoderma harzianum on Fusarium oxysporum on Acacia mangium seedlings. Fusarium oxysporum is one of the most important soil-borne fungi the causal agent of damping-off disease. Detailed information it needed to know how the pathogen can be inhibited by Trichoderma harzianum. The objective of this research was to investigate the inhibition mechanism of T. harzianum on F. oxysporum in vitro and in planta. Green Flourescent Protein (GFP) T. harzianum was used as bioc...

  4. Impacts, efficacy and economics of Bushwacker Sc (Bromacil) In controlling Acacia invasion in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available on the upper horizon of the soil profile. Grasses are assumed to extract water from the top soil layer (0 - 15 cm) due to their shallow rooting characteristics, while trees and bushes derive their nutrients from the lower layers (Wiegand et al., 2006... and slower degradation rates than soils with a 10 year history of asparagus management and associated bromacil use. 6. The economic implications of bromacil application methods on rangelands encroached by Acacia karroo The encroachment of woody plants...

  5. Intercropping Acacia mangium stimulates AMF colonization and soil phosphatase activity in Eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Daniel; Santos, Cristiane Alcantara dos; Silva, Mylenne Calcciolari Pinheiro da; Bonfim, Joice Andrade; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are very important to plant nutrition, mostly in terms of acquisition of P and micronutrients. While Acacia mangium is closely associated with AMF throughout the whole cycle, Eucalyptus grandis presents this symbiosis primarily at the seedling stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of AMF in these two tree species in both pure and mixed plantations during the first 20 months after planting. We evaluated the abundance, richness an...

  6. Preparation and Evaluation of Pellets Using Acacia and Tragacanth by Extrusion-Spheronization

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pirmoradi; M R. Abbaspour; A. Akhgari

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study: Extrusion-spheronization is an established technique for the production of pellets for pharmaceutical applications. In this study, the feasibility and influence of the incorporation of acacia, by itself and in combination with tragacanth, on the ability of formulations containing 2 model of drugs (ibuprofen and theophylline) to form spherical pellets by extrusion-spheronization was investigated.Material and Methods: Formulations containing different ra...

  7. Assessing the impacts of Acacia mearnsii on grazing provision and livestock production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yapi, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available with selective grazing Others: grass invaders, forbs and serge Bare: refers to bare ground RESULTS: Grass species composition and basal cover 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Uninvaded Cleared Light Dense Co ver (% ) A. mearnsii invasion status... Light Dense M o is tu re (% ) Acacia mearnsii invasion status P?0.05 CONCLUSIONS and RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions ?High density invasions of A. mearnsii have negative effects on rangelands productivity ?Removal of A. mearnsii improves grazing...

  8. (Blanco) Benth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analytical gas chromatography (GC) and confirmation of chemical structure performed by Fourier transform infrared ... represents an essential active ingredient of P. .... injection of carbon suspension, 20 μL aliquots of ..... granular foreign body.

  9. (Blanco) Benth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    probably act by activating mononuclear phagocytic system, augmenting humoral immune response while suppressing ... whether its use in treating these diseases is due to its direct healing ..... lymphocytes and accessory cell types required.

  10. Minor lipid components of some Acacia species: potential dietary health benefits of the unexploited seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Nizar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oilseed samples from four Acacia species ( A. cyclops, A. ligulata, A. salicina and A. cyanophylla were analyzed in order to evaluate the potential nutritional value of their unexploited seeds. Methods Samples were collected from different Tunisian geographic locations. Seed oils were extracted and carotenoids, tocopherols and sterols were analyzed using chromatographic methods. Results The studied Acacia seeds seem to be quite rich in lipids (from 6% to 12%. All Acacia species contain mainly the xanthophylls zeaxanthin and lutein compounds: from ca. 38 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops to ca. 113 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyanophylla. Total tocopherols varied from ca. 221 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops to ca. 808 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. ligulata. Sterols are highly present and their contents ranged between ca. 7 g. kg-1 of total lipids (A. salicina and 11 g. kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops. Conclusion This study highlights that these unexploited seeds might have a potential nutritional value and encourages researchers to more explore and find developments for these plants for healthy purposes.

  11. [Discrimination of Rice Syrup Adulterant of Acacia Honey Based Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-nan; Chen, Lan-zhen; Xue, Xiao-feng; Wu, Li-ming; Li, Yi; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    At present, the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets, while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup. In this study, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of honey. 20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas, mixed? with different proportion of rice syrup, were prepared of seven different concentration gradient? including 121 samples. The near infrared spectrum (NIR) instrument and spectrum processing software have been applied in the? spectrum? scanning and data conversion on adulterant samples, respectively. Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey. The results showed that after principal components analysis, the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation, but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination, all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions, Then the different concentration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly, it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey.

  12. Precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium in tissues of four Acacia species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory.

  13. Ecophysiological and foliar nitrogen concentration responses of understorey Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus sp. to prescribed burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Rao, Xingquan; Lu, Ping; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Blumfield, Timothy; Xie, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Eucalyptus spp. is a dominant tree genus in Australia and most Eucalyptus spp. are canopy dominant species. In Australian natural forests, Eucalyptus spp. commonly are associated with understorey legumes which play a crucial role for ecological restoration owing to their nitrogen (N) fixing ability for replenishing the soil N lost after frequent prescribed burning. This study aimed to explore to what extent physiological responses of these species differ 7 and 12 years after last fire. Two most common understorey Acacia spp., Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparrima, as well as one non-leguminous Eucalyptus resinifera, were studied due to their dominance in the forest. Both A. leiocalyx and A. disparrima showed higher carbon (C) assimilation capacity, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and moderate foliar C/N ratio compared with E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx showed various advantages compared to A. disparrima such as higher photosynthetic capacity, adaptation to wider light range and higher foliar total N (TNmass). A. leiocalyx also relied on N2-fixing ability for longer time compared to A. disparrima. The results suggested that the two Acacia spp. were more beneficial to C and N cycles for the post burning ecosystem than the non-N2-fixing species E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx had greater contribution to complementing soil N cycle long after burning compared to A. disparrima.

  14. Digestibility Nutrient Contents on Acacia Seyal, Balanities Aegyptiaca and Chloris Gayana Hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiliti, J.K

    2002-01-01

    A study was carried to determine the nutrients and their digestibility in Acacia seyal and Balanities aegyptiaca legume browses and compared with Chloris gayana hay. Samples were taken from these two leguminous forages at Mogotio and Emining divisions of Koibatek district and fed to sheep in a change over design. The sheep were housed in individual pens and fitted with faecal collection bags. They were fed and faeces collected twice daily. An adaptation period of 14 days, Faecal collection of 7 days and changeover of 10 days were enforced. Nutrients analysed for during digestibility included DM, OM, CP, NDF, Hemicellulose and Cellulose. The nutrients compositions were 651, 916, 112, 370, 339, 59 and 84; 665, 920, 152, 443, 341, 89 and 80, 845, 924, 68, 730, 463, 57, and 76 for DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, and ash in Acacia seal, Balanities aegyptiaca and Chloris gayana hay. The in vivio digestibility results were different (p<0.05) for all nutrients. The digestibilities of DM, OM, CP NDF, Hemicellulose and Cellulose in Acacia seyal, Balanities aegyptiaca and Chloris gayana hay were 54.7, 66.5, 32.8, 40.3, 51.7, and 82.7; 48.5, 58.9, 67.4, 36.9, 36.3, and 40.6 and 48.1, 50.4, 41.7, 53.7, 63.0 and 62.3% respectively. The two legume forages had nutrients that had higher digestibility than hay except for fibre

  15. Impact of the energy crop Jatropha curcas L. on the composition of rhizobial populations nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and acacia (Acacia seyal L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Floury, Antoine; Laguerre, Gisèle; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Baudoin, Ezékiel

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas, a Euphorbiaceae species that produces many toxicants, is increasingly planted as an agrofuel plant in Senegal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soil priming induced by J. curcas monoculture could alter the rhizobial populations that nodulate cowpea and acacia, two locally widespread legumes. Soil samples were transferred into a greenhouse from three fields previously cultivated with Jatropha for 1, 2, and 15 years, and the two trap legumes were grown in them. Control soil samples were also taken from adjacent Jatropha-fallow plots. Both legumes tended to develop fewer but larger nodules when grown in Jatropha soils. Nearly all the nifH sequences amplified from nodule DNA were affiliated to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Only sequences from Acacia seyal nodules grown in the most recent Jatropha plantation were related to the Mesorhizobium genus, which was much a more conventional finding on A. seyal than the unexpected Bradyrhizobium genus. Apart from this particular case, only minor differences were found in the respective compositions of Jatropha soil versus control soil rhizobial populations. Lastly, the structure of these rhizobial populations was systematically imbalanced owing to the overwhelming dominance of a very small number of nifH genotypes, some of which were identical across soil types or even sites. Despite these weak and sparse effects on rhizobial diversity, future investigations should focus on the characterization of the nitrogen-fixing abilities of the predominant rhizobial strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. (Benth.) Benth. and Megaphrynium macrostachyum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim is to determine ... observations were made using Light Microscope (LM). ... and stomata index on the abaxial surfaces. ... cells and thick cuticle in M. macrostachyum, presence of crystals of calcium oxalate and carbonate in M. macrostachyum. ... into an edible berry containing high amount of ..... Scale = 30 µm.

  17. Risk assessment, eradication, and biological control: global efforts to limit Australian acacia invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John R.U.; Gairifo, Carla; Gibson, Michelle R.; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Bakar, Baki B.; Baret, Stephane; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Dufour-Dror, Jean-Marc; Kueffer, Christoph; Kull, Christian A.; Hoffman, John H.; Impson, Fiona A.C.; Loope, Lloyd L.; Marchante, Elizabete; Harchante, Helia; Moore, Joslin L.; Murphy, Daniel J.; Tassin, Jacques; Witt, Arne; Zenni, Rafael D.; Richardson, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Many Australian Acacia species have been planted around the world, some are highly valued, some are invasive, and some are both highly valued and invasive. We review global efforts to minimize the risk and limit the impact of invasions in this widely used plant group. Location Global. Methods Using information from literature sources, knowledge and experience of the authors, and the responses from a questionnaire sent to experts around the world, we reviewed: (1) a generalized life cycle of Australian acacias and how to control each life stage, (2) different management approaches and (3) what is required to help limit or prevent invasions. Results Relatively few Australian acacias have been introduced in large numbers, but all species with a long and extensive history of planting have become invasive somewhere. Australian acacias, as a group, have a high risk of becoming invasive and causing significant impacts as determined by existing assessment schemes. Moreover, in most situations, long-lived seed banks mean it is very difficult to control established infestations. Control has focused almost exclusively on widespread invaders, and eradication has rarely been attempted. Classical biological control is being used in South Africa with increasing success. Main conclusions A greater emphasis on pro-active rather than reactive management is required given the difficulties managing established invasions of Australian acacias. Adverse effects of proposed new introductions can be minimized by conducting detailed risk assessments in advance, planning for on-going monitoring and management, and ensuring resources are in place for long-term mitigation. Benign alternatives (e.g. sterile hybrids) could be developed to replace existing utilized taxa. Eradication should be set as a management goal more often to reduce the invasion debt. Introducing classical biological control agents that have a successful track-record in South Africa to other regions and identifying new

  18. Evaluation of the immunotoxicological effects of Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia A. O. Feres

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Fabaceae, also known as "faveira" or "fava-d'anta", is a plant common to the central woodsy meadow region of Brazil. It is well known for its antioxidant, antiplatelet and, principally, vasoprotective properties. Its principal component is rutin. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the safety of the use of the dried D. mollis extract in rodents. The rutin content of the standardized extract was 76.0±3%. With respect to the biochemical and hematological parameters evaluated, no alterations in the groups of rats that received 1000 and 2000 mg/kg doses of D. mollis were observed, but an increase in eosinophiles occurred. Hyperactivity of the white splenic pulp was detected in the group that received the 2000 mg/kg dose of D. mollis. In the evaluation of the lymphproliferative response with 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, no alterations were observed, and a decrease in IgG was only observed in the studies with a 2000 mg/kg dose. The results obtained with rodents suggest that no toxicity exists with the administration of dried D. mollis extract in a 1000 mg/kg dose.

  19. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and toxicity potential of Phlomis olivieri Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Delnavazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Phlomis olivieri Benth. (Lamiaceae is a medicinal plant widely distributed in Iran. In the present study, we have investigated the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of the aerial parts of this species. Methods: Silica gel (normal and reversed phases and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies were used for isolation of compounds from methanol-soluble portion (MSP of the total extract obtained from P. olivieri aerial parts. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV spectral analyses. Antioxidant activity and general toxicity potential of MSP were also evaluated in DPPH free radical-scavenging assay and brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT, respectively. Results: One caffeoylquinic acid derivative, chlorogenic acid (1, one iridoid glycoside, ipolamiide (2, two phenylethanoid glycosides, phlinoside C (3 and verbascoside (5, along with two flavonoids, isoquercetin (4 and naringenin (6 were isolated and identified from MSP. The MSP exhibited considerable antioxidant activity in DPPH method (IC50; 50.4 ± 4.6 µg/mL, compared to BHT (IC50; 18.7 ± 2.1 µg/mL, without any toxic effect in BSLT at the highest tested dose (1000 µg/mL. Conclusion: the results of the present study introduce P. olivieri as a medicinal plant with valuable biological and pharmacological potentials.

  20. Germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento inicial de Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex. Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice de Cassia Conforto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se escolher os melhores tratamentos pré-germinativos para as sementes e tamanhos de recipiente para o desenvolvimento inicial de plantas de Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex. Benth. Dentre os tratamentos aplicados, a escarificação com ácido sulfúrico por 10 minutos e o corte com estilete na região oposta ao hilo resultaram, respectivamente, nos maiores resultados de porcentagem de germinação (82,8% e 82,1% e índices de velocidade de germinação (1,15 e 1,71. Não foram observados efeitos do tamanho do recipiente sobre a área foliar e a produção de massa seca das plantas. Aos 63 dias após a semeadura, embora com índice de qualidade de Dickson estatisticamente similares (média de 0,26, somente as plantas cultivadas nos recipientes pequenos e grandes atingiram o diâmetro de coleto próximo de 5 mm, valor mínimo recomendado para o plantio em campo. Assim, para o desenvolvimento inicial desta espécie, recomenda-se o pré-tratamento das sementes com ácido sulfúrico comercial, semeadura em sacos plásticos para mudas de 17 x 20 cm, e aguardo de 63 dias até o plantio em campo.

  1. (L. Benth. en bosques secundarios en Escárcega, Campeche, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. López-Torres

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El T´zalam Lysiloma latisiliquum (L. Benth. en la región de Escárcega, Campeche, México, es la especie más abundante y con mayor importancia económica en bosques secundarios derivados de selva mediana subperennifolia, después haber sido intervenida mediante el sistema rosa-tumba-quema. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el comportamiento del crecimiento en diámetro de esta especie, en un periodo de 20 años de desarrollo. A partir de la variable diámetro normal (d1.3, agrupada en categorías diamétricas, se estimaron los incrementos anuales medio, máximo y mínimo para cada categoría. Los resultados indican que en el escenario más ventajoso se requiere de 10.6 años para que los árboles pasen de categoría reserva a categoría aprovechable y, en promedio, es necesario de 21.5 años para alcanzar la misma condición. El incremento en diámetro fue, en promedio, de 0.511 cm y se clasifica como medio.

  2. Furano diterpenes from Pterodon pubescens Benth with selective in vitro anticancer activity for prostate cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindola, Humberto M.; Carvalho, Joao E. de; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Rodrigues, Rodney A. F.; Denny, Carina; Sousa, Ilza M. de Oliveira; Foglio, Mary Ann; Tamashiro, Jorge Y.

    2009-01-01

    Activity guided fractionation of Pterodon pubescens Benth. methylene chloride-soluble fraction afforded novel 6α-acetoxi 7β-hydroxy-vouacapan 1 and four known diterpene furans 2, 3, 4, 5. The compounds were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activities against human normal cells and tumour cell lines UACC-62 (melanoma), MCF-7 (breast), NCI-H460 (lung, non-small cells), OVCAR-03 (ovarian), PC-3 (prostate), HT-29 (colon), 786-0 (renal), K562 (leukemia) and NCI-ADR/RES (ovarian expressing phenotype multiple drugs resistance). Results were expressed by three concentration dependent parameters GI 50 (concentration that produces 50% growth inhibition), TGI (concentration that produces total growth inhibition or cytostatic effect) and LC 50 (concentration that produces .50% growth, a cytotoxicity parameter). Also, in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated against 3T3 cell line (mouse embryonic fibroblasts). Antiproliferative properties of compounds 1, 4 and 5 are herein reported for the first time. These compounds showed selectivity in a concentration-dependent way against human PC-3. Compound 1 demonstrated selectivity 26 fold more potent than the positive control, doxorubicin, for PC-3 (prostrate) cell line based on GI 50 values, causing cytostatic effect (TGI value) at a concentration fifteen times less than positive control. Moreover comparison of 50% lethal concentration (LC 50 value) with positive control (doxorubicin) suggested that compound 1 was less toxic. (author)

  3. The Tolerance and Accumulation of Miscanthus Sacchariflorus (maxim.) Benth., an Energy Plant Species, to Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Shiyong; Huang, Yongjie; Zhou, Shoubiao

    2015-01-01

    Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Benth. is a metallophyte suitable for the phytoremediation of mine wastes. The tolerance and accumulation of M. sacchariflorus to cadmium was studied by pot experiments. The results showed that O2·- generation rate, plasma membrane permeability and MDA content of M. sacchariflorus leaves increased with increasing Cd concentrations in soil, but significant effect was only observed when Cd concentrations were ≥50 mg·kg(-1). SOD and POD activities increased initially but decreased later on, whereas CAT activity only increased significantly at higher Cd concentrations, 50-100 mg·kg(-1). The content of photosynthetic pigment and growth of M. sacchariflorus were both not significantly affected when Cd concentration was ≤25 mg·kg(-1). In contrast, both parameters were significantly affected when Cd concentration was ≥50 mg·kg(-1). M. sacchariflorus could accumulate much Cd, but most of the Cd assimilated was retained in the belowground part, suggesting that M. sacchariflorus has poor ability to translocate Cd to the aboveground part. Our results suggested that although M. sacchariflorus was not a hyper-accumulator, it has a strong capacity to tolerate and stabilize the Cd. Therefore, M. sacchariflorus has a certain potential in the phytostabilization of Cd-contaminated soils.

  4. In vivo antimalarial activity of a labdane diterpenoid from the leaves of Otostegia integrifolia Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endale, Abyot; Bisrat, Daniel; Animut, Abebe; Bucar, Franz; Asres, Kaleab

    2013-12-01

    In Ethiopian traditional medicine, the leaves of Otostegia integrifolia Benth. are used for the treatment of several diseases including malaria. In an ongoing search for effective, safe and cheap antimalarial agents from plants, the 80% methanol leaf extract O. integrifolia was tested for its in vivo antimalarial activity, in a 4-day suppressive assay against Plasmodium berghei. Activity-guided fractionation of this extract which showed potent antiplasmodial activity resulted in the isolation of a labdane diterpenoid identified as otostegindiol. Otostegindiol displayed a significant (P antimalarial activity at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg with chemosuppression values of 50.13, 65.58 and 73.16%, respectively. Acute toxicity studies revealed that the crude extract possesses no toxicity in mice up to a maximum dose of 5000 mg/kg suggesting the relative safety of the plant when administered orally. The results of the present study indicate that otostegindiol is among the antimalarial principles in this medicinal plant, and further support claims for the traditional medicinal use of the plant for the treatment of malaria. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Germination behavior of Albizia Lebbeck (L. Benth in weakly saline soils in Río Cauto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giosvany Yuriet Oliva Arias

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the behavior of nursery germination of Albizia lebbeck (L Benth weakly saline soils in the municipality of Río Cauto, Granma Province. The research was conducted in the period from March to June 2012 in the forest nursery Cauto Embarcadero belonging to Río Cauto silvicultural UEB. To determine the germination of the seeds, the germination test performed which consisted in putting to germinate 25 seeds per treatment at 5 for plates with filter paper petris as Treatment 1: added 10 mL of chloride solution sodium (NaCl, adjusted to an electric conductivity of 2 dS m-1 and as treatment 2: a sample pattern with deionized water having an electrical conductivity of 0, 02 dS.m-1 counts were performed daily until the 30 days. The electrical conductivity was measured with the brand portable conductivity meter HANNA HI 9033 multi-range model. Four treatments were studied: a standard with no saline growing medium and three growing media evaluated as weakly saline in a range of 1 to 2 dS m-1. Statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences between treatments.

  6. Flavonoids with acetylated branched glycans and bioactivity of Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Manal S; Elgindi, Omaima D; Bakr, Reham O

    2014-01-01

    The new acetylated kaempferol tetraglycoside, kaempferol-3-O-[2″(4-acetylrhamnopyranosyl)-3″-galactopyranosyl] robinobioside (1), was isolated from the aqueous methanolic leaf extract of Tipuana tipu Benth. The known kaempferol 3-[2″-(4-acetyl-rhamnosyl)] robinobioside (2), kaempferol 3-O-2″-rhamnopyranosylrutinoside (3), rutin (4), kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (5), kaempferol 3-O-glucopyranoside (6), kaempferol 3-O-galactopyranoside (7), quarcetin 3-O-glucopyranoside (8), kaempferol (9) and quercetin (10) together with the chlorogenic acid (11) were also isolated and characterised. Structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The methanol extract exhibited moderate antioxidant activity, IC50 28.96 μg/mL, compared with ascorbic acid (1.83 μg/mL) and tertiary-butylhydroquinone (1.92 μg/mL). The methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited potent cytotoxic activity; the former was found to be active against larynx and liver cell lines, while the latter being active against intestine and liver cell lines.

  7. Emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de sementes de Dimorphandra mollis Benth. em campo

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    M.F. SOUZA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae é uma espécie arbórea, encontrada no bioma Cerrado, utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas e na ornamentação. Dos frutos, extrai-se a rutina, um bioflavonoide utilizado na indústria farmacêutica, o qual atua na permeabilidade e na resistência dos vasos capilares. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos do tipo de solo e de adubos sobre a emergência e o vigor da fava-d’anta semeada diretamente no campo. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro tipos de adubação e dois tipos de solo, com sete repetições de cinco sementes cada. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: emergência, primeira contagem da emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, altura e diâmetro da plântula. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores, tipo de solo e adubos. Os melhores resultados para emergência e IVE são obtidos quando a semeadura é realizada em solo local.

  8. Preparation and characterization of microcapsules of Pterodon pubescens Benth. by using natural polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Espada Reinas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An oleaginous fraction obtained from an alcohol extract of the fruit of Pterodon pubescensBenth. (FHPp was microencapsulated in polymeric systems. These systems were developed using a complex coacervation method and consisted of alginate/medium-molecular-weight chitosan (F1-MC, alginate/chitosan with greater than 75% deacetylation (F2-MC, and alginate/low-molecular-weight chitosan (F3-MC. These developed systems have the potential to both mask the taste of the extract, and to protect its constituents against possible chemical degradation. The influence of the formulation parameters and process were determined by chemical profiling and measurement of the microencapsulation efficiency of the oleaginous fraction, and by assessment of microcapsule morphology. The obtained formulations were slightly yellow, odorless, and had a pleasant taste. The average diameters of the microcapsules were 0.4679 µm (F2-MC, 0.5885 µm (F3-MC, and 0.9033 µm (F1-MC. The best formulation was F3-MC, with FHPp microencapsulation efficiency of 61.01 ± 2.00% and an in vitro release profile of 75.88 ± 0.45%; the content of vouacapans 3-4 was 99.49 ± 2.80%. The best model to describe the release kinetics for F1-MC and F3-MC was that proposed by Higuchi; however, F2-MC release displayed first-order kinetics; the release mechanism was of the supercase II type for all formulations.

  9. Pterodon pubescens Benth: stability study of microencapsulated extract and isolated compounds monitored by antinociceptive assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servat, Leila; Spindola, Humberto M.; Carvalho, Joao E. de; Foglio, Mary A.; Rodrigues, Rodney A.F.; Sousa, Ilza M.O.; Ruiz, Ana L.T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Pterodon pubescens Benth. (Pp) seeds, commercially available in Brazil, are used in folk medicine in anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-rheumatic preparations. The present study demonstrated the antinociceptive properties of isomers 6a-hydroxy-7β-acetoxy-vouacapan-17β--oate methyl ester and 6a-acetoxy-7β-hydroxy-vouacapan-17β-oate methyl ester (C1), isolated from (Pp), employing different experimental models. A stability study was performed to investigate the relationship of microencapsulation by spray-drying on the maintenance of antinociceptive action. Therefore, C1 and Pp extract samples were monitored in accelerated stability study, evaluating both microencapsulated and non-microencapsulated samples. It was observed that sample C1 possess antinociceptive activity revealed by writhing and formalin tests; C1 showed significantly anti-allodynic, but not ntihyperalgesic effect; the microencapsulation maintained the activity and integrity of both, sample C1 and Pp crude extract; microencapsulation by spray drying is a useful alternative to increase shelf life. (author)

  10. Effect of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. fruit extract on cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megala, Jayaraman; Geetha, Arumugam

    2015-10-01

    The edible fruits of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. are traditionally used for various gastric complications in India. Here, we investigated the antiulcer activity of hydroalcoholic fruit extract of P. dulce (HAEPD) by applying cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer model in rats. Duodenal ulcer was induced in male albino Wistar rats by oral administration of cysteamine @ 420 mg/kg body wt. as a single dose. The rats were pre-administered orally with HAEPD @ 200 mg/kg body wt. for 30 days prior to ulcer induction. Rats pre-administered with ranitidine @ 30 mg/kg body wt. served as reference drug control. Ulcer score, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glycoproteins, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were measured in the duodenum. Rats pre-administered with the HAEPD showed significantly reduced ulcer score comparable to that of ranitidine pretreated rats. The co-administration of HAEPD lowered the TBARS level and also restored the levels of glycoproteins, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Histopathological observations confirmed the presence of inflammation, necrosis and hemorrhagic spots in the duodenum of ulcer control rats which were significantly reduced due to HAEPD treatment. No abnormal alterations were observed in normal rats treated with HAEPD at the dosage studied. The results demonstrated antioxidant and cytoprotective nature of P. dulce, and thereby its significant anti ulcer property.

  11. The Effect of Sonic Bloom Fertilizing Technology on The Seed Germination and Growth of Acacia mangium Willd Seedling

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    Mulyadi A T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium Willd is one of the promising wood species, it is a fast growing species and can be used as raw materials for pulp, furniture and wood working. Musi Hutan Persada Company has planted Acacia mangium Willd in large scale for pulp processing raw materials and for wood working industry. The faculty of forestry of the Nusa Bangsa University in collaboration with the Musi Hutan Persada have examined  the effect of “Sonic Bloom” to the Acacia mangium Willd germination and seedling growth. The results of the research are the following : (1 The seed germination with “Sonic Bloom” provided percented of germination of 82%, better than those without “Sonic Bloom”, i.e. only 34%; (2 With Sonic Bloom,  the height of 80-days old seedling is 129.6 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom”of only 90.7 cm  ; (3 the diameter of 80-days old seedling with “Sonic Bloom” is 0,24 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom” harving diameters of only 0.19 cm.The study concludes that sonic bloom treatment is very useful for the seed germination and the growth of Acacia mangium Willd seedling Key Words : Sonic Bloom, persemaian, Acacia mangium, perkecambahan, bibit   Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  12. The effects of passage through the gut of goats and cattle, and the application of dung as a fertiliser on seedling establishment of Dichrostachys cinerea and Acacia nilotica

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tjelele, TJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed pods of Dichrostachys cinerea and Acacia nilotica have higher nutritive value than grasses and other browse plants during the dry season and form an important part of the diet of livestock. Seeds of Acacia may be destroyed during passage...

  13. Tree size as a factor influencing leaf emergence and leaf fall in Acacia nigrescens and Combretum apiculatum in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Novellie

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available In Acacia nigrescens and Combretum apiculatum saplings tended to retain leaves over the dry season, whereas the mature trees generally lost most of their leaves. In Acacia nigrescens the production of new leaves over the dry season was more commonly observed in saplings than in mature trees.

  14. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive

  15. Biologia reprodutiva de Acacia mearnsii de wild. (Fabaceae IV: visitantes florais Reproductive biology of Acacia mearnsii de wild. (Fabaceae IV: flower visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudes Maria Stiehl Alves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Para que as estratégias de melhoramento genético em espécies arbóreas tenham sucesso, o conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva da espécie envolvida é indispensável. Um dos fatores críticos ao sucesso reprodutivo das espécies do gênero Acacia é a presença de vetores para a polinização. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar os visitantes florais em um plantio comercial de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. e quantificar as políades aderidas à superfície corporal dos insetos. As observações foram realizadas em uma torre localizada no plantio comercial durante o período de floração de 2002 e 2003. Os visitantes florais foram capturados no período diurno com o auxílio de rede entomológica e de um cesto aéreo instalado em um trator. No período noturno, os insetos foram capturados com o auxílio de armadilhas luminosas instaladas entre as copas florescidas. Foram observados insetos pertencentes às ordens Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera e Lepidoptera. Os besouros da espécie Macrodactylus suturalis foram considerados como dispersores do pólen de acácia-negra, pela alta frequência de indivíduos presentes no povoamento estudado e pela grande quantidade de políades aderidas no corpo dos insetos capturados (X=229,36 políades/inseto. As abelhas da espécie Apis mellifera, embora tenha sido quantificada uma grande quantidade de políades nos indivíduos capturados (X=448,50 políades/inseto, não foram observadas com frequência na área analisada. Uma das formas recomendadas para aumentar a frequência de abelhas e vespas nos plantios comerciais de acácia-negra é a manutenção de fontes de néctar e a introdução de caixas com abelhas A. mellifera.To ensure the success of the strategies of genetic improvement in tree species, knowledge of the reproductive biology of the species involved is essential. One of these critical factors in reproductive success of the genus Acacia is the presence of vectors to

  16. Efeito de diferentes substratos sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de Acacia sp. Effect of different substrates on the development of Acacia sp. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexson de Mello Cunha

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Os biossólidos têm sido estudados como fonte de matéria orgânica na agricultura. Objetivou-se avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de Acacia mangium e Acacia auriculiformis em diferentes substratos: a horizonte Bw com areia lavada (1:1, v:v e adubação mineral de 160, 640 e 160 g m-3de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (HB; b horizonte Bw com areia lavada e esterco bovino (1:1:1, v:v (HBE; c horizonte Bw com areia lavada e lodo de esgoto (1:1:1, v:v (HBL; e d 100% de lodo de esgoto (LE. Aplicou-se 1 kg de CaCO3 p.a. por m³ de substrato. Foram utilizadas sementes inoculadas com rizóbio e não-inoculadas, determinando-se, aos 90 dias após a semeadura, a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do colo e o peso da matéria seca da raiz e da parte aérea, na qual se determinaram N, P, K, Ca e Mg. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, no esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (com ou sem inoculação x 4 substratos. No LE com inoculação, obteve-se melhor crescimento das mudas. O HBE produziu efeito superior no desenvolvimento das mudas em relação àquele com a mesma proporção de material orgânico na forma de lodo (HBL. Na maioria dos parâmetros avaliados não houve diferença devido à inoculação dos substratos HBE, HBL e HB, provavelmente devido à existência de bactérias nativas nesses substratos. As mudas desenvolvidas no substrato LE foram as que acumularam mais N e Ca, principalmente quando inoculadas. Houve tendência de maior acúmulo de P, K e Mg na parte aérea das mudas desenvolvidas no substrato HBE.Sewage sludge has been studied as source of organic matter on seedling production. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the development of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis seedlings in the following substrates: a oxic horizon + sand (1:1, v:v + 160, 640 e 160 g m-3 of N, P2O5 and K2O respectively (HB; b oxic horizon + sand + cattle manure (1:1:1, v:v (HBE; c oxic horizon + sand + sewage sludge (1:1:1, v:v (HBL and; d 100% sewage

  17. TRANSFORMAÇÕES CITOMORFOLÓGICAS EM PLANTAS DE Centrosema virginianum (L. BENTH. PELO USO DA COLCHICINA

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    Alice Battistin

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes concentrações de colchicina foram aplicadas em sementes de Centrosema virginianum (L. Benth., por períodos variados de tempo, com a finalidade de detectar reações citomorfológicas no desenvolvimento de suas plantas. Centrosema mostrou alta sensibilidade à colchicina, sobrevivendo apenas 5% das mesmas. Várias alterações foram observadas em seus caracteres morfológicos, e, em pontas de raízes, ocorreu elevada taxa de polissomatia com dois novos níveis de ploidia, 2n = 4X = 36 (tetraplóides e 2n = 6X = 54 (hexaplóides.

  18. The influence of different hormone concentration and combination on callus induction and regeneration of Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, U; Rahman, M S M; Islam, S; Haque, N; Jubair, T A; Haque, A K M F; Mukti, I J

    2008-06-15

    The influence of media composition on callus induction and subsequent regeneration of Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth has been studied. High frequency (96.43%) callus induction was obtained when nodal segments from in vitro raised shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L(-1) BA and 2.0 mg L(-1) NAA. The callus differentiated into adventitious shoots when it was subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA with 0.2 mg L(-1) NAA. Regenerated shoots were best rooted on half-strength MS medium with 1.0 mg L(-1) each of IBA and IAA.

  19. Sustratos orgánicos como alternativa para la producción de albahaca (Ocimum Selloi Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Mota, Lilián; Flores Sánchez, Diego

    2013-01-01

    La especie de albahaca Ocimum Selloi Benth ha sido empleada en México por sus propiedades medicinales y como condimento. Por otra parte, el uso de vermicomposta es una alternativa en la producción orgánica de las plantas medicinales; por lo tanto, esta investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la vermicomposta en el crecimiento de albahaca. Como tratamientos se emplearon 4 sustratos: 1) vermicomposta de café (con base a pulpa proveniente del beneficio húmedo) más cascarilla de caf...

  20. Tannins from Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Bark: Tannin Determination and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Sosuke; Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2018-04-05

    The bark of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (black wattle) contains significant amounts of water-soluble components acalled "wattle tannin". Following the discovery of its strong antioxidant activity, a wattle tannin dietary supplement has been developed and as part of developing new dietary supplements, a literature search was conducted using the SciFinder data base for " Acacia species and their biological activities". An analysis of the references found indicated that the name of Acacia nilotica had been changed to Vachellia nilotica , even though the name of the genus Acacia originated from its original name. This review briefly describes why and how the name of A. nilotica changed. Tannin has been analyzed using the Stiasny method when the tannin is used to make adhesives and the hide-powder method is used when the tannin is to be used for leather tanning. A simple UV method is also able to be used to estimate the values for both adhesives and leather tanning applications. The tannin content in bark can also be estimated using NIR and NMR. Tannin content estimations using pyrolysis/GC, electrospray mass spectrometry and quantitative 31 P-NMR analyses have also been described. Tannins consists mostly of polyflavanoids and all the compounds isolated have been updated. Antioxidant activities of the tannin relating to anti-tumor properties, the viability of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and also anti-hypertensive effects have been studied. The antioxidant activity of proanthocyanidins was found to be higher than that of flavan-3-ol monomers. A total of fourteen papers and two patents reported the antimicrobial activities of wattle tannin. Bacteria were more susceptible to the tannins than the fungal strains tested. Several bacteria were inhibited by the extract from A. mearnsii bark. The growth inhibition mechanisms of E. coli were investigated. An interaction between extracts from A. mearnsii bark and antibiotics has also been studied. The extracts from A. mearnsii

  1. Tannins from Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Bark: Tannin Determination and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosuke Ogawa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The bark of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (black wattle contains significant amounts of water-soluble components acalled “wattle tannin”. Following the discovery of its strong antioxidant activity, a wattle tannin dietary supplement has been developed and as part of developing new dietary supplements, a literature search was conducted using the SciFinder data base for “Acacia species and their biological activities”. An analysis of the references found indicated that the name of Acacia nilotica had been changed to Vachellia nilotica, even though the name of the genus Acacia originated from its original name. This review briefly describes why and how the name of A. nilotica changed. Tannin has been analyzed using the Stiasny method when the tannin is used to make adhesives and the hide-powder method is used when the tannin is to be used for leather tanning. A simple UV method is also able to be used to estimate the values for both adhesives and leather tanning applications. The tannin content in bark can also be estimated using NIR and NMR. Tannin content estimations using pyrolysis/GC, electrospray mass spectrometry and quantitative 31P-NMR analyses have also been described. Tannins consists mostly of polyflavanoids and all the compounds isolated have been updated. Antioxidant activities of the tannin relating to anti-tumor properties, the viability of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and also anti-hypertensive effects have been studied. The antioxidant activity of proanthocyanidins was found to be higher than that of flavan-3-ol monomers. A total of fourteen papers and two patents reported the antimicrobial activities of wattle tannin. Bacteria were more susceptible to the tannins than the fungal strains tested. Several bacteria were inhibited by the extract from A. mearnsii bark. The growth inhibition mechanisms of E. coli were investigated. An interaction between extracts from A. mearnsii bark and antibiotics has also been studied. The

  2. Climate trends in the wood anatomy of Acacia sensu stricto (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Nigel W M; Hailey, Luke; Clarke, Kerri L; Gasson, Peter E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the structural diversity of the secondary xylem of 54 species of Acacia from four taxonomic sections collected across five climate regions along a 1200 km E-W transect from sub-tropical [approx. 1400 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP)] to arid (approx. 240 mm MAP) in New South Wales, Australia. Acacia sensu stricto ( s.s. ) is a critical group for understanding the effect of climate and phylogeny on the functional anatomy of wood. Wood samples were sectioned in transverse, tangential and radial planes for light microscopy and analysis. The wood usually has thick-walled vessels and fibres, paratracheal parenchyma and uniseriate and biseriate rays, occasionally up to four cells wide. The greater abundance of gelatinous fibres in arid and semi-arid species may have ecological significance. Prismatic crystals in chambered fibres and axial parenchyma increased in abundance in semi-arid and arid species. Whereas vessel diameter showed only a small decrease from the sub-tropical to the arid region, there was a significant 2-fold increase in vessel frequency and a consequent 3-fold decrease in the vulnerability index. Although the underlying phylogeny determines the qualitative wood structure, climate has a significant influence on the functional wood anatomy of Acacia s.s. , which is an ideal genus to study the effect of these factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Genetic Diversity of Acacia mangium Seed Orchard in Wonogiri Indonesia Using Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVI YUSKIANTI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is important in tree improvement programs. To evaluate levels of genetic diversity of first generation Acacia mangium seedling seed orchard in Wonogiri, Central Java, Indonesia, three populations from each region of Papua New Guinea (PNG and Queensland, Australia (QLD were selected and analyzed using 25 microsatellite markers. Statistical analysis showed that PNG populations have higher number of detected alleles and level of genetic diversity than QLD populations. This study provides a basic information about the genetic background of the populations used in the development of an A. mangium seed orchard in Indonesia.

  4. Invasive Acacia longifolia induce changes in the microbial catabolic diversity of sand dunes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise; Struwe, Sten

    2008-01-01

    diversity. Five substrate groups were tested: amino acids, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, plant litters, and plant polymers. CRP clearly discriminated between the three different areas. Respiratory responses to the individual substrates a-ketoglutaric acid, oxalic acid, starch, citric acid, and xylose...... and to the groups of amino acids and plant polymers were similar in both invaded areas and different in the non-invaded. The responses to tartaric acid, gallic acid, fumaric acid, Cistus litter, and Acacia litter were the same in long- and non-invaded areas, but different from recently invaded areas. The duration...

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY REGARDING THE QUANTITY OF ACACIA AND LIME HONEY HARVESTED IN 2008 IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BEEHIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA PĂTRUICĂ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paperwork present the results of a comparative study regarding the production of acacia (Robinia pseudacacia and lime honey harvested in 2008 in flat, vertical and multi-frame hives. A total of 45 bee families (Apis mellifica carpatica, Banatica ecotipe, divided in three experimental groups, with 15 families on each hive, were examined for every type of hive. During the experiment there were tracked the number of honeycombs with larvae starting from 7th to 10th of April and from 1st to 5th of May, the acacia and lime honey yield.

  6. Effect of Organic Fertilizers and Plant Density on Qualititative Characteristics of Balangu (Lallenamntia royleana Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roohi Nogh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recently, the impact of chemical farming and the negative consequences on the environment and human health are on rise in Iran. Organic farming is gaining attention and increasing globally because it is eco-friendly, safe and has benefits for human health. The use of organic fertilizers in agriculture improves soil structure. Plant spacing and fertilizer applications have significant influence on the growth and yield in crop production. Optimum plant spacing ensures the proper use of land, as well as growth and nutrition in plants. Balangu (Lallemantia royleana Benth. is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, containing essential oils and mucilage. The most important feature of this plant is the mucilage of the seeds. The seeds are a good source of fiber, oil and protein, and have medicinal and nutritional properties. Using the appropriate plant density and environmental friendly methods like organic fertilizers can improve the quality and quantity of medicinal plants production. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of organic fertilizers and plant density on the qualitative characteristics of Balangu (Lallemantia royleana Benth. as a medicinal plant, an experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during the growing season of 2011-2012. Soil samples were collected from the 15 cm depth of each experimental plots for laboratory analysis. This experiment was carried out as factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were included five levels of fertilizer (cow manure, sheep manure, chicken manure, municipal solid waste compost and control and three levels of plant density (20, 30 and 40 plant m-2. The studied traits were included amount of mucilage, swelling factor, swelling per gram mucilage, mucilage and seed yield. Data were analyzed with SAS software. The F test was used to test the significance

  7. MORFOBIOMETRIA E GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE Parkia multijuga Benth. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae

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    Cartiane Rubishirley Macêdo Rocha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar dos métodos para a análise de sementes de muitas espécies estarem descritos nas Regras para Análises de Sementes, para a maioria das sementes das espécies brasileiras não há, ainda, métodos para o teste de germinação. Assim, os objetivos dessa pesquisa foram determinar as dimensões das sementes e as características das plântulas de Parkia multijuga e estabelecer o substrato e a temperatura para a germinação. As dimensões das sementes avaliadas foram: comprimento, largura e espessura. Para avaliação da germinação, em diferentes temperaturas e substratos, foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em fatorial duplo (dois substratos, entre areia e entre papel, e quatro temperaturas, 20, 25 e 30ºC com luz contínua e 25-30°C com alternância de luz. As sementes de Parkia multijuga são elipsoidais, com tamanho médio de 46,4 × 11,8 × 8,8 mm. A germinação das sementes é do tipo hipógea e criptocotiledonar. As temperaturas adequadas para o teste de germinação são 25 ou 30ºC, em substrato areia, em luz contínua. Palavras-chave: Faveira-benguê, plântula normal; temperatura, substrato. MORPHOBIOMETRY AND GERMINATION OF Parkia multijuga Benth. SEEDS ABSTRACT Many species have the seed analysis method described in rules for seed testing, however some Brazilian native species do not have studies related about germination methods. The aims of this study were characterize the size of Parkia multijuga Benth. seeds and determine the substrate and temperature for the germination test. The sizes assessed were the length, the width and the thickness. To indicate the best temperature and substrate for the germination test the completely randomized design was used in factorial (two substrate, between sand and between paper, and four temperatures, 20, 25 and 30ºC with light and 25-30°C, with alternated light. Parkia multijuga seeds are ellipsoids shape and its mean size is 46.4 × 11.8 × 8.8 mm

  8. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE EXTRACT OF THE BARKS OF Licania macrophylla BENTH: PHYTOCHEMICALS AND TOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS

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    Ryan da Silva Ramos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o perfil fitoquímico, físico-químico da espécie vegetal e determinar a toxicidade do extrato bruto etanólico de L. macrophylla Benth frente às larvas de Artemia salina L. A análise fitoquímica foi realizado por meio do extrato bruto etanólico das cascas do caule e a determinação físico-química foi realizada de acordo com a Farmacopeia Brasileira. As análises fitoquímicas detectaram a presença de saponinas, ácidos orgânicos, açúcares redutores, taninos, antraquinonas, depsídios e depsidonas. Em relação aos parâmetros físico-químicos a planta apresentou pH=4,64, pela ocorrência de saponinas, ácidos orgânicos e taninos; Lipídeos= 0,55% indica que o material vegetal apresenta poucos lipídios de baixo peso molecular; Umidade= 12,09%±0,12, o que relaciona a pouca quantidade de água, fator indispensável para a não ocorrência de desenvolvimento de microrganismo ou degradação enzimática. Os resíduos por incineração (cinzas da espécie se encontra dentro dos padrões farmacognósticos de 8,30%±0,54. O extrato bruto segundo o teste de toxicidade é atóxico com CL50=1253µg/mL, isto é, confirma-se a relação estabelecida entre a taxa de mortalidade e CL50 deve ser superior a 1000µg/mL para serem considerados atóxicos. As análises fitoquímicas confirmaram em parte a utilização da espécie para fins fitoterápicos, porém a forma de tratamento e acondicionamento pode influenciar na determinação de metabólitos secundários. Os parâmetros físico-químicos adotados mostraram que espécie encontra-se livre de agentes decompositores. Palavras-chave: Fitoquímica, L. macrophilla Benth, Toxicidade, Físico-Química. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n1p94-99

  9. Effect of Nepeta bracteata Benth. on allergic rhinitis symptoms: A randomized double-blind clinical trial

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    Mohammad Reza Hajiheydari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR is one of the health problems in the world. It is necessary to develop new treatment procedure for control of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Zofa (Nepeta bracteata Benth on AR patients. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial study, 71 patients (37 patients in treatment and 34 in placebo group participated. In treatment group, N. bracteata syrup (NBS was used for 4 weeks as three times a day. The efficacy of the drug regarding AR symptoms (rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal obstruction, itchy nose, and ocular symptoms were evaluated through a visual analog scale (VAS by 0–10 before administration and at the end of the whole treatment period. The collected information was entered in the SPSS software (version 18 and was analyzed using the Fisher's exact test, Chi-square test, independent sample t-test, and paired sample test. Results: The improvement of AR symptoms in the group receiving NBS was significantly higher compared to control group (4.73 ± 1.84 vs. 0.38 ± 2.06; P < 0.0001. Furthermore, the mean of total VAS before and after the treatment (in case group was 7.10 ± 1.92 and 2.37 ± 1.76, respectively (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that N. bracteata has significant effects on improving the symptoms of AR. Hence, it can be a good alternative to AR symptoms relief.

  10. Polyphenolic glycosides isolated from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. as novel influenza neuraminidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Cao, Wei; Deng, Chao; Wu, Zhaoquan; Zeng, Guangyao; Zhou, Yingjun

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is historically an ancient disease that causes annual epidemics and, at irregular intervals, pandemics. At present, the first-line drugs (oseltamivir and zanamivir) don't seem to be optimistic due to the spontaneously arising and spreading of oseltamivir resistance among influenza virus. Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (P. cablin) is an important traditional Chinese medicine herb that has been widely used for treatment on common cold, nausea and fever. In our previous study, we have identified an extract derived from P. cablin as a novel selective neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor. A series of polyphenolic compounds were isolated from P. cablin for their potential ability to inhibit neuraminidase of influenza A virus. Two new octaketides (1, 2), together with other twenty compounds were isolated from P. cablin. These compounds showed better inhibitory activity against NA. The significant potent compounds of this series were compounds 2 (IC50 = 3.87 ± 0.19 μ mol/ml), 11, 12, 14, 15, 19 and 20 (IC50 was in 2.12 to 3.87 μ mol/ml), which were about fourfold to doubled less potent than zanamivir and could be used to design novel influenza NA inhibitors, especially compound 2, that exhibit increased activity based on these compounds. With the help of molecular docking, we had a preliminary understanding of the mechanism of the two new compounds (1-2)' NA inhibitory activity. Fractions 6 and polyphenolic compounds isolated from fractions 6 showed higher NA inhibition than that of the initial plant exacts. The findings of this study indicate that polyphenolic compounds and fractions 6 derived from P. cablin are potential NA inhibitors. This work is one of the evidence that P. cablin has better inhibitory activity against influenza, which not only enriches the compound library of P. cablin, but also facilitates further development and promises its therapeutic potential for the rising challenge of influenza diseases.

  11. Antifungal Screening of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae Stem Bark Extract in Mouthwash Formulations

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    Aremu Olusola Isaac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae has been known for its use in the management of oral thrush ethnomedicinally in various parts of Africa, a practice which has been justified by results of certain scientific studies. The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate dosage formulation, a mouthwash and evaluate the antifungal potential of this dosage formulation against a major causative organism of oral thrush, Candida albicans. Extraction of the stem bark was carried out with boiled distilled water, the extract was formulated into mouthwashes at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%w/v. All formulations contained viscosity imparting agent, a sweetener and a preservative. Physical characterisation, viscosity, pH and palatability of the mouthwash formulations were determined. Agar-well diffusion method was used to assess antifungal activity of the formulations against Candida albicans and Nystatin oral suspension was used as reference compound. The results showed that Bridelia ferruginea stem bark extract mouthwash solutions were brown in colour, had agreeable odour and sweet astringent taste. The pH for all concentrations was in the range 5.41-5.63. The viscosity at spindle no 2, 60rpm range between 0.226-0.238 Pa.S for all concentrations studied. The formulations had antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The highest concentration (2.5%w/v gave mean zone of inhibition of 25.50±0.71mm that was comparable with Nystatin oral suspension 28.00±1.41mm, a reference compound. The foregoing suggests that with little modification in the formulation especially the adjustment of the pH, Bridellia ferruginea mouthwash solutions may be developed into commercially useful preparations.

  12. New anti-trypanosomal active tetracyclic iridoid isolated from Morinda lucida Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mitsuko; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kwofie, Kofi D; Adegle, Richard; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Sakyiamah, Maxwell; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffour-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Frempong, Kwadwo Kyereme; Anyan, William K; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Yamashita, Taizo; Aboagye, Frederic; Appiah, Alfred Ampomah; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yamaoka, Shoji; Yamaguchi, Yasuchika; Edoh, Dominic; Koram, Kwadwo; Ohta, Nobuo; Boakye, Daniel A; Ayi, Irene; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2015-08-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly known as sleeping sickness has remained a serious health problem in many African countries with thousands of new infected cases annually. Chemotherapy, which is the main form of control against HAT has been characterized lately by the viewpoints of toxicity and drug resistance issues. Recently, there have been a lot of emphases on the use of medicinal plants world-wide. Morinda lucida Benth. is one of the most popular medicinal plants widely distributed in Africa and several groups have reported on its anti-protozoa activities. In this study, we have isolated one novel tetracyclic iridoid, named as molucidin, from the CHCl3 fraction of the M. lucida leaves by bioassay-guided fractionation and purification. Molucidin was structurally elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR including HMQC, HMBC, H-H COSY and NOESY resulting in tetracyclic iridoid skeleton, and its absolute configuration was determined. We have further demonstrated that molucidin presented a strong anti-trypanosomal activity, indicating an IC50 value of 1.27 μM. The cytotoxicity study using human normal and cancer cell lines indicated that molucidin exhibited selectivity index (SI) against two normal fibroblasts greater than 4.73. Furthermore, structure-activity relationship (SAR) study was undertaken with molucidin and oregonin, which is identical to anti-trypanosomal active components of Alnus japonica. Overlapping analysis of the lowest energy conformation of molucidin with oregonin suggested a certain similarities of aromatic rings of both oregonin and molucidin. These results contribute to the future drug design studies for HAT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Laxative activities of Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae leaf aqueous extract in rats

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    Djaman Joseph A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae is a shrub that is commonly used in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa for the treatment of constipation and as an ocytocic drug. The present study was carried out to investigate the laxative activity of Mareya micrantha in albino's Wistar rats. Methods Rats were divided in 5 groups of 5 animals each, first group as control, second group served as standard (sodium picosulfate while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with leaf aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w., per os respectively. The laxative activity was determined based on the weight of the faeces matter. The effects of the leaves aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha and castor oil were also evaluated on intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation and ions secretion. Results Phytochemicals screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, sterols and polyterpenes. The aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha applied orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o., produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependant manner. The effect of the extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o. was similar to that of reference drug sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o. The same doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. produced a significant increase (p -, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the intestinal fluid (p Conclusions The results showed that the aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha has a significant laxative activity and supports its traditional use in herbal medicine.

  14. Preliminary assessment of AFLP fingerprinting of Rubus glaucus Benth. elite genotypes

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    Duarte Delgado Diana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth. is a promissory fruit crop for Colombia with potential to become an international commodity due to its high nutritional and nutraceutical value. Farmer genotypes from the national R. glaucus collection were selected from eight outstanding accessions according to their nutritional and agronomic value, for distribution among local producers. The goal of this work is to evaluate the genomic fingerprint by AFLP analysis of these elite genotypes using three primer combinations. From 179 total amplified loci produced by the three combinations, 20% resulted polymorphic. The EAGG/MCTT combination was the most informative with a 32% polymorphism and greater discrimination power. The genotypes tested showed a high average similarity (96% and the accessions San Antonio and ILS-1863 formed independent groups with good statistical support in the clustering analysis. The remaining accessions did not form discrete groups with good support (<50%, probably due to genetic homogeneity among them and/or low resolving power of markers. This study is one of the first attempts to generate a genomic fingerprint of these farmer elite genotypes for protection, seed certification and future support to breeding programs.

     

  15. Gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves against acute gastric lesion models in rodents

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    Hélio B Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkia platycephala Benth. (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae, popularly known as "visgueira", fava bean tree or "fava-de-bolota", is widely found in the Northern and Northeastern regions of Brazil. Its pods are used as cattle food supplement in the drought period. Compounds with a gastroprotective activity were obtained from the genus Parkia. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves (Pp-EtOH, as well as evaluating its possible mechanisms of action in experimental ulcer induction models. Lesions were induced by absolute ethanol, ethanol-HCl, ischemia-reperfusion and indomethacin in rodents. Pp-EtOH showed a protective effect in the lesion models (66, 48 and 52 %, respectively, but it was not able to protect gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced lesions. Results show a possible participation of the NO-synthase pathway in the gastroprotection and an antioxidant activity, by the increase of the catalase activity. The participation of prostaglandins and potassium channels sensitive to ATP in the gastroprotective effect of Pp-EtOH seems less likely to occur. More comprehensive studies, therefore, should be carried out to elucidate the antiulcerative effects of this promising natural product against this gastrointestinal disorder.

  16. Litterfall and nutrient dynamics in Acacia mangium (Mimosaceae) forest plantations of Antioquia, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos Barliza, Jeiner; Leon Pelaez, Juan Diego

    2010-01-01

    Fine litter production, nutrient return, nutrient resorption, and nutrient use efficiency were studied during one year in Acacia mangium forest plantations in mining gold degraded soils at the Bajo Cauca region of Colombia. annual fine litter production was estimated at 10.4 mg ha -1 and it was dominated by the leaf fraction (54%), followed by the reproductive material (24%) and to a lesser proportion by other debris (6%) and other species leaves (1.5%). the highest organic matter and nutrients returns were found on sites classified as high quality. Soil plowing realized previous Acacia mangium planting, did not show any significant effect on organic matter and nutrients returns. A. mangium leaf litter had a high N concentration and consequently, given the high leaf litter production values, it was found a high N return. By the opposite, leaf litter P content and P returns via litter fall were very low. The high values found for p retranslocation and P use efficiency indexes showed that P was the most limiting nutrient for the species. the high values of fine litter production and nutrient return via leaf litter indicate that A. mangium has a great capacity for degraded areas reclamation, as of the restoration of the biogeochemical cycles.

  17. Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of the seeds of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaby, Hassan E; Rayan, Ahmed M

    2016-06-01

    Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation as well as physicochemical and functional properties of seed flour of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 5.30% moisture, 3.99% ash, 9.19% fat, 14.31% fiber, 27.21% protein and 45.30% carbohydrates. Potassium was the predominant element followed by calcium and then phosphorous. Phytic acid, tannins and trypsin inhibitor as antinutrients were detected. The amino acid profile compared well with FAO/WHO recommended pattern except for cystine/methionine, isoleucine, tyrosine/phenylalanine, lysine and threonine. Also, the first limiting amino acid was lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that linoleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, stearic, oleic and arachidic acids. The seed oil showed absorbance in the ultraviolet ranges, thus it can be used as a broad spectrum UV protectant. For physicochemical and functional properties, acacia seeds flour had excellent water holding index, swelling index, foaming capacity and foam stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Responses to water stress of gas exchange and metabolites in Eucalyptus and Acacia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles R; Aranda, Ismael; Cano, F Javier

    2011-10-01

    Studies of water stress commonly examine either gas exchange or leaf metabolites, and many fail to quantify the concentration of CO₂ in the chloroplasts (C(c)). We redress these limitations by quantifying C(c) from discrimination against ¹³CO₂ and using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for leaf metabolite profiling. Five Eucalyptus and two Acacia species from semi-arid to mesic habitats were subjected to a 2 month water stress treatment (Ψ(pre-dawn) = -1.7 to -2.3 MPa). Carbohydrates dominated the leaf metabolite profiles of species from dry areas, whereas organic acids dominated the metabolite profiles of species from wet areas. Water stress caused large decreases in photosynthesis and C(c), increases in 17-33 metabolites and decreases in 0-9 metabolites. In most species, fructose, glucose and sucrose made major contributions to osmotic adjustment. In Acacia, significant osmotic adjustment was also caused by increases in pinitol, pipecolic acid and trans-4-hydroxypipecolic acid. There were also increases in low-abundance metabolites (e.g. proline and erythritol), and metabolites that are indicative of stress-induced changes in metabolism [e.g. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, photorespiration, phenylpropanoid pathway]. The response of gas exchange to water stress and rewatering is rather consistent among species originating from mesic to semi-arid habitats, and the general response of metabolites to water stress is rather similar, although the specific metabolites involved may vary. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. A green approach to prepare silver nanoparticles loaded gum acacia/poly(acrylate) hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, S K; Kumari, Mamta

    2015-09-01

    In this work, gum acacia (GA)/poly(sodium acrylate) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (Semi-IPN) have been fabricated via free radical initiated aqueous polymerization of monomer sodium acrylate (SA) in the presence of dissolved Gum acacia (GA), using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MB) as cross-linker and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator. The semi-IPNs, synthesized, were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The dynamic water uptake behavior of semi-IPNs was investigated and the data were interpreted by various kinetic models. The equilibrium swelling data were used to evaluate various network parameters. The semi-IPNs were used as template for the in situ preparation of silver nanoparticles using extract of Syzygium aromaticum (clove). The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, the antibacterial activity of GA/poly(SA)/silver nanocomposites was tested against E. coli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Physico-mechanical properties of plywood bonded with ecological adhesives from Acacia mollissima tannins and lignosulfonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhazi, Naima; Oumam, Mina; Sesbou, Abdessadek; Hannache, Hassan; Charrier-El Bouhtoury, Fatima

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this research was to develop ecological adhesives for bonding plywood panels using lignosulfonates, a common waste product of the wood pulp industry, and natural tannin extracted from Moroccan bark of Acacia mollissima using different process. Natural tannin and lignin were used in wood adhesives formulation to substitute resins based on phenol and formaldehyde. To achieve this, the lignosulfonates were glyoxalated to enhance their reactivity and the used tannins obtained by three different extraction methods were compared with commercial mimosa tannin. The proportion of Acacia mollissima tannins and lignosulfonates, the pressing time, the pressing temperature, and the pressure used were studied to improve mechanical properties, and bonding quality of plywood panel. The properties of plywood panels produced with these adhesives were tested in accordance with normative tests. Thus, the tensile strength, and the shear strength were measured. The results showed that the performance of the plywood panels made using biobased tannin adhesives was influenced by physical conditions such as pressure, press temperature as well as by chemical conditions, such as the tannin-lignin ratio. It exhibited excellent mechanical properties comparable to commercially available phenol-formaldehyde plywood adhesives. This study showed that biobased adhesives formulations presented good and higher mechanical performance and no formaldehyde emission. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  1. [Growth effect of eucalyptus-acacia mixed plantation in South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zeng-Jiang; Xu, Da-Ping; Chen, Wen-Ping; Huang, Lie-Jian; Li, Shang-Jun; Chen, Yuan

    2009-10-01

    Eucalyptus U6 and Acacia crassicarpa were mixed planted with different ratios and modes to investigate the growth parameters of the two tree species. In the 2-3 years old mixed plantation, the wind-throw of A. crassicarpa decreased markedly with increasing ratio of Eucalyptus U6, the decrement being 26.14% when the Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa ratio was 3 : 1, but the survival rates of Eucalyptus U6 and A. crassicarpa had no significant difference under different planting modes. Mixed planting retarded the A. crassicarpa growth to some extent, with the DBH being 90% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. The mixed planting had little effects on the height growth of Eucalyptus U6, but promoted its DBH growth markedly, and the beneficial effect increased with increasing ratio of A. crassicarpa. In the 6 years old 1 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa plantation, the Eucalyptus U6 individuals with DBH > 15 cm occupied 32.1%; while in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, they only accounted for 5.83%. Mixed planting with 2 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa could obtain a maximum total biomass of 198.8 m3 x hm(-2), which was 118.8% of the total biomass in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, or 169.9% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. Mixture of Eucalyptus with Acacia would be a good choice to produce Eucalyptus trees with larger DBH.

  2. Anatomical characters of the phyllode and stem of Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Fabaceae

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    M.R. Duarte

    Full Text Available The Acacia genus has presented various secondary metabolites, such as tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and gums. Preparations from different species have been applied for diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory diseases in the traditional medicine and have demonstrated cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Fabaceae is a small wood, indigenous to Australia and cultivated worldwide for its ornamental feature. This work aimed to characterize the anatomy of the phyllode and stem, in order to contribute to the species identification. The botanical material was fixed, sectioned and prepared according to usual light and scanning microtechniques. The epidermal cells, in surface view, are polygonal and coated with striate and thick cuticle, and filaments of epicuticular wax. Paracytic stomata and unicellular non-glandular trichomes are seen. Palisade and ground parenchymas, and minor collateral bundles with xylem directed alternately to upper and lower sides occur in the blade. The midrib shows two collateral bundles facing each other. The stem, in incipient secondary growth, exhibits epidermis, annular collenchyma, sclerenchymatic sheath and collateral vascular organization. Cells containing phenolic compounds and prisms of calcium oxalate are observed.

  3. Economics of mixed plantation of Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica for fuel in Agra ravines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, R.; Puri, D.N.; Singh, J.P.; Sharma, K.

    1984-09-01

    Economic analysis of the mixed plantation of Acacia nilotica (60%), Prosopis juliflora (20%) and miscellaneous species (20%) in severe ravine lands along the bank of river Yamuna at Agra, was carried out. The benefit-cost ratios of the first 15 years rotation at 10% and 15% discount rates were worked out to be 1.81 and 1.09, respectively with internal rate of return (IRR) of 16.2%. Twenty percent of the area covered with Prosopis juliflora in the first rotation coppiced profusely and was retained. The remaining area was resown with Prosopis juliflora. The benefit-cost ratios of the second rotation of seven years (Prosopis juliflora - 78% and miscellaneous species - 22%) worked out to be 1.61 and 1.40 at 10% and 15% discount rates having IRR of 27%. Both the rotations gave a favourable benefit-cost ratio which establishes the economic feasibility of raising mixed plantation of Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica in ravine lands whose opportunity cost is very low.

  4. Economic assessment and comparison of acacia energy crop with annual traditional crops in Southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasol, Carles M.; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier; Brun, Filippo; Mosso, Angela

    2010-01-01

    In several policy documents bioenergy is recognized as an important renewable energy source in Italy. The increase in energy prices represents an opportunity for lignocellulosic energy crops such as acacia and poplar. However, for Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) to be adopted by farmers, these crops must be perceived to be at least as profitable as crops that normally compete with these plantations for land use. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the economic feasibility of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) as an energy crop in a low input production regime in Italy and, in particular, to consider its competitiveness with wheat. Our results show that neither SRC and SRF techniques using assumed production costs (EUR3820 and EUR5285 ha -1 yr -1 ) nor biomass productions are able to obtain a positive profit (-EUR184 and -EUR172 ha -1 yr -1 ) that can convince farmers to invest in biomass plantations on their land. The results demonstrate that wheat is a more economically secure option than SRC or SRF. The viability of local biomass production in Italy and Southern Europe depends on the active support of the governments; without them, biomass is not economically competitive for the farmers when compared to crops such as wheat. (author)

  5. Ectomycorrhizal Communities Associated with the Legume Acacia spirorbis Growing on Contrasted Edaphic Constraints in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houles, Anne; Vincent, Bryan; David, Magali; Ducousso, Marc; Galiana, Antoine; Juillot, Farid; Hannibal, Laure; Carriconde, Fabian; Fritsch, Emmanuel; Jourand, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to characterize the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities associated with Acacia spirorbis, a legume tree widely spread in New Caledonia that spontaneously grows on contrasted edaphic constraints, i.e. calcareous, ferralitic and volcano-sedimentary soils. Soil geochemical parameters and diversity of ECM communities were assessed in 12 sites representative of the three mains categories of soils. The ectomycorrhizal status of Acacia spirorbis was confirmed in all studied soils, with a fungal community dominated at 92% by Basidiomycota, mostly represented by/tomentella-thelephora (27.6%), /boletus (15.8%), /sebacina (10.5%), /russula-lactarius (10.5%) and /pisolithus-scleroderma (7.9%) lineages. The diversity and the proportion of the ECM lineages were similar for the ferralitic and volcano-sedimentary soils but significantly different for the calcareous soils. These differences in the distribution of the ECM communities were statistically correlated with pH, Ca, P and Al in the calcareous soils and with Co in the ferralitic soils. Altogether, these data suggest a high capacity of A. spirorbis to form ECM symbioses with a large spectrum of fungi regardless the soil categories with contrasted edaphic parameters.

  6. Effect of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii on milk production and prolactin release in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lompo, Z.; Heide, van der D.; Beek, van der E.M.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Mattheij, J.A.M.; Sawadogo, L.

    2004-01-01

    In view of the traditional belief that Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii (AN) can stimulate milk production in lactating women, experiments were performed to determine the effect of an aqueous extract of AN on milk production in rats. Female rats that received oral doses of aqueous extract of this plant

  7. Cryptic speciation and host specificity among Mycosphaerella spp. occurring on Australian Acacia species grown as exotics in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Pongpanich, K.; Himaman, W.; Arzanlou, M.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Species of Mycosphaerella and their anamorphs represent serious pathogens of two phyllodenous species of Acacia, A. mangium and A. crassicarpa. In recent years, these fungi have been collected during surveys in South America and South-East Asia, where these trees are widely planted as exotics. In

  8. Antibacterial Activities and Possible Modes of Action of Acacia nilotica (L. Del. against Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bilal Sadiq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are frequently used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and mode of action of Acacia nilotica and the antibiogram patterns of foodborne and clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The mechanism of action of acacia extracts against E. coli and Salmonella was elucidated by observing morphological damages including cell integrity and cell membrane permeability, as well as changes in cell structures and growth patterns in kill-time experiments. The clinical isolates of E. coli and Salmonella were found resistant to more of the tested antibiotics, compared to food isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of acacia leaf extracts were in the ranges of 1.56–3.12 mg/mL and 3.12–6.25 mg/mL, respectively, whereas pods and bark extracts showed somewhat higher values of 3.12–6.25 mg/mL and 6.25–12.5 mg/mL, respectively, against all tested pathogens. The release of electrolytes and essential cellular constituents (proteins and nucleic acids indicated that acacia extracts damaged the cellular membrane of the pathogens. These changes corresponded to simultaneous reduction in the growth of viable bacteria. This study indicates that A. nilotica can be a potential source of new antimicrobials, effective against antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens.

  9. A flavanone: 6, 7-dihydroxy-3, 5-dimethy I-4, methoxyflavone from the pods of acacia nilotica var astringens (sunt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A. A.; Abdel Karim, M.; Abdalla, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    A flavanone 6,7-dihydroxy-3, 5-dimethyl-4-methoxyflavone was isolated from the alcoholic extractives of the pods of acacia nilotica var astringens and structure was deduced on the basis of its IR, UV, NMR and mass spectra.(Author)

  10. Amenability of Acacia and Eucalyptus Hardwood Pulps to Elemental Chlorine-Free Bleaching: Application and Efficacy of Microbial Xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdhesh Kumar Gangwar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study outlines the results of a biobleaching study of acacia (A. mangium and eucalyptus (E. globulus hardwood kraft pulps with commercial xylanase (Optimase CX 72 L. The comparative study was carried out using an elemental chlorine-free (ECF bleaching sequence (D0EPD1D2 after the enzyme (X stage. The enzyme treatment resulted in improved optical properties with a reduction in bleach chemical consumption. At an equivalent bleach chemical consumption, a brightness gain of 2.1 and 1.7 units and a whiteness gain of 2.7 and 2.3 units were observed with xylanase treatment in acacia and eucalyptus pulps, respectively. In ECF bleaching using the D0EPD1D2 sequence, a final brightness was achieved to the extent of 90% ISO and 89% ISO for acacia and eucalyptus, respectively, at an equivalent charge of bleach chemicals. The post-color (PC number was also reduced by up to 45% for both hardwood pulps compared with the control. The bleachability of acacia was observed to be significantly higher than that of eucalyptus. In addition, a 17.0% and 23.0% reduction in chlorine dioxide and sodium hydroxide, respectively, were obtained for both hardwood pulps after xylanase pre-bleaching, thus indicating an environmentally friendly approach to the process.

  11. Passive restoration augments active restoration in deforested landscapes: the role of root suckering adjacent to planted stands of Acacia koa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Justin T. Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Active forest restoration in Hawaii’s Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge has produced a network of Acacia koa tree corridors and islands in deforested grasslands. Passive restoration by root suckering has potential to expand tree cover and close gaps between planted stands. This study documents rates of encroachment into grassland, clonal...

  12. Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana tree on wheat and barley yield in the south of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumi, Zouhaier; Abdallah, Fathia; Torre, Franck; Michalet, Richard; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan colonised thousands of hectares in central and southern Tunisia. Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is restricted to the National Park of Bou-Hedma (central Tunisia). The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is known to facilitate the establishment of new species, but little is known about the interaction between the tree species and the cereals cultivated by local farmers. We studied the effect of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana canopy on the yield of three cereals crops ( Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum sativum L. and Triticum aestivum L.). We seeded 168 plots (15 × 15 m) under the tree canopy and in open areas on four different landform types (glacis, plain, wadis, and jessours) and measured cereal yield over two contrasting years (wet and dry). We found that: (1) precipitation and geomorphology are more important in determining cereal yield than canopy cover, (2) these effects on water availability are species-specific with no effect on the stress-tolerant barley. We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study.

  13. Pollination Biology and Spatio-Temporal Structuring of Some Major Acacia Species (Leguminosae) of the Arabian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adgaba, N.; Alghamidi, A.; Tadesse, Y.; Getachew, A.; Ansari, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Acacias are the dominant woody plant species distributed over the vast tracts of land throughout the Arabian Peninsula. However, information on spatio-temporal structuring and pollination biology of the species is not precisely available. To determine whether any variations exist among the Acacia species in their temporal distribution, their flowering period was determined through monitoring the commencing, peaking and ending of flowering of each species. Moreover, if any variations exist in release of floral rewards among the different co-existing and co-flowering species as mechanisms of partitioning of pollinators, to minimize competition for pollination, the progress of their anthesis over time was recorded by scoring polyads to anthers ratio at different hours of a day. In addition, the amount and dynamics of nectar sugar per inflorescence (N =225/species) was determined following flower nectar sugar washing technique. Types and frequencies of flower visitors and their preferences were determined by recording the visitors 6 times a day. The current study revealed that the Acacia species of the Arabian Peninsula are spatio-temporally structured: some species co-exist yet have different flowering seasons, whereas others co-exist, flowering concurrently yet exhibit a shift in their time of peak flowering and in the time at which the peak pollen is released during the day. This study demonstrates that all Acacia species examined secrete a considerable amount of nectar (2.24+-1.72 -10.02+-4.0mg/inflorescence) which serves as a floral reward for pollinators. Insects of the Order Hymenoptera are the most prevalent visitors to Acacia species in the region. The variations in spatio-temporal structuring of the Acaciaspecies could be due to their adaptation of reducing competition for pollinators and minimizing hetero-specific pollen transfer. (author)

  14. Mapping invasive alien Acacia dealbata Link using ASTER multispectral imagery: a case study in central-eastern of Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, F.; Alegria, C.; Artur, G.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Acacia dealbata is an alien invasive species that is widely spread in Portugal. The main goal of this study was to produce an accurate and detailed map for this invasive species using ASTER multispectral imagery. Area of study: The central-eastern zone of Portugal was used as study area. This whole area is represented in an ASTER scene covering about 321.1 x 103 ha. Material and methods: ASTER imagery of two dates (flowering season and dry season) were classified by applying three supervised classifiers (Maximum Likelihood, Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Networks) to five different land cover classifications (from most generic to most detailed land cover categories). The spectral separability of the land cover categories was analyzed and the accuracy of the 30 produced maps compared. Main results: The highest classification accuracy for acacia mapping was obtained using the flowering season imagery, the Maximum Likelihood classifier and the most detailed land cover classification (overall accuracy of 86%; Kappa statistics of 85%; acacia class Kappa statistics of 100%). As a result, the area occupied by acacia was estimated to be approximated 24,770 ha (i.e. 8% of the study area). Research highlights: The methodology explored proved to be a cost-effective solution for acacia mapping in central-eastern of Portugal. The obtained map enables a more accurate and detailed identification of this species’ invaded areas due to its spatial resolution (minimum mapping unit of 0.02 ha) providing a substantial improvement comparably to the existent national land cover maps to support monitoring and control activities. (Author)

  15. Estudo das folhas e caule de Hyptidendron canum(Pohl ex Benth. Harley, Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Fiuza

    Full Text Available Hyptidendron canum (Pohl ex Benth. Harley, Lamiaceae, é utilizada popularmente como antimalárica, antiinflamatória, antiulcerativa, anti-hepatotóxica e anticancerígena. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o estudo morfo-anatômico das folhas e caules e identificar as principais classes de metabólitos secundários presentes nas folhas de H. canum, dados ainda não descritos na literatura. As folhas e caules jovens coletados em Goiânia (GO foram seccionados à mão livre e preparados para análise microscópica. Foram realizadas reações de identificação de metabólitos secundários do material dessecado e pulverizado. Preparou-se o extrato etanólico bruto, que posteriormente foi fracionado por partição líquido-líquido com hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila. As frações foram submetidas à análise cromatográfica em camada delgada (CCD. As lâminas foliares apresentam epiderme adaxial constituída por células poligonais com parede reta. Na epiderme abaxial observam-se células com parede reta a ondulada e estômatos diacíticos e anisocíticos. Tricomas tectores e glandulares estão presente em ambas as faces da lâmina foliar. O pecíolo apresenta aspecto canaletado, epiderme adaxial e abaxial unisseriada. O caule, em secção transversal possui contorno em geral quadrangular, com presença de tricomas tectores e glandulares. As reações e a CCD das folhas evidenciaram a presença de flavonóides, saponinas, terpenos e lignanas. Este trabalho contribuiu para um maior conhecimento da morfo-anatomia e das classes químicas presentes em H. canum.

  16. Escarificación artificial y natural de la semilla de Lupinus bilineatus Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de Lupinus colonizan áreas incendiadas y fijan N. En otros países las especies de este género se emplean en plantaciones forestales y sistemas agroforestales. Sus semillas presentan latencia física. En el presente estudio se realizó el análisis de semillas y se evaluó la germinación de Lupinus bilineatus Benth. considerando los siguientes factores y niveles: escarificación (natural: fuego, humo; artificial: inmersión en ácido sulfúrico durante 10, 20, 30 y 40 min y control, régimen de temperatura día/noche en cámaras de ambiente controlado (15/10, 20/15, 25/20, 30/25 °C y luz (con y sin. El diseño experimental fue en bloques al azar, con los bloques anidados dentro del factor temperatura. Se realizó un análisis de varianza mixto (con el procedimiento mixto de SAS y la prueba de Tukey. La pureza fue 97.1 %, el peso 66,666.7 semillas·kg-1, el contenido de humedad (base anhidra 7.1 % y la viabilidad 98 % (prueba de tetrazolio. Para la germinación, resultó significativa (P=0.0101 la interacción entre tratamiento escarificatorio, temperatura y luz. La máxima germinación (82.5 % se registró para semilla escarificada químicamente durante 30 o 40 min, a 25/20 °C y con luz. A mayor tiempo de escarificación química, mayor porcentaje de germinación. A 20/15 °C y con luz, la germinación posterior a la escarificación con fuego (38.5 % superó al control (18.5 %. Generalmente el control mostró valores de germinación menores a 30 % en los diferentes tratamientos, denotando latencia física con diferentes intensidades en el lote. Destaca la eficiencia de la escarificación química para cesar la latencia.

  17. Antitrypanosomal activity of Verbascum sinaiticum Benth. (Scrophulariaceae) against Trypanosoma congolense isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergia, Ermias; Shibeshi, Workineh; Terefe, Getachew; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun

    2016-09-15

    African Trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with a large impact on the livelihood of the rural poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. The available drugs for managing this disease are old, expensive and are facing the problem of drug resistance. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo antitrypanosomal efficacy of aqueous and absolute methanol leaf extracts of Verbascum sinaiticum Benth. against Trypanosoma congolense field isolate. Verbascum sinaiticum (Local name 'qetetina') is a biennial plant, and 60-150 cm tall. It is traditionally used to treat wound, stomachache, viral infection, cancer, sunstroke, fever, abdominal colic, diarrhea, hemorrhage, anthrax, and hepatitis. The efficacy of aqueous and absolute methanol leaf extracts of V. sinaiticum was evaluated in a randomized experiment with Swiss albino mice infected with T. congolense field isolate. The extracts were administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection for seven days at 12 Days Post-Infection (DPI) when the peak parasitaemia level was approximately 10(8) trypanosomes/ml. Parasitaemia, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), mean survival time and change in body weight were used as indices for monitoring the efficacy of the extracts. Diminazene (28 mg/kg) was used as a positive control while 2 % Tween was used as the negative control. Phytochemicals screening were conducted following standard methods. The extracts showed no toxicity effect in Swiss albino mice and had LD50 above 2000 mg/kg. The phytochemicals screened in V. sinaiticum were alkaloids, flavonoids, glycoside, saponins, steroids, phenolic compounds, and tannins. The mice treated with absolute methanol leaf extract of V. sinaiticum at 400 mg/kg dose had significantly lower mean parasitaemia (7.20 ± 0.16) (p < 0.001) as compared to the negative control group (8.82 ± 0.12) on day 14 of treatment. Animals treated with the same dose had significant (p < 0.001) higher PCV value and body

  18. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.

  19. GANANCIA GENÉTICA ESPERADA EN Acacia mangium EN LOS CHILES, ZONA NORTE DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjam\\u00EDn Pavlotzky-Blank

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganancia genética esperada en Acacia mangium en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica. Con el objetivo de seleccionar los materiales de mayor crecimiento y calidad de fuste en Acacia mangium, se evaluó un ensayo de progenie de Acacia mangium Willd. conformado por veinticinco familias. El ensayo fue establecido en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica, en 2006 con evaluaciones en el 2007 y en 2010. Se utilizó material genético seleccionado por la Cooperativa de Conservación y Mejoramiento Genético Forestal "GENFORES", en Costa Rica y Colombia. Cada familia estuvo representada por 48 progenies, plantadas en cuatro parejas distribuidas en forma aleatoria dentro de cada uno de los seis bloques del ensayo. Se evaluó el diámetro a la altura de pecho "DAP", incremento en DAP, adaptabilidad al sitio, número de trozas comerciales, bifurcación, altura de bifurcación, calidad de las primeras cuatro trozas. Se determinó el volumen de madera comercial por árbol y hectárea. Los datos fueron analizados por medio del software SELEGEN de EMBRAPA para obtener los parámetros genéticos. Todos los caracteres registraron valores de heredabilidad media familiar superiores a 0,68. Si se seleccionaran los dos mejores individuos dentro de las mejores doce familias, se obtendría una ganancia genética del 40,8% en volumen comercial/ha a los cuatro años de edad. Esta ganancia corresponde a un volumen comercial de 91,65 m3/ha, a una tasa de 22,9 m3/ha/año. Las dos procedencias derivadas de Colombia son signifi cativamente superiores a los demás materiales evaluados. El análisis de correlación genética entre caracteres muestra que la tasa de crecimiento diamétrico se expresa desde temprana edad en esta especie, lo que podría ser utilizado a futuro en una selección a menor edad.

  20. Influence of Acacia trees on soil nutrient levels in arid lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boever, Maarten; Gabriels, Donald; Ouessar, Mohamed; Cornelis, Wim

    2014-05-01

    The potential of scattered trees as keystone structures in restoring degraded environments is gaining importance. Scattered trees have strong influence on their abiotic environment, mainly causing changes in microclimate, water budget and soil properties. They often function as 'nursing trees', facilitating the recruitment of other plants. Acacia raddiana is such a keystone species which persists on the edge of the Sahara desert. The study was conducted in a forest-steppe ecosystem in central Tunisia where several reforestation campaigns with Acacia took place. To indentify the impact of those trees on soil nutrients, changes in nutrient levels under scattered trees of three age stages were examined for the upper soil layer (0-10 cm) at five microsites with increasing distance from the trunk. In addition, changes in soil nutrient levels with depth underneath and outside the canopy were determined for the 0-30 cm soil layer. Higher concentrations of organic matter (OM) were found along the gradient from underneath to outside the canopy for large trees compared to medium and small trees, especially at microsites close to the trunk. Levels of soluble K, electrical conductivity (EC), available P, OM, total C and N decreased whereas pH and levels of soluble Mg increased with increasing distance from tree. Levels of soluble Ca and Na remained unchanged along the gradient. At the microsite closest to the trunk a significant decrease in levels of soluble K, EC, OM, available P, total C and N, while a significant increase in pH was found with increasing depth. The concentration of other nutrients remained unchanged or declined not differently underneath compared to outside the canopy with increasing depth. Differences in nutrient levels were largely driven by greater inputs of organic matter under trees. Hence, Acacia trees can affect the productivity and reproduction of understory species with the latter in term an important source of organic matter. This positive feedback

  1. Algunas propiedades físico-mecánicas y de trabajabilidad de la Acacia melanoxylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Correcha R.

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra los resultados obtenidos de las propiedades físicas como: gravedad especifica anhidra, seca al aire y en estado verde; densidad verde, seca al aire, anhidra y básica; y contracciones radial, tangencial y volumétrica. Propiedades mecánicas tales como: flexión estática en estado verde y seca al aire, compresión paralela al grano en estado verde y seca al aire. Además ensayos de trabajabilidad de cepillado, moldurado, taladrado y torneado de la Acacia melanoxylon. Se usaron metodologías establecidas por ASTM, ICONTEC y COPANT. Estos ensayos se realizaron en los laboratorios del Instituto de Ensayos e Investigación (IEI de la facultad de Ingenleria, Universidad Nacional de Bogotá.

  2. Soil recovery after removal of the N2-fixing invasive Acacia longifolia: consequences for ecosystem restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise Helene; Struwe, Sten

    2009-01-01

    Invasion by Acacia longifolia alters soil characteristics and processes. The present study was conducted to determine if the changes in soil C and N pools and processes induced by A. longifolia persist after its removal, at the São Jacinto Dunes Nature Reserve (Portugal). Some areas had been...... invaded for a long time (>20 years) and others more recently (Soil samples...... decrease (>54% and >95%, respectively) after removal of both A. longifolia and litter. Our results suggest that after removal of an N2-fixing invasive tree that changes ecosystem-level processes, it takes several years before soil nutrients and processes return to pre-invasion levels, but this legacy...

  3. Water use efficiency studies of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd provenances in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, A F; Elamin, K H [Forestry Research Section, Wad Medani (Sudan); Salih, A A [Soil Science Section, Wad Medani (Sudan)

    1996-07-01

    An experiment was conducted in 1989 to screen Acacia senegal L. Willd provenances collected from within the natural gum belt for high water use efficiency. Thirteen provenances were tested for water use efficiency and consequently 6 out of them were selected for further screening. The selection was based on their performance in the preliminary screening. Both the preliminary and the detailed study revealed that provenances 7, 3 and 11 combine high dry matter production with high water use efficiency. Water use efficiency and dry matter production appears to be negatively correlated with root length density and root/shoot ratios. Provenances 7 which exhibited the highest water use efficiency and dry matter yield had the lowest root/shoot ratio and also a low root length density. Based on these studies provenance 7 can be considered a suitable candidate for introduction into gum-belt of Sudan through for rehabilitation of this region. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Anti-free radical activities of kaempferol isolated from Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex. Del.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajbir; Singh, Bikram; Singh, Sukhpreet; Kumar, Neeraj; Kumar, Subodh; Arora, Saroj

    2008-12-01

    In the present study the polyphenolic compound has been isolated from methanol extract of Acacia nilotica Willd. Ex. Del. which has been identified as kaempferol (AN-5) by NMR and mass spectroscopy. The antioxidant potential of the AN-5 was demonstrated in several in vitro assays: measuring the proton radical scavenging activity (DPPH scavenging assay), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (deoxyribose degradation assay), metal chelating activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. It was found that the effect of the compound AN-5 was strongly dose dependent up to the concentrations 1-50 microg/ml in DPPH assay and 1-100 microg/ml in deoxyribose degradation assay but did not show further change above the highest concentrations.

  5. Water use efficiency studies of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd provenances in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, A.F.; Elamin, K.H.; Salih, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in 1989 to screen Acacia senegal L. Willd provenances collected from within the natural gum belt for high water use efficiency. Thirteen provenances were tested for water use efficiency and consequently 6 out of them were selected for further screening. The selection was based on their performance in the preliminary screening. Both the preliminary and the detailed study revealed that provenances 7, 3 and 11 combine high dry matter production with high water use efficiency. Water use efficiency and dry matter production appears to be negatively correlated with root length density and root/shoot ratios. Provenances 7 which exhibited the highest water use efficiency and dry matter yield had the lowest root/shoot ratio and also a low root length density. Based on these studies provenance 7 can be considered a suitable candidate for introduction into gum-belt of Sudan through for rehabilitation of this region. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  6. PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT OF Mimosa scabrella BENTH. AND Eucalyptus viminalis LAB. FENCE POSTS BY DIP-DIFFUSION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to compare the diffusion of CCB preservative in bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth. and Eucalyptus viminalis Lab. round fence posts when exposed to dip-diffusion method. The pieces were submitted to the concentration of 2; 3.5 and 5% of active ingredients of “Osmose CCB” commercial preservative, during 2, 5 and 8 days. The penetration was analyzed in six positions in the pieces and the retention in three positions in the disks taken in ground contact area in the fence posts fitted out. The increase of treatment time and preservative concentration provided significant gains on penetration and retention of CCB for both tree species. In the work conditions, the eucalypt fence posts showed better response to the treatment.

  7. Caracterização farmacognóstica da espécie Erythrina falcata Benth., Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Eustáquio Almeida

    Full Text Available Erythrina falcata Benth., Fabaceae, conhecida popularmente no Brasil pelos nomes de mulungu, sapatinho-de-judeu, corticeira-da-serra, muchoco, é usada pela população como planta medicinal indicada como sedativo, ansiolítico ou para doenças do aparelho respiratório. Seu uso indiscriminado, no entanto, pode trazer consequências graves à saúde, devido à forte presença de alcaloides, particularmente nas sementes e na casca. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estudos fitoquímicos para identificação dos principais grupos de substâncias existentes na espécie, além de estudos morfológicos e histológicos para diferenciação entre outras espécies do gênero.

  8. In vitro biological activity of Salvia leriifolia benth essential oil relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Menichini, Federica; Tundis, Rosa; Bonesi, Marco; Conforti, Filomena; Nadjafi, Farsad; Statti, Giancarlo Antonio; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Menichini, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    In this study the chemical composition, cholinesterase inhibitory property and anti-inflammatory activity of S. leriifolia Benth. essential oil was evaluated for the first time. GC and GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of camphor (10.5%), 1,8-cineole (8.6%), camphene (6.2%) and alpha-pinene (4.7%) as main constituents. S. leriifolia oil exhibited a promising antioxidant activity by DPPH assay with an IC(50) 2.26 microL/mL. Interesting cholinesterase inhibitory activity was also found with IC(50) values of 0.32 and 0.29 microL/mL for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrrylcholinesterase (BChE), respectively. Moreover, this oil inhibited LPS-induced NO production with an IC(50) value of 165 microg/mL. The absence of cytotoxicity at 1000 microg/mL was evaluated by MTT assay in 142BR cells.

  9. Pharmacological activities and medicinal properties of endemic Moroccan medicinal plant Origanum compactum (Benth and their main compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim Bouyahya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Oregano [Origanum compactum Benth. (O. compactum, Lamiaceae] is an endemic Moroccan medicinal herb. It is used traditionally to fight against several disorders such as diarrhea, urolithiasis, hypertension, diabetes, and inflammation. A large number of components have been identified and isolated from the essential oil of this plant. Carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene and γ-Terpinene are among the more compounds presented in O. compactum essential oil and considered to be the main biologically active components. Numerous experimental studies showed that O. compactum organic extracts, essentials oil and its main compounds possess a broader spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and anticancer activity. The present review attempts to give an overview of pharmacological studies of O. compactum and its major compounds.

  10. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE SABIÁ (MIMOSA CAESALPINIAEFOLIA BENTH. E ALGAROBA (PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (SW DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Barros Torres

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da temperatura e do substrato sobre a germinação de sementes de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (SW DC em condições de laboratório. Foram testadas as temperaturas de 25°C e 30°C constantes e 20-30°C alternadas em substratos de papel toalha, papel mata-borrão e areia. O melhor resultado de germinação para as sementes de sabiá foi obtido com a temperatura de 20-30°C em substrato de papel mata-borrão e a mesma temperatura em substrato de areia, para sementes de algaroba.

  11. plantio de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl. na Flona Mário Xavier, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Marques Fernandes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated litter production and decomposition in areas of spontaneous secondary forest, sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. and andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl. plantation. For litter contribution evaluation, 10 conical collectors were installed, and the contribution was evaluated from October, 2003 to September, 2004. N, P and K contents were quantified in litter. To evaluate decomposition, rate litter bags method was used. In the andiroba plantation area, it was observed the higher litter amount 9,20 Mg ha-1, followed by the sabia plantation with 9,06 Mg ha-1 and spontaneous secondary forest 7,63 Mg ha-1. Sabiá and andiroba litter presented larger nitrogen and phosphorus values in relation to the secondary forest area. Litter decomposition rate was faster in sabiá and andiroba areas. This behavior might be influenced by larger nitrogen content in the litter. Phosphorus was the nutrient that presented the higher liberation rate.

  12. Acacia saligna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-07-07

    Jul 7, 2008 ... flow reduction through incremental water use (additional water use compared to ... Materials and methods. A one-year field ... within the boundaries planned for clearing by. WfW and free of human activities, except occa- sional cattle .... sity, porosity and soil water retention characteristics of undis- turbed soil ...

  13. Effects of chopping, and soaking in water, hydrochloric acidic and calcium hydroxide solutions on the nutritional value of Acacia villosa for goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wina, E. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)]. E-mail: winabudi@yahoo.com; Tangendjaja, B.; Susana, I.W.R. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)

    2005-08-19

    Acacia villosa, a thornless shrub legume, has potential as a feed supplement for ruminants if anti-nutritional factors, especially tannins, can be overcome. The effects of chopping and soaking the leaves on the amounts of tannin in the extracting solution and that left in the recovered leaves were studied. The tannin and non-tannin phenolics were solubilized in the extracting solution and the amount was increased with the soaking time. Soaking in calcium hydroxide solution, hydrochloric acid or water removed 41-76% of tannin and total phenolics removed from the recovered leaves. Soaking of the leaves also removed fermentable materials and reduced the gas production. In the first of two digestibility experiments, three groups of goats received one of these diets, those were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia leaves (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) and (3) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) + 100 g/day of cassava flour. Live weight of goats was measured every 2 weeks and a large increase in average daily gain was obtained for goats fed diet containing water soaked leaves and cassava flour (71 g/day) compared to those fed diet containing unsoaked leaves and water soaked leaves (38.9 and 44.7 g/day, respectively) (P < 0.05). In the second digestibility experiment, the three diets were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops water soaked Acacia (7:3), (3) sugar cane tops: calcium hydroxide soaked Acacia (7:3). A supplement of 100 g/day of cassava flour was added to each of these three diets. In both digestibility experiments, soaking improved intake and digestibility of Acacia leaves, and cassava flour increased the intake, but when all the diets contained cassava flour, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) found in intake or digestibility between unsoaked and soaked leaves. In conclusion, soaking reduced tannin in Acacia leaves, improved digestibility and intake of Acacia leaves. In the

  14. Morpho-physiological response of Acacia auriculiformis as influenced by seawater induced salinity stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, A.; Rahman, M.; Nihad, S.A.I.; Howlader, R.A.; Akand, M.H.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: To evaluate the morpho-physiological changes of Acacia auriculiformis in response to seawater induced salinity stress along with its tolerance limit. Area of study: Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Bangladesh. Material and methods: Three saline treatments (4, 8, 12 dS m-1) were applied to six-month aged Acacia auriculiformis seedlings from January 2014 to June 2014 and the tap water was used as control treatment. To observe salinity effects, the following parameters were measured by using various established techniques: plant height and leaf number, plant biomass, shoot and root distribution as well as shoot and root density, water uptake capacity (WUC), water saturation deficit (WSD) and water retention capacity (WRC), exudation rate, and cell membrane stability. Main results: Diluted seawater caused a notable reduction in shoot and root distribution in addition to shoot and root density, though plant height, leaf number and plant biomass were found to be decreased to some extent compared to control plants. Water status of the plant also altered when plants were subjected to salinity stress. Nevertheless, membrane stability revealed good findings towards salinity tolerance. Research highlights: Considering the above facts, despite salinity exerts some negative effects on overall plant performance, interestingly the percent reduction value doesn’t exceed 50% as compared to control plants, and the plants were successful to tolerate salinity stress till the end of the experiment (150 days) through adopting some tolerance mechanisms. Abbreviations used: BSMRAU (Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University); RCBD (randomized complete block design); DATI (days after treatment imposition); RWC (relative water content); WUC (water uptake capacity); WSD (water saturation deficit); WRC (water retention capacity); FW (fresh weight); DW (dry weight); TW (turgid weight); ROS (reactive oxygen species). (Author)

  15. The Spatial Suitable Habitat Model of Acacia decurrens in Mount Merbabu National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Untoro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Green wattle (Acacia decurrens is an invasive alien species (IAS found in the Mount Merbabu National Park (TNGMb. This study aim to obtain spatially studies on habitat suitability models of A. decurrens in TNGMb region. In fact, this species became as a high invasive and dominance in the TNGMb and contributes the negative impact to the ecosystem. In addition, the result of this study should be useful for controling activities of A. decurrens. Predictor variables in this research were (altitude, slope, rainfall, air temperature, distance from river, NDVI, NDMI, distance from hiking trail, and distance from burnt area. The survey was conducted with random sampling of presence or absence of A. decurrens by marking the coordinate point of location using GPS. Data analysis in this research was used binary logistic regression enter method. Binary logistic regression involves the data acquisition of the presence and absence of A. decurrens as the y variable, while the predictor variable map as the variable x. The type of spatial distribution of A. decurrens in the TNGMb was identified as clumped. The Nagelkerke R2 values obtained in the model was 39,2%, while 60,8% was explained by other variables were not used in the model. The results of the logistic regression model showed a high percentage of suitability of 64,29%, a medium suitability of 28,57%, and a low suitability of 7.14% then the Implications for controlling activities of A. decurrens in TNGMb could be prioritized in high suitability habitat. Keywords: Acacia decurrens, green wattle, invasive, spatial suitable habitat 

  16. Salt tolerance traits increase the invasive success of Acacia longifolia in Portuguese coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Maria Cristina; Panuccio, Maria Rosaria; Muscolo, Adele; Freitas, Helena

    2012-06-01

    Salt tolerance of two co-occurring legumes in coastal areas of Portugal, a native species--Ulex europaeus, and an invasive species--Acacia longifolia, was evaluated in relation to plant growth, ion content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Plants were submitted to four concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) for three months, under controlled conditions. The results showed that NaCl affects the growth of both species in different ways. Salt stress significantly reduced the plant height and the dry weight in Acacia longifolia whereas in U. europaeus the effect was not significant. Under salt stress, the root:shoot ratio (W(R):W(S)) and root mass ratio (W(R):W(RS)) increased as a result of increasing salinity in A. longifolia but the same was not observed in U. europaeus. In addition, salt stress caused a significant accumulation of Na+, especially in U. europaeus, and a decrease in K+ content and K+/Na+ ratio. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in A. longifolia compared to U. europaeus. In A. longifolia, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2.) activities increased significantly, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7) activities remained unchanged in comparison with the control. In U. europaeus, NaCl concentration significantly reduced APX activity but did not significantly affect CAT, GR and POX activities. Our results suggest that the invasive species copes better with salinity stress in part due to a higher rates of CAT and GR activities and a higher K+/Na+ ratio, which may represent an additional advantage when competing with native species in co-occurring salty habitats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Induction of leafy galls in Acacia mearnsii De Wild seedlings infected by Rhodococcus fascians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Quoirin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Plantlets of blackwattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild were inoculated with the bacterium Rhodococcus fascians and cultured in vitro. Leafy galls appeared at the cotyledonary nodes in 75% of the infected plants. The galls were separated from the plants and cultured on a medium containing three-quarters-strength MS salts (Murashige and Skoog, 1962, MS vitamins, 2% sucrose and an antibiotic (cephalothin, supplemented with or without 0.2% activated charcoal. Histological studies conducted from the sixth to the twenty-second day after plant infection revealed the presence of newly formed meristematic centers, first in the axillary region, then on the petioles and lamina of the leaflets around the apical meristem. Approximately 37% of the galls developed one shoot with both concentrations of cephalothin.Plantas recém germinadas de acácia negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. foram inoculadas com a bactéria Rhodococcus fascians e cultivadas in vitro. Galhas cobertas por folhas apareceram na altura do nó cotiledonar em 75% das plantas infectadas. As galhas foram separadas das plantas e cultivadas num meio de cultura contendo os sais do meio MS (Murashige e Skoog, 1962 reduzidos a 3/4, as vitaminas do mesmo meio, 2% de sacarose e um antibiótico (cefalotina, adicionado ou não de 0,2% de carvão ativo. Estudos histológicos realizados entre o sexto e o vigésimo segundo dia depois da inoculação, revelaram a presença de centros meristemáticos novos, primeiro nas regiões axilares, em seguida nos pecíolos e limbos dos folíolos ao redor do meristema apical. Aproximadamente 37% das galhas desenvolveram um broto na presença de cefalotina.

  18. Canker and decline caused by Neofusiccocum parvum on Acacia melanoxylon in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidoti A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2012, in reforested areas of Peloritani Mountains (Sicily, Italy a severe dieback of Acacia melanoxylon R. Brown was observed. The main symptoms on both young and adults plants consisted of elongated cankers on the trunks and epicormic shoots, wilt of the canopy and dieback interested mostly aged trees. The woody tissues showed browning beyond the cankers. Sapwood and heartwood appeared decayed with a brown to gray-greenish discoloration. One fungal species was consistently isolated from infected woody tissues, which was morphologically attributed to Neofusiccocum sp. The sequencing of the ITS regions of a representative isolate allowed to identify (99% similarity the species Neofusiccocum parvum (Pennycook & Samuels Crous, Slippers and Phillips, teleomorph Botryosphaeria parva Pennycook & Samuels. The pathogenicity tests have reproduced symptoms similar to those observed in the field. N. parvum is the aetiologic agent of mortality of australian blackwood observed in Sicily and to our knowledge this is the first report of this fungus on Acacia melanoxylon. It is a generalist pathogen, cosmopolitan, present in many temperate areas, Mediterranean and subtropical. The older Peloritani Mountains populations of australian blackwood seem particularly susceptible to the pathogen, the latter favored by the lack of silvicultural interventions that generate interspecific and intraspecific competition, as well as the increase and spread of the fungus. To minimize the consequential damage is necessary to adopt sanitation measures that would lower the fungal inoculum and program substitutions of this exotic species with others that have multiple functions suited to environments (e.g., Chestnut or encouraging the establishment and development of native species, such as the holm oak and shrub.

  19. Shelterbelt plantations in arid regions. [Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora, Cassia siamea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthana, K.D.; Mahander, S.; Mertia, R.S.; Arora, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    Three shelterbelts were planted on sandy soils at the Jodhpur Research Farm in 1973. Belts had 3 rows of trees each and spacing between and within rows was 3 m; they were laid out perpendicular to the wind direction. The length of each belt was 300 m and they were spaced 165 m apart centre to centre. The outside rows were made up of 33 plants each of (a) Acacia tortilis, (b) Prosopis juliflora (Israel variety) and (c) Cassia siamea planted on either side of the belts randomly in the paterns abc, bca and cab. The centre rows were planted with Azadirachta indica, Albizzia (Albizia) lebbek and Eucalyptus camaldulensis respectively in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd shelterbelts. The shelterbelts were easily established and grew well. Grain yield of bajra sown between the belts increased with distance from them reaching a maximum at 25 X belt height and then declining. Average yield between the belts was higher than in control plots. Consumptive water use and water use efficiencies were less near the 1st shelterbelt (leeward side) and increased away from it, again reaching maximum at 25 X belt height. Mean air temperature 1-2m above ground level was 0.1-0.2 degrees C higher on leeward than on windward sides of shelterbelts in the summer months, and 0-0.1 degrees higher in the monsoon months. Pan evaporation on the leeward side was reduced by 8% in the summer and 6% in the monsoon months. Belts of C. siamea and Acacia tortilis were more effective in reducing wind speed than those of P. juliflora (which grew least of all species).

  20. Pharmacognostic and Physicochemical evaluation of stem bark of Acacia pennata (L.) Willd., a folk plant of the Dimasa tribe of Assam.

    OpenAIRE

    Reena Terangpi; Ratan Basumatary; A K Tamuli; R Teron

    2013-01-01

    Bark of Acacia pennata is used in preparation of starter cakes among the Dimasa community of Assam state. The present study attempts to evaluate the pharmacognostical and physicochemical parameters of Acacia pennata (L.) Willd. The transverse section of the stem revealed an epidermis externally subtended by trichomes, a crashed cortical region due to massive secondary growth and large stellate pith. The physico-chemical parameters were evaluated- loss on drying (7%), total ash content (9.3%),...

  1. Phylogeny of nodulation genes and symbiotic diversity of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. and A. seyal (Del.) Mesorhizobium strains from different regions of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Niokhor; Galiana, Antoine; Le Roux, Christine; Kane, Aboubacry; Duponnois, Robin; Ndoye, Fatou; Fall, Dioumacor; Noba, Kandioura; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Diouf, Diégane

    2015-04-01

    Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal are small, deciduous legume trees, most highly valued for nitrogen fixation and for the production of gum arabic, a commodity of international trade since ancient times. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes represents the main natural input of atmospheric N2 into ecosystems which may ultimately benefit all organisms. We analyzed the nod and nif symbiotic genes and symbiotic properties of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from A. senegal and A. seyal in Senegal. The symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains from the two Acacia species were closed to those of Mesorhizobium plurifarium and grouped separately in the phylogenetic trees. Phylogeny of rhizobial nitrogen fixation gene nifH was similar to those of nodulation genes (nodA and nodC). All A. senegal rhizobial strains showed identical nodA, nodC, and nifH gene sequences. By contrast, A. seyal rhizobial strains exhibited different symbiotic gene sequences. Efficiency tests demonstrated that inoculation of both Acacia species significantly affected nodulation, total dry weight, acetylene reduction activity (ARA), and specific acetylene reduction activity (SARA) of plants. However, these cross-inoculation tests did not show any specificity of Mesorhizobium strains toward a given Acacia host species in terms of infectivity and efficiency as stated by principal component analysis (PCA). This study demonstrates that large-scale inoculation of A. senegal and A. seyal in the framework of reafforestation programs requires a preliminary step of rhizobial strain selection for both Acacia species.

  2. Non-protein amino acids in Australian acacia seed: implications for food security and recommended processing methods to reduce djenkolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Berin A; Reddy, Priyanka; Boland, Martin P; Roessner, Ute; Yates, Peter

    2015-07-15

    Seed of Australian acacia species, Acacia colei, Acacia elecantha, Acacia torulosa, Acacia turmida and Acacia saligna, were analysed for the presence of toxic non-protein amino acids and the levels of essential amino acids. Amines were derivatised with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate before analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QQQ-MS). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with optimised transitions and collision energies for each analyte were employed. The known nephrotoxic compound djenkolic acid was found to be present at elevated levels in all species tested. The lowest levels were in A. colei (0.49% w/w) and the highest in A. saligna (1.85% w/w). Observed levels of djenkolic acid are comparable to measured and reported levels found in the djenkol bean. Subsequent testing of seed processing methods showed djenkolic acid levels can be significantly reduced by over 90% by dry roasting at 180 °C rendering the seed safe for human consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Uji Beberapa Konsentrasi Ekstrak Tepung Akar Tuba (Derris Eliptica Benth.) untuk Mengendalikan Hama Ulat Api Setora Nitens Wlk. (Lepidoptera; Limacodidae) pada Tanamankelapa Sawit (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    ', Wahyudianto; Laoh, Jeltje Hennie; Rustam, Rusli

    2014-01-01

    Nettle caterpillar Setora nitens Walker. is one of the major pests of oil palm plant. The use of synthetic chemical pesticides to control pest has many negative impacts such a pest resistance, pest resurgence and environmental pollution. To reduce the negative impacts cause by synthetic chemical pesticides, then application of the alternative pest control using botanical insecticides such as Derris eliptica Benth. Which is environmentally friendly is needed. This research is aims to test the ...

  4. Seed oil composition of Acacia nilotica (L. Delile from Iran / Skład oleju z nasion Acacia nilotica (L. Delile rosnącej w Iranie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasian Karim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wstęp: Acacia nilotica (L. Delile należy do rodziny Fabaceae, podrodziny Mimosoideae; otrzymuje się z niej gumę arabską. W południowym Iranie są spożywane pieczone młode strąki i nasiona tej rośliny Cel: Badano skład oleju z dojrzałych nasion A. nilotica zebranych z naturalnych stanowisk na południu Iranu w celu określenia jego przydatności do spożycia przez ludzi i zwierzęta. Metody: Wyekstrahowany olej analizowano metodą chromatografii gazowej sprzężonej ze spektrometrią mas (GC/MS. Wyniki: Zawartość oleju w jadalnych nasionach wynosiła 3.4% (v/w świeżej masy. Olej zawierał rzadko spotykany fitosterol, sześć kwasów tłuszczowych, dziewięć węgolwodorów i jeden diterpenoid; związki te stanowiły łącznie około 83.5% oleju. Głównymi składnikami oleju były: fitosterol, 26-ethylcholesta-5,25(Z-dien-3.β-ol (20.8% oraz nasycone i nienasycone kwasy tłuszczowe. Zawartość pozostałych składników nie przekroczyła 5%. Wniosek: Olej z nasion omawianego gatunku może być nowym naturalnym środkiem odżywczym dla ludzi.

  5. Scavenging remazol brilliant blue R dye using microwave-assisted activated carbon from acacia sawdust: Equilibrium and kinetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, M. F. M.; Aziz, H. A.; Ahmad, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    This work explores the feasibility of microwave-assisted acacia wood based activated carbon (AWAC) for remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR) dye removal from synthetic wastewater. Acacia wood (AW) was impregnated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and heated using microwave, resulting tremendously high fixed carbon content, surface area, total pore volume and adsorption capacity of 81.14%, 1045.56m2/g, 0.535cm3/g and 263.16mg/g respectively. Batch study conducted divulged an increasing trend in RBBR uptake when initial RBBR concentration and contact time were increased. pH study revealed that RBBR adsorption was best at acidic condition. Langmuir isotherm model fitted well the adsorption equilibrium data while the adsorption kinetic was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  6. Isolation and structural characterization of echinocystic acid triterpenoid saponins from the Australian medicinal and food plant Acacia ligulata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Diana Jæger; Ndi, Chi P.; Crocoll, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The Australian plant Acacia ligulata has a number of traditional food and medicinal uses by Australian Aboriginal people, although no bioactive compounds have previously been isolated from this species. Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the mature pods of A. ligulata led...... to the isolation of the two new echinocystic acid triterpenoid saponins, ligulatasides A (1) and B (2), which differ in the fine structure of their glycan substituents. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and saccharide linkage analysis. These are the first isolated...... compounds from A. ligulata and the first fully elucidated structures of triterpenoid saponins from Acacia sensu stricto having echinocystic acid reported as the aglycone. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against a human melanoma cancer cell line (SK-MEL28) and a diploid fibroblast...

  7. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Aliyu; Sani Ibrahim; Hajiya M. Inuwa; Abdullahi B. Sallau; Olagunju Abbas; Idowu A. Aimola; Nathan Habila; Ndidi S. Uche

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups...

  8. Assessing the impacts of Acacia mearnsii (black wattle) on grazing provision and livestock production in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yapi, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ecosystems (Robles and Chapin, 1995). Invasive alien tree species and shrubs negatively affect ecosystems in various ways, and often result in a decline in benefits that people derive from the functioning of these systems ? or ecosystem services... the ecological impacts of the invasive alien plant species, Acacia mearnsii, on the function and productivity of rangelands in South Africa and their ability to sustain livestock production. AIM The central aim of this research is to develop a deeper...

  9. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatou Diouf

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal (L Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60% clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4. We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T, one in MSP1 (STM8789, MSP2 (ORS3359 and MSP3 (ORS3324. The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  10. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Fatou; Diouf, Diegane; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Le Queré, Antoine; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Fall, Dioumacor; Neyra, Marc; Parrinello, Hugues; Diouf, Mayecor; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Moulin, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Acacia senegal (L) Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60%) clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4). We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T), one in MSP1 (STM8789), MSP2 (ORS3359) and MSP3 (ORS3324). The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  11. Hemostatic, antibacterial biopolymers from Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. and Moringa oleifera (Lam.) as potential wound dressing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Monica; Parwani, Laxmi; Sharma, Vinay; Ganguli, Jhuma; Bhatnagar, Ashish

    2013-10-01

    Acacia arabica and Moringa oleifera are credited with a number of medicinal properties. Traditionally gum of Acacia plant is used in the treatment of skin disorders to soothe skin rashes, soreness, inflammation and burns while Moringa seed extracts are known to have antibacterial activity. In the present study the potential of the polymeric component of aqueous extracts of gum acacia (GA) and the seeds of M. oleifera (MSP) in wound management was evaluated. The results revealed that both biopolymers were hemostatic and hasten blood coagulation. They showed shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and were non-cytotoxic in nature. Both showed antibacterial activity against organisms known to be involved in wound infections with MIC ranging from 500-600 microg mL(-1) for GA and 300-700 microg mL(-1) for MSP. They were biodegradable and exhibited water absorption capacity in the range of 415 to 935%. The hemostatic character coupled to these properties envisions their potential in preparation of dressings for bleeding and profusely exuding wounds. The biopolymers have been further analysed for their composition by Gas chromatography.

  12. Effects of chopping, and soaking in water, hydrochloric acidic and calcium hydroxide solutions on the nutritional value of Acacia villosa for goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wina, E.; Tangendjaja, B.; Susana, I.W.R.

    2005-01-01

    Acacia villosa, a thornless shrub legume, has potential as a feed supplement for ruminants if anti-nutritional factors, especially tannins, can be overcome. The effects of chopping and soaking the leaves on the amounts of tannin in the extracting solution and that left in the recovered leaves were studied. The tannin and non-tannin phenolics were solubilized in the extracting solution and the amount was increased with the soaking time. Soaking in calcium hydroxide solution, hydrochloric acid or water removed 41-76% of tannin and total phenolics removed from the recovered leaves. Soaking of the leaves also removed fermentable materials and reduced the gas production. In the first of two digestibility experiments, three groups of goats received one of these diets, those were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia leaves (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) and (3) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) + 100 g/day of cassava flour. Live weight of goats was measured every 2 weeks and a large increase in average daily gain was obtained for goats fed diet containing water soaked leaves and cassava flour (71 g/day) compared to those fed diet containing unsoaked leaves and water soaked leaves (38.9 and 44.7 g/day, respectively) (P 0.05) found in intake or digestibility between unsoaked and soaked leaves. In conclusion, soaking reduced tannin in Acacia leaves, improved digestibility and intake of Acacia leaves. In the presence of cassava flour, soaking improved average daily gain. Diets supplemented with water soaked Acacia leaves probably also need an energy supplement and cassava flour is one of the feed ingredients that is satisfactory. (author)

  13. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de Ocimum selloi benth: sob condições de luz, temperatura e tempo de armazenamento Physiological quality of Ocimum selloi Benth: seeds under conditions of light, temperature and storage time

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    Larissa Corrêa do Bomfim Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O atroveran ou elixir-paregórico (Ocimum selloi Benth. é uma espécie aromática nativa do Brasil, produtora de óleo essencial rico em metil-chavicol. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência da temperatura, luz e tempo de armazenamento em diferentes ambientes sobre a germinação e o vigor de sementes de O. selloi. Inicialmente, testou-se o efeito da presença e ausência de luz branca sob fotoperíodo de 12 horas para determinar o fotoblastismo das sementes em diferentes temperaturas (20, 25, 30 e 35ºC. Em seguida, testou-se a germinação e emergência no armazenamento sob duas temperaturas (ambiente e câmara fria aos 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 10 e 12 meses de armazenamento. A espécie foi classificada como fotoblástica neutra, apresentando germinação em ampla faixa de temperatura (20 a 30ºC. A germinação das sementes manteve-se por doze meses de armazenamento em câmara fria e à temperatura ambiente, entretanto, o vigor decresce a partir de seis meses em armazenamento sob temperatura ambiente."Atroveran" or "elixir-paregórico" (Ocimum selloi Benth. is a Brazilian species that produces an essential oil rich in methyl chavicol. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of light, temperature and time of storage in different environments on the germination and vigor of O. selloi seeds. We initially tested the influence of presence and absence of white light in a 12-hour photoperiod to determine the photoblastism of the seeds under different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35ºC. The physiological quality of seeds conserved under two temperatures (room temperature and cold chamber was tested at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 10 and 12 months of storage. The species was classified as neutral photoblastic with germination at a wide temperature range (20ºC-30°C. Germination was maintained for twelve months of storage in cold chamber at room temperature, but the vigor was reduced in seeds kept at room temperature after the sixth month of storage.

  14. Stable annual pattern of water use by Acacia tortilis in Sahelian Africa.

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    Do, Frederic C; Rocheteau, Alain; Diagne, Amadou L; Goudiaby, Venceslas; Granier, André; Lhomme, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Water use by mature trees of Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan var. raddiana growing in the northern Sahel was continuously recorded over 4 years. Water use was estimated from xylem sap flow measured by transient heat dissipation. Concurrently, cambial growth, canopy phenology, leaf water potential, climatic conditions and soil water availability (SWA) were monitored. In addition to the variation attributable to interannual variation in rainfall, SWA was increased by irrigation during one wet season. The wet season lasted from July to September, and annual rainfall ranged between 146 and 367 mm. The annual amount and pattern of tree water use were stable from year-to-year despite interannual and seasonal variations in SWA in the upper soil layers. Acacia tortilis transpired readily throughout the year, except for one month during the dry season when defoliation was at a maximum. Maximum water use of about 23 l (dm sapwood area)(-2) day(-1) was recorded at the end of the wet season. While trees retained foliage in the dry season, the decline in water use was modest at around 30%. Variation in predawn leaf water potential indicated that the trees were subject to soil water constraint. The rapid depletion of water in the uppermost soil layers after the wet season implies that there was extensive use of water from deep soil layers. The deep soil profile revealed (1) the existence of living roots at 25 m and (2) that the availability of soil water was low (-1.6 MPa) down to the water table at a depth of 31 m. However, transpiration was recorded at a predawn leaf water potential of -2.0 MPa, indicating that the trees used water from both intermediary soil layers and the water table. During the full canopy stage, mean values of whole-tree hydraulic conductance were similar in the wet and dry seasons. We propose that the stability of water use at the seasonal and annual scales resulted from a combination of features, including an extensive rooting

  15. Chemical and Antimicrobial Analyses of Sideritis romana L. subsp. purpurea (Tal. ex Benth.) Heywood, an Endemic of the Western Balkan.

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    Tadić, Vanja; Oliva, Alessandra; Božović, Mijat; Cipolla, Alessia; De Angelis, Massimiliano; Vullo, Vincenzo; Garzoli, Stefania; Ragno, Rino

    2017-08-23

    A comprehensive study on essential oil and different solvent extracts of Sideritis romana L. subsp. purpurea (Tal. ex Benth.) Heywood (Lamiaceae) from Montenegro is reported. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oil revealed a total of 43 components with bicyclogermacrene (23.8%), germacrene D (8%), ( E )-caryophyllene (7.9%) and spathulenol (5.5%) as the major ones. Sesquiterpenoid group was found to be the most dominant one (64.8%), with 19.9% of the oxygenated forms. In the crude methanol extract of the investigated plant, obtained by Sohhlet exraction, the total phenol content was 14.7 ± 0.4 mg of GA/g, the total flavonoids were 0.29 ± 0.03% expressed as hyperoside percentage, whereas the total tannins content was 0.22 ± 0.04% expressed as pyrogallol percentage. For the antimicrobial activity determination, the following microorganisms have been used: methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 29213)) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA (clinical strain)), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), carbapenem-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical strain), carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (clinical strain) and Candida albicans (ATCC 14053). The essential oil showed high potency against MSSA and MRSA, both at high (~5 × 10⁵ CFU/mL) and low (~5 × 10³ CFU/mL) inoculum. With respect to MSSA, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was 0.307 mg/mL, with bactericidal activity obtained at 0.615 mg/mL, while, in the case of MRSA, the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were 0.076 and 0.153 mg/mL, respectively. Regarding anti- Candida albicans activity, the MIC value was 2.46 mg/mL without reaching fungicidal activity. In addition to the observed essential oil efficacy, different solvent extracts were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity. Similarly to the essential oil, thehighest efficacy was observed against both MSSA and MRSA strains, at high and

  16. Soil nutritional status and biogeography influence rhizosphere microbial communities associated with the invasive tree Acacia dealbata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamutando, Casper N; Vikram, Surendra; Kamgan-Nkuekam, Gilbert; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Greve, Michelle; Roux, Johannes J Le; Richardson, David M; Cowan, Don; Valverde, Angel

    2017-07-26

    Invasiveness and the impacts of introduced plants are known to be mediated by plant-microbe interactions. Yet, the microbial communities associated with invasive plants are generally poorly understood. Here we report on the first comprehensive investigation of the bacterial and fungal communities inhabiting the rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil of a widespread invasive tree, Acacia dealbata. Amplicon sequencing data indicated that rhizospheric microbial communities differed significantly in structure and composition from those of the bulk soil. Two bacterial (Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria) and two fungal (Pezizomycetes and Agaricomycetes) classes were enriched in the rhizosphere compared with bulk soils. Changes in nutritional status, possibly induced by A. dealbata, primarily shaped rhizosphere soil communities. Despite a high degree of geographic variability in the diversity and composition of microbial communities, invasive A. dealbata populations shared a core of bacterial and fungal taxa, some of which are known to be involved in N and P cycling, while others are regarded as plant pathogens. Shotgun metagenomic analysis also showed that several functional genes related to plant growth promotion were overrepresented in the rhizospheres of A. dealbata. Overall, results suggest that rhizosphere microbes may contribute to the widespread success of this invader in novel environments.

  17. [Litter decomposition and nutrient release in Acacia mangium plantations established on degraded soils of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Barliza, Jeiner; León Peláez, Juan Diego

    2011-03-01

    Several factors control the decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as humidity, temperature, quality of litter and microbial activity. We investigated the effects of rainfall and soil plowing prior to the establishment of Acacia mangium plantations, using the litterbag technique, during a six month period, in forests plantations in Bajo Cauca region, Colombia. The annual decomposition constants (k) of simple exponential model, oscillated between 1.24 and 1.80, meanwhile k1 y k2 decomposition constants of double exponential model were 0.88-1.81 and 0.58-7.01. At the end of the study, the mean residual dry matter (RDM) was 47% of the initial value for the three sites. We found a slow N, Ca and Mg release pattern from the A. mangium leaf litter, meanwhile, phosphorus (P) showed a dominant immobilization phase, suggesting its low availability in soils. Chemical leaf litter quality parameters (e.g. N and P concentrations, C/N, N/P ratios and phenols content) showed an important influence on decomposition rates. The results of this study indicated that rainfall plays an important role on the decomposition process, but not soil plowing.

  18. Entomofauna Associada a Galhos de Acacia mangium Willd. Roletados por Oncideres saga (Dalman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

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    Gláucia Cordeiro

    2010-04-01

    Abstract. The study of the insects associated with branches and stems girdled by Oncideres saga (Dalman is important to know its possible natural enemies. Therefore, these work had the objective of register the insects associated with branches and stems girdled of Acacia mangium Willd. by this twig girdler beetle, in Coimbra, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Stems and branches of A. mangium were collected in January/2007 to April/2007. This material has been inspected, stored in plastic bags, and kept in a room with controlled conditions (25.4 ± 0.3°C and 66.7 ± 1.4%. It was noted the presence of a non-determined species of Scolytidae and the emergence of four species of Cerambycidae: Engyum quadrinotatum Thomsom; Eburodacrys sexmaculata (Olivier; Achryson surinamum (Linnaeus and Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory. It can be concluded that studies are needed with the objective of verify the behavior of these insects in relation with twig girdler O. saga.

  19. Biosorption studies on powder of stem of Acacia nilotica: Removal of arsenic from surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, Jameel A.; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Shah, Abdul Q.; Kandhro, Ghulam A.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida F.

    2010-01-01

    In present study a biomass derived from the stem of Acacia nilotica has been investigated to remove As ions from surface water samples of different origins (lake, canal and river). The effects of various parameters viz. pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time and temperature on the biosorption processes were systematically studied. Experimental data were modeled by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. It was observed that As biosorption best fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The mean sorption energy (E) calculated from D-R model, indicated physico-chemical biosorption. Study of thermodynamic parameters revealed the endothermic, spontaneous and feasible nature of biosorption process. The pseudo-second-order rate equation described better the kinetics of As biosorption with good correlation coefficients than pseudo-first-order equation. The biomass of A. nilotica was found to be effective for the removal of As with 95% sorption efficiency at a concentration of <200 μg/L of As solution, and thus uptake capacity is 50.8 mg As/g of biomass. The A. nilotica biomass could be used as a low-cost biosorbent for As ion removal.

  20. Acacia catechu ethanolic bark extract induces apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells

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    Thangavelu Lakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is in approximately 30% of all cancers in India. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Acacia catechu bark (ACB against human squamous cell carcinoma cell line-25 (SCC-25. Cytotoxic effect of ACB extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay. A. catechu extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL for 24 h. Apoptosis markers such as caspases-8 and 9, bcl-2, bax, and cytochrome c (Cyt-c were done by RT-PCR. Morphological changes of ACB treated cells were evaluated using acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation were evaluated using propidium iodide (PI staining. Further, cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. A. catechu treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC50 of 52.09 μg/mL. Apoptotic marker gene expressions were significantly increased on ACB treatment. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing and nuclear membrane distortion, respectively, and it confirms the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. These results suggest that ACB extract can be used as a modulating agent in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  1. DETECTION OF POLLEN FLOW IN THE SEEDLING SEED ORCHARD OF Acacia mangium USING DNA MARKER

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    Vivi Yuskianti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollen pattern dispersal in seedling seed orchard (SSO is an essential part of a tree-improvement program. Two SSOs of Acacia mangium in South Kalimantan and South Sumatra that represent similar resources in different environments were used in this study.  Genotypes of all trees and seeds from a subset of 10 mother trees in each orchard were determined for 12 microsatellite loci, and parentage analysis was carried out. The results shows that the pollen dispersal pattern in both SSOs decrease with distance from mother tree. Patterns of pollen dispersal, dispersal distance and cumulative frequency of pollen dispersal distance were similar in both SSOs. Random pollen dispersal were found in both SSOs. About 80% of all crosses were found within a 40-m distance range with the most frequent pollination distance between mother tree and male male parents was 0-10 m. No self-pollinated seed was detected. Application of all these aspects found in this study such as random pollen dispersal and the effective pollen dispersal distance can be useful for establishing seedling seed orchard, clonal seed orchard and in other tree improvement activities of A. mangium.

  2. Neem gum as a binder in a formulated paracetamol tablet with reference to Acacia gum BP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-04-01

    This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing strength-friability/disintegration time ratio were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration time and dissolution times. Tablet formulations containing NMG exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower mechanical strength; however, the tendency of the tablets to cap or laminate was lower when compared to those containing ACA. Inclusion of NMG improved the balance between binding and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets produced than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower disintegration and dissolution times than those containing ACA.

  3. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA E CASCA DO ESPINILHO, Acacia caven (Mol. Mol.

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    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os aspectos anatômicos da madeira e casca de Acacia cavem (Mol. Mol. São apresentados dados quantitativos de 34 características do xilema secundário, bem como fotomicrografias das estruturas anatômicas da madeira e casca. A ausência de septos em fibras, a abundância de parênquima axial e a elevada percentagem de raios com 4 ou mais células de largura, são os caracteres mais importantes na estrutura do lenho. O arranjo das fibras floemáticas em feixes tangenciais regulares, rodeados por sériescristalíferas, é, por sua vez, o aspecto mais notável da casca. Este caráter ainda não havia sido reportado pela literatura anatômica das acácias sul-americanas, e pode ter valor taxonômico em nivel infra-genético.

  4. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from Acacia confusa flowers and buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yu Tang; Chang, Wei Chun; Chen, Ping Sheng; Chang, Tzu Cheng; Chang, Shang Tzen

    2011-04-01

    Acacia confusa Merr. (Leguminosae), a species native to Taiwan, is widely distributed on the hills and lowlands of Taiwan, and has been used in traditional medicines. In this study, the application of ultrasound-assisted extraction was used to extract the phenolic compounds from A. confusa flowers and buds for the first time. Among the extraction methods, it can significantly enhance the contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in A. confusa flower and bud extracts using ultrasound-assisted extraction (10  min×12 times). Considering both the solvent consumption and the time needed for extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction was found to be the most practical approach for the rapid and efficient extraction of bioactive phenolic constituents. In addition, gallic acid, myricitrin-3-rhamnoside, quercitrin-3-rhamnoside, europetin-3-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, rhamnetin-3-glucoside, and rhamnetin-3-rhamnoside were also quantified in different extracts by RP-HPLC. It is clear that ultrasound-assisted extraction is an efficient method for extracting phenolic compounds from A. confusa flowers and buds. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Physical Damages of Wood Fiber in Acacia Mangium due to Biopulping Treatment

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    Ridwan Yahya

    2016-05-01

    chrysosporium to Acacia mangium Willd can reduce lignin and improve holocellulose and cellulose content of the material. Fiber dimension recognized as other important factor for paper properties. The question is how the integrity and dimensions of the wood fiber that has been pretreated with the fungus. The objectives of present study were to know effect of pretreatment of P. chrysosporium to the integrity and dimensions of the fiber. The P. chrysosporium was cultured for 14 days in growth medium, and inoculated to wood chips 5% (w/v and incubated for 0, 15 and 30 days. The inoculated wood chips were chipped into 1 mm x 1 mm x 20 mm and macerated using franklin solution at 60 oC for 48 hours. Forty fibers from each incubated time were analized their physical damages using a light microscope at a 400 magnification. The inoculated fibers were measured theirs dimensions. The physical damage percentage of fibers pretreated using P. chrysosporium was 0%. Length and wall thickness of the pretreated fibers were can be categorized as middle class and thin fibers, respectively.

  6. Preliminary phytochemical and elemental analysis of aqueous and fractionated pod extracts of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa

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    Mohammed Shaibu Auwal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa is used locally for various medicinal purposes by traditionalists and herbalists in northeastern Nigeria. Plants products have been used since ancient times in the management of various conditions. The bark of A. nilotica has been reported to be used traditionally to manage diabetes, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, cancers, tumor of the eye, ear and testicles, induration of liver and spleen and also in treatment of various condylomas. The objective of this study is to determine the phytochemical and elemental constituents of the extracts of A. nilotica pods. Flame emission and atomic absorption spectrometry were also used to determine the presence or absence of micro- and macro-elements in the extracts. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous, ethyl acetate and N-butanol fractionated portions of the pod extracts of A. nilotica revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, whereas carbohydrates and tannins were the only constituent in the residue portion. Anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were not present in the extracts. The elemental screening revealed the presence of iron, potassium, manganese, zinc, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, cadmium and copper. Lead, arsenic and molybdenum were not detected in the pod.

  7. NUTRIENTS POOL IN CONSORTIA OF Eucalyptus urograndis, Acacia mearnsii AND Zea mays

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    Márcio Viera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810543This study aimed to determine the nutrient pool in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii in a consortium with Zea mays.The amount determination of nutrients of forest species was carried out in the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus; 100A (100% of black wattle and 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black-wattle. On the other hand, for corn, it was carried out in all treatments (100E; 100A, 50E:50A; 75E:25A – 75% of eucalyptus + 25% black-wattle and 25E:75A – 25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle. The delimitation adopted was the one of a randomized block with three replications. The magnitude of the nutrient pool in the agrossilvicultural systems biomass was: N> K > Ca > Mg > P > S, for macronutrients, and Mn > Fe > Zn > B > Cu, for micronutrients. Due to the great export of nutrients through the corn harvest, residues should be kept and it is necessary to make a nutritional reposition, mainly with P, N, K, S and Zn in the following crops, because of the higher amount that are exported with the extraction of the corn tang, which reaches 75.3; 60.6; 59.9; 55.8 e 53.8%, respectively, in relation to the total stocked in the biomass.

  8. Pengaruh variasi ukuran biji terhadap perkecambahan Acacia fauntleroyi (maiden maiden and blakely

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    Mangadas Lumban Gaol

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent are germination of A. fauntleroyi affected by seed size. Does pre-treatment improve germination? Under what temperature regime does most seed germinate? Three seed size classes (small, medium and largewere chosen. Seeds were pre-treatments either at ambient, 50 °C, 75 °C or 100 ° C and incubated at 15 ° C or 30 °C. Then, number of seed that germinate and speed of germination were measure. Five seeds representing each of small, medium and large seed sizes were also selected and the seed coat thickness measured. Seed size, pre-treatment temperature and incubation temperature all affected the number of seed that germinated. Pre-treatment temperature affected germination more than incubation temperature. Incubation temperature affected germination more than seed size. The interaction of seed size and pre-treatment temperature was stronger than that between seed size and incubation temperature. Small seeds produce less germination than medium or large seeds, however small seed germinated sooner. Seed coat thickness varied among seed sizes. Thinner seed coats occur in smaller than larger seeds. Acacia; Germination; Incubation; Pre-treatment; Seed size

  9. From Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar to Acacia monofloral honey: biochemical changes and variation of biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Angelo; De Rossi, Silvia; Canuti, Lorena; Novelli, Silvia; Di Marco, Gabriele; Fattorini, Laura; Canini, Antonella

    2018-02-10

    Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar and its derivative monofloral honey were systematically compared in this study, to understand how much the starting solution reflected the final product, after re-elaboration by Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola. Subjected to dehydration in the hive, nectar changed in its water and sugar content when transformed into honey, as physicochemical and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses revealed. Spectrophotometric measurements and characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection of 18 plant molecules demonstrated honey to be richer than nectar in secondary metabolites. For the first time, the hypothesis of the existence of a nectar redox cycle in R. pseudoacacia was reported, as previously described for Nicotiana sp., based on 1D-protein profiles, western blot analysis and detection of H 2 O 2 and ascorbate. The bioactivity of both matrices was also investigated. Antiradical in vitro tests showed that Acacia honey was more antioxidant than nectar, which was even able to induce oxidative stress directly in a eukaryotic cell system. Antimicrobial assays demonstrated that nectar was bacteriostatic, due to H 2 O 2 activity, whereas honey was even bactericidal. All these data support the ecological role of nectar and honey in nature: protection of the gynoecium from pathogens and preservation from degradative processes, respectively. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Intercropping Acacia mangium stimulates AMF colonization and soil phosphatase activity in Eucalyptus grandis

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    Daniel Bini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are very important to plant nutrition, mostly in terms of acquisition of P and micronutrients. While Acacia mangium is closely associated with AMF throughout the whole cycle, Eucalyptus grandis presents this symbiosis primarily at the seedling stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of AMF in these two tree species in both pure and mixed plantations during the first 20 months after planting. We evaluated the abundance, richness and diversity of AMF spores, the rate of AMF mycorrhizal root colonization, enzymatic activity and soil and litter C, N and P. There was an increase in AMF root colonization of E. grandis when intercropped with A. mangium as well as an increase in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase in the presence of leguminous trees. AMF colonization and phosphatase activities were both involved in improvements in P cycling and P nutrition in soil. In addition, P cycling was favored in the intercropped plantation, which showed negative correlation with litter C/N and C/P ratios and positive correlation with soil acid phosphatase activity and soil N and P concentrations. Intercropping A. mangium and E. grandis maximized AMF root colonization of E. grandis and phosphatase activity in the soil, both of which accelerate P cycling and forest performance.

  11. CATEGORIZATION OF GELAM, ACACIA AND TUALANG HONEY ODORPROFILE USING K-NEAREST NEIGHBORS

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    Nurdiyana Zahed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey authenticity refer to honey types is of great importance issue and interest in agriculture. In current research, several documents of specific types of honey have their own usage in medical field. However, it is quite challenging task to classify different types of honey by simply using our naked eye. This work demostrated a successful an electronic nose (E-nose application as an instrument for identifying odor profile pattern of three common honey in Malaysia (Gelam, Acacia and Tualang honey. The applied E-nose has produced signal for odor measurement in form of numeric resistance (Ω. The data reading have been pre-processed using normalization technique for standardized scale of unique features. Mean features is extracted and boxplot used as the statistical tool to present the data pattern according to three types of honey. Mean features that have been extracted were employed into K-Nearest Neighbors classifier as an input features and evaluated using several splitting ratio. Excellent results were obtained by showing 100% rate of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of classification from KNN using weigh (k=1, ratio 90:10 and Euclidean distance. The findings confirmed the ability of KNN classifier as intelligent classification to classify different honey types from E-nose calibration. Outperform of other classifier, KNN required less parameter optimization and achieved promising result.

  12. The Allelopathic Effect of the Exotic Tree Acacia saligna on the Germination of Wheat and Canola

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    Mohamed Kamel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts derived from leaves and stems of Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L.Wendl. upon two agricultural crops, wheat and canola. Seed germination (%, shoot and root elongation, fresh and dry weight, vigor index and phytotoxicity parameters were estimated. Leaf extract exhibits higher inhibitory effect than stem extract. Wheat seeds were more tolerant to the allelopathic action of A. saligna extracts than canola. Canola germination minimized to 8.33% at concentration 10% of leaf extract but the percent of germination was 60% in the case of stem extract. At 10% leaf extract, 76.67% of wheat seeds germinated; but at 10% stem extract, 93.33% of the seeds were germinated. The other growth parameters as shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight and vigor index also showed continued decrease with the increasing of allelopathic extract concentration. Leaf extract exhibits the stronger allelopathic effect. The phytotoxic effect was stronger on the germination of canola compared with wheat. It reached up to 91.76% inhibition at concentration 10%, but reached up only 23.33% in the case of wheat, respectively

  13. Polyphenols From Cutch Tree (Acacia catechu Willd.: Normalize In Vitro Oxidative Stress and Exerts Antiproliferative Activity

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    Rakesh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oxidative stress, being the main cause of most of the human diseases, has always been the highlight of research worldwide. This stress can be overcome by administration of natural polyphenols. The Acacia catechu Willd. has many refrences available in Ayurveda as important disease curative plant. Its leaves are investigated for ameliorating oxidative stress in present work. Leaves of A. catechu were extracted with 80% methanol to get methanol extract (AME. It was assessed for antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, ferric ion reducing, superoxide scavenging and peroxyl radical scavenging assays. DNA protective activity was also investigated using plasmid nicking assay. Further, antiproliferative activity was determined using MTT assay in various human cancer cell lines. The quantification of polyphenols was done by UHPLC analysis. Results confirmed that polyphenols of A. catechu were successful in normalizing oxidative stress. AME was found to be most effective in scavenging ABTS radicals while least effective in scavenging ferric ions. UHPLC analysis showed abundance of ellagic acid, rutin and quercetin in AME. Further, AME showed maximum antiproliferative activity against Hep G2 cancer cells. It is concluded that the polyphenols from A. catechu effectively remediates oxidative stress and hence can be used in curing numerous dreadful diseases.

  14. Monosaccharide composition of acidic gum exudates from Indian Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan.

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    Lakhera, Ajeet Kumar; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan commonly known as Israeli Babool has contributed immensely for sand dunes management in Indian desert leading to wind erosion control and increased biological productivity. The species is extensively used in traditional medicine system for a number of therapeutic applications and as nutraceutical. The polysaccharide was isolated in 43.6% yield from gum exudates. The monosaccharides, L-arabinose, D-galactose D-glucose, L-rhamnose and D-mannose were determined in molar ratio of 78.1%, 18.64%, 0.60%, 1.71% and 0.74% respectively. The molar ratio of uronic acids was studied using diverse spectrophotometric methods and compared with GLC. The content of D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic was determined as 3.88% and 4.35% respectively by GLC. The results were compared with the spectrophotometric methods. The results using DMP as chromogenic reagent are closer to that obtained by GLC. Structural analysis of the polysaccharide may provide scientific basis for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biological applications of gum exudates from A. tortilis, which is extensively planted in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Seletion of arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi for efficient symbiosis with Acacia mangium willd

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    Guilherme Augusto Robles Angelini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium forms two kinds of mycorrhizal symbiosis, a arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMFs type and another with ectomycorrhizal fungi (fECTOs. The present study aimed to select different AMFs species and fECTOs isolates for effective symbiosis with A. mangium, which provide seedlings well colonized, nodulated and developed. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse at Embrapa Agrobiology, one for AMF species selection and another for fECTOs, using a randomized block design with five replicates. Treatments were species AMFs (Acaulospora laevis, Acaulospora morrowiae, Entrophospora colombiana, Entrophospora contigua, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus clarum, Scutellospora calospora, Scutellospora heterogama, Scutellospora gilmorei and Scutellospora pellucida or fECTOs isolated (UFSC Pt116; UFSC Pt24; UFSC Pt193; O 64–ITA6; UFSC Pt187 and O 40–ORS 7870. The AMFs species that promoted greater vegetative growth, mycorrhizal colonization and more effective symbioses were S. calospora, S. heterogama, S. gilmorei e A. morrowiae. The fECTOs not demonstrated effectiveness in promoting growth, but the isolate O64-ITA6 (Pisolithus tinctorius provided greater colonization. Seedlings of A. mangium have high responsiveness to inoculation with AMFs and depends on high root colonization, between 40 and 80%, to obtain relevant benefits from symbiose over nodule formation and growth.

  16. Potential therapeutic agents for circulatory diseases from Bauhinia glauca Benth.subsp. pernervosa. (Da Ye Guan Men).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yingzhan; Ling, Junhong; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xiangrong; Zhang, Na; Wang, Wenli; Li, Jiayuan; Li, Ning

    2015-08-15

    Because of platelets as critical factor in the formation of pathogenic thrombi, anti-platelet activities have been selected as therapeutic target for various circulatory diseases. In order to find potential therapeutic agents, bioassay-directed separation of Bauhinia glauca Benth.subsp. pernervosa. (called Da Ye Guan Men as a traditional Chinese medicine) was performed to get 29 main components (compounds 1-29) from the bioactive part of this herbal. It was the first time to focus on the composition with anti-platelet aggregation activities for this traditional Chinese medicine. The constituents, characterized from the effective extract, were established on the basis of extensive spectral data analysis. Then their anti-platelet aggregation effects were evaluated systematically. On the basis of the chemical profile and biological assay, it was suggested that the flavonoid composition (5 and 18) should be responsible for the anti-platelet aggregation of the herbal because of their significant activities. The primary structure and activity relationship was also discussed briefly. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that can reduce post-harvest proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael L; Foster, Jamie L

    2013-08-15

    Studies of perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) suggest its hay and haylage have greater levels of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) than other legume forages such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Greater RUP can result in more efficient nitrogen utilization by ruminant animals with positive economic and environmental effects. We sought to determine whether, like red clover (Trifolium pretense L.), perennial peanut contains polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and PPO substrates that might be responsible for increased RUP. Perennial peanut extracts contain immunologically detectible PPO protein and high levels of PPO activity (>100 nkatal mg(-1) protein). Addition of caffeic acid (PPO substrate) to perennial peanut extracts depleted of endogenous substrates reduced proteolysis by 90%. Addition of phenolics prepared from perennial peanut leaves to extracts of either transgenic PPO-expressing or control (non-expressing) alfalfa showed peanut phenolics could reduce proteolysis >70% in a PPO-dependent manner. Two abundant likely PPO substrates are present in perennial peanut leaves including caftaric acid. Perennial peanut contains PPO and PPO substrates that together are capable of inhibiting post-harvest proteolysis, suggesting a possible mechanism for increased RUP in this forage. Research related to optimizing the PPO system in other forage crops will likely be applicable to perennial peanut. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of extracts of the leaves of Ajuga remota Benth on alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

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    Tafesse, Tadesse Bekele; Hymete, Ariaya; Mekonnen, Yalemtsehay; Tadesse, Mekuria

    2017-05-02

    Ajuga remota Benth is traditionally used in Ethiopia for the management of diabetes mellitus. Since this claim has not been investigated scientifically, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effect and phytochemical screening of the aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. After acute toxicity test, the Swiss albino mice were induced with alloxan to get experimental diabetes animals. The fasting mean blood glucose level before and after treatment for two weeks in normal, diabetic untreated and diabetic mice treated with aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts were performed. Data were statistically evaluated by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 20. P-value Phytochemical screening of both extracts indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and steroids, which might contribute to the antidiabetic activity. The extracts, however, did not contain alkaloids and anthraquinones. The aqueous extract (500 mg/kg) showed the highest percentage reduction in blood glucose levels and the ability of A. remota extracts in reducing blood glucose levels presumably due to the presence of antioxidant constituents such as flavonoids. The effect of the extract supported the traditional claim of the plant.

  19. Influence of root-knot nematode infestation on antioxidant enzymes, chlorophyll content and growth in Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.

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    Bhau, B S; Borah, Bitupon; Ahmed, Reshma; Phukon, P; Gogoi, Barbi; Sarmah, D K; Lal, M; Wann, S B

    2016-04-01

    Plants adapt themselves to overcome adverse environmental conditions, and this involves a plethora of concurrent cellular activities. Physiological experiments or metabolic profiling can quantify this response. Among several diseases of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Patchouli), root-knot nematode infection caused by Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood causes severe damage to the plant and hence, the oil production. In the present study, we identified M. incognita morphologically and at molecular level using sequenced characterized amplified region marker (SCAR). M. incognita was artificially inoculated at different levels of second stage juveniles (J₂) to examine the effect on Patchouli plant growth parameters. Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity and changes in the total phenol and chlorophyll contents in M. incognita was also evaluated in response to infection. The results have demonstrated that nematode infestation leads to increased peroxidase activities in the leaves of the patchouli plants and thereby, increase in phenolic content as a means of defence against nematode infestation. Chlorophyll content was also found decreased but no changes in polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity.

  20. Evaluation and decontamination of crude oil-polluted soils using Centrosema pubescen Benth and amendment-support options.

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    Nwaichi, Eucharia O; Osuji, Leo C; Onyeike, Eugene N

    2011-04-01

    Growth performance and phytoremediation of soil of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria artificially-contaminated with crude oil (up to 100 mL/2 kg soil) using centrosema pubescen Benth was investigated for 12 weeks. The soil samples in which the plants were established were either un-amended, or amended with NPK, or UREA or chicken manure. The extents of removal of PAHs and BTEX were measured as well as the rates of growth of the plants. Gas Chromatographic analysis confirmed the degradation of carcinogenic hydrocarbons like BTEXs and PAHs with this technique. At the highest dose of crude, the contaminant concentrations were 43 mg/kg PAHs, 10 mg/kg BTEX, and 5,613 mg/kg O&G. The greatest percent removal of BTEX was observed at the highest contaminant dose, and with the manure amendment. Similar trends were observed with PAHs and although they were less marked, the trends with PAHs may have been more highly statistically significant. There was no measurable plant uptake of contaminants. Inhibition of plant growth (measured as leaf area, shoot length and production of dry weight) was proportional to the dose of crude oil, but the manure amendment was very effective at reducing the growth inhibition. Interestingly, manure amendment reduced the phytotoxicity significantly in this study.

  1. KANDUNGAN KIMIA BERBAGAI EKSTRAK DAUN MIANA (COLEUS BLUMEI BENTH DAN EFEK ANTHELMINTIKNYA TERHADAP CACING PITA PADA AYAM

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    Yusuf Ridwan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Study on the chemical compound of painted nettle (Coleus blumei Benth leave extract and its anthelmintic activity against chicken tapeworm were conducted. Leave of painted nettle were collected and extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethanol and water. Phytochemical analysis was carried out to determine the chemical compound of secondary metabolites. Anthelmintic activity was evaluated with an assay using chicken tapeworm in a serial microplate dilution method by determination of efective concentration 50 (EC50 using probit analysis. The result of phytochemistry analysis showed that Coleus leaves consisted of flavonoid, steroid, tannin and saponin. Three of four extracts displayed strong anthelmintic activity with the higest activity belong to chloroform extract with EC50 5 mg/ml followed by n-hexane 9 mg/ml and metanol extract 10,2 mg/ml, while water extract has a weak anthelmintic activity with 106,2 mg/ml. In general, chloroform extract proved to be a more efficient extractant of biologically active compounds than either hexane, ethanol or water extract. The promising activity displayed by a number of extracts has led to further investigation of the active compound. Unfortunately, the result of invivo assay showed that the chloroform extract treatment with dose level 25 mg/kg BW could not to reduce the number of tapeworm in chicken. It is interesting for further investigate the differences of respon between in vitro and in vivo to determine involved factors.

  2. Secondary associations in ‘Himalayan pink’ (Dianthus angulatus Royle ex Benth., Caryophyllaceae from cold deserts of Lahaul-Spiti

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    Kumar Puneet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In current investigation we studied the male meiosis and details of secondary chromosomal associations or pairing recorded for the first time in Dianthus angulatus Royle ex Benth., from the cold deserts of Lahaul-Spiti (Himachal Pradesh, India. All the presently studied individuals of the species existed at 2x level (x = 15. The present chromosome count of n = 15 in the species is in conformity with the previous counts from India and outside of India. Secondary associations are defined as the affinity of bivalents to be positioned in pairs having gentle connections. The secondary chromosomal associations in the species existed among bivalents/chromosomes were observed in the meiocytes at metaphase-I and continued till the metaphase-II. The bivalents positioned side by side and end to end to form secondary pairing. The difference in the number of bivalents/chromosomes involved in the secondary associations has also been witnessed. A secondary association between bivalents is considered to be of immense importance as it is being taken as a gauge of ploidy in plants. The incidence of such secondary associations of bivalents/chromosomes in D. angulatus which existed at 2x level indicated the secondary polyploid nature of the species.

  3. Evaluation of in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth

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    Raghunath Singh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ajuga bracteosa Wall Ex Benth. (Labiateae is described in Ayurveda for the treatment of rheumatism, gout, palsy and amenorrhea.Objective: Present study was aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Neelkanthi (whole plant and to support its traditional use.Methods: Methanolic extract of plant Ajuga bracteosa (ABE was investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema, egg albumin induced inflammation in rats and the study was further supported with in vitro antiinflammatory study by using Human red blood cell membrane stabilization (HRBC method. Three doses of the extract (ABE- 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg, i.p. were used in the study and diclofenac sodium (5mg/kg, i.p. was used as standard. Results: ABE (500 and 750 mg/kg, i.p. significantly (P<0.05 reduced increased in paw volume induced by carrageenan and egg albumin. ABE also showed significant stabilization toward HRBC membrane. Conclusions: ABE at the dose of 500 and 750 mg/kg showed potent action on comparison with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.

  4. Cytomictic Anomalous Male Meiosis and 2n Pollen Grain Formation in Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae from Kashmir Himalaya

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    Reyaz Ahmad Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently Mertensia echioides Benth. (Boraginaceae collected from Kashmir Himalaya, India, is cytologically analyzed for the first time revealing 2n=2x=24 (diploid. Interestingly we found 4.3–6.2% syncytic meiocytes/PMCs with 2n=4x=48 (tetraploid in addition to normal meiocytes (2n=24 during male meiosis. These comparatively larger PMCs (pollen mother cells lead to the formation of fertile giant 2n pollen grains. A frequency of 6.4–13.3% PMCs shows transfer of chromatin material at prophase-I and, therefore, results in aneuploid meiocytes. Whole chromatin transfer by the process of cytomixis could also have led to the formation of tetraploid cells. Translocation heterozygosity is also evident in the form of multivalents in 12–17% diploid (2x meiocytes at diakinesis and metaphase-I and is reported for the first time in this species. The syncytes formed depict open chain hexavalent and quadrivalent formation in the three populations with different frequencies. Moreover chromatin stickiness at metaphase-I is observed in 45% of PMCs in population-1 (P-1. Syncyte or unreduced PMC formation leading to unreduced fertile gametes is here speculated to act as a possible way out for infraspecific polyploidization in the species.

  5. In vitro propagation of Rubus macrocarpus Benth. and Rubus bogotensis Kunth, as an ex situ conservation strategy

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    Belkys Adriana Pérez-Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate techniques for in vitro multiplication and rooting and ex vitro adaptation of wild blackberry plants (Rubus bogotensis Benth. and Rubus macrocarpus Kunth. In in vitro phases, the influence of culture media was evaluated based on Murashige & Skoog (MS composition, with or without a 50% reduction in salts, vitamins, and myo-inositol and supplemented or not with benzylaminopurine (BAP, indole acetic acid (IAA, L-cysteine, agar, peat, perlite, and vermiculite. The ex vitro phase was based on a soil, rice husks, peat, and perlite substrate management. After two months of evaluation of the in vitro phases, it was determined that the MS medium at 50% salts, vitamins, and myo-inositol and supplemented with sucrose (15000 mg.l-1 and agar (5000 mg.l-1 was the most suitable for obtaining the highest values of apical length (cm, shoot number, rooting percentage, and root number. In ex vitro adaptation, the acclimation subphase, evaluated during three months, allowed to determine survival rates of 83.33% and 75% for R. macrocarpus and R. bogotensis, respectively. The average increase in stem length (cm was 2.35 cm and 1.30 cm, respectively. In the greenhouse subphase, evaluated for four months, 100% plant survivorship was obtained, and 2.75 cm and 5.31 cm increases in average stem length (cm for R. macrocarpus and R. bogotensis, were determined.

  6. Efecto de riegos presurizados sobre propiedades físicas de un suelo bananero asociado Con Kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides Benth

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    Ing. Pablo Ernesto Villa Guerrero

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar el efecto de los riegos presurizados sobre suelos bananeros se seleccionaron cuatro bloques, uno de ellos influenciado por un sistema de riego subfoliar y otro influenciado por un sistema de riego suprafoliar, completándolo condos bloques asociados con Kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides Benth de iguales sistemas de riego. El efecto de los sistemas de riego se evaluó sobre el perfil del suelo en estratos de 10cm hasta los 50 cm de profundidad, determinando en cada estratola densidad real, porcentaje de humedad, densidad aparente, resistencia a la penetración y porcentaje de porosidad, además del índice de estabilidad estructural y el de encostramiento. Los valores obtenidos indican que para ambos sistemas de riego la capa con más influencia fue la 10-20 cm y observándose un menor efecto en los bloques asociados con Kudzu, los cuales no tuvieron índices de formación de costras superficiales. Palabras clave: Sistemas de riego, porosidad, humedad del suelo, densidad aparente, banano.

  7. Activités insecticides de Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariaceae sur Callosobrichus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera : Bruchidae

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    Nacoulma OG.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activities of Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariacecae on Callobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleptera Bruchidae. This paper deals with insecticidal potentialities of Striga hermonthica (Del. (Scrophulariaceae in protection of cowpea Vigna unguculata (L. Walp against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae during storage. Crude acetone extract at 0,5% w/w (100 mg of extract for 20 g of grain exhibits 48% of ovicidal effect and then reduces by half emergence rate of adult beetles at the first generation. This extract shows a weak insecticide activity against adults of C. maculatus. Petroleum ether fraction (0,4% w/w of the crude extract reveals ovicidal (51% and larvicidal (72% effects which reduce the emergence rate of adults to only 9%. LD50 and LD90 are monitored during crude extract fractionation to follow ovicidal and larvicidal compounds and to evaluate their efficacy during the isolation procedure. One fraction, mainly composed of two triterpenoid compounds has been identified as responsible of the ovicidal activity of S. hermonthica while the origin of the larvicidal activity hasn’t been identified.

  8. Phytochemical Study of the Ecuadorian Species Lepechinia mutica (Benth. Epling and High Antifungal Activity of Carnosol against Pyricularia oryzae

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    Jorge Ramírez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The plant Lepechinia mutica (Benth. Epling (family Lamiaceae is endemic to Ecuador. In the present study, we report some major non-volatile secondary metabolites from the leaves and the chemistry of the essential oil distilled from the flowers. The main identified compounds were carnosol, viridiflorol, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, chrysothol, and 5-hydroxy-4′,7-dimethoxy flavone. Their structures were determined by X-ray diffraction and NMR and MS techniques. The essential oil showed a chemical composition similar to that distilled from the leaves, but with some qualitative and quantitative differences regarding several minor compounds. The main constituents (>4% were: δ-3-carene (24.23%, eudesm-7(11-en-4-ol (13.02%, thujopsan-2-α-ol (11.90%, β-pinene (7.96%, valerianol (5.19%, and co-eluting limonene and β-phellandrene (4.47%. The volatile fraction was also submitted to enantioselective analysis on a β-cyclodextrin column, obtaining the separation and identification of the enantiomers for α-thujene, β-pinene, sabinene, α-phellandrene, limonene and β-phellandrene. Furthermore, the anti-fungal activity of non-volatile secondary metabolites was tested in vitro, with carnosol resulting in being very active against the “blast disease” caused by the fungus Pyricularia oryzae.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of Albizia lebbeck Benth., an ethnomedicinal plant, in acute and chronic animal models of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, N Prakash; Pandikumar, P; Ignacimuthu, S

    2009-09-07

    Albizia lebbeck Benth. is used both in Indian traditional system and folk medicine to treat several inflammatory pathologies such as asthma, arthritis and burns. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the scientific basis of anti-inflammatory activity of different organic solvent extracts of Albizia lebbeck. The anti-inflammatory activity of Albizia lebbeck was studied using the carrageenan, dextran, cotton pellet and Freund's complete adjuvant induced rat models. The extracts obtained using petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol were administered at the concentrations of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts at 400mg/kg, showed maximum inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan (petroleum ether-48.6%; ethanol-59.57%), dextran (petroleum ether-45.99%; ethanol-52.93%), cotton pellet (petroleum ether-34.46%; ethanol-53.57%) and Freund's adjuvant (petroleum ether-64.97%; ethanol-68.57%). The marked inhibitory effect on paw edema shows that Albizia lebbeck possesses remarkable anti-inflammatory activity, supporting the folkloric usage of the plant to treat various inflammatory diseases.

  10. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

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    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-09-05

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  11. Validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the standardisation of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, commercial extracts

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    Renata Colombo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, popularly known as marapuama or muirapuama or miriantã, is a species native to the Amazonian region of Brazil. Extracts of the bark of the plant have been used traditionally for its stimulating and aphrodisiac properties and currently commercialised by the herbal industry as constituents in a wide range of phytomedicines. Fractionation by open column chromatography followed by preparative HPLC-UV/PAD of the stem bark and of three commercial extracts of P. olacoides allowed the isolation of three components that were common to all extracts analysed, and these were identified by NMR to be vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid and theobromine. Vanillic acid, which has been proposed as a phytochemical marker for P. olacoides, was employed as an external standard in the development and validation of a rapid qualitative and quantitative HPLC assay for the analyte. The recoveries values of the developed method were 99.02% and the LOD and LOQ values were 0.033 and 0.11 mg.L-1, respectively. The described method may be applied to the standardisation of herbs, extracts or phytomedicines commercialised as marapuama.

  12. Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth., the Amazonian “Tree of Youth” Prolongs Longevity and Enhances Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Herbenya Peixoto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The tree popularly known in Brazil as mulateiro or pau-mulato (Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth. K. Schum. is deeply embedded in the herbal medicine of the Amazon region. Different preparations of the bark are claimed to have anti-aging, antioxidant, antimicrobial, emollient, wound healing, hemostatic, contraceptive, stimulant, and anti-diabetic properties. The current study aims to provide the first step towards a science-based evidence of the beneficial effects of C. spruceanum in the promotion of longevity and in the modulation of age-related markers. For this investigation, we used the model system Caenorhabditis elegans to evaluate in vivo antioxidant and anti-aging activity of a water extract from C. spruceanum. To chemically characterize the extract, HPLC MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry/MS analyses were performed. Five secondary metabolites were identified in the extract, namely gardenoside, 5-hydroxymorin, cyanidin, taxifolin, and 5-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin-7-glucoside. C. spruceanum extract was able to enhance stress resistance and to extend lifespan along with attenuation of aging-associated markers in C. elegans. The demonstrated bioactivities apparently depend on the DAF-16/FOXO pathway. The data might support the popular claims of mulateiro as the “tree of youth”, however more studies are needed to clarify its putative benefits to human health.

  13. Substrates of Mauritia flexuosa and wastewater from pig farming on growth and quality in seedlings of Acacia mangium

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    Emanuel França Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sustainable alternatives should be adopted to minimise the negative environmental impacts of agricultural activities. The use of wastewater as well as organic waste, from agricultural activities or found naturally, such as the decomposed stems of the Buriti palm (Mauritia flexuosa, can be a sustainable alternative in the production of seedlings for the reforestation of areas in the process of degradation or desertification, common in the State of Piauí, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate growth and quality in seedlings of Acacia mangium Willd grown in substrates with different proportions of decomposed stems of Mauritia flexuosa (DSB, and irrigated with wastewater from pig farming (WPF. The experimental design was completely randomised, arranged in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to five proportions of DSB and soil (v/v,% - 0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20, and two sources of irrigation water (well water and WPF, with four replications. At 100 days after sowing (DAS, the seedlings were collected to measure the variables related to growth, quality and nodulation. Height, root collar diameter, shoot dry weight, leaf area and nitrogen accumulation in the shoots were significantly influenced (p≤0.05 by the interaction between substrate and source of irrigation water. The WPF had no significant influence on the growth or quality of the Acacia mangium Willd seedlings. The best ratio between DSB substrate and soil was 46:54, considered the most suitable for seedling production in Acacia mangium Willd.

  14. Duration Effect of Acacia Nilotica Leaves Extract and Glibenclamide as Hypolipidaemic and Hypoglycaemic Activity in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, M.; Shah, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the duration and effects of aqueous methanol Acacia-nilotica leaves extract and glibenclamide as hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. Methods: The experimental study was conducted at Shifa International Hospital in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad, from September 2010 to August 2011.Male Sprague Dawley albino rats were taken and divided into 8 equal groups. Groups I and II were the normal and diabetic control rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in group II to VIII by administering 110 mg/kg body weight alloxan and at day 4, fasting blood glucose level of >200 mg/dl confirmed diabetes. Acacia-nilotica leaves extract was given to group III, IV and V and glibenclamide to group VI to VIII for a period of 1-3 weeks. Blood samples were analysed for lipid profile using enzymatic calorimetric method and serum insulin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Results: There were 64 rats in the study, with 8(12.5 percent) in each group. Statistically significant decreases in fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and an increase in high density lipoprotein and serum insulin levels were observed in diabetic rats compared to diabetic controls after 2 weeks of treatment with plant extract and glibenclamide (p<0.05 each).When plant extract and drug treated diabetic rats were compared, a significant difference in the levels of blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were noted after 2 and 3 weeks of treatment. Conclusion: Acacia-nilotica leaves extract resulted in hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats similar to glibenclamide. (author)

  15. Ciclagem de nutrientes em Acacia mearnsii de wild. V. Quantificação do conteúdo de nutrientes na biomassa aérea de Acacia mearnsii de wild. Procedência australiana Nutrient cycling in Acacia mearnsii de wild. V. Quantification of nutrient contents in the above-ground biomass of australian provenance of Acacia mearnsii de wild

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    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi quantificado o conteúdo de nutrientes na procedência Australiana Bodalla de Acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild., aos 2,4 anos de idade. A procedência encontra-se estabelecida em solo de baixa fertilidade, com acidez elevada e localizado na Fazenda Menezes, no Distrito de Capão Comprido, município de Butiá-RS, pertencente à Empresa Florestal Agroseta S.A.. Foi selecionado um total de nove árvores para comporem as amostras. A amostragem destrutiva constituiu na individualização dos compartimentos da biomassa aérea (folhas, galhos vivos, galhos mortos, casca e madeira visando à determinação da matéria seca e do conteúdo de nutrientes. As quantidades de nutrientes contidos na biomassa aérea total da procedência Bodalla foram de 182,1kg ha-1 de N; 8,2kg ha-1 de P; 104,4kg ha-1 de K; 66,7kg ha-1 de Ca; 16,1kg ha-1 de Mg e 10,0kg ha-1 de S. Na procedência Bodalla, 57,4% da matéria seca foi alocada para folhas, galhos vivos e galhos mortos, contento 74% do N; 72,1% do P; 63% do K; 68,5% do Ca, 69,3% do Mg e 74,1% do S do total existente na parte aérea. O componente fuste ( casca e madeira acumulou 26% do N; 27,9% do P; 37% do K; 31,5% do Ca; 30,7% do Mg e 25,8% do S.Nutrient contents of 2.4 years old black wattle (., from Bodalla Australian provenance, were quantified. This provenance was established on soils of low fertility and high acidity, at Menezes Farm of Agroseta S.A. Forest CompAcacia mearnsii De Wildany in the Capão Comprido District, municipality of Butiá-RS. A total of nine trees were selected to form the sample. The destructive sampling was constituted in the individualization of compartments of above-ground biomass (leaves, live branches, dead branches, bark and wood to determine dry matter and nutrient contents. The quantity of total nutrients in the above-ground biomass from Bodalla provenance was 182.1kg ha-1 of N; 8.2kg ha-1 of P; 104.4kg ha-1 of K; 66.7kg ha-1 of Ca; 16.1kg ha-1 of

  16. Effect of feeding Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. on goats stabled during late pregnancy and lactation Efecto de la alimentación con Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. en caprinos estabulados en el último tercio de prenez y lactancia

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    Raul Meneses R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. forage is an alternative feed supply for goats during dry periods It was used as feed during pregnancy and lactation to evaluate production response and some blood parameters. Six animals in each group were fed with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of acacia as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. hay replacement in a completely randomized design. Forage chemical analysis was done to calculate nutrient intake. Blood samples were analyzed for albumin, urea N, globulin, total protein, Ca, and P. Productive parameters were analyzed by ANOVA, Duncan, and regression analyses between acacia and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, metabolizable energy (ME, and milk production. Acacia consumption during pregnancy was 65.5% of control, affected by the consumption of CP, ME intake and body condition (P La Acacia saligna es una alternativa de alimentación para caprinos, por lo que se ofreció a hembras en prenez y lactancia para evaluar su respuesta y algunos parámetros sanguíneos. Los animales fueron asignados a grupos que recibieron 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de acacia en reemplazo de heno de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., en un diseno completamente al azar. Análisis químico de forraje fue realizado para calcular consumo de nutrientes. Albumina, N úrico, globulinas, proteína total, Ca, y P fueron analizados en sangre. Se controló peso, condición corporal, y peso de nacimiento. Se realizó ANDEVA, Duncan, y regresión para acacia y las variables evaluadas. El consumo de acacia en la prenez fue 65,5% del control, afectó el consumo de proteína cruda (PC, energía metabolizable (EM y condición corporal (P < 0,01. El peso corporal no fue afectado (P < 0,01, siendo 25,9% el nivel límite de inclusión de acacia. El peso de nacimiento fue diferente con 100% de acacia (P < 0,05. En lactancia, el consumo de MS, PC, y EM aumentó (P < 0,01. Niveles de 50 y 25% acacia disminuyeron el peso y la condición corporal. El N úrico y albumina fueron

  17. The Reserpine Production and Callus Growth of Indian Snake Root (Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. Ex Kurz) Culture by Addition of Cu2+

    OpenAIRE

    NUNUNG NURCAHYANI; SOLICHATUN; ENDANG ANGGARWULAN

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study the effects of Cu2+ addition on the reserpine production and callus growth from in vitro culture indian snake root (Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. Ex Kurz). This research frame work was based on the potency of snake root which was many exploited as anti-hypertension. The addition of elicitor Cu2+ in the form of CuCl2 would influence the ion transport of cell and changed of cytoplasm pH, and also has effects on synthesis and activity of enzymes w...

  18. Épocas de colheita e tratamento pré-germinativos para superação da dormência de sementes Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Leal,Josivan Viana; Alves,Edna Ursulino; Bruno,Riselane de Lucena Alcântara; Pereira,Walter Esfrain; Alves,Anarlete Ursulino; Galindo,Evio Alves; Alves,Adriana Ursulino

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da época de colheita e de tratamentos pré-germinativos na germinação e vigor de sementes de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (sabiá). Para tanto, realizou-se um experimento no Laboratório de Análise de Sementes do CCA-UFPB, em Areia, PB, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 14, com os fatores ano de colheita (2002 e 2003), sementes dentro ou fora do craspédio e tratamentos pré-germ...

  19. Respuesta al estrés por limitación de nitrógeno de plántulas de castilleja tenuiflora benth. cultivadas in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Cortes Morales, Jorge Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. (Orobanchaceae), es una planta medicinal silvestre que sintetiza diversos compuestos químicos como feniletanoides e iridoides glicosilados y flavonoides. El perfil químico de los cultivos in vitro de C. tenuiflora varía dependiendo de factores bióticos y de factores abióticos como el nitrógeno. El objetivo general de este trabajo fue evaluar la respuesta al estrés por limitación de nitrógeno de plántulas de C. tenuiflora cultivadas in vitro. Se cult...

  20. DECOMPOSIÇÃO DAS PODAS DAS LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS Gliricidia sepium E Acacia angustissima EM UM SISTEMA AGROFLORESTAL

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    Patrícia Diniz de Paula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Agroforestry Systems (SAFs bring multiple benefits and they are an alternative to minimize environmental degradation, and to achieve a sustainable development, due to greatest diversity of species. This study evaluated the contribution of the leguminous trees, gliricídia sepium and Acacia angustissima , grown in alley cropping of banana ( Musa sp. and “açaí” palm ( Euterpe oleraceae used as green manure in the implantation of an Agroforestry Systems. They were compared the production of biomass, nutrients cycling, nitrogen intake, activity and diversity of soil fauna, and banana productivity in the SAF, and with the usage of the legume Pueraria phaseoloides and nitrogen fertilization. The SAF implantation occurred in May 2004, at the Research Center of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State. The following year it was planted the forest African mahogany specie ( Kaya senegalensis , at the centre of the legumes alleys. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the leguminous trees arranged between the lines of bananas and the “açaí” palm, and they were: acacia angustíssima ( Acacia angustissima , tropical kudzu ( Pueraria phaseoloides , and gliricídia (G liricídia sepium ; besides application of nitrogen as urea and spontaneous vegetation. To quantify the production of biomass, and the release of N, P, Ca, Mg and K, the legumes branches were cut and the kudzu tropical and spontaneous vegetation were mowed, in the rainy and dry seasons. The determination of remaining dry matter, releasing of nutrients, decomposition rates, and half life time of plant residues were held to 50 grams of fresh material from litterbags, placed on the soil surface, sampled at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60 and 75 days after the installation of the experiment. Acacia angustissima and kudzu tropical showed higher dry biomass, 9.5 and 10.8 Mg ha

  1. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  2. Utilização Potencial do Lenho de Acacia melanoxylon: a Crescer em Povoamentos Puros ou Mistos com Pinus pinaster - pela Indústria Florestal Portuguesa

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, António; Teixeira, Andreia; Anjos, Ofélia; Simões, Rogério; Nunes, Lina; Machado, José S.; Tavares, Mário

    2007-01-01

    A Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. (acácia-austrália ou austrália) cresce bem em Portugal, em povoamentos puros ou mistos com Pinus pinaster Aiton, ainda que apresente fortes constrangimentos ecológicos e legais. Apesar de algumas dificuldades, por exemplo na secagem, a madeira de austrália é usada em mobiliário e produtos manufacturados devido, principalmente, à sua textura e cor escura. Pode também ser usada para pasta, sendo plantada em muitos países com esse propósito juntamente com Acacia mangi...

  3. Effect of efficient microorganisms on cation exchange capacity in acacia seedlings (Acacia melanoxylon) for soil recovery in Mondonedo, Cundinamarca; Accion de microorganismos eficientes sobre la actividad de intercambio cationico en plantulas de acacia (Acacia melanoxylon Burret) para la recuperacion de un suelo del municipio de Mondonedo, Cundinamarca.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olga Angelica, Diaz Barragan; Diana Mercedes, Montero Robayo; Jesus Alberto, Lagos Caballero

    2009-07-01

    We determined the effect of efficient microorganisms (EM) on the cation exchange capacity for soil recovery in the municipality of Mondonedo, Cundinamarca. A greenhouse unit was installed in order to maintain stable conditions. After harvesting, sifted and homogenization of the soil sample, initial physical and chemical analyses were made. For the experimental units we used Acacia melanoxylon seedlings from Zabrinsky. A completely randomized design was done with eight treatments and three repetitions. For the maintenance and monitoring of the seedlings behaviour, a frequency of irrigation of three times per week was found. The application of the EM was done during three months: in the first month, it was applied four times (once a week); during the second month, it was applied twice (biweekly), and during the third month there was only one application. Additionally, every 15 days morphological analyses were made (number of leaves, branches and stem diameter). In the end, soil samples were taken from each plant pot. In the laboratory we analysed the cation exchange capacity, alkali ion exchange, saturation alkali, relations between elements and plant tissue. These were done using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analyses consisted on multiple comparisons test and variance tests, in order to find whether or not treatments exhibited significant differences. In that way, the best alternative for improving environmental quality of eroded soils as the Zabrinsky desert is the efficient microorganisms in 5% doses in irrigation water. Additionally, the cation exchange capacity must be enhanced using organic fertilizers (compost, mulch and gallinaza) in one pound doses, and chemical fertilizers: electrolytic Mn (0.0002 g), Cu (0.0002 g), Zn (0.0001 g), URFOS 44 (166.66 g) and klip-boro (5 g).

  4. Spatial genetic structure within populations and management implications of the South American species Acacia aroma (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pometti, Carolina; Bessega, Cecilia; Cialdella, Ana; Ewens, Mauricio; Saidman, Beatriz; Vilardi, Juan

    2018-01-01

    The identification of factors that structure intraspecific diversity is of particular interest for biological conservation and restoration ecology. All rangelands in Argentina are currently experiencing some form of deterioration or desertification. Acacia aroma is a multipurpose species widely distributed throughout this country. In this study, we used the AFLP technique to study genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and fine-scale spatial genetic structure in 170 individuals belonging to 6 natural Argentinean populations. With 401 loci, the mean heterozygosity (HE = 0.2) and the mean percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL = 62.1%) coefficients indicated that the genetic variation is relatively high in A. aroma. The analysis with STRUCTURE showed that the number of clusters (K) was 3. With Geneland analysis, the number of clusters was K = 4, sharing the same grouping as STRUCTURE but dividing one population into two groups. When studying SGS, significant structure was detected in 3 of 6 populations. The neighbourhood size in these populations ranged from 15.2 to 64.3 individuals. The estimated gene dispersal distance depended on the effective population density and disturbance level and ranged from 45 to 864 m. The combined results suggest that a sampling strategy, which aims to maintain a considerable part of the variability contained in natural populations sampled here, would include at least 3 units defined by the clusters analyses that exhibit particular genetic properties. Moreover, the current SGS analysis suggests that within the wider management units/provinces, seed collection from A. aroma should target trees separated by a minimum distance of 50 m but preferably 150 m to reduce genetic relatedness among seeds from different trees.

  5. Stability and solubility improvement of Sompoi (Acacia concinna Linn. pod extract by topical microemulsion

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    Worrapan Poomanee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to enhance the solubility and stability of Acacia concinna extract by loading in a microemulsion for topical application. Both physical appearance and biological activities of the extract-loaded microemulsion were determined in comparison with the extract solution. Pseudoternary phase diagrams of three oil types including tea seed oil, grape seed oil, and sesame oil, together with polysorbate 85 or the mixture of polysorbate 85 and sorbitan oleate as surfactants, and absolute ethanol as a co-surfactant were constructed to optimize the microemulsion area. The selected microemulsion was then characterized for droplet size, polydispersity index, and viscosity. Tea seed oil exhibited the highest microemulsion area in the phase diagram because it had the highest unsaturated fatty acid content. The microemulsion composed of tea seed oil (5%, polysorbate 85 (40%, ethanol (20%, and water (35% exhibited Newtonian flow behavior with the droplet size and polydispersity index of 68.03 ± 1.09 nm and 0.44 ± 0.04, respectively. After 4% w/w of the extract was incorporated into the microemulsion, larger droplets size was observed (239.77 ± 12.69 nm with a lower polydispersity index (0.37 ± 0.02. After storage in various conditions, both physical appearances and the stability of biological activity of the extract-loaded microemulsion were improved compared to the solution. Therefore, the A. concinna loaded microemulsion may be a promising carrier for further development into a topical formulation and clinical trials for pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications are also suggested.

  6. Polar extracts from (Tunisian Acacia salicina Lindl. Study of the antimicrobial and antigenotoxic activities

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    Boubaker Jihed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methanolic, aqueous and Total Oligomer Flavonoids (TOF-enriched extracts obtained from the leaves of Acacia salicina 'Lindl.' were investigated for antibacterial, antimutagenic and antioxidant activities. Methods The antimicrobial activity was tested on the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains. The Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities against direct acting mutagens, methylmethane sulfonate (MMS and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD, and indirect acting mutagens, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA and benzo[a]pyrene (B(aP were performed with S. typhimurium TA102 and TA98 assay systems. In addition, the enzymatic and nonenzymatic methods were employed to evaluate the anti-oxidative effects of the tested extracts. Results A significant effect against the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains was observed with all the extracts. The mutagenic and antimutagenic studies revealed that all the extracts decreased the mutagenicity induced by B(aP (7.5 μg/plate, 2-AA (5 μg/plate, MMS (1.3 mg/plate and NOPD (10 μg/plate. Likewise, all the extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay system, as well as high Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC, against the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS+• radical. TOF-enriched extract exhibited the highest protective effect against free radicals, direct acting-mutagen and metabolically activated S9-dependent mutagens. Conclusions The present study indicates that the extracts from A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with the antimutagenic and antioxidant activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances.

  7. Investigation of the rumen microbial community responsible for degradation of a putative toxin in Acacia angustissima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.M.C.; Blackall, L.L.; Mcsweeney, C.S.; Krause, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    Acacia angustissima has been proposed as a protein supplement in countries where availability of high quality fodder for grazing animals is a problem due to extreme, dry climates. While A. angustissima thrives in harsh environments and provides valuable nutrients required by ruminants, it has also been found to contain anti-nutritive factors that currently preclude its widespread application. A number of non-protein amino acids have been identified in the leaves of A. angustissima and in the past these have been linked to toxicity in ruminants. The non-protein amino acid 4-n-acetyl-2,4-diaminobutyric acid (ADAB) had been determined to be the major non-protein amino acid in the leaves of A. angustissima. Thus, in this study, the aim was to identify microorganisms from the rumen environment capable of degrading ADAB. Using an ADAB-containing plant extract, a mixed enrichment culture was obtained that exhibited substantial ADAB-degrading ability. Attempts to isolate an ADAB-degrading micro-organism were carried out, but no isolates were able to degrade ADAB in pure culture. The mixed microbial community of the ADAB-degrading enrichment culture was further examined through the use of pure-culture-independent techniques. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed to investigate the diversity within this sample. In addition two bacterial 16S rDNA clone libraries were constructed in an attempt to further elucidate the members of the microbial population. The clone libraries were constructed from serial dilutions of the enrichment culture, a 10 -5 dilution where complete degradation of ADAB occurred, and a 10 -7 dilution where ADAB degradation did not occur. Through the comparison of these two libraries it was hypothesized that clones belonging to the Firmicutes phylum were involved in ADAB degradation. A FISH probe, ADAB1268, was then designed to target these clones and was applied to the enrichment cultures to investigate their relative abundance within the

  8. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobia on seed germination and seedling traits in Acacia senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among arid zone tree species, Acacia senegal and Prosopis cineraria are the most important dryland resources of Western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. Due to ecological, biological and molecular similarities, they are often studied together. The climatic conditions in this region restrict the build-up of soil organic matter and soils are generally deficient in nitrogen. Studies were carried out to isolate and molecularly characterize the diverse group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from root nodules of native A. senegal and P. cineraria and their effect on seed germination and seedling traits in two genotypes of A. senegal. The direct sequencing of 16S rDNA region resulted in molecular identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as Bacillus licheniformis, Sinorhizobium saheli isolated from root nodules of A. senegal and S. kostiense and S. saheli isolated from root nodules of P. cineraria. The partial sequences of 16S rDNA were assigned Gen accession numbers HQ738496, HQ738499, HQ738506 and HQ738508. Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid (98% for 15 minutes was able to break the exogenous seed dormancy and enhanced germination percentage in control treatment to 90% and 92.5% in A. senegal in genotypes CAZRI 113AS and CAZRI 35AS, respectively. The treatments with Bacillus licheniformis or S. kostiense, either inoculated individually or as coinoculants, had positive effect on phenotypic traits of germination. Two A. senegal genotypes exhibited significant differences with regard to all the phenotypic traits. On the other hand, treatments with S. saheli isolated from either A. senegal or P. cineraria had negative effects on germination and related phenotypic traits. Values of the coeffivient of determination (R2 over 80% for root length versus shoot length, root/shoot ratio and seedling weight respectively validate that the observed attributes are inter-dependable and linear progression trend can be predicted.

  9. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lignin fractions extracted from Acacia nilotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Mekala, Sowmya; Das, Amitava; Jha, Harit

    2016-05-01

    Lignin is one of the most important phytomacromolecule with diverse therapeutic properties such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic activities of eleven different lignin fractions, extracted from the wood of Acacia nilotica by pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) and successive solvent extraction (SSE) methods. Results indicate that the PSE fractions have high polyphenolic content and reducing power. However, the antioxidant efficiency examined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay was higher in SSE fractions. All lignin fractions revealed a significant ability to scavenge nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The extracted lignin fractions display high ferric ion reducing capacity and also possess excellent antioxidant potential in the hydrophobic (linoleic acid) system. Fractions extracted by polar solvent has the highest iron (Fe(2+)) chelating activity as compared to other factions, indicating their effect on the redox cycling of iron. Four lignin fractions depicted higher cytotoxic potential (IC50: 2-15 μg/mL) towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) but were ineffective (IC50: ≥ 100 μg/mL) against normal primary human hepatic stellate cells (HHSteCs). These findings suggest that the lignin extracts of A. nilotica wood has a remarkable potential to prevent disease caused by the overproduction of radicals and also seem to be a promising candidate as natural antioxidant and anti-cancer agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biological Activity of Tannins from Acacia mangium Bark Extracted by Different Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium bark is abundant byproduct of wood industry in Indonesia. It is underutilized and mainly used as fire wood for the wood industry. The bark contains high level of tannin but the tannin has not been extracted or produced commercially. Tannin isolate can be used for several purposes such as tanning agent for leather, adhesive for plywood or particle board, etc. In ruminant, tannin can be detrimental but can also be beneficial. This experiment was aimed of getting the highest yield of tannin extract with the highest biological activity in rumen fermentation. Nine different solvents at different temperatures were used to extract tannin from A. mangium bark. The extracts were analyzed for their tannin contents and biological activities. Tannin content was analyzed using folin ciocalteau and butanol-HCl methods. Biological activity was described as a percentage of an increase in gas production in the in vitro rumen-buffer fermentation, with and without addition of PEG. The results show that Na2SO3 solution extracted more tannin than other solutions and the higher the concentration of Na2SO3 solution, the higher the yield of tannin extract. The solution of 6% sodium sulphite gave the highest yield of tannin extract (31.2% of original bark sample and the highest concentration of tannin (18.26% but produced a negative effect on in vitro fermentation (% increase of gas production = 2.70%. Extraction with 50% acetone gave a high yield of extract (22.28% of original bark which contained 12.98% of tannin and showed the highest biological response (% increase of gas production = 216%. In conclusion, sodium sulphite solution is not recommended for tannin extraction if the tannin will be used as feed additive in ruminant feed; on the other hand, the aqueous acetone (50% acetone solution is a better choice to be used.

  11. The effects of temperature and salinity on Acacia harpophylla (brigalow) (Mimosaceae) germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichman, S.M.; Bellairs, S.M.; Mulligan, D.R. [Lincoln University, Lincoln (New Zealand). Division of Agriculture & Life Science

    2006-07-01

    Some coal mining companies in central Queensland have become interested in providing habitat for the endangered bridle nail-tailed wallaby that lives in brigalow vegetation. However, there is little known about establishment techniques for brigalow on mine sites and other disturbed ground; an understanding of brigalow biology and ecology is required to assist in the conservation of this threatened vegetation community and for re-creation of bridled nail-tail wallaby habitat in the post mining landscape. Brigalow is an unusual species of Acacia because it is not hard-seeded and germinates readily without the need to break seed-coat imposed dormancy. Germination trials were undertaken to test the ability of brigalow seed to germinate with a range of temperatures and salinity levels similar to those experienced in coal mine spoil. Optimum germination was found to occur at temperatures from 15 to 38{sup o}C and no germination was recorded at 45{sup o}C. Brigalow was very tolerant of high salt levels and germinated at percentages greater than 50% up to the highest salinity tested, 30 dS/m. Germination of greater than 90% occurred up to an electrical conductivity of 20 dS/m. The results indicate brigalow seed can be sown in summer when rains are most likely to occur; however, shading of the seed with extra soil or mulch may ensure the ground surface does not become too hot for germination. Because of its ability to germinate at high salinity levels, brigalow may be suitable for use in saline mine wastes which are common on sites to be rehabilitated after mining.

  12. Photosynthesis and sink activity of wasp-induced galls in Acacia pycnantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchin, Netta; Cramer, Michael D; Hoffmann, John H

    2006-07-01

    Although insect galls are widely known to influence source-sink relationships in plants, the relationship between photosynthesis and gall activity has not been extensively studied. In this study we used 14CO2, photosynthesis, and respiration measurements to examine the capacity of bud galls induced by the wasp Trichilogaster signiventris (Pteromalidae) as carbon sinks in Acacia pycnantha. Galls of this species develop either in vegetative or reproductive buds, depending on the availability of tissues at different times of the year, and effectively eliminate seed production by the plant. Photosynthetic rates in phyllodes subtending clusters of galls were greater than rates in control phyllodes, a result we attributed to photosynthesis compensating for increased carbon demand by the galls. Contrary to previous studies, we found that photosynthesis within galls contributed substantially to the carbon budgets of the galls, particularly in large, mature galls, which exhibited lower specific respiration rates allowing for a net carbon gain in the light. To determine the sink capacity and competitive potential of galls, we measured the proportion of specific radioactivity in galls originating from either vegetative or reproductive buds and found no difference between them. The proportion of the total amount of phyllode-derived 14C accumulated in both clustered and solitary galls was less than that in fruits. Galls and fruits were predominantly reliant on subtending rather than on distant phyllodes for photosynthate. Solitary galls that developed in vegetative buds constituted considerably stronger sinks than galls in clusters on inflorescences where there was competition between galls or fruits for resources from the subtending phyllode. Wasps developing in solitary vegetative galls were correspondingly significantly larger than those from clustered galls. We conclude that, in the absence of inflorescence buds during summer and fall, the ability of the wasps to cause gall

  13. Hepatoprotective and Antiviral Efficacy of Acacia mellifera Leaves Fractions against Hepatitis B Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H. Arbab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the hepatoprotective and anti-HBV efficacy of Acacia mellifera (AM leaves extracts. The crude ethanolic-extract, including organic and aqueous fractions, were tested for cytotoxicity on HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells (IC50 = 684 μg/mL. Of these, the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions showed the most promising, dose-dependent hepatoprotection in DCFH-toxicated cells at 48 h. In CCl4-injured rats, oral administration of AM ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg·bw for three weeks significantly normalized the sera aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein levels and elevated tissue nonprotein sulphydryl and total protein. The histopathology of dissected livers also revealed that AM cured the tissue lesions. The phytochemical screening of the fractions showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, and saponins. Further, anti-HBV potential of the fractions was evaluated on HepG2.2.15 cells. Of these, the n-butanol and aqueous fractions exhibited the best inhibitory effects on HBsAg and HBeAg expressions in dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, while the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions exhibited the most promising antioxidant/hepatoprotective and anti-HBV activity, respectively, the n-butanol partition showed both activities. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of AM extracts warrants further isolation of the active principle(s and its phytochemical as well as biological studies.

  14. Polyphenols isolated from Acacia mearnsii bark with anti-inflammatory and carbolytic enzyme inhibitory activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Jia; GRACE Mary H; ESPOSITO Debora; KOMARNYTSKY Slavko; WANG Fei; LILA Mary Ann

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the polyphenols isolated from Acacia mearnsii bark crude extract (B) and fractions (B1-B7) obtained by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and evaluate their anti-inflammatory and carbolytic enzymes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) inhibitory activities.Fractions B4,B5,B6,B7 (total phenolics 850.3,983.0,843.9,and 572.5 mg·g-1,respectively;proanthocyanidins 75.7,90.5,95.0,and 44.8 mg·g-1,respectively) showed significant activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS),nitric oxide (NO) production,and expression of pro-inflammatory genes interleukin-lβ (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.All the extracts suppressed α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities,two primary enzymes responsible for carbohydrate digestion.A.mearnsii bark samples possessed significantly stronger inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase enzyme (IC50 of 0.4-1.4 tg·mL-1) than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 141.8 μg·mL-1).B6 and B7 (IC5017.6 and 11.7 μg·mL-1,respectively) exhibited α-amylase inhibitory activity as efficacious as acarbose (IC50 15.4 μg·mL-1).Moreover,B extract,at 25 μg·mL-l,significantly decreased the non-mitochondrial oxidative burst that is often associated with inflammatory response in human monocytic macrophages.

  15. Phosphorus use efficiency of the gum arabi tree (Acacia senegal (L) Willd) in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elamin, K H; Mustafa, A F [Gezira Agricultural Research Centre, Wad Medani (Sudan). Forestry Research Section

    1996-07-01

    This study was conducted to identify gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal L. Willd) provenances with high efficiency for phosphorus uptake and use. Thirteen provenances were collected from different habitats with the gum belt of the Sudan. A preliminary trial was conducted during the period 1989-1992 at the Gezira Agricultural Research Station in Wad Medani. This study revealed that there are clear genotypic differences in phosphorus use efficiency, nitrogen yield and dry matter production. All the provenances tested also exhibited a high ability for survival under the dry climatic conditions as prevailing in the gum belt of Sudan. Based on differences in phosphorus use efficiency observed in the preliminary study, 4 provenances were selected for a detailed study. Provenance 11 and 2 represented the highly efficient group, provenance 7 the moderately efficient group and provenance 13 the low efficient group. The detailed study revealed that provenance 11 is superior to all others in terms of biomass production as well as in phosphorus use efficiency. Although the ability to take up phosphorus was low, this was compensated by having a high root length density enabling the tree to take up a quantity of phosphorus similar to that taken up by other provenances. The high ability to convert the absorbed phosphorus into a greater quantity of dry matter made this provenance the best in phosphorus use efficiency. These results suggest that provenance 11 may be a suitable candidate to be introduced into the gum belt of Sudan in support of its rehabilitation programme. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs.

  16. Effect of Acacia raddiana extracts on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, the causal agent of Bayoud

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    Noureddine BOULENOUAR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a medicinal plant from algerian Sahara (South-West of Algeria, Acacia raddiana has been used (leaves, bark to evaluate its extracts (reflux extraction with four solvents: methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, hexane on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa. The Foa is the causal agent of the most dangerous disease of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.. The preliminary evaluation has been realized by agar diffusion technique and virulence test on potato tuber tissues. The extracts that present an inhibition or decrease the relative virulence (RV below 50% undergo phytochemical screening and direct bioautography. The bioautography has been used to localize the antifungal activity on the chromatogram and study the correlation with phytochemical screening data. Among eight extracts, five has been chosen for phytochemical screening and bioautography (2 leaves extracts and 3 bark extracts. Only six tests among 32 (22.58% present a detectable effect. The best effect is related to bark extract with ethyl acetate (inhibition diameter: 18mm, which is a moderate effect. Some extracts show an increase in RV. On the other hand, others decrease the RV. The best effect on RV is presented by hexanic extract of bark (RV=48%. The phytochemical screening highlighted the presence of flavonoids, tannins, coumarins and alkaloids in the studied plant. The direct bioautography has demonstrated no detectable effect. According to realized analyses, we can conclude that this species contains bioactive substances on Foa but need more precise analyses. The reason is simple, in addition to synergy principle in the crude extracts; the quantity of these metabolites is low compared to the detection level.

  17. Phosphorus use efficiency of the gum arabi tree (Acacia senegal (L) Willd) in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elamin, K.H.; Mustafa, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal L. Willd) provenances with high efficiency for phosphorus uptake and use. Thirteen provenances were collected from different habitats with the gum belt of the Sudan. A preliminary trial was conducted during the period 1989-1992 at the Gezira Agricultural Research Station in Wad Medani. This study revealed that there are clear genotypic differences in phosphorus use efficiency, nitrogen yield and dry matter production. All the provenances tested also exhibited a high ability for survival under the dry climatic conditions as prevailing in the gum belt of Sudan. Based on differences in phosphorus use efficiency observed in the preliminary study, 4 provenances were selected for a detailed study. Provenance 11 and 2 represented the highly efficient group, provenance 7 the moderately efficient group and provenance 13 the low efficient group. The detailed study revealed that provenance 11 is superior to all others in terms of biomass production as well as in phosphorus use efficiency. Although the ability to take up phosphorus was low, this was compensated by having a high root length density enabling the tree to take up a quantity of phosphorus similar to that taken up by other provenances. The high ability to convert the absorbed phosphorus into a greater quantity of dry matter made this provenance the best in phosphorus use efficiency. These results suggest that provenance 11 may be a suitable candidate to be introduced into the gum belt of Sudan in support of its rehabilitation programme. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Assessing nitrogen fixation in mixed- and single-species plantations of Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia mearnsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, David I; Schortemeyer, Marcus; Stock, William D; Bauhus, Jürgen; Khanna, Partap K; Cowie, Annette L

    2007-09-01

    Mixtures of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Acacia mearnsii de Wildeman are twice as productive as E. globulus monocultures growing on the same site in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia, possibly because of increased nitrogen (N) availability owing to N(2) fixation by A. mearnsii. To investigate whether N(2) fixation by A. mearnsii could account for the mixed-species growth responses, we assessed N(2) fixation by the accretion method and the (15)N natural abundance method. Nitrogen gained by E. globulus and A. mearnsii mixtures and monocultures was calculated by the accretion method with plant and soil samples collected 10 years after plantation establishment. Nitrogen in biomass and soil confirmed that A. mearnsii influenced N dynamics. Assuming that the differences in soil, forest floor litter and biomass N of plots containing A. mearnsii compared with E. globulus monocultures were due to N(2) fixation, the 10-year annual mean rates of N(2) fixation were 38 and 86 kg ha(-1) year(-1) in 1:1 mixtures and A. mearnsii monocultures, respectively. Nitrogen fixation by A. mearnsii could not be quantified on the basis of the natural abundance of (15)N because such factors as mycorrhization type and fractionation of N isotopes during N cycling within the plant confounded the effect of the N source on the N isotopic signature of plants. This study shows that A. mearnsii fixed significant quantities of N(2) when mixed with E. globulus. A decline in delta(15)N values of E. globulus and A. mearnsii with time, from 2 to 10 years, is further evidence that N(2) was fixed and cycled through the stands. The increased aboveground biomass production of E. globulus trees in mixtures when compared with monocultures can be attributed to increases in N availability.

  19. Influence of mineral fertilization on edaphic fauna in Acacia auriculiformis (A. Cunn plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Parente Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization and/or the accumulation of organic matter from plant residues can influence the composition of soil and litter community. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of P and K fertilization on total faunal and nematode faunal composition and richness in plant litter and soil for 360 days in an area reforested with Acacia auriculiformis (A. Cunn, located in the municipality of Conceição de Macabu in the State of Rio de Janeiro. For each treatment (fertilized and unfertilized plots, samples of litter and soil (to a depth of 5 cm were collected and transferred into a Berlese-Tüllgren funnels for the extraction of fauna. Mesofauna and macrofauna were quantified, and the major taxa identified. Nematodes were extracted by centrifugal flotation in sucrose solution and identified according to feeding habits. Density (number of individuals m-2 of total fauna, microphages, social insects and saprophages varied significantly per treatment and sampling time in both litter and soil. The total number of individuals collected was 5,127, and the total number of nematodes 894. Phosphorus and potassium fertilization resulted in an increase in total fauna density and richness in the litter due to an increased abundance of social insects, saprophages and herbivores. In the soil, fertilization increased the saprophage and predator densities. Saprophages were the predominant taxa in the litter, while social insects (Formicidae prevailed in the soil. Litter nematode populations were favored by mineral fertilization. Bacteriophages were the predominant nematode group in both litter and soil.

  20. Seed size effects on the response of seedlings of Acacia asak (Forssk.) Willd to water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Atta, H.A.; Areef, I.M.; Ahmed, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    Dry tropical forests are characterized by unpredictable spells of drought and climate change. Saudi Arabia mostly falls within the arid zone and some few scattered areas fall in the semiarid zone mainly in the South Western region. Rainfall is sparse and with sporadic distribution. Drought is the most critical factor for restoration of the tree cover. Within a tree, seeds vary in size from large to small seeds. Although several researchers have studied the effect of within species variation in seed size on seedlings growth parameters, however there is a lack of knowledge regarding the effect of seed size on stress tolerance (Khurana and Singh 2000). We assumed that seedlings grown from different seed sizes from the same tree species may influence their response to water stress. Seeds of Acacia asak (Forssk.) Willd. were categorized into large, medium and small seeds on the basis of the seed weight. Seedlings from the three seed sizes were grown in potted soil and subjected to 5 levels of field water capacity (FC) (100, 75, 50, 25 and 15 percent) in the greenhouse. The Objective was to evaluate the response of seedling grown (from different seed sizes) to water stress and to understand the acclimation of seedlings to water stress. Water stress significantly reduced RWC, leaf area, and shoot length, fresh and dry weight. Significant correlations between growth parameters and water stress level were recorded. Seedlings from large seeds were heavier and comparatively less affected by drought compared to seedlings from smaller seeds. In all seedlings root length increased significantly and more biomass was allocated to roots than to shoots. However, at severe water stress (15 percent FC) no significant differences were reported between the three seedling categories. Therefore, raising of seedlings from large seeds is more appropriate for tree restoration programs under drought conditions. (author)

  1. Improvement of nutritive value of acacia mangium bark by alkali treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bark, especially from Acacia mangium is a by-product from wood processing industries that commonly found in Indonesiaand in big amount will cause environmental problems. One of the alternatives to utilize bark is for animal feed. The aims of this experiment are to improve the nutritive value of bark by alkali treatments (urea and sodium hydroxide and to determine the level of substitution of elephant grass by bark. The experiment consisted of 3 in vitro studies and 1 in sacco study. In vitro studies consisted of 1 the use of urea or NaOH by wetting and incubation-method, 2 the use of different concentration of Na OH (0-4% by soaking method, 3 determination of substitution level of elephant grass by treated bark. In sacco study was conducted at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation to compare the degradation of treated bark to elephant grass. The results show that urea treatment did not improve DM or OM digestibilities of bark. Soaking bark in 4% NaOH solution was more effective than wetting and incubation-method in improving in vitro digestibility. (49.26% vs19.56% for soaking and dry-method, respectively. In sacco studyl shows that treated bark had a very high solubility at 0 hour incubation but the degradation at 72 hours incubation was not significantly different from that of 0 hour incubation. The gas produced at in vitro study of treated bark was very low indicated that there was no degradation of bark at all. The level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark up to 30% gave a non-significant digestibility value to that of 100% elephant grass. In conclusion, bark after tannin-extraction was a better feedstuff for animal feed. The soaking method in 4% NaOH solution improved the digestibility of bark significantly and the level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark was 30%.

  2. Growth Responses of Acacia mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria Seedlings on Different Soil Origin under Nursery Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirtha Ayu Paramitha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine the growth responses of Acacia mangium (mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria (sengon seedlings growing on different soil origin under nursery condition. This study was started in September 2012 and terminated in March 2013.  The seedlings were grown from seeds sown in a plastic box filled with sterilized sands. One week after sowing, the seedlings were transplanted into polybags contained sterilized soils originated from secondary forest, Imperata cylindrica grassland and ex-coal mining. The number of all seedlings were 180 seedlings consisted of 3 different soils, 2 species of seedlings with 10 seedlings replicated 3 times. Assessment was conducted one week after transplanting, then subsequently monitored every 2 weeks, except dry weighing and counting nodules were performed at the end of the study. A completely randomized design was used in this study. The data was analyzed using Costat software. The study resulted that the different of soil origin influenced on all growth variables of mangium and sengon of 4.5 months old. The survival rate of seedlings, height and diameter increments, dry weight and root nodules were better in both species of seedlings growing on soil originated from secondary forest and Imperata grassland compared with the soil from ex-coal mining. But the survival rates of sengon seedlings were higher than that of mangium on these three soils. The highest dry weight of sengon seedlings was achieved on soil originated from secondary forest. In the present study, soil originated from secondary forest increased more in weight of shoot than root, so that the shoot-root ratio was unbalanced more than one. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that soil from secondary forest and Imperata grassland can be used as growing media for mangium and sengon seedlings in the nursery.

  3. Longevity and growth of Acacia tortilis; insights from 14C content and anatomy of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gidske L; Krzywinski, Knut

    2007-06-15

    Acacia tortilis is a keystone species across arid ecosystems in Africa and the Middle East. Yet, its life-history, longevity and growth are poorly known, and consequently ongoing changes in tree populations cannot be managed in an appropriate manner. In other arid areas parenchymatic bands marking growth zones in the wood have made dendrochronological studies possible. The possibilities for using pre- and post-bomb 14C content in wood samples along with the presence of narrow marginal parenchymatic bands in the wood is therefore tested to gain further insight into the age, growth and growth conditions of A. tortilis in the hyper-arid Eastern Desert of Egypt. Based on age scenarios and the Gompertz growth equation, the age of trees studied seems to be from 200 up to 650 years. Annual radial growth estimated from calibrated dates based on the post-bomb 14C content of samples is up to 2.4 mm, but varies both spatially and temporally. Parenchymatic bands are not formed regularly. The correlation in band pattern among trees is poor, both among and within sites. The post-bomb 14C content of A. tortilis wood gives valuable information on tree growth and is required to assess the age scenario approach applied here. This approach indicates high longevities and slow growth of trees. Special management measures should therefore be taken at sites where the trend in tree population size is negative. The possibilities for dendrochronological studies based on A. tortilis from the Eastern Desert are poor. However, marginal parenchymatic bands can give insight into fine scale variation in growth conditions and the past management of trees.

  4. Fibre Morphological Characteristics of Kraft Pulps of Acacia melanoxylon Estimated by NIR-PLS-R Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the morphological properties of fiber length (weighted in length and of fiber width of unbleached Kraft pulp of Acacia melanoxylon were determined using TECHPAP Morfi® equipment (Techpap SAS, Grenoble, France, and were used in the calibration development of Near Infrared (NIR partial least squares regression (PLS-R models based on the spectral data obtained for the wood. It is the first time that fiber length and width of pulp were predicted with NIR spectral data of the initial woodmeal, with high accuracy and precision, and with ratios of performance to deviation (RPD fulfilling the requirements for screening in breeding programs. The selected models for fiber length and fiber width used the second derivative and first derivative + multiplicative scatter correction (2ndDer and 1stDer + MSC pre-processed spectra, respectively, in the wavenumber ranges from 7506 to 5440 cm−1. The statistical parameters of cross-validation (RMSECV (root mean square error of cross-validation of 0.009 mm and 0.39 μm and validation (RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction of 0.007 mm and 0.36 μm with RPDTS (ratios of performance to deviation of test set values of 3.9 and 3.3, respectively, confirmed that the models are robust and well qualified for prediction. This modeling approach shows a high potential to be used for tree breeding and improvement programs, providing a rapid screening for desired fiber morphological properties of pulp prediction.

  5. Fungal Succession and Decomposition of Acacia mangium Leaf Litters in Health and Ganoderma Attacked Standings

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    SAMINGAN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf litters of Acacia mangium play an important functional role in ecosystem, producing sources of nutrients and giving diversity of microorganisms. Understanding the variation in fungal populations in A. mangium forest is important due to the roles of fungi in regulating populations of other organisms and ecosystem processes. For these purposes, the tests were conducted under two years old of health standing (2S and Ganoderma attacked standing (2G using litterbag method. Litter weight loss and lignin, cellulose, C, N contents were measured each month during eight months of decomposition, as well as fungal community involved was observed. Litter weight loss and lignin, cellulose, C, N contents were measured each month during eight months of decomposition, as well as fungal community involved was observed. After eight months of decomposition, litter weight losses were low up to 34.61% (k = 0.7/year in 2S and 30.64% (k = 0.51/year in 2G, as well as lignin weight losses were low up to 20.05% in 2S and 13.87% in 2G. However, cellulose weight losses were 16.34% in 2S and 14.71% in 2G. In both standings, the numbers of fungal species were 21 and 20 respectively, while the total of fungal populations tends to increase after one month of decomposition and tend to decrease in the last three months. In the first and second months of decomposition fungal species were dominated by genera of Penicillium and Aspergillus and the last three months by Trichoderma, Phialophora, and Pythium.

  6. Gum acacia mitigates genetic damage in adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B H; Al Balushi, K; Al-Husseini, I; Mandel, P; Nemmar, A; Schupp, N; Ribeiro, D A

    2015-12-01

    Subjects with chronic renal failure (CRF) exhibit oxidative genome damage, which may predispose to carcinogenesis, and Gum acacia (GumA) ameliorates this condition in humans and animals. We evaluated here renal DNA damage and urinary excretion of four nucleic acid oxidation adducts namely 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 8-oxoguanosine (8-oxoGuo) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanisone (8-OHdg) in rats with adenine (ADE)-induced CRF with and without GumA treatment. Twenty-four rats were divided into four equal groups and treated for 4 weeks. The first group was given normal food and water (control). The second group was given normal food and GumA (15% w/v) in drinking water. The third group was fed powder diet containing adenine (ADE) (0·75% w/w in feed). The fourth group was fed like in the third group, plus GumA in drinking water (15%, w/v). ADE feeding induced CRF (as measured by several physiological, biochemical and histological indices) and also caused a significant genetic damage and significant decreases in urinary 8-oxo Gua and 8-oxoGuo, but not in the other nucleic acids. However, concomitant GumA treatment reduced the level of genetic damage in kidney cells as detected by Comet assay and significantly reversed the effect of adenine on urinary 8-oxoGuo. Treatment with GumA is able to mitigate genetic damage in renal tissues of rats with ADE-induced CRF. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  7. Longevity and growth of Acacia tortilis; insights from 14C content and anatomy of wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzywinski Knut

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acacia tortilis is a keystone species across arid ecosystems in Africa and the Middle East. Yet, its life-history, longevity and growth are poorly known, and consequently ongoing changes in tree populations cannot be managed in an appropriate manner. In other arid areas parenchymatic bands marking growth zones in the wood have made dendrochronological studies possible. The possibilities for using pre- and post-bomb 14C content in wood samples along with the presence of narrow marginal parenchymatic bands in the wood is therefore tested to gain further insight into the age, growth and growth conditions of A. tortilis in the hyper-arid Eastern Desert of Egypt. Results Based on age scenarios and the Gompertz growth equation, the age of trees studied seems to be from 200 up to 650 years. Annual radial growth estimated from calibrated dates based on the post-bomb 14C content of samples is up to 2.4 mm, but varies both spatially and temporally. Parenchymatic bands are not formed regularly. The correlation in band pattern among trees is poor, both among and within sites. Conclusion The post-bomb 14C content of A. tortilis wood gives valuable information on tree growth and is required to assess the age scenario approach applied here. This approach indicates high longevities and slow growth of trees. Special management measures should therefore be taken at sites where the trend in tree population size is negative. The possibilities for dendrochronological studies based on A. tortilis from the Eastern Desert are poor. However, marginal parenchymatic bands can give insight into fine scale variation in growth conditions and the past management of trees.

  8. Crescimento de plantas jovens de Tabebuia aurea (Manso Benth. & Hook. f. ex S. Moore submetidas a estresse hídrico Growth of young plants of Tabebuia aurea (Manso Benth. & Hook. f. ex S. Moore under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Lopes Cabral

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Tabebuia aurea (Manso Benth. & Hook. f. ex S. Moore pertence à família Bignoniaceae e ocorre nas margens dos rios temporários do Nordeste semi-árido. O crescimento das plantas jovens foi acompanhado em casa de vegetação por quatro meses e foi analisado em função do alongamento (cm, massa da matéria seca (g e densidade estomática (mm². Trinta dias após a semeadura, as plantas foram submetidas a três tratamentos hídricos: 100, 50 e 25% da capacidade de campo (cc. A densidade estomática foi verificada mensalmente nas regiões apical, mediana e basal da folha. Utilizou-se impressão em esmalte e a contagem foi efetuada em área de 1mm². O tratamento de 25%cc propiciou maior redução do crescimento. Nesse tratamento, a razão de crescimento (cm parte subterrânea/aérea foi de 2:1 até os 60 dias; o número médio de folhas produzidas reduziu a partir dos 90 dias, e a área foliar média, dos 30 aos 120 dias de experimento. Em todos os tratamentos, evidenciou-se o efeito do estresse na massa da matéria seca (g a partir dos 90 dias. O maior percentual de biomassa foi alocado para a parte aérea até os 90 dias e aos 120 dias para a parte subterrânea. T. aurea é hipoestomática, com estômatos do tipo anomocítico e densidade estomática variando de 119,63 a 155,19 estômatos por mm².Tabebuia aurea (Manso Benth. & Hook. f. ex S. Moore, a member of the family Bignoniaceae, is usually found along the margins of temporary rivers in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. Growth of young plants was studied for four months in a greenhouse, with respect to elongation (cm, dry matter weight (g and stomatal density (mm². Thirty days after sowing, the young plants were submitted to three water treatments: 100, 50 and 25% of field capacity. Leaf stomatal density at the apical, median and basal portions was recorded monthly. Stomata impression in enamel was used and countings were performed in a 1mm² area. The 25% field capacity

  9. Germinação de sementes de dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae no armazenamento Germination of Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae during storage

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    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (jacarandá-da-bahia, espécie de alto valor econômico pela qualidade da madeira e potencial ornamental em razão da copa bem formada e à delicadeza da folhagem, está na lista de espécies ameaçadas de extinção. Em função disso, conduziu-se este trabalho, visando à avaliação da qualidade de suas sementes, submetidas a períodos crescentes de armazenamento. Os frutos foram coletados em outubro de 2003, e as sementes armazenadas em geladeira a 6º C ± 2, em sacos de plástico transparente fechados. Mensalmente, durante 690 dias, foram retiradas 200 sementes, sendo que 100 foram utilizadas nos ensaios de germinação (quatro repetições de 25 sementes e 100 para a determinação do teor de água. Os ensaios germinativos foram conduzidos em estufa tipo B.O.D., a 25º C e com fotoperíodo de 12 horas. As variáveis analisadas foram a porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação e massa seca das plântulas originadas. Os resultados indicaram que, até 360 dias de armazenamento, as sementes apresentaram porcentagem de germinação próxima de 50%, com redução de cerca da metade do índice de velocidade de germinação, porém, com maior comprometimento do acúmulo da massa seca das plântulas. A porcentagem de germinação inicial e final foram de 87% e 36%, respectivamente. As sementes de D. nigra têm comportamento ortodoxo e podem ser armazenadas por um período de até dois anos em sacos de plástico a baixa temperatura, com redução em cerca de 50% de sua capacidadeDalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (Brazilian rosewood is a highly economically valuable species because of its wood quality and ornamental potential, mainly due to its well formed canopy and the delicacy of its foliage. Unfortunately, these features contributed to list it as an endangered Brazilian species (IBAMA Regulation number 06/92. This work had as its objective to study the quality of Dalbergia

  10. Crescimento de mudas de angico-vermelho (Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan sob diferentes doses de macronutrientes Growth of angico vermelho (Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan seedlings under different macronutrient doses

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    Elzimar de Oliveira Gonçalves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar, por meio de características morfológicas, o efeito de doses de macronutrientes no crescimento e desenvolvimento de mudas de angico- vermelho (Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan produzidas em amostras de três classes de solo (Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo álico e Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. As mudas foram plantadas em vasos com capacidade para 2,1 dm³. O experimento foi conduzido no período de dezembro de 2004 a maio de 2005. Os tratamentos foram delimitados segundo uma matriz baconiana, em que se variaram os macronutrientes em três doses diferentes, mais dois tratamentos adicionais (zero e base, com quatro repetições. As fontes de N, K e S foram parceladas em quatro vezes (0-30-60-90 dias. Em termos gerais, o maior crescimento das plantas ocorreu no Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo álico. O nutriente que mais surtiu efeitos significativos foi o P, sendo recomendadas doses de 150 a 250 mg dm-3. Para a aplicação de N, recomendam-se doses mínimas de 50 mg/dm³. A aplicação de S deve ser de 20 a 80 mg dm-3. As respostas à aplicação dos demais nutrientes (Ca, Mg e K, em muitos casos, não ocorreu, evidenciando-se que a espécie tem baixo requerimento por eles. Entretanto, partindo desse estudo, sugerem-se novos estudos com os nutrientes K e Ca, para produção de mudas da referida espécie nesses solos.This work aimed to evaluate, by means of morphological characteristics, the effect of macronutrient doses on the growth of angico vermelho (Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan seedlings cultivated in three soils (Red Yellow Argisol, Red Yellow Dystrophic Latosol and Red Yellow alic Latosol. The seedling were sown in vases with capacity of 2.1 dm³ . The experiment was carried out from December 2004 to June 2005. The treatments were delimited according to a Baconian matrix, with macronutrients varying in three different doses, plus two additional treatments

  11. Modelagem do volume do povoamento para Mimosa scabrella Benth. na regição metropolitana de Curitiba Stand volume modelling of Mimosa scabrella benth. from Curitiba metropolitan region

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    Sebastião do Amaral Machado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi modelar o volume total com casca do povoamento da bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.. Coletaram-se dados em bracatingais com regeneração induzida pelo fogo, em 14 municípios da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba (RMC, Estado do Paraná - Brasil. Utilizou-se uma base de dados constituída por 229 unidades amostrais de 100 a 400 m². Em cada parcela, mensurou-se o diâmetro à altura do peito, bem como a altura total de todas as árvores, em bracatingais de 3 a 18 anos de idade. Para a estimativa do volume total com casca, testaram-se vários modelos de regressão selecionados da literatura, o que gerou uma matriz com 58 variáveis independentes, visando construir modelos por meio do método Stepwise. As equações de melhor ajuste foram validadas utilizando-se o teste Qui-quadrado, a análise gráfica de resíduos e o erro-padrão da estimativa. Várias equações tiveram bom desempenho, apresentaram valores de coeficiente de determinação ajustados superiores a 0,995, erro-padrão da estimativa inferior a 3% e adequada distribuição de resíduos. As duas equações de melhor desempenho foram validadas, apresentando erro-padrão da estimativa de 2,37% e 2,13%, valor não-significativo para o teste do Qui-quadrado e equilibrada distribuição dos resíduos.The objective of this research was to model the stand volume outside bark of Mimosa scabrella Benth. stands, from the Curitiba Metropolitan Region (CMR, Parana State - Brazil. To reach this aim, a database of 229 permanent and temporary sample plots measuring from 100 to 400 m² each, from 14 municipalities in the CMR, was used. In each sample plot, the diameter at breast height and the total height of all 3- to 18-year-old bracatinga trees were measured. To estimate the total volume, regression models selected from the literature were tested. A set of 58 independent variables was generated also to construct models by the Stepwise method. The equations of best

  12. Lowering blood pressure effect of Apium graviolens (seledri and Orthosipleon stamineus benth (kumis kucing in mild and moderate hypertension

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    Siti Supari

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia Apium graviolens and Orthosiphon stamineus benth have been used to as traditional medicines to lower blood pressure. Since at present time is avaiLable as a combination of those phytopharmaca in the market, therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study to evaLtnte the ffictivity and side effects of those phytopharmaca toward hypertensive subjects. A randomized double blind conftolled trial was conducted at area of Monica - Jakarta in South of Jalarta from July-untiL 29 October 2001 toward mild and moderate hypertensive subjects. The first group (72 subjects received phytophanmaca (Tensigard® /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} which contains Apium graviolens and Orthosiphon stamineus benth 3 x 250 mg, whiLe the second grottp (70 subjects had Amlodipine I x 5 mg. Obseruation were conducted for 12 weelcs, and the parameter observed wère systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, plasma lipid, blood glucose before and after treatment, and electrolyte with nvo week intervals. The Resuhs revealed that the phytopharmaca treatment for 12 weel 0,05; DBP 10.00 t0.96 mmHg vs 9.49 t 1.37 ntmHg; P> 0.05. Phytopharmaca treatment for 12

  13. Effects of acacia senegal (L.,Willd.) on sandy soils: A case study of El damokeya forest, Northern Kordofan State

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    Ahmed, D. M; Nimer, A. M.

    2002-01-01

    Soil properties were studied in El Damokeya forest, located at 30 km east of Elobeid town, Northern Kordofan State, during the rainy season of 1998. The aim was to characterize the soils of the area and to examine the effects of Acacia senegal plantations on the soils physical and chemical properties. The results showed that the soils were sandy, weakly structured, yellowish-red, neutral and poor in nutrient content, and that Acacia senegal plantations had induced considerable changes in the soil morphological, physical and chemical properties. The soil became more differentiated, with a third layer clearly discernible. No change had occurred in the soil texture. But, it became well structured with stable aggregates. Its organic matter content had been augmented to about one and half times, deeply incorporated and stained the whole profile with darker hues. The soil reaction became slightly acidic (ph 6.3). The exchange capacity was improved qualitatively and quantitatively. Thus, cation exchange capacity values increased from 2.8 in the bare land to 4.0 meq/100g soil under the forest, and the soil was saturated to 98% with base cations. The major nutrient elements (N,P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe) had generally increased with various proportions ranging from 10% to more than 130%, but only Ca showed significant difference at P=0.05. Among the trace elements, Cu and Co had significantly decreased in the forest soil, but Zn and Mn had increased to about 100%.(Author)

  14. Studies on Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica L. Leaves against Common Veterinary Pathogens

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    Arvind Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a plant species that is almost ubiquitously found in different parts of the world. Various preparations of it have been advocated in folk medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, smallpox, dysentery, cough, ophthalmia, toothache, skin cancer as astringent, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac since immemorial times. The present study investigates the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE of Acacia nilotica leaves. On dry matter basis, the filtered HAE had a good extraction ratio (33.46% and was found to have carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids as major constituents. HAE produced dose dependent zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates; however, no antiviral activity was recorded against IBR virus. HAE of A. nilotica revealed both proliferative and inhibitory effects on the rat splenocytes and IL-10 release depending on the dose. Detailed studies involving wide spectrum of bacterial, fungal, and viral species are required to prove or know the exact status of each constituents of the plant extract.

  15. DNA barcoding for conservation, seed banking and ecological restoration of Acacia in the Midwest of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Paul G; Wallace, Mark J; Miller, Joseph T; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2013-11-01

    We used DNA barcoding to address an important conservation issue in the Midwest of Western Australia, working on Australia's largest genus of flowering plant. We tested whether or not currently recommended plant DNA barcoding regions (matK and rbcL) were able to discriminate Acacia taxa of varying phylogenetic distances, and ultimately identify an ambiguously labelled seed collection from a mine-site restoration project. Although matK successfully identified the unknown seed as the rare and conservation priority listed A. karina, and was able to resolve six of the eleven study species, this region was difficult to amplify and sequence. In contrast, rbcL was straightforward to recover and align, but could not determine the origin of the seed and only resolved 3 of the 11 species. Other chloroplast regions (rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH, trnL-F and trnK) had mixed success resolving the studied taxa. In general, species were better resolved in multilocus data sets compared to single-locus data sets. We recommend using the formal barcoding regions supplemented with data from other plastid regions, particularly rpl32-trnL, for barcoding in Acacia. Our study demonstrates the novel use of DNA barcoding for seed identification and illustrates the practical potential of DNA barcoding for the growing discipline of restoration ecology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cartilage Protection and Analgesic Activity of a Botanical Composition Comprised of Morus alba, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Acacia catechu

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    Mesfin Yimam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been augmented advances in drug discovery, current OA management is inadequate due to the lack of successful therapies proven to be effective in modifying disease progression. For some, the risk outweighs the benefit. As a result, there is a desperate need for safe and efficacious natural alternatives. Here we evaluated a composition from Morus alba, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Acacia catechu in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monoiodoacetate- (MIA- induced rat OA disease model. Study lasted for 6 weeks. 59.6%, 64.6%, 70.7%, 69.9%, and 70.3% reductions in pain sensitivity were observed for rats treated with the composition from week 1 to week 5, respectively. Statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity (maintained at 57.1% versus MIA + vehicle treated rats were shown from the modified total Mankin score for animals treated with the composition. The composition showed a statistically significant reduction in uCTX-II level (54.1% reductions. The merit of combining these botanicals was also demonstrated in their synergistic analgesic activity. Therefore, the standardized blend of Morus alba, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Acacia catechu could potentially be considered as an alternative remedy from natural sources for the management of OA and/or its associated symptoms.

  17. Antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

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    Pai Mithun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The establishment and maintenance of oral microbiota is related not only to interbacterial coaggregations but also to interactions of these bacteria with yeasts. Hence, it is important for agents used in the treatment of oral diseases to have antifungal properties for effective therapy. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The pomegranate peel is separated, dried and powdered. Fennel, cumin and acacia bark obtained from the tree are powdered. Candida is inoculated at 37˚C and seeded on Sabourauds agar medium. Sterilized filter papers saturated with 30 μl of the extracts are placed on the seeded plates and inoculated at 24 and 48 h. Zones of inhibition on all four sides are measured around the filter paper with a vernier caliper. The experiments were repeated on four plates, with four samples of each extract on one plate for all of the extracts. Results: All the above-mentioned ingredients showed antifungal property, with Punica granatum showing the highest inhibition of Candida albicans with a mean zone of inhibition of 22 mm. P-values <0.05 were obtained for Punica granatum when compared with the other extracts. Conclusion: The results showed the potential use of these products as cheap and convenient adjuvants to pharmaceutical antifungal products.

  18. Characterization and emulsifying properties of β-lactoglobulin-gum Acacia Seyal conjugates prepared via the Maillard reaction.

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    Bi, Binwei; Yang, Hao; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O

    2017-01-01

    Gum Acacia Seyal (ASY) is less valued than is gum Acacia Senegal, due to its poor emulsifying ability. The present study investigated the Maillard reaction between ASY and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and its impact on the emulsifying properties of ASY. The reaction products of BLG/ASY mixture (r=1/4), prepared by dry-heating at 60°C and a relative humidity of 79%, as a function of incubation time, were characterized by SDS-PAGE, GPC-MALLS and DSC. The results showed that 12-24h of dry-heating under the given conditions was sufficient for conjugation, meanwhile avoiding the formation of deeply coloured and insoluble melanoidins. More than 64% of the protein was incorporated into ASY, resulting in a two-fold increase in arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) content and 3.5 times increase in weight-average molecular mass of ASY. The conjugation with BLG markedly improved the stability of ASY-stabilized emulsions and their resistance against severe conditions, such as low pH and high saline conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack against Pathogenic Oral Bacteria

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    Nuramirah Azizan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the essential oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against invasive oral pathogens, namely Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Chemical composition of the oils was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The antibacterial activity of the oils and their major constituents were investigated using the broth microdilution method (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC. Susceptibility test, anti-adhesion, anti-biofilm, checkerboard and time-kill assays were also carried out. Physiological changes of the bacterial cells after exposure to the oils were observed under the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM. O. stamineus and F. deltoidea oils mainly consisted of sesquiterpenoids (44.6% and 60.9%, respectively, and β-caryophyllene was the most abundant compound in both oils (26.3% and 36.3%, respectively. Other compounds present in O. stamineus were α-humulene (5.1% and eugenol (8.1%, while α-humulene (5.5% and germacrene D (7.7% were dominant in F. deltoidea. The oils of both plants showed moderate to strong inhibition against all tested bacteria with MIC and MBC values ranging 0.63–2.5 mg/mL. However, none showed any inhibition on monospecies biofilms. The time-kill assay showed that combination of both oils with amoxicillin at concentrations of 1× and 2× MIC values demonstrated additive antibacterial effect. The FESEM study showed that both oils produced significant alterations on the cells of Gram-negative bacteria as they became pleomorphic and lysed. In conclusion, the study indicated that the oils of O. stamineus and F. deltoidea possessed moderate to strong antibacterial properties against the seven

  20. Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack against Pathogenic Oral Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Nuramirah; Mohd Said, Shahida; Zainal Abidin, Zamirah; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2017-12-05

    In this study, the essential oils of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth and Ficus deltoidea Jack were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against invasive oral pathogens, namely Enterococcus faecalis , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus mitis , Streptococcus salivarius , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum . Chemical composition of the oils was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the oils and their major constituents were investigated using the broth microdilution method (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC)). Susceptibility test, anti-adhesion, anti-biofilm, checkerboard and time-kill assays were also carried out. Physiological changes of the bacterial cells after exposure to the oils were observed under the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). O. stamineus and F. deltoidea oils mainly consisted of sesquiterpenoids (44.6% and 60.9%, respectively), and β-caryophyllene was the most abundant compound in both oils (26.3% and 36.3%, respectively). Other compounds present in O. stamineus were α-humulene (5.1%) and eugenol (8.1%), while α-humulene (5.5%) and germacrene D (7.7%) were dominant in F. deltoidea . The oils of both plants showed moderate to strong inhibition against all tested bacteria with MIC and MBC values ranging 0.63-2.5 mg/mL. However, none showed any inhibition on monospecies biofilms. The time-kill assay showed that combination of both oils with amoxicillin at concentrations of 1× and 2× MIC values demonstrated additive antibacterial effect. The FESEM study showed that both oils produced significant alterations on the cells of Gram-negative bacteria as they became pleomorphic and lysed. In conclusion, the study indicated that the oils of O. stamineus and F. deltoidea possessed moderate to strong antibacterial properties against the seven strains

  1. Insectos plagas y benéficos asociados al cultivo de mora (Rubus glaucus, benth en La Sabana, Madriz, Nicaragua

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    Edgardo Jiménez-Martínez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available LA MORA (RUBUS GLAUCUS, BENTH ES UNA PLANTA en proceso de domesticación que se cultiva en pequeñas parcelas. Es hospedera de muchos insectos plaga y enfermedades. En Nicaragua se establecieron plantaciones de mora desde hace unos tres años, como alternativa de diversificación de fincas cafetaleras en los departamentos de Madriz y Nueva Segovia. Hasta ahora no hay información formal sobre los principales insectos plaga y benéficos presentes en este cultivo, que está tomando gran importancia. Por ello, se hizo una investigación para describir la fluctuación poblacional de los insectos plaga y sus depredadores naturales, asociados a este cultivo. El estudio se realizó en la finca La Patasta, municipio La Sabana, departamento de Madriz, entre septiembre de 2004 y abril de 2005. El monitoreo se realizó semanalmente en cinco sitios específicos, mediante capturas manuales de especimenes, con ayuda de bolsas de plástico y vasos de vidrio con alcohol. Como resultado, se identificó y describió la fluctuación poblacional de insectos de las principales familias Scarabaeidae, Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae, Cantharidae, y de los órdenes Hemíptero (Cicadellidae, Pentatomidae, Miridae y Orthóptero (Acrididae y Tettigonidae. Igualmente, se identificó y describió la fluctuación poblacional de depredadores naturales de insectos de la familia Staphilinidae, Coccinelidae, Vespidae y Aracnidae, presentes en este cultivo.

  2. Serological and molecular studies of a novel virus isolate causing yellow mosaic of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaim, Mohammad; Ali, Ashif; Joseph, Jomon; Khan, Feroz

    2013-01-01

    Here we have identified and characterized a devastating virus capable of inducing yellow mosaic on the leaves of Patchouli [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth]. The diagnostic tools used were host range, transmission studies, cytopathology, electron microscopy, serology and partial coat protein (CP) gene sequencing. Evidence from biological, serological and sequence data suggested that the causal virus belonged to genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae. The isolate, designated as Patchouli Yellow Mosaic Virus (PaYMV), was transmitted through grafting, sap and the insect Myzus persicae (Sulz.). Flexuous rod shaped particles with a mean length of 800 nm were consistently observed in leaf-dip preparations from natural as well as alternate hosts, and in purified preparation. Cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions, pinwheels and laminar aggregates were observed in ultra-thin sections of infected patchouli leaves. The purified capsid protein has a relative mass of 43 kDa. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the coat protein separated on SDS - PAGE; which were used in ELISA and western blotting. Using specific antibodies in ELISA, PaYMV was frequently detected at patchouli plantations at Lucknow and Bengaluru. Potyvirus-specific degenerate primer pair (U335 and D335) had consistently amplified partial CP gene from crude preparations of infected tissues by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Comparison of the PCR product sequence (290 bp) with the corresponding regions of established potyviruses showed 78-82% and 91-95% sequence similarity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The results clearly established that the virus under study has close homology with watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in the coat protein region and therefore could share a common ancestor family. Further studies are required to authenticate the identity of PaYMV as a distinct virus or as an isolate of WMV.

  3. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Leaf, Stem and Root from Different Varieties of Labisa pumila Benth

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    Ehsan Karimi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A local herb, Kacip Fatimah, is famous amongst Malay women for its uses in parturition; however, its phytochemical contents have not been fully documented. Therefore, a study was performed to evaluate the phenolics, flavonoids, and total saponin contents, and antibacterial and antifungal properties of the leaf, stem and root of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth. Total saponins were found to be higher in the leaves of all three varieties, compared to the roots and stems. Leaves of var. pumila exhibited significantly higher total saponin content than var. alata and lanceolata, with values of 56.4, 43.6 and 42.3 mg diosgenin equivalent/g dry weight, respectively. HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids in all three varieties revealed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and myricetin in all plant parts. Higher levels of flavonoids (rutin, quercitin, kaempferol were observed in var. pumila compared with alata and lanceolata, whereas higher accumulation of phenolics (gallic acid, pyrogallol was recorded in var. alata, followed by pumila and lanceolata. Antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of all varieties determined against both Gram positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis B145, Bacillus cereus B43, Staphylococcus aureus S1431 and Gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia K36, Escherichia coli E256, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PI96 pathogens showed that crude methanolic extracts are active against these bacteria at low concentrations, albeit with lower antibacterial activity compared to kanamycin used as the control. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of all plant parts against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activities compared to streptomycin used as positive control.

  4. Reproductive Behavior and Inbreeding Depression in Endangered Eremostachys superba Royle ex Benth. (Labiatae in Dehra Dun Population, India

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    Arti Garg

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of reproductive behavior and inbreeding depression, if any, in critically endangered Eremostachys superba Royle ex Benth. (Labiatae was made to unveil the factors playing vital role in it’s reproductive biology and which may be responsible for the loss of fitness, viability and vigor of the species. Breeding experiments portrayed a failure of self-fertilization and a strong tendency towards out-breeding as seed set by xenogamy was highest (44.4%. However, the narrow restricted population of the type locality in Dehra Dun Siwaliks was just a ramet population sustained by clonal propagation of rhizomatous root stock, hence any out-crossing within these homozygous individuals also amounted to inbreeding. Further, there is no other population available within the range of normal seed dispersal mechanism or insect-pollinator-flight-range. The other populations reported are only from geographically distant region of Jammu and Kashmir state of India, which is too far a distance to be covered by the Nomia rustica West. and Ceratina heiroglyphica Sm., the oligophilic pollinators of E. superba, hence any crossing taking place also amounts to selfing in strict sense. Chances of induction of genetic variation by crossing between two different populations are remote. This was also supported by the data of seed production and germination experiments. Even the healthy seeds suffered from loss of fitness and failed to germinate under natural conditions. This strongly indicated prevalence of inbreeding depression and loss of fitness of the progeny right from the stage of germination, a phenomenon hazardous for sustenance and perpetuation of species leading to rarity.

  5. Caracterização farmacognóstica das folhas e sementes de Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. (Fabaceae

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    Cláudia G. Miranda

    Full Text Available Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth. é popularmente conhecida no Brasil por coração-de-negro. É uma espécie aclimatada nesse país. As sementes dessa espécie são utilizadas no tratamento de diarréia, disenteria e hemorróidas e as folhas, no tratamento de úlceras e nas conjuntivites alérgicas. Este trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de determinar as características macroscópicas e microscópicas das folhas e sementes dessa planta, uma vez que estas são as partes usadas popularmente. Algumas características de valor na sua diagnose foram apontadas e ilustradas por fotomicrografias. Reações de fitoquímica e a determinação do conteúdo de água e de cinzas foram realizadas no pó das folhas e sementes de A. lebbeck. Saponinas, alcalóides e cumarinas foram detectados nas folhas e sementes; flavonóides foram também identificados nas folhas. O teor de umidade foi 6,78% e 7,91%, respectivamente, para o pó das folhas e sementes. Os valores de cinzas totais e cinzas insolúveis em ácido foram 9,60% e 0,62% para as folhas e 4,13% e 0,21% para as sementes. Os dados obtidos são importantes para o controle de qualidade dessa planta medicinal. O extrato bruto da planta não apresentou atividade antibacteriana.

  6. Rattle tree (Albizia lebbeck Benth. effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. productivity on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria

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    Kareem Alasi Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the biotite-granite area (Alfisol of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, consisting of five cropping seasons to determine the effects of the tree rows (under alley cropping and green manure of Albizia lebbeck Benth. (rattle tree on the yield / productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. (Irish potato. The experiment was a randomized complete block design comprising five treatments and three replicates. An early maturing potato variety (Bertita was employed, its pre-sprouted tubers were planted in the alleys (spaces between the tree rows of A. lebbeck two weeks after green manure was applied (5 and 10 t ha-1, pre and post experimental soil sample analyses and cultivation operations were carried out. Results indicated that the rattle tree had profound effect on the potato growth parameters (plant height, leaf count, collar girth (at P < 0.01 and yield indices (tuber count (P < 0.05 and tuber weight (P < 0.01 due to nutrients from the green manure and nitrogen fixation activities of the rattle tree. A. lebbeck green manure application at 10 t ha-1 in the alleys of A. lebbeck hedgerows emerged as the most effective treatment in terms of growth performance and optimal yield. Collar girth and leaf count of the potato accounted for 80.4 - 91.3% of the variation in yield (R2 = 0.804 - 0.913 with collar girth having the highest value (R2 =0.910 in rainy season (rain fed cropping, while leaf count had the highest value (R2=0.913 during the dry season (irrigated cropping.

  7. Estudo do sistema de reprodução da fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    A.D.R. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre as plantas nativas de uso medicinal do Cerrado brasileiro encontra-se a fava-d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth com alto potencial econômico por possuir inúmeras potencialidades medicinais e fitoquímicas. A indústria extrai dos frutos os princípios ativos rutina, quercetina, e ramnose, dentre outros, usados na fabricação de medicamentos e cosméticos, principalmente no exterior. O conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo da espécie é fundamental para sua conservação e manejo. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar as características morfométricas das flores e caracterizar o sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis em área de Cerrado inalterada antropomorficamente, no município de Olhos D'água - MG. Para as características morfométricas, diâmetro da flor, comprimento da flor, do ovário, e da antera, foram utilizadas cinco flores em pré-antese. Para a determinação do sistema reprodutivo utilizou-se a razão pólen:óvulo (P:O, em 40 flores. As flores da D. mollis apresentaram comprimento da flor de 3,00 mm, diâmetro da flor de 2,00 mm, comprimento do óvulo de 2,60 mm, comprimento da antera de 1,57 mm, e o número de óvulos e de anteras foram 20 e 5,8, respectivamente. A razão P:O foi 765,030, sendo que esse índice não é afetado pelas características morfométricas. O sistema reprodutivo da D. mollis foi classificado como alógama facultativa.

  8. Do cardinal directions in different Acacia tree species affect biological activities of bruchid beetle, Bruchidius buettikeri Decelle (Bruchidae: Coleoptera), in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldawood, A S

    2009-12-15

    Biological activities of bruchid beetle: Bruchidius buettikeri Decelle (Bruchidae: Coleoptera) were studied in four cardinal directions of Acacia tree species in Huraimila and Salbouk. In Huraimila, two species of Acacia; A. grrrardii, subspecies A. g. negevensis (Iraqi) and A. g. nagednsis (Najdi); and A. ehrenbergiana (Salam) were sampled. In Salbouk, A. tortilis radiana (Samar) was sampled. No significant differences were observed for entrance and exit holes per pod and beetles emergence until 45 days on four cardinal directions of different Acacia tree species, except for entrance holes at Dam and Farm locations on Najdi in Huraimila. However, greater activities were observed in south and east direction in farm locations whereas, in the valley (Abu Gatada, Alyata and Dam locations) more bruchid activities were observed in north and south on Najdi and samar while east and west on Iraqi. Moreover, activities were greater on Acacia trees with greater number of seed per pod. Greater bruchid infestation per pod was found on East direction in the farm locations but in the valley locations no distinct trend was observed. Results showed a significant, positive correlation between bruchid activities and temperature but similar strength negative correlation was observed for rest of various abiotic factors. Moreover, a strong positive correlation was recorded between neonate entrance and number of beetle emergence.

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Crude Oil on Vegetative and Physiologic Performance of Seeds and Seedlings of Ziziphus, Prosopis, Acacia and Robinia Species

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    P. Fayyaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of crude oil (0 to 20% w/w, one of the main pollutants of current age, on physiological characteristics of Prosopis juliflora, Acacia victoria, Ziziphus spina-chrisi and Robinia pseudoacacia in seed and seedling stages based on a completely randomized design with 10 replications in each experimental unit has been studied. The results revealed that germination rate of Prosopis and Acacia was not affected by the pollutant, but the germination reduced in Ziziphus with more than 6 percent pollutant and 4% pollution led to full inhibition in Robinia. The ED50 based on radicle growth for Acacia, Prosopis, Ziziphus and Robinia was 6.9, 3.2, 3.6 and 2.7%, respectively. In seedling stage green leaf percentage, chlorophyll concentration, and efficiency of photosystem II decreased by increasing contamination. Increasing oil concentration stopped seedling growth of Robinia and reduced stem length in Acacia and Prosopis, but no significant difference was observed in the root length. The increase of oil pollution up to more than three percentages was associated with increased growth of shoot and root in Ziziphus. The difference in response pattern of different species to crude oil enables us to select species based on a variety of objects from bio monitoring to phytoremediation.

  10. 304 Élaboration de modèles allométriques d'Acacia Sénégal L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADIE

    Acacia Sénégal) dans le but d'asseoir une base de calcul des stocks de carbone. ... L'Afrique est le continent le plus vulnérable aux impacts du changement climatique. .... la zone sylvopastorale se trouve confrontée à un problème global.

  11. Whole-tree transpiration and water-use partitioning between Eucalyptus nitens and Acacia dealbata weeds in a short-rotation plantation in northeastern Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Mark A.; Beadle, Christopher L.

    1998-01-01

    Whole-tree water use in 4- and 8-year-old plantations of Eucalyptus nitens Deane and Maiden (ex Maiden) in the presence and absence of Acacia dealbata Link. weeds was estimated by the heat pulse velocity technique during a six-week summer period. Maximum sap velocities were recorded between 5 and 15 mm under the cambium for both eucalypt and acacia trees, and marked radial and axial variations in sap velocity were observed. The latter source of variation was most pronounced in mixed stands where crowns were asymmetrical. Mean daily sap flux ranged from 1.4 to 103.6 l day(-1) for eucalypts and from acacias. Stem diameter explained 98% of the variation in sapwood area for E. nitens and 89% for A. dealbata, and was determined to be a suitable parameter for scaling water use from the tree to stand level. Plot transpiration varied from 1.4 to 2.8 mm day(-1) in mixed 8-year-old plots and was 0.85 mm day(-1) in a mixed 4-year-old plot. The degree of A. dealbata infestation was associated with absolute plot water use and regression models predicted that, in the absence of acacia competition, plot water use for the 8-year-old stand would approach 5-6 mm day(-1) during the growing season.

  12. An examination of the feasibility of using time-of-flight based non-destructive evaluation to assess the soundness of standing Acacia koa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Eini. Lowell

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) trees are native to the islands of Hawaii but occur nowhere else in the world. It is the most important timber species for the manufacture of wood products in Hawaii and one of the most valuable species worldwide. Most koa trees harvested today are standing dead or are already on the ground (relic logs). Lumber recovery in milling...

  13. Gomose da acácia-negra causada por Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Gummosis of Acacia decurrens Willd. Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst.

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    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available É relatada a ocorrência, pela primeira vez no Brasil, de Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. sobre acácia-negra. Testes de inoculação cruzada foram efetuados em casa de vegetação com o isolado obtido de acácia-negra (Acacia decurrens Willd. e outro de mangueira (Mangifera indica L.. Observou-se que ambos os isolados foram patogênicos à acácia-negra e à mangueira.Several plants of Acacia decurrens showed wilting and subsequent branche drying. The branches showed wood splitting and gum exudation. The transversally cut wood showed ashy colored pith, that desenvolved numerous perithecia when kept in a humid chamber. These perithecia were transferred aseptically to potato-dextrose-agar and the culture was classified as Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Four mounth old Acacia plants inoculated with the isolate died after 14 days. The fungus was again isolated from these dead plants. Cross inoculation tests with isolate of C. fimbriata from Acacia and mango (Mangifera indica L. showed pathogenic effects for both hosts.

  14. Invasive Australian Acacia seed banks: Size and relationship with stem diameter in the presence of gall-forming biological control agents.

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    Matthys Strydom

    Full Text Available Australian Acacia are invasive in many parts of the world. Despite significant mechanical and biological efforts to control their invasion and spread, soil-stored seed banks prevent their effective and sustained removal. In response South Africa has had a strong focus on employing seed reducing biological control agents to deal with Australian Acacia invasion, a programme that is considered as being successful. To provide a predictive understanding for their management, seed banks of four invasive Australian acacia species (Acacia longifolia, A. mearnsii, A. pycnantha and A. saligna were studied in the Western Cape of South Africa. Across six to seven sites for each species, seed bank sizes were estimated from dense, monospecific stands by collecting 30 litter and soil samples. Average estimated seed bank size was large (1017 to 17261 seed m-2 as was annual input into the seed bank, suggesting that these seed banks are not residual but are replenished in size annually. A clear relationship between seed bank size and stem diameter was established indicating that mechanical clearing should be conducted shortly after fire-stimulated recruitment events or within old populations when seed banks are small. In dense, monospecific stands seed-feeding biological control agents are not effective in reducing seed bank size.

  15. Effects of excluding goat herbivory on Acacia tortilis woodland around pastoralist settlements in northwest Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Gufu

    1998-08-01

    Browsing by goats is considered to cause poor tree regeneration and reduced tree growth around settlements throughout the arid zones of sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigated whether excluding goats from Acacia tortilis woodlands increased tree regeneration, current season's shoot growth rates and browse production over a period of 52 months between 1986 and 1990. The study also investigated the effects of climatic variability on tree growth and browse production. Excluding goat herbivory provided no advantage over continuous browsing for juvenile A. tortilis. Trees on the unbrowsed and on browsed transects increased by 22.2 (standard error [SE] ± 0.53) cm·yr -1 and 25.0 (SE ± 0.58) cm·yr -1, respectively. Fewer but longer shoots were produced by trees on the unbrowsed transects, while trees on the browsed transects invested more in shorter shoots. Net total browse production was lower on unbrowsed (1.73 [standard deviation (SD) ± 4.3] t·ha -1·yr -1) than on the browsed (3.03 [SD ± 3.6] t·ha -1 ·yr -1) transects. Biomass production on unbrowsed and browsed transects was closely correlated with rainfall and presumably soil moisture during wet seasons. Relative growth rates (RGR) of current season's shoots in the two treatments did not differ, implying goat herbivory at moderate stocking density (i.e. 13.0 tropical livestock units [TLU]·km -2) stimulated shoot growth. RGR remained positive except on the browsed transects during 1990, a dry year. Goat browsing pressure was moderate. Total biomass loss on unbrowsed transects was 15.5 %·yr -1 compared with 27.7 %·yr -1 on the browsed transects. These findings do not support the notion that goats always destroy young trees around settlements. Goat herbivory at moderate intensity stimulated shoot productivity. However, the results should not be used to generalize all conditions throughout sub-Saharan Africa, let alone the arid zones of northern Kenya. Rather, there is a need to emphasize individual case

  16. Effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and fecal egg count in goats

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    Jitendra Kumar Paswan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and gastrointestinal parasitic load in growing goats. Materials and Methods: To experiment was conducted for a period of 3-month on 24 male goats (3½ month old, average body weight [BW] 6.50±1.50 kg, distributed into four groups of six animals each. The experimental animals were fed graded level of A. nilotica pod meal (0%, 10%, 20% and 30% mixed in concentrate mixture equivalent to tannin concentration of 0%, 1.91%, 3.82% and 5.73% in the total mixed ration I, II, III and IV, respectively, but ad libitum measured quantity of green sorghum fodder (Sorghum bicolor feeding. The blood samples were collected from experimental goats during the feeding experiment for the examination of different hematological indices and serum biochemical profile to know the overall health status of animals and standard method was followed to analyze the samples. Fecal sample was collected directly from the anus of goats by inserting middle finger and kept the samples in labeled polythene bag. Further fresh sample was processed and examined by McMaster Technique for eggs per gram and oocysts per gram. It gives accurate information regarding severity of infection. Results: The feeding of babul pod meal did not address significant changes about the hematological parameters among various treatment groups. The lymphocyte count was significantly higher (p=0.07 in T3 group as compared to control and increase with increase in level of babul pod meal in the diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN level was 4.86 and 6.59% lower in T1 and T2 group as compared to control and inversely proportional with level of supplement in ration. The decrease in BUN reflected good dietary protein metabolism happened in animals supplemented with babul pod meal. Serum creatinine level was significantly lower (p<0.01 in T2 group as compared to control. The creatinine level was 20

  17. GROWTH AND ROOTING SYSTEM OF ACACIA MANGIUM OBTAINED BY TISSUE CULTURE

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    SUPRIYANTO

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1980/1981, the government of Indonesia through the Ministry of Forestry has started to reforest logged-over, alang-alang, unproductive areas and to convert them to Forest Industry Plantation. The target is 300 000 ha per year. It means, 750 million seedlings should be provided per year (planting distance 2 m x 2 m. The tree species to be planted in forest industry plantation should have shorter life cycle (8 - 10 years, good stem-form, good rooting system, and should be fast growing. Acacia mangium has been selected as one of the important tree species for forest industry plantation due to its growth, quality of fiber wood (pulp and paper industry and rooting system (produce a lot of secondary root and nitrogen fixater (Soebardjo 1986. The reforestation of logged-over Dipterocarp forests in Malaysia with A. mangium has also been considered (Appanah and Weinland 1989. Generally, reforestation with A. mangium is done with seedlings obtained by seed germination. A. mangium produce a lot of seeds but its production is still limited by the season, while the conventional method of vegetative propagation through cuttings gave very low percentage of rooted-cuttings (1% (Umboh and Syamsul Yani 1989. The micropropagation of A. mangium through tissue culture is a promising method. The production of A. mangium plantlets through that method has been done at the Forest Genetic Laboratory, Tropical Forest Biology, SEAMEO BIOTROP (Situmorang 1988, Umboh 1988, Umboh et al. 1989, 1990. These rooted-plantlets (plantlings were first put in the green house (acclimatization before planting in the field. Field tests of some agricultural plants have been done but information on forest trees species is still lacking because the production of plantlings through tissue culture is still limited as there are still problems of their rooting. In fact, the progress of reproducing woody plants by tissue culture has been much slower than with herbaceous plants. The major

  18. Contain or eradicate? Optimizing the management goal for Australian acacia invasions in the face of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.L.; Runge, M.C.; Webber, B.L.; Wilson, J.R.U.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To identify whether eradication or containment is expected to be the most cost-effective management goal for an isolated invasive population when knowledge about the current extent is uncertain. Location Global and South Africa. Methods We developed a decision analysis framework to analyse the best management goal for an invasive species population (eradication, containment or take no action) when knowledge about the current extent is uncertain. We used value of information analysis to identify when investment in learning about the extent will improve this decision-making and tested the sensitivity of the conclusions to different parameters (e.g. spread rate, maximum extent, and management efficacy and cost). The model was applied to Acacia paradoxa DC, an Australian shrub with an estimated invasive extent of 310ha on Table Mountain, South Africa. Results Under the parameters used, attempting eradication is cost-effective for infestations of up to 777ha. However, if the invasion extent is poorly known, then attempting eradication is only cost-effective for infestations estimated as 296ha or smaller. The value of learning is greatest (maximum of 8% saving) when infestation extent is poorly known and if it is close to the maximum extent for which attempting eradication is optimal. The optimal management action is most sensitive to the probability that the action succeeds (which depends on the extent), with the discount rate and cost of management also important, but spread rate less so. Over a 20-year time-horizon, attempting to eradicate A. paradoxa from South Africa is predicted to cost on average ZAR 8 million if the extent is known, and if our current estimate is poor, ZAR 33.6 million as opposed to ZAR 32.8 million for attempting containment. Main conclusions Our framework evaluates the cost-effectiveness of attempting eradication or containment of an invasive population that takes uncertainty in population extent into account. We show that incorporating

  19. Mapping of invasive Acacia species in Brazilian Mussununga ecosystems using high- resolution IR remote sensing data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jan Rudolf Karl; Zvara, Ondrej; Prinz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The biological invasion of Australian Acacia species in natural ecosystems outside Australia has often a negative impact on native and endemic plant species and the related biodiversity. In Brazil, the Atlantic rainforest of Bahia and Espirito Santo forms an associated type of ecosystem, the Mussununga. In our days this biologically diverse ecosystem is negatively affected by the invasion of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis, both introduced to Brazil by the agroforestry to increase the production of pulp and high grade woods. In order to detect the distribution of Acacia species and to monitor the expansion of this invasion the use of high-resolution imagery data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) proved to be a very promising approach. In this study, two types of datasets - CIR and RGB - were collected since both types provide different information. In case of CIR imagery attention was paid on spectral signatures related to plants, whereas in case of RGB imagery the focus was on surface characteristics. Orthophoto-mosaics and DSM/DTM for both dataset were extracted. RGB/IHS transformations of the imagery's colour space were utilized, as well as NDVIblue index in case of CIR imagery to discriminate plant associations. Next, two test areas were defined in order validate OBIA rule sets using eCognition software. In case of RGB dataset, a rule set based on elevation distinction between high vegetation (including Acacia) and low vegetation (including soils) was developed. High vegetation was classified using Nearest Neighbour algorithm while working with the CIR dataset. The IHS information was used to mask shadows, soils and low vegetation. Further Nearest Neighbour classification was used for distinction between Acacia and other high vegetation types. Finally an accuracy assessment was performed using a confusion matrix. One can state that the IHS information appeared to be helpful in Acacia detection while the surface elevation

  20. Competition for light and light use efficiency for Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis trees in mono-specific and mixed-species plantations in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maire, G.; Nouvellon, Y.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.; Laclau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mixed plantations with N-fixing species might be an attractive option for limiting the use of fertilizer in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. A randomized block design was set up in southern Brazil, including a replacement series and an additive series design, as well as a nitrogen fertilization treatment, and conducted during a full 6 years rotation. The gradient of competition between Eucalyptus and Acacia in this design resulted in very different conditions of growth of Acacia, from totally dominated up to dominant canopies. We used the MAESTRA model to estimate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) at tree level. This model requires the description of the scene and distinct structural variables of the two species, and their evolution with time. The competition for light is analysed by comparing the inter-specific values of APAR during a period of 2 years at the end of the rotation. APAR is further compared to the measured increment in stem wood biomass of the tree, and their ratio is an estimation of the light use efficiency for stemwood production at tree-scale. Variability of these LUE are analysed in respect to the species, the size of the tree, and at plot scale (competition level). Stemwood production was 3400, 3900 and 2400 gDM/m2 while APAR was 1640, 2280 and 2900 MJ/y for the pure Eucalyptus, pure Acacia and 50/50 mixed plantation, respectively, for an average LAI of 3.7, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. Individual LUE for stemwood was estimated at an average value of 1.72 and 1.41 gDM/MJ/tree for Eucalyptus and Acacia, respectively, and at 0.92 and 0.40 gDM/MJ/tree when they were planted in mixed 50/50 plantations. LUE was highly dependant on tree size for both species. At the plot scale, LUE for stemwood were 2.1 gDM/MJ and 1.75 for Eucalyptus and Acacias, respectively, and 0.85 for the mixed 50/50 plantation. These results suggest that the mixed 50/50 plantation, which absorbed a higher amount of light, produce less

  1. Assessment of fuelwood resources in acacia woodlands in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Towards the development of planning tools for sustainable management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshete, Getachew [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics

    1999-07-01

    The subjects addressed in this thesis are the development and description of methods for acquiring information on the state and change and for forecasting the potential future state in the acacia woodlands in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Since issues of data collection and prediction are core components of planning, it is believed that the methods developed and described will be useful in future integrated planning tools for the sustainable management of acacia woodlands. The thesis is composed of five studies that are reported separately. In the first study, the focus was on describing the population structure and regeneration of the main tree species in the study area. In the second study, biomass functions suitable for application in multiphase inventory designs were developed. In the third study, the application of satellite image data in the assessment of the acacia woodlands, partly using the functions developed in the second study, is demonstrated. Different methods were applied for assessing the biomass and crown closure of acacias in the study area. Results using the different estimators revealed that the average woody biomass is in the range of 10 to 20 tons ha{sup -1} and the crown cover was reduced by approximately 7 to 12 %, between the years 1972 and 1995, in the study area. Furthermore, the advantages and difficulties of using different designs were investigated. Maps indicating the patterns of the state and change of the woodlands in relation to the landscape features of the study site were also produced. In the fourth study, the aim was to find out whether or not tree-rings in acacias can be used as indicators of growth periodicity. The results indicated that the acacias form one ring per year in the study area, although this was not the case in surrounding, more humid, areas. Following this outcome, in the fifth study, single tree growth functions were developed and were utilized to project the biomass growth of acacias in the study area. One area

  2. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Salem, H.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Nefzaoui, A.; Abidi, S.; Hassayoun, L.

    2005-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH 3 -N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 ± 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P 0.05). However, those supplemented with acacia without PEG (D3) had

  3. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A.; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Hassayoun, L. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH{sub 3}-N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 {+-} 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.001) of CPD (0.664 versus 0.597, respectively for D1 and

  4. The inhibitory potential of the condensed-tannin-rich fraction of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) against Bothrops atrox envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Valéria Mourão; da Silva, Wania Cristina Rodrigues; Raposo, Juliana D A; Freitas-de-Sousa, Luciana A; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo Bezerra; Veras Mourão, Rosa Helena

    2016-05-13

    Ethnobotanical studies have shown that Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) has been widely used in cases of snake envenomation, particularly in Northern Brazil. In light of this, the aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of the condensed-tannin-rich fraction obtained from the bark of P. reticulata against the main biological activities induced by Bothrops atrox venom (BaV). The chemical composition of the aqueous extract of P. reticulata (AEPr) was first investigated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and the extract was then fractionated by column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20. This yielded five main fractions (Pr1, Pr2, Pr3, Pr4 and Pr5), which were analyzed by colorimetry to determine their concentrations of total phenolics, total tannins and condensed tannins and to assess their potential for blocking the phospholipase activity of BaV. The Pr5 fraction was defined as the fraction rich in condensed tannins (CTPr), and its inhibitory potential against the activities of the venom was evaluated. CTPr was evaluated in different in vivo and in vitro experimental protocols. The in vivo protocols consisted of (1) pre-incubation (venom:CTPr, w/w), (2) pre-treatment (orally administered) and (3) post-treatment (orally administered) to evaluate the effect on the hemorrhagic and edematogenic activities of BaV; in the in vitro protocol the effect on phospholipase and coagulant activity using pre-incubation in both tests was evaluated. There was statistically significant inhibition (p<0.05) of hemorrhagic activity by CTPr when the pre-incubation protocol was used [55% (1:5, w/w) and 74% (1:10, w/w)] and when pre-treatment with doses of 50 and 100mg/kg was used (19% and 13%, respectively). However, for the concentrations tested, there was no statistically significant inhibition in the group subjected to post-treatment administered orally. CTPr blocked 100% of phospholipase activity and 63.3% (1:10, w/w) of coagulant activity when it was pre

  5. Phytotoxic Effects of Nepeta meyeri Benth. Extracts and Essential Oil on Seed Germinations and Seedling Growths of Four Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Kordali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of Nepeta meyeri Benth. by hydrodistilation was analysed by GC and GC-MS methods. A total 18 components were identified in the oil representing 100.0% of the oil. Main components were 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone (80.3%, 4aα,7α,7aα–nepetalactone (10.3%, trans-pulegol (3.1%, 1, 8-cineole (3.0% and β-bourbonene (2.0%. In addition, n-hexane extract of N. meyeri was analysed by using GC and GC-MS methods and 18 components were identified. Likewise, nepetalactones, 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone (83.7%, 4aα,7α,7aα–nepetalactone (3.6%, 1, 8-cineole (1.9% and α-terpinene (1.5% were the predominat compounds in the hexane extract. Three concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/mL of the essential oil and n-hexane, chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts isolated from the aerial partsand roots were tested for the herbicidal effects on the germination of the seeds of four weed species including Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense L. and Sinapsis arvensis L. The essential oil of N. meyeri completely inhibited the germination of all weed seeds whereas the extracts showed various inhibition effects on the germination of the weed species. Herbicidal effect was increased with the increasing application concentrations of the extracts. In general, the acetone extract was found to be more effective as compared to the other extracts. All extracts also exhibited various inhibition effects on the seedling growths of the weed species. All extracts also tested for their phytotoxic effects on the weeds at greenhouse condition and the results showed that the oil and extracts caused mortality with 22.00-66.00% 48h after the treatments. These findings suggest that the essential oil and the extracts of N. meyeri have potentials for use as herbicides against those weed species.

  6. Enhanced production of phenolic acids in cell suspension culture of Salvia leriifolia Benth. using growth regulators and sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, Masoomeh; Esmaeilzadeh Bahabadi, Sedigheh; Taghavizadeh Yazdi, Mohammad Ehsan

    2018-04-01

    Salvia leriifolia Benth. (Lamiaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant with hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Many of the beneficial effects of Salvia spp. are attributed to the phenolic compounds. In the present study, an efficient procedure has been developed for establishment of cell suspension culture of S. leriifolia as a strategy to obtain an in vitro phenolic acids producing cell line for the first time. The effect of growth regulators and various concentrations of sucrose have been analyzed, to optimize biomass growth and phenolic acids production. The callus used for this purpose was obtained from leaves of 15-day-old in vitro seedlings, on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with different hormone balances including benzylaminopurine (BAP) and indole butyric acid (IBA); 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and kinetin (KIN); naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and BAP. Modified MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/L BAP and 5 mg/L NAA was the optimal condition for callus formation with the highest induction rate (100%), the best callus growth and the highest phenolic acids content. No callus induction was observed in combinations of IBA and BAP. Cell suspension cultures were established by transferring 0.5 g of callus to 30 mL liquid MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/L BAP and 5 mg/L NAA. Dynamics of phenolic acids production has been investigated during the growth cycle of the suspension cultures. The maximum content of caffeic acid and salvianolic acid B were observed on the 15th day of the cultivation cycle while the highest amount of rosmarinic acid was observed on the first day. In response to various sucrose concentrations, cell cultures with 40 g/L sucrose not only produced the highest dry biomass but also the highest induction of caffeic acid and salvianolic acid B. The highest amount of rosmarinic acid was observed in media containing 50 g/L sucrose. These prepared cell suspension cultures provided a useful

  7. Liver morphology and morphometry and plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats that received leaf infusion of Rudgea viburnoides Benth. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Castro Monteiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rudgea viburnoides leaves are widely used in popular Brazilian medicine as a diuretic, antirheumatic, hypotensive and blood depurative tea. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of this infusion on the liver and on the plasma biochemical parameters of Wistar rats. Two groups received the R. viburnoides leaf infusion at a daily dose of 10 or 20g dry-leaves/L water, during 40 days. The histopathological analysis did not show degenerated areas or infiltration of leucocytes. Hepatic morphometry showed accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes of the treated groups. There was no significant change in the plasma levels of urea, creatinin, uric acid, direct bilirubin, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, gamma glutamyl tranferase (gamma-GT, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, chlorine, phosphate and calcium. A significant reduction in the plasma levels of triacylglycerol (TAG occurred in the group that received the higher dose.As folhas de Rudgea viburnoides Benth. são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, anti-reumáticas, depurativas do sangue e em regimes de emagrecimento. O presente estudo foi delineado para avaliar o efeito da infusão das folhas de R. viburnoides nos parâmetros bioquímicos plasmáticos e na morfologia e morfometria hepática de ratos Wistar adultos. Dois grupos receberam a infusão das folhas, diariamente, nas dosagens de 10 e 20 g de folhas secas/L de água, durante 40 dias. O grupo controle recebeu a mesma quantidade de água. As análises histopatológicas não mostraram áreas degeneradas e infiltrados inflamatórios. A morfometria hepática mostrou acúmulo significativo de gordura nos hepatócitos dos animais tratados, principalmente no grupo que recebeu a maior dose da infusão (8,75% de gotículas lipídicas, comparado com 0,25% delas encontradas nos animais controles. Não foram observadas alterações nos níveis plasmáticos de uréia, creatinina,

  8. Emergence and initial development of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. seedlings for different substrates = Emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. em função de diferentes substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the effects of different substrates on the emergence and initial development of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth seedlings. For this purpose an experiment was done in a greenhouse of the Department of Plant Sciences of Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN. The statistical design was completely randomized (CRD, where treatments were composed of nine substrates (T1: vermiculite, T2: coconut fiber, T3: trade hortimix®, T4: vermiculite, coconut fiber and compost (1: 1:1, T5: coconut fiber and compost (1:1, T6: coconut fiber and compost (1:2,T7: vermiculite and compost (1:1, T8, vermiculite and compost organic (1:2 and T9: organic compost. All treatments were represented by four replications containing 25 seeds. The following variables were evaluated: emergency percentage, emergence rate index, length of shoot and root, stem diameter, dry leaves, stem, root and total leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf area ratio, and leaf weight ratio. Data were submitted to the Tukey test at 5% probability. The coconut fiber substrates, commercial hortimix® and vermiculite proved superior promoted good emergence and early development of seedlings. The mixture of vermiculite, coconut fiber and compost (1:1:1, coconut fiber and compost (1:1, coconut fiber and compost (1:2 and organic compost and vermiculite (1: 1 was not shown to be adequate for the cultivation of seedlings. There was no emergency in the pure organic compound in the mixture of compost and vermiculite (1:2.Key words - Vermiculite. Organic compost. Coconut fiber. Sabiá. Substrates. = Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos na emergência e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.. Para isso, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN. O delineamento estat

  9. Estabelecimento e desenvolvimento de Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. em duas fitofisionomias típicas dos cerrados do Brasil Central Establishment and development of Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. in two typical savanna physiognomies of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian S. Braz

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available As formações savânicas do Brasil Central caracterizam-se por uma camada rasteira contínua, em que predominam gramíneas, entrecortada por uma camada de arbustos e árvores de densidade variável. Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. é uma leguminosa arbórea típica dos cerrados do Planalto Central. Este estudo examinou os efeitos da seca, disponibilidade de luz, herbivoria e fogo no estabelecimento e crescimento dessa espécie no campo sujo (estrato herbáceo contínuo com árvores e arbustos esparsos e no cerrado sensu stricto, onde a vegetação arbustivoarbórea é mais densa. Mudas foram transplantadas nas duas fitofisionomias, sendo acompanhadas mensalmente as variações na altura, produção de folhas e percentagem da área foliar removida por herbivoria, ao longo de cinco anos (1993-1998. A mortalidade ocorreu principalmente durante a época chuvosa. A seca sazonal não foi um importante fator de mortalidade. Número maior de mudas sobreviveu no campo sujo. Estas mudas não foram mortas por uma queimada ao final da seca de 1994, enquanto várias morreram no cerrado. O crescimento da parte aérea foi lento, em torno de 2,2cm/ano no campo sujo e 3,1cm/ano no cerrado, ocorrido principalmente na estação chuvosa. A maioria das mudas apresentou lesões necróticas de cor preta nas folhas, causada pelo ataque do fungo Phoma sp. A queda das folhas ocorreu durante a estação seca e o número máximo de folhas foi alcançado do meio para o final da época chuvosa, sempre seguido por um pico na herbivoria. Dados de disponibilidade de luz sugerem que plantas com folhas horizontais a 5cm do solo, atingiriam em média apenas 32% da capacidade máxima de assimilação de CO2, devido ao sombreamento. Entretanto, aumento da altura da planta de 5 para 50cm, onde não há mais sombreamento do estrato herbáceo, dobraria os valores estimados de assimilação de CO2 Assim sendo, o desenvolvimento desta espécie seria limitado pela disponibilidade de água e

  10. Actividad antiparasitaria in vitro de extractos etanólicos de Erythrina crista-galii L., Erythrina falcata Benth y Erythrina dominguezii Hassl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Yaluff

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La tripanosomiasis americana y la leishmaniosis son problemas de salud pública relevantes en Iberoamérica. Se evaluó la actividad antiparasitaria in vitro de extractos de cortezas y hojas de Erythrina crista-galli L., E. dominguezii Hassl y E. falcata Benth sobre formas tripomastigotas de Trypanosoma cruzi y promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis, L. infantum L. braziliensis. El extracto de corteza de E. dominguezii Hassl presentó CI50 de 11,7 μg/ml y 14,9 μg/ml con dos cepas de T. cruzi, Ypsilon y Cl Brener. El extracto de hoja presentó CI50 mayor a 250 μg/ml. La corteza de E. falcata Benth tuvo CI50 de 11,29 μg/ml y 7,37 μg/ml con Ypsilon y Cl Brener y el extracto de hojas CI50 de 37,2 μg/ml y 25,68 μg/ml. El extracto de hojas de E. crista-galli L. presentó CI50 mayor a 250 μg/ml, y el de corteza CI50 11,2μg/ml y 7,1μg/ml con Ypsilon y Cl Brener. El extracto de corteza de E. dominguezii Hassl presentó CI50 de 3,22 μg/ml, 6,94 μg/ml y 1,9 μg/ml para L. amazonensis, L. infantum y L. braziliensis y en hojas la CI50 fue mayor a 100 μg/ml. La corteza de E. crista-galli L. tuvo CI50 de 2,1 μg/ml, 2,09 μg/ml y 1,6 μg/ml para las tres especies. El extracto de hoja tuvo una CI50 mayor a 100 μg/ml. El extracto de corteza de E. falcata Benth tuvo CI50 de 2,17 μg/ml, 2,09 μg/ml y 1,52 μg/ml con las tres especies de Leishmania y el de hoja CI50 de 14,9 μg/ml, 10,4 μg/ml y 11,6 μg/ml. Los extractos de corteza podrían ser una alternativa para el tratamiento de estas enfermedades parasitarias, previa confirmación con estudios in vivo y de toxicidad.

  11. Study of quantitative genetics of gum arabic production complicated by variability in ploidy level of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diallo, Adja Madjiguene; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Hansen, Jon Kehlet

    2015-01-01

    Gum arabic is an important international commodity produced by trees of Acacia senegal across Sahelian Africa, but documented results of breeding activities are limited. The objective of this study was to provide reliable estimates of quantitative genetic parameters in order to shed light on the ...... stress the importance of testing ploidy levels of selected material and use of genetic markers to qualify the assumptions in the quantitative genetic analysis....... that progenies consisted of both diploid and polyploid trees, and growth, gum yield, and gum quality varied substantially among ploidy level, populations, and progenies. Analysis of molecular variance and estimates of outcrossing rate supported that trees within open-pollinated families of diploids were half...... sibs, while the open-pollinated families of polyploids showed low variation within families. The difference in sibling relationship observed between ploidy levels complicated estimation of genetic parameters. However, based on the diploid trees, we conclude that heritability in gum arabic production...

  12. ACACIA Project - Development of a Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Process. Case of the DMXTM Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.; Briot, P.; Raynal, L.; Broutin, P.; Gimenez, M.; Soazic, M.; Cessat, P.; Saysset, S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the ACACIA project was to develop processes for post-combustion CO 2 capture at a lower cost and with a higher energetic efficiency than first generation processes using amines such as Monoethanolamine (MEA) which are now considered for the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) demonstrators. The partners involved in this project were: Rhodia (Solvay since then), Arkema, Lafarge, GDF SUEZ, Veolia Environnement, IFP Energies nouvelles, IRCE Lyon, LMOPS, LTIM, LSA Armines. To validate the relevance of the breakthrough processes studied in this project, techno-economic evaluations were carried out with comparison to the reference process using a 30 wt% MEA solvent. These evaluation studies involved all the industrial partners of the project, each partner bringing specific cases of CO 2 capture on their industrial facilities. From these studies, only the process using de-mixing solvent, DMX TM , developed by IFPEN appears as an alternative solution to the MEA process. (authors)

  13. Qualidade da madeira de eucalipto e Acacia mangium consorciadas para produção de polpa kraft branqueada

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Lucas Recla

    2013-01-01

    Objetivou-se com esse estudo a avaliação da qualidade da madeira de Acacia mangium cultivada no Brasil em consórcio com o híbrido Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis para a produção de celulose branqueada e papel. Para tanto, avaliou-se efeitos de diferentes proporções de plantio misto, sendo totalizados quatro tratamentos caracterizados pela relação árvores de Acácia e árvores de Eucalipto plantadas no talhão. A qualidade da madeira foi analisada por meio da análise da composição quími...

  14. Assessing suitable area for Acacia dealbata Mill. in the Ceira River Basin (Central Portugal based on maximum entropy modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasion by exotic organisms became a key issue, a concern associated to the deep impacts on several domains described as resultant from such processes. A better understanding of the processes, the identification of more susceptible areas, and the definition of preventive or mitigation measures are identified as critical for the purpose of reducing associated impacts. The use of species distribution modeling might help on the purpose of identifying areas that are more susceptible to invasion. This paper aims to present preliminary results on assessing the susceptibility to invasion by the exotic species Acacia dealbata Mill. in the Ceira river basin. The results are based on the maximum entropy modeling approach, considered one of the correlative modelling techniques with better predictive performance. Models which validation is based on independent data sets present better performance, an evaluation based on the AUC of ROC accuracy measure.

  15. Karakter Jamur Ceratocystis sp. Penyebab Penyakit Busuk Batang pada Acacia decurrens dan Status Penyakitnya di Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acacia decurrens merupakan salah satu jenis tanaman yang tumbuh mendominasi kawasan Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi (TNGM, pasca erupsi Gunung Merapi tahun 2010. Sekitar 80% tegakan A. decurrens di kawasan tersebut menunjukkan gejala busuk batang akibat infeksi jamur Ceratocystis sp. yang umumnya dipicu oleh luka gerekan kumbang dari kelompok ambrosia. Penelitian bertujuan untuk : (1 mendeskripsikan karakter morfologi jamur Ceratocystis sp., serta kemampuannya beradaptasi pada beberapa jenis tanaman hutan, (2 mengevaluasi status penyakit busuk batang oleh jamur Ceratocystis sp. Karakter morfologi dan kemampuan adaptasinya pada inang akasia, melina, jabon, sengon, dan jati dilakukan di Laboratorium Perlindungan dan Kesehatan Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan UGM. Survei untuk evaluasi status penyakit busuk batang dilakukan pada bulan Februari sampai Agustus 2014 di demplot restorasi pasca erupsi Merapi (luas 8,4 ha, dengan intensitas sampling 8%. Berdasarkan karakter morfologi, terdapat 2 isolat jamur Ceratocystis sp. yaitu asal lembah (L dan dari bukit (B dengan warna koloni krem, luas koloni 20-22 cm2 pada umur 14 hari, membentuk konidia menyerupai tong, dan silindris. Sifat lainnya yaitu memiliki kemampuan yang sama untuk tumbuh, mengkolonisasi, dan menginfeksi inang akasia, sengon, jabon, dan melina, tetapi tidak mampu tumbuh pada inang jati. Berdasarkan luas serangan, status penyakit busuk batang berkisar antara sangat umum sampai menyebar luas (luas serangan = 54-100%, dengan tingkat keparahan bekisar antara ringan sampai parah (intensitas penyakit = 15-67%. Kata kunci: Ceratocystis sp., Acacia decurrens, luas serangan, intensitas penyakit, Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi.   Characteristic of stem rot diseases caused by Ceratocystis sp. on Acacia decurrens and its status in Gunung Merapi National Park, Yogyakarta Abstract Mount Merapi National Park (TNGM has been dominated by Acacia decurrens after the eruption in 2010. Almost 80% of A

  16. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hochlef, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Ben Salem, L. [Office de l' Elevage et des Paturages, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 {+-} 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 {+-} 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those

  17. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Salem, H.; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Hochlef, H.; Ben Salem, L.

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 ± 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 ± 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those offered

  18. Effect of Household Solid Waste on Initial Growth Performance of Acacia auriculiformis and Cedrela toona in Mycorrhiza Inoculated Soil

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    M.M. Abdullah-Al-Mamun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste disposal and management became one of the major environmental concerns in Bangladesh. Realising the problem, the present study has been undertaken with a view to find a sound and effective way of bio-degradable solid waste management. The study was carried out in the nursery of Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences at University of Chittagong to determine the effects of solid waste and waste inoculated with mycorrhizal soil on initial growth performance of Acacia auriculiformis and Cedrela toona. Before planting the seedlings, decomposable waste and mycorrhiza inoculated decomposable waste were placed on the planting holes. Physical growth parameters of seedlings (shoot and root length, leaf and branch number, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root and nodulation status and the macro nutrients (N, P and K were recorded after six months of planting. The highest performance of physical parameters was recorded in the soil treated by mycorrhiza inoculated waste. Cedrela toona was represented by maximum nutrients uptake (N-2.60%, P-0.21% and K-2.34% respectively in the soil treated with mycorrhiza. In case of Acacia auriculiformis, N uptake was maximum (3.02% in control while K uptake was highest (1.27% in soil with waste and P (0.18% uptake was highest in the soil treated with mycorrhiza inoculated waste. Highest initial growth performance was revealed by seedlings treated with mycorrhiza inoculated waste. This study suggested to use mycorrhiza and waste for plantation purposes for hygienic disposal of solid waste and to reduce cost of cultivation.

  19. Efficiency of Acacia Tortillis Plant Pod Shell as a Low Cost and Available Adsorbent for the Removal of Phenol

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    Hossien JafariMansoorian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of nondegradable toxic compounds such as phenol in the environment has nowadays led to many health and environmental problems. The present empirical study was conducted on the lab scale to evaluate the efficiency of Acacia tortillis pod shell as a new alternative and low cost adsorbent for removing phenol from aqueous solutions. The experiment was performed in a batch system and the effects of important operation variables including initial phenol concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 mg/l, absorbent doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6g/l in predetermined mesh sizes (ranging over 30-60 and 60-100, pH levels of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12, and contact times of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min were evaluated. Finally, the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were determined in order to describe the relationship between the colored solution and the absorbent. Results showed that the highest phenol absorption efficiency achieved was above 95% which was obtained with an optimum pH level of 2, an optimum absorbent dose of 0.2 g/l, and a mesh size of 60-100 for a contact time of 10 minutes and at a low pollutant concentration. Increasing phenol concentration increased its removal efficiency but this removal rate was lower at extreme concentrations. Also, the adsorption process was found to be more compatible with the Freundlich model. Based on the results obtained, the pod shells of Acacia tortillis pod shell may be claimed to be an effective, efficient, and cheap absorbent for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions.

  20. Variation of some wood macroscopic properties along the stem of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. adult trees in Portugal

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    A. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of the study is to assess the variation of pith eccentricity, heartwood proportion, latewood percentage and basic wood density along the stem of 45-year-old A. melanoxylon trees collected in four sites of Portugal, and investigate the eventual relationship between these variables.Area of study: Sites covering littoral north, mid interior north and centre interior of Portugal.Materials and methods: Four sites and five trees per site were selected in the Acacia melanoxylon Portuguese forest.One wood sample at each of six height levels per tree was collected in order to evaluate its basic density, pith eccentricity, heartwood and latewood proportions.Main results: The high variability of the wood macroscopic properties among trees from the same site regarding to the variation of the corresponding average properties along the stem is a key characteristic of the experimental data.As a consequence, a multiple linear regression model tested was not able to properly explain the wood basic density variation of the 120 wood samples analysed. In spite of this, the following trends could be recognized: (i excluding the base level, wood basic density moderately increased with tree level; (ii latewood proportion followed similar behaviour; (iii pith eccentricity was low; (iv heartwood proportion decreased markedly with tree height, from 70% at the base to 7% at the top.Research highlights: The high basic density, the relatively low variability along the stem and the low pith eccentricity enable us to anticipate good performance as raw material for the wood industry.Key words: Acacia melanoxylon; basic density; earlywood; latewood; heartwood; sapwood; pith eccentricity.

  1. Development of high-throughput SNP-based genotyping in Acacia auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids using short-read transcriptome data

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    Wong Melissa ML

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next Generation Sequencing has provided comprehensive, affordable and high-throughput DNA sequences for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP discovery in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium. Like other non-model species, SNP detection and genotyping in Acacia are challenging due to lack of genome sequences. The main objective of this study is to develop the first high-throughput SNP genotyping assay for linkage map construction of A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids. Results We identified a total of 37,786 putative SNPs by aligning short read transcriptome data from four parents of two Acacia hybrid mapping populations using Bowtie against 7,839 de novo transcriptome contigs. Given a set of 10 validated SNPs from two lignin genes, our in silico SNP detection approach is highly accurate (100% compared to the traditional in vitro approach (44%. Further validation of 96 SNPs using Illumina GoldenGate Assay gave an overall assay success rate of 89.6% and conversion rate of 37.5%. We explored possible factors lowering assay success rate by predicting exon-intron boundaries and paralogous genes of Acacia contigs using Medicago truncatula genome as reference. This assessment revealed that presence of exon-intron boundary is the main cause (50% of assay failure. Subsequent SNPs filtering and improved assay design resulted in assay success and conversion rate of 92.4% and 57.4%, respectively based on 768 SNPs genotyping. Analysis of clustering patterns revealed that 27.6% of the assays were not reproducible and flanking sequence might play a role in determining cluster compression. In addition, we identified a total of 258 and 319 polymorphic SNPs in A. auriculiformis and A. mangium natural germplasms, respectively. Conclusion We have successfully discovered a large number of SNP markers in A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids using next generation transcriptome sequencing. By using a reference genome from the most closely

  2. Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 4: solid state (13)C NMR as a tool for in situ analysis of proanthocyanidin tannins, in heartwood and bark of quebracho and acacia, and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David G; Bonnet, Susan L; Kemp, Gabre; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2013-10-01

    (13)C NMR is an effective method of characterizing proanthocyanidin (PAC) tannins in quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii) heartwood and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark, before and after commercial extraction. The B-rings of the constituent flavan-3-ols, catechols (quebracho) or pyrogallols (wattle), are recognized in unprocessed source materials by "marker" signals at ca. 118 or 105ppm, respectively. NMR allows the minimum extraction efficiency to be calculated; ca. 30%, and ca. 80%, for quebracho heartwood and black wattle bark, respectively. NMR can also identify PAC tannin (predominantly robinetinidin), and compare tannin content, in bark from other acacia species; tannin content decreases in the order A. mearnsii, Acacia pycnantha (87% of A. mearnsii), Acacia dealbata and Acacia decurrens (each 74%) and Acacia karroo (30%). Heartwood from an underexploited PAC tannin source, Searsia lancea, taxonomically close to quebracho, shows abundant profisetinidin and catechin PACs. NMR offers the advantage of being applicable to source materials in their native state, and has potential applications in optimizing extraction processes, identification of tannin sources, and characterization of tannin content in cultivar yield improvement programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical Composition, and Antibacterial (against Staphylococcus aureus and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activities of the Essential Oil of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth.

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    Ardalan Pasdaran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Scrophularia amplexicaulis Benth. was analyzed, for the first time, by the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC-FID. A total yield of 3 mg of essential oil per100 g of plant dry mass was obtained, and 27 compounds were identified, representing 97. 7 % of total oil. The essential oil were characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes and phenolic derivatives. The main constituents were eugenol (53.8%, eugenol acetate (24.5%, b -caryophyllene (5.7%, caryophyllene oxide (6.4% and aromadendrene oxide II (2.1%. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was tested against Staphylococcus aureus using the well diffusion method, and t he free-radical-scavenging activity was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  4. Verificação da atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

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    KETYLIN FERNANDA MIGLIATO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra mollis Benth., Compositae, falsobarbatimão, é utilizada topicamente como cicatrizante, adstringente e antimicrobiano. No presente estudo, verificou-se a atividade antibacteriana de sabonete líquido contendo extrato glicólico de D. mollis (EGD em diferentes concentrações (8, 15 e 20% e em diferentes pHs (6 e 8. Foram preparadas cinco formulações (F de sabonete: F1 - triclosan (0,1%, F2 - EGD (8%, F3 - EGD (15%, F4 - EGD (20% e F5 - sem conservante. Cascas de D. mollis foram secas em estufa de ar circulante e pulverizadas. Os extratos brutos foram preparados por turbo-extração utilizando-se etanol. Após filtração, os extratos foram concentrados em evaporador rotatório, liofilizados e ressuspendidos em propilenoglicol para a obtenção do extrato glicólico. A atividade antibacteriana foi verificada pelo método de difusão em ágar, empregando cilindros em placa. Placas contendo Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli foram incubadas a 37ºC durante 24 horas. Após incubação, as leituras foram realizadas com paquímetro, observando-se o diâmetro do halo de inibição de crescimento bacteriano. Verificouse que o sabonete líquido contendo triclosan provocou inibição do crescimento bacteriano em ambos os pHs; já os sabonetes sem conservante e contendo EGD, independente da concentração e do pH empregados, não apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Palavras-chave: Atividade antibacteriana. Sabonete líquido. Dimorphandra mollis Benth.

  5. Effect of Acacia karroo Supplementation on Growth, Ultimate pH, Colour and Cooking Losses of Meat from Indigenous Xhosa Lop-eared Goats

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    Ngambu, S.; Muchenje, V.; Marume, U.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation on growth, ultimate pH, colour and cooking losses of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goats. Eighteen castrated 4-month-old kids were used in the study until slaughter. The kids were subdivided in two treatment groups A. karroo supplemented (AK) and non-supplemented (NS). The supplemented goats were given 200 g per head per d of fresh A. karroo leaves. The kids were slaughtered on d 60 and sample cuttings for meat quality assessment were taken from the Longistimus dorsi muscle. The supplemented kids had higher (pmeat from the A. karroo supplemented goats had lower (pmeat from the non-supplemented goats. Acacia karroo supplemented goats produced higher (pmeat. Therefore, A. karroo supplementation improved growth performance and the quality of meat from goats. PMID:25049715

  6. MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Condensed Tannins with Potent Antioxidant Activity from the Leaf, Stem Bark and Root Bark of Acacia confusa

    OpenAIRE

    Wei; Zhou; Lin; Liao; Chai

    2010-01-01

    The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidi...

  7. Impact of utilization of alternative wood products of less conventional species (cherry and acacia) on the phenolic composition and sensory profile evolution of a red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Mariana Ferreira Filipe

    2015-01-01

    Mestrado em Viticultura e Enologia - Instituto Superior de Agronomia / Faculdade de Ciências. Universidade do Porto The aim of this study was to evaluate the time-dependent changes, in the course of 90 days, in the phenolic and volatile composition and sensory properties in one red wine matured in contact with Portuguese (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) and French (Quercus petraea L.) oak, acacia (Robina pseudoacacia) and cherry (Prunus Avium) wood chips and a cherry (Prunus avium) wood powder. ...

  8. Differences in nitrogen cycling and soil mineralisation between a eucalypt plantation and a mixed eucalypt and #Acacia mangium# plantation on a sandy tropical soil

    OpenAIRE

    Tchichelle, Sogni Viviane; Epron, Daniel; Mialoundama, Fidèle; Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Harmand, Jean-Michel; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Mareschal, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable wood production requires appropriate management of commercial forest plantations. Establishment of industrial eucalypt plantations on poor sandy soils leads to a high loss of nutrients including nitrogen (N) after wood harvesting. An ecological intensification of eucalypt plantations was tested with the replacement of half of the Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis by Acacia mangium in the eucalypt monoculture to sustain soil fertility through enhancement of the N biological cycle. ...

  9. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M. A.; Osman, Husam Eldien H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. Objective: The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats) was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. Results: A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the 1st and 3rd groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the 2nd group when compared with the 4th control group. Conclusion: This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs. PMID:21772755

  10. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M A; Osman, Husam Eldien H

    2011-04-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats) was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the 1(st) and 3(rd) groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the 2(nd) group when compared with the 4(th) control group. This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs.

  11. Atributos químicos e atividade microbiana em solos convertidos de savana para plantios de Acacia mangium Willd em Roraima. = Chemical attribuites and microbial activity in soils converted to savanna for plantations of Acacia mangium Willd. in Roraima, Brazil.

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    Moisés Mourão Júnior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A atividade microbiana tem sido empregada na avaliação de solos manejados, sendo um indicador importante na caracterização de solos alterados. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de plantios de Acacia mangium com diferentes idades sobre os atributos químicos e atividade microbiana em solos representativos da Savana do Estado de Roraima. Os plantios de A. mangium de três e cinco anos encontravam-se em áreas de LATOSSOLO AMARELO Distrófico e os de quatro e seis anos em ARGISSOLO AMARELO Distrófico. As áreas próximas aos plantios com as mesmas condições de solos e com cobertura vegetal primária (savana natural constituiram as testemunhas. Foram amostrados os horizontes A e B sendo avaliados os atributos químicos dos solos e a atividade microbiana. A pobreza química e elevadasaturação por alumínio (%m dos solos estudados influenciaram significativamente nos menores valores de C-CO2 evoluído pela atividade microbiana. A maior atividade microbiana ocorreu em áreas plantadas independentemente do tipo de solo, em função das melhores condições químicas. Os maiores valores de C-CO2 evoluído correlacionaram-se melhor com os teores de carbono orgânico e matéria orgânica do solo. = Microbial activity has been used in the evaluation of soils, an important indicator in the characterization of alteredsoils. Therefore, this study has as aim to evaluate the effect of replacing natural vegetation to plantations of Acacia mangium onmicrobial activity in soils of savannas in Roraima state. The areas studied consisted of plantations of acacia with three and fiveyears in Yellow Latosol with four and six years in yellow Alfisols. Areas near the plantations with the same conditions of soiland vegetation (natural savanna were considered control. Were sampled the A and B horizons, corresponding depths 0-30 and 30-60 cm respectively, with three replications for a total of 36 experimental units. The results

  12. Sintomas de deficiência nutricional em mudas de Acacia holosericea em resposta à omissão de macronutrientes Symptoms of nutritional deficiency in seedlings of Acacia holosericea submitted to absence of macronutrients

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    Tathiane Santi Sarcinelli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A Acacia holosericea é uma espécie leguminosa arbórea bastante utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas. O conhecimento dos sintomas de deficiência nutricional apresentados por esta espécie possibilita a identificação e a correção de deficiências em exemplares plantados em substratos degradados. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar a sintomatologia visual de carências de macronutrientes e avaliar a produção de biomassa e o acúmulo de nutrientes nas raízes e na parte aérea de mudas de Acacia holosericea, submetidas a diferentes soluções nutritivas com exclusão de macronutrientes. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de sete soluções nutritivas: 1 solução completa (SC; 2 SC -N; 3 SC -P; 4 SC -K; 5 SC -Ca; 6 SC -Mg; e 7 SC -S. Os tratamentos -N e Mg foram os que mais afetaram a produção total de biomassa. O decréscimo de produção manifestou-se na seguinte ordem: -N = -Mg > -K > -S > -Ca > SC > -P. As plantas do tratamento -N formaram nódulos no sistema radicular, exibindo teores foliares de N maiores que as plantas do tratamento SC. Com exceção dos tratamentos SC e -P, todos os outros apresentaram sintomas de deficiência. A ausência de S alterou a disposição natural dos filódios novos da A. holosericea.Acacia holosericea is a leguminous species that has been extensively used in land reclamation programs. The knowledge of its nutritional symptoms allows the identification and correction of deficiencies in individuals planted in degraded substrates. The aim of this work was to characterize the behavior of seedlings of A. holosericea submitted to different nutritional solutions with absence of macronutrients. The treatments consisted of seven nutritional solutions: 1 Complete solution (SC; 2 SC - N; 3 SC -P; 4 SC -K; 5 SC -Ca; 6 SC -Mg; 7 SC -S. Treatments -N and -Mg were the ones that most affected biomass production. Decrease in biomass production occurred in the following order: -N = -Mg > -K > -S

  13. Carbono orgânico e biomassa microbiana do solo em plantios de Acacia mangium no Cerrado de Roraima Soil organic carbon and soil microbial biomass in Acacia mangium plantation in the Savanna of Roraima

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    Sara Magda Oliveira Simões

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de plantios de Acacia mangium, localizados no cerrado em Roraima, sobre o carbono orgânico e biomassa microbiana do solo. Foram realizadas amostragens de solo nas profundidades de 0-20 cm e 20-40 cm em dois plantios de A. mangium com cerca de cinco anos de idade, e em duas áreas de Cerrado nativo consideradas referência. Um dos plantios de A. mangium (localizado na Fazenda Cigolina correspondeu a um plantio homogêneo (espa��amento de 3,6 m entre linhas e 2,0 m entre plantas enquanto que o outro (localizado no Campo Experimental Água Boa - CEAB correspondeu a um plantio em faixas com duas linhas de plantio (espaçamento de 6 m entre linhas, 2,5 m entre plantas e cerca de 30 m entre faixas. As amostras de solo foram analisadas quanto ao carbono orgânico, carbono da biomassa microbiana, respiração basal do solo e quociente metabólico, além de atributos químicos de fertilidade. Foi verificado que os plantios de A. mangium não proporcionaram aumentos significativos do carbono orgânico do solo em comparação às áreas de referência. Entretanto, na média geral, esses plantios proporcionaram aumento do carbono da biomassa microbiana do solo e redução do quociente metabólico, indicando a possibilidade de acúmulo de carbono orgânico no solo em longo prazo. Também foi observado que, em comparação ao plantio da fazenda Cigolina e às áreas de referência, o carbono microbiano do solo foi maior e acompanhado de menor quociente metabólico no plantio de A. mangium no CEAB, mostrando que a estrutura de plantio exerceu influência sobre a biomassa microbiana do solo.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Acacia mangium plantation in the Roraima's Savanna, on soil organic carbon and soil microbial biomass. Soil samplings were collected on the depths of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm in two Acacia mangium plantation sites, about five years old, and in two sites of native savanna as

  14. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em estéril revegetado com Acacia mangium, após mineração de bauxita Colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi in substrate, after bauxite mining, vegetated with Acacia mangium

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    Ana Lucy Caproni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição das comunidades de FMAs em áreas revegetadas com Acacia mangium após a mineração de bauxita na região de Porto Trombetas, PA. Foram coletadas amostras de solo compostas nos períodos seco e chuvoso, em áreas revegetadas com Acacia mangium, que receberam inóculos de Glomus clarum e Gigaspora margarita, com 1 e 5 anos de idade. Os solos foram revegetados sem a reposição do horizonte superficial orgânico. Os esporos dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs foram extraídos e identificados através de suas características morfológicas. Analisou-se a densidade de esporos e de espécies em cada amostra, a densidade relativa e a freqüência de ocorrência de cada espécie por período de amostragem, além do índice de abundância e freqüência (IAF. Sob o plantio de mudas de A. mangium, a densidade de esporos de FMAs foi elevada e aumentou com a idade, enquanto o número de espécies não variou. Glomus clarum produz alta densidade de esporos na fase inicial do plantio e declina com o tempo, e Gigaspora margarita não esporula nas condições edafoclimáticas locais. A maioria das espécies de FMA não apresenta o mesmo padrão de esporulação nos períodos seco e chuvoso.The objective of this work was to monitor the establishment of Gigaspora margarita and Glomus clarum in reclaimed areas after the bauxite mining in Porto Trombetas, PA, Brazil. Soil samples were collected during the dry and rainy periods under one and five-year-old Acacia mangium trees grown from seedlings that had been inoculated with Glomus clarum and Gigaspora margarita. The exposed subsoil was managed without replacing the organic soil layer. FMA spores were extracted and identified through their morphologic characteristics. Spore density and frequency of each species were determined in each sampling The index of abundance and frequency (IAF were estimated for all samples. Under A. mangium the arbuscular

  15. Evaluation of the Effects of Various Fertilizers (N, P, K Application on Morphological and Growth Characteristics of Salvia leriifolia Benth

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    Masoud Amini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Salvia leriifolia Benth. (Nowruzak is a herbal plant from Lamiaceae family, which is exclusively native of Iran and Afghanistan. Existence of this species is reported in Khorasan and Semnan provinces of Iran. As extreme pressure of grazing and harvesting the nature has put this species at risk of extinction, and on the other hand this plant has numerous herbal values and its cultivation can produce the market needs as well as preserve it from extinction. Therefore its domestication is now a priority and optimized nutrition for cultivated plants is one of the important factors in quality and quantity enhancement of the product. The aim of this research was to study the effect of three main nutrient: nitrogen, Phosphor, and potassium (NPK on growth of Nowruzak and measure its morphological reactions to these elements in the poor soil of its habitat. Materials and methods To study the effect of different nutritious elements on quantitative properties of Nowruzak, a factorial experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications in the Research Field of Islamic Azad University of Gonabad in March 2014. In this experiment, nitrogen fertilizers in three levels (N1= control, N2=100 kg.ha-1 and N3=200 kg.ha-1 based on net nitrogen, Phosphor in three levels (0, 50 and100 kg.ha-1 based on P2O5 and potassium fertilizers in two levels (0- and 50 kg.ha-1 based on K2O were applied of farm to specify the effect of each elements and their reactions on quantitative growth properties of Nowruzak. Results and discussion Results show that the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on plant height, harvest index, cover crown diameter and number of fertile branches are significant at 1% level. In a way that levels of nitrogen fertilizer are placed in first, second and third group of Duncan multiple range test, respectively. The highest plant height with average of 41.97 cm is assigned to 200 kg net nitrogen

  16. AN INVESTIGATION OF INSECT OVIPOSITING REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NESS, ACACIA AURICULIFORMIS AND PIPER BETLE LINN LEAVES EXTRACTS TO BATROCERA CARAMBOLAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcahyo Iman Prakoso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Batrocera carambolae was one of the main pests in some types of fruits. This pest attack resulted in quantitative damage in the form of fall of young fruit and qualitatively in the form of fruit to rot and contains maggots. This research was conducted to determine selected extract from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves which have repellent activity for Batrocera carambolae. Nine extracts from the maceration process of the three leaves were evaluated by placing the extracts and flies together in the cage. The ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves were applied to the test pieces and fed into a cage containing 10 male and female flies. From observation, N-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness and Piper betle Linn leaves and ethyl acetate extracts from Acacia auriculiformis leaf having good activity as repellent and potentially to be used as a insect ovipositing repellent of Batrocera carambolae.

  17. An Investigation of Insect Ovipositing Repellent Activity of Andrographis paniculata Ness, Acacia auriculiformis and Piper betle Linn Leaves Extracts to Batrocera carambolae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcahyo Iman Prakoso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Batrocera carambolae was one of the main pests in some types of fruits. This pest attack resulted in quantitative damage in the form of fall of young fruit and qualitatively in the form of fruit to rot and contains maggots. This research was conducted to determine selected extract from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves which have repellent activity for Batrocera carambolae. Nine extracts from the maceration process of the three leaves were evaluated by placing the extracts and flies together in the cage. The ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves were applied to the test pieces and fed into a cage containing 10 male and female flies. From observation, N-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness and Piper betle Linn leaves and ethyl acetate extracts from Acacia auriculiformis leaf  having good activity as repellent and potentially to be used as a insect ovipositing repellent of Batrocera carambolae.

  18. Influence of microfibril angle on the thermal and dynamic-mechanical properties of Acacia Mangium wood using X-ray diffraction and dynamics-mechanical test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabet, T.A.; Julynnie Wajir; Fauziah Abdul Aziz

    2009-01-01

    The term microfibril angle, MFA in wood science refers to the angle between the direction of the helical windings of cellulose microfibrils in the secondary cell wall, S 2 layer of fibers and tracheids and the long axis of the cell. In this study, the mean MFA of the cell walls were determined for thin samples of thickness 200.0 μm from pith and outwards, for eight ages of Acacia Mangium wood. The determination of MFA was based on a diffraction pattern arising from cellulose crystal planes of the type 002 generated by x-ray diffraction and recorded using an electronic detector. The results show an inversely relationship between MFA and age of tree in Acacia mangium wood. MFA decreased from 26.13 degree at age 3 year-old to 0.20 degree at tree of age 15 year-old for the pith region. The most significant drop occurred from 16.14 degree at age 7 year-old to 11.30 degree at age 9 year-old. an inversely relationship between MFA and storage modulus E ' was evidence in Acacia mangium at age 10 year-old. The results showed that about 76.22 % variation of loss modulus E was attributed to the MFA, while about 66.4 % of the variation of glass transition T g was explained by MFA under the same experimental conditions. (author)

  19. Evaluación del potencial de mejoramiento genético en el crecimiento en altura de Acacia mangium Willd. Evaluation of the breeding potential in height growth for Acacia mangium Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Javier Pastrana-Vargas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el periodo 2009-2010, en Ayapel, Planeta Rica y Tierralta, departamento de Córdoba (Colombia se evaluó el desempeño en crecimiento en altura total de 90 familias de polinización abierta de Acacia mangium. En estos municipios el clima se clasifica, de acuerdo con Holdridge, como bosque seco tropical (Bs-T, excepto Tierralta que es bosque húmedo tropical (Bh-T. Durante el primer año de crecimiento, las plantas en cada familia fueron evaluadas en ensayos de progenie mediante un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con seis bloques en cada una de las tres localidades. La parcela o unidad experimental consistió en seis plantas de polinización abierta por familia, distribuidas aleatoriamente en tres parejas espacialmente separadas dentro de cada bloque. La predicción de parámetros genéticos individuales y de familias se efectuó por medio del procedimiento BLUP y los componentes de varianza por medio del procedimiento REML utilizando el software SELEGEN. Las estimaciones de heredabilidad variaron entre In 2009-10, in Ayapel, Planeta Rica and Tierralta, Córdoba department (Colombia the growth performance in overall height of 90 open-pollinated families of Acacia mangium was evaluated. In these municipalities the climate is classified, according to Holdridge, like tropical dry forest (TDF, except Tierralta that it is tropical moist forest (TMF. During the first year of growth, plants in each family were evaluated in progeny tests using a randomized experimental complete block design, with six blocks in each of the three locations. The experimental unit consisted of six open-pollinated plants per family, randomly distributed in three spatially separated pairs within each block. The prediction of genetic parameters individual and of families was conducted by the method BLUP (best linear unbiased prediction and the variance components by REML (restricted maximum likelihood procedure using the software SELEGEN. Heritability

  20. Acacia cyclops A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Leguminosae in Italy: first cases of naturalization

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    Pasta, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first two cases of naturalization of Acacia cyclops are reported for Italy. Young trees were observed growing in the wild some 15 years ago on Linosa (Pelagie Islands, Strait of Sicily. A decade later, this alien plant should no longer be considered as a casual, since a very intensive process of self-sown regeneration has been observed in some plantations on Lampedusa, the major island of the same Archipelago. The available literature suggests the need for careful monitoring of the ongoing invasion process, as A. cyclops has already shown a very invasive behaviour elsewhere within Mediterranean-type biomes due to its ability to withstand high environmental stresses. As migrating birds are suspected to have played an important role in facilitating the arrival of A. cyclops, further propagules are likely to reach the islands in the future. We recommend that new plantations of A. cyclops should be forbidden, but that extant naturalized populations should be managed instead of eradicating them. In fact, the effect of Acacia plantations warrants investigation at different scales in order to assess their impact on local plant-diversity and ecological succession processes.

    Se muestran los dos primeros casos de naturalización de Acacia cyclops para el territorio italiano. Se observó que las plántulas de este arbol crecen en forma silvestre hace unos 15 años en Linosa (islas Pelagias, estrecho de Sicilia. Una década después, ya no puede ser considerada una xenófita casual ya que se observó una regeneración muy intensa en algunos proyectos de reforestación en Lampedusa, la isla más grande del mismo archipiélago. Publicaciones anteriores sugieren la necesidad de un monitoreo cuidadoso del proceso de invasión en curso, ya que A. cyclops ha expresado un comportamiento altamente invasivo en otros biomas de tipo mediterráneo, debido a su alta tolerancia al estrés ambiental. Dado que se

  1. Colorimetric Detection Based on Localised Surface Plasmon Resonance Optical Characteristics for the Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide Using Acacia Gum–Stabilised Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Alzahrani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanoparticles in sensing is attracting the interest of many researchers. The aim of this work was to fabricate Acacia gum–stabilised silver nanoparticles (SNPs using green chemistry to use them as a highly sensitive and cost-effective localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR colorimeter sensor for the determination of reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 . Silver nanoparticles were fabricated by the reduction of an inorganic precursor silver nitrate solution (AgNO 3 using white sugar as the reducing reagent and Acacia gum as the stabilising reagent and a sonication bath to form uniform silver nanoparticles. The fabricated nanoparticles were characterised by visual observation, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The TEM micrographs of the synthesised nanoparticles showed the presence of spherical nanoparticles with sizes of approximately 10 nm. The EDAX spectrum result confirmed the presence of silver (58%, carbon (30%, and oxygen (12%. Plasmon colorimetric sensing of H 2 O 2 solution was investigated by introducing H 2 O 2 solution into Acacia gum–capped SNP dispersion, and the change in the LSPR band in the UV-Vis region of spectra was monitored. In this study, it was found that the yellow colour of Acacia gum–stabilised SNPs gradually changed to transparent, and moreover, a remarkable change in the LSPR absorbance strength was observed. The calibration curve was linear over 0.1–0.00001 M H 2 O 2 , with a correlation estimation ( R 2 of .953. This was due to the aggregation of SNPs following introduction of the H 2 O 2 solution. Furthermore, the fabricated SNPs were successfully used to detect H 2 O 2 solution in a liquid milk sample, thereby demonstrating the ability of the fabricated SNPs to detect H 2 O 2

  2. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of indigenous Pedi goats fed different levels of Acacia nilotica leaf meal and ad libitum Buffalo grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motubatse, M R; Ng'ambi, J W; Norris, D; Malatje, M M

    2008-04-01

    In a first of two experiments, twenty yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.3 +/- 0.5 kg live weight were used in a 37-day study in a 2 (levels of PEG 4000) x 2 (levels ofAcacia) Factorial arrangement in a Completely Randomised Design to determine the effect of the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g polyethylene glycol 4000 on diet intake and digestibility, and growth rate of Pedi goats fed ad libitum Buffalo grass hay. Acacia nilotica leaf meal contained high amounts of total phenolics (2.04% DM) and low amounts of condensed tannins; both extracted (0.37% DM) and unextracted (1.83% DM). Supplementation with PEG 4000 increased (P < 0.05) crude protein intake as the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal increased from 80 to 120 g. Similarly, treatment with PEG 4000 improved (P < 0.05) DM, OM and CP digestibilities when compared to 80 g Acacia nilotica leaf meal. Supplementation with PEG 4000 resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in blood urea concentrations. Polyethylene glycol 4000 has the potential to improve the feeding value of A. nilotica leaf meal and can, therefore, be used in the feeding systems for ruminant animals. The second experiment determined the effect of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation on in vitro digestibility of the diets similar to the actual ratios of the first experiment. Level of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation improved (P < 0.05) in vitro DM, OM and CP digestibilities where 120 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. Similarly, 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation also improved (P < 0.05) in vitro CP digestibility where 80 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. In vivo DM and OM digestibilities were best predicted from in vitro DM and OM digestibilities while in vivo CP was explained by in vitro OM and CP digestibilities. It is, therefore, concluded that in vitro DM and OM digestibilities have good capacity to predict in vivo DM and OM digestibilities while OM and CP

  3. Abordagem fitoquímica, composição bromatológica e atividade antibacteriana de Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret E Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke =Phytochemical approach, bromatologic composition and antibacterial activity of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Aline Casimiro Bezerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de encontrar novas drogas eficazes no combate microbiano tem aumentado a cada dia e estimulado a busca de novos compostos naturais com atividades biológicas. Neste trabalho, realizaram-se estudo fitoquímico e análises microbiológicas com os extratos etanólicos das espécies (jurema-preta Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret e (juremabranca Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke, frente a linhagens de bactérias patogênicas. O pó da casca do caule de ambas as espécies foi submetido à avaliação bromatológica e determinados os teores de Matéria Seca, Matéria Mineral, Proteína Bruta, Fibra em Detergente Neutro e Energia Bruta. Os resultados para a prospecção química indicaram a presença de taninos e outros compostos fenólicos, bem como a presença de saponinas em ambos os extratos. Os extratos das duas espécies demonstraram que mais de uma parte das plantas possui atividade antimicrobiana. A composição bromatológica da casca do caule de jurema-preta e jurema-branca apresentou teores diferenciados para as variáveis avaliadas.The need to find new efficient drugs to combat microbes has increasedthe search for new natural compounds with biological activities. In this work, phytochemical studies and microbiological analysis were carried out with the ethanol extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poiret and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth Ducke on pathogenic bacteria strains. The bark powders of both species were submitted to bromatologic evaluation and the levels of dry matter, mineral matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and crude energy were determined. The results of the chemical search chemical showed the presence of tannins and other phenolic compounds as well as the presence of saponins in both extracts. The microbiologic evaluation of the extracts of both species showed that more than one part of the plants had antimicrobial activity. The bromatologic composition of the bark powder of Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild

  4. Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-04

    Jun 4, 2014 ... Bheemagani1, Prem Kumar1, Venkatesh K1 and Anupalli Roja Rani1. 1Department ... Human infections caused by microorganisms and fungi are rampant ... gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes).

  5. Alternative control of early blight of tomato using plant extracts from Acacia nilotica, Achillea fragrantissima and Calotropis procera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria A.M. BAKA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro and in vivo antifungal potential of extracts of three wild medicinal plants, (Acacia nilotica (L. Delile, Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk. Sch.Bip. and Calotropis procera (Aiton W. T. Aiton was examined against Alternaria solani, the causal agent of the early blight of tomato. Aqueous or ethanol extracts of all tested plants reduced the mycelial growth and conidium germination of A. solani in vitro. Ethanol extracts were more effective against the pathogen than the aqueous extracts. Extract of C. procera exhibited more antifungal potential against the pathogen than other plant extracts. Observations by scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed dramatic alterations in the morphology and ultrastructure of A. solani when treated with the ethanol extract of C. procera at a concentration of 20%. Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of many bioactive constituents in the extracts which were in greater amounts in C. procera than the other two plants. In a plot experiment, both types of extracts from C. procera reduced disease severity. Tomato fruit yield was increased after the treatment with the plant extracts.

  6. PYROLIGNEOUS LIQUOR PRODUCED FROM ACACIA MEARNSII DE WILD WOOD UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Furtado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mearnsii de Wild (black wattle is one of the most important trees planted in Southern Brazil for tannin extraction and charcoal production. The pyrolysis of the black wattle wood used for obtaining charcoal is performed in brick ovens, with the gas fraction being sent directly into the environment. The present study examines the condensable compounds present in the liquor produced from black wattle wood at different thermal degradation conditions, using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Branches of black wattle were thermally degraded at controlled ambient and temperature conditions. Overall, a higher variety of compounds were obtained under atmospheric air pressure than under synthetic air pressure. Most of the tentatively identified compounds, such as carboxylic acids, phenols, aldehydes, and low molecular mass lignin fragments, such as guayacol, syringol, and eugenol, were products of lignin thermoconversion. Substituted aromatic compounds, such as vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and 2-methoxy-4-propeny-phenol, were also identified. At temperatures above 200 ºC, furan, 2-acetylfuran, methyl-2-furoate, and furfural, amongst others, were identified as polysaccharide derivatives from cellulose and hemicellulose depolymerization. This study evidences the need for adequate management of the condensable by-products of charcoal production, both for economic reasons and for controlling their potential environmental impact.

  7. Applying landscape genomic tools to forest management and restoration of Hawaiian koa (Acacia koa) in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugger, Paul F; Liang, Christina T; Sork, Victoria L; Hodgskiss, Paul; Wright, Jessica W

    2018-02-01

    Identifying and quantifying the importance of environmental variables in structuring population genetic variation can help inform management decisions for conservation, restoration, or reforestation purposes, in both current and future environmental conditions. Landscape genomics offers a powerful approach for understanding the environmental factors that currently associate with genetic variation, and given those associations, where populations may be most vulnerable under future environmental change. Here, we applied genotyping by sequencing to generate over 11,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 311 trees and then used nonlinear, multivariate environmental association methods to examine spatial genetic structure and its association with environmental variation in an ecologically and economically important tree species endemic to Hawaii, Acacia koa . Admixture and principal components analyses showed that trees from different islands are genetically distinct in general, with the exception of some genotypes that match other islands, likely as the result of recent translocations. Gradient forest and generalized dissimilarity models both revealed a strong association between genetic structure and mean annual rainfall. Utilizing a model for projected future climate on the island of Hawaii, we show that predicted changes in rainfall patterns may result in genetic offset, such that trees no longer may be genetically matched to their environment. These findings indicate that knowledge of current and future rainfall gradients can provide valuable information for the conservation of existing populations and also help refine seed transfer guidelines for reforestation or replanting of koa throughout the state.

  8. Evaluation of mosquito larvicidal activity of fruit extracts of Acacia auriculiformis against the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex vishnui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Mousumi; Rawani, Anjali; Laskar, Subrata; Chandra, Goutam

    2018-02-19

    The larvicidal potentiality of crude and ethyl acetate extracts of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis was investigated against all the larval instars of JE vector Culex vishnui. The crude extracts showed good results against all the larval instars with highest mortality at 0.09%. Highest mortality was found at 300 ppm of ethyl acetate extract. Lowest LC 50 value was obtained at 72 h for third instar larvae. Non target organisms tested, showed no to very less mortality to ethyl acetate solvent extract. Presence of N-H stretching, a C=O stretching, C=C and C-N stretching vibrations of secondary amide or amine group were confirmed from IR analysis. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of three compounds namely Ethane 2-chloro-1,1-dimethoxy, Acetic acid, 1-methyl ether ester and [4-[1-[3,5-Dimethyl-4[(trimethylsilyl)oxy)phenyl]-1,3-dimethylbutyl)-2,6dimethylphenoxy)(trimethyl) silane, responsible for mosquito larval death.

  9. Consideraciones y recomendaciones prácticas para mejorar la calidad de la madera seca de Acacia mangium Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tenorio Monge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium, es actualmente, una de las especies más utilizadas en plantaciones comerciales en Costa Rica. Sin embargo, los usos de su madera han sido restringidos debido a que presenta algunos problemas durante el proceso de secado artificial, entre los que destaca la alta variabilidad del contenido de humedad final, la alta incidencia de defectos y la presencia de bolsas de humedad. Se han investigado las causas de esta variación y del desarrollo de estos defectos y se ha encontrado que los principales factores que influyen son: la alta variabilidad en el contenido de humedad inicial de la madera, la procedencia de la materia prima, la altura, la posición radial de la tabla al extraerla del árbol y el uso de programas de secado inadecuados para la especie. Asímismo se dan una serie de recomendaciones a considerar antes de iniciar el secado artificial con el fin de lograr una mejor calidad de madera en cuanto a la variabilidad del secado y lapresencia de defectos.

  10. Development of Acacia Glulam Wood Exterior Beam-to-Column Connection with Angles and Steel Rods System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simanta Djoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two models (M9B1 and M9B2 connection types of acacia glulam wood exterior beam-to-column connections with angles and steel rod system have been developed. Both models have been tested experimentally under monotonic static and cyclic loadings. The behaviour of each model under static and cyclic loadings, maximum displacement, maximum moment, equivalent viscous damping ratio, stiffness degradation, rotational stiffness and ductility have been observed. From the test results it can be concluded that the behaviour of the connections were influenced by the number of bearing steel rods at the beam, wood quality, and thickness of the angles. The M9B1 connection type has more flexibility than the M9B2 connection type. Three dimensional finite element analyses considering anisotropic plasticity have been conducted for both models. It can be concluded that in M9B1 connection type, the tensile forces due to the moment are received by the combination of tensile steel rods and bearing force in the steel rod and wood around it. Overall performance of M9B2 connection type is better than that of M9B1 connection type because the former has higher initial stiffness and higher rotational ductility than the later.

  11. IMPACT OF Acacia drepanolobium (AN INVASIVE WOODY SPECIES ON GUM-RESIN RESOURCES AND LOCAL LIVELIHOOD IN BORANA, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

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    Ayana Abdeta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of Acacia drepanolobium, a species threatening rangeland resources including Gum-resin production and pastoralists’ livelihoods in Borana. Data were collected through vegetation surveys, key informant interviews, use of formal questionnaires and focus group discussions. We found a total of 22 woody species in the study area. A. drepanolobium was found to be the most dominant (22% and abundant (65% invasive woody species with an importance value index (IVI of 103. According to our respondents, A. drepanolobium was the first widely expanded woody species followed by Dichrostachys cinerea and A. mellifera. Eighty seven percent of our respondents ranked A. drepanolobium as the most invading woody species during their life time. Overall, our results demonstrated that the impact of A. drepanolobium had greatly affected the condition of rangeland vegetation. The implication is that the reduction in the capacity of rangelands for livestock grazing could reduce the resilience of local livelihood under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, pastoralists’ perception indicated that the expansion of A. drepanolobium had reduced the survival of Gum-resin producing species. Generally, the shift from cattle based pastoral economy to mixed livestock types could be attributed to the expansion of A. drepanolobium that forced the community to shift their mode of production. We confirmed that A. drepanolobium is an invasive indigenous woody species with multiple effects on the ecology of rangelands and on the livelihood security of pastoral communities.

  12. The effect of acacia gum and a water-soluble dietary fiber mixture on blood lipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, C D; Spiller, G A; Gates, J E; Miller, A F; Whittam, J H

    1993-04-01

    Water-soluble dietary fibers (WSDF) are generally thought to lower cholesterol. This study compared the cholesterol-lowering effects of a medium viscosity WSDF mixture (psyllium, pectin, guar gum and locust bean gum) with an equal amount of WSDF from acacia gum, which has a lower viscosity. Hypercholesterolemic males (n = 13) and females (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two WSDF treatments provided in a low-calorie powder form for mixing into beverages (powders into their usual beverages and to consume them three times daily (5 g WSDF/serving) for 4 weeks while consuming their typical fat-modified diets. Exercise and body weights were also held constant. The WSDF mixture yielded a 10% decrease in plasma total cholesterol (from 251 +/- 20 to 225 +/- 19 mg/dL; p gum-treated group showed no change in any plasma lipid parameters. The WSDF treatments did not produce significant changes in mean dietary intakes within or between treatment groups. These data support previous findings that a diet rich in select WSDF can be a useful cholesterol-lowering adjunct to a fat-modified diet, but that caution should be exercised in ascribing cholesterol-lowering efficacy to dietary fibers based solely on their WSDF classification. Finally, WSDF viscosity is a potential cholesterol-lowering factor to be explored further.

  13. Microencapsulation of vitamin e from palm fatty acid distillate with galactomannan and gum acacia using spray drying method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, J. Br.; Kaban, J.; Zulmi, R.

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin E from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) has been encapsulated using spray drying method with gum acacia (GA) and mixed of galactomannan from Arenga pinnata (GAP) with GA as encapsulating agent. Composite films with thickness vary from 0.542 - 0.779 mm were prepared by incorporating vitamin E onto matrix of GA (7 g) with various concentration of GAP (0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.4 g). The film obtained from 0.2 g GAP and 1.3 g vitamin E showed better compatibility and have viscosity similar with standard (ISO 9001:2008 and ISO 22000:2005). That composition was used for spray drying method rendering micro-particle size 11 µm and the particle had spherical shape. Although the increment of GAP decreasing moisture content and the particle size from 16 µm to 11 µm, the yield of microcapsule, encapsulation efficiency, the amount of vitamin E absorbed and oxidation stability of vitamin E were increased.

  14. Combustion and kinetic parameters estimation of torrefied pine, acacia and Miscanthus giganteus using experimental and modelling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Małgorzata; Magdziarz, Aneta; Gajek, Marcin; Zajemska, Monika; Jayaraman, Kandasamy; Gokalp, Iskender

    2017-11-01

    A novel approach, linking both experiments and modelling, was applied to obtain a better understanding of combustion characteristics of torrefied biomass. Therefore, Pine, Acacia and Miscanthus giganteus have been investigated under 260°C, 1h residence time and argon atmosphere. A higher heating value and carbon content corresponding to a higher fixed carbon, lower volatile matter, moisture content, and ratio O/C were obtained for all torrefied biomass. TGA analysis was used in order to proceed with the kinetics study and Chemkin calculations. The kinetics analysis demonstrated that the torrefaction process led to a decrease in Ea compared to raw biomass. The average Ea of pine using the KAS method changed from 169.42 to 122.88kJ/mol. The changes in gaseous products of combustion were calculated by Chemkin, which corresponded with the TGA results. The general conclusion based on these investigations is that torrefaction improves the physical and chemical properties of biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ARCAS (ACACIA Regional Climate-data Access System) -- a Web Access System for Climate Model Data Access, Visualization and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarinen, C.; Brown, D.; Callahan, J.; hankin, S.; de Koningh, M.; Middleton-Link, D.; Wigley, T.

    2001-05-01

    A Web-based access system to climate model output data sets for intercomparison and analysis has been produced, using the NOAA-PMEL developed Live Access Server software as host server and Ferret as the data serving and visualization engine. Called ARCAS ("ACACIA Regional Climate-data Access System"), and publicly accessible at http://dataserver.ucar.edu/arcas, the site currently serves climate model outputs from runs of the NCAR Climate System Model for the 21st century, for Business as Usual and Stabilization of Greenhouse Gas Emission scenarios. Users can select, download, and graphically display single variables or comparisons of two variables from either or both of the CSM model runs, averaged for monthly, seasonal, or annual time resolutions. The time length of the averaging period, and the geographical domain for download and display, are fully selectable by the user. A variety of arithmetic operations on the data variables can be computed "on-the-fly", as defined by the user. Expansions of the user-selectable options for defining analysis options, and for accessing other DOD-compatible ("Distributed Ocean Data System-compatible") data sets, residing at locations other than the NCAR hardware server on which ARCAS operates, are planned for this year. These expansions are designed to allow users quick and easy-to-operate web-based access to the largest possible selection of climate model output data sets available throughout the world.

  16. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana dos extratos e frações orgânicas de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Mimosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Dias Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Mimosaceae, conhecida popularmente como sabiá e cerva viva, é uma planta arbórea encontrada na caatinga nordestina brasileira, amplamente utilizada pela população na forma de infusões para o tratamento de feridas, bronquites e anti-inflamatório. Diante do exposto, os objetivos deste estudo, foram determinar as atividades antioxidantes e antimicrobianas do extrato etanólico das folhas (EHM, caules (EHL, cascas do caule (EHC, raízes (EHR e frações obtidas das folhas de M. caesalpiniifolia Benth. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada através do método de captação do radical DPPH, enquanto a atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, sobre leveduras, bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. A capacidade antioxidante mostrou que a fração acetato de etila (Fr-EtOAc foi diretamente proporcional ao teor de polifenóis totais com IC50 de 20,08 ± 0,10 µg/ mL e 721,29±0,60 mg de EAG (equivalentes de ácido gálico por g de extrato. Na atividade antimicrobiana, todos os extratos e frações exibiram atividade inibitória de crescimento frente aos micro-organismos microrganismos avaliados e em concentrações variando de 5 a 1000 μg/mL. A Fr-EtOAc apresentou valores promissores de inibição de crescimento frente a fungos, como Candida glabrata (ATCC 90030 e Candida krusei (ATCC 6258, com concentrações de 20 e 40 μg/mL, respectivamente. Estes resultados são importantes, pois são os primeiros a serem realizados com a espécie M. caesalpiniifolia.

  17. Seasonal variation of phenolic content in galled and non-galled tissues of Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae Variação sazonal do conteúdo fenólico em tecidos galhados e não-galhados de Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae

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    Michelle de Lima Detoni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two species, Tanaostigmodes ringueleti and T. mecanga, induce distinct galls on Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae, a globose and a fusiform gall morphotype. Seasonal changes of phenolic content in the tissues of the two distinct galls were compared to those of non-galled leaves and stems of the host plants over one year. The variation in the phenolic content profiles was similar in both non-galled and galled tissues, and was primarily associated with changes in the levels of rainfall, indicating a direct response to hydric stress. In periods of drastic changes in water precipitation, the alterations were significantly higher in non-galled than in galled tissues suggesting that the gall inducers might limit the variation in the phenolic concentration for their own benefit.Duas espécies, Tanaostigmodes ringueleti e T. mecanga, induzem galhas distintas em Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae, um morfotipo globoso e um fusiforme. Mudanças sazonais no conteúdo fenólico nos tecidos das duas galhas foram comparadas àquelas de folha e caule não galhados das plantas hospedeiras por um ano. A variação no perfil de conteúdo fenólico foi similar em tecidos galhados e não galhados, sendo associada primariamente às mudanças nos níveis de chuva, constituindo uma resposta direta ao estresse hídrico. Nos períodos de mudanças drásticas na precipitação de água, as alterações foram significativamente maiores em tecido não galhados do que em tecidos galhados, sugerindo que os galhadores estariam limitando a variação do conteúdo fenólico em seu próprio benefício.

  18. Análise faunística de abelhas Euglossina (Hymenoptera: Apidae em ambientes de floresta nativa e plantios de Acacia mangium no Estado de Roraima. = Faunal analysis of the Euglossina bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae within the native Forest and plantations of Acacia mangium in the Brazilian State of Roraima.

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    Sheila Fernandes Tavares Maia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho comparar a Fauna de abelhas Euglossina de mata nativa com plantios de Acacia mangium (Mimosaceae atraídas por iscas odoríferas. Foram utilizadas armadilhas de garrafas de politereftalato de etila (PET, contendo fragrâncias de salicilato de metila e eugenol. As abelhas foram retiradas das armadilhas em intervalos de 30 em 30 minutos a contar das 6 horas até as 12 horas de cada dia de coleta. Foram selecionados três locais em mata nativa (Ilha de Maracá, Serra Grande e Itã e três em plantios de Acacia mangium (Haras Cunhã-Pucá, Fazenda Jacitara e Fazenda Umirizal. Em cada local de coleta as abelhas foram capturadas em um único dia, perfazendo um total de 6 dias de coletas para todos os locais. Foram coletados 123indivíduos de 21 espécies. Nos pontos de coleta nos plantios de Acacia mangium foram coletados 35 indivíduos pertencentes a 12 espécies e em mata nativa foram coletados 88 indivíduos pertencentes a 17 espécies. As espécies mais abundantes foram Eulaema pseudocingulata (48 espécimes, Eul. meriana (12 espécimes, Eul. cingulata (11 espécimes, Euglossa augaspis (10 espécimes e Eug. amazonica (8 espécimes. Os pontos de coleta nos plantiosde Acacia mangium apresentaram baixa diversidade e abundância quando comparados com os pontos de coleta em mata nativa. = The objective of this study was to compare the Fauna of the Euglossina bees of native forest and plantings of Acacia mangium collected with odoriferous baits. Traps made from PET bottles were used, and contained fragrances of methyl salicilate and eugenol. The bees were removed from the traps in intervals of 30 in 30 minutes from 6 am to 12 pm every day during the period of collection. Three places were selected within the native forest (Island of Maracá, Serra Grande, and Itã, and from three plantations of Acacia mangium (Cunhã-Pucá farm, Jacitara farm and Umirizal farm. In each area of collection,the bees were captured on a

  19. DAMPAK PEMBANGUNAN HUTAN TANAMAN INDUSTRI Acacia crassicarpa DI LAHAN GAMBUT TERHADAP TINGKAT KEMATANGAN DAN LAJU PENURUNAN PERMUKAAN TANAH (The Impact of Development of Industrial Plantation Forest Acacia crassicarpa in Peatland Towards the Maturity

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    Yunita Lisnawati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pembangunan hutan tanaman di lahan gambut tidak terlepas dari sorotan isu negatif lingkungan terkait dengan penurunan kedalaman muka air tanah, sehingga terjadi perubahan ekosistem asli. Kegiatan reklamasi lahan untuk HTI Acacia crassicarpa dalam jangka panjang disinyalir akan menimbulkan dampak negatif terhadap perubahan karakteristik tanah gambutnya seperti tingkat kematangan dan laju penurunan permukaan tanah gambut (subsiden. Kajian mengenai dampak pembangunan HTI di lahan gambut terhadap tingkat kematangan dan laju subsiden perlu dilakukan untuk memberikan informasi mengenai kondisi exsisting daya dukung lahannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi tingkat kematangan gambut baik secara vertikal (berdasarkan kedalaman gambut maupun secara horizontal (berdasarkan jarak dari bibir kanal dan mengetahui laju subsiden sebagai dampak dari reklamasi lahan gambut menjadi HTI A. crassicarpa. Penelitian dilakukan di PT AA, Distrik Rasau Kuning, Kabupaten Siak, Riau. Plot penelitian ditempatkan dalam satu transek sepanjang 100 m yang dibuat tegak lurus dengan kanal tersier, terdapat 12 plot dan dalam satu transek terdapat 3 titik pengamatan sehingga total titik pengamatan adalah 36 titik. Parameter yang diamati adalah dinamika kedalaman muka air tanah, nilai kadar serat tanah gambut dan laju subsiden. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dampak perubahan kedalaman muka air tanah gambut di lokasi penelitian hanya mempengaruhi tingkat kematangan gambut pada kedalaman kurang dari 2 m, sedangkan jarak kanal tersier sebesar 125 m tidak berpengaruh secara nyata terhadap tingkat kematangan gambut. Pada kedalaman kurang dari 2 m tingkat kematangan gambut lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan lapisan di bawahnya. Pembangunan HTI A. crassicarpa di lokasi penelitian menyebabkan laju subsiden sebesar rata-rata 5,5 cm/tahun.  ABSTRACT The establishment of forest on peat areas is insepatable from the glare of the negative environmental issues associated

  20. Produção Arbórea e Animal em Sistema Silvipastoril com Acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii Trees and Animal Production in a Silvipastoral System with Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelia Maria de Souza Castilhos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho dos componentes arbóreo e animal em um sistema silvipastoril (SSP com acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild e gramíneas perenes de verão, foi conduzido um trabalho em convênio com a empresa Seta S.A., na unidade da Fepagro em Tupanciretã, RS, no período de outubro de 1995 a maio de 2003. O delineamento experimental foi um bifatorial (espécie forrageira e densidade arbórea inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. As espécies forrageiras (EF avaliadas foram capim annoni (Eragrostis plana, braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha e capim gatton (Panicum maximum cv. Gatton nos quatro primeiros anos, e capim gatton, capim aruana (P. maximum cv. Aruana e capim pangola (Digitaria diversinervis para os demais anos. As densidades arbóreas (DA testadas foram de 1.667, 1.000, 833 e 500 árvores.ha-1. Com 1.667 árvores.ha-1 houve maior rendimento de madeira em todas as avaliações, não diferindo de 1.000 árvores/ha-1 a partir do quinto ano. A produtividade animal foi mais elevada em DA de 833 e 500 árvores.ha-1, sendo respectivamente 229 e 223 kg.ha-1 de peso vivo. Aos sete anos de implantação da acácia negra, o volume de madeira foi de 166; 143; 86 e 51 m3.ha-1, respectivamente, nas densidades arbóreas de 1.667; 1.000; 833 e 500 árvores.ha-1. Para que haja um equilíbrio entre produção arbórea e animal, SSPs com densidades arbóreas entre 1.000 e 833 árvores.ha-1 apresentam-se como alternativas viáveis para os produtores rurais.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.39

    A silvopastoral study consisting of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild and tropical perennial grasses was developed at the Fepagro Research Unity in Tupanciretã, RS, in collaboration with Seta Group, from October 1995 until May 2003, with the objective of evaluating trees and animal (beef cattle performances. The experiment was a bifactorial completely randomized design (forage specie and arboreal density with two

  1. Stomatal distribution, stomatal density and daily leaf movement in Acacia aroma (Leguminosae Distribución y densidad estomática y movimiento diario de la hoja en Acacia aroma (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo P. Hernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. grows in the Chacoan and Yungas Biogeographic Provinces, Argentina. It has numerous medicinal applications, sweet and edible fruits, and it may be used as forage. The objective of the present contribution was to analyse the stomatal distribution and stomatal density on the secondary leaflet surfaces, in different parts of the leaf, and at different tree crown levels, establishing the leaf movement and environmental condition relationships. The work was performed with fresh material and herbarium specimens, using conventional anatomical techniques. Stomatal distribution on the secondary leaflet surfaces was established, and differences in stomatal density among basal, medium and apical leaflets were found. A decrease in stomatal density from the lower level to the upper level of the tree crown would be connected with that. The stomatal distribution and density appear related to the secondary leaflet shape and its position on the secondary rachis, interacting with the daily secondary leaflets and leaf movement, and the weather conditions. It is interesting that the medium value of stomata density were found in the middle part of the leaf and at the middle level of the tree crown. Original illustrations are given.Acacia aroma crece en las Provincias Biogeográficas Chaqueña y de las Yungas, Argentina. Este árbol posee numerosas aplicaciones en medicina popular, sus frutos son comestibles y puede ser usada como forraje. Los objetivos de la presente contribución fueron: establecer la distribución y densidad de los estomas en el folíolo secundario, en distintos folíolos secundarios de la misma hoja y en los folíolos secundarios de las hojas de la parte basal, media y superior de la copa del árbol, estableciendo relaciones con el movimiento diario de las hojas y condiciones ambientales. Para el estudio se utilizó material fresco y ejemplares de herbario empleando técnicas de anatomía convencionales. Se

  2. Litter Decomposition of Acacia caven (Molina Molina and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems Descomposición de Hojarascas de Acacia caven (Molina Molina y Lolium multiflorum Lam. en Ecosistemas de Clima Mediterráneo

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    Ingrid Martínez G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of the Mediterranean interior dryland of Chile, dominated by an espinal agroecosystem of Acacia caven (Molina Molina, show low productivity as a result of soil degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate litter decomposition of A. caven and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in espinal ecosystems: well preserved (Wp 50 to 80%, typical (Pd 25 to 50%, and degraded (De with 10 to 25% cover. During 420 d and starting in April 2004 until August 2005, weight loss in litter bags and chemical composition (hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, non-structural components, ash, N, C, C/N ratio, and P were determined by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS and the Van Soest protocol. Weight loss ranged from 31 to 52% in L. multiflorum and 26 to 40% in A. caven after 420 d. During the chemical decomposition process of L. multiflorum, cellulose degradation was relevant in the labile phase while lignin was important in the recalcitrant phase. On the other hand, non-structural components and cellulose were degraded in the labile phase and lignin in the recalcitrant stage for A. caven. Moreover, both litters improved N concentration during the decomposition process. Espinal ecosystems with higher canopy cover (Pd and Wp had a positive influence, and showed early effects during the decomposition process, especially in the De espinal ecosystem, probably because of the microenvironmental conditions it generated. A better knowledge of the dynamics of litter decomposition in ecosystems was achieved by using both techniques: litter bags and NIRS.Los ecosistemas del secano interior mediterráneo de Chile presentan una baja productividad debido a la degradación de los suelos, dominados por un agroecosistema espinal de Acacia caven (Molina Molina. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la descomposición de hojarascas de A. caven y Lolium multiflorum Lam., en ecosistemas espinales: densos (Wp con cobertura de 50-80%, poco densos (Pd 25-50% y

  3. Water and nitrogen dynamics in rotational woodlots of five tree species in western Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyadzi, G.I.; Janssen, B.H.; Otsyina, R.M.; Booltink, H.W.G.; Ong, C.K.; Oenema, O.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of woodlots of five tree species, continuous maize (Zea mays L.) and natural fallow on soil water and nitrogen dynamics in western Tanzania. The tree species evaluated were Acacia crassicarpa (A. Cunn. ex Benth.), Acacia julifera ( Berth.),

  4. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae) in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae) in the Atlantic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missagia, Caio C C; Verçoza, Fábio C; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar) of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth.) Malme. (Fabaceae), endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337). Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened.

  5. Caracterización de la resistencia a la antracnosis causada por Glomerella cingulata y productividad de cinco genotipos de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel López-Vásquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En la vereda Betania, municipio de Guática, Risaralda (Colombia a 2160 m.s.n.m., se evaluaron cinco materiales promisorios de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth. por su resistencia a la antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides y por su alta productividad, los cuales fueron previamente seleccionados por el grupo de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Biotecnología de la Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Diez meses después del establecimiento las plantas fueron inoculadas con diferentes cepas del hongo a una concentración de 1.2 x 10(6 conidios/ml de agua. Las variables evaluadas fueron incidencia (presencia o ausencia de lesiones en tallo, severidad (según escala de 1 a 9 y rendimiento (kg/planta. Los genotipos se clasificaron en tres grupos según su resistencia al patógeno y por su rendimiento: el primero, lo conformaron UTP-8 y UTP-7, los cuales produjeron 21 y 17.6 t/ha, respectivamente; el segundo grupo estuvo formado por el genotipo UTP-1 el cual produjo 14.3 t/ha, y el tercero por UTP-2 y UTP-4 con 9.8 y 7.9 t/ha, respectivamente.

  6. The Reserpine Production and Callus Growth of Indian Snake Root (Rauvolfia serpentina (L. Benth. Ex Kurz Culture by Addition of Cu2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNUNG NURCAHYANI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study the effects of Cu2+ addition on the reserpine production and callus growth from in vitro culture indian snake root (Rauvolfia serpentina (L. Benth. Ex Kurz. This research frame work was based on the potency of snake root which was many exploited as anti-hypertension. The addition of elicitor Cu2+ in the form of CuCl2 would influence the ion transport of cell and changed of cytoplasm pH, and also has effects on synthesis and activity of enzymes which role in reserpine production and callus growth. The research was conducted in two steps, using Completely Randomized Design. The first step was the callus initiation to promote callus growth. Second step was the treatment to induce reserpine production. The callus was divided into five groups: 0; 5; 10; 20; 40; and 80 µM. Morphology, wet weight, dry weight, growth rate, and reserpine content of callus were determined after 15 treatment day. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and continued by DMRT 5%. The result showed that reserpine production increased in addition of 5 µM and 10 µM Cu2+ in callus culture of R. serpentina and reduced in addition of Cu2+ more than 10 µM. The callus growth significantly decreased by increasing concentration of Cu2+.

  7. Reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource among hummingbirds (Trochilidae in inflorescences of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth. Malme. (Fabaceae in the Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAIO C.C. MISSAGIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive phenology and sharing of floral resource (nectar of Dahlstedtia pinnata (Benth. Malme. (Fabaceae, endemic of Atlantic forest, among hummingbirds. For the phenology, we looked at the presence of reproductive structures in the plants, and for floral resource sharing, the frequency of potential pollinators and foraging behaviors were examined. This study was conducted in Pedra Branca State Park, in state of Rio de Janeiro, in a dense ombrophilous forest, between August 2010 and August 2011. Flowering occurred between December 2010 and March 2011, and fruiting between April and June 2011. Hummingbirds' foraging schedules differed significantly, with legitimate visits to the flowers occurring in the morning and illegitimate visits occurring during late morning and the afternoon. Five species visited flowers, three of which were legitimate visitors: Phaethornis ruber, P. pretrei, and Ramphodon naevius. Amazilia fimbriata and Thalurania glaucopis females only visited illegitimately. Phaethornis ruber robbed nectar (78% of illegitimate visits, n=337. Ramphodon naevius, with a territorial foraging behavior and a body size bigger than that of other observed hummingbird species, dominated the floral visits, which suggests that D. pinnata is an important nourishing resource for this endemic bird of the Atlantic forest, currently globally categorized as Near Threatened.

  8. A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2015-05-12

    Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli) is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields.

  9. Primeros ensayos para el cultivo y caracterización del aceite esencial de Conobea scoparioides (Cham. & Schltdl. Benth. para el Pacífico colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tulio González Mina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conobea scoparioides (Cham. & Schltdl. Benth. es una planta silvestre de humedales de la que no hay antecedentes de su cultivo o domesticación. El presente trabajo intenta obtener resultados preliminares para su reproducción en condiciones experimentales de siembras simulando su entorno natural contrastada con siembras en materas. Como se ha reportado previamente interés por esta especie como fuente de aceites esenciales ricos en timol, sustancia valiosa de uso industrial y medicinal, se analiza la composición cromatográfica de los volátiles para una población local. Se enuncia un nuevo quimiotipo para el aceite esencial de C. scoparioides procedente de los humedales del Pacífico colombiano. Se presentan los resultados de los ensayos sobre la reproducción vegetativa y por semillas de la especie en cuestión, aunque los resultados reproductivos indican un limitado potencial agrícola para esta especie.

  10. Primeros ensayos para el cultivo y caracterización del aceite esencial de Conobea scoparioides (Cham. & Schltdl. Benth. para el Pacífico colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tulio González Mina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conobea scoparioides (Cham. & Schltdl. Benth. es una planta silvestre de humedales de la que no hay antecedentes de su cultivo o domesticación. El presente trabajo intenta obtener resultados preliminares para su reproducción en condiciones experimentales de siembras simulando su entorno natural contrastada con siembras en materas. Como se ha reportado previamente interés por esta especie como fuente de aceites esenciales ricos en timol, sustancia valiosa de uso industrial y medicinal, se analiza la composición cromatográfica de los volátiles para una población local. Se enuncia un nuevo quimiotipo para el aceite esencial de C. scoparioides procedente de los humedales del Pacífico colombiano. Se presentan los resultados de los ensayos sobre la reproducción vegetativa y por semillas de la especie en cuestión, aunque los resultados reproductivos indican un limitado potencial agrícola para esta especie.

  11. The extraction of essential oil from patchouli leaves (Pogostemon cablin Benth) using microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, D. K. Y.; Kusuma, H. S.; Syahputra, M. E.; Parasandi, D.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    Patchouli plant (Pogostemon cablin Benth) is one of the important essential oil-producing plant, contributes more than 50% of total exports of Indonesia’s essential oil. However, the extraction of patchouli oil that has been done in Indonesia is generally still used conventional methods that require enormous amount of energy, high solvent usage, and long time of extraction. Therefore, in this study, patchouli oil extraction was carried out by using microwave hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Based on this research, it is known that the extraction of patchouli oil using microwave hydrodistillation method with longer extraction time (240 min) only produced patchouli oil’s yield 1.2 times greater than solvent-free microwave extraction method which require faster extraction time (120 min). Otherwise the analysis of electric consumption and the environmental impact, the solvent-free microwave extraction method showed a smaller amount when compared with microwave hydrodistillation method. It is conclude that the use of solvent-free microwave extraction method for patchouli oil extraction is suitably method as a new green technique.

  12. Anatomia das raízes de Bacopa salzmanii (Benth. Wettst. Ex Edwall e Bacopa Monnierioides (Cham. Robinson (Scrophulariaceae em ambientes aquático e terrestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bona Cleusa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho enfoca a anatomia das raízes de Bacopa salzmanii (Benth. Wettst. Ex Edwall e B. monnierioides (Cham. Robinson e suas adaptações aos ambientes aquático e terrestre. Foram analisadas raízes adventícias das duas espécies, coletadas no Município de Bonito e no Pantanal do Mato Grosso do Sul. As análises foram feitas do ápice à base da raiz, enfatizando a origem e desenvolvimento dos tecidos. O meristema apical apresenta a mesma estrutura nas duas espécies e não sofre alterações marcantes com a mudança do ambiente. Todos os tecidos se originam de três camadas distintas, na região do promeristema. A endoderme jovem é meristemática e dá origem ao córtex. O aerênquima é abundante e os septos podem conter espessamento em fi. A exoderme é unisseriada e composta por células curtas e longas. A coifa das duas espécies é pouco desenvolvida e apresenta estrutura semelhante nos dois ambientes.

  13. A Comprehensive Review on the Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: An Aromatic Medicinal Plant of Industrial Importance

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    Mallappa Kumara Swamy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablin Benth. (patchouli is an important herb which possesses many therapeutic properties and is widely used in the fragrance industries. In traditional medicinal practices, it is used to treat colds, headaches, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, insect and snake bites. In aromatherapy, patchouli oil is used to relieve depression, stress, calm nerves, control appetite and to improve sexual interest. Till now more than 140 compounds, including terpenoids, phytosterols, flavonoids, organic acids, lignins, alkaloids, glycosides, alcohols, aldehydes have been isolated and identified from patchouli. The main phytochemical compounds are patchouli alcohol, α-patchoulene, β-patchoulene, α-bulnesene, seychellene, norpatchoulenol, pogostone, eugenol and pogostol. Modern studies have revealed several biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antithrombotic, aphrodisiac, antidepressant, antimutagenic, antiemetic, fibrinolytic and cytotoxic activities. However, some of the traditional uses need to be verified and may require standardizing and authenticating the bioactivity of purified compounds through scientific methods. The aim of the present review is to provide comprehensive knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of essential oil and different plant extracts of patchouli based on the available scientific literature. This information will provide a potential guide in exploring the use of main active compounds of patchouli in various medical fields.

  14. Enhancement of anti-candidal activity of endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. ED2, isolated from Orthosiphon stamineus Benth, by incorporation of host plant extract in culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenn, Tong Woei; Lee, Chong Chai; Ibrahim, Darah; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of host extract in the culture medium on anti-candidal activity of Phomopsis sp. ED2, previously isolated from the medicinal herb Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. Interestingly, upon addition of aqueous host extract to the culture medium, the ethyl acetate extract prepared from fermentative broth exhibited moderate anti-candidal activity in a disc diffusion assay. The minimal inhibitory concentration of this extract was 62.5 μg/ml and it only exhibited fungistatic activity against C. albicans. In the time-kill study, a 50% growth reduction of C. albicans was observed at 31.4 h for extract from the culture incorporating host extract. In the bioautography assay, only one single spot (Rf 0.59) developed from the extract exhibited anti-candidal activity. A spot with the a similar Rf was not detected for the crude extract from YES broth without host extract. This indicated that the terpenoid anti-candidal compound was only produced when the host extract was introduced into the medium. The study concluded that the incorporation of aqueous extract of the host plant into the culture medium significantly enhanced the anti-candidal activity of Phomopsis sp. ED2.

  15. Glucanases and Chitinases as Causal Agents in the Protection of Acacia Extrafloral Nectar from Infestation by Phytopathogens1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Pozo, María J.; Muck, Alexander; Svatos, Ales; Adame-Álvarez, Rosa M.; Heil, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Nectars are rich in primary metabolites and attract mutualistic animals, which serve as pollinators or as an indirect defense against herbivores. Their chemical composition makes nectars prone to microbial infestation. As protective strategy, floral nectar of ornamental tobacco (Nicotiana langsdorffii × Nicotiana sanderae) contains “nectarins,” proteins producing reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide. By contrast, pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins were detected in Acacia extrafloral nectar (EFN), which is secreted in the context of defensive ant-plant mutualisms. We investigated whether these PR proteins protect EFN from phytopathogens. Five sympatric species (Acacia cornigera, A. hindsii, A. collinsii, A. farnesiana, and Prosopis juliflora) were compared that differ in their ant-plant mutualism. EFN of myrmecophytes, which are obligate ant-plants that secrete EFN constitutively to nourish specialized ant inhabitants, significantly inhibited the growth of four out of six tested phytopathogenic microorganisms. By contrast, EFN of nonmyrmecophytes, which is secreted only transiently in response to herbivory, did not exhibit a detectable inhibitory activity. Combining two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that PR proteins represented over 90% of all proteins in myrmecophyte EFN. The inhibition of microbial growth was exerted by the protein fraction, but not the small metabolites of this EFN, and disappeared when nectar was heated. In-gel assays demonstrated the activity of acidic and basic chitinases in all EFNs, whereas glucanases were detected only in EFN of myrmecophytes. Our results demonstrate that PR proteins causally underlie the protection of Acacia EFN from microorganisms and that acidic and basic glucanases likely represent the most important prerequisite in this defensive function. PMID:20023149

  16. ESTOQUES DE CARBONO E NITROGÊNIO EM ARGISSOLO SUBMETIDO AO MONOCULTIVO DE Eucalyptus urograndis E EM ROTAÇÃO COM Acacia mangium

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    Rodinei Facco Pegoraro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of sustainable systems of soil management has led researchers to develop new techniques of cultivation. Among them, studies with forest species able to fix atmospheric N2 and increase C and N stocks in labile and stable soil organic matter (SOM stand out in Brazil. The study aimed to evaluate changes in stocks of C and N in fractions of humic substances, light fraction of SOM and microbial biomass in soils of short-rotation Eucalyptus “urograndis”, long rotation plantations and stands of Acacia mangium which succeeded short rotation eucalyptus monoculture, in comparison to the soil of native forest (Atlantic Forest. It was obtained the total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN stocks, C and N stocks in the fractions of humic substances (fulvic acid fraction-AF, humic acid fraction-HA and humin fraction-H, C and N in light fraction of SOM (C-LOM and N-LOM and C and N microbial biomass (CMB and N-MB. The results indicated that the short rotation eucalyptus cultivation reduced total organic carbon stocks, total nitrogen, C and N in the humic substances, and N storage in the microbial biomass compared to Acacia mangium soil. The cultivation of Acacia mangium and the increase of the eucalyptus rotation time increased stocks of C and N of the labile (C-LOM, N-LOM and C-MB and stable fractions (C and N in humic substances indicating a significant recovery of their stocks to levels approaching those original (native, and higher than stocks obtained in the soil of short rotation eucalypt.

  17. Dust loadings on some common plants near Lucknow city. [Acacia melanoxylon, Bauhinia malabarica, Bougain-villea glabra, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus, Ipomoea fistulosa and Peltophorum pterocarpum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, M.; Dwivedi, A.K.; Kulshreshtha, K.; Ahmad, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    Eight plant species - Acacia melanoxylon, Bauhinia malabarica, Bougain-villea glabra, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus, Ipomoea fistulosa and Peltophorum pterocarpum - were collected from a newly established suburb colony of Lucknow city, where the major pollutant is dust, to study the dust cleansing efficiency of the plant canopy and also to establish the correlation between the leaf morphological characteristics and their dust trapping potential. The dust load, in milligrams per square centimeter of leaf surface, was measured and related to foliar epidermal and cuticular characteristics, and morphological features.

  18. Production de biomasse et quantification des flux d’azote dans une plantation mixte d’Eucalyptus urophylla x grandis et d’Acacia mangium au Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Tchichellé , Sogni Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Forest plantations represent 5% of the world forest area but provide more than one third of world wood supply. Sustainability of these systems is based on the long-term maintenance of their fertility without using fertilizers. The introduction of nitrogen (N) fixing species in forest plantations is one of the solutions to take-up this challenge. The aim of this work was to assess the effects of the introduction of Acacia mangium in pure stand of eucalypts on tree growth, biomass production an...

  19. Líneas actividades indicadores y metas estratégicas para el Plan de Mejoramiento Estratégico para el servicio de salud de la Institución Penitenciaria de Acacias

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Gutiérrez, Dania Magnolia

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo establecer un plan de de mejoramiento estratégico que permita optimizar el servicio de salud de la Institución Penitenciaria de Acacias. Para lograr este fin se hace un análisis del sector carcelario y penitenciario en Colombia con el fin de identificar la problemática que lo viene afectando en los últimos años, se establece un diagnostico en la Penitenciaria de Acacias con el fin de establecer la problemática que existe en la prestación de servicio...

  20. Comportamiento de procedencias de Acacia saligna (Labill. H. L. Wendl. en la región de Coquimbo, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Mora Pobrete

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Catorce procedencias de Acacia saligna fueron evaluadas en función del crecimiento a los 15 meses en dos sitios del norte de Chile. Correlaciones genéticas tipo B fueron estimadas para examinar la interacción genotipo x ambiente (G x A del crecimiento en altura total, diámetro medio de copa y diámetro de cuello. Máxima Verosimilitud Restringida (REML, fue el método utilizado para la estimación de componentes de varianza. Para el crecimiento en altura, la correlación genética fue moderada (ΓpB = 0,46. Para diámetro de cuello y diámetro medio de copa, los valores de correlación genética mostraron un valor bajo (ΓpB = 0,27 y 0,17, respectivamente, indicando una alta interacción G x A. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas entre las procedencias, en cada sitio estudiado (p ≤ 0,01. El crecimiento promedio de las procedencias varió entre los distintos sitios, mostrando mayor potencial hacia el sur de la Región. De persistir una alta interacción GxA en el tiempo, se hace necesario seleccionar grupos de procedencias específicos para cada sitio, debido a que no siempre el mejor grupo para un sitio específico mantuvo su superioridad en el otro.

  1. Assessment of Acacia koa forest health across environmental gradients in Hawai'i using fine resolution remote sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rodolfo Martinez; Idol, Travis; Friday, James B

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) forests are found across broad environmental gradients in the Hawai'ian Islands. Previous studies have identified koa forest health problems and dieback at the plot level, but landscape level patterns remain unstudied. The availability of high-resolution satellite images from the new GeoEye1 satellite offers the opportunity to conduct landscape-level assessments of forest health. The goal of this study was to develop integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) methodologies to characterize the health of koa forests and model the spatial distribution and variability of koa forest dieback patterns across an elevation range of 600-1,000 m asl in the island of Kaua'i, which correspond to gradients of temperature and rainfall ranging from 17-20 °C mean annual temperature and 750-1,500 mm mean annual precipitation. GeoEye1 satellite imagery of koa stands was analyzed using supervised classification techniques based on the analysis of 0.5-m pixel multispectral bands. There was clear differentiation of native koa forest from areas dominated by introduced tree species and differentiation of healthy koa stands from those exhibiting dieback symptoms. The area ratio of healthy koa to koa dieback corresponded linearly to changes in temperature across the environmental gradient, with koa dieback at higher relative abundance in warmer areas. A landscape-scale map of healthy koa forest and dieback distribution demonstrated both the general trend with elevation and the small-scale heterogeneity that exists within particular elevations. The application of these classification techniques with fine spatial resolution imagery can improve the accuracy of koa forest inventory and mapping across the islands of Hawai'i. Such findings should also improve ecological restoration, conservation and silviculture of this important native tree species.

  2. Acacia melanoxylon in Argentina: heartwood content and its relationship with site, growth and age of the trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igartúa, D.V.; Moreno, K.; Monteoliva, S.E.

    2017-11-01

    Aims of study: To characterize the wood of Acacia melanoxylon in relation to its potential use in the construction and furniture industry, here we determined the heartwood and sapwood content and distribution within the stem and analyzed their relationship with the growing site, age and growth rate of the trees. Finally, we predicted heartwood content by two easy-to-measure variables. Area of study: Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods: 20 trees aged between 9 and 32 years were sampled in four sites. Axial sampling was carried out at four heights of the stem (base, breast height, and 30% and 50% of the total height), and the heartwood content (percentage and volume) and sapwood content (cm) determined. Results: The trees analyzed presented conical-shaped heartwood following the outline of the stem along all its commercial height. Within the stem, the highest volume of heartwood was observed at the basal region (53%) and up to 30% of total height, a feature observed in all the sites studied. The sapwood content was constant along the entire stem (2.18 cm). The age of the trees did not influence the heartwood content, whereas the environmental conditions provided by each site (heartwood/volume and heartwood/diameter growth positive ratios) did affect this feature. Research highlights: The absolute amount of heartwood was driven by growth rate, due to the forest structure of non-uniform age. The heartwood volume can be estimated through fitting linear equations (R2 0.78 - 0.89) with two easily measurable variables such as diameter at breast height and tree height.

  3. Assessment of Acacia Koa Forest Health across Environmental Gradients in Hawai‘i Using Fine Resolution Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rodolfo Martinez; Idol, Travis; Friday, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) forests are found across broad environmental gradients in the Hawai‘ian Islands. Previous studies have identified koa forest health problems and dieback at the plot level, but landscape level patterns remain unstudied. The availability of high-resolution satellite images from the new GeoEye1 satellite offers the opportunity to conduct landscape-level assessments of forest health. The goal of this study was to develop integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) methodologies to characterize the health of koa forests and model the spatial distribution and variability of koa forest dieback patterns across an elevation range of 600–1,000 m asl in the island of Kaua‘i, which correspond to gradients of temperature and rainfall ranging from 17–20 °C mean annual temperature and 750–1,500 mm mean annual precipitation. GeoEye1 satellite imagery of koa stands was analyzed using supervised classification techniques based on the analysis of 0.5-m pixel multispectral bands. There was clear differentiation of native koa forest from areas dominated by introduced tree species and differentiation of healthy koa stands from those exhibiting dieback symptoms. The area ratio of healthy koa to koa dieback corresponded linearly to changes in temperature across the environmental gradient, with koa dieback at higher relative abundance in warmer areas. A landscape-scale map of healthy koa forest and dieback distribution demonstrated both the general trend with elevation and the small-scale heterogeneity that exists within particular elevations. The application of these classification techniques with fine spatial resolution imagery can improve the accuracy of koa forest inventory and mapping across the islands of Hawai‘i. Such findings should also improve ecological restoration, conservation and silviculture of this important native tree species. PMID:22163920

  4. Crescimento inicial de mudas de Acacia mangium cultivadas em mantas de fibra de coco contendo substrato de lodo de esgoto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Fredson Duarte

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas de Acacia mangium semeadas em "manta" de fibra de coco contendo substrato de lodo de esgoto. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com 13 tratamentos e três repetições, distribuídos em esquema fatorial (6 x 2 + 1 com seis proporções de fibra de coco e resíduo agregante, combinados com substratos com e sem lodo de esgoto, mais o tratamento-controle (terra de subsolo. Foram avaliados o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, a percentagem de emergência (EM e a altura das plantas aos 40 e 60 dias após a emergência. O tratamento- controle apresentou melhores resultados em relação ao IVE e EM quando comparado com os tratamentos utilizando "manta" de fibra de coco e resíduo agregante. Não houve diferença entre o controle e os tratamentos com "mantas" em altura das plantas aos 40 e 60 dias. Não foram observadas interações entre o tipo de substrato utilizado no semeio e as diferentes proporções de fibra de coco na "manta". A presença de lodo no substrato não influenciou o IVE e a EM, contudo verificou-se que o substrato sem lodo de esgoto proporcionou maior crescimento em altura das plantas. O uso de "mantas" contendo 50 e 100% de fibra de coco proporcionou maior crescimento às mudas de acácia em condições de campo.

  5. Physio-biochemical and morphological characters of halophyte legume shrub, Acacia ampliceps seedlings in response to salt stress under greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattarin eTheerawitaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia ampliceps (salt wattle, a leguminous shrub, has been introduced in salt-affected areas in northeast of Thailand for remediation of saline soils. However, the defense mechanisms underlying salt tolerance A. ampliceps are unknown. We investigated various physio-biochemical and morphological attributes of A. ampliceps in response to varying levels of salt treatment (200 to 600 mM NaCl. Seedlings of A. ampliceps (252 cm in plant height raised from seeds were treated with 200 mM (mild stress, 400 and 600 mM (extreme stress of salt treatment (NaCl under greenhouse conditions. Na+ and Ca2+ contents in the leaf tissues increased significantly under salt treatment, whereas K+ content declined in salt-stressed plants. Free proline and soluble sugar contents in plant grown under extreme salt stress (600 mM NaCl for 9 days significantly increased by 28.7 (53.33 mol g1 FW and 3.2 (42.11 mg g1 DW folds, respectively over the control, thereby playing a major role as osmotic adjustment. Na+ enrichment in the phyllode tissues of salt-stressed seedlings positively related to total chlorophyll degradation (R2=0.72. Photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence in salt-stressed plants increased under mild salt stress (200 mM NaCl. However, these declined under high level of salinity (400-600 mM NaCl, consequently resulting in reduced net photosynthetic rate (R2=0.81 and plant dry weight (R2= 0.91. The study concludes that A. ampliceps has an osmotic adjustment and Na+ compartmentation as effective salt defense mechanisms, and thus it could be an excellent species to grow in salt-affected soils.

  6. Removal of fluoride by thermally activated carbon prepared from neem (Azadirachta indica) and kikar (Acacia arabica) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Asha; Yadav, J P

    2008-03-01

    The present investigation deals with fluoride removal from aqueous solution by thermally activated neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves carbon (ANC) and thermally activated kikar (Acacia arabica) leaves carbon (AKC) adsorbents. In this study neem leaves carbon and kikar leaves carbon prepared by heating the leaves at 400 degrees C in electric furnace was found to be useful for the removal of fluoride. The adsorbents of 0.3 mm and 1.0 mm sizes of neem and kikar leaves carbon was prepared by standard sieve. Batch experiments done to see the fluoride removal properties from synthetic solution of 5 ppm to study the influence of pH, adsorbent dose and contact time on adsorption efficiency The optimum pH was found to be 6 for both adsorbents. The optimum dose was found to be 0.5g/100 ml forANC (activated neem leaves carbon) and 0.7g/100 ml forAKC (activated kikar leaves carbon). The optimum time was found to be one hour for both the adsorbent. It was also found that adsorbent size of 0.3 mm was more efficient than the 1.0 mm size. The adsorption process obeyed Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The straight line of log (qe-q) vs time at ambient temperature indicated the validity of langergren equation consequently first order nature of the process involved in the present study. Results indicate that besides intraparticle diffusion there maybe other processes controlling the rate which may be operating simultaneously. All optimized conditions were applied for removal of fluoride from four natural water samples.

  7. Silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) doped gum acacia-gelatin-silica nanohybrid: an effective support for diastase immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2012-03-01

    An effective carrier matrix for diastase alpha amylase immobilization has been fabricated by gum acacia-gelatin dual templated polymerization of tetramethoxysilane. Silver nanoparticle (AgNp) doping to this hybrid could significantly enhance the shelf life of the impregnated enzyme while retaining its full bio-catalytic activity. The doped nanohybrid has been characterized as a thermally stable porous material which also showed multipeak photoluminescence under UV excitation. The immobilized diastase alpha amylase has been used to optimize the conditions for soluble starch hydrolysis in comparison to the free enzyme. The optimum pH for both immobilized and free enzyme hydrolysis was found to be same (pH=5), indicating that the immobilization made no major change in enzyme conformation. The immobilized enzyme showed good performance in wide temperature range (from 303 to 323 K), 323 K being the optimum value. The kinetic parameters for the immobilized, (K(m)=10.30 mg/mL, V(max)=4.36 μmol mL(-1)min(-1)) and free enzyme (K(m)=8.85 mg/mL, V(max)=2.81 μmol mL(-1)min(-1)) indicated that the immobilization improved the overall stability and catalytic property of the enzyme. The immobilized enzyme remained usable for repeated cycles and did not lose its activity even after 30 days storage at 40°C, while identically synthesized and stored silver undoped hybrid lost its ~31% activity in 48 h. Present study revealed the hybrids to be potentially useful for biomedical and optical applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. USO POTENCIAL DEL HUIZACHE (Acacia farnesiana L. Will EN LA FITORREMEDIACIÓN DE SUELOS CONTAMINADOS CON PLOMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Landeros-Márquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha realizado un gran número de estudios para identificar los efectos de los metales pesados en plantas cultivadas y en algunas especies consideradas como hiperacumuladoras. Sin embargo, pocos esfuerzos se han dedicado a la evaluación de especies vegetales nativas de zonas áridas para fitorremediación. Este estudio se llevó a cabo ex situ para evaluar la tasa de fitoextracción de plomo en Acacia farnesiana L. Will. Se utilizaron árboles jóvenes (n=48, colocados en macetas plásticas, en donde se agregó una combinación de tres concentraciones de plomo (0, 250 y 500 mg·kg-1 en forma de Pb(NO32 y cuatro dosis de nitrógeno (0, 100, 300 y 500 mg·kg-1 en forma de Fosfo-Nitrato (33-03-00. Se evaluó la tasa fotosintética y la concentración de plomo en raíz, tallo y hoja. Las dosis de nitrógeno y las concentraciones de plomo por separado no produjeron diferencias significativas en la tasa fotosintética de las plantas de huizache, pero la interacción entre esos dos factores fue estadísticamente significativa (P=0.0074, encontrándose que la mayor acumulación de plomo ocurrió en la parte aérea de la planta con una media de 352.34 mg·kg-1.

  9. Genetic diversity of symbiotic Bradyrhizobium elkanii populations recovered from inoculated and non-inoculated Acacia mangium field trials in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrineau, M M; Le Roux, C; de Faria, S M; de Carvalho Balieiro, F; Galiana, A; Prin, Y; Béna, G

    2011-07-01

    Acacia mangium is a legume tree native to Australasia. Since the eighties, it has been introduced into many tropical countries, especially in a context of industrial plantations. Many field trials have been set up to test the effects of controlled inoculation with selected symbiotic bacteria versus natural colonization with indigenous strains. In the introduction areas, A. mangium trees spontaneously nodulate with local and often ineffective bacteria. When inoculated, the persistence of inoculants and possible genetic recombination with local strains remain to be explored. The aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of bacteria spontaneously nodulating A. mangium in Brazil and to evaluate the persistence of selected strains used as inoculants. Three different sites, several hundred kilometers apart, were studied, with inoculated and non-inoculated plots in two of them. Seventy-nine strains were isolated from nodules and sequenced on three housekeeping genes (glnII, dnaK and recA) and one symbiotic gene (nodA). All but one of the strains belonged to the Bradyrhizobium elkanii species. A single case of housekeeping gene transfer was detected among the 79 strains, suggesting an extremely low rate of recombination within B. elkanii, whereas the nodulation gene nodA was found to be frequently transferred. The fate of the inoculant strains varied depending on the site, with a complete disappearance in one case, and persistence in another. We compared our results with the sister species Bradyrhizobium japonicum, both in terms of population genetics and inoculant strain destiny. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. COMPORTAMIENTO DE PROCEDENCIAS DE Acacia saligna (Labill. H. L. Wendl. EN LA REGIÓN DE COQUIMBO, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Meneses Rojas

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Catorce procedencias de Acacia saligna fueron evaluadas en función del crecimiento a los 15 meses en dos sitios del norte de Chile. Correlaciones genéticas tipo B fueron estimadas para examinar la interacción genotipo x ambiente (G x A del crecimiento en altura total, diámetro medio de copa y diámetro de cuello. Máxima Verosimilitud Restringida (REML, fue el método utilizado para la estimación de componentes de varianza. Para el crecimiento en altura, la correlación genética fue moderada (pB = 0,46. Para diámetro de cuello y diámetro medio de copa, los valores de correlación genética mostraron un valor bajo (pB = 0,27 y 0,17, respectivamente, indicando una alta interacción G x A. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas entre las procedencias, en cada sitio estudiado (p ≤ 0,01. El crecimiento promedio de las procedencias varió entre los distintos sitios, mostrando mayor potencial hacia el sur de la Región. De persistir una alta interacción GxA en el tiempo, se hace necesario seleccionar grupos de procedencias específicos para cada sitio, debido a que no siempre el mejor grupo para un sitio específico mantuvo su superioridad en el otro.

  11. TEORES DE NUTRIENTES EM POVOAMENTOS MONOESPECÍFICOS E MISTOS DE Eucalyptus urograndis e Acacia mearnsii em SISTEMA AGROSSILVICULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study had as objective compare the nutrients content in the different species involved in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii and in a consortium with Zea mays. The determination for forest species nutrients concentration, the treatments 100E (100 % eucalyptus + maize; 100A (100 % black-wattle + maize and 50E:50A (50 % eucalyptus + 50 % black-wattle + maize, and in the maize were done in treatments 100E; 100A, 50E:50A; 75E:25A (75 % eucalyptus + 25 % black-wattle + maize and 25E:75A (25 % eucalyptus + 75 % black-wattle + maize. The experimental design was a randomized block design with three replications. Forests species sampling was made in average tree in each plot, based on diameter at breast height (DBH, in three trees six month-old per treatment. Within all treatments and your replicates, installed one subplot with long 3.0 m by three corn-rows as wide, where the plants were harvested in stem, leaf, grain, cob and straw. With the exception of Ca, which was more concentrated in the bark fraction and Mg and B in the bark and leaves, the other nutrients in Eucalyptus urograndis, so in monoculture much in mixed stands, contained higher concentration just in leaves. The grain component has the highest concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, as straw and cob have the highest potassium concentration and the leaf component has the largest concentrations of other nutrients. The forest species did not influence significantly the levels of nutrients in components of aboveground biomass of maize.

  12. DETECÇÃO DE FUNGOS PATOGÊNICOS EM SEMENTES DE ACÁCIA-NEGRA (Acacia mearnsii De Wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Elise Meneghini dos Santos

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A presença de fungos pode reduzir a capacidade germinativa de um lote de sementes, causar a morte de plântulas ou transmitir doenças para plantas adultas. É necessário conhecer os agentes, as causas e as conseqüências decorrentes da contaminação por fungos patogênicos. Desse modo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar os fungos associados às sementes de Acacia mearnsii De Wild, armazenadas a 5°C, por um período de 12 meses. Foram utilizadas sementes de acácia-negra oriundas de plantio comercial, aos 4 anos de idade cuja procedência é África do Sul. As sementes foram colhidas em três épocas distintas: (i quando com frutos verdes e/ou pigmentados; (ii quando com frutos negros e início de abertura das vagens; (iii quando com sementes coletadas no solo, após a dispersão natural, sendo empregadas como testemunha. Os fungos associados às sementes foram: Botryodiplodia sp., Botrytis sp. (família Moniliaceae, Cladosporium sp.(família Dematiaceae, Cylindrocladium sp., Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp., Pestalotia sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Trichoderma sp. e outros fungos não identificados. De maneira geral, a autoclavagem das sementes promoveu maiores taxas de germinação e a eliminação de fungos associados. As sementes, que apresentaram maior contaminação por fungos, foram aquelas oriundas da coleta no solo. Os fungos de solo observados, que poderiam ocasionar danos em plântulas no viveiro e, simultaneamente, estarem associados à gomose em acácia-negra, foram: Botrytis sp., Cylindrocladium sp.

  13. Evaluation of Gentamicin and Lidocaine Release Profile from Gum Acacia-crosslinked-poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-carbopol Based Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Dhiman, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    No doubt, the prevention of infection is an indispensable aspect of the wound management, but, simultaneous wound pain relief is also required. Therefore, herein this article, incorporation of antibiotic agent 'gentamicin' and pain relieving agent 'lidocaine' into hydrogel wound dressings, prepared by using acacia gum, carbopol and poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) polymers, has been carried out. The hydrogels were evaluated as a drug carrier for model drugs gentamicin and lidocaine. Synthesis of hydrogel wound dressing was carried out by free radical polymerization technique. The drug loading was carried out by swelling equilibrium method and gel strength of hydrogels was measured by a texture analyzer. Porous microstructure of the hydrogel was observed in cryo-SEM images. The hydrogel showed mesh size 37.29 nm, cross-link density 2.19× 10-5 mol/cm3, molecular weight between two cross-links 60.25× 10-3 g/mol and gel strength 0.625±0.112 N in simulated wound fluid. It is concluded that the pH of swelling medium has influenced the network structure of hydrogel i.e., molecular weight of the polymer chain between two neighboring cross links, crosslink density and the corresponding mesh size. A good correlation was established between gel strength and network parameters. Cryo-SEM images showed porous morphology of hydrogels. These hydrogels were found to be biodegradable and antimicrobial in nature. Drug release occurred through Fickian diffusion mechanism and release profile was best fitted in first order model. Overall it is concluded that modification in GA has led to formation of a porous hydrogels for wound dressing applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. In vitro antioxidant and antimalarial activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Del.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Tharaphan, Pattamon; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Tarning, Joel; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2017-07-18

    The emergence of drug resistant malaria is threatening our ability to treat and control malaria in the Southeast Asian region. There is an urgent need to develop novel and chemically diverse antimalarial drugs. This study aimed at evaluating the antimalarial and antioxidant potentials of Acacia nilotica plant extracts. The antioxidant activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts were determined by standard antioxidant assays; reducing power capacity, % lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. The antimalarial activities of plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum parasites were determined by the 48 h schizont maturation inhibition assay. Further confirmation of schizonticide activity of extracts was made by extending the incubation period up to 96 h after removing the plant extract residues from parasites culture. Inhibition assays were analyzed by dose-response modelling. In all antioxidant assays, leaves of A. nilotica showed higher antioxidant activity than pods and bark. Antimalarial IC 50 values of leaves, pods and bark extracts were 1.29, 4.16 and 4.28 μg/ml respectively, in the 48 h maturation assay. The IC 50 values determined for leaves, pods and bark extracts were 3.72, 5.41 and 5.32 μg/ml respectively, after 96 h of incubation. All extracts inhibited the development of mature schizont, indicating schizonticide activity against P. falciparum. A. nilotica extracts showed promising antimalarial and antioxidant effects. However, further investigation is needed to isolate and identify the active components responsible for the antimalarial and antioxidant effects.

  15. Renal and Myocardial Histopathology and Morphometry in Rats with Adenine - Induced Chronic Renal Failure: Influence of Gum Acacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreldin H. Ali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with increased occurrence of cardiovascular system dysfunction. Previous studies have revealed a number of alterations in the kidneys and heart during CKD. However, unbiased quantitative studies on these structures in this disease have so far not been addressed. Materials and Methods: We induced CKD in rats by feeding adenine (0.75% w/w, four weeks and using unbiased stereological methods, investigated the effect of the ensuing CKD on the kidneys and left ventricular structure. Since gum acacia (GA has previously been shown to ameliorate the severity of CKD in humans and rodents, we investigated the effect of giving GA (15% w/v in the drinking water concomitantly with adenine on the kidneys and left ventricular structure using the above model. Results: The CKD was confirmed by standard biochemical indices in plasma and urine and by accumulation of the uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate. Additionally, it increased blood pressure. In rats with CKD absolute volume of left ventricle was significantly increased, and the volume density and absolute volume of myocardial capillaries were decreased, whilst the same parameters of myocardium and interstitial tissue were increased. Renal morphometry demonstrated significant increase in kidney volume and interstitial tissue in adenine- treated rats. Similarly, glomerular Bowman's capsule was significantly thickened. The myocardial and renal changes were significantly mitigated by GA treatment. Conclusions: These results add to our existing knowledge of the pathophysiology of adenine - CKD and provides plausible histopathological and morphometric evidence for the usefulness of GA in CKD.

  16. Polyfloral, linden and acacia honeys with dried cherries after three months of storage - antioxidant and sensory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulić Jelena J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of three types of honey: polyfloral (PH, linden (LH and acacia (AH, without and with addition of dried cherries (40% were analyzed before and after three months of storage. The total phenol (TPh, flavonoid (TFd and anthocyanin (TAn contents, antioxidant activities and sensory properties of honeys with and without the addition of dry cherries were evaluated. TPh and TFd increased with addition of dried cherries to the honey, while enriched honeys showed high TAn. The LH sample with dried cherries showed the highest anthocyanins content (41.41mgCGE/100g. The antioxidant activity increased with addition of dried cherries in honey in the DPPH• test and reducing power. The PH and enriched PH exibited the best antiradical activity compared to LH and AH. The EC50 DPPH values were: 23.81 for PH and 24.19 mg/mL for PH, while the EC50 DPPH were: 1.16 mg/mL for PH40 and 1.18 mg/mL for PH40s. RP0.5 values were: 57.00 mg/mL for PH40 and 56.00 mg/ml for PH40s, while RP0.5 were: 15.05 mg/mL for PH40 and 15.18 mg/mL for PH40s. The statistical analysis showed that TPh, TFd and TAn, and antioxidant activity of honeys and enriched honeys showed significant correlation. Sensory analysis of honey with dried cherries, before and after storage, indicated very good sensory characteristics.

  17. Acacia melanoxylon in Argentina: heartwood content and its relationship with site, growth and age of the trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igartúa, D.V.; Moreno, K.; Monteoliva, S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Aims of study: To characterize the wood of Acacia melanoxylon in relation to its potential use in the construction and furniture industry, here we determined the heartwood and sapwood content and distribution within the stem and analyzed their relationship with the growing site, age and growth rate of the trees. Finally, we predicted heartwood content by two easy-to-measure variables. Area of study: Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods: 20 trees aged between 9 and 32 years were sampled in four sites. Axial sampling was carried out at four heights of the stem (base, breast height, and 30% and 50% of the total height), and the heartwood content (percentage and volume) and sapwood content (cm) determined. Results: The trees analyzed presented conical-shaped heartwood following the outline of the stem along all its commercial height. Within the stem, the highest volume of heartwood was observed at the basal region (53%) and up to 30% of total height, a feature observed in all the sites studied. The sapwood content was constant along the entire stem (2.18 cm). The age of the trees did not influence the heartwood content, whereas the environmental conditions provided by each site (heartwood/volume and heartwood/diameter growth positive ratios) did affect this feature. Research highlights: The absolute amount of heartwood was driven by growth rate, due to the forest structure of non-uniform age. The heartwood volume can be estimated through fitting linear equations (R2 0.78 - 0.89) with two easily measurable variables such as diameter at breast height and tree height.

  18. Acacia melanoxylon in Argentina: heartwood content and its relationship with site, growth and age of the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora-Virginia Igartúa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study: To characterize the wood of Acacia melanoxylon in relation to its potential use in the construction and furniture industry, here we determined the heartwood and sapwood content and distribution within the stem and analyzed their relationship with the growing site, age and growth rate of the trees. Finally, we predicted heartwood content by two easy-to-measure variables. Area of study: Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods: 20 trees aged between 9 and 32 years were sampled in four sites. Axial sampling was carried out at four heights of the stem (base, breast height, and 30% and 50% of the total height, and the heartwood content (percentage and volume and sapwood content (cm determined. Results: The trees analyzed presented conical-shaped heartwood following the outline of the stem along all its commercial height. Within the stem, the highest volume of heartwood was observed at the basal region (53% and up to 30% of total height, a feature observed in all the sites studied. The sapwood content was constant along the entire stem (2.18 cm. The age of the trees did not influence the heartwood content, whereas the environmental conditions provided by each site (heartwood/volume and heartwood/diameter growth positive ratios did affect this feature. Research highlights: The absolute amount of heartwood was driven by growth rate, due to the forest structure of non-uniform age. The heartwood volume can be estimated through fitting linear equations (R2 0.78 - 0.89 with two easily measurable variables such as diameter at breast height and tree height.

  19. Effect of acacia nilotica leaves extract on hyperglycaemia, lipid profile and platelet aggregation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, M.; Munir, T.A.; Nadeem, A.

    2011-01-01

    To consider new hypoglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and anti-platelet aggregation sources, aqueous methanol extract of Acacia Nilotica (AN) leaves was investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in 90 out of 120 male albino rats by administering 50 mg/Kg body weight (bw) streptozotocin intraperitoneal y, and was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose level >200 mg/dL on fourth post-induction day. The rats were equally divided into 4 groups, A (normal control), B (diabetic control), C (diabetics rats treated with plant extract) and group D (diabetics rats treated with glyburide). The rats of group C and D were given single dose of 300 mg/Kg bw, An extract, and 900 micro g/Kg bw glyburide respectively for 3 weeks. Blood glucose levels were measured by gluco meter, platelet aggregation by Dia Med method, beta-thrombo globulin and insulin by ELISA technique, and lipid components were measured by enzymatic calorimetric method. Results: Significant differences (p<0.05) were noticed in blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation and triglyceride levels in diabetic rats treated with AN extract and glyburide as compared to diabetic controlled rats. A significant difference (p<0.05) in beta-thrombo globulin and LDL levels was also noticed in rats treated with glyburide than the diabetic controlled rats. The levels of fasting blood glucose, beta-thrombo globulin and platelet aggregation were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in diabetic rats treated with glyburide than AN extract treated rats. Conclusions: Administration of AN leaves extract showed hypoglycaemic and anti-platelet aggregation activity in diabetic rats as that of glyburide. (author)

  20. Evaluación del desarrollo de Salíx humboldtiana, Erythrina edulis y Trichantera gigantea asociados al cultivo de mora sin espina (Rubus glaucus Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Guapacha, Cristiam Camilo; Mesa, Jhon Jairo; Patiño, Andrés Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    En el Municipio de Quinchía, Departamento de Risaralda (Colombia), se evaluó el desarrollo de los tutores vivos Salíx humboldtiana, Erythrina edulis y Trichantera gigantea asociados al cultivo de mora sin espina (Rubus glaucus Benth), también la incidencia de Peronospora sparsa y Oidium sp en plantas de mora asociadas a estos sistemas agroforestales. Se utilizo un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones cada uno. Los resultados indican que Erythrina edulis es el tutor con mejor adapta...