Abutment connection',. 'External Hex', 'Internal hex', 'Morse taper' alone or in combination. Option of related articles was also utilized. Related English language publications were reviewed excluding case reports and individual product based ...
Vinayak S Gowda
Full Text Available Dental implants with their increasing success rates and predictability of final outcome are fast becoming the treatment of choice for replacing missing teeth. Considering the success of immediate implant placement in reducing tissue loss and achieving good esthetic results, is making it a more popular treatment modality in implant dentistry. Understanding the management of gingival tissues in relation to implants to obtain maximum esthetics is of utmost importance. The use of provisional abutments and immediate temporization has a proven track record of their ability to produce optimal esthetics and to guide the tissue response during the healing phase. With careful patient selection and execution, customized healing abutments can provide an effective method to enhance the esthetic and emergence profile for anterior implant restorations.
More and more, integral abutment bridges are being used in place : of the more traditional bridge designs with expansion releases. In : this study, states which use integral abutment bridges were surveyed : to determine their current practice in the ...
This article is an introduction to single implant abutments and aims to provide basic information about abutments which are essential for all dental personnel who are involved in dental implantology. Clinical Relevance: This article provides a basic knowledge of implants and implant abutments which are of paramount importance, as replacement of missing teeth with oral implants has become a well-established clinical procedure.
Corazza, Pedro Henrique; de Moura Silva, Alecsandro; Cavalcanti Queiroz, José Renato; Salazar Marocho, Susana María; Bottino, Marco Antonia; Massi, Marcos; de Assunção e Souza, Rodrigo Othávio
To evaluate the effect of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating of prefabricated implant abutment on screw removal torque (RT) before and after mechanical cycling (MC). Fifty-four abutments for external-hex implants were divided among 6 groups (n = 9): S, straight abutment (control); SC, straight coated abutment; SCy, straight abutment and MC; SCCy, straight coated abutment and MC; ACy, angled abutment and MC; and ACCy, angled coated abutment and MC. The abutments were attached to the implants by a titanium screw. RT values were measured and registered. Data (in Newton centimeter) were analyzed with analysis of variance and Dunnet test (α = 0.05). RT values were significantly affected by MC (P = 0.001) and the interaction between DLC coating and MC (P = 0.038). SCy and ACy showed the lowest RT values, statistically different from the control. The abutment coated groups had no statistical difference compared with the control. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed DLC film with a thickness of 3 μm uniformly coating the hexagonal abutment. DLC film deposited on the abutment can be used as an alternative procedure to reduce abutment screw loosening.
As a result of abutment spalling on the integral abutment bridge over 400 South Street in Salt Lake City, Utah, the Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) instigated research measures to better understand the behavior of integral abutment bridges. ...
Failure of bridges due to local scour has motivated many investigators to explore the causes of scouring and to predict the maximum scour depth at abutments. In this paper, a detailed review of the up-to-date work on scour at abutments is presented including all possible aspects, such as ﬂow ﬁeld, scouring process, ...
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is controlling the behavior of the bridge supports of the motorway viaduct WA-164 on strengthened subsoil using soil-cement columns made in DSM technology. Monitoring of the construction was carried out for a period of 16 months by measuring the settlement and rotation of the structure. The settlements were measured by means of the geodesic precision leveling method. Changes in the rotation of the supports were recorded using a inclinometer sensors installed on the walls of the abutments. For mapping of the construction work, numerical models of span and abutments were performed. The abutment was modeled in computer program SOFiSTiK. The stiffness of subsoil was calibrated with regard to the measured settlement of the abutment on DSM columns. The results of field measurements shows that after backfilling the abutments, it leaned in the embankments direction. This is also confirmed by numerical analysis. Monitoring conducted in 2014 showed that settlement is stabilized, and the measured values are safe and lower than the SLS limit stage. Numerical modeling along with geotechnical and geodetic monitoring has enabled a better understanding of the behavior of the bridge foundation on strengthened subsoil and verify the calculation assumptions taken at the stage of design calculations.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant abutment. 872.3630... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3630 Endosseous dental implant abutment. (a) Identification. An endosseous dental implant abutment is a premanufactured prosthetic component...
Kim, Byung-Jun; Yeo, In-Sung; Lee, Joo-Hee; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Heo, Seong-Joo; Koak, Jai-Young
One of the most common types of failure in dental implants is fracture of the abutment screw, after which the remnant is usually not easily removed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abutment screw length on the amount of screw resistance load and strain after loading. Twenty-one implants and straight abutments were prepared. The implants were placed in acrylic resin blocks at an angle of 30 degrees relative to the long axis. The abutment screws were prepared and classified into seven groups based on length (n = 3 abutments per group). The implants and abutments were joined with a torque of 30 Ncm. Strain gauges were attached to the abutments, and the implant-abutment assemblies were compressed. Curves of strain over time, peak load, and load at fracture were measured. Linear models of the variables over the abutment screw length were analyzed. The break and peak loads were significantly associated with abutment screw length. However, all measured break and peak loads were greater than the maximal occlusal force. There were no significant changes in peak or break strain values associated with screw length (P > .05). Clinically, fractured abutment screws may be replaced by shorter abutment screws without removal of the broken screw remnant.
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
ment scour during 1960–1984. According to Kandasamy & Melville (1998), 6 of 10 bridge failures that occurred in New Zealand during Cyclone Bola were related to abutment scour. In another report of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) of New. Zealand, Macky (1990) mentioned that about 50% of ...
Full Text Available Aim of the study: To establish the influence of various factors upon the loosening of abutment screw. Material and Methods: The current study has analyzed the factors leading to loosening of the abutment screws implant-supported restorations. 116 patients have been examined with 234 setting implants for a period of 2 to 9 years. Factors related to the planning of implant prostheses such as area of implantation, available bone volume have been registered, as well as those related to the functional loading of dental implants. The impact of their effect has been calculated. Results: Abutment screw loosening has been registered in 6.8% of the monitored cases. Regarding the type of connection between the implant and abutment a higher prevalence has been reported in connection with an internal octagon - 4.7% compared to the conical connection - 2.1%. It was found that the type of prosthesis, bruxism, cantilevers, non-balanced occlusion, crestal bone resorption and time of this complication setting in are factors of statistically significant influence. Conclusion: It has been concluded that the optimal choice and number of implant positions, the design of prosthesis, achieving optimal occlusion as well as reporting cases of bruxism, leading to functional overload of dental implants are of particular importance in order to avoid bio-mechanical long-term complications.
Albrecht, T; Kirsten, A; Kappert, H F; Fischer, H
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture load of single zirconia abutment restorations using different veneering techniques and materials. The abutment restorations were divided into 6 groups with 20 samples each: test abutments (control group A), lithium disilicate ceramic crowns bonded on incisor abutments (group B), leucite ceramic crowns bonded on incisor abutments (group C), premolar abutments directly veneered with a fluor apatite ceramic (group D (layered) and group E (pressed)) and premolar abutments bonded with lithium disilicate ceramic crowns (group F). The fracture load of the restorations was evaluated using a universal testing machine. Half of each group was artificially aged (chewing simulation and thermocycling) before evaluating the fracture load with the exception of the test abutments. The fracture load of the test abutments was 705 ± 43N. Incisor abutments bonded with lithium disilicate or leucite ceramic crowns (groups B and C) showed fracture loads of about 580N. Premolar restorations directly veneered with fluor apatite ceramic (groups D and E) showed fracture loads of about 850N. Premolar restorations bonded with lithium disilicate ceramic crowns (group F) showed fracture loads of about 1850N. The artificial ageing showed no significant influence on the strength of the examined restorations. All ceramic crowns made of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, adhesively bonded to premolar abutments showed the highest fracture loads in this study. However, all tested groups can withstand physiological bite forces. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seetoh, Y L; Tan, Keson B; Chua, E K; Quek, H C; Nicholls, Jack I
Conical implant-abutment connections for platform switching have been recently introduced in implant systems. This study investigated the load fatigue performance of three conical abutment systems and their corresponding titanium and zirconia abutments. Regular-diameter implants of the Ankylos (AK), PrimaConnex (PC), and Straumann (ST) systems were tested with their corresponding titanium (Ti) and zirconia (Zr) abutments tightened to the recommended torque (n = 5 implant-abutment assemblies per group). A rotational load fatigue machine applied a sinusoidally varying tensile-compressive 21 N load to specimens at a 45-degree angle, producing an effective bending moment of 35 Ncm at a frequency of 10 Hz. The number of cycles to failure was recorded, with the upper limit set at 5 million cycles. Results were evaluated through analyses of variance. Except for the ST Zr group, which showed no failures in four samples and one failure just below the screw head, and the AK Ti group, in which one sample was preserved without fracture, all groups experienced failure of at least one of the components, whether the abutment screw only, the abutment, and/or the implant neck. There were significant differences between systems. There was no difference between systems for the Ti abutments, and the ST group was significantly different from the AK and PC groups for the Zr abutments. Ti conical abutments appear to have poorer load fatigue performance compared with earlier studies of external-hexagon connections. The load fatigue performance of Zr conical abutments varied and seemed to be highly system dependent. Many of the fractures in both the Ti and Zr abutment groups occurred within the implant, and retrieval would pose a significant clinical challenge. The clinician should weigh the mechanical, biologic, and esthetic considerations before selection of any implant system, connection type, or abutment material.
Garafutdinov, R R; Galimova, A A; Sakhabutdinova, A R; Vakhitov, V A; Chemeris, A V
DNA analysis of ñîmplex biological objects (wastewater, soil, archaeological and forensic samples, etc.) is currently of great interest. DNA of these objects is characterized by low suitability for research due to the violation of its integrity and chemical structure; thus, the detection of specific nucleic acid fragments can be achieved by PCR with contiguous primers. In this paper, we present the results that clarify the specific characteristics of PCR with abutting primers. The 3'-ends of these primers are annealed at adjacent nucleotides of complementary chains of DNA target. It has been shown that the proximity of primers enables the formation of specific reaction products with a higher sensitivity and less reaction time. Using artificially damaged DNA and DNA from the soil we demonstrated that the abutting primers provide assured detection of specific DNA fragments. The results of this work may be taken into account in PCR with degraded (fragmented) DNA.
Ristic, Ljubisa; Dakovic, Dragana; Postic, Srdjan; Lazic, Zoran; Bacevic, Miljana; Vucevic, Dragana
The grey-bluish discoloration of gingiva (known as "amalgam tattoo") does not appear only in the presence of amalgam restorations. It may also be seen in cases of teeth restored with cast dowels and porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) restorations. The aim of this article was to determine the clinical characteristics of abutment teeth with gingival discoloration. This research was conducted on 25 patients referred for cast dowel and PFM restorations. These restorations were manufactured from Ni-Cr alloys. Ninety days after cementing the fixed prosthodontic restorations, the abutment teeth (n = 61) were divided into a group with gingival discoloration (GD) (n = 25) and without gingival discoloration (NGD) (n = 36). The control group (CG) comprised the contralateral teeth (n = 61). Plaque index, gingival index, clinical attachment level, and probing depth were assessed before fabrication and also 90 days after cementation of the PFM restorations. The gingival index, clinical attachment level, and probing depths of the abutment teeth that had GD were statistically higher before restoration, in comparison with the abutment teeth in the NGD and control groups. Ninety days after cementation, the abutment teeth with GD had significantly lower gingival indexes and probing depths, compared to the abutment teeth in the NGD group. Both abutment teeth groups (GD and NGD) had significantly higher values of clinical attachment levels when compared to the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in plaque index values between the study groups. The results of this study indicated that impairment of periodontal status of abutment teeth seemed to be related to the presence of gingival discolorations. Therefore, fabrication of fixed prosthodontic restorations requires careful planning and abutment teeth preparation to minimize the occurrence of gingival discolorations. With careful preparation of abutment teeth for cast dowels and crown restorations it may be
Accurate estimation of the maximum possible depth of scour at bridge abutments is important in decision-making for the safe depth of burial of footings. Besides, investigation of the geometric features of scour holes around abutments provides useful information for the degree of scour counter-measure to be implemented ...
Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Nowadays, removable partial dentures are applied to patients who are not able to use dental implants or fixed prosthesis. Although based on the studies the users of removable partial dentures are in the risk of plaque accumulation and unacceptable changes such as gingivitis, periodontitis and mobility in abutment tooth. It is not clear whether the negative effects of removable partial dentures are more on the isolated teeth which are a kind of abutment adjacent to endentulous area in both sides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical condition of isolated abutment teeth without splinting in comparison to control abutment from the aspects of B.O.P (bleeding on probing, mobility, pocket depth and gingivitis."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the prepared questionnaires were filled out by 50 patients who received removable partial dentures in department of removable prosthodontics of dental school of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The patients had isolated abutment tooth and did not have any systemic disease. The obtained data were analyzed. Using Wilcoxon, exact Fisher and Kruskal-Wallis test."nResults: B.O.P (P=0.004, pocket depth (P=0.035, and mobility (P<0.001 in isolated abutments were more than those in control abutments, but there were not significant differences in the degree of caries (P=0.083 and gingivitis (P=0.07."nConclusion: This study showed that clinical condition of isolated abutments is worse than that of control abutments. More attention should be paid to healthiness of isolated teeth without splinting and periodic follow ups should be done in these cases.
Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves
The effect of veneering materials on screw joint stability remains inconclusive. Thus, this study evaluated the preload maintenance of abutment screws of single crowns fabricated with different abutments and veneering materials. Sixty crowns were divided into five groups (n = 12): UCLA abutment in gold alloy with ceramic (group GC) and resin (group GR) veneering, UCLA abutment in titanium with ceramic (group TiC) and resin (group TiR) veneering, and zirconia abutment with ceramic veneering (group ZiC). Abutment screws made of gold were used with a 35 Ncm insertion torque. Detorque measurements were obtained initially and after mechanical cycling. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Fisher's exact test at a significance level of 5%. For the initial detorque means (in Ncm), group TiC (21.4 ± 1.78) exhibited statistically lower torque maintenance than groups GC (23.9 ± 0.91), GR (24.1 ± 1.34), and TiR (23.2 ± 1.33) (p veneering material. More irregular surfaces in the hexagon area of the castable abutments were observed. The superiority of any veneering material concerning preload maintenance was not established. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
da Fonte Porto Carreiro, Adriana; de Carvalho Dias, Kássia; Correia Lopes, Ana Lílian; Bastos Machado Resende, Camila Maria; Luz de Aquino Martins, Ana Rafaela
To evaluate the periodontal conditions and integrity of abutment and non-abutment teeth of patients evaluated 7 years after insertion of the removable partial denture (RPD). Twenty-two patients (17 women, 5 men) were assessed at the moment of denture insertion and 7 years later. The following items were verified in each assessment: bleeding on probing (BP), probing depth (PD), gingival recession (GR), and mobility (M), comparing direct and indirect abutment teeth, and the teeth not involved in the denture design. Tooth integrity was also evaluated and classified as intact when no caries or fractures were observed. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to reveal statistical significance between the groups (p = 0.05) as well as the Bonferrroni-corrected Mann-Whitney test for post hoc comparison. The Wilcoxon test was used for evaluation within the group over time. Fisher's exact test was applied to cross data about abutment integrity. Statistically significant differences were found for GR (baseline, p < 0.001; 7 years, p < 0.001) and PD (baseline, p = 0.001; 7 years = 0.004) between the three groups at baseline and after 7 years of follow-up. Mean BP and M values increased from initial assessment to after 7 years of RPD use in every group, but no statistically significant difference was found between the groups. For abutment integrity, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.028) was observed, and the direct abutment exhibited more (33.3%) caries and fractures. RPDs generated more periodontal damage to direct abutments, since higher gingival recession probing depth indexes, and presence of caries and fractures were observed in comparison to indirect abutments and non-abutments. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Soil consolidation and erosion caused by roadway runoff have exposed the upper portions of steel piles at the abutments of : numerous bridges, leaving them susceptible to accelerated corrosion rates due to the abundance of moisture, oxygen, and : chl...
Roh, Hwasung; Laman, Jeffrey A; Ou, Yu-Chen; Kim, WooSeok; Jeong, Yoseok
The primary goal is to accurately predict long-term integral abutment bridge (IAB) responses under thermal loads by applying available numerical modeling techniques developed on the basis of a long-term monitoring of in-service IABs...
Deterioration and necking of J-bars has been reportedly observed at the interface of the footing and stem wall during the demolition : of older retaining walls and bridge abutments. Similar deterioration has been reportedly observed between the pier ...
The Iowa Department of Transportation has long recognized that approach slab pavements of integral abutment bridges are prone to settlement and cracking, which manifests as the "bump at the end of the bridge". A commonly recommended solution is to in...
A new instrument (Photo-Electronic Erosion Pin, or PEEP) was examined in collecting field data and remotely monitoring bank erosion near bridge abutments during floods. The performance of PEEPs was evaluated through a detailed field study to determin...
Integral abutment bridges, a type of jointless bridge, are the construction option of choice when designing highway bridges in many parts of the country. Rather than providing an expansion joint to separate the substructure from the superstructure to...
Integral abutment (IA) construction has become the preferred method over conventional construction for use with typical : highway bridges. However, the use of these structures is limited due to state mandated length and skew limitations. To : expand ...
http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/sadh/029/01/0035-0056. Keywords. Abutments; three-dimensional ﬂow; turbulent ﬂow; open channel ﬂow; hydraulics. Abstract. Experimental investigation of the 3D turbulent ﬂow ﬁeld around a 45° wing-wall abutment, resting on a rough rigid bed, is reported. The experiment was conducted ...
Integral abutment bridges provide bridge engineers an economical design alternative to traditional bridges with expansion joints owing to the benefits, arising from elimination of expensive joints installation and reduced maintenance cost. The superstructure for integral abutment bridges is cast integrally with abutments. Time-dependent effects of creep, shrinkage of concrete, relaxation of prestressing steel, temperature gradient, restraints provided by abutment foundation and backfill and statical indeterminacy of the structure introduce time-dependent variations in the redundant forces. An analytical model and numerical procedure to predict instantaneous linear behavior and non-linear time dependent long-term behavior of continuous composite superstructure are developed in which the redundant forces in the integral abutment bridges are derived considering the time-dependent effects. The redistributions of moments due to time-dependent effects have been considered in the analysis. The analysis includes nonlinearity due to cracking of the concrete, as well as the time-dependent deformations. American Concrete Institute (ACI) and American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) models for creep and shrinkage are considered in modeling the time dependent material behavior. The variations in the material property of the cross-section corresponding to the constituent materials are incorporated and age-adjusted effective modulus method with relaxation procedure is followed to include the creep behavior of concrete. The partial restraint provided by the abutment-pile-soil system is modeled using discrete spring stiffness as translational and rotational degrees of freedom. Numerical simulation of the behavior is carried out on continuous composite integral abutment bridges and the deformations and stresses due to time-dependent effects due to typical sustained loads are computed. The results from the analytical model are compared with the
Kim, Seong Kyun; Koak, Jai Young; Heo, Seong Joo; Taylor, Thomas D; Ryoo, Sook; Lee, Su Young
The purpose of this study was to observe and compare any loosening of screws attaching several interchangeable abutments to internally connected implants after cyclic loading. Four different abutment groups mated with Straumann single-stage transmucosal implants (n = 7 each group) were assessed: Straumann solid abutment, Restore COC abutment, Neoplant solid abutment, and AVANA solid abutment. Each implant was fixed rigidly in a special holding jig. Abutments were tightened to 35 Ncm with a torque controller. A cyclic load of 150 N at a 30-degree angle to the long axis was applied to the implants for 1 million cycles. Prior to loading, Periotest values (PTVs) were measured. After cyclic loading, PTVs were measured and removal torque values (RTVs) of abutments were measured with a digital torque gauge. No mechanical failures were noted for the Straumann solid abutment or the Restore COC abutment. Six Neoplant abutment screws fractured (86%), and four implants fractured (57%) in the group restored with AVANA solid abutments. The RTVs of the Straumann solid abutment were significantly higher than those of the other abutments. The final mean PTV of the Straumann solid abutment was significantly lower than the final mean PTVs of the other abutments. The final mean PTV (4.76 ± 5.58) was significantly higher than the initial mean PTV (-4.29 ± 0.47). Although different abutments are interchangeable with each other, they possess different chemical compositions and physical characteristics. The use of an abutment and implant manufactured by the same company is recommended to prevent the loosening of the abutment screw.
Kitagawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Odaki, Misako; Nemoto, Kimiya; Aida, Masahiro
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of implant/abutment joint designs on abutment screw loosening in a dental implant system, using nonlinear dynamic analysis of the finite element method (FEM). This finite element simulation study used two dental implant systems: the Ankylos implant system (Degusa Dental, Hanau, German) with a taper joint (taper joint-type model), and the Bränemark implant system (Nobel Biocare, Gothenburg, Sweden) with an external hex joint (external hex joint-type model). The nonlinear dynamic analysis was performed using three-dimensional finite element analysis. In comparing the movement of the taper type-joint model and external hex type-joint model, it was found that the external hex type-joint model had greater movement than the taper type-joint model. The external hex joint-type model showed rotation movement, whereas the movement of the taper joint-type model showed no rotation. It was concluded that the nonlinear dynamic analysis used in this study clearly demonstrated the differences in rotation of components in dental implant systems with taper or external hex joints. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chowdhary, Ramesh; Kumari, Shail
Introduction Presence of gap at the implant-abutment interface, leads to microleakage and accumulation of bacteria which can affect the success of dental implants. Aim To evaluate the sealing capability of different implant connections against microleakage. Materials and Methods In January 2017 an electronic search of literature was performed, in Medline, EBSCO host and Pubmed data base. The search was focused on ability of different implant connections in preventing microleakage. The related titles and abstracts available in English were screened, and the articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected for full text reading. Results In this systematic review, literature search initially resulted in 78 articles among which 30 articles only fulfilled the criteria for inclusion and were finally included in the review. Almost all the studies showed that there was some amount of microleakage at abutment implant interface. Microleakage was very less in Morse taper implants in comparison to other implant connections. Majority of studies showed less microleakage in static loading conditions and microleakage increases in dynamic loading conditions. Conclusion In this systematic review maximum studies showed that there was some amount of microleakage at abutment implant interface. External hexagon implants failed completely to prevent microleakage in both static and dynamic loading conditions of implants. Internal hexagon implants mainly internal conical (Morse taper) implants are very promising in case of static loading and also showed less microleakage in dynamic loading conditions. Torque recommended by manufacturer should be followed strictly to get a better seal at abutment implant interface. Zirconia abutments are more to microleakage than Titanium abutments and there use should be discouraged. Zirconia abutments should be only restricted to cases where there was very high demand of aesthetics. PMID:28764310
Blum, Kai; Wiest, Wolfram; Fella, Christian; Balles, Andreas; Dittmann, Jonas; Rack, Alexander; Maier, Dominik; Thomann, Ralf; Spies, Benedikt Christopher; Kohal, Ralf Joachim; Zabler, Simon; Nelson, Katja
Based on the current lack of data and understanding of the wear behavior of dental two-piece implants, this study aims for evaluating the microgap formation and wear pattern of different implants in the course of cyclic loading. Several implant systems with different conical implant-abutment interfaces were purchased. The implants were first evaluated using synchrotron X-ray high-resolution radiography (SRX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The implant-abutment assemblies were then subjected to cyclic loading at 98N and their microgap was evaluated after 100,000, 200,000 and 1 million cycles using SRX, synchrotron micro-tomography (μCT). Wear mechanisms of the implant-abutment connection (IAC) after 200,000 cycles and 1 million cycles were further characterized using SEM. All implants exhibit a microgap between the implant and abutment prior to loading. The gap size increased with cyclic loading with its changes being significantly higher within the first 200,000 cycles. Wear was seen in all implants regardless of their interface design. The wear pattern comprised adhesive wear and fretting. Wear behavior changed when a different mounting medium was used (brass vs. polymer). A micromotion of the abutment during cyclic loading can induce wear and wear particles in conical dental implant systems. This feature accompanied with the formation of a microgap at the IAC is highly relevant for the longevity of the implants. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fariba Saleh Saber
Full Text Available Background. Since the misfit of crown has an important role in clinical performance of implant-supported prostheses, and due to the impact of the settling effect on misfit, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of torque forces on the total lengths of narrow and short implant abutments in different internal implant‒abutment connections. Methods. In four different implant‒abutment connections, 8 analog implants with a normal diameter (4 mm and narrow abutment (4.5 mm were selected from groups of internal hex, internal octagon, morse hex 6° and morse hex 11°. Each of them was mounted within plaster type IV, and 32 samples were obtained. Then, the amount of vertical displacement was measured by closing the impression copings and applying torques of 20 25 and 30 Ncm. This stage was repeated for the abutment. In the next stage, the resin pattern was built and measurements were performed after applying the torques mentioned. Finally, after making the frame, this stage was repeated, and the settling effect was statistically analyzed with ANOVA. Results. In the stages of impression coping, resin pattern and final prosthesis, HEXAGONE had significantly the highest and OCTAGONE had the lowest rates of settling, and the settling of morse hex 11° and 6° was between them. Conclusion. Octagon implant had significantly the lowest settling in various clinical and laboratory stages by applying different torques.
Aminuddin Ab. Ghani
Full Text Available Most of actual abutments in rivers are built on foundation, while there is limited number of study available on the effects of the foundation on the local scour. In this study, temporal variation of local scour around compound abutment was investigated experimentally under clear-water conditions. The results showed that a suitable level of foundation is able to decrease the scour depth and increase scour time during the flood events. The trend of temporal scour depth at compound pier and abutment is similar. The scour depth develops to top of foundation quickly, and then the foundation postpones the scour development (lag–time. Duration of lag–time depends on the foundation level, velocity ratio (U/Uc and foundation dimension. This study highlights that proper design of foundation level increases duration of scouring and provides enough time to treat bridge foundation after the flood events.
Integral Abutment Bridges (IAB) are bridges without any joints within the bridge deck or between the : superstructure and the abutments. An IAB provides many advantages during construction and maintenance of : a bridge. Soil-structure interactions at...
Nitta, Eiji; Taniguchi, Hisashi; Ohyama, Takashi; Takeda, Masamune (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry)
There still remain several prosthodontic problems for the patient who has received radiation therapy for oral cancer because of radiation injury. We have experienced these in applying a tooth-borne denture to such a patient. Subsequently, it has been recognized that the longevity of the abutment teeth in such a denture is extremely short, compared with the ordinary case. Therefore, when designing the prosthesis for the irradiated patients, it is imperative that we pay special attention to the decreased vitality of the supporting bones of the abutment teeth, as well as to the weakened mucous membrane and rampant caries.
Broeke, S.M. van den; Baat, C. de
Fracture of the implant abutment screws is a complication which can render an implant useless. The prevalence of abutment screw fracture does not exceed 2.5% after 10 years. Causes are loosening of implant abutment screw, too few, too short or too narrow implants, implants not inserted perpendicular
Sui, Xinxin; Wei, Huasha; Wang, Dashan; Han, Yan; Deng, Jing; Wang, Yongliang; Wang, Junjun; Yang, Jianjun
The purpose of the study was to investigate the correlation between fit accuracy and fracture resistance of zirconia abutments, as well as its feasibility for clinical applications. Twenty self-made zirconia abutments were tested with 30 Osstem GSII implants. First, 10 Osstem GSII implants were cut into two parts along the long axis and assembled with the zirconia abutments. The microgaps between the implants and the zirconia abutments were measured under a scanning electron microscope. Second, the zirconia abutments were assembled with 20 un-cut implants and photographed before and after being fixed with a central screw of 30-Ncm torque. The dental films were measured by Digora for Windows 2.6 software. Then the fracture resistance of zirconia abutments was measured using the universal testing machine at 90°. All results were analyzed using SPSS13.0 software. The average internal-hexagon microgaps between the implants and zirconia abutments were 19.38±1.34μm. The average Morse taper microgap in the implant-abutment interface was 17.55±1.68μm. The dental film showed that the Morse taper gap in the implant-abutment interface disappeared after being fixed with a central screw of 30-Ncm torque, and the average moving distance of the zirconia abutments to the implants was 0.19±0.02mm. The average fracture resistance of zirconia abutments was 282.93±17.28N. The internal-hexagon microgap between the implants and zirconia abutments was negatively related to the fracture resistance of the abutments (r1=-0.97, pzirconia abutments. The fracture resistance of zirconia abutments can satisfy the clinical application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Integral abutment bridges (IABs) have been designed and constructed in a few US states in the past few : decades. The initial purpose of building such bridges was to eliminate the expansion joints and resolve the : joint-induced problems. Although IA...
Key words: Abutment teeth, apical periodontitis, endodontics, epidemiology, radiology. Date of Acceptance: 29‑Nov‑2014. Introduction. Extensive removal of enamel and dentin is required during the preparation of teeth for fixed partial dentures. This procedure may lead to irreversible damage of the dental pulp if not carried ...
metric standard deviation of particle size distribution (σg), abutment shape (Ks), approach channel geometry (KG) ..... at the afore-mentioned test durations using a software based on triangularisation technique. This program is .... and Quality Control Department of Turkish State Hydraulic Works, Ankara. The authors are.
da Silva, Lucas Hian; Ribeiro, Sebastião; Borges, Alexandre Luís Souto; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Tango, Rubens Nisie
The most important drawback of dental implant/abutment assemblies is the need for a fixing screw. This study aimed to develop an esthetic one-piece Y-TZP abutment to suppress the use of the screw. Material characterization was performed using a bar-shaped specimen obtained by slip-casting to validate the method prior to prototype abutment fabrication by the same process. The mechanical behavior of the prototype abutment was verified and compared with a conventional abutment by finite element analysis (FEA). The abutment was evaluated by micro-CT analysis and its density was measured. FEA showed stress concentration at the first thread pitch during installation and in the cervical region during oblique loading for both abutments. However, stress concentration was observed at the base of the screw head and stem in the conventional abutment. The relative density for the fabricated abutment was 95.68%. Micro-CT analysis revealed the presence of elongated cracks with sharp edges over the surface and porosity in the central region. In the light of these findings, the behavior of a one-piece abutment is expected to be better than that of the conventional model. New studies should be conducted to clarify the performance and longevity of this one-piece Y-TZP abutment. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yilmaz, Burak; Salaita, Louai G; Seidt, Jeremy D; Clelland, Nancy L; McGlumphy, Edwin A
Several aftermarket abutments are available for a commonly used internal hexagonal connection implant. However, their load to failure performance is unknown when compared with the manufacturer's abutment. The purpose of this in vitro study was to conduct a load to failure comparison of 5 different titanium abutments (manufacturer's and aftermarket) for cement-retained restorations used on an implant with an internal hexagon connection. Five implants (Tapered Screw-Vent, 4.1×11.5 mm; Zimmer Dental) were individually secured in a loading apparatus, and 3 abutment specimens of each of the 5 different titanium abutments (Atlantis, AstraTech TiDesign, Legacy Straight Contoured, Inclusive Custom, and Zimmer PSA) (n=15 total) were loaded at a 30-degree angle until fracture of the implant abutment complex. Data for load to fracture were compared with analysis of variance and a Tukey-Kramer post hoc test (α=.05). Significant differences were noted between the fracture loads of some abutment pairs; Atlantis-AstraTech TiDesign, Atlantis-Legacy Straight Contoured, AstraTech TiDesign-Legacy Straight Contoured, Inclusive Custom-AstraTech TiDesign, and Inclusive Custom-Legacy Straight Contoured (P<.05). The highest overall resistance to fracture was achieved by the Legacy Straight Contoured Abutment, which was significantly greater than all other aftermarket abutments (P<.05). Tested abutments fractured at an average of 649.17 N. The Zimmer PSA abutment was the only abutment that showed no fracture of any of the components before implant failure. When comparing manufacturer's versus aftermarket brands, the manufacturer's abutment (Zimmer PSA) was the only abutment without fracture of any of the components. Aftermarket brands experienced screw fractures, which could result in further clinical prosthetic complications. The clinical implications of these findings need further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by
Hasturk, Hatice; Nguyen, Daniel Huy; Sherzai, Homa; Song, Xiaoping; Soukos, Nikos; Bidlack, Felicitas B; Van Dyke, Thomas E
The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of the removal of biofilm with hand scalers of different material composition on the surface of implant abutments by assessing the surface topography and residual plaque after scaling using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Titanium implant analogs from 3 manufacturers (Straumann USA LLC, Andover, Maine, Nobel BioCare USA LLC, Yorba Linda, Cali, Astra Tech Implant Systems, Dentsply, Mölndal, Sweden) were mounted in stone in plastic vials individually with authentic prosthetic abutments. Plaque samples were collected from a healthy volunteer, inoculated into growth medium and incubated with the abutments anaerobically for 1 week. A blinded, calibrated hygienist performed scaling to remove the biofilm using 6 implant scalers (in triplicate), 1 scaler for 1 abutment. The abutments were mounted on an imaging stand and processed for SEM. Images were captured in 3 randomly designated areas of interest on each abutment. Analysis of the implant polished abutment surface and plaque area measurements were performed using ImageJ image analysis software. Surface alterations were characterized by the number, length, depth and the width of the scratches observed. Glass filled resin scalers resulted in significantly more and longer scratches on all 3 abutment types compared to other scalers, while unfilled resin scalers resulted in the least surface change (p < 0.05). Filled resin-graphite reinforced scalers, carbon fiber reinforced resin scalers and titanium scalers resulted in more superficial scratches compared to glass filled resin, as well as more scratches than unfilled resin. No statistically significant differences were found between scalers and abutments with regard to plaque removal. The impact of scalers on implant abutment surfaces varies between abutment types presumably due to different surface characteristics with no apparent advantage of one abutment type over the other with regard to resistance to surface
Alsahhaf, Abdulaziz; Spies, Benedikt Christopher; Vach, Kirstin; Kohal, Ralf-Joachim
To investigate the survival rate, fracture strength, bending moments, loading to fracture and fracture modes of different designs of zirconia abutments after dynamic loading with thermocycling, and compare these values to titanium abutments. A total of 80 abutment samples were divided into 5 test groups of 16 samples in each group. The study included the following groups, "Group 1" CAD/CAM produced all-zirconia abutments, "Group 2" titanium abutments, "Group 3" zirconia-abutments adhesively luted to a titanium base, "Group 4" prefabricated all-zirconia abutments and "Group 5" zirconia-abutments glass soldered to a titanium base. Half the number of samples in each group was exposed to 1.2 million loading cycles (5-years simulation) in the chewing simulator. The samples that survived the artificial aging were later tested for fracture strength in a universal testing machine. The remaining 8 samples of the group were directly tested for fracture strength. All samples exposed to the 5-years artificial aging survived except of six samples in one group (Group 1). The surviving samples were later fracture tested in the universal testing machine. The bending moments (Ncm) values were as follow: Exposed groups: "Group 1" 94.5Ncm; "Group 2" 599.2Ncm; "Group 3" 477.5Ncm; "Group 4" 314.4Ncm; "Group 5" 509.4Ncm. Non-exposed groups: "Group 1" 269.3Ncm; "Group 2" 474.2Ncm; "Group 3" 377.6Ncm; "Group 4" 265.4Ncm; "Group 5" 372.4Ncm. Except in Group 1, the values were higher in the exposed groups, although, statistically there was no difference (p>0.05). The one-piece ZrO2-abutment group (Group 1 and Group 4) exhibited lower values, while the two-piece ZrO2-abutment groups (Group 3 and Group 5) showed similar values and fracture modes like the titanium abutment group. The titanium abutment group showed the highest values of bending moments among all groups. The implant-abutment connection area appeared to influence the bending moment value and the fracture mode of the tested
Polat, Beldan; İşeri, Mete; Orhan, Kadir Serkan; Yılmazer, Ayça Başkadem; Enver, Necati; Ceylan, Didem; Kara, Ahmet; Güldiken, Yahya; Çomoğlu, Şenol
To compare two different percutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) abutment systems regarding operation time, scar healing, quality of life, implant stability, audiologic results, and complications. The study involves a prospective multi-center clinical evaluation. Thirty-two consecutive patients who had undergone BAHA surgery from January 2011 to January 2013 in two tertiary centers were included in the study. The Glasgow Inventory Benefit Score was used to assess the patients at least 6 months after surgery. The operation time and complications were recorded. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) values were recorded using resonance frequency analysis. Holger's classification was used to evaluate skin reactions. The mean length of the operation was 39.2±4 min for standard abutment and 18.3±5.7 min for hydroxyapatite-coated abutment. ISQ scores were significantly better for standard abutment in all tests. The mean total Glasgow Inventory Benefit Score was 39.3±19 for the standard abutment and 46.3±24.5 for the hydroxyapatite-coated abutment groups, but there was no statistical significance between the two groups. There was no difference in audiological improvement between the two groups after surgery. Hydroxyapatite-coated abutment provided a shorter operation time that was significantly different from standard abutment. There were no significant differences between standard abutment and hydroxyapatite-coated abutment regarding audiologic improvement, quality of life, loading time, and complications.
Bo Kyun Sim
Full Text Available The prosthetic component of dental implant is attached on the abutment which is connected to the fixture with an abutment screw. The abutment screw fracture is not frequent; however, the retrieval of the fractured screw is not easy, and it poses complications. A retrieval kit was developed which utilizes screw removal drills to make a hole on the fractured screw that provides an engaging drill to unscrew it. To minimize this process, the abutment screw is modified with a prefabricated access hole for easy retrieval. This study aimed to introduce this modified design of the abutment screw, the concept of easy retrieval, and to compare the mechanical strengths of the conventional and hollow abutment screws by finite element analysis (FEA and mechanical test. In the FEA results, both types of abutment screws showed similar stress distribution in the single artificial tooth system. A maximum load difference of about 2% occurred in the vertical load by a mechanical test. This study showed that the hollow abutment screw may be an alternative to the conventional abutment screws because this is designed for easy retrieval and that both abutment screws showed no significant difference in the mechanical tests and in the FEA.
Sim, Bo Kyun; Kim, Bongju; Kim, Min Jeong; Jeong, Guk Hyun; Ju, Kyung Won; Shin, Yoo Jin; Kim, Man Yong; Lee, Jong-Ho
The prosthetic component of dental implant is attached on the abutment which is connected to the fixture with an abutment screw. The abutment screw fracture is not frequent; however, the retrieval of the fractured screw is not easy, and it poses complications. A retrieval kit was developed which utilizes screw removal drills to make a hole on the fractured screw that provides an engaging drill to unscrew it. To minimize this process, the abutment screw is modified with a prefabricated access hole for easy retrieval. This study aimed to introduce this modified design of the abutment screw, the concept of easy retrieval, and to compare the mechanical strengths of the conventional and hollow abutment screws by finite element analysis (FEA) and mechanical test. In the FEA results, both types of abutment screws showed similar stress distribution in the single artificial tooth system. A maximum load difference of about 2% occurred in the vertical load by a mechanical test. This study showed that the hollow abutment screw may be an alternative to the conventional abutment screws because this is designed for easy retrieval and that both abutment screws showed no significant difference in the mechanical tests and in the FEA.
Jamjoom, Faris Z; Lee, Damian J
As dental implants continue to survive longer, managing and maintaining implant prostheses can be complicated by the lack of compatible parts or the discontinuation of implant systems. This report describes a laser welding procedure for the management of clinically short Locator abutments (Zest Anchors Inc) that lacked a commercially available, compatible alternative. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fracture strength and failure mode of maxillary implant-supported provisional single crowns: a comparison of composite resin crowns fabricated directly over PEEK abutments and solid titanium abutments.
Santing, Hendrik Jacob; Meijer, Henny J A; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Özcan, Mutlu
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) temporary abutments have been recently introduced for making implant-supported provisional single crowns. Little information is available in the dental literature on the durability of provisional implant-supported restorations. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the fracture strength of implant-supported composite resin crowns on PEEK and solid titanium temporary abutments, and to analyze the failure types. Three types of provisional abutments, RN synOcta Temporary Meso Abutment (PEEK; Straumann), RN synOcta Titanium Post for Temporary Restorations (Straumann), and Temporary Abutment Engaging NobRplRP (Nobel Biocare) were used, and provisional screw-retained crowns using composite resin (Solidex) were fabricated for four different locations in the maxilla. The specimens were tested in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute until fracture occurred. The failure types were analyzed and further categorized as irreparable (Type 1) or reparable (Type 2). No significant difference was found between different abutment types. Only for the position of the maxillary central incisor, composite resin crowns on PEEK temporary abutments showed significantly lower (p resin crowns (75 out of 104), followed by screw loosening (18 out of 104). According to reparability, the majority of the specimens were classified as Type 1 (82 out of 104). Type 2 failures were not often observed (22 out of 104). Provisional crowns on PEEK abutments showed similar fracture strength as titanium temporary abutments except for central incisors. Maxillary right central incisor composite resin crowns on PEEK temporary abutments fractured below the mean anterior masticatory loading forces reported to be approximately 206 N. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Ke; Liu, Guangyuan; Wang, Dashan
Zirconia powder in nanometers can be fabricated into inter-joined abutment of dental implant system with the injection shaping technique. This study was to detect the resistance of inter-joined zirconia abutment with different angle loading for clinical applications. The inter-joined abutments were shaped with the technique of injection of zirconia powder in nanometers. Sixty Osstem GSII 5 × 10 mm implants were used with 30 zirconia abutments and 30 Osstem GSII titanium abutments for fixation using 40 N torque force. The loading applications included 90°, 30°, and 0° formed by the long axis of abutments and pressure head of universal test machine. The fracture resistances of zirconia and titanium abutments were documented and analyzed. The inter-joined zirconia abutments were assembled to the Osstem GSII implants successfully. In the 90° loading mode, the fracture resistance of zirconia abutment group and titanium abutment group were 301.5 ± 15.4 N and 736.4 ± 120.1 N, respectively. And those in the 30° groups were 434.7 ± 36.1 N and 1073.1 ± 74 N, correspondingly. Significant difference in the two groups was found using t-test and Wilcoxon test. No damage on the abutments of the two groups but S-shaped bending on the implants was found when the 0° loading was 1300-2000 N. Through the assembly of Zirconia abutments and implants, all the components presented sufficient resistance acquired for the clinical application under loadings with different angle. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Boff, Luís Leonildo; Oderich, Elisa; Cardoso, Antônio Carlos; Magne, Pascal
To evaluate the fatigue resistance and failure mode of composite resin and porcelain onlays and crowns bonded to premolar custom metal-composite resin premolar implant abutments. Sixty composite resin mesostructures were fabricated with computer assistance with two preparation designs (crown vs onlay) and bonded to a metal implant abutment. Following insertion into an implant with a tapered abutment interface (Titamax CM), each metal-composite resin abutment was restored with either composite resin (Paradigm MZ100) or ceramic (Paradigm C) (n = 15) and attached with adhesive resin (Optibond FL) and a preheated light-curing composite resin (Filtek Z100). Cyclic isometric chewing (5 Hz) was then simulated, starting with 5,000 cycles at a load of 50 N, followed by stages of 200, 400, 600, 800, 1,000, 1,200, and 1,400 N (25,000 cycles each). Samples were loaded until fracture or to a maximum of 180,000 cycles. The four groups were compared using life table survival analysis (log-rank test). Previously published data using zirconia abutments of the same design were included for comparison. Paradigm C and MZ100 specimens fractured at average loads of 1,133 N and 1,266 N, respectively. Survival rates ranged from 20% to 33.3% (ceramic crowns and onlays) to 60% (composite resin crowns and onlays) and were significantly different (pooled data for restorative material). There were no restoration failures, but there were adhesive failures at the connection between the abutment and the mesostructure. The survival of the metal-composite resin premolar abutments was inferior to that of identical zirconia abutments from a previous study (pooled data for abutment material). Composite resin onlays/crowns bonded to metal-composite resin premolar implant abutments presented higher survival rates than comparable ceramic onlays/crowns. Zirconia abutments outperformed the metal-composite resin premolar abutments.
Larsson, Anna; Andersson, Marcus; Wigren, Stina; Pivodic, Aldina; Flynn, Mark; Nannmark, Ulf
The protocol for bone conduction hearing implant surgery involves reduction of soft tissues around the abutment to minimize the risk of skin-related complications. The present investigation was undertaken to demonstrate that hydroxyapatite-coated abutments provide improved soft tissue integration compared with conventional (pure titanium) abutments and are suitable for use without surgical removal of subepidermal soft tissues. Forty-eight implants for bone conduction with two different types of abutments (test and control) were inserted in the skull parietal part of eight sheep. Test abutments had a hydroxyapatite-coated surface and a concave shape. Conventional titanium abutments were used as controls. A follow-up time of 4 weeks was used. Histomorphometric analyses of test and control samples were analyzed, and morphometric results were compared using mixed model analysis. Histological assessment showed healthy soft tissues around the abutments with limited or no signs of inflammation. Hydroxyapatite-coated abutments showed intimate dermal adherence, while less close contact was noted for control abutments. Statistically significant differences in mean pocket depth (0.4 vs 1.6 mm, p = .0013) and epidermal downgrowth (0.6 vs 2.0 mm, p = .0003) between test and control abutments were recorded. The study confirms that hydroxyapatite-coated abutments resulted in a significant reduction in pocket depth and improved soft tissue integration compared with conventional titanium abutments, possibly by providing tight adherence at the interface. Statistically significant reduced pocket depth formation and epidermal downgrowth were recorded. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hjerppe, Jenni; Lassila, Lippo V J; Rakkolainen, Tero; Narhi, Timo; Vallittu, Pekka K
To compare the load-bearing capacity of custom-made zirconia abutments with that of prefabricated commercially available zirconia abutments. Zirconia (ICE Zircon) blocks were manually copy-milled to abutments using prefabricated commercially available abutments as models, divided into four groups (n = 10/group), and sintered at 1,500°C. Prefabricated commercially available abutments were used as controls (groups 1 and 4, n = 10/group). The abutments in the study groups were: (1) Astra ZirDesign (AstraTech); (2) copy-milled Zirkonzahn-Astra; (3) copy-milled Zirkonzahn-Astra, short; (4) Xive Cercon (Dentsply/Friadent); (5) copy-milled Zirkonzahn-Xive; and (6) copy-milled Zirkonzahn-Xive, modified. Seven abutments per group were screwed onto implant replicas (size 3.5/4.0 mm for AstraTech, 3.8 mm for Dentsply Friadent) with acrylic resin sample base; the implants were loaded dry with a universal testing machine at room temperature and a 45-degree loading angle. Statistical analyses were made using one-way analysis of variance. The three remaining abutments per group were screwed onto implant replicas, and the distance between the replica and the abutment was measured with a scanning electron microscope. Significant differences were seen among the groups in terms of load-bearing capacity; copy-milled Zirkonzahn-Xive modified abutments (group 6) were statistically significantly stronger (1,099 N) than the other abutments (P loads to those seen for prefabricated commercially available zirconia abutments.
Full Text Available Provisional cements are commonly used to facilitate retrievability of cement-retained fixed implant restorations; but compromised abutment preparation may affect the retention of implant-retained crowns.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abutment design and type of luting agent on the retentive strength of cement-retained implant restorations.Two prefabricated abutments were attached to their corresponding analogs and embedded in an acrylic resin block. The first abutment (control group was left intact without any modifications. The screw access channel for the first abutment was completely filled with composite resin. In the second abutment, (test group the axial wall was partially removed to form an abutment with 3 walls. Wax models were made by CAD/CAM. Ten cast copings were fabricated for each abutment. The prepared copings were cemented on the abutments by Temp Bond luting agent under standardized conditions (n=20. The assemblies were stored in 100% humidity for one day at 37°C prior to testing. The cast crown was removed from the abutment using an Instron machine, and the peak removal force was recorded. Coping/abutment specimens were cleaned after testing, and the testing procedure was repeated for Dycal luting agent (n=20. Data were analyzed with two- way ANOVA (α=0.05.There was no significant difference in the mean transformed retention (Ln-R between intact abutments (4.90±0.37 and the abutments with 3 walls (4.83±0.25 using Dycal luting agent. However, in TempBond group, the mean transformed retention (Ln-R was significantly lower in the intact abutment (3.9±0.23 compared to the abutment with 3 walls (4.13±0.33, P=0.027.The retention of cement-retained implant restoration can be improved by the type of temporary cement used. The retention of cast crowns cemented to implant abutments with TempBond is influenced by the wall removal.
Jeon, Jin-Hun; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Lee, Jae-Jun; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Woong-Chul
We assessed the repeatability and reproducibility of abutment teeth dental impressions, digitized with a blue light scanner, by comparing the discrepancies in repeatability and reproducibility values...
Yunusov, A. V.; Kashapov, R. N.; Kashapov, L. N.; Statsenko, E. O.
The purpose of the research is to develop a method of manufacturing individual dental abutments for a variety of dental implants. System of industrial X-ray microtomography Phoenix V|tome|X S 240 has been applied for creation of highly accurate model of the dental abutment. Scanning of dental abutment and the optimization of model was produced. The program of milling the individual abutment with a standard conical neck of hexagon was produced for the five-axis milling machine imes - icore 450i from the materials titanium and zirconium oxide.
Yilmaz, Burak; Salaita, Louai G; Seidt, Jeremy D; McGlumphy, Edwin A; Clelland, Nancy L
Various zirconia abutment designs are available to restore implant systems. Fracture resistance is one of the criteria involved in selecting among these options. The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure and compare load to failure for 5 zirconia abutments for an internally hexagon implant. Five 4.1×11.5-mm Zimmer tapered screw-vent implants were individually secured in a loading apparatus, and 3 specimens of each of the 5 different abutments (Zimmer Contour with a Ti ring, anatomic-contour Atlantis-Zr, anatomic-contour Inclusive-Zr, anatomic-contour Astra Tech ZirDesign, Legacy Straight Contoured abutment with Ti core) (N=15) were loaded at a 30-degree angle until the implant abutment complex failed. Data for load to failure were compared with analysis of variance and a Tukey-Kramer post hoc test (α=.05). The custom anatomic-contour abutment (Inclusive) showed the lowest load to fracture, and the stock anatomic-contour (AstraTech ZirDesign) the second lowest load to fracture. These were significantly lower than all other abutments (Pload of 842 N for zirconia abutments with titanium component (P<.05). The stock zirconia abutment with a titanium ring and the zirconia abutment with a titanium core-hexagon (Legacy Straight Contoured) had significantly greater fracture resistance than that of any of the 1-piece anatomic-contour zirconia abutments tested. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Semper, Wiebke; Kraft, Silvan; Mehrhof, Jurgen; Nelson, Katja
Rotational freedom of various implant positional index designs has been previously calculated. To investigate its clinical relevance, a three-dimensional simulation was performed to demonstrate the influence of rotational displacements of the abutment on the marginal fit of prosthetic superstructures. Idealized abutments with different angulations (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 degrees) were virtually constructed (SolidWorks Office Premium 2007). Then, rotational displacement was simulated with various degrees of rotational freedom (0.7, 0.95, 1.5, 1.65, and 1.85 degrees). The resulting horizontal displacement of the abutment from the original position was quantified in microns, followed by a simulated pressure-less positioning of superstructures with defined internal gaps (5 µm, 60 µm, and 100 µm). The resulting marginal gap between the abutment and the superstructure was measured vertically with the SolidWorks measurement tool. Rotation resulted in a displacement of the abutment of up to 157 µm at maximum rotation and angulation. Interference of a superstructure with a defined internal gap of 5 µm placed on the abutment resulted in marginal gaps up to 2.33 mm at maximum rotation and angulation; with a 60-µm internal gap, the marginal gaps reached a maximum of 802 µm. Simulation using a superstructure with an internal gap of 100 µm revealed a marginal gap of 162 µm at abutment angulation of 20 degrees and rotation of 1.85 degrees. The marginal gaps increased with the degree of abutment angulation and the extent of rotational freedom. Rotational displacement of the abutment influenced prosthesis misfit. The marginal gaps between the abutment and the superstructure increased with the rotational freedom of the index and the angulation of the abutment.
Ramakrishaniah, Ravikumar; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Elsharawy, Mohamed A; Alsaleh, Ayman K; Ismail Mohamed, Karem M; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur
The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the load distribution and displacement of cantilever prostheses with and without glass abutment by three dimensional finite element analysis. Micro-computed tomography was used to study the relationship between the glass abutment and the ridge. The external surface of the maxilla was scanned, and a simplified finite element model was constructed. The ZX-27 glass abutment and the maxillary first and second premolars were created and modified. The solid model of the three-unit cantilever fixed partial denture was scanned, and the fitting surface was modified with reference to the created abutments using the 3D CAD system. The finite element analysis was completed in ANSYS. The fit and total gap volume between the glass abutment and dental model were determined by Skyscan 1173 high-energy spiral micro-CT scan. The results of the finite element analysis in this study showed that the cantilever prosthesis supported by the glass abutment demonstrated significantly less stress on the terminal abutment and overall deformation of the prosthesis under vertical and oblique load. Micro-computed tomography determined a gap volume of 6.74162 mm(3). By contacting the mucosa, glass abutments transfer some amount of masticatory load to the residual alveolar ridge, thereby preventing damage to the periodontal microstructures of the terminal abutment. The passive contact of the glass abutment with the mucosa not only preserves the health of the mucosa covering the ridge but also permits easy cleaning. It is possible to increase the success rate of cantilever FPDs by supporting the cantilevered pontic with glass abutments. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Junqueira, Marcela C; Silva, Thales Eduardo P; Ribeiro, Ricardo F; Faria, Adriana Cláudia L; Macedo, Ana Paula; de Almeida, Rossana P
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rotational freedom between implant and abutment counterpart of two abutments types over external hexagon implants submitted to mechanical cycling. Ten implants with external hexagon (3.75 mm × 13 mm), five cast abutments, and five premachined abutments both with 4.1 mm plataform size were used in this study. Ten metallic crowns were fabricated using the two types of abutments and were fixed to each implant using titanium screws (Ti6Al4V). Rotational freedom measurements were made before and after the cast procedure and after the mechanical cycling. Groups were classified according to the rotational misfit register using University of California, Los Angeles abutment and implants as new (group 1 = G1); using crowns and implants after crown casting (group 2 = G2); and using crowns and implants after mechanical cycling (group 3 = G3). Oblique loading of 120N at 1.8 Hz and 5 × 10(5) cycles was applied on specimen. Statistical analysis (p < .05) showed that no significant difference was observed when cast abutment was compared with premachined abutment after casting (p = .390) and mechanical cycling (p = .439); however, significant difference was noted before the casting (p = .005) with higher values for the cast abutments. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it could be concluded that the abutment type used do not influenced the rotational freedom after casting and the amount of applied cycles (500,000 cycles) was not sufficient to significantly alter the values of rotational freedom at the implant/abutment joint. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Steel sheet piles are often used to support excavations for bridge foundations. When they are left in place in the permanent works, they have the potential to increase foundation bearing capacity and reduce displacements; but their presence is not usually taken into account in foundation design. In this article, the results of finite element analysis of a typical abutment foundation, with and without cover of sheet piles, are presented to demonstrate these effects. The structure described is located over the Więceminka river in the town of Kołobrzeg, Poland. It is a single-span road bridge with reinforced concrete slab.
One of the major obstacles facing rapid bridge construction for typical span type bridges is the time required to construct bridge abutments and foundations. This can be remedied by using the controlled low strength materials (CLSM) bridge abutment. ...
Fracture Strength and Failure Mode of Maxillary Implant-Supported Provisional Single Crowns : A Comparison of Composite Resin Crowns Fabricated Directly Over PEEK Abutments and Solid Titanium Abutments
Santing, H.J.; Meijer, Henny J.A.; Raghoebar, G.M.; Ozcan, M.
Background: Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) temporary abutments have been recently introduced for making implant-supported provisional single crowns. Little information is available in the dental literature on the durability of provisional implant-supported restorations. Purpose: The objectives of this
Mohunta, Vrinda V; Stevenson, James A; Lee, Damian J
This clinical report describes a procedure for replacing worn ball abutments with low-profile resilient abutments by using laser welding when the implant system for a mandibular implant-supported overdenture could not be identified. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Auckland, New Zealand. Kandasamy J K and Melville B W 1998 Maximum local scour depth at bridge piers and abutments. J. Hydraul. Res. 36 : 183–197. Kwan T F 1984 Study of abutment scour. Report No. 328, School of Engineering, University of Auckland,. Auckland, New Zealand. Laursen E M and Toch A 1956 Scour ...
van Brakel, Ralph; Meijer, Gert J.; Verhoeven, Jan Willem; Jansen, John; de Putter, Cornelis; Cune, Marco S.
Aim To compare the health of the soft tissues towards zirconia and titanium abutments in man, as observed using histological data. Material and Methods Twenty patients received two mandibular implants with either a zirconia or titanium abutment (split mouth study design, left-right randomization).
Neumann, Eduardo Aloisio Fleck; Villar, Cristina Cunha; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes
Fractured abutment screws may be replaced; however, sometimes, the screw cannot be removed and the entire implant must be surgically removed and replaced. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of abutment retention screws made of titanium, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK, using an external hexagonal implant/UCLA-type abutment interface assembly. UCLA-type abutments were fixed to implants using titanium screws (Group 1), polyetheretherketone (PEEK) screws (Group 2), and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws (Group 3). The assemblies were placed on a stainless steel holding apparatus to allow for loading at 45o off-axis, in a universal testing machine. A 200 N load (static load) was applied at the central point of the abutment extremity, at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/minute, until failure. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's range test. The titanium screws had higher fracture resistance, compared with PEEK and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws (p carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws (p> 0.05). Finally, visual analysis of the fractions revealed that 100% of them occurred at the neck of the abutment screw, suggesting that this is the weakest point of this unit. PEEK abutment screws have lower fracture resistance, in comparison with titanium abutment screws.
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Maryland State Highway Administration, used field measurements of scour to evaluate the sensitivity of the Maryland abutment scour equation to the critical (or threshold) velocity variable. Four selected methods for estimating threshold velocity were applied to the Maryland abutment scour equation, and the predicted scour to the field measurements were compared. Results indicated that performance of the Maryland abutment scour equation was sensitive to the threshold velocity with some threshold velocity methods producing better estimates of predicted scour than did others. In addition, results indicated that regional stream characteristics can affect the performance of the Maryland abutment scour equation with moderate-gradient streams performing differently from low-gradient streams. On the basis of the findings of the investigation, guidance for selecting threshold velocity methods for application to the Maryland abutment scour equation are provided, and limitations are noted.
Full Text Available The uncertainties associated with concrete arch dams rise with the increased height of dams. Given the uncertainties associated with influencing factors, the stability of high arch dam abutments as a fuzzy random event was studied. In addition, given the randomness and fuzziness of calculation parameters as well as the failure criterion, hazard point and hazard surface uncertainty instability risk ratio models were proposed for high arch dam abutments on the basis of credibility theory. The uncertainty instability failure criterion was derived through the analysis of the progressive instability failure process on the basis of Shannon’s entropy theory. The uncertainties associated with influencing factors were quantized by probability or possibility distribution assignments. Gaussian random theory was used to generate random realizations for influence factors with spatial variability. The uncertainty stability analysis method was proposed by combining the finite element analysis and the limit equilibrium method. The instability risk ratio was calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation method and fuzzy random postprocessing. Results corroborate that the modeling approach is sound and that the calculation method is feasible.
Full Text Available Integral abutment bridges are becoming rather common, due to the durability problems of bearings and expansion joints. At the same time, among short- and medium-span bridges, multi-beam steel-concrete composite deck with hot-rolled girder is an economical and interesting alternative to traditional pre-stressed concrete solutions. The two concepts can be linked together to design integral steel-concrete composite bridges with the benefits of two typologies. The most critical aspect for these bridges is usually the joints between deck and piers or abutments. In this paper, an innovative beam-to-pier joint is proposed and a theoretical and experimental study is introduced and discussed. The analyzed connection is aimed at combining general ease of construction with a highly simplified assembly procedure and a good transmission of hogging and sagging moment at the supports in continuous beams. For this purpose, the traditional shear studs, used at the interface between steel beam and upper concrete slab, are also used at the ends of steel profiles welded horizontally to the end plates. To better understand the behaviour of this kind of joints and the roles played by different components, three large-scale specimens were tested and an FE model was implemented. The theoretical and experimental results confirmed the potential of the proposed connection for practical applications and indicated the way to improve its structural behaviour.
Venkat, Gowtham; Krishnan, Murugesan; Srinivasan, Suganya; Balasubramanian, Muthukumar
Titanium has become the material of choice with greater applications in dental implants. The success of the dental implant does not only depend on the integration of the implant to the bone but also on the function and longevity of the superstructure. The clinical condition that demands long-term interim prosthesis is challenging owing to the decreased bond between the abutment and the veneering material. Hence, various surface treatments are done on the abutments to increase the bond strength. This study aimed to evaluate the bond strength between the abutment and the provisional veneering materials by surface treatments such as acid etching, laser etching, and sand blasting of the abutment. Forty titanium alloy abutments of 3 mm diameter and 11 mm height were grouped into four groups with ten samples. Groups A, B, C, and D are untreated abutments, sand blasted with 110 μm aluminum particles, etched with 1% hydrofluoric acid and 30% nitric acid, and laser etched with Nd: YAG laser, respectively. Provisional crowns were fabricated with bis-acrylic resin and cemented with noneugenol temporary luting cement. The shear bond strength was measured in universal testing machine using modified Shell-Nielsen shear test after the cemented samples were stored in water at 25°C for 24 h. Load was applied at a constant cross head speed of 5 mm/min until a sudden decrease in resistance indicative of bond failure was observed. The corresponding force values were recorded, and statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls post hoc test. The laser-etched samples showed higher bond strength. Among the three surface treatments, laser etching showed the highest bond strength between titanium alloy implant abutment and provisional restorations. The sand-blasted surfaces demonstrated a significant difference in bond strength compared to laser-etched surfaces. The results of this study confirmed that a combination of surface treatments and bond agents enhances the
Full Text Available Conical crown-retained dentures (CCRD show a higher survival rate and greater patient satisfaction than transitional removable partial dentures during long-term follow-up. However, unsustainable denture retention force on supporting abutments after initial delivery and loss retention are frequently seen in long-term follow-up of clinical cases. The main causes are insufficient information concerning denture retention designs and the retention-tolerance of the supporting abutments. Monitoring by dental technicians of the quality of dental prostheses is critical. This case report describes an optimal method for CCRD construction that determines and distributes an optimal denture retention force on the supporting abutments to allow the patient to easily remove the denture while ensuring that the CCRD remains in place during physiologic activities. Oral rehabilitation with CCRD should consider the condition of the abutment periodontal support, the interarch occlusal relationship, supplemental fatigue of the terminal abutment, and patient's estimated bite force. The effects of friction on the abutment's inner crown were based on an optimal a angle. The dental laboratory used these measurements to fabricate a CCRD using a Koni-Meter to adjust the retention of the inner crown. This method protects the abutments and reduces the wear between the inner and outer crowns. The CCRD achieved good esthetic results and physiologic functions. Periodic long-term follow-up of the patient and CCRD after initial placement is recommended.
Wang, Chau-Hsiang; Lee, Huey-Er; Lan, Ting-Hsun; Igarashi, Yoshimasa
Conical crown-retained dentures (CCRD) show a higher survival rate and greater patient satisfaction than transitional removable partial dentures during long-term follow-up. However, unsustainable denture retention force on supporting abutments after initial delivery and loss retention are frequently seen in long-term follow-up of clinical cases. The main causes are insufficient information concerning denture retention designs and the retention-tolerance of the supporting abutments. Monitoring by dental technicians of the quality of dental prostheses is critical. This case report describes an optimal method for CCRD construction that determines and distributes an optimal denture retention force on the supporting abutments to allow the patient to easily remove the denture while ensuring that the CCRD remains in place during physiologic activities. Oral rehabilitation with CCRD should consider the condition of the abutment periodontal support, the interarch occlusal relationship, supplemental fatigue of the terminal abutment, and patient's estimated bite force. The effects of friction on the abutment's inner crown were based on an optimal a angle. The dental laboratory used these measurements to fabricate a CCRD using a Koni-Meter to adjust the retention of the inner crown. This method protects the abutments and reduces the wear between the inner and outer crowns. The CCRD achieved good esthetic results and physiologic functions. Periodic long-term follow-up of the patient and CCRD after initial placement is recommended. Copyright 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kerstein, Robert B; Radke, John
Studies have described the reliability of zirconia as an implant abutment material. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the precision and fracture strength of 2 different zirconia abutments angled at 30 degrees and loaded to failure in a standardized testing device. Twenty-nine Atlantis abutments in zirconia (AAZ) and 29 Nobel Biocare Procera AllZirkon abutments of comparable interface were measured for key interface feature statistical differences (analysis of variance; alpha = 95%). Each specimen was fixed to a regular-platform Brånemark System implant and mounted in an Instron machine. Increasing incremental loads were applied until failure. A 2-tailed t test for independent specimens and unequal variances was employed (alpha = 95%). The Weibull method determined the probability of failure of each abutment sample (alpha = 95%). Fractography by scanning electron microscopy determined the flaws at the fracture origins. Metrology inspection indicated that the AAZ showed no measurable dimensional differences of 4 key interface features. The mean failure load of the AAZ (831 N) was greater than the AllZirkon (740 N; P distribution showed that the AAZ would be more likely to survive intraoral occlusal loads (P < .0005). Both types of zirconia abutments demonstrated failure loads that exceed maximum human bite force. In vitro, the AAZ outperformed the AllZirkon in survivability. The clinical use of zirconia abutments is indicated when esthetics may be of concern.
Mishra, Manish; Ozawa, Shogo; Masuda, Tatsuhiko; Yoshioka, Fumi; Tanaka, Yoshinobu
Finite element study on the effect of abutment length and material on implant bone interface against dynamic loading. Two dimensional finite element models of cylinderical implant, abutments and bone made by titanium or polyoxymethylene were simulated with the aid of Marc/Mentat software. Each model represented bone, implant and titanium or polyoxymethylene abutment. Model 1: Implant with 3 mm titanium abutment, Model 2: Implant with 2 mm polyoxymethylene resilient material abutment, Model 3: Implant with 3 mm polyoxymethylene resilient material abutment and Model 4: Implant with 4 mm polyoxymethylene resilient material abutment. A vertical load of 11 N was applied with a frequency of 2 cycles/sec. The stress distribution pattern and displacement at the junction of cortical bone and implant was recorded. When Model 2, 3 and 4 are compared with Model 1, they showed narrowing of stress distribution pattern in the cortical bone as the height of the polyoxymethylene resilient material abutment increases. Model 2, 3 and 4 showed slightly less but similar displacement when compared to Model 1. Within the limitation of this study, we conclude that introduction of different height resilient material abutment with different heights i.e. 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm polyoxymethylene, does not bring about significant change in stress distribution pattern and displacement as compared to 3 mm Ti abutment. Clinically, with the application of resilient material abutment there is no significant change in stress distribution around implant-bone interface.
Fariba Saleh Saber
Full Text Available Background and aims. In contrast to prepared natural dentin abutments, little is known concerning factors influencing the retention of fixed prostheses cemented to implant abutments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of implant abutment height on the retention of single castings cemented to wide and narrow platform implant abutments. Materials and methods. Thirty-six parallel-sided abutments (Biohorizon Straight Abutment of narrow platform (NP and wide platform (WP sizes with their analogs were used. In each group of platform size, abutments were prepared with axial wall heights of 5, 4, 3, 2 mm (n=9. On the whole 72 castings were constructed, which incorporated an attachment to allow removal. Castings were cemented to abutments with TempBond®. A uniaxial tensile force was applied to the crown using an Instron machine until cement failure occurred. Analysis of variance of the models were fit to determine the effect of height of abutment of the restorations on the mean tensile strength (α=0.05. Results. The mean peak removal force for corresponding abutments was significantly different (P NP; (2 with alteration of axial wall height for NP: 5 mm > 4 mm > 3 mm = 2 mm and for WP: 5 mm > 4 mm = 3 mm = 2 mm. Conclusion. The retention of NP cement-retained restorations is influenced by the wall height but not in same manner as WP. Restorations of narrow-platform size with longer abutment exhibited higher tensile resistance to dislodgement.
Jaime, Ana Paula Gumieiro; de Vasconcellos, Diego Klee; Mesquita, Alfredo Mikail Melo; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Bottino, Marco Antonio
Objectives: This study assessed the effect of cast rectifiers on the marginal misfit of cast UCLA abutments compared to premachined UCLA abutments. The influence of casting and porcelain baking on the marginal misfit of these components was also investigated. Methods: Two groups were analyzed: test group – 10 cast UCLA abutments, finished with cast rectifier and submitted to ceramic application; control group – 10 premachined UCLA abutments, cast with noble metal alloy and submitted to ceramic application. Vertical misfit measurements were performed under light microscopy. In the test group, measurements were performed before and after the use of cast rectifiers, and after ceramic application. In the control group, measurements were performed before and after casting, and after ceramic application. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α= 5%). Results: The use of cast rectifiers significantly reduced the marginal misfit of cast UCLA abutments (from 25.68μm to 14.83μm; p<0.05). After ceramic application, the rectified cylinders presented misfit values (16.18μm) similar to those of premachined components (14.3 μm). Casting of the premachined UCLA abutments altered the marginal misfit of these components (from 9.63 μm to 14.6 μm; p<0.05). There were no significant changes after porcelain baking, in both groups. Conclusion: The use of cast rectifiers reduced the vertical misfit of cast UCLA abutments. Even with carefully performed laboratory steps, changes at the implant interface of premachined UCLA abutments occurred. Ceramic application did not alter the marginal misfit values of UCLA abutments. PMID:19089125
Ana Paula Gumieiro Jaime
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effect of cast rectifiers on the marginal misfit of cast UCLA abutments compared to premachined UCLA abutments. The influence of casting and porcelain baking on the marginal misfit of these components was also investigated. METHODS: Two groups were analyzed: test group - 10 cast UCLA abutments, finished with cast rectifier and submitted to ceramic application; control group - 10 premachined UCLA abutments, cast with noble metal alloy and submitted to ceramic application. Vertical misfit measurements were performed under light microscopy. In the test group, measurements were performed before and after the use of cast rectifiers, and after ceramic application. In the control group, measurements were performed before and after casting, and after ceramic application. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by ANOVA and Tukey's test (a= 5%. RESULTS: The use of cast rectifiers significantly reduced the marginal misfit of cast UCLA abutments (from 25.68mm to 14.83mm; p<0.05. After ceramic application, the rectified cylinders presented misfit values (16.18mm similar to those of premachined components (14.3 mm. Casting of the premachined UCLA abutments altered the marginal misfit of these components (from 9.63 mm to 14.6 mm; p<0.05. There were no significant changes after porcelain baking, in both groups. CONCLUSION: The use of cast rectifiers reduced the vertical misfit of cast UCLA abutments. Even with carefully performed laboratory steps, changes at the implant interface of premachined UCLA abutments occurred. Ceramic application did not alter the marginal misfit values of UCLA abutments.
Benedict, Stephen T.
The U.S. Geological Survey, in coopeation with nthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) is assessing the performance of several abutment-scour predcition equations developed in NCHRP Project 24-15(2) and NCHRP Project 24-20. To accomplish this assssment, 516 laboratory and 329 fiels measurements of abutment scor were complied from selected sources and applied tto the new equations. Results will be used to identify stregths, weaknesses, and limitations of the NCHRP abutment scour equations, providing practical insights for applying the equations. This paper presents some prelimiray findings from the investigation.
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of finite element analysis and experimental testing under simulated physiological loading conditions on issues shaping the functional properties of individual all-ceramic abutments manufactured by CAD/CAM technology. The conducted research have cognitive significance showing the all-ceramic abutment behavior, as a key element of the implantological system, under the action of cyclic load. The aim of this study was evaluation the fatigue behavior of yttria-stabilized zirconia abutment submitted to cyclic stresses, conducted in accordance with EN ISO 14801 applies to dynamic fatigue tests of endosseous dental implants.
Full Text Available The use of multiple implants in the same jaw requires a detailed knowledge of abutment angulation. The position and angulation of the abutments play an important role in treatment planning and fabrication of the custom tray. Therefore diagnostic casts thatcontain cover screws may cause problems during implant therapy.The current article describes a technique for making a preliminary cast with acrylic custom abutments in order to help the clinician select an appropriate impression technique and evaluate the location and angulations of the implant bodies. This method can also aid the technician to provide adequate and proper space for the fabrication of an open custom tray.
Lorenzoni, Fabio C; Coelho, Paulo G; Bonfante, Gerson; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Silva, Nelson R F A; Suzuki, Marcelo; Silva, Thelma Lopes; Bonfante, Estevam A
To evaluate the sealing capability of external hexagon implant systems and assess the marginal fit, two groups (n = 10 each) were employed: SIN (Sistema de Implantes Nacional, Brazil) and Osseotite, (Biomet 3i, USA). Sealing capability was determined by placing 0.7 μL of 1% acid-red solution in the implant wells before the torque of their respective abutments. Specimens were then placed into 2.5 mL vials filled with 1.3 mL of distilled water with the implant-abutment interface submerged. Three samples of 100 μL water were collected at previously determinate times. The absorbance was measured with a spectrophotometer, and the data were analyzed by Two-way ANOVA (P implant-abutment interface of both groups. Gaps in the implant-abutment interface were observed along with leakage increased at the 144 hrs evaluation period.
The advantages of integral abutment bridges (IABs) include reduced maintenance costs and increased useful life spans. : However, improved procedures are necessary to account for the impacts of cyclic thermal displacements on IAB components, : includi...
Saito, Hanae; Hsia, Ru-Ching; Tarnow, Dennis P; Reynolds, Mark A
This article presents the results of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the surface of an acrylic custom provisional abutment following first disconnection from a post-extraction immediate implant placement. An implant was placed immediately after extraction, the site was grafted, and a barrier membrane was adapted for graft containment. A custom acrylic shell was then relined, polished, and steam-cleaned prior to being screwed onto the implant. After 5 months of undisturbed healing, the custom provisional abutment was disconnected for the first time and processed for SEM examination. The surface of the custom acrylic abutment revealed well-spread fibroblast-like cells with filopodia inserting into the porous surface. These observations suggest that the surface topography of the acrylic provisional restoration/ abutment can function as a substratum for cellular adhesion and may serve an important role in supporting peri-implant mucosa at the time of immediate implant placement.
One of the growing number of preventive bridge maintenance activities conducted by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) is washing and applying thin film protective coatings to bridge abutments and piers. Previous work conducted by Kentucky Tra...
The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has increasingly constructed integral abutment bridges (IABs) : over the past few decades, similar to those in many other states. Because the length and skew limitations : currently employed by IDOT ha...
Lorenzoni, Fabio C.; Coelho, Paulo G.; Bonfante, Gerson; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Silva, Nelson R. F. A.; Suzuki, Marcelo; Silva, Thelma Lopes; Bonfante, Estevam A.
To evaluate the sealing capability of external hexagon implant systems and assess the marginal fit, two groups (n = 10 each) were employed: SIN (Sistema de Implantes Nacional, Brazil) and Osseotite, (Biomet 3i, USA). Sealing capability was determined by placing 0.7 μL of 1% acid-red solution in the implant wells before the torque of their respective abutments. Specimens were then placed into 2.5 mL vials filled with 1.3 mL of distilled water with the implant-abutment interface submerged. Three samples of 100 μL water were collected at previously determinate times. The absorbance was measured with a spectrophotometer, and the data were analyzed by Two-way ANOVA (P implant-abutment interface of both groups. Gaps in the implant-abutment interface were observed along with leakage increased at the 144 hrs evaluation period. PMID:21754934
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the marginal vertical fit along two different implant-abutment interfaces: (1 a standard abutment on an implant and (2 a computer-aided-design/computer-aided-machine (CAD/CAM customized screw-retained crown on an implant. Four groups were compared: three customized screw-retained crowns with three different “tolerance” values (CAD-CAM 0, CAD-CAM +1, CAD-CAM −1 and a standard titanium abutment. Qualitative analysis was carried out using an optical microscope. Results showed a vertical gap significantly different from both CAD-CAM 0 and CAD-CAM −1, while no difference was found between standard abutment and CAD-CAM +1. The set tolerance in producing CAD/CAM screw-retained crowns plays a key role in the final fit.
We address the scaling of abutment wall lateral response with wall height and compaction condition through testing and analytical work. The : analytical work was undertaken to develop hyperbolic curves representing the load-deflection response of bac...
Pereira, Jorge; Morsch, Carolina S; Henriques, Bruno; Nascimento, Rubens M; Benfatti, Cesar Am; Silva, Filipe S; López-López, José; Souza, Júlio Cm
The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal torque and in vitro biofilm penetration at Morse taper and hexagonal implant-abutment joints after fatigue tests. Sixty dental implants were divided into two groups: (1) Morse taper and (2) external hexagon implant-abutment systems. Fatigue tests on the implant-abutment assemblies were performed at a normal force (FN) of 50 N at 1.2 Hz for 500,000 cycles in growth medium containing human saliva for 72 hours. Removal torque mean values (n = 10) were measured after fatigue tests. Abutments were then immersed in 1% protease solution in order to detach the biofilms for optical density and colony-forming unit (CFU/cm²) analyses. Groups of implant-abutment assemblies (n = 8) were cross-sectioned at 90 degrees relative to the plane of the implant-abutment joints for the microgap measurement by field-emission guns scanning electron microscopy. Mean values of removal torque on abutments were significantly lower for both Morse taper (22.1 ± 0.5 μm) and external hexagon (21.1 ± 0.7 μm) abutments after fatigue tests than those recorded without fatigue tests (respectively, 24 ± 0.5 μm and 24.8 ± 0.6 μm) in biofilm medium for 72 hours (P = .04). Mean values of microgap size for the Morse taper joints were statistically signicantly lower without fatigue tests (1.7 ± 0.4 μm) than those recorded after fatigue tests (3.2 ± 0.8 μm). Also, mean values of microgap size for external hexagon joints free of fatigue were statistically signicantly lower (1.5 ± 0.4 μm) than those recorded after fatigue tests (8.1 ± 1.7 μm) (P biofilms and CFU mean values were lower on Morse taper abutments (Abs630nm at 0.06 and 2.9 × 10⁴ CFU/cm²) than that on external hexagon abutments (Abs630nm at 0.08 and 4.5 × 10⁴ CFU/cm²) (P = .01). The mean values of removal torque, microgap size, and biofilm density recorded at Morse taper joints were lower in comparison to those recorded at external hexagon implant-abutment joints after fatigue
Alves da Cunha, Tiago de Morais; Correia de Araújo, Roberto Paulo; Barbosa da Rocha, Paulo Vicente; Pazos Amoedo, Rosa Maria
Although increase of misfit has been reported when associating implant and abutment from different manufacturers, Procera® (Nobel Biocare™, Göteborg, Sweden) custom abutment has been universally used in clinical practice. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the vertical gap of zirconia Procera abutment associated with implants from the same manufacturer (Nobel Biocare) and two other implant systems. Twenty-four zirconia Procera abutments were produced using computer-assisted design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) and paired with (1) eight MK Iii RP 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Nobel Biocare) - GNB group; (2) eight Try on, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Sistema de Implantes, São Paulo, Brazil) - ES group; and (3) eight Master screw, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Conexão Sistema de Prótese, São Paulo, Brazil) - EC group. A comparison of the vertical misfit at the implant-abutment interface was taken at six measuring sites on each sample using scanning electron microscopy with a magnification of 408×. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences, and Tukey's test was used for pairwise comparison of groups (α = 0.05). Significant differences relative to average misfit were found when Procera abutments were associated with other implant manufacturers. The ES group and EC group did not differ significantly, but both demonstrated significantly larger average misfit than the GNB group (p = .001). The average misfit was 5.7 µm ± 0.39, 9.53 µm ± 0.52 and 10.62 µm ± 2.16, respectively, for groups GNB, ES, and EC. The association of Procera zirconia abutment with other implant systems different from its manufacturer demonstrated significant alteration of vertical misfit at implant-abutment interface. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
de Morais Alves da Cunha, Tiago; de Araújo, Roberto Paulo Correia; da Rocha, Paulo Vicente Barbosa; Amoedo, Rosa Maria Pazos
Although increase of misfit has been reported when associating implant and abutment from different manufacturers, Procera custom abutment has been universally used in clinical practice. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the vertical gap of zirconia Procera® abutment associated with implants from the same manufacturer (Procera manufacturer) and two other implant systems. Twenty-four zirconia Procera abutments were produced using computer-assisted design and manufacture and paired with (a) eight MK III, RP 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Nobel Biocare™, Göteborg, Sweden) - GNB group (Nobel Biocare group); (b) eight Try on, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Sistema de Implantes, São Paulo, Brazil) - ES group (SIN experimental group) ; and (c) eight Master screw, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Conexão® Sistema de Prótese, São Paulo, Brazil) - EC group (Conexão experimental group). A comparison of the vertical misfit at the implant-abutment interface was taken at six measuring sites on each sample using scanning electron microscopy with a magnification of 408×. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences, and Tukey's test was used for pair-wise comparison of groups (α = 0.05). Significant differences relative to average misfit were found when Procera abutments were associated with other implant manufacturers. The ES group and EC group did not differ significantly, but both demonstrated significantly larger average misfit than the GNB group (p = .001). The average misfit was 5.7 µm ± 0.39, 9.53 µm ± 0.52, and 10.62 µm ± 2.16, respectively, for groups GNB, ES, and EC. The association of Procera zirconia abutment with other implant systems different from its manufacturer demonstrated significant alteration of vertical misfit at implant-abutment interface. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pralita Kusumawardhini; Alysia Henrietta; Saraventi Saraventi
Many dentists believe that the tooth need reinforcement provided by post before the definite restoration is placed. However, others suggest not to use post when posterior teeth especially molars, still have significant amount of tooth structure. Therefore, when endodontically treated molar is considered to be used as fixed denture abut-ment, clinicians must have proper knowledge about the impact of post placement. This literature will describe considerations regarding post placement in endodo...
Ishak, Muhammad Ikman; Shafi, Aisyah Ahmad; Rosli, M. U.; Khor, C. Y.; Zakaria, M. S.; Rahim, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Abd; Jamalludin, Mohd Riduan
The success of dental implant surgery is majorly dependent on the stability of prosthesis to anchor to implant body as well as the integration of implant body to bone. The attachment between dental implant body and abutment plays a vital role in attributing to the stability of dental implant system. A good connection between implant body cavity to abutment may minimize the complications of abutment loosening and implant fractures as widely reported in clinical findings. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of different abutment-implant connections on stress dispersion within the abutment and implant bodies as well as displacement of implant body via three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis (FEA). A 3-D model of mandible was reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) image datasets using an image-processing software with the selected region of interest was the left side covering the second premolar, first molar and second molar regions. The bone was modelled as compact (cortical) and porous (cancellous) structures. Besides, three implant bodies and three generic models of abutment with different types of connections - tapered interference fit (TIF), tapered integrated screwed-in (TIS) and screw retention (SR) were created using computer-aided design (CAD) software and all models were then analysed via 3D FEA software. Occlusal forces of 114.6 N, 17.2 N and 23.4 N were applied in the axial, lingual and mesio-distal directions, respectively, on the top surface of first molar crown. All planes of the mandibular bone model were rigidly fixed. The result exhibited that abutment with TIS connection produced the most favourable stress and displacement outcomes as compared to other attachment types. This is due to the existence of integrated screw at the bottom portion of tapered abutment which increases the motion resistance.
Wang, Chau-Hsiang; Lee, Huey-Er; Lan, Ting-Hsun; Igarashi, Yoshimasa
Conical crown-retained dentures (CCRD) show a higher survival rate and greater patient satisfaction than transitional removable partial dentures during long-term follow-up. However, unsustainable denture retention force on supporting abutments after initial delivery and loss retention are frequently seen in long-term follow-up of clinical cases. The main causes are insufficient information concerning denture retention designs and the retention-tolerance of the supporting abutments. Monitoring...
Traini, Tonino; Di Iorio, Donato; Caputi, Sergio; Degidi, Marco; Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano
This study investigates the use of thermomechanic abutment-to-implant coupling. Ten 3.5 x 1 mm commercially pure titanium Ankylos implants (Dentsply Friadent, Mannheim, Germany) and 10 standard abutment of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V were used in the present study. All fixtures were mounted on hold specimen provided of a 10-ohm electrical resistance to maintain the fixture at 37 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C during the entire test and to evaluate the influence of the coefficient of thermal expansion on joined conical abutment. The threading part of all abutments was cut off using a diamond disc. All abutment implants were coupled at 35 N using a universal testing machine (Lloyd 30K, Lloyd Instruments Ltd. Segensworth, UK). Five abutments were heated at 37 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C, whereas the reaming were cooled at 0 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C before connection. To measure the difference a pull-out test was performed. The results were statistically analyzed using unpaired t test at P < 0.05. The cooled specimens showed a result (mean +/- SD) of 421.6 +/- 55.20 N, whereas for heated specimens the result was 238.4 +/- 42.27 N. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The thermomechanic coupling significantly increases the performance of the conical joint.
Full Text Available The cracking behavior and failure mode of a 78 m high concrete double-curvature arch dam with weak upper abutment are investigated through performing cracking analysis. The mechanical behavior of concrete is simulated using a smeared crack model, in which a combination of the compression yield surface and the crack detection surface with a damaged elasticity concept is employed to describe the failure of concrete. The arch dam with practical mechanical properties of the upper and lower abutments is firstly studied with emphasis on its cracking behavior during overloading. Then, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate the influence of the ratio of the mechanical properties of upper abutment to those of lower abutment on dam failure with prime attention placed on the failure mode. Simulation results indicate the adopted smeared crack model is well-suited to the crack analysis of concrete arch dam. It is shown that cracking is localized around the interface between upper and lower abutments, which leads to a fast crack growth in the through-thickness direction of dam and finally causes the dam failure. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis presents three types of failure modes corresponding to different ratio value, wherein Modes II and III should be avoided since the weak upper abutment plays a predominant role in the cracking and failure of concrete arch dam.
Dibart, Serge; Warbington, Martha; Su, Ming Fan; Skobe, Ziedonis
To test in vitro whether the seal provided by the locking taper used in the implant-abutment connection was capable of preventing the invasion of oral microorganisms. Twenty-five wide-body implants (5 x 11 mm) and 25 abutments were divided into 2 groups for a 2-phase experiment. The first phase tested the ability of the seal to shield the implant well from outside bacteria; the second phase tested the ability of the seal to prevent bacteria present in the implant well from seeping out. For phase 1, 10 implant-abutment units were immersed in a bacterial broth for 24 hours. The abutments were then separated from the implants and bacterial presence was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. In phase 2, the tested abutments were inoculated with a droplet of soft agar bacterial gel and assembled with the implant. These units were incubated in a sterile nutrient broth for 72 hours, sampled, and plated to assess bacterial presence. In phase 1, no bacteria were detected in any of the implant wells. In phase 2, no bacteria were detected in the nutrient broth or on the agar plates at 72 hours. In implants where a microgap is present, microbial leakage could lead to inflammation and bone loss; thus, it is important to minimize bacterial presence in and around the the implant-abutment junction. The seal provided by the locking taper design has been demonstrated to be hermetic with regard to bacterial invasion in vitro.
Geringer, Alexander; Diebels, Stefan; Nothdurft, Frank P
To predict the clinical performance of zirconia abutments, it is crucial to examine the mechanical behavior of different dental implant-abutment connection configurations. The international standard protocol for dynamic fatigue tests of dental implants (ISO 14801) allows comparing these configurations using standardized superstructure geometries. However, from a mechanical point of view, the geometry of clinical crowns causes modified boundary conditions. The purpose of this finite element (FE) study was to evaluate the influence of the superstructure geometry on the maximum stress values of zirconia abutments with a conical implant-abutment connection. Geometry models of the experimental setup described in ISO 14801 were generated using CAD software following the reconstruction of computerized tomography scans from all relevant components. These models served as a basis for an FE simulation. To reduce the numerical complexity of the FE model, the interaction between loading stamp and superstructure geometry was taken into account by defining the boundary conditions with regard to the frictional force. The results of the FE simulations performed on standardized superstructure geometry and anatomically shaped crowns showed a strong influence of the superstructure geometry and related surface orientations on the mechanical behavior of the underlying zirconia abutments. In conclusion, ISO testing of zirconia abutments should be accompanied by load-bearing capacity testing under simulated clinical conditions to predict clinical performance.
Taiyeb-Ali, Tara B; Toh, Chooi Gait; Siar, Chong Huat; Seiz, Doris; Ong, Siew Tin
To compare the clinical soft tissue responses around implant tooth-supported 3-unit bridges using tapered abutments with those using butt-joint abutments. In a split-mouth design study, 8 mm Ankylos (Dentsply Friadent, Germany) implants were placed in the second mandibular molar region of 8 adult Macaca fascicularis monkeys about 1 month after extraction of all mandibular molars. After 3 months of submerged healing, 3-unit metal bridges were constructed. Clinical data was collected by the author who was blind to the abutment selections. Implants were clinically evaluated using Waite plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, probing pocket depth (PPD), probing attachment loss (PAL), and width of keratinized mucosa at baseline (BL) and 3-month and 6-month intervals. Stability of the implant was assessed using Periotest device at BL and after 6 months. At BL, all the clinical variables did not differ statistically between the tapered and the butt-joint groups except for PPD (P < 0.05), where the mean PPD was greater in the butt-joint group (2.75 ± 1.02 mm) as compared with the tapered group (1.97 ± 0.65 mm). At the 3-month assessment, there was no difference in all clinical variables. After 6-month loading, no significant difference between these 2 groups was detected in all these variables, with the exception of PAL (P = 0.05) where mean PAL was greater for implants with the butt-joint abutments (0.91 ± 0.86 mm) in comparison with the tapered abutments (0.50 ± 0.88 mm), and mean Periotest values (PTVs) that indicate the tapered-abutment implants (PTV = -4.5 ± 1.60) were more stable than butt-joint-abutment implants (PTV = -1.5 ± 3.59) with P < 0.05. The differences in these mucogingival responses between these 2 groups at BL (during seating of abutments, especially of butt-joint abutments) and after 6-month loading indicated enhanced peri-implant soft tissue stability around the tapered abutments of this system. There was also enhanced-PTV in the test group for
Pintinha, Marilene; Camarini, Edevaldo Tadeu; Sábio, Sergio; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo
The mechanical behavior of internal taper implant abutment designs needs to be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of simulated mechanical loading on the removal torque of 1-piece and 2-piece abutments connected to internal taper oral implants. Forty-eight internally notched taper implants were divided into 2 groups of 24. Group OP received solid (1-piece) abutments; group TP received esthetic (2-piece) abutments. Each group was further subdivided into subgroups C (control) without mechanical loading and T (test) with mechanical loading. In groups OPC and TPC, the abutments were placed and removed and the removal torque values (RTVs) registered. In groups OPT and TPT, abutments were placed, mechanically loaded (500 000 cycles), removed, and the RTVs registered. Groups TPC and TPT were further tested for the traction force necessary to dislodge the abutment from the implant. For data analysis, the Student t test (for RTVs) and the Mann-Whitney U test (for TFVs) (α=.05) were performed. All abutments tested presented torque loss with RTVs lower than the placement torque. A statistically significant difference (P=.002) was found between groups OPC (81.6% of placement torque) and OPT mean RTVs results (85.0% of placement torque), while no statistical differences (P=.362) were found between groups TPC (63.7% of placement torque) and TPT (59.1% of placement torque). The traction force values necessary to dislodge the abutment from the implant, however, were significantly higher (Pwelding did not occur in any of the abutment specimens tested. Even after the mechanical loading, esthetic abutments presented similar RTVs. The traction force necessary to remove esthetic abutments from inside the implants presented a 2-fold increase after mechanical loading. Copyright © 2013 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
de Oliveira Silva, Thalisson Saymo; Mendes Alencar, Suyá Moura; da Silva Valente, Valdimar; de Moura, Carmem Dolores Vilarinho Soares
The maintenance of the mechanical stability of implant-abutment connections is relevant to the clinical success of implant-supported restorations. However, the reduction in the conical area of abutments with an internal hexagonal index may result in a biomechanical disadvantage in Morse taper connections. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of an internal hexagonal index on the removal torque and tensile removal force of different Morse taper connection abutments submitted to thermomechanical cycling. Forty Morse taper implants with their respective abutments were divided into 4 groups (n=10): straight abutment without index (PRNI); straight abutment with index (PRI); angled abutment without index (PANI); and angled abutment with index (PAI). Each abutment received an insertion torque of 15 Ncm, and the removal torque was recorded before and after thermomechanical cycling (10(6) cycles, 2 Hz, load of 130 N). After cycling, the groups were submitted to tensile testing at 0.5 mm/min under a load of 500 N until displacement of the abutment. A paired t test was performed for the intragroup analysis of removal torque before and after cycling and 2-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test was used for intergroup comparison (α=.05). Statistical analysis showed significant differences in intragroup removal torque values before compared with after thermomechanical cycling (Pcycling. The index factor (P=.028) was significant for tensile removal force. The type of abutment did not significantly influence the removal torque or tensile removal force after cycling. However, the presence of the internal hexagonal index significantly reduced the force necessary to dislodge the abutment from the implant. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mühlemann, Sven; Truninger, Thomas C; Stawarczyk, Bogna; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Sailer, Irena
To test the fracture load and fracture patterns of zirconia abutments restored with all-ceramic crowns after fatigue loading, exhibiting internal and external implant-abutment connections as compared to restored and internally fixed titanium abutments. A master abutment was used for the customization of 5 groups of zirconia abutments to a similar shape (test). The groups differed according to their implant-abutment connections: one-piece internal connection (BL; Straumann Bonelevel), two-piece internal connection (RS; Nobel Biocare ReplaceSelect), external connection (B; Branemark MkIII), two-piece internal connection (SP, Straumann StandardPlus) and one-piece internal connection (A; Astra Tech AB OsseoSpeed). Titanium abutments with internal implant-abutment connection (T; Straumann Bonelevel) served as control group. In each group, 12 abutments were fabricated, mounted to the respective implants and restored with glass-ceramic crowns. All samples were embedded in acrylic holders (ISO-Norm 14801). After aging by means of thermocycling in a chewing simulator, static load was applied until failure (ISO-Norm 14801). Fracture load was analyzed by calculating the bending moments. Values of all groups were compared with one-way ANOVA followed by Scheffé post hoc test (P-value<0.05). Failure mode was analyzed descriptively. The mean bending moments were 464.9 ± 106.6 N cm (BL), 581.8 ± 172.8 N cm (RS), 556.7 ± 128.4 N cm (B), 605.4 ± 54.7 N cm (SP), 216.4 ± 90.0 N cm (A) and 1042.0 ± 86.8 N cm (T). No difference of mean bending moments was found between groups BL, RS, B and SP. Test group A exhibited significantly lower mean bending moment than the other test groups. Control group T had significantly higher bending moments than all test groups. Failure due to fracture of the abutment and/or crown occurred in the test groups. In groups BL and A, fractures were located in the internal part of the connection, whereas in groups RS and SP, a partial
Full Text Available Introduction: Titanium has become the material of choice with greater applications in dental implants. The success of the dental implant does not only depend on the integration of the implant to the bone but also on the function and longevity of the superstructure. The clinical condition that demands long-term interim prosthesis is challenging owing to the decreased bond between the abutment and the veneering material. Hence, various surface treatments are done on the abutments to increase the bond strength. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the bond strength between the abutment and the provisional veneering materials by surface treatments such as acid etching, laser etching, and sand blasting of the abutment. Materials and Methods: Forty titanium alloy abutments of 3 mm diameter and 11 mm height were grouped into four groups with ten samples. Groups A, B, C, and D are untreated abutments, sand blasted with 110 μm aluminum particles, etched with 1% hydrofluoric acid and 30% nitric acid, and laser etched with Nd: YAG laser, respectively. Provisional crowns were fabricated with bis-acrylic resin and cemented with noneugenol temporary luting cement. The shear bond strength was measured in universal testing machine using modified Shell–Nielsen shear test after the cemented samples were stored in water at 25°C for 24 h. Load was applied at a constant cross head speed of 5 mm/min until a sudden decrease in resistance indicative of bond failure was observed. The corresponding force values were recorded, and statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA and Newman–Keuls post hoc test. Results: The laser-etched samples showed higher bond strength. Conclusion: Among the three surface treatments, laser etching showed the highest bond strength between titanium alloy implant abutment and provisional restorations. The sand-blasted surfaces demonstrated a significant difference in bond strength compared to laser-etched surfaces. The results of this
Full Text Available Many dentists believe that the tooth need reinforcement provided by post before the definite restoration is placed. However, others suggest not to use post when posterior teeth especially molars, still have significant amount of tooth structure. Therefore, when endodontically treated molar is considered to be used as fixed denture abut-ment, clinicians must have proper knowledge about the impact of post placement. This literature will describe considerations regarding post placement in endodontically treated molar abutment in fixed partial dentures and their influence to the success rate. Previous studies implied the need of proper measurement of the amount of remaining tooth structure, the type of intracoronal reinforcement of the abutment, and the functional loads to ensure the success of fixed denture treatment. When planning definitive restorations for endodontically treated abutment teeth, some even suggest to use post and core to fulfill the need of reinforcement. On the contrary, others find that when a post is use in endodontically treated abutment teeth, the failure of custom made-tapered cast post and core is relatively high, whereas the use of amalgam or composite core in posterior teeth especially molars with adequate amount of tooth structure is sufficient due to post system’s limited influence on the suc-cess rate. Based on literature review, for cases with adequate tooth stucture, it can be concluded that the influ-ence of post placement in endodontically treated molar abutment to fixed partial dentures success rate is very limited.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v18i2.64
Behr, Michael; Weiser, Felix; Meier, Manfred; Schneider-Feyrer, Sybille; Hahnel, Sebastian; Handel, Gerhard; Rosentritt, Martin
To investigate the influences of abutment water sorption and various aging parameters on the fracture resistance of zirconia copings. Using a master die, identical replicas were made from three resin materials. The first was a melamine resin with very high water sorption (n = 48), the second an experimental resin core build-up composite with moderate water sorption (n = 40) and the third a commercially available core build-up composite with low water sorption (n = 40). On the abutment replicas, zirconia copings (n = 128) were made using a computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing system. The copings were luted onto the abutments using zinc oxide phosphate cement. In the melamine group, a subgroup of samples (n = 8) was cemented with a composite cement as controls. The forty specimens in every abutment material group were randomly divided into one of five subgroups, as follows: (i) not aged; (ii) mechanically (dry) loaded only (50 N; 1.2 × 10(6) cycles); (iii) stored for 10 days in water; (iv) thermally cycled (TC; 6000 × 5/55°C); and (v) TC and mechanically loaded (TCML; 50 N, 1.2 × 10(6); 6000 × 5/55°C). After aging, all copings were loaded to fracture. A statistically significant difference was found between the three abutment-die groups if the samples were aged by TCML. The zirconia copings cemented on abutments with high water sorption fractured during TCML, and the subgroup with moderate water sorption had significantly lower fracture resistance. A change of luting material had no impact on this behavior. Only the simultaneous combination of all chosen aging factors (TCML) was able to detect a difference in fracture behavior of a zirconia coping luted on abutments with varying water sorption.
Thulasidas, Shreedevi; Givan, Daniel A; Lemons, Jack E; O'Neal, Sandra Jean; Ramp, Lance C; Liu, Perng-Ru
To investigate the effects of abutment design to correct for implant angulation and aging on the fracture resistance of zirconia abutments. Greater understanding of the fracture strength of the zirconia abutments under various clinical conditions may lead to improvement of clinical protocols and possibly limit potential failures of implant prosthetics. Test specimens consisted of an implant-zirconia abutment-zirconia crown assembly with implant apex positioned at 0°, 20° to the facial (20F), and 20° to the lingual (20L) with respect to a constant crown contour. To keep the abutment design as the only variable, CAD/CAM technology was used to generate monolithic zirconia crowns identical both in external and internal dimensions and marginal contours to precisely fit all the abutments in an identical fashion. The monolithic zirconia abutments were designed to fit the constant crown contours and the internal connection of the implant at the three angulations. The customized abutments for the three implant angulations varied in emergence profile, screw hole location, and material thickness around the screw hole. Half the specimens from each group were subjected to steam autoclaving and thermocycling to simulate aging of the restorations in vivo. To mimic the off-axis loading of the central incisor, the specimens were loaded at the recommended cephalometric interincisal relationship of 135° between the long axis of the crown supported by the implant and the Instron force applicator simulating the mandibular incisor. The force applicator was positioned 2 mm from the incisal edge and loaded at a 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA (α = 0.05) and Tukey's HSD. The 20F group had the highest fracture values followed by the 0° group, and the 20L group had the lowest fracture values. Aging did not yield any significant difference in fracture force magnitudes. Within the limitations of this study, tilting the implant apex to the lingual
The aim of this study was to compare the influence of abutment screw preload on the marginal bone stress around a conventional external-hex implant system and one with a new implant/abutment joint design. Two implant/bone models, each consisting of three parts and fabricated of titanium and bone (cortical), were built and arranged with computer-aided design software. The first model represented an external-hex implant system, while the second had a tapered extension over the external hex, 1.5 mm high, so that the apical extension of the abutment screw in the assembly did not go beyond the lower level of the implant shoulder. Meshing and generation of boundary conditions, loads, and interactions were performed for the two models. All parts were meshed independent of each other. The sole load applied on the model was a torque of 32 Ncm on the abutment screw about its axis of rotation. The first model showed deformation of the implant collar, and the resulting von Mises stress was 60 MPa in the marginal bone. In contrast, no deformation was observed in the second model. The new implant/abutment joint eliminated the deformation at the implant collar area caused by the application of tightening torque and thus eliminated the resulting stresses in the marginal bone.
Lops, Diego; Bressan, Eriberto; Parpaiola, Andrea; Sbricoli, Luca; Cecchinato, Denis; Romeo, Eugenio
Aim of this study was to verify if the type of implant abutment manufacturing, stock or cad-cam, could influence the maintenance of stable gingival margins around single restorations in anterior areas. After 16 weeks of healing, implants (Osseospeed, Astra Tech Dental Implant) were positioned. Depending on the different fixture inclination and the thickness of buccal peri-implant soft tissue, abutment selection resulted in four groups: Group 1 (patients with zirconia ZirDesign(®) stock abutments), Group 2 (titanium stock TiDesign(®) abutments), Group 3 (zirconia cad-cam abutments), and Group 4 (titanium cad-cam abutments). The following parameters were assessed: buccal gingival margin modification (BGM). The modification of the implant gingival margin was followed at 1 and 2 years of follow-up. A computerized analysis was performed for measurements. Differences between soft tissue margin at baseline and after 2 years measured the gingival margin recession. A general linear model was used to evaluate each group in relation to gingival recession after two years. Tukey's post hoc test was used to compare the mean REC indexes of each group of abutments. Seventy-two healthy patients (39 males and 33 females; mean age of 46 years) scheduled for single gap rehabilitation in anterior areas were enrolled. A 100% of implant survival rate was observed after 24 months of function. One failure occurred due to fracture of a Zirconia cad-cam abutment. Moreover, two abutment screw unscrewing were observed. Both for zirconia and titanium stock abutments (Group 1 and 2), the mean recession of implant buccal soft tissue was of 0.3 mm (SD of 0.3 and 0.4 mm, respectively). Soft tissue mean recession of zirconia and titanium cad-cam abutments (Group 3 and 4) was of 0.1 and -0.3 mm, respectively (SD of 0.3 and 0.4 mm, respectively). REC values of cad-cam titanium abutments (Group 4) were significantly lower than that of Group 1 (-0.57 mm), Group 2 (-0.61 mm), and Group 3 (-0.40 mm
Guo, Ying; Tang, Liang; Pan, Yan-huan
To analyze the stress distribution in the abutment periodontal ligament of posterior cantilever bridge under transient dynamic loads using a three-dimensional finite element(FE) model. A cantilever bridge using 5, 6 as abutments to restore missing 7 was designed, and its FE model was established and loaded with dynamic loads. The loads were set as 250 N occlusal forces loaded at different positions on the cantilever, and in different directions to simulate the masticatory cycle. FE analysis was conducted on the ANSYS to analyze stress distributions in abutment periodontal ligament under dynamic loads. Stress-time curves were traced to understand the biomechanical behavior of abutment periodontal ligament. With loading and unloading time accumulated, the stress value in the abutment periodontal ligament increased gradually. Loads in lateral direction induced peak value stress in a masticatory cycle. There was little residual stress in the end of unloading phase. The maximum stress concentrated in abutment periodontal ligament adjacent to the missing tooth. Without restoration abutment periodontal ligament was mainly under compressive stress. However, when 7 was restored with a cantilever bridge, tensile stress was shown in the mesial cervical area of 5, Three masticatory cycles were simulated, and stress values in abutment periodontal ligaments increased with the number of masticatory cycles. But the differences of the stress between different masticatory cycles were not significant. In the mastication movement, lateral loads induce maximum stress in abutment periodontal ligament. Cantilever fixed bridge design is more demanding for the periodontal condition of the abutment adjacent to the missing tooth than for the other abutment. When loaded with continuous masticatory force, the stress concentration does not increase significantly. Therefore, cantilever bridge is one of the feasible choices to restore missing lower second molar.
Kanno, Taro; Milleding, Percy; Wennerberg, Ann
Sintering porcelain on a ceramic abutment may change the microstructure and result in aging processes that influence the mechanical properties, internal strain, and the three-dimensional form of the abutment, thus causing a possible misfit between the abutment and the fixture. The aim was to investigate topography, microhardness, and precision of fit on yttrium-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) abutments before/after the sintering process. Ten Y-TZP abutment samples were ground to a shape used in the clinical situation and divided at random into two groups: before/after sintering. After the surface roughness was measured on all abutments, the abutments were connected to fixture replicas, embedded in resin, and cut in the longitudinal axis. Both sides of the cut samples were measured with respect to microhardness and minimum distance between fixture and abutment surface. t-Test, one-way analysis of variance, and Bonferroni multiple comparisons were used to investigate statistical significant differences. The surface roughness (S(a) and S(dr)) after sintering was significantly higher than before sintering. The total average values of microhardness after sintering were statistically lower than before sintering with a difference of 2%. The total distance between abutment/fixture before/after sintering demonstrated no statistically significant difference. Contact between abutment/fixture was most common at the top area of the fixture. A slight decrease of microhardness and contamination of porcelain particles immediately below the veneered part were found on the Y-TZP abutment after sintering. The sintering process did not affect the precision of fit.
Vigolo, P; Majzoub, Z; Cordioli, G
Laboratory processing of implant-supported prostheses may alter the surface of the abutment in contact with the implant head and thus the interface fit. This study assessed changes at the implant interface of gold-machined UCLA abutments after casting and porcelain baking in the case of single-tooth restorations. The depth (d) and width (w) of the hexagonal portion of the abutment, the apical diameter (D) of the abutment, and the abutment rotational freedom (R) were assessed for 30 gold-machined UCLA abutments before casting procedures (time 0), after casting with a noble metal alloy (time 1), and after the addition of porcelain (time 2) to detect any eventual fitting change in the abutments on the top of the implant hexagon. No significant differences relative to all study parameters (d, w, D, and R) were observed between times 0, 1, and 2 (P=.576). The results of this investigation suggest that, if all laboratory steps are observed carefully, changes at the implant interface of gold-machined UCLA abutments do not occur.
Ortiz-Puigpelat, Octavi; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Hernández-Alfaro, Federico; Cabratosa-Termes, Josep
The purpose of this retrospective case series was to report on the clinical performance of implant-assisted removable partial dentures (IARPDs) with Locator abutments in different partial edentulism situations, with a mean follow-up period of 28.6 months. Twelve consecutive patients were treated with IARPDs. A total of 24 implants were placed in the edentulous area. Minimum follow-up period was 12 months. Overall patient satisfaction, health of peri-implant tissues, survival of implants and abutments, and prosthetic complications were reported. Overall implant survival was 91.6%; two implants failed. No major complications were reported-only one IARPD metal framework broke. No Locator abutment loosening was reported. Within the limitations of this retrospective study, treatment with IARPDs can improve the patient's function, phonetics, and esthetics without the need for extensive bone regeneration surgeries and prosthodontic rehabilitations. However, well-designed prospective clinical studies on IARPDs are needed to support their long-term use.
Dede, Dogu Ömür; Armaganci, Arzu; Ceylan, Gözlem; Cankaya, Soner; Celik, Ersan
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of different abutment materials and luting cements color on the final color of implant-supported all-ceramic restorations. Ten A2 shade IPS e.max Press disc shape all-ceramic specimens were prepared (11 × 1.5 mm). Three different shades (translucent, universal and white opaque) of disc shape luting cement specimens were prepared (11 × 0.2 mm). Three different (zirconium, gold-palladium and titanium) implant abutments and one composite resin disc shape background specimen were prepared at 11 mm diameter and appropriate thicknesses. All ceramic specimens colors were measured with each background and luting cement samples on a teflon mold. A digital spectrophotometer used for measurements and data recorded as CIE L*a*b* color co-ordinates. An optical fluid applied on to the samples to provide a good optical connection and measurements on the composite resin background was saved as the control group. ΔE values were calculated from the ΔL, Δa and Δb values between control and test groups and data were analyzed with one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) and mean values were compared by the Tukey HSD test (α = 0.05). One-way ANOVA of ΔL, Δa, Δb and ΔE values of control and test groups revealed significant differences for backgrounds and seldom for cement color groups (p the 0.05). Only zirconium implant abutment groups and gold palladium abutment with universal shade cement group were found to be clinically acceptable (ΔE ≤ 3.0). Using titanium or gold-palladium abutments for implant supported all ceramics will be esthetically questionable and white opaque cement will be helpful to mask the dark color of titanium abutment.
Full Text Available An impression technique called optical impression using intraoral scanner has attracted attention in digital dentistry. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the optical impression, comparing a virtual model reproduced by an intraoral scanner to a working cast made by conventional silicone impression technique. Two implants were placed on a master model. Working casts made of plaster were fabricated from the master model by silicone impression. The distance between the ball abutments and the angulation between the healing abutments of 5 mm and 7 mm height at master model were measured using Computer Numerical Control Coordinate Measuring Machine (CNCCMM as control. Working casts were then measured using CNCCMM, and virtual models via stereo lithography data of master model were measured by a three-dimensional analyzing software. The distance between ball abutments of the master model was 9634.9 ± 1.2 μm. The mean values of trueness of the Lava COS and working casts were 64.5 μm and 22.5 μm, respectively, greater than that of control. The mean of precision values of the Lava COS and working casts were 15.6 μm and 13.5 μm, respectively. In the case of a 5-mm-height healing abutment, mean angulation error of the Lava COS was greater than that of the working cast, resulting in significant differences in trueness and precision. However, in the case of a 7-mm-height abutment, mean angulation errors of the Lava COS and the working cast were not significantly different in trueness and precision. Therefore, distance errors of the optical impression were slightly greater than those of conventional impression. Moreover, the trueness and precision of angulation error could be improved in the optical impression using longer healing abutments. In the near future, the development of information technology could enable improvement in the accuracy of the optical impression with intraoral scanners.
Baker, Shaun; Centric, Aaron; Chennupati, Sri Kiran
Bone-anchored hearing devices are an accepted treatment option for hearing restoration in various types of hearing loss. Traditional devices have a percutaneous abutment for attachment of the sound processor that contributes to a high complication rate. Previously, our institution reported on the Sophono (Boulder, CO, USA) abutment-free system that produced similar audiologic results to devices with abutments. Recently, Cochlear Americas (Centennial, CO, USA) released an abutment-free bone-anchored hearing device, the BAHA Attract. In contrast to the Sophono implant, the BAHA Attract utilizes an osseointegrated implant. This study aims to demonstrate patient benefit abutment-free devices, compare the results of the two abutment-free devices, and examine complication rates. A retrospective chart review was conducted for the first eleven Sophono implanted patients and for the first six patients implanted with the BAHA Attract at our institution. Subsequently, we analyzed patient demographics, audiometric data, clinical course and outcomes. Average improvement for the BAHA Attract in pure-tone average (PTA) and speech reception threshold (SRT) was 41dB hearing level (dBHL) and 56dBHL, respectively. Considering all frequencies, the BAHA Attract mean improvement was 39dBHL (range 32-45dBHL). The Sophono average improvement in PTA and SRT was 38dBHL and 39dBHL, respectively. The mean improvement with Sophono for all frequencies was 34dBHL (range 24-43dBHL). Significant improvements in both pure-tone averages and speech reception threshold for both devices were achieved. In direct comparison of the two separate devices using the chi-square test, the PTA and SRT data between the two devices do not show a statistically significant difference (p-value 0.68 and 0.56, respectively). The complication rate for these abutment-free devices is lower than that of those featuring the transcutaneous abutment, although more studies are needed to further assess this potential advantage
Fabio C. Lorenzoni
water were collected at previously determinate times. The absorbance was measured with a spectrophotometer, and the data were analyzed by Two-way ANOVA (<.05 and Tukey's test. Marginal fit was determined using SEM. Leakage was observed for both groups at all times and was significantly higher at 144 hrs. SEM analysis depicted gaps in the implant-abutment interface of both groups. Gaps in the implant-abutment interface were observed along with leakage increased at the 144 hrs evaluation period.
This rare case report describes prosthodontic complications resulting from a dental implant was placed surgically more distally in the area of the missing mandibular first molar with a cantilever effect and a crest width of >12 mm in a 59-year-old patient who had a history of bruxism. Fracture of abutment is a common complication in implant was placed in area with high occlusal forces. Inability to remove the broken abutment may most often end up in discarding the implant. Adding one more dental implant mesially to the previously placed implant, improvisation of technique to remove the broken abutment without sacrificing the osseointegrated dental implant, fabrication with cemented custom-made abutment to replace the broken abutment for the first implant, and the use of the two implants to replace a single molar restoration proved reliable and logical treatment solutions to avoid these prosthodontic complications.
Full Text Available This rare case report describes prosthodontic complications resulting from a dental implant was placed surgically more distally in the area of the missing mandibular first molar with a cantilever effect and a crest width of >12 mm in a 59-year-old patient who had a history of bruxism. Fracture of abutment is a common complication in implant was placed in area with high occlusal forces. Inability to remove the broken abutment may most often end up in discarding the implant. Adding one more dental implant mesially to the previously placed implant, improvisation of technique to remove the broken abutment without sacrificing the osseointegrated dental implant, fabrication with cemented custom-made abutment to replace the broken abutment for the first implant, and the use of the two implants to replace a single molar restoration proved reliable and logical treatment solutions to avoid these prosthodontic complications.
Vechiato-Filho, Aljomar José; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; De Souza, Grace M; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho
This systematic review aimed to evaluate whether the survival rate and predictability of zirconia abutments are similar to those of titanium abutments for single implant crowns in the posterior area. A systematic search of two databases (Medline/PubMed and Cochrane Library) was performed by two independent reviewers for articles published between January 2004 and July 2014. The electronic search was complemented by a hand search of the following journals from the same period: Journal of Periodontology, Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Prosthodontics, and International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants. Studies included were published in English, evaluated single implant crowns, and performed a mean observation ≥ 1 year. Any disagreement between the reviewers was solved by means of a discussion. Forest plot and funnel were used to compare zirconia and titanium abutments. The search strategy identified 669 studies. Of these, 11 studies were included and only 6 studies were selected for meta-analysis. The pooled results for fixed implant single crowns in posterior areas showed a 5-year success rate of 99.3% for zirconia abutments and 99.57% for titanium abutments. There was no statistical difference regarding veneer failure (P = .26). The pooled results of these studies showed that the mean bone loss was 0.38 ± 0.87 mm for zirconia and 0.2 ± 0.13 mm for titanium abutments. The use of zirconia abutments for single implant-fixed crowns in posterior regions is questionable due to the absence of long-term data. The short-term results of zirconia abutments regarding mechanical and biologic responses are similar to titanium abutments. Caution when using zirconia abutments in posterior regions is necessary until further clinical evidence shows favorable long-term results.
Quaresma, Sergio E T; Cury, Patricia R; Sendyk, Wilson R; Sendyk, Claudio
This study evaluates the influence of 2 commercially available dental implant systems on stress distribution in the prosthesis, abutment, implant, and supporting alveolar bone under simulated occlusal forces, employing a finite element analysis. The implants and abutments evaluated consisted of a stepped cylinder implant connected to a screw-retained, internal, hexagonal abutment (system 1) and a conical implant connected to a solid, internal, conical abutment (system 2). A porcelain-covered, silver-palladium alloy was used as a crown. In each case, a simulated, 100-N vertical load was applied to the buccal cusp. A finite element model was created based on the physical properties of each component, and the values of the von Mises stresses generated in the prosthesis, abutment, implant, and supporting alveolar bone were calculated. In the prostheses, the maximum von Mises stresses were concentrated at the points of load application in both systems, and they were greater in system 1 (148 N/mm2) than in system 2 (55 N/mm2). Stress was greater on the abutment of system 2 than of system 1 on both the buccal (342 N/mm2 x 294 N/mm2) and lingual (294 N/mm2 x 148 N/ mm2) faces. Stress in the cortical, alveolar bone crest was greater in system 1 than in system 2 (buccal: 99.5 N/mm2 x 55 N/mm2, lingual: 55 N/mm2 x 24.5 N/mm2, respectively). Within the limits of this investigation, the stepped cylinder implant connected to a screw-retained, internal hexagonal abutment produces greater stresses on the alveolar bone and prosthesis and lower stresses on the abutment complex. In contrast, the conical implant connected to a solid, internal, conical abutment furnishes lower stresses on the alveolar bone and prosthesis and greater stresses on the abutment.
Harder, Sönke; Dimaczek, Birka; Açil, Yaha; Terheyden, Hendrik; Freitag-Wolf, Sandra; Kern, Matthias
Microleakage has been discussed as a major contributing factor for inflammatory reactions at the implant-abutment connection. In previous studies, the tightness against corpuscular bodies (viable bacteria) has been successfully investigated under static and dynamic conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the tightness against endotoxins of two implant systems (AstraTech and Ankylos) with conical internal connections under static conditions. The inner parts of eight implants of each system were inoculated with endotoxin. Implants were screwed together with the respective abutments and stored under isostatic conditions in a supernatant of pyrogen-free water for 168 h. Supernatant samples were taken after 5 min, 24 h, 72 h, and 168 h, and endotoxin contamination was determined by the amebocyte-lysate test. Only one implant in the AstraTech group showed no sign of endotoxin contamination after 168 h, while the other implants showed contamination after varying storage times, respectively. The implants in the Ankylos group showed endotoxin contamination after only 5 min of storage in the supernatant solution. The tested internal conical implant-abutment connections appear to be unable to prevent endotoxin leakage. In average, Astra implants showed a higher tightness than Ankylos implants.
Streckbein, P; Streckbein, R G; Wilbrand, J F; Malik, C Y; Schaaf, H; Howaldt, H P; Flach, M
Micro-gaps and osseous overload in the implant-abutment connection are the most common causes of peri-implant bone resorption and implant failure. These undesirable events can be visualized on standardized three-dimensional finite element models and by radiographic methods. The present study investigated the influence of 7 available implant systems (Ankylos, Astra, Bego, Brånemark, Camlog, Straumann, and Xive) with different implant-abutment connections on bone overload and the appearance of micro-gaps in vitro. The individual geometries of the implants were transferred to three-dimensional finite element models. In a non-linear analysis considering the pre-loading of the occlusion screw, friction between the implant and abutment, the influence of the cone angle on bone strain, and the appearance of micro-gaps were determined. Increased bone strains were correlated with small (Ankylos) or a smaller cone angle (Bego). The results of our in silico study provide a solid basis for the reduction of peri-implant bone strain and micro-gaps in the implant-abutment connection to improve long-term stability.
Passos, Sheila Pestana; May, Liliana Gressler; Faria, Renata; Ozcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco Antonio
Microorganisms from the oral cavity may settle at the implant-abutment interface (IAI). As a result, tissue inflammation could occur around these structures. The databases MEDLINE/PubMed and PubMed Central were used to identify articles published from 1981 through 2012 related to the microbial
Raquel Rezende Martins de Barros
Full Text Available Aim: The presence of a microgap at the implant-abutment interface may permit bacterial contamination and lead to bone resorption, interfering with papillae formation. The present study evaluated adjacent implants with cement-retained abutments as an option to control such deleterious effects. Materials and methods Seven minipigs had their bilateral mandibular premolars previously extracted. After 8 weeks, four implants were installed in each hemi-mandible of each animal. The adjacent implants were randomly inserted on one side at the crestal bone level and on the other, 1.5 mm subcrestally. Immediately, a non-submerged healing and functional loading were provided with the abutments cementation and prostheses installation. Clinical examination and histomorphometry served to analyze the implant success. Results A total of 52 implants were evaluated at the end of the study. The subcrestal group achieved statistical better results when compared to the crestal group, clinically in papillae formation (1.97 x 1.57 mm and histomorphometrically in crestal bone remodeling (1.17 x 1.63 mm, bone density (52.39 x 45.22% and bone-implant contact (54.13 x 42.46%. Conclusion The subcrestal placement of cement-retained abutment implants showed better indexes of osseointegration and also improved papillae formation and crestal bone remodeling at the interimplant area after immediate loading, making them a promising option for the treatment of esthetic regions.
Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the impact interaction between the abutment and the girder subjected to nonuniform seismic excitation. An impact model based on tests is presented by taking material properties of the backfill of the abutment into consideration. The conditional simulation is performed to investigate the spatial variation of earthquake ground motions. A two-span continuous steel box girder bridge is taken as the example to analyze and assess the pounding interaction between the abutment and the girder. The detailed nonlinear finite element (FE model is established and the steel girder and the reinforced concrete piers are modeled by nonlinear fiber elements. The pounding element of the abutment is simulated by using a trilinear compression gap element. The elastic-perfectly plastic element is used to model the nonlinear rubber bearings. The comparisons of the pounding forces, the shear forces of the nonlinear bearings, the moments of reinforced concrete piers, and the axial pounding stresses of the steel girder are studied. The made observations indicate that the nonuniform excitation for multisupport bridge is imperative in the analysis and evaluation of the pounding effects of the bridges.
Full Text Available On the Latvian railway, derailments of freight cars take place in the course of shunting work on marshalling yards. A number of factors during shunting work on marshalling yards may contribute to the derailments of rolling stock: longitudinal dynamics during braking of cars with the turned off brakes by locomotive, hauling down cars from a marshalling hill with braking position controlled by an operator, dry internal rails in curves, absence of greasing in the pivot unit of freight bogies. At present, measures allowing elimination of the car derailments during shunting work are developed.During the period between repairs, the abutment unit of freight car often works in conditions of dry friction. Our observations suggest that at the time of taking a car into repair, there is often an absence of greasing between trail bearing and center plate of the abutment, and a presence of sandy dust. It increases a friction and, together with high contact pressures and dynamic influence, hinders the turn of bogie at motion of car.In this paper, the results of studying the resisting moment in the abutment to turning of bogie is reported. The study was conducted on the basis of freight bogie of type 18-100; the body was leant on the center plate unit of the abutment, on the center plate unit, and on the sliders. Experiments were conducted, with the use of greasing and at the dry friction of center plate unit.
Cançado Oliveira, Bruno Fernando; Valerio, Claudia Scigliano; Jansen, Wellington Corrêa; Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves; Manzi, Flávio Ricardo
Misfit is a risk factor for rehabilitation with implants, and its detection is of fundamental importance to the success of treatment with implants. The use of appropriate radiographic imaging is key for a good prognosis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of film and digital radiographs for the detection of misfit at the implant-abutment interface. Digital and conventional (manual and automatic processing) radiography was performed in seven test specimens, each one with a different vertical misfit between the abutment and the platform of the implant. Scanning electron microscopy was used to confirm the misfit and to measure it. Five dental radiologists independently and blindly evaluated the images. Cohen's kappa with linear weighting was calculated to determine interexaminer and intraexaminer concordance. Statistical analyses were performed using the Cochran's Q test and the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Interexaminer analysis showed that the kappa value was equal to 0.74, whereas the average kappa value in the intraexaminer evaluation was 0.90. Digital imaging showed the largest area on the ROC graph, and conventional images with manual processing showed the smallest area. The images obtained through conventional radiography with both manual and automatic processing showed statistically significant differences from the measurement of the gold standard (P < .05). Digital imaging can be used to evaluate misfit at the implant-abutment interface. Conventional systems of radiographic imaging do not provide sufficient information to evaluate misfit at the implant-abutment interface.
Two-dimensional, depth-averaged flow models are used to study the distribution of flow around spill-through abutments situated on floodplains in compound channels and rectangular channels (flow on very wide floodplains may be treated as rectangular c...
Nissan, J; Zenziper, E; Rosner, O; Kolerman, R; Chaushu, L; Chaushu, G
Soft tissue shrinkage during the course of restoring dental implants may result in biological and prosthodontic difficulties. This study was conducted to measure the continuous shrinkage of the mucosal cuff around dental implants following the removal of the healing abutment up to 60 s. Individuals treated with implant-supported fixed partial dentures were included. Implant data--location, type, length, diameter and healing abutments' dimensions--were recorded. Mucosal cuff shrinkage, following removal of the healing abutments, was measured in bucco-lingual direction at four time points--immediately after 20, 40 and 60 s. anova was used to for statistical analysis. Eighty-seven patients (49 women and 38 men) with a total of 311 implants were evaluated (120 maxilla; 191 mandible; 291 posterior segments; 20 anterior segments). Two-hundred and five (66%) implants displayed thick and 106 (34%) thin gingival biotype. Time was the sole statistically significant parameter affecting mucosal cuff shrinkage around dental implants (P < 0.001). From time 0 to 20, 40 and 60 s, the mean diameter changed from 4.1 to 4.07, 3.4 and 2.81 mm, respectively. The shrinkage was 1%, 17% and 31%, respectively. The gingival biotype had no statistically significant influence on mucosal cuff shrinkage (P = 0.672). Time required replacing a healing abutment with a prosthetic element should be minimised (up to 20/40 s), to avoid pain, discomfort and misfit. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the stresses occurred onhard and soft bones after recovering the deficiency caused by totally edentulousand damaged mandible by using abutments with different lengths andprosthesis filling material. Two different damaged parts of 2.5 and 4.5 mm indepth were created with the aid of Solidworks program on the right hand sideof the mandible. Implants were then applied between the foremen channels.Later, the damaged models were recovered by abutment with different lengthsas for the first method. Two models using abutment were, therefore, obtainedfor the damaged parts of 2.5 and 4.5 mm in depth. In the second method, for thesame damaged cases, prosthesis filling material was used to recover deficiencykeeping the abutment length constant. Finally, there were totally obtained 4different damaged models of two fixed with abutment and two fixed with fillingmaterial and 1 undamaged model. At the second step of this study, the stressvalues were obtained on lower jaw bones by using finite element method underthe maximum chewing force and compared to each other. The results showedthat stress data obtained particularly on the soft and hard bones weredistributed more uniformly on the damaged models fixed with prosthesis fillingmaterial compared to the damaged models recovered by abutment. Moreover,the stress values obtained for models fixed with different abutment length wererather high in comparison to those of the filling material application
Romanos, George E; May, Steffan; May, Dittmar
The present paper demonstrates a new technique and long-term results of a treatment concept that uses four implants placed in the anterior mandible that are connected to prefabricated telescopic abutments and immediately loaded with removable restorations. The present retrospective study included 488 implants (Ankylos, Dentsply) placed in 122 patients (mean age: 65.2 ± 9.8 years) with clinical and radiographic evaluation for a period of at least 1 year. Eighty-four implants were placed in fresh extraction sockets and combined in the restorations with implants placed in healed ridges. All implants were placed 2 mm subcrestally (based on chart documentation, measured from the midfacial bone level). The implants were connected immediately after surgery to conical prefabricated abutments (angle of 4 to 6 degrees) using a final torque of 15 Ncm. Secondary prefabricated copings that fit the abutments were placed over the abutments after abutment connection, and the complete denture of each patient was relined chairside with methyl methacrylate resin. The prosthetic restorations were to remain in place for 10 days to ensure that the implants remained immobile. After a mean of 79 ± 29.8 months (range, 17 to 129 months) only eight implants failed (1.6%). Twenty-one implants (4.3%) showed crestal bone loss greater than 2 mm relative to the implant position at the time of implant insertion. Therefore, the failure rate was 5.94% for the entire observation period. The success rate for the evaluated implants was 94.06%. The patients were satisfied with the stability of their prostheses, and no prosthetic or peri-implant problems were observed. These telescopic implant-supported restorations with immediate loading seem to be an alternative prosthetic solution for the edentulous patient, providing long-term implant stability.
Aloise, João Pedro; Curcio, Ricardo; Laporta, Marcia Zorello; Rossi, Liliane; da Silva, Adriana Madeira Alvares; Rapoport, Abrão
The aim of this study was to determine and compare the frequency of bacterial leakage of Streptococcus sanguinis biotype II along the implant-abutment interface between two systems of morse taper dental implants. Different methods of activation of the taper abutments were used: tapped-in (Bicon) and screwed-in (Ankylos). Twenty sterile assemblies were used and attached, 10 Bicon and 10 Ankylos implants, according to manufacturers' specifications. They were then totally immersed within 20 test tubes containing a sterile nutrient solution brain-heart infusion (BHI). The internal part of the 20 implants was previously inoculated with 0.1 microl of S. sanguinis II (ATCC 10557) and then connected to the respective abutments. The assemblies were incubated under anaerobic conditions for 14 days in an autoclave at 37 degrees C. They were monitored daily for solution cloudiness resultant from microbial leakage on the interface of the assemblies. For statistical analysis, the Fisher test was applied and significance was assigned at the 5% level. There was solution cloudiness, indicating the finding of bacterial growth inside two Bicon assemblies and two Ankylos assemblies 48 h after incubation. Microbial leakage was further substantiated by testing the suspension for the presence of Streptococcus sp. None of the sterility controls were contaminated. The frequency of bacterial leakage along the implant-abutment interface, with the two different morse taper implant systems, was 20% of the assemblies of each system. There were no statistical differences between them. Irrespective of which of the two morse taper implant connection systems of activation was analyzed, tapped-in (Bicon) or screwed-in (Ankylos), this in vitro experiment showed bacterial leakage along the implant-abutment interface.
Zhu, Lin; Xu, Pei-cheng; Lu, Liu-lei
To study the variety of mechanical behavior of fixed bridge after abutments being intruded by micro screw implant and to provide theoretical principles for clinical practice of teeth preparation after intrusion of abutments under dynamic loads. Two-dimensional images of maxilla, teeth and supporting tissues of healthy people were scanned by spiral CT and were synthesized by Mimics10.01, Ansys13.0, etc. The three-dimensional finite element mathematical model of rigid fixed bridge repairing on double end of maxillary molar was developed. Under the condition of 10% simulative abutment alveolar absorption, vertical and oblique dynamic forces were applied in a circle of mastication(0.875 s) to build mathematical model after the abutment had been intruded for 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm. Stress variety of prosthesis, teeth, periodontal ligaments and supporting tissues were compared before and after intrusion of abutments. Stress variety of the prosthesis occurred, which had close relationship with the structure of prosthesis and teeth, the areas of periodontal ligaments increased, stress on the whole decreased along with the increase of the length of intrusion. With time accumulating, the stress value in prosthesis, teeth, periodontal ligaments and supporting tissues increased gradually and loads in oblique direction induced peak value stress in a masticatory cycle. Some residual stress left after unloading. By preparing the fixed bridge after abutment intrusion by micro screw implant, the service life of abutment and fixed bridge prosthesis can be reduced. The abutment and its related tissue have time-dependent mechanical behaviors during one mastication. The influence of oblique force on stress was greater than vertical force. There is some residual stress left after one mastication period. With the increase of the intrusion on abutment, residual stress reduced.
Aalaei, Shima; Rajabi Naraki, Zahra; Nematollahi, Fatemeh; Beyabanaki, Elaheh; Shahrokhi Rad, Afsaneh
Background. Screw-retained restorations are favored in some clinical situations such as limited inter-occlusal spaces. This study was designed to compare stresses developed in the peri-implant bone in two different types of screw-retained restorations (segmented vs. non-segmented abutment) using a finite element model. Methods. An implant, 4.1 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length, was placed in the first molar site of a mandibular model with 1 mm of cortical bone on the buccal and lingual sides. Segmented and non-segmented screw abutments with their crowns were placed on the simulated implant in each model. After loading (100 N, axial and 45° non-axial), von Mises stress was recorded using ANSYS software, version 12.0.1. Results. The maximum stresses in the non-segmented abutment screw were less than those of segmented abutment (87 vs. 100, and 375 vs. 430 MPa under axial and non-axial loading, respectively). The maximum stresses in the peri-implant bone for the model with segmented abutment were less than those of non-segmented ones (21 vs. 24 MPa, and 31 vs. 126 MPa under vertical and angular loading, respectively). In addition, the micro-strain of peri-implant bone for the segmented abutment restoration was less than that of non-segmented abutment. Conclusion. Under axial and non-axial loadings, non-segmented abutment showed less stress concentration in the screw, while there was less stress and strain in the peri-implant bone in the segmented abutment.
Moris, Izabela Cristina Maurício; Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Fok, Alex Sui-Lun; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira
The use of zirconia abutments has increased because of aesthetics, but sometimes customization is necessary and its effect is unclear. This study evaluated the marginal fit and torque loss of customized and non-customized aesthetic zirconia abutments associated with Morse taper implants before and after thermomechanical cycling. Twenty-four implant/abutment/crown sets were divided into three groups (N = 8): Zr - non-customized zirconia abutments, Zrc - customized zirconia abutments, and Ti - titanium abutments. The ceramic crowns of the upper canines were made. All of the abutments were tightened with 15-N.cm torque, and the crowns were cemented on the abutments. The misfits and torque loss were measured before and after thermomechanical cycling. The marginal fit was evaluated in two planes throughout 10 different slices, 30 measurements for each face (i.e., buccal, palatal, mesial and distal) and 120 measurements for each sample. A load of 100N, a frequency of 2Hz and 1000,000 cycles with temperature variation of 5°-55°C were used for thermomechanical cycling. Thermomechanical cycling significantly decreased the marginal misfit only with the Zrc (p = 0.002), and the Ti was significantly different from the Zr and Zrc before and after thermomechanical cycling. Thermomechanical cycling did not affect the torque losses of the groups, but a significant difference between the Zr and Zrc (p = 0.0345) before cycling was noted. Customization of zirconia abutments does not significantly affect torque loss and marginal misfit after thermomechanical cycling suggesting that they can be safe for clinical utilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bressan, Eriberto; Venezze, Alvise Cenzi; Magaz, Vanessa Ruiz; Lops, Diego; Ghensi, Paolo
The conometric retention system was proposed and described as a predictable alternative to retain fixed implant-supported complete dentures and, more recently, to retain fixed partial restorations. Currently available studies describe a technique based on the Ankylos (Dentsply) implant system and stock conic coupling abutments. The purpose of this case series study is therefore to demonstrate the possibility of using Atlantis computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture technology to produce Conus abutments (Dentsply) and using the fixed conometric retention with other implant brands for which appropriate stock conic coupling abutments are not available.
Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Rimei; Ren, Guanghui; Zhang, Xiaojie
This article describes a method that incorporates the solid modeling CAD software Solidworks with a dental milling machine to fabricate individual abutments in house. This process involves creating an implant library with 3-dimensional (3D) models and manufacturing a base, scan element, abutment, and crown anatomy. The 3D models can be imported into any dental computer-aided design and computer-aided (CAD-CAM) manufacturing system. This platform increases abutment design flexibility, as the base and scan elements can be designed to fit several shapes as needed to meet clinical requirements. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kappel, Stefanie; Eiffler, Constantin; Lorenzo-Bermejo, Justo; Stober, Thomas; Rammelsberg, Peter
To assess the frequency and amount of residual cement after attachment of monolithic zirconia crowns to standard and individualized ceramic abutments. Twenty patients (mean age 58.9 years at inclusion in the study; 30% male) were randomized to receive either a standard or an individualized abutment on a bone-level implant. Monolithic zirconia single crowns were attached to abutments by use of permanent glass-ionomer cement. Crowns were fabricated with an occlusal hole to enable unscrewing of the abutment-crown complex. Immediately after cementation, superstructures were removed and both the peri-implant soft tissue and the abutment-crown complex were photographed in a standardized manner, to detect residual cement. Photographs were analyzed using Corel Photo Paint X7, and residual cement-to-total abutment and residual cement-to-peri-implant soft tissue area ratios were calculated. Residual cement was observed for 9 of 10 (90%) individualized abutments, compared with 4 of 10 (40%) standard abutments (OR = 13.5, P = 0.049). Twenty-seven of 40 (68%) individualized abutment surfaces were affected, compared with 12 of 40 (30%) standard abutment surfaces. The probability of observing residual cement was approximately five times higher for the surfaces of individualized abutments than for those of standard abutments (P = 0.005). The mean amount of sulcus surface covered by cement was 1.17% (SD 2.85) for the individualized abutments and 3.78% (SD 7.40) for the standard abutments. The position of the margin significantly affected the amount of residual cement. Both individualized and standard all-ceramic abutments result in small amounts of subgingival residual cement on abutment and sulcus surfaces. However, use of individualized abutments does not guarantee complete avoidance of undetected cement rests. Undetected residual cement might be avoided by use of all-ceramic abutments with visible abutment shoulders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley
Wang, Chiung-Fang; Huang, Heng-Li; Lin, Dan-Jae; Shen, Yen-Wen; Fuh, Lih-Jyh; Hsu, Jui-Ting
.... Therefore, this study compared the maximum deformation and failure forces of titanium implants between titanium-alloy and zirconia abutments under oblique compressive forces in the presence of two...
Rosentritt, Martin; Hagemann, Anna; Hahnel, Sebastian; Behr, Michael; Preis, Verena
To investigate the type of failure and fracture resistance behaviour of different zirconia and titanium implant/abutment systems for anterior application. Eight groups of implant-abutment combinations (n=8/system) were restored with identical full-contour zirconia crowns. The systems represented one-piece and multi-piece zirconia (Z) or titanium (T) implants/abutments with different types of connection (screwed=S, bonded=B). The following combinations (implant-abutment-connection) were investigated: ZZS, ZZB, ZZZB (three-piece), ZTS, TTS, TTS reference, and Z (one-piece, 2×). To simulate clinical anterior loading situations the specimens were mounted into the chewing simulator at an angle of 135° and subjected to thermal cycling (2×3000×5°/55°C) and mechanical loading (1.2×10(6)×50N; 1.6Hz). Fracture resistance and maximum bending stress were determined for all specimens that survived ageing. Data were statistically analyzed with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test and one-way ANOVA (α=0.05). Survival performance was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier Log-Rank test. Independent of the material combinations screwed systems showed partly failures of the screws during simulation (ZZS: 3×, ZTS: 8×, TTS: 3×). Screw failures were combined with implant/abutment fractures of zirconia systems. Zirconia one-piece implants and the reference system did not show any failures, and only one specimen of the systems with a bonded connection (ZZZB) fractured. Mean (±standard deviation) fracture forces and maximum bending stresses differed significantly (p=0.000) between 187.4±42.0N/250.0±56.0N/mm(2) (ZZZB) and 524.3±43.1N/753.0±61.0N/mm(2) (Z). Both material (zirconia or titanium) and the type of connection influenced failure resistance during fatigue testing, fracture force, and maximum bending stress. Different material combinations for implants and abutments as well as different types of connection achieved acceptable or even good failure and fracture resistance that may
Sakoguchi, Kenji; Minami, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shiro; Tanaka, Takuo
This study evaluated the effect of abutment materials on the fracture resistance of composite crowns for premolars. Composite crowns were fabricated using two different indirect composite resin materials (Meta Color Prime Art or Estenia C&B) and cemented onto either a metal (Castwell M.C. 12) or composite resin (Build-It FR and FibreKor) abutment with resin cement (Panavia F2.0). Twenty-four specimens were fabricated for four groups (n=6 each) and subjected to 280-N cyclic impact loading at 1.0 Hz. The number of cycles which caused the composite crown to fracture was defined as its fracture resistance. All data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and the Bonferroni test (α=0.05). Composite crowns cemented onto resin abutments showed higher fracture resistance than those cemented onto metal abutments.
Peixoto, Hugo Eduardo, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Implantology Team, Latin American Institute of Research and Education in Dentistry, Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Bordin, Dimorvan, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Limeira avenue, 901-Vila Rezende, Piracicaba, SP 13414-903 (Brazil); Del Bel Cury, Altair A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Limeira avenue, 901-Vila Rezende, Piracicaba, SP 13414-903 (Brazil); Silva, Wander José da, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Limeira avenue, 901-Vila Rezende, Piracicaba, SP 13414-903 (Brazil); Faot, Fernanda, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, Gonçalves Chaves, 457, 2nd floor, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul 96015-560 (Brazil)
Purpose: Evaluate the influence of abutment's material and geometry on stress distribution in a single implant-supported prosthesis. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional models were made based on tomographic slices of the upper middle incisor area, in which a morse taper implant was positioned and a titanium (Ti) or zirconia (ZrN) universal abutments was installed. The commercially available geometry of titanium (T) and zirconia (Z) abutments were used to draw two models, TM1 and ZM1 respectively, which served as control groups. These models were compared with 2 experimental groups were the mechanical properties of Z were applied to the titanium abutment (TM2) and vice versa for the zirconia abutment (ZM2). Subsequently, loading was simulated in two steps, starting with a preload phase, calculated with the respective friction coefficients of each materials, followed by a combined preload and chewing force. The maximum von Mises stress was described. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA that considered material composition, geometry and loading (p < 0.05). Results: Titanium and zirconia abutments showed similar von Mises stresses in the mechanical part of the four models. The area with the highest concentration of stress was the screw thread, following by the screw body. The highest stress levels occurred in screw thread was observed during the preloading phase in the ZM1 model (931 MPa); and during the combined loading in the TM1 model (965 MPa). Statistically significant differences were observed for loading, the material × loading interaction, and the loading × geometry interaction (p < 0.05). Preloading contributed for 77.89% of the stress (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences to the other factors (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The screw was the piece most intensely affected, mainly through the preload force, independent of the abutment's material. - Highlights: • The abutment's screw was the most impaired piece of the
Full Text Available This review aims to compare peri-implant tissue changes in terms of clinical and radiographic aspects of implant restoration protocol using one-time abutment to repeated abutment connection in platform switched implant.A structured search strategy was applied to three electronic databases, namely, Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science. Eight eligible studies, including seven randomised controlled studies and one controlled clinical study, were identified in accordance with inclusion/exclusion criteria. Outcome measures included peri-implant bone changes (mm, peri-implant soft tissue changes (mm, probing depth (mm and postsurgical complications.Six studies were pooled for meta-analysis on bone tissue, three for soft tissue, two for probing depth and four for postsurgical complications. A total of 197 implants were placed in one-time abutment group, whereas 214 implants were included in repeated abutment group. The implant systems included Global implants, Ankylos, JDEvolution (JdentalCare, Straumann Bone level and Conelog-Screwline. One-time abutment group showed significantly better outcomes than repeated abutment group, as measured in the standardised differences in mean values (fixed- and random-effect model: vertical bone change (0.41, 3.23 in 6 months, (1.51, 14.81 in 12 months and (2.47, 2.47 in 3 years and soft tissue change (0.21, 0.23. No significant difference was observed in terms of probing depth and complications.Our meta-analysis revealed that implant restoration protocol using one-time abutment is superior to repeated abutment for platform switched implant because of less bone resorption and soft tissue shifts in former. However, future randomised clinical trials should be conducted to further confirm these findings because of the small samples and the limited quality of the original research.
Wang, Qing-Qing; Dai, Ruoxi; Cao, Chris Ying; Fang, Hui; Han, Min; Li, Quan-Li
This review aims to compare peri-implant tissue changes in terms of clinical and radiographic aspects of implant restoration protocol using one-time abutment to repeated abutment connection in platform switched implant. A structured search strategy was applied to three electronic databases, namely, Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science. Eight eligible studies, including seven randomised controlled studies and one controlled clinical study, were identified in accordance with inclusion/exclusion criteria. Outcome measures included peri-implant bone changes (mm), peri-implant soft tissue changes (mm), probing depth (mm) and postsurgical complications. Six studies were pooled for meta-analysis on bone tissue, three for soft tissue, two for probing depth and four for postsurgical complications. A total of 197 implants were placed in one-time abutment group, whereas 214 implants were included in repeated abutment group. The implant systems included Global implants, Ankylos, JDEvolution (JdentalCare), Straumann Bone level and Conelog-Screwline. One-time abutment group showed significantly better outcomes than repeated abutment group, as measured in the standardised differences in mean values (fixed- and random-effect model): vertical bone change (0.41, 3.23) in 6 months, (1.51, 14.81) in 12 months and (2.47, 2.47) in 3 years and soft tissue change (0.21, 0.23). No significant difference was observed in terms of probing depth and complications. Our meta-analysis revealed that implant restoration protocol using one-time abutment is superior to repeated abutment for platform switched implant because of less bone resorption and soft tissue shifts in former. However, future randomised clinical trials should be conducted to further confirm these findings because of the small samples and the limited quality of the original research.
Full Text Available To systematically measure and compare the stress distribution on the bone around an implant in the anterior maxilla using angled abutments by means of finite element analysis, three-dimensional finite element simplified patient-specific models and simplified models were created and analyzed. Systematically varied angled abutments were simulated, with angulation ranging from 0° to 60°. The materials in the current study were assumed to be homogenous, linearly elastic, and isotropic. Force of 100 N was applied to the central node on the top surface of the abutments to simulate the occlusal force. To simulate axial and oblique loading, the angle of loading was 0°, 15°, and 20° to the long axis of implant, respectively. There was the strong resemblance between the response curves for simplified patient-specific models and simplified models. Response curves under oblique loading were similar in both models. With abutments angulation increased, maximum von Mises stress firstly decreased to minimum point and then gradually increased to higher level. From a biomechanical point of view, favorable peri-implant stress levels could be induced by angled abutments under oblique loading if suitable angulation of abutments was selected.
Mehl, Christian; Harder, Sönke; Shahriari, Ahoo; Steiner, Martin; Kern, Matthias
To evaluate the influence of abutment height and thermocycling on the retrievability of cemented implant crowns. Ninety tapered titanium abutments (6 degree taper, 4.3 mm diameter, 8.5 mm height) were shortened to 2, 3, or 4 mm, respectively. Ninety crowns were designed and manufactured using CAD/CAM techniques and laser sintering a CoCr alloy. The crowns were cemented either with a glass-ionomer, a polycarboxylate, or a composite resin cement followed by 3-day storage in demineralized water without thermocycling or 150-day storage with 37,500 thermal cycles. The force (in N) and the number of attempts needed to remove the crowns using a universal testing machine (UTM) or a clinically used removal device (Coronaflex) were recorded. Statistical analysis at a level of significance of P ≤ .05 was conducted using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (Coronaflex) and three-way and two-way ANOVA, Tukey's HSD post hoc tests, and t tests (UTM). Regardless of whether the crowns were retrieved with Coronaflex or UTM, the crowns cemented with the glass-ionomer cement were significantly easier to retrieve followed by the polycarboxylate and the resin cement, both of which differed significantly from each other (P ≤ .001). With both retrieval methods, the cement, abutment height, and thermocycling were significantly influential (P ≤ .0001). Significant interactions could be found for retrieval with UTM between the abutment height and thermocycling, between the cement and thermocycling, and between all three factors (P ≤ .05). Glass-ionomer cement may be used for retrievable cementation of implant restorations, whereas polycarboxylate cement and especially composite resin cement should be used for a nonretrievable permanent cementation.
Neves, Flávio Domingues das; Elias, Gisele Araújo; da Silva-Neto, João Paulo; de Medeiros Dantas, Lucas Costa; da Mota, Adérito Soares; Neto, Alfredo Júlio Fernandes
The aim of this study was to compare vertical and horizontal adjustments of castable abutments after conducting casting and soldering procedures. Twelve external hexagonal implants (3.75 × 10 mm) and their UCLA abutments were divided according their manufacturer and abutment type: PUN (plastic UCLA, Neodent), PUC (plastic UCLA, Conexão), PU3i (plastic UCLA, Biomet 3i), and PUTN (plastic UCLA with Tilite milled base, Neodent). Three infrastructures of a fixed partial implant-supported bridge with 3 elements were produced for each group. The measurements of vertical (VM) and horizontal (HM) misfits were obtained via scanning electron microscopy after completion of casting and soldering. The corresponding values were determined to be biomechanically acceptable to the system, and the results were rated as a percentage. Statistical analysis establishes differences between groups by chi-square after procedures, and McNeman's test was applied to analyze the influence of soldering over casting (α ≤ .05). For the values of VM and HM, respectively, when the casting process was complete, it was observed that 83.25% and 100% (PUTN), 33.3% and 27.75% (PUN), 33.3% and 88.8% (PUC), 33.3% and 94.35% (PU3i) represented acceptable values. After completing the requisite soldering, acceptable values were 50% and 94.35% (PUTN), 16.6% and 77.7% (PUN), 38.55% and 77.7% (PUC), and 27.75% and 94.35% (PU3i). Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the premachined abutments presented more acceptable VM values. The HM values were within acceptable limits before and after the soldering procedure for most groups. Further, the soldering procedure resulted in an increase of VM in all groups.
Nothdurft, Frank P; Neumann, Konrad; Knauber, Andreas W
The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the superstructure-geometry on the fracture behavior of zirconia abutments (Compartis, DeguDent GmbH, Hanau, G). Four different groups (n = 8) representing anterior single crown replacement were prepared. In groups 1 and 2, the implants were restored with customized all-ceramic abutments and anatomically shaped crowns (chromium cobalt alloy). Groups 3 and 4 received crowns with a geometry according to the international standard ISO 14801 (dynamic fatigue test for endosseous dental implants) with a spherical contact area. Groups 2 and 4 were subjected to mechanical aging in a chewing simulator (50 N × 1,200,000 cycles). Static loading until fracture was performed using a universal testing device at an angle of 30° to the implant axis. Fracture patterns were analyzed using SEM. In group 2, only one specimen survived mechanical aging. In group 4, one specimen fractured during the chewing simulation. Groups 1 and 2 showed significantly lower load-bearing capacity than groups 3 and 4. Artificial aging did not influence the fracture resistance. The SEM analysis revealed fatigue-related fracture patterns in those specimens, which failed during artificial aging. Drawing conclusions from ISO testing concerning clinical performance appears to be critical as anatomic superstructure geometries induce different fracture behaviors. ISO testing of zirconia abutments should be accompanied by load-bearing capacity testing under simulated clinical conditions to predict clinical performance.
Kiliçarslan, Mehmet Ali; Özkan, Pelin; Uludag, Bülent; Mumcu, Emre
A common problem related to cemented single crowns is the internal misfit, which may cause inadequate retention, especially when seated on the implant abutment. The aim of this study was to compare the internal fit of Co-Cr crowns using a traditional lost-wax casting technique from laser-sintered Co-Cr alloy crowns. Twelve metallic crowns per each technique were fabricated. The effect of the thickness of cement, originated internal gap was evaluated. Crowns were cemented on the implant abutments with resin cement, and the internal fit of crowns was measured at five areas with an optical microscope. The data were analyzed, and the means were compared with a t-test (pcrowns obtained through the lost wax method (min. 65.50 ± 9.54 μm and max. 313.46 ± 48.12 μm). The fit of the metal crown likely varies with the fabrication technique. The use of techniques that enable the adjustment of crown parameters, such as the laser sintering technique, maintains the desired fit between casting and implant abutments. This study investigated which technique affects the internal fit of cemented implant-supported crowns, comparing the use of lost wax casting and laser-sintered metal dental alloys. The results of this study indicate that the use of laser-sintered crowns can improve for crown accuracy.
de Avila, Érica Dorigatti; de Barros-Filho, Luiz Antônio Borelli; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi; Mollo, Francisco de Assis; de Barros, Luiz Antônio Borelli
When dental implants are malpositioned in relation to the adjacent teeth and alveolar bone or in an excessive buccal or lingual position, the final prosthesis rehabilitation impairs the peri-implant health of the gingival tissues and the aesthetics of the patient. Thus, the purpose of this case was to report and discuss a multidisciplinary protocol for the treatment of a compromised maxillary tooth in a patient with an abscess in his right central incisor due to an excessive buccal implant position. The patient presented with an implant-supported provisional restoration on his right maxillary central incisor and a traumatic injury in his left central incisor. The treatment protocol consisted in (i) abutment substitution to compensate the incorrect angulation of the implant, (ii) clinical crown lengthening, (iii) atraumatic extraction of the left central incisor, and (iv) immediate implant placement. Finally, (v) a custom abutment was fabricated to obtain a harmonious gingival contour around the prosthetic crown. In conclusion, when implants are incorrectly positioned in relation to the adjacent teeth, associated with soft-tissue defects, the challenge to create a harmonious mucogingival contours may be achieved with an interdisciplinary approach and with the placement of an appropriate custom abutment. PMID:24955259
R.R.M. de Barros
Full Text Available Aim The nanomechanical evaluation can provide additional information about the dental implants osseointegration process. The aim of this study was to quantify elastic modulus and hardness of bone around cemented-retained abutment implants positioned at two different crestal bone levels. Materials and methods The mandibular premolars of 7 minipigs were extracted. After 8 weeks, 8 implants were inserted in each animal: crestally on one side of the mandible and subcrestally on the other (crestal and subcrestal groups. Functional loading were immediately provided with abutments cementation and prostheses installation. Eight weeks later, the animals euthanasia was performed and nanoindentation analyses were made at the most coronal newly formed bone region (coronal group, and below in the threaded region (threaded group of histologic sections. Results The comparisons between subcrestal and crestal groups did not achieve statistical relevance; however the elastic modulus and hardness levels were statistically different in the two regions of evaluation (coronal and threaded. Conclusions The crestal and subcrestal placement of cement-retained abutment implants did not affect differently the nanomechanical properties of the surrounding bone. However the different regions of newly formed bone (coronal and threaded groups were extremely different in both elastic modulus and hardness, probably reflecting their differences in bone composition and structure.
Érica Dorigatti de Avila
Full Text Available When dental implants are malpositioned in relation to the adjacent teeth and alveolar bone or in an excessive buccal or lingual position, the final prosthesis rehabilitation impairs the peri-implant health of the gingival tissues and the aesthetics of the patient. Thus, the purpose of this case was to report and discuss a multidisciplinary protocol for the treatment of a compromised maxillary tooth in a patient with an abscess in his right central incisor due to an excessive buccal implant position. The patient presented with an implant-supported provisional restoration on his right maxillary central incisor and a traumatic injury in his left central incisor. The treatment protocol consisted in (i abutment substitution to compensate the incorrect angulation of the implant, (ii clinical crown lengthening, (iii atraumatic extraction of the left central incisor, and (iv immediate implant placement. Finally, (v a custom abutment was fabricated to obtain a harmonious gingival contour around the prosthetic crown. In conclusion, when implants are incorrectly positioned in relation to the adjacent teeth, associated with soft-tissue defects, the challenge to create a harmonious mucogingival contours may be achieved with an interdisciplinary approach and with the placement of an appropriate custom abutment.
Jeon, Jin-Hun; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Lee, Jae-Jun; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Woong-Chul
We assessed the repeatability and reproducibility of abutment teeth dental impressions, digitized with a blue light scanner, by comparing the discrepancies in repeatability and reproducibility values for different types of abutment teeth. To evaluate repeatability, impressions of the canine, first premolar, and first molar, prepared for ceramic crowns, were repeatedly scanned to acquire 5 sets of 3-dimensional data via stereolithography (STL) files. Point clouds were compared and the error sizes were measured (n=10, per type). To evaluate reproducibility, the impressions were rotated by 10-20° on the table and scanned. These data were compared to the first STL data and the error sizes were measured (n=5, per type). One-way analysis of variance was used to assess the repeatability and reproducibility of the 3 types of teeth, and Tukey honest significant differences (HSD) multiple comparison test was used for post hoc comparisons (α=.05). The differences with regard to repeatability were 4.5, 2.7, and 3.1 µm for the canine, premolar, and molar, indicating the poorest repeatability for the canine (Pimpressions of individual abutment teeth, digitized with a blue light scanner, had good repeatability and reproducibility.
Five overdenture wearers with a small number of remaining natural teeth were selected to evaluate the effect of the afferent input from periodontal mechanoreceptors on masseter activity in man. As a control, a full denture wearer was included. The subjects were instructed to chew a piece of gum, and/or tap their teeth. Surface EmG from the bilateral masseter muscles were recorded and analysed. When functional pressure was applied, during chewing, to the abutment teeth as well as to mucosa through the denture base, masseter activities were encouraged. Following application of anaesthesia to the periodontal membrane of the abutments, masseter activities were reduced. The duration of the silent period (SP) appearing in the EMG burst following tooth tapping was significantly increased with root support compared to mucosal support only. With topical anaesthesia of the periodontal tissues, SP duration decreased significantly. In conclusion, it has become apparent that the pressure sensibility of abutment teeth bearing functional pressure under an overdenture base is capable of facilitating masseter activity, as one of the sources of oral sensory input during mastication.
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Passive fit of prosthetic frameworks is a major concern in implant dentistry. Impression technique is one of the several variables that may affect the outcome of dental implants. The purpose of this study was to compare the three dimensional accuracy of direct and indirect abutment level implant impressions ofALL-ON-4 treatment plan.Materials and Methods: A reference acrylic resin model with four Branemark fixtures was made according to All-On-4 treatment plan. Multiunit abutments were screwed into the fixtures and two special trays were made for direct and indirect impression techniques. Ten direct and ten indirect impression techniques with respective impression transfers were made. Impressions were poured with stone and the positional accuracy of the abutment analogues in each dimension of x, y, and z axes and also angular displacement (Δθ were evaluated using a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM. Data were analyzed using T- test.Results: The results showed that direct impression technique was significantly more accurate than indirect technique (P<0.001.Conclusion: The results showed that the accuracy of direct impression technique was significantly more than that of indirect technique in Δθ and Δr coordinate and also Δx, Δy, Δz.
Dula, Linda J; Ahmedi, Enis F; Lila-Krasniqi, Zana D; Shala, Kujtim Sh
The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of removable partial dentures in periodontal abutment teeth in relation to the type of denture support and design of RPD in a five-year worn period. Methods : A total of 64 patients with removable partial dentures (RPDs), participated in this study. It were examined ninety-one RPDs. There were seventy-five RPDs with clasp-retained and sixteenth were RPDs with attachments. There were 28 females and 36 males, aged between 40-64 years, 41 maxillary and 50 mandible RPDs. For each subjects the following data were collected: denture design, denture support, and Kennedy classification. Abutment teeth were assessed for plaque index (PI), calculus index (CI), blending on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), gingival recession (GR), tooth mobility (TM). Level of significance was set at pdenture support of RPD, BOP, PD, PI, GR, CI and TM-index showed no statistically significant difference. Based on the denture design of RPD's, BOP, PD, PI, CI, and TM-index proved no statistically significant difference. Except GR-index according to denture design confirmed statistically significant difference in RPD with clasp pdentures and below the clasp arms in abutment teeth.
Park, Chan-Ik; Choe, Han-Cheol; Chung, Chae-Heon
Regardless of the type of performed restoration, in most cases, a screw connection is employed between the abutment and implant. For this reason, implant screw loosening has remained a problem in restorative practices. The purpose of this study was to compare the surface of coated/plated screws with titanium and gold alloy screws and to evaluate the physical properties of coated/plated material after scratch tests via FE-SEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) investigation. GoldTite, titanium screws provided by 3i (Implant Innovation, USA) and TorqTite, titanium screws by Steri-Oss (Nobel Biocare, USA) and gold screws and titanium screws by AVANA (Osstem Implant, Korea) were selected for this study. The surface, crest, and root of the abutment screws were observed by FE-SEM. A micro-diamond needle was also prepared for the scratch test. Each abutment screw was fixed, and a scratch on the surface of the head region was made at constant load and thereafter the fine trace was observed with FE-SEM. The surface of GoldTite was smoother than that of other screws and it also had abundant ductility and malleability compared with titanium and gold screws. The scratch tests also revealed that teflon particles were exfoliated easily in the screw coated with teflon. The titanium screw had rough surface and low ductility. The clinical use of gold-plated screws is recommended as a means of preventing screw loosening.
Fabbri, Giacomo; Fradeani, Mauro; Dellificorelli, Gianluca; De Lorenzi, Marco; Zarone, Fernando; Sorrentino, Roberto
This multicenter retrospective clinical study aimed to evaluate the clinical performance of zirconia abutments in anterior and posterior regions, focusing on implant-abutment connections and restoration vertical height (RVH). Six experienced prosthodontists used 965 computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture zirconia abutments in 601 patients. Different surgical approaches were taken according to the needs of each patient. The final restorations were all-ceramic single crowns and short-span fixed dental prostheses. Screw-retained restorations were mainly used in anterior areas, whereas cemented prostheses were chosen in cases where the implant position was not ideal. Different types of implant-abutment connections were compared: external, internal with metal components, and internal full-zirconia conical connection. All the restorations were followed up for 4 to 10 years. Technical and biologic complications were assessed in relation to several biomechanical variables, such as RVH. Differences between groups were statistically analyzed, and longevity of abutments was evaluated according to Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Zirconia abutments resulted in overall survival and success rates of 98.9% and 94.8%, respectively. External connections reported survival and success rates of 99.7% and 94.5%, internal metal connections 99.8% and 95.5%, and internal zirconia connections 93.1% and 93.1%, respectively. Overall complication rates of 1.14%, 3.42%, and 0.62% were reported for fractures, chipping, and unscrewing, respectively. The external connection showed the longest survival while the internal zirconia connection showed the highest fracture incidence over the observation period. The clinical risk limit of RVH was identified as 14 mm. Zirconia abutments showed satisfactory clinical performance in anterior and posterior regions after 4 to 10 years. RVH and connection type influenced the clinical longevity of restorations; in particular, internal connections
Weyhrauch, Michael; Igiel, Christopher; Scheller, Herbert; Weibrich, Gernot; Lehmann, Karl Martin
The fracture strengths of all-ceramic crowns cemented on titanium implant abutments may vary depending on crown materials and luting agents. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in fracture strength among crowns cemented on implant abutments using crowns made of seven different monolithic ceramic materials and five different luting agents. In total, 525 crowns (75 each of Vita Mark II, feldspathic ceramic [FSC]; Ivoclar Empress CAD, leucite-reinforced glass ceramic [LrGC]; Ivoclar e.max CAD, lithium disilicate [LiDS]; Vita Suprinity, presintered zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic [PSZirLS]; Vita Enamic, polymer-reinforced fine-structure feldspathic ceramic [PolyFSP], Lava Ultimate; resin nanoceramic [ResNC], Celtra Duo; fully crystallized zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate [FcZirLS]) were milled using a CAD/CAM system. The inner surfaces of the crowns were etched and silanized. Titanium implant abutments were fixed on implant analogs, and airborne-particle abrasion was used on their exterior specific adhesion surfaces (Al2O3, 50 μm). Then, the abutments were degreased and silanized. The crowns were cemented on the implant abutments using five luting agents (Multilink Implant, Variolink II, RelyX Unicem, GC FujiCEM, Panavia 2.0). After thermocycling for 5,000 cycles (5 to 55°C, 30 seconds dwell time), the crowns were subjected to fracture strength testing under static load using a universal testing machine. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance (α = .0002) and the Bonferroni correction. No significant difference among the luting agents was found using the different all-ceramic materials. Ceramic materials LiDS, PSZirLS, PolyFSP, and ResNC showed significantly higher fracture strength values compared with FSC, FcZirLS, and LrGC. The PSZirLS especially showed significantly better results. Within the limitations of this study, fracture strength was not differentially affected by the various luting agents. However
Martini, Ana Paula; Barros, Rosália Moreira; Júnior, Amilcar Chagas Freitas; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Ferraz, Cacilda Cunha; Pellegrin, Maria Cristina Jimenez; Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera
The aim of this study was to evaluate stress distribution on the peri-implant bone, simulating the influence of Nobel Select implants with straight or angulated abutments on regular and switching platform in the anterior maxilla, by means of 3-dimensional finite element analysis. Four mathematical models of a central incisor supported by external hexagon implant (13 mm × 5 mm) were created varying the platform (R, regular or S, switching) and the abutments (S, straight or A, angulated 15°). The models were created by using Mimics 13 and Solid Works 2010 software programs. The numerical analysis was performed using ANSYS Workbench 10.0. Oblique forces (100 N) were applied to the palatine surface of the central incisor. The bone/implant interface was considered perfectly integrated. Maximum (σmax) and minimum (σmin) principal stress values were obtained. For the cortical bone the highest stress values (σmax) were observed in the RA (regular platform and angulated abutment, 51 MPa), followed by SA (platform switching and angulated abutment, 44.8 MPa), RS (regular platform and straight abutment, 38.6 MPa) and SS (platform switching and straight abutment, 36.5 MPa). For the trabecular bone, the highest stress values (σmax) were observed in the RA (6.55 MPa), followed by RS (5.88 MPa), SA (5.60 MPa), and SS (4.82 MPa). The regular platform generated higher stress in the cervical periimplant region on the cortical and trabecular bone than the platform switching, irrespective of the abutment used (straight or angulated).
Pol, C W P; Raghoebar, G M; Kerdijk, W; Boven, G C; Cune, M S; Meijer, H J A
The purpose of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the performance of 3-unit bridges on teeth with 3-unit bridges on implants, evaluating survival of the bridges, survival of the teeth or implants, condition of the hard and soft tissues surrounding the supports, complications and patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) after a mean observation period of at least 1 year. A literature search was conducted using a combination of the search terms: fixed partial denture and fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). An electronic search for data published until January 2017 was undertaken using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, either randomised or not, interventional or observational, which evaluated the results of 3-unit FDPs on either 2 implants or 2 abutment teeth. The search identified 1686 unique references. After applying eligibility criteria, 66 articles were included in the analysis. A total of 1973 3-unit FDPs were supported by teeth, and 765 were implant-supported. No significant differences were found either in the survival of the supporting abutments (P = .52; 99% vs 98.7% survival per year) or in the survival of the prostheses (P = .34; 96.4% vs 97.4% survival per year). Both treatments show an almost equally low complication rate, but there is a low level of reporting of hard and soft tissue conditions and PROM. It is concluded that implant-supported 3-unit FDPs seem to be a reliable treatment with survival rates not significantly different from the results of teeth-supported 3-unit FDPs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
López-Píriz, Roberto; Solá-Linares, Eva; Granizo, Juan J; Díaz-Güemes, Idohia; Enciso, Silvia; Bartolomé, José F; Cabal, Belén; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José S
The objective of the present study is to evaluate bone loss at implant abutments coated with a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles subjected to experimental peri-implantitis. Five beagle dogs were used in the experiments, 3 implants were installed in each quadrant of the mandibles. Glass/n-Ag coted abutments were connected to implant platform. Cotton floss ligatures were placed in a submarginal position around the abutment necks and the animals were subject to a diet which allowed plaque accumulation, and after 15 weeks the dogs were sacrificed. Radiographs of all implant sites were obtained at the beginning and at the end of the experimentally induced peri-implantitis. The radiographic examination indicated that significant amounts of additional bone loss occurred in implants without biocide coating, considering both absolute and relative values of bone loss. Percentages of additional bone loss observed in implants dressed with a biocide coated abutment were about 3 times lower (p<0.006 distal aspect; and p<0.031 at mesial aspect) than the control ones. Within the limits of the present study it seems promising the use of soda-lime glass/nAg coatings on abutments to prevent peri-implant diseases.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to evaluate bone loss at implant abutments coated with a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles subjected to experimental peri-implantitis. Five beagle dogs were used in the experiments, 3 implants were installed in each quadrant of the mandibles. Glass/n-Ag coted abutments were connected to implant platform. Cotton floss ligatures were placed in a submarginal position around the abutment necks and the animals were subject to a diet which allowed plaque accumulation, and after 15 weeks the dogs were sacrificed. Radiographs of all implant sites were obtained at the beginning and at the end of the experimentally induced peri-implantitis. The radiographic examination indicated that significant amounts of additional bone loss occurred in implants without biocide coating, considering both absolute and relative values of bone loss. Percentages of additional bone loss observed in implants dressed with a biocide coated abutment were about 3 times lower (p<0.006 distal aspect; and p<0.031 at mesial aspect than the control ones. Within the limits of the present study it seems promising the use of soda-lime glass/nAg coatings on abutments to prevent peri-implant diseases.
D'Ercole, Simonetta; Scarano, Antonio; Perrotti, Vittoria; Mulatinho, Jorge; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna; Tripodi, Domenico
Prevention of microbial leakage at the implant-abutment junction is a major challenge for the construction of 2-stage implants in order to minimize inflammatory reactions and to maximize bone stability at the implant neck. The aim of the present in vitro study was an evaluation of the leakage observed over a period of 28 days in Cone Morse taper internal connections and in screwed-abutments connections. In the present study 10 specimens of Cone Morse (Group 1) and 10 of internal hexagon (Group 2) implants were used. The inner parts of 5 implants per group were inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PS) suspension and 5 implants per group with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (AA). The possible penetration of bacterial suspension into the surrounding solution was determined by the observation of turbidity of the broth. In Group 1, bacterial contamination was found in 3 out of 5 implant-abutment assemblies seeded with the PS and in 2 samples out of 5 in the assemblies seeded with AA, with a total of leaked assemblies in this group of 5 out of 10. In Group 2, bacterial contamination was found in 4 out of 5 implant-abutment assemblies seeded with the PS, and in 4 out of 5 samples seeded with AA, with a total of leaked assemblies of 8 out of 10. The present data confirm the reported high permeability to bacterial leakage of screw-retained abutment connections, and the lower infiltration rates-although not significantly-of Cone Morse taper internal connections.
Fauroux, Marie-Alix; Levallois, Bernard; Yachouh, Jacques; Torres, Jacques-Henri
The aim of this study was to evaluate, with a new gas flow technique, leakage at the implant/abutment junction in systems with four different connections. Five Branemark System, five One Morse, five Intra-lock System, and five Ankylos Plus implants and abutments were used. A hole was drilled in the apex of each implant to allow gas to flow through the connection from negative to atmospheric pressure. The gas flow was calculated (slope of pressure decrease, in hPa.s-1). Each connection was tested after both manual and key tightening. Statistical analysis was performed on a generalized linear model with repeated measurements. The significance level was set at α=.05. A global significant difference was observed between the various systems (P=.0001). After manual tightening, gas leakage was (Ln[hPa.s-1], means±standard deviations): One Morse: 0.20 (±1.70); Branemark System: -4.56 (±2.61); Intra-lock: -4.31 (±4.17); Ankylos Plus; -7.59 (±0.76). After key tightening, mean values were: One Morse: -2.51 (±2.72); Branemark System: -7.23 (±1.01); Intra-lock: -7.76 (±0.50); Ankylos Plus; -7.73 (±0.62). This study confirms that gas flow is an appropriate method to assess connection leakage. Ankylos Plus connection leakage was very low when the assembly was tightened manually. Among conical connection systems, low (Ankylos Plus) and high (One Morse) leakage was observed. This gas flow study suggests, therefore, that connection design is not the most important parameter for implant/abutment connection leakage.
de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Spolidório, Denise Madalena Palomari; Mollo, Francisco de Assis
The longevity of dental implants depends on the absence of inflammation in the periimplant tissue. Similar to teeth, pathogenic bacteria can adhere on implant abutment surfaces and cause periimplant disease and consequently implant loss. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of physical and chemical properties of 2 common materials used as implant abutments, titanium (Ti) and zirconia (ZrO2), and the use of bovine enamel (BE) as a positive control on biofilm formation. Biofilm formation was analyzed by growing Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum as monospecies and mixed species biofilms on the surfaces. The mean roughness (Ra) and surface free energy were evaluated for each material. Mature biofilm, formed after 7 days of incubation, was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by colony-forming unit and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The mean roughness in all disks was ≤0.21 μm and did not affect the bacterial adhesion. Titanium showed a greater degree of hydrophilicity compared with BE after 90 minutes of immersion in saliva. The surface free energy did not show differences, with the highest values for BE. Monospecies biofilms formed by P. gingivalis on Ti, and mixed species biofilm on ZrO2 exhibited small numbers of cells on disk surfaces. By confocal imaging, the mixed species biofilm appeared as a thin layer on ZrO2 surfaces. Material surfaces could have a significant impact on biofilm formation. ZrO2 implant abutment surfaces showed a decrease in anaerobic biofilm compared with Ti and BE. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nossair, Shereen Ahmed; Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Morsi, Tarek Salah
To evaluate the fracture mechanics of cemented versus fused CAD-on veneers on customized zirconia implant abutments. Forty-five identical customized CAD/CAM zirconia implant abutments (0.5 mm thick) were prepared and seated on short titanium implant abutments (Ti base). A second scan was made to fabricate 45 CAD-on veneers (IPS Empress CAD, A2). Fifteen CAD-on veneers were cemented on the zirconia abutments (Panavia F2.0). Another 15 were fused to the zirconia abutments using low-fusing glass, while manually layered veneers served as control (n = 15). The restorations were subjected to artificial aging (3.2 million cycles between 5 and 10 kg in a water bath at 37°C) before being axially loaded to failure. Fractured specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy to detect fracture origin, location, and size of critical crack. Stress at failure was calculated using fractography principles (alpha = 0.05). Cemented CAD-on restorations demonstrated significantly higher (F = 72, p veneers failed due to radial cracks originating from the veneer/resin interface. Branching of the critical crack was observed in the bulk of the veneer. Fused CAD-on veneers demonstrated cohesive fracture originating at the thickest part of the veneer ceramic, while manually layered veneers failed due to interfacial fracture at the zirconia/veneer interface. Within the limitations of this study, cemented CAD-on veneers on customized zirconia implant abutments demonstrated higher fracture than fused and manually layered veneers. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Full Text Available Objectives: This finite element method study aimed to compare the amount of stress on an isolated mandibular second premolar in two conventional reciprocal parallel interface designs of removable partial dentures (RPDs and the same RPD abutment tooth (not isolated.Materials and Methods: A Kennedy Class 1, modification 1 RPD framework was simulated on a 3D model of mandible with three different designs: an isolated tooth with a mesial rest, an isolated tooth with mesial and distal rests and an abutment with a mesial rest (which was not isolated; 26 N occlusal forces were exerted bilaterally on the first molar sites. Stress on the abutment teeth was analyzed using Cosmos Works 2009 Software.Results: In all designs, the abutment tooth stress concentration was located in the buccal alveolar crest. In the first model, the von Mises stress distribution in the contact area of I-bar clasp and cervical portion of the tooth was 19 MPa and the maximum stress was 30 MPa. In the second model, the maximum von Mises stress distribution was 15 MPa in the cervical of the tooth. In the third model, the maximum von Mises stress was located in the cervical of the tooth and the distal proximal plate.Conclusion: We recommend using both mesial and distal rests on the distal abutment teeth of distal extension RPDs. The abutment of an extension base RPD, which is not isolated in presence of its neighboring more anterior tooth, may have a better biomechanical prognosis.
Hata, Utako; Yamamura, Osamu; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Fujii, Teruhisa
Recently, the use of all-ceramic crowns has spread widely in clinical applications to meet the demand for both functional and esthetically-pleasing restorations. In making all-ceramic crowns, it is necessary to reproduce the shape and color near to those of the natural teeth. However, the color shades of abutments might influence the color of the copings which are made of material with high transparency. This study examined the influence of the color shades of the abutments on the final color of copings for three kinds of all-ceramic core materials: Empress, Empress 2 (IVOCLAR VIVADENT), and Procera AllCeram (Nobel Biocare). Copings with 0.5 mm in thickness were fabricated by using Empress (TC1), Empress 2 (100), and Procera AllCeram (white) core materials for an upper-right central incisor. Abutments were made by using six kinds of die materials of the Empress system (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST5, ST8, ST9), gold-silver-palladium alloy, gold alloy, and experimental black body. Copings were inserted in each abutment and the final color of the central part of the buccal surface was measured using a spectrophotometer according to the L*a*b* color system. Regardless of the color shades of the abutments, the chroma values of the copings rose in the order of Empress, Empress 2, and Procera, and the values of lightness rose in the order of Empress, Procera, and Empress 2. When the final color of each coping measured under the wet and dry conditions were compared, the difference in chroma was great. Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that the influence of the color shades of the abutments on the final color of the three kinds of copings is small in the order of Empress, Procera, and Empress 2. In clinical and dental laboratory operations, it is hoped to observe and measure the color of copings and restorations under the wet condition.
Ozkomur, Ahmet; Erbil, Mehmet; Akova, Tolga
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the galvanic corrosion behavior between titanium and nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloy, to investigate the effect of diamondlike carbon (DLC) coating over titanium on galvanic corrosion behavior between titanium and Ni-Cr alloy, and to evaluate the effect of DLC coating over titanium abutments on the fit and integrity of prosthetic assemblies by scanning electron microcopy (SEM). Five Ni-Cr and 10 titanium disks with a diameter of 5 mm and thickness of 3 mm were prepared. DLC coating was applied to five titanium disks. Electrode samples were prepared, and open circuit potential measurements, galvanic current measurements over platinum electrodes, and potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out. For the SEM evaluation, 20 Ni-Cr alloy and 10 gold alloy superstructures were cast and prepared over 30 abutments. DLC coating was applied to 10 of the abutments. Following the fixation of prosthetic assemblies, the samples were embedded in acrylic resin and cross sectioned longitudinally. Internal fit evaluations were carried out through examination of the SEM images. Titanium showed more noble and electrochemically stable properties than Ni-Cr alloy. DLC coating over the cathode electrode served as an insulating film layer over the surface and prevented galvanic coupling. Results of the SEM evaluations indicated that the DLC-coated and titanium abutments showed no statistically significant difference in fit. Hence, no adverse effects on the adaptation of prosthetic components were found with the application of DLC coating over abutment surfaces. DLC coating might serve as a galvanic corrosion barrier between titanium abutments and Ni-Cr superstructures.
... problems related to implant components include abutment screw fracture. Jung et al., 2008, reported that prosthetic screw fracture has an incidence rate of 3.9% and the rate for prosthetic screw loosening is 6.7%. Fracture of the implant abutment in a patient with bruxism was reported as a rare case with prosthodontic complication due to the low...
This rare case report describes prosthodontic complications resulting from a dental implant was placed surgically more distally in the area of the missing mandibular first molar with a cantilever effect and a crest width of >12 mm in a 59-year-old patient who had a history of bruxism. Fracture of abutment is a common complication in implant was placed in area with high occlusal forces. Inability to remove the broken abutment may most often end up in discarding the implant. Adding one more den...
Full Text Available Background: Peri-implant crestal bone must be stable for aesthetic reasons. Aim of this study was a histologic analysis of an implant with a platform switched implant-abutment connection. Materials and methods: A 32-year-old male patient participated in this study. The patient needed a bilateral mandibular restoration. Four implants were used, and were immediately restored and loaded the same day of insertion. After a 6 weeks healing period, one implant with platform-switched abutment was retrieved with trephine. Before retrieval the implant was osseointegrated and not mobile. On one side of the implant, a 1 mm resorption of the crestal bone was present. On the contrary, on the other side no bone resorption had occurred and about 1 mm of bone was present over the implant shoulder. Results: The bone-implant contact percentage was 65.1 ± 6.3 %. Platform- switching could help in maintaining the height of the peri-implant crestal bone.
Full Text Available The use of dental implants to solve different problems in dentistry has been growing rapidly. The success rates of dental implants are also very important for patients. Depending on the bone level of patients, short dental implants are very popular and widely used by many dentists. Although many dentists are using short dental implants frequently, It can be guessed that there can be stability problems because of crown to implant ratios. In this study, it is aimed to find out the effects of dental implant and abutment lengths on stability of short dental implants. 3 different short dental implant design made with the use of Solidworks 2013. Abutment lengths were 3,5 mm, 4 mm, 4,5 mm, 5 mm and implant lengths were 5 mm, 6 mm, 7 mm for each model. Human mandible model is transferred from Computed Tomography. Then, each implant model is mounted to modeled mandible and Finite Element Analysis is performed for each model. In order to see the effects of implant number on stability, we performed same analysis by placing 4 implants to the mandible
Degidi, Marco; Nardi, Diego; Sighinolfi, Gianluca; Piattelli, Adriano
The use of the conical coupling connection to support definitive restorations was evaluated in cases involving full acrylic resin or hybrid acrylic resin-composite prostheses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of definitive fixed partial prostheses made with lithium disilicate and supported by coupling connection abutments and healed implants. The prostheses were placed in the posterior regions of partially edentulous patients; 65 patients received fixed lithium disilicate restorations splinted with conical coupling connections to two implants. Implants were placed into healed sites and fresh extraction sockets. The prostheses were placed after healing periods of 3 months: restorations were followed yearly for 3 years. At each follow-up visit, peri-implant bone levels and pocket depths were recorded. Esthetic, functional, and biologic United States Public Health Services (USPHS) parameters modified by the FDI World Dental Federation study design were assessed at the last follow-up appointments. Two prostheses (3.07%) fractured: one was related to framework design error; one was caused by a car accident. Three patients reported small chips: these restorations were immediately polished. No significant difference involving peri-implant bone and probing levels between the experimental times were found. None of the prostheses became loose. The results of this research indicated that abutment-prostheses coupling connections were successful within the timeframe of this study. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Tinner, D; Marinello, C; Kerschbaum, T
The goal of the questionnaire was to determine the materials and methods that general dentists in Switzerland at present use for the treatment of non-vital abutment teeth. Questionnaires were sent to 1000 dentists from a computer generated random sample of the list of members of the SSO (Swiss Dental Society). The return ratio was 36%. The responses provided information on the current philosophies and prevailing techniques used to restore endodontically treated abutment teeth. Most of the answering dentists believed it was necessary to stabilize a root treated tooth with a post. The preferred restoration in anterior teeth was the cast post and core, while composite resin build-up with a prefabricated post was predominantly made for posterior teeth. Conical or combined cylindrical-conical posts, which had a sand-blasted surface, were predominantly used. Most of the answering dentists strove to stabilize the remaining tooth structure by circular enclosure of the tooth structure by the later crown (ferrule effect). Zinc phosphate cement was still preferred for cementation of metal posts and ceramic posts were most often fixed with the help of the acid etching technique. The most frequently described failures were retention loss or root fractures.
Kappel, Stefanie; Chepura, Taras; Schmitter, Marc; Rammelsberg, Peter; Rues, Stefan
To examine the in vitro effects of different cements, abutment surface preconditioning, and artificial aging on the maximum tensile force needed to detach cantilever fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) from dental implants with titanium abutments. A total of 32 tissue-level implants were combined with standardized titanium abutments. For each test group, eight cantilever FDPs were fabricated using selective laser melting (cobalt-chromium [CoCr] alloy). The inner surfaces of the cantilever FDPs and half of the abutments were sandblasted and then joined by use of four different cements (two permanent and two semi-permanent) in two different amounts per cement. Subgroups were tested after either artificial aging (thermocycling and chewing simulation) or 3 days of water storage. Finally, axial pull off-tests were performed for each abutment separately. Cement type and surface pretreatment significantly affected decementation behavior. The highest retention forces (approximately 1,200 N) were associated with sandblasted abutments and permanent cements. With unconditioned abutments, temporary cements (Fu cement (Fu ≈ 100 N), resulted in rather low retention forces. Zinc phosphate cement guaranteed high retention forces. After aging, retention was sufficient only for cementation with zinc phosphate cement and for the combination of sandblasted abutments and glass-ionomer cement. When glass-ionomer cement is used to fix cantilever FDPs on implants, sandblasting of standard titanium abutments may help prevent loss of retention. Retention forces were still high for FDPs fixed with zinc phosphate cement, even when the abutments were not pretreated. Use of permanent cements only, however, is recommended to prevent unwanted loosening of cantilever FDPs.
Kaleli, Necati; Sarac, Duygu; Külünk, Safak; Öztürk, Özgür
In recent years, the use of resin-matrix ceramics and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) abutments has been suggested to absorb excessive stresses on dental implants. However, only a few studies have evaluated the effect of these materials on stress distribution in implants and peripheral bone structure. The purpose of this finite element analysis was to evaluate the biomechanical behaviors of resin-matrix ceramics and PEEK customized abutments in terms of stress distribution in implants and peripheral bone. Three-dimensional (3D) models of a bone-level implant system and a titanium base abutment were created by using the standard tessellation language (STL) data of original implant components. An anatomic customized abutment and a maxillary right second premolar crown were then modeled over the titanium base abutment. A bone block representing the maxillary right premolar area was created, and the implant was placed in the bone block with 100% osseointegration. Six different models were created according to combinations of restoration materials (translucent zirconia [TZI], lithium disilicate glass ceramic [IPS], polymer-infiltrated hybrid ceramic [VTE]), and customized abutment materials (PEEK and zirconia). In each model, the implants were loaded vertically (200 N) and obliquely (100 N). The stress distribution in the crown, implant, and abutments was evaluated through the von Mises stress analysis, and the stress distribution in the peripheral bone was examined through the maximum and minimum principal stress analyses. The oblique load resulted in high stress values in the implant components, restorative crown, and cortical bone. Low stress values were observed in the VTE crowns. Zirconia customized abutments exhibited higher stress values than PEEK customized abutments. The stress distributions in the implant and peripheral bone were similar in all models. Changes in restoration and customized abutment material did not affect stress distribution in the implant and
Heuer, W; Stiesch, M; Abraham, W R
Supra- and subgingival biofilm formation is considered to be mainly responsible for early implant failure caused by inflammations of periimplant tissues. Nevertheless, little is known about the complex microbial diversity and interindividual similarities around dental implants. An atraumatic assessment was made of the diversity of microbial communities around titanium implants by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons as well as subsequent sequence analysis. Samples of adherent supra- and subgingival periimplant biofilms were collected from ten patients. Additionally, samples of sulcusfluid were taken at titanium implant abutments and remaining teeth. The bacteria in the samples were characterized by SSCP and sequence analysis. A high diversity of bacteria varying between patients and within one patient at different locations was found. Bacteria characteristic for sulcusfluid and supra- and subgingival biofilm communities were identified. Sulcusfluid of the abutments showed higher abundance of Streptococcus species than from residual teeth. Prevotella and Rothia species frequently reported from the oral cavity were not detected at the abutments suggesting a role as late colonizers. Different niches in the human mouth are characterized by specific groups of bacteria. Implant abutments are a very valuable approach to study dental biofilm development in vivo.
Rismanchian, Mansour; Davoudi, Amin; Shadmehr, Elham
Connecting prostheses to the implant abutments has become a concern and achieving a satisfactory retention has been focused in cement-retention prostheses recently. Sandblasting is a method to make a roughened surface for providing more retention. The aim of this study was to compare effects of nano and micro airborne abrasive particles (ABAP) in roughening surface of implant abutments and further retention of cemented copings. Thirty Xive abutments and analogues (4.5 D GH1) were mounted vertically in self-cured acrylic blocks. Full metal Ni-Cr copings with a loop on the top were fabricated with appropriate marginal adaptation for each abutment. All samples were divided into 3 groups: first group (MPS) was sandblasted with 50 µm Al2O3 micro ABAP, second group (NSP) was sandblasted with 80 nm Al2O3 nano ABAP, and the third group (C) was assumed as control. The samples were cemented with provisional cement (Temp Bond) and tensile bond strength of cemented copings was evaluated by a universal testing machine after thermic cycling. The t test for independent samples was used for statistical analysis by SPSS software (version 15) at the significant level of 0.05. Final result showed significant difference among all groups (pABAP is an efficient way for increasing bond strengths significantly, but it seems that micro ABAP was more effective.
Glenn Hsuan-Chen Chang
Full Text Available Purpose: An integrated fixture mount/impression coping/ temporary abutment can provide many advantages for immediate loading of dental implants, such as simpler procedure, less chair time, cost reduction, and comfort for the patients. Materials and Methods: A newly designed dental implant fixture mount (DIFMA can be used as an impression coping for taking an immediate impression. An immediate load provisional prosthesis can then be fabricated shortly after implant placement to immediately load the implants. This fixture mount can also serve as a temporary abutment for immediate chair-side fabrication of provisional prosthesis. Two clinical cases are presented. Results: A clinical case utilizing the fixture mount abutment (DIFMA/implant assembly is presented. The precision of fitting between the impression copings and implants is secured with this system. The chair time for taking an immediate impression is greatly reduced. Less cost for the restoration is provided and patient comfort is delivered. Conclusions: More patient satisfaction can be conferred by employing the fixture mount in the process of immediate impression taking and as an immediate provisional abutment.
Patil, Ratnadeep; Gresnigt, Marco M M; Mahesh, Kavita; Dilbaghi, Anjali; Cune, Marco S
Purpose: To correlate patients' satisfaction and dentists' observations regarding two abutment designs used for single crowns in the esthetic zone: a divergent one (control) and a curved one (experimental), with special emphasis on muco-gingival esthetics. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients
Brakel, Ralph van; Cune, Marco S.; Winkelhoff, Arie Jan van; Putter, Cornelis de; Verhoeven, Jan Willem; Reijden, Wil van der
AIM: To compare the early bacterial colonization and soft tissue health of mucosa adjacent to zirconia (ZrO(2)) and titanium (Ti) abutment surfaces in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty edentulous subjects received two endosseous mandibular implants. The implants were fitted with either a ZrO(2) or
A new bridge design and construction trend to help improve durability and rideability is to remove expansion joints over piers and abutments. One approach to achieve this is to make the deck continuous over the piers by means of a link slab while the...
A new bridge design and construction trend to help improve durability and rideability is to remove expansion : joints over piers and abutments. One approach to achieve this is to make the deck continuous over the piers by : means of a link slab while...
Erica Dorigatti de Avila
Full Text Available The aim of this review was to investigate the relationship between biofilm and peri-implant disease, with an emphasis on the types of implant abutment surfaces. Individuals with periodontal disease typically have a large amount of pathogenic microorganisms in the periodontal pocket. If the individuals lose their teeth, these microorganisms remain viable inside the mouth and can directly influence peri-implant microbiota. Metal implants offer a suitable solution, but similarly, these remaining bacteria can adhere on abutment implant surfaces, induce peri-implantitis causing potential destruction of the alveolar bone near to the implant threads and cause the subsequent loss of the implant. Studies have demonstrated differences in biofilm formation on dental materials and these variations can be associated with both physical and chemical characteristics of the surfaces. In the case of partially edentulous patients affected by periodontal disease, the ideal type of implant abutments utilized should be one that adheres the least or negligible amounts of periodontopathogenic bacteria. Therefore, it is of clinically relevance to know how the bacteria behave on different types of surfaces in order to develop new materials and/or new types of treatment surfaces, which will reduce or inhibit adhesion of pathogenic microorganisms, and, thus, restrict the use of the abutments with indication propensity for bacterial adhesion.
Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The connector area is the weakest zone of an all-ceramic fixed partial denture (FPD, where most catastrophic failures of the prostheses tend to occur.Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of the convergence angle of abutments on the fracture resistance of three-unit fixed partial dentures made of IPSEmpress2.Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human premolars and molars were used to reproduce twenty, 3-unit fixed partial dentures, for the replacement of second premolars. All teeth were prepared according to the guidelines outlined for all-ceramic crowns and bridges, except for the convergence angles of the abutments. The specimens were randomly divided into two groups of 10, with total occlusal convergence angles of 12° and 22°. Fixed partial dentures with a uniform thickness of 0.8 mm were fabricated using IPS-Empress2 and were bonded to the corresponding models. Connectordimensions were set to 4 mm height and 4mm width. The radius of curvature at the gingival embrasure was carved to 0.9 mm. All specimens were exposed to 10,000 preloading cycles and a load of 40 N at a frequency of 1.3 Hz in a standardized testing machine at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. Student t-test was performed to detect any difference in the mean fracture resistance between the two groups (α = 0.05.Results: Mean failure loads (and standard deviations of the 12° and 22° groups were 1009.12 N (208.05 and 1182.72 N (144.67, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference (P <0.04 between the mean failure loads of the two groups. Mostfractures occurred through the connectors.Conclusion: The mean failure loads of the investigated fixed partial dentures were higher in the abutments with 22° taper as compared to those with a taper of 12°.
Full Text Available Introduction: The endocrown is a mean for restoring endodontically treated teeth. It has a circumferential preparation with a butt-joint border and accessory retention within the pulp chamber. It does not require root preparation for placement of posts or post and cores making it a more conservative restoration that evades the shortcomings of the above-mentioned. Aim: Evaluation of the clinical performance and longevity of three-unit FPD’s with endocrown preparation for the distal abutment tooth and comparison with a conventional FPD’semploying the Split-mouth method. Methods and materials: Patients with identical defects on the maxillary or mandibular dental arches are examined. 22 patients are chosen amongst them with a minimal step of randomization (n=3. The design of the study is based on the method of auto-control and consistent with the CONSORT Statement. The type of the preparation design for the distal abutment tooth is randomly chosen for each side of the dentition. Both FPD’s are fabricated from Laboratory resin composite (Vita LC/VM with infrastructure made from glass fibres - Turka GS/CSB (Stick Tech. Silane agent is applied to the inner aspects of the bridges and a 3 Steps adhesive system is used (Optibond (Kerr / Hawe. Luting is carried out with Resin cement (RelyX Ultimate Adhesive Resin Cement (3M ESPE. In order to assess the clinical performance of the FPD’s a modified USPHS criteria was used. All patients were examined at predetermined time periods by one of the researchers. Analyses of the results are performed with descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier longevity test. Results: The evaluation period is 4 years for all FPD’s. Regular control appointments were conducted at 6 months, 1, 2, 3 and 4 years post cementation. The modified USPHS criteria showed full Alfa scores on colour match and anatomic contour. Kaplan Meier survival analysis showed 93.22% survival rate for all FPD’s – conventional and endocrown
Alves, Célia C; Muñoz, Fernando; Cantalapiedra, António; Ramos, Isabel; Neves, Manuel; Blanco, Juan
The effect on the marginal peri-implant tissues following repeated platform switching abutment removal and subsequent reconnection was studied. Six adult female Beagle dogs were selected, and Pm3 and Pm4 teeth, both left and right sides, were extracted and the sites healed for 3 months. At this time, 24 bone level (BL) (Straumann, Basel, Switzerland) Ø 3.3/8 mm implants were placed, 2 in each side on Pm3 and Pm4 regions. In one side (control group), 12 bone level conical Ø 3.6 mm healing abutments and, on the other side (test group), 12 Narrow CrossFit (NC) multibase abutments (Straumann) , Basel, Switzerland) were connected at time of implant surgery. On test group, all prosthetic procedures were carried out direct to multibase abutment without disconnecting it, where in the control group, the multibase abutment was connected/disconnected five times (at 6/8/10/12/14 weeks) during prosthetic procedures. Twelve fixed metal bridges were delivered 14 weeks after implant placement. A cleaning/control appointment was scheduled 6 months after implant placement. The animals were sacrificed at 9 months of the study. Clinical parameters and peri-apical x-rays were registered in every visit. Histomorphometric analysis was carried out for the 24 implants. The distance from multibase abutment shoulder to the first bone implant contact (S-BIC) was defined as the primary histomorphometric parameter. Wilcoxon comparison paired test (n = 6) found no statistically significant differences (buccal P = 0.917; Lingual P = 0.463) between test and control groups both lingually and buccally for S-BIC distance. Only Pm3 buccal aBE-BC (distance from the apical end of the barrier epithelium to the first bone implant contact) (P = 0.046) parameter presented statistically significant differences between test and control groups. Control group presented 0.57 mm more recession than test group, being this difference statistically significant between the two groups (P < 0.001). It can be conclude
Iglhaut, Gerhard; Becker, Kathrin; Golubovic, Vladimir; Schliephake, Henning; Mihatovic, Ilja
To (i) investigate the influence of different extensions of a laser microgrooved abutment zone on connective tissue attachment and (ii) assess the impact of a repeated abutment dis-/reconnection on soft- and hard-tissue healing. Titanium implants were inserted epicrestally in the lower jaws of six dogs. Healing abutments with either partially (LP) or completely (LC) laser microgrooved margins or machined surface margins (M) were randomly allocated either to a single (1×)/repeated (2×) dis-/reconnection at 4 and 6 weeks (test), respectively, or left undisturbed (control). At 6 and 8 weeks, histomorphometrical (e.g. most coronal level of bone in contact with the implant [CBI], subepithelial connective tissue attachment [STC]) and immunohistochemical (Collagen Type-I [CI]) parameters were assessed. At control sites, LP/LC groups revealed lower mean CBL (8 weeks, 0.95 ± 0.51 vs. 0.54 ± 0.63 vs. 1.66 ± 1.26 mm), higher mean STC (8 weeks, 82.58 ± 24.32% vs. 96.37 ± 5.12% vs. 54.17 ± 8.09%), but comparable CI antigen reactivity. A repeated abutment manipulation was associated with increased mean CBL (8 weeks, 1.53 ± 1.09 vs. 0.94 ± 0.17 vs. 1.06 ± 0.34 mm), decreased STC (8 weeks, 57.34 ± 43.06% vs. 13.26 ± 19.04% vs. 37.76 ± 37.08%) and CI values. It was concluded that (i) LC>LP abutments enhanced subepithelial connective tissue attachment and preserved crestal bone levels, (ii) repeated abutment dis-/reconnection during the initial healing phase (4-6 weeks) may be associated with increased soft- and hard-tissue changes and (iii) LP and LC should be considered using a one abutment, one time approach. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Garcia, Berta; Camacho, Fabio; Peñarrocha, David; Tallarico, Marco; Perez, Sara; Canullo, Luigi
Plasma application can lead to an improved adhesion between soft tissue and abutments and promotes cell spreading. A triple-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial was performed to in vivo test the effect of cleaning abutment titanium surfaces with plasma of argon on cell adhesion and collagen fiber orientation at an early healing time. Thirty healthy patients with 30 submerged implants, at the second surgery, randomly received either a specially designed abutment with no additional treatment (as they come from industry; control group, G1) or cleaned by plasma of argon (test group, G2). Two weeks thereafter, a small biopsy including abutment and soft tissues around the abutment was performed. Abutments were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy to assess cell adhesion to the abutment surface. Outcome measures were the following: percentage of area occupied by cells, the presence or absence of cells, aspect of adhered cells, and the presence of contaminants. At the same time, the soft tissue histological analysis evaluated density and orientation of collagen fibers. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test and Levene variance homogeneity test. Data were analyzed using a nonparametric ranking test. The associations between the different qualitative variables were studied using Pearson's chi-squared test. The Mann-Whitney U-test (for two independent samples) was applied for quantitative variables. Mean percentages of area occupied by cells were 15.14% (range 2.91-44.27) and 33.75% (range 2.37-68.4) for G1 and G2, respectively. Differences were close to significance (P = 0.089). The proportion of samples presenting adhered cells was homogeneous between the two groups (P = 0.142). In all cases, cells presented a flattened aspect, but not in three cases in the G2; in 17 cases, cells were efficiently adhered, and in 11 cases, cells presented filopodia with no statistical differences between groups (P > 0.05). No case
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone loss at implants connected to abutments coated with a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles, subjected to experimental peri-implantitis. Also the aging and erosion of the coating in mouth was studied. Five beagle dogs were used in the experiments. Three implants were placed in each mandible quadrant: in 2 of them, Glass/n-Ag coated abutments were connected to implant platform, 1 was covered with a Ti-mechanized abutment. Experimental peri-implantitis was induced in all implants after the submarginal placement of cotton ligatures, and three months after animals were euthanatized. Thickness and morphology of coating was studied in abutment cross-sections by SEM. Histology and histo-morphometric studies were carried on in undecalfied ground slides. After the induced peri-implantitis: 1.The abutment coating shown losing of thickness and cracking. 2. The histometry showed a significant less bone loss in the implants with glass/n-Ag coated abutments. A more symmetric cone of bone resorption was observed in the coated group. There were no significant differences in the peri-implantitis histological characteristics between both groups of implants. Within the limits of this in-vivo study, it could be affirmed that abutments coated with biocide soda-lime-glass-silver nanoparticles can reduce bone loss in experimental peri-implantitis. This achievement makes this coating a suggestive material to control peri-implantitis development and progression.
Joda, Tim; Huber, Samuel; Bürki, Alexander; Zysset, Philippe; Brägger, Urs
Recent technical development allows the digital manufacturing of monolithic reconstructions with high-performance materials. For implant-supported crowns, the fixation requires an abutment design onto which the reconstruction can be bonded. The aim of this laboratory investigation was to analyze stiffness, strength, and failure modes of implant-supported, computer-assisted design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-generated resin nano ceramic (RNC) crowns bonded to three different titanium abutments. Eighteen monolithic RNC crowns were produced and loaded in a universal testing machine under quasi-static condition according to DIN ISO 14801. With regard to the type of titanium abutment, three groups were defined: (1) prefabricated cementable standard; (2) CAD/CAM-constructed individualized; and (3) novel prefabricated bonding base. Stiffness and strength were measured and analyzed statistically with Wilcoxon rank sum test. Sections of the specimens were examined microscopically. Stiffness demonstrated high stability for all specimens loaded in the physiological loading range with means and standard deviations of 1,579 ± 120 N/mm (group A), 1,733 ± 89 N/mm (group B), and 1,704 ± 162 N/mm (group C). Mean strength of the novel prefabricated bonding base (group C) was 17% lower than of the two other groups. Plastic deformations were detectable for all implant-abutment crown connections. Monolithic implant crowns made of RNC seem to represent a feasible and stable prosthetic construction under laboratory testing conditions with strength higher than the average occlusal force, independent of the different abutment designs used in this investigation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shim, Hye Won; Yang, Byoung-Eun
To evaluate the cumulative survival rate (CSR) and mechanical complications of single-tooth Ankylos® implants. This was a retrospective clinical study that analyzed 450 single Ankylos® implants installed in 275 patients between December 2005 and December 2012. The main outcomes were survival results CSR and implant failure) and mechanical complications (screw loosening, fracture, and cumulative fracture rate [CFR]). The main outcomes were analyzed according to age, sex, implant length or diameter, bone graft, arch, and position. The 8-year CSR was 96.9%. Thirteen (2.9%) implants failed because of early osseointegration failure in 3, marginal bone loss in 6, and abutment fracture in 4. Screw loosening occurred in 10 implants (2.2%), and 10 abutment fractures occurred. All abutment fractures were located in the neck, and concurrent screw fractures were observed. The CSR and rate of screw loosening did not differ significantly according to factors. The CFR was higher in middle-aged patients (5.3% vs 0.0% in younger and older patients); for teeth in a molar position (5.8% vs 0.0% for premolar or 1.1% for anterior position); and for larger-diameter implants (4.5% for 4.5 mm and 6.7% for 5.5 mm diameter vs 0.5% for 3.5 mm diameter) (all PAnkylos® implant is suitable for single-tooth restoration in Koreans. However, relatively frequent abutment fractures (2.2%) were observed and some fractures resulted in implant failures. Middle-aged patients, the molar position, and a large implant diameter were associated with a high incidence of abutment fracture.
Canullo, L; Penarrocha-Oltra, D; Marchionni, S; Bagán, L; Peñarrocha-Diago, M-A; Micarelli, C
A randomized controlled trial was performed to assess soft tissue cell adhesion to implant titanium abutments subjected to different cleaning procedures and test if plasma cleaning can enhance cell adhesion at an early healing time. Eighteen patients with osseointegrated and submerged implants were included. Before re-opening, 18 abutments were divided in 3 groups corresponding to different clinical conditions with different cleaning processes: no treatment (G1), laboratory customization and cleaning by steam (G2), cleaning by plasma of Argon (G3). Abutments were removed after 1 week and scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze cell adhesion to the abutment surface quantitatively (percentage of area occupied by cells) and qualitatively (aspect of adhered cells and presence of contaminants). Mean percentages of area occupied by cells were 17.6 ± 22.7%, 16.5 ± 12.9% and 46.3 ± 27.9% for G1, G2 and G3 respectively. Differences were statistically significant between G1 and G3 (p=0.030), close to significance between G2 and G3 (p=0.056), and non-significant between G1 and G2 (p=0.530). The proportion of samples presenting adhered cells was homogeneous among the 3 groups (p-valor = 1.000). In all cases cells presented a flattened aspect; in 2 cases cells were less efficiently adhered and in 1 case cells presented filipodia. Three cases showed contamination with cocobacteria. Within the limits of the present study, plasma of Argon may enhance cell adhesion to titanium abutments, even at the early stage of soft tissue healing. Further studies with greater samples are necessary to confirm these findings.
Magne, Pascal; Paranhos, Maria Paula Gandolfi; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Magne, Michel; Belser, Urs Christoph
This study assessed the fatigue resistance and failure mode of type III porcelain and composite resin veneers bonded to custom zirconia implant abutments. Twenty-four standardized zirconia implant abutments were fabricated. Using the CEREC 3 machine, type III veneers of standardized shape were milled in ceramic Vita Mark II or in composite resin Paradigm MZ100. The intaglio surfaces of the restorations were hydrofluoric acid etched and silanated (Mark II) or airborne-particle abraded and silanated (MZ100). The fitting surface of the abutments was airborne-particle abraded, cleaned, and inserted into a bone level implant (BLI RC SLActive 10 mm). All veneers (n=24) were adhesively luted with a zirconia primer (Z-Prime Plus), adhesive resin (Optibond FL) and a pre-heated light-curing composite resin (Filtek Z100). Cyclic isometric chewing (5 Hz) was simulated, starting with a load of 40 N, followed by stages of 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, and 280 N (20,000 cycles each). Samples were loaded until fracture or to a maximum of 140,000 cycles. Groups were compared using the life table survival analysis (Logrank test at P=.05). Mark II and MZ100 specimens fractured at an average load of 216 N and 229 N (survival rate of 17% and 8%), respectively, with no difference in survival probability (P=.18). Among the fractured samples, 40% of the failures were at the abutment level for Mark II and 27% were at the abutment level for MZ100. No exclusive adhesive failures were observed. Type III Mark II and Paradigm MZ100 veneers showed similar fatigue resistance when bonded to custom non-retentive zirconia implant abutments. The bond was strong enough to induce abutment fractures. MZ100 presented a higher percentage of "friendly" failures, i.e. maintaining the restoration-abutment adhesive interface and the abutment itself intact. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
This book is an outcome of the research project “ECOBRIDGE – Demonstration of ECOnomical BRIDGE solutions based on innovative composite dowels and integrated abutments – RFCS – CT 2010-00024”, which has been co-funded by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (R.F.C.S.) of the European Community. The main topics of the book are the following: design of integral bridges, innovative composite dowels for the shear transmission, construction of bridges, structural analysis of bridges and monitoring. The book joins the technical experience and the contributions of the involved research partners. The technical content of all the papers is present-day in the field of the design, construction and monitoring of innovative composite bridges. The efficient design and construction improve and consolidate the market position of steel construction and steel producing industry. In addition, the advanced forms of construction are contributing to savings in material and energy consumption for the structure during prod...
Cano, Jorge; Campo, Julián; Colmenero, César; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco
Loading in implant dentistry to accelerate prosthodontic treatment has been receiving increasing interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an early controlled lateral loading (after 7 days) on the establishment of osseointegration by means of resonance frequency analysis. Two groups of six beagle dogs each were used. Group I had implants without loading. Group II had implants loaded with a new prototype compression abutment that created controlled semi-static loading. Loaded implants showed slightly better stability after 5 weeks of healing, but the difference was not significant. We concluded that controlled loading is beneficial to maintain, and even improve, stability during the early critical healing period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
was to test the reliability and validity of six aesthetic parameters used at the Copenhagen Dental School to assess the aesthetic outcome of implant-supported restorations. The aims of study III and IV were to compare the influence of different abutment and crown materials on biological, biomechanical......To restore oral functions in patients with missing teeth, single-tooth implants are a well-documented treatment option. Along with high survival rates, aesthetic factors have become an important clinical outcome variable for evaluating treatment success of implant-supported restorations. Thus...... studies have reported on aesthetic, biological, biomechanical and patient-reported outcomes of implant-supported single-tooth restorations of various biomaterials. The aim of the present thesis was to investigate the clinical performance of zirconia-based implant-supported single-tooth restorations...
Brozović, Juraj; Demoli, Nazif; Farkaš, Nina; Sušić, Mato; Alar, Zeljko; Gabrić Pandurić, Dragana
The aim of this study was to (i) obtain the force-related interferometric patterns of loaded dental implant-abutment assemblies differing in diameter and brand using digital holographic interferometry (DHI) and (ii) determine the influence of implant diameter on the extent of load-induced implant deformation by quantifying and comparing the obtained interferometric data. Experiments included five implant brands (Ankylos, Astra Tech, blueSKY, MIS and Straumann), each represented by a narrow and a wide diameter implant connected to a corresponding abutment. A quasi-Fourier setup with a 25mW helium-neon laser was used for interferometric measurements in the cervical 5mm of the implants. Holograms were recorded in two conditions per measurement: a 10N preloaded and a measuring-force loaded assembly, resulting with an interferogram. This procedure was repeated throughout the whole process of incremental axial loading, from 20N to 120N. Each measurement series was repeated three times for each assembly, with complete dismantling of the implant-loading device in between. Additional software analyses calculated deformation data. Deformations were presented as mean values±standard deviations. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed effects modeling in R's lme4 package. Implants exhibited linear deformation patterns. The wide diameter group had lower mean deformation values than the narrow diameter group. The diameter significantly affected the deformation throughout loading sessions. This study gained in vitro implant performance data, compared the deformations in implant bodies and numerically stated the biomechanical benefits of wider diameter implants. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zandparsa, Roya; Albosefi, Abdalah
The purpose of part II of this in vitro study was to compare the fracture load of two-piece zirconia custom abutments with different thicknesses and angulations. Forty zirconia custom abutments were divided into four groups as follows: group A1: 0.7 mm thickness and 0° angulations; group A2: 0.7 mm thickness and 15° angulations; group B1: 1 mm thickness and 0° angulations; group B2: 1 mm thickness and 15° angulations. As in part I, in all groups, implant replicas were mounted in self-cure acrylic jigs to support the abutments. The zirconia custom abutments were engaged in the implant replicas using a manual torque wrench. All jigs were secured and mounted in a metallic vice and subjected to shear stress till failure using a universal testing machine with a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed with the force transferred to the lingual surface of the zirconia custom abutments 2 mm below the incisal edge. The test specimens used in this study did not include a crown. The universal testing machine was controlled via a computer software system, which also completed the stress-strain diagram and recorded the breaking fracture load. The fracture loads were recorded for comparison among the groups and subjected to statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA and Kolmogorov-Smirnov). The mean fracture load of zirconia custom abutments across the groups (A1 to B2) ranged from 432 ± 97 N to 746 ± 275 N. The angulated zirconia custom abutment exhibited the highest fracture load, which was statistically significant (p = 0.045). The thickness of the zirconia custom abutment also had a positive influence on the strength of the specimens (p = 0.005). In this study, the 15° angulated zirconia custom abutments showed the highest fracture load of those investigated. The 1 mm thick zirconia custom abutments also exhibited significantly higher fracture load compared to 0.7 mm abutments. The results of this in vitro study will help dental practitioners with their decision-making process in
Albosefi, Abdalah; Finkelman, Matthew; Zandparsa, Roya
The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the fracture load of one-piece zirconia custom abutments with different thicknesses and angulations. Forty zirconia custom abutments were divided into four groups. Group A-1 and group B-1 simulated a clinical situation with an ideal implant position, which allows for the use of straight zirconia custom abutments with two thicknesses (0.7 and 1 mm). Groups A-2 and B-2 simulated a situation with a compromised implant position requiring 15° angulated abutments with different thicknesses (0.7 and 1 mm). Implant replicas were mounted in self-cure acrylic jigs to support the abutments in all groups. The zirconia custom abutments were engaged in the implant replicas using a manual torque wrench. Each jig was secured and mounted in a metallic vice 30° relative to a mechanical indenter. All groups were subjected to shear stress until failure using a universal testing machine with a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed with the force transferred to the lingual surface of the zirconia custom abutments 2 mm below the top surface. The universal testing machine was controlled via a computer software system that also completed the stress-strain diagram and recorded the breaking fracture load. The fracture loads were recorded for comparison among the groups and subjected to statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA). The mean fracture load of zirconia custom abutments across the groups (A-1 through B-2) ranged from 160 ± 60 to 230 ± 95 N. The straight zirconia custom abutment exhibited the highest fracture load among the groups (p = 0.009); however, the thickness of the zirconia custom abutment had no influence on the strength of any of the specimens (p = 0.827). There was no statistically significant difference in fracture strength between the 0.7 and 1.0 mm groups; however, angulated zirconia custom abutments had the lowest fracture load. The results of this in vitro study will help dental practitioners with their decision-making process
Saker, Samah; El-Shahat, Sameh; Ghazy, Mohamed
The purpose of this study was to evaluate fracture resistance of straight and angulated zirconia implant abutments supporting anterior three-unit lithium disilicate fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Four different test groups (n = 8) representing anterior three-unit implant-supported all-ceramic FDPs were fabricated to fit an in vitro model with two implants. Groups 1 and 2 simulated a clinical situation with an ideal implant position for maxillary left central and right lateral incisors from a prosthetic point of view, which allowed for the use of a straight, prefabricated zirconia and titanium abutment. Groups 3 and 4 simulated a situation with a compromised implant position that required an angulated (15-degree) abutment. Tapered internal-connection implants (Direct's Legacy, 13-mm length, 3.7-mm diameter, Implant Direct) mounted in epoxy resin models were used in this study. Lithium disilicate (IPS e.max press, Ivoclar Vivadent) three-unit FDPs were fabricated and cemented using self-adhesive resin cement. The samples were subjected to thermocycling (2 × 3,000 × 5°C/55°C) and mechanical loading (TCML; 50 N × 600,000 cycles). Fracture resistances were determined for all the samples that survived aging. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to test for differences in fracture strength values at a 5% significance level. All samples subjected to TCML survived without mechanical failure. The highest fracture loads were associated with FDPs supported by implants with 0-degree abutment angulations compared with those FDPs supported by 15-degree abutment angulations (group 1: 538.7 ± 24.77 N; group 2: 542.17 ± 21.64 N; group 3: 523.57 ± 19.71 N; group 4: 528.37 ± 24.57 N). This difference in load-bearing capacity was not statistically significant (P > .05). The use of angulated zirconia abutments for compensation of nonideal implant locations is possible without reducing the load-bearing capacity of implant
Hajimiragha, Habib; Abolbashari, Mohammadreza; Nokar, Saeed; Abolbashari, AmirHossein; Abolbashari, Mehrdad
The present study was done to evaluate the effects of different types of abutments on the rate and distribution of stress on the bone surrounding the implant by dynamic finite element analysis method. In this study two ITI abutment models-one-piece and multi-piece-along with fixture, bone, and superstructure have been simulated with the help of company-made models. The maximum Von Mises stress (MVMS) was observed in the distobuccal area of the cortical bone near the crest of implant in two implant models. In the multi-piece abutment, MVMS was higher than the one-piece model (27.9 MPa and 23.3 MPa, respectively). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that type of abutment influences the stress distribution in the area surrounding the implant during dynamic loading.
Huang, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chun-Li; Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching
The resistance form is a key factor for a successful crown fabrication. This in vitro study evaluates the effects of proximal grooves and abutment height on the resistance of single cast crowns in molars with inadequate resistance...
Magne, Pascal; Oderich, Elisa; Boff, Luís Leonildo; Cardoso, Antônio Carlos; Belser, Urs Christoph
This study assessed the fatigue resistance and failure mode of type III porcelain and composite resin veneers bonded to custom composite resin implant abutments. Using the CEREC 3 machine, 28 composite resin implant abutments (Paradigm MZ100) were fabricated along with non-retentive type III veneers, milled either in ceramic Paradigm C (n=14) or in composite resin Paradigm MZ100 (n=14). The intaglio surfaces of the veneers were hydrofluoric acid etched and silanated (Paradigm C) or airborne-particle abraded and silanated (MZ100). The fitting surface of the abutments was airborne-particle abraded, cleaned, silanated and inserted into a bone level implant (10 mm, BLI RC). All veneers were luted with adhesive resin (Optibond FL) and a preheated light curing composite resin (Filtek Z100). Cyclic isometric chewing (5 Hz, 30° angle) was simulated, starting with a load of 40 N, followed by stages of 80, 120, 160, 200, 240 and 280 N (20,000 cycles each). Samples were loaded until fracture or to a maximum of 140,000 cycles. Groups were compared using the life table survival analysis (Log rank test at P=0.05). Previously published data using same-design zirconia abutments were included for comparison. Paradigm C and MZ100 specimens fractured at an average load of 243 and 206 N (survival rate of 21% and 0%), respectively, with a significant difference in survival probability (P=0.02). Fractured specimens presented mixed failure modes and solely adhesive failures were not observed. The survival of composite resin abutments was similar to that of identical zirconia abutments from a previous study (P=0.76). Non-retentive porcelain veneers bonded to custom composite resin implant abutments presented a higher survival rate when compared with composite resin veneers. Survival of composite resin abutment did not differ from zirconia ones. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Lin, Wei-Shao; Harris, Bryan T; Zandinejad, Amirali; Morton, Dean
Preserving periodontally compromised abutments in patients who are actively undergoing oral and intravenous bisphosphonate treatment for osteoporosis provides an alternative to tooth extraction and dental implants, both of which put patients at risk for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. This case report describes how a CAD/CAM-fabricated cobalt-chromium telescopic prosthesis was placed on periodontally compromised abutments of a 74-year-old woman actively undergoing oral and intravenous bisphosphonate treatment for osteoporosis.
Schwarz, Frank; Hegewald, Andrea; Becker, Jürgen
Objectives To address the following focused question: What is the impact of implant–abutment configuration and the positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes? Material and methods Electronic databases of the PubMed and the Web of Knowledge were searched for animal and human studies reporting on histological/radiological crestal bone level changes (CBL) at nonsubmerged one-/two-piece implants (placed in healed ridges) exhibiting different abutment configurations,...
Yamanishi, Yasufumi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Imazato, Satoshi; Nakano, Tamaki; Yatani, Hirofumi
Occlusal overloading causes peri-implant bone resorption. Previous studies examined stress distribution in alveolar bone around commercial implants using three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. However, the commercial implants contained some different designs. The purpose of this study is to reveal the effect of the target design on peri-implant bone stress and abutment micromovement. Six 3D implant models were created for different implant-abutment joints: 1) internal joint model (IM); 2) external joint model (EM); 3) straight abutment (SA) shape; 4) tapered abutment (TA) shapes; 5) platform switching (PS) in the IM; and 6) modified TA neck design (reverse conical neck [RN]). A static load of 100 N was applied to the basal ridge surface of the abutment at a 45-degree oblique angle to the long axis of the implant. Both stress distribution in peri-implant bone and abutment micromovement in the SA and TA models were analyzed. Compressive stress concentrated on labial cortical bone and tensile stress on the palatal side in the EM and on the labial side in the IM. There was no difference in maximum principal stress distribution for SA and TA models. Tensile stress concentration was not apparent on labial cortical bone in the PS model (versus IM). Maximum principal stress concentrated more on peri-implant bone in the RN than in the TA model. The TA model exhibited less abutment micromovement than the SA model. This study reveals the effects of the design of specific components on peri-implant bone stress and abutment displacement after implant-supported single restoration in the anterior maxilla.
Nakata, Mitsuhiko; Tanimoto, Shunsuke; Ishida, Shuichi; Ohsumi, Michio; Hoshikuma, Jun-ichi
There is risk of bridge foundations to be damaged by liquefaction-induced lateral spreading of ground. Once bridge foundations have been damaged, it takes a lot of time for restoration. Therefore, it is important to assess the seismic behavior of the foundations on liquefiable ground appropriately. In this study, shaking table tests of models on a scale of 1/10 were conducted at the large scale shaking table in Public Works Research Institute, Japan, to investigate the seismic behavior of pile-supported bridge abutment on liquefiable ground. The shaking table tests were conducted for three types of model. Two are models of existing bridge which was built without design for liquefaction and the other is a model of bridge which was designed based on the current Japanese design specifications for highway bridges. As a result, the bending strains of piles of the abutment which were designed based on the current design specifications were less than those of the existing bridge.
Firidinoğlu, Kadir; Toksavul, Suna; Toman, Muhittin; Sarikanat, Mehmet; Nergiz, Ibrahim
The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture resistance and fracture mode of single implant-zirconium coping combinations using zirconium and titanium abutments and to analyze the stress distribution pattern using three-dimensional finite elements analysis. Twenty implants with titanium and zirconium abutments were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10) and into resin blocks. Zirconium copings were cemented onto the abutments. The specimens were loaded with 135° angles to the long axis and the load values at the moment of failure were recorded using a universal test machine. Stress levels were calculated according to the maximum Von Mises criteria. The fracture resistances for titanium and zirconium abutment groups were 525.65 N and 514.05 N, respectively. No significant differences were observed between two groups regarding the fracture resistance levels. The maximum Von Mises equivalent stress concentrated on zirconium copings in both of the groups. Implant-abutment-ZrO2 coping combination has the potential to withstand physiological occlusal forces in the anterior region. Three-dimensional finite elements analysis results of the implant-abutment-ZrO2 coping combination is compatible with the results of fracture resistance.
Aguirrebeitia, Josu; Abasolo, Mikel; Müftü, Sinan; Vallejo, Javier
A previous study investigated the effects of the preload and taper-angle mismatch in tapered implant systems on the removal force characteristics of the self-locking mechanism. The present study builds upon the previous one and introduces the effects of the time elapsed between insertion and removal and the presence of saliva in the implant-abutment interface as 2 new additional parameters. The purpose of this in vitro study was to elucidate the influences of design and clinical parameters on the removal force for implant systems that use tapered interference fit (TIF) type connections by measuring the force needed to remove an abutment from an implant. Ninety-six implants with tapered abutment-implant interfaces specifically built for an unreplicated factorial design were tested on a custom-built workbench for removal force. Four levels were chosen for the preload, F P , and the taper mismatch Δθ; 3 levels for the wait time t; and 2 levels for the saliva presence s at the interface. A regression model was used based on physical reasoning and a theoretical understanding of the interface. A 4-way ANOVA was used to evaluate the influence of the main effects and interactions (α=.05). The experiments strongly indicated that preload, taper mismatch, and saliva presence are relevant variables in removal force. The wait time becomes important when its effect is evaluated along with the preload. The results of this study can be used for decision making in the design and use of TIF type systems. The study supports the use of artificial saliva in any implant design experiment because of its significance in the removal force of the abutment. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
von Maltzahn, Nadine Freifrau; Holstermann, Jan; Kohorst, Philipp
The adhesive connection between titanium base and zirconia coping of two-part abutments may be responsible for the failure rate. A high mechanical stability between both components is essential for the long-term success. The aim of the present in-vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different surface modification techniques and resin-based luting agents on the retention forces between titanium and zirconia components in two-part implant abutments. A total of 120 abutments with a titanium base bonded to a zirconia coping were investigated. Two different resin-based luting agents (Panavia F 2.0 and RelyX Unicem) and six different surface modifications were used to fix these components, resulting in 12 test groups (n = 10). The surface of the test specimens was mechanically pretreated with aluminium oxide blasting in combination with application of two surface activating primers (Alloy Primer, Clearfil Ceramic Primer) or a tribological conditioning (Rocatec), respectively. All specimens underwent 10,000 thermal cycles between 5°C and 55°C in a moist environment. A pull-off test was then conducted to determine retention forces between the titanium and zirconia components, and statistical analysis was performed (two-way anova). Finally, fracture surfaces were analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy. No significant differences were found between Panavia F 2.0 and RelyX Unicem. However, the retention forces were significantly influenced by the surface modification technique used (p zirconia copings were pretreated with aluminium oxide blasting, and with the application of Clearfil Ceramic Primer. Surface modification techniques crucially influence the retention forces between titanium and zirconia components in two-part implant abutments. All adhesion surfaces should be pretreated by sandblasting. Moreover, a phosphate-based primer serves to enhance long-term retention of the components. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ferraz, Cacilda Cunha; Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Freitas, Amilcar Chagas; Ferraz, Fábio Cunha; Machado, Lucas Silveira; Rocha, Eduardo Passos
To evaluate the stress distribution in peri-implant bone by simulating the effect of an implant with microthreads and platform switching on angled abutments through tridimensional finite element analysis. The postulated hypothesis was that the presence of microthreads and platform switching would reduce the stress concentration in the cortical bone. Four mathematical models of a central incisor supported by an implant (5.0 mm × 13 mm) were created in which the type of thread surface in the neck portion (microthreaded or smooth) and the diameter of the angled abutment connection (5.0 and 4.1mm) were varied. These models included the RM (regular platform and microthreads), the RS (regular platform and smooth neck surface), the SM (platform switching and microthreads), and the SS (platform switching and smooth neck). The analysis was performed using ANSYS Workbench 10.0 (Swanson Analysis System). An oblique load (100N) was applied to the palatine surface of the central incisor. The bone/implant interface was considered to be perfectly integrated. Values for the maximum (σ(max)) and minimum (σ(min)) principal stress, the equivalent von Mises stress (σ(vM)), and the maximum principal elastic strain (ɛ(max)) for cortical and trabecular bone were obtained. For the cortical bone, the highest σ(max) (MPa) were observed for the RM (55.1), the RS (51.0), the SM (49.5), and the SS (44.8) models. The highest σ(vM) (MPa) were found for the RM (45.4), the SM (42.1), the RS (38.7), and the SS models (37). The highest values for σ(min) were found for the RM, SM, RS and SS models. For the trabecular bone, the highest σ(max) values (MPa) were observed in the RS model (6.55), followed by the RM (6.37), SS (5.6), and SM (5.2) models. The hypothesis that the presence of microthreads and a switching platform would reduce the stress concentration in the cortical bone was partially rejected, mainly because the microthreads increased the stress concentration in cortical bone. Only
Castilho, Anderson Almeida; Kojima, Alberto Noriyuki; Pereira, Sarina Maciel Braga; de Vasconcellos, Diego Klee; Itinoche, Marcos Koiti; Faria, Renata; Bottino, Marco Antonio
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of two working cast fabrication techniques using strain- gauge analysis. Methods: Two working cast fabrication methods were evaluated. Based on a master model, 20 working casts were fabricated by means of an indirect impression technique using polyether after splinting the square transfer copings with acrylic resin. Specimens were assigned to 2 groups (n=10): Group A (GA): type IV dental stone was poured around the abutment analogs in the conventional way; Group B (GB), the dental stone was poured in two stages. Spacers were used over the abutment analogs (rubber tubes) and type IV dental stone was poured around the abutment analogs in the conventional way. After the stone had hardened completely, the spacers were removed and more stone was inserted in the spaces created. Six strain-gauges (Excel Ltd.), positioned in a cast bar, which was dimensionally accurate (perfect fit) to the master model, recorded the microstrains generated by each specimen. Data were analyzed statistically by the variance analysis (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (Î±= 5%). Results: The microstrain values (με) were (mean±SD): GA: 263.7±109.07με, and GB: 193.73±78.83με. Conclusion: There was no statistical difference between the two methods studied. PMID:19089137
Anderson Almeida Castilho
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of two working cast fabrication techniques using strain-gauge analysis. METHODS: Two working cast fabrication methods were evaluated. Based on a master model, 20 working casts were fabricated by means of an indirect impression technique using polyether after splinting the square transfer copings with acrylic resin. Specimens were assigned to 2 groups (n=10: Group A (GA: type IV dental stone was poured around the abutment analogs in the conventional way; Group B (GB, the dental stone was poured in two stages. Spacers were used over the abutment analogs (rubber tubes and type IV dental stone was poured around the abutment analogs in the conventional way. After the stone had hardened completely, the spacers were removed and more stone was inserted in the spaces created. Six strain-gauges (Excel Ltd., positioned in a cast bar, which was dimensionally accurate (perfect fit to the master model, recorded the microstrains generated by each specimen. Data were analyzed statistically by the variance analysis (ANOVA and Tukey's test (Î±= 5%. RESULTS: The microstrain values (µepsilon were (mean±SD: GA: 263.7±109.07µepsilon, and GB: 193.73±78.83µepsilon. CONCLUSION: There was no statistical difference between the two methods studied.
Dentists often place post and core buildups on endodontically treated abutments for crown and bridge restorations. This article analyzes the bio-mechanical purposes, advantages and disadvantages of placing a core or a post and core in an endodontically treated tooth and reviews literature on post and core biomechanics. The author assesses the scientific rationale of the claim that the main purpose of a post is to retain a core, or the claim that posts weaken teeth. More likely, the main function of a post is to help prevent the abutment, on which a crown is cemented, from fracturing such that the abutment separates from the tooth root, at a fracture plane that is located approximately and theoretically at the level of the crown (or ferrule) margin. A post essentially improves the ferrule effect that is provided by the partial fixed denture prosthesis. This paper also explores the difference between bio-mechanical failures of crowns caused by lack of retention or excess taper, versus failures due to a sub-optimal ferrule effect in crown and bridge prostheses.
Cosgarea, Raluca; Gasparik, Cristina; Dudea, Diana; Culic, Bogdan; Dannewitz, Bettina; Sculean, Anton
To objectively determine the difference in colour between the peri-implant soft tissue at titanium and zirconia abutments. Eleven patients, each with two contralaterally inserted osteointegrated dental implants, were included in this study. The implants were restored either with titanium abutments and porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns, or with zirconia abutments and ceramic crowns. Prior and after crown cementation, multi-spectral images of the peri-implant soft tissues and the gingiva of the neighbouring teeth were taken with a colorimeter. The colour parameters L*, a*, b*, c* and the colour differences ΔE were calculated. Descriptive statistics, including non-parametric tests and correlation coefficients, were used for statistical analyses of the data. Compared to the gingiva of the neighbouring teeth, the peri-implant soft tissue around titanium and zirconia (test group), showed distinguishable ΔE both before and after crown cementation. Colour differences around titanium were statistically significant different (P = 0.01) only at 1 mm prior to crown cementation compared to zirconia. Compared to the gingiva of the neighbouring teeth, statistically significant (P zirconia showed colour differences when compared to the soft tissue around natural teeth, and (ii) the peri-implant soft tissue around zirconia demonstrated a better colour match to the soft tissue at natural teeth than titanium. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Matsudate, Yoshiki; Yoda, Nobuhiro; Nanba, Masahide; Ogawa, Toru; Sasaki, Keiichi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of implant location on load distribution in the abutment tooth, implant and residual ridge with a distal-extension implant-supported removable partial denture (ISRPD). A mandibular unilateral distal-extension edentulous simulation model was used. Implants were inserted at the second premolar (mesial implant) and second molar (distal implant) positions in the edentulous area. An experimental ISRPD was fabricated of acrylic resin with a cobalt-chromium alloy framework. Loads on the implants and abutment tooth were measured with piezoelectric force transducers. The load on the residual ridge was measured with pressure-sensitive film. A vertical load of 100N was applied at the first molar region. Measurements were made under the following three conditions: with conventional removable partial denture (CRPD), with mesial-implant-supported removable partial denture (MISRPD), and with distal-implant-supported removable partial denture (DISRPD). In each condition, the unused implants were made inactive by eliminating contact with the inner surface of the denture. The load on the abutment tooth was greatest with DISRPD, followed by CRPD and MISRPD (Pdenture design on the load distribution is needed for determining the proper implant location of ISRPD. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Easazadeh Far, Narges; Barghian, Majid
Integral abutment bridges (IABs) have many advantages over conventional bridges in terms of strength and maintenance cost. Due to the integrity of these structures uniform thermal and seismic loads are known important ones on the structure performance. Although all bridge design codes consider temperature and earthquake loads separately in their load combinations for conventional bridges, the thermal load is an “always on” load and, during the occurrence of an earthquake, these two important loads act on bridge simultaneously. Evaluating the safety level of IABs under combination of these loads becomes important. In this paper, the safety of IABs—designed by AASHTO LRFD bridge design code—under combination of thermal and seismic loads is studied. To fulfill this aim, first the target reliability indexes under seismic load have been calculated. Then, these analyses for the same bridge under combination of thermal and seismic loads have been repeated and the obtained reliability indexes are compared with target indexes. It is shown that, for an IAB designed by AASHTO LRFD, the indexes have been reduced under combined effects. So, the target level of safety during its design life is not provided and the code's load combination should be changed. PMID:25405232
Scholz, Martin; Eufinger, Harald; Anders, Agnes; Illerhaus, Bernd; König, Matthias; Schmieder, Kirsten; Harders, Albrecht
Brain abscesses are life-threatening and sometimes difficult to detect. A brain abscess after placement, manipulation of a bone anchored hearing aid, or a periauricular implant for fixation of an ear prosthesis has never been reported in the literature. A 42-year-old man suffered from a right-sided temporodorsal brain abscess after change of a bone anchored hearing aid abutment. The fixture itself had been inserted 8 years before without any complications in the peri- or postoperative period. A CT-guided puncture of the abscess could be performed via the screw-hole in the temporal bone after removal of the fixture, and the patient was treated with antibiotics. The outcome of the procedure was good without neurologic deficits for the patient. The insertion of periauricular screw implants bears the risk of meningeal lesions as well as a small risk of purulent intracranial and intracerebral complications perioperatively or in the context of later manipulations. Minimally invasive therapy of such brain abscesses can be performed by removal of the foreign body, CT-guided puncture, and antibiotic medication.
Full Text Available In this paper, by analyzing the effects of two different kinds of implant-abutment connection interfaces under the same working condition on the mechanical and fatigue performances of the implant system as well as on the surrounding bones, we intend to study such effects on the reliability of the implants and provide a theoretical basis for the design and clinical application of dental implant systems. For the purpose, we adopt a 3-D modeling method to establish the model, and use FEA (finite element analysis to carry out static mechanic and fatigue analysis on the implant system and its surrounding bones; then we make the two implant systems, and carry out fatigue tests on a dynamic fatigue testing machine to verify the FEA results. After comparing the results from the two different systems, we find that the stress distribution and fatigue safety factor of the system which has deeper axial matching of the taper connection are better than those of the other system, that is to say, between the two major elements of a implant system, the axial length of the connecting taper and the size of the hexagon, the former has greater effects than the latter. When the axial matching is deeper, the stress distribution of the implant system will be better, the fatigue safety factor will be higher, and the implant system will be more reliable.
Patients with air-bone gaps who cannot be corrected successfully by tympanoplasty or with mixed hearing loss may be treated with bone conduction hearing aids. Their disadvantages are the obvious external fixation components or the biological and psychosocial problems of open implants. We have developed new partially implantable bone conduction hearing aid without a percutaneous abutment and have been using them clinically for 4 years. The principle of these bone conduction hearing aids is a magnetic coupling and acoustic transmission between implanted and external magnets. The goal of this study was to evaluate clinical and audiological results. Magnets are implanted into shallow bone beds in a one step procedure. The skin above the magnets is also reduced to a thickness of 4-5 mm, which reduces the attenuation to less than 10 dB compared to direct bone stimulation. Over 100 patients have been implanted in the last 5 years. Except for temporary pressure marks in 4%, which healed after careful shimming of the external base plate, there were no other complications. The holding strength of the external components is equivalent to partially implantable hearing aids and cochlea implants and the hearing improvement is similar to other bone conduction hearing aids. We have found the comfort and safety of this system is significantly improved compared to conventional or percutaneous bone conduction hearing aids. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Jugdev, Jasvinder; Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Lynch, Edward
To assess the effect of airborne particle abrasion of metal implant abutments on tensile bond strength (TBS) of TempBond, Retrieve, and Premier implant cements. Specimens were designed to replicate a single metal implant crown cemented to both smooth and airborne particle-abraded Osteo-Ti implant abutments with zero degrees of taper. Twenty castings were fabricated and cemented to either a smooth surface abutment (SSA) or to an airborne particle-abraded abutment (AAA). TBS was measured with a 50-kg load and a crosshead speed of 0.5 cm/min in a universal testing machine. Each cement was tested 10 times on both abutment types. The mean TBS values (standard deviations, 95% confidence intervals) of SSAs for TempBond, Retrieve, and Premier cements were 115.89 N (26.44, 96.98-134.81), 134.43 N (36.95, 108.25-160.60), and 132.51 N (55.10, 93.09-171.93), respectively. The corresponding values for AAAs were 129.69 N (30.39, 107.95-151.43), 298.67 N (80.36, 241.19-356.16), and 361.17 N (133.23, 265.86-456.48), respectively. There was no significant difference in TBS among the dental cements when used with an SSA. Air abrasion of abutments did not increase the TBS of TempBond but significantly increased crown retention with Retrieve and Premier. For SSAs, all failures were adhesive on the abutment surface; for AAAs, mostly cohesive cement failures occurred. The retention of copings cemented with Retrieve or Premier to zero-degree-taper abutments was significantly increased after airborne particle abrasion of the abutments. However, this was not significant when TempBond was used. Airborne particle abrasion of abutments and the use of Retrieve or Premier can be recommended for nonretrievable prostheses. Although TempBond functioned similarly to the two other cements in SSAs, it is advisable to limit its use to provisional prostheses; its long-term performance needs to be assessed clinically.
Nilsson, Andrée; Johansson, Lars-Åke; Lindh, Christina; Ekfeldt, Anders
Studies have reported an increased risk for fractures of zirconia abutments compared with titanium abutments. The aim of this study was to evaluate single-tooth implant restorations with one-piece yttria-stabilized internal zirconia abutments on narrow and regular diameter implants up to 6 years after insertion. This study comprises 52 consecutively treated patients, with a median age of 19 years. In total, 59 narrow (3.3 mm) and 10 regular (4.1 mm) diameter implants were installed. Sixty-five all-ceramic crowns were cemented on implant-supported one-piece internal zirconia abutments and 4 restorations were screw-retained. Thirty-five patients with 48 implant restorations participated in the final examination and another 14 patients with 16 implant restorations were possible to reach and could be interviewed. The implant survival was 100% but the survival rate for the implant-supported ceramic restorations was lower, 87.5%. Three crowns (4.7%) were remade for different reasons. Five restorations (7.8%) were remade due to fracture of the internal one-piece zirconia abutment. Four of these fractures occurred in 3.3 mm implant abutments. Narrow diameter implants offer an opportunity to restore small single-tooth edentulous gaps. For esthetical reasons the choice of an abutment in zirconia can be favorable, but at least with the used implant system, there seems to be an increased risk for fracture. Most patients were very satisfied with the esthetics and function of their implant restorations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gutmacher, Zvi; Levi, Guy; Blumenfeld, Israel; Machtei, Eli E
The advantages of platform switching using narrower abutments remain controversial. Many researchers suggest that platform switching can yield enhanced clinical results, while others remain skeptical. We hypothesize that the effectiveness of platform switching might be associated with the degree of reduction in size of the abutment. To radiographically and clinically examine a new abutment design created to move the implant-abutment interface farther medially. This was a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial that included 27 patients (41 MIS Lance Plus® implants; MIS Implant Technologies, Karmiel, Israel). The patients' age ranged from 39 to 75 years. At the second stage of the surgery, the implants were randomly assigned to either the new platform switch Tulip abutment (TA) design or to the standard platform abutment (SA). Implant probing depth (IPD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded at baseline and after 12 months. Standardized periapical radiographs were taken (at baseline and at 12 months) and the marginal bone height measured. All implants were successfully integrated. The mean IPD at 1 year post-op was 2.91 mm for the SA group and 2.69 mm for the TA group (p > .05). Similarly, the BOP at 1 year was almost identical in both groups. The mean values of bone resorption at baseline were 0.98 ± 0.37 mm and 0.69 ± 0.20 for the TA and SA groups, respectively (p > .05). Bone loss (baseline to 12 months) was significantly greater in the SA group compared with the TA group. Use of the new TA, with its significantly downsized diameter, resulted in reduced bone loss at 1 year. Further research will be required to assess the long-term effect of this abutment on peri-implant health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chaiyabutr, Yada; Kois, John C; Lebeau, Dene; Nunokawa, Gary
A dark-colored prepared abutment tooth may negatively affect the esthetic outcome of a ceramic restoration if the tooth is restored using translucent enamel-like ceramic materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cumulative effect that the tooth abutment color, cement color, and ceramic thickness have on the resulting optical color of a CAD/CAM glass-ceramic lithium disilicate-reinforced crown. A CAD/CAM glass-ceramic lithium disilicate-reinforced monolithic crown (IPS e.max CAD LT) was fabricated. Three possible crown restoration variables were tested in vitro. The procedure examined 4 prepared abutment tooth colors (light, medium light, medium dark, and dark), 2 cement (Variolink II) colors (translucent and opaque), and 4 ceramic thickness values (1.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm, and 2.5 mm). The color of each combination was measured using a spectrophotometer, and the average values of the color difference (ΔE) were calculated. The data were analyzed with a 3-way ANOVA (tooth abutment color, ceramic thickness, and luting agent) and Tukey's HSD test (α=.05), which evaluated within-group effects of the tooth abutment color to the ΔE at each ceramic thickness. The ΔE values of a CAD/CAM glass-ceramic lithium disilicate-reinforced crown were significantly influenced by the tooth abutment color (Pcrowns were cemented using the opaque cement. This study demonstrated that underlying tooth abutment color, cement color, and ceramic thickness all influence the resulting optical color of CAD/CAM glass-ceramic lithium disilicate-reinforced restorations. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Barwacz, Christopher A.; Brogden, Kim A.; Stanford, Clark M.; Dawson, Deborah V.; Recker, Erica N.; Blanchette, Derek
Objectives Dental implant abutments are fundamental prosthetic components within dentistry that require optimal biocompatibility. The primary aim of this cross-sectional study was to preliminarily assess differences in the pro-inflammatory cytokine and bone metabolism mediator protein expression in the peri-implant crevicular fluid adjacent to transmucosal abutments. Material and Methods Abutments were fabricated from either titanium or zirconia in patients previously receiving single-tooth implant therapy. All subjects sampled in this study had an identical implant system and implant-abutment connection. Participants (n=46) had an average time of clinical function for 22 months (6.2–72.8 months, ±SD 17.0 months) and received a clinical and radiographic exam of the implant site at the time of peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) sampling using a paper strip-based sampling technique. Cytokine, chemokine, and bone metabolism mediator quantities (picograms/30 s) were determined using a commercial 22-multiplexed fluorescent bead-based immunoassay instrument. A total of 19 pro-inflammatory cytokines and 7 bone metabolism mediators were evaluated. Results Multivariable analyses provided no evidence of a group (titanium or zirconia), gender, or age effect with regard to the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators evaluated. Significant (p=0.022) differences were observed for the bone-mediator leptin, with titanium abutments demonstrating significantly elevated levels in comparison to zirconia. Osteopontin demonstrated a significant (p=0.0044) correlation with age of the subjects. Conclusions No significant differences in pro-inflammatory cytokine or bone metabolism mediator profiles were observed biochemically, with the exception of leptin, for the abutment biomaterials of titanium or zirconia The molecular PICF findings support the observed clinical biocompatibility of both titanium and zirconia abutments. PMID:24417614
Baj, A; Beltramini, G A; Bolzoni, A; Cura, F; Palmieri, A; Scarano, A; Ottria, L; Giannì, A B
Bacterial leakage at the implant-abutment connection of a two-piece implant system is considered the main cause of peri-implantitis. Prevention of bacterial leakage at the implant-abutment connection is mandatory for reducing inflammation process around implant neck and achieving bone stability. Micro-cavities at implant-abutment connection level can favour bacterial leakage, even in modern two-piece implant systems. The conical connection with an internal octagon (CCIO) is considered to be more stable mechanically and allows a more tight link between implant and abutment. As P. gingivalis and T. forsythia penetration might have clinical relevance, it was the purpose of this investigation to evaluate molecular leakage of these two bacteria in a new two-implant system with an internal conical implant-abutment connection with internal octagon (Shiner XT, FMD Falappa Medical Devices S.p.A. Rome, Italy). To verify the ability of the implant in protecting the internal space from the external environment, the passage of genetically modified Escherichia c oli across implant-abutment interface was evaluated. Four Shiner XT implants (FMD, Falappa Medical Devices®, Rome, Italy) were immerged in a bacterial culture for 24 h and bacteria amount was measured inside implant-abutment interface with Real-time PCR. Bacteria were detected inside all studied implants, with a median percentage of 6% for P. gingivalis and 5% for T. forsythia. Other comparable studies about the tightness of the tested implant system reported similar results. The gap size at the implant-abutment connection of CCIOs was measured by other authors discovering a gap size of 1–2μm of the AstraTech system and of 4μm for the Ankylos system. Bacterial leakage along implant-abutment connection of cylindrical and tapered implants, Shiner XT, (FMD Falappa Medical Devices S.p.A. Rome, Italy) showed better results compared to other implants. Additional studies are needed to explore the relationship in terms of
Microleakage may be a factor in the progression of peri-implant pathology. Microleakage in implant dentistry refers to the passage of bacteria, fluids, molecules or ions between the abutment-implant interface to and from the surrounding periodontal tissues. This creates a zone of inflammation and reservoir of bacteria at the implant-abutment interface. Bone loss typically occurs within the first year of abutment connection and then stabilizes. It has not yet been definitively proven that the occurrence of microleakage cannot contribute to future bone loss or impede the treatment of peri-implant disease. Therefore, strategies to reduce or eliminate microleakage are sought out. Recent evidence demonstrates that the type of implant abutment channel occluding material can affect the amount of microleakage in an in vitro study environment. Thus, we hypothesize that different abutment screw channel occluding materials will affect the amount of observed microleakage, vis-a-vis the correlation between the microflora found on the abutment screw channel occluding material those found in the peri-implant sulcus. Additional objectives include confirming the presence of microleakage in vivo and assessing any impact that different abutment screw channel occluding materials may have on the peri-implant microbiome. Finally, the present study provides an opportunity to further characterize the peri-implant microbiome. Eight fully edentulous patients restored with at dental implants supporting screw-retained fixed hybrid prostheses were included in the study. At the initial appointment (T1), the prostheses were removed and the implants and prostheses were cleaned. The prostheses were then inserted with polytetrafluoroethylene tape (PTFE, TeflonRTM), cotton, polyvinyl siloxane (PVS), or synthetic foam as the implant abutment channel occluding material and sealed over with composite resin. About six months later (T2), the prostheses were removed and the materials collected. Paper
Kilicarslan, Mehmet Ali; Ozkan, Pelin
A common problem with cemented crowns is inadequate retention at the crown-abutment interface. The aim of this study was to compare the retention of new laser-sintered cobalt-chromium alloy crowns to the retention of cobalt-chromium alloy crowns fabricated with a traditional casting technique with and without an alloy primer. Twenty-four metallic crowns per casting technique were fabricated, and surface roughness values were recorded with a profilometer. Alloy primer was applied to half the specimens, and all crowns were luted with resin cement. After 24 hours, specimens were subjected to tensile force application with a universal testing machine. The effect of the cement amount was evaluated with an analytic balance. The results were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis multiple-comparison test. The Spearman correlation was used to determine correlations between crown retention and cement weight. The laser-sintered crowns (2.72 μm) were rougher than conventionally cast crowns. The mean load to failure values were as follows: 455.10 ± 192.69 Ncm for conventional crowns, 565.52 ± 112.87 Ncm for conventional crowns with alloy primer, 534.78 ± 130.15 Ncm for laser-sintered crowns, and 678.60 ± 212.83 Ncm for laser-sintered crowns with alloy primer. Laser-sintered crowns (10.10 ± 2.15 mg) showed a significant difference in terms of cement weight compared with cast crowns. In addition, negative correlations were found for retention and cement weight between all groups, except for the laser-sintered group without alloy primer. Retentive forces were significantly higher for laser-sintered crowns than for conventionally cast crowns. An increase in the surface roughness and the application of alloy primers led to an increase in the adhesive bonding of resin cements to metal alloys. It was concluded that a reduction in cement weight improved retention.
Hildebrand, Maciej; Rybak, Jarosław
Structures made of reinforced soil can be evaluated for their safety based on a load testing. Measurement results are essentially evaluated by displacements of surcharge (mainly in vertical direction) and facing elements (mainly in horizontal direction). Displacements are within several tenths to several millimetres and they can be taken by common geodetic equipment. Due to slow soil consolidation (progress of displacements) under constant load, observations should be made over several days or even weeks or months. A standard procedure of heating of geotextiles, used in laboratory conditions to simulate long term behaviour cannot be used in a natural scale. When the load is removed, the soil unloading occurs. Both the progress of displacements and soil unloading after unloading of the structure are the key presumptions for evaluating its safety (stability). Assessment of measuring results must be preceded by assuming even the simplest model of the structure, so as it could be possible to estimate the expected displacements under controlled load. In view of clearly random nature of soil parameters of retaining structure composed of reinforced soil and due to specific erection technology of reinforced soil structure, the assessment of its condition is largely based on expert’s judgment. It is an essential and difficult task to interpret very small displacements which are often enough disturbed by numerous factors like temperature, insolation, precipitation, vehicles, etc. In the presented paper, the authors tried to establish and juxtapose some criteria for a load test of a bridge abutment and evaluate their suitability for decision making. Final remarks are based on authors experience from a real full scale load test.
Huang, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chun-Li; Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching
The resistance form is a key factor for a successful crown fabrication. This in vitro study evaluates the effects of proximal grooves and abutment height on the resistance of single cast crowns in molars with inadequate resistance. Sixty extracted human molars were prepared to possess 20° of total occlusal convergence for single crown fabrication. All of the prepared teeth were divided into six groups and prepared according to three axial heights (2, 3, and 4 mm) with or without preparing a pair of proximal grooves. Alloy metal copings of 5% titanium were casted and cemented. A self-adhesive modified-resin cement was used for cementation. A lateral dislodgement test was performed with an increasing external force applied at a 45° angulation on a universal testing machine. The force required to dislodge the crown from the tooth or to break the core was recorded. Proximal grooves increased the dislodgement resistance in groups with an abutment height of 4 mm, whereas adding grooves made no significant differences in resistance in groups with abutment heights of 2 and 3 mm. The 2 mm groups exhibited worse performance than the other groups, whether they had proximal grooves or not. An abutment height of 3 mm provided adequate resistance for single cast crowns when self-adhesive modified-resin cement was used. Preparing a pair of proximal grooves on abutments shorter than 4 mm had no significant influence on the resistance.
Fetner, Michael; Fetner, Alan; Koutouzis, Theofilos; Clozza, Emanuele; Tovar, Nick; Sarendranath, Alvin; Coelho, Paulo G; Neiva, Kathleen; Janal, Malvin N; Neiva, Rodrigo
Implant design and the implant-abutment interface have been regarded as key influences on crestal bone maintenance over time. The aim of the present study was to determine crestal bone changes around implants placed at different depths in a dog model. Thirty-six two-piece dental implants with a medialized implant-abutment interface and Morse taper connection (Ankylos, Dentsply) were placed in edentulous areas bilaterally in six mongrel dogs. On each side of the mandible, three implants were placed randomly at the bone crest, 1.5 mm subcrestally, or 3.0 mm subcrestally. After 3 months, the final abutments were torqued into place. At 6 months, the animals were sacrificed and samples taken for microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT) and histologic evaluations. Micro-CT analysis revealed similar crestal or marginal bone loss among groups. Both subcrestal implant groups lost significantly less crestal and marginal bone than the equicrestal implants. Bone loss was greatest on the buccal of the implants, regardless of implant placement depth. Histologically, implants placed subcrestally were found to have bone in contact with the final abutment and on the implant platform. Implants with a centralized implant-abutment interface and Morse taper connection can be placed subcrestally without significant loss of crestal or marginal bone. Subcrestal placement of this implant system appears to be advantageous in maintaining bone height coronal to the implant platform.
do Nascimento, Cássio; Barbosa, Rodrigo Edson Santos; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Watanabe, Evandro; Ito, Izabel Yoko; de Albuquerque Junior, Rubens Ferreira
To evaluate the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method for detection and quantitation of bacteria from the internal parts of dental implants and to compare bacterial leakage from implants connected either to cast or to pre-machined abutments. Nine plastic abutments cast in a Ni-Cr alloy and nine pre-machined Co-Cr alloy abutments with plastic sleeves cast in Ni-Cr were connected to Branemark-compatible implants. A group of nine implants was used as control. The implants were inoculated with 3 microl of a solution containing 10(8) cells/ml of Streptococcus sobrinus. Bacterial samples were immediately collected from the control implants while assemblies were completely immersed in 5 ml of sterile Tripty Soy Broth (TSB) medium. After 14 days of anaerobic incubation, occurrence of leakage at the implant-abutment interface was evaluated by assessing contamination of the TSB medium. Internal contamination of the implants was evaluated with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. DNA-DNA hybridization was sensitive enough to detect and quantify the microorganism from the internal parts of the implants. No differences in leakage and in internal contamination were found between cast and pre-machined abutments. Bacterial scores in the control group were significantly higher than in the other groups (PDNA-DNA hybridization technique is suitable for the evaluation of the internal contamination of dental implants although further studies are necessary to validate the use of computational methods for the improvement of the test accuracy.
Chen, Yifan; Liu, Hongchun; Meng, Yukun; Chao, Yonglie; Liu, Changhong
This study aims to evaluate the optical data of the different sites of the cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) alloy abutments covered by four different all-ceramic crowns and the color difference between the crowns and target tab using a digital dental spectrophotometer. Ten Co-Cr alloy abutments were made and tried in four different groups of all-ceramic crowns, namely, Procera aluminia, Procera zirconia, Lava zirconia (Lava-Zir), and IPS E.max glass-ceramic lithium disilicate-reinforced monolithic. The color data of the cervical, body, and incisal sites of the samples were recorded and analyzed by dental spectrophotometer. The CIE L*, a*, b* values were again measured after veneering. The color difference between the abutments covered by all-ceramic crowns and A2 dentine shade tab was evaluated. The L* and b* values of the abutments can be increased by all of the four groups of all-ceramic copings, but a* values were decreased in most groups. A statistical difference was observed among four groups. After being veneered, the L* values of all the copings declined slightly, and the values of a*, b* increased significantly. When compared with A2 dentine shade tab, the ΔE of the crowns was below 4. Four ceramic copings were demonstrated to promote the lightness and hue of the alloy abutments effecttively. Though the colorimetric baseline of these copings was uneven, veneer porcelain can efficiently decrease the color difference between the samples and thee target.
Tang, Ying; Wang, Min; Luo, Yun; Man, Yi
To investigate and compare the stress of edentulous mucosa and periodontal membranes of the abutments under vertical loads for separated removable partial denture or conical telescope denture. One patient who had lost the second premolar and the first molar on the upper jaw and had I mobile abutments was chosen in the study. Two precise three dimensional finite element models were constructed by using screw CT image reconstruction technique and Materialise Mimics, Pro/Engineer WF 2.0, ANSYS Workbench software. Vertical forces were loaded on the two models. Then comparing and analyzing the von Mises stress distribution of the edentulous mucosa and the periodontal membranes of abutments between the separate removable partial denture and conical telescope denture in the software of ANSYS Workbench. The von Mises stress values of the edentulous mucosa of separate removable partial denture were larger than that of the conical telescope denture. The von Mises stress values of abutments periodontal membranes of separate removable partial denture were lower than that of conical telescope denture. Under vertical loads, compare with conical telescope denture, the separate removable partial denture can protect the abutments.
Baj, A; Romano, M; Segna, E; Palmieri, A; Cura, F; Scarano, A; Ottria, L; Giannì, A B
The purpose of the present microbiological study was to evaluate bacterial leakage at implant-abutment connection level of a new type of implant (Storm implant (FMD, Falappa Medical Devices®, Rome, Italy) using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). This implant presents a polygonal external implantabutment connection with a geometry that provides a hex on which engage complementary abutments. To identify the capability of the implant to protect the internal space from the external environment, the passage of genetically modified Escherichia coli across implant-abutment interface was evaluated. Four Storm implants (FMD, Falappa Medical Devices®, Rome, Italy) were immerged in a bacterial culture for 24 h and bacteria amount was measured inside implant-abutment interface with Real-time PCR. Bacteria were detected inside all studied implants, with a median percentage of 15% for P. gingivalis and 14% for T. forsythia. Our results are similar to those reported in the English literature. Additional studies are needed to explore the relationship in terms of microbiota between the internal implant and implant-prosthetic connection. In addition, the dynamics of internal colonization needs to be thoroughly documented in longitudinal in vivo studies. As a result, microbial leakage along the implant abutment interface was acceptable and considered the most probable explanation for peri-implantitis.
Koutouzis, Theofilos; Gadalla, Hana; Lundgren, Tord
The aim of this study is to utilize an in vitro dynamic loading model to assess the potential risk of bacterial invasion into the Implant Abutment Interface (IAI) microgap of dental implants with sloped marginal design. Forty implants were divided into two groups (n = 20 per group) based on implant marginal design. Group 1 was comprised of implants with Morse-taper connection and conventional marginal design that connected to titanium abutments. Group 2 was comprised of implants with Morse-taper connection and sloped marginal design that connected to titanium abutments. The specimens were immersed in a bacterial solution of E. coli and loaded with 500,000 cycles of 160N using a chewing simulator. Following disconnection of fixtures and abutments, microbial samples were taken from the threaded portion of the abutment, plated and cultured under appropriate conditions. Ten out of twenty implants of Group 1 and eight out of twenty implants of Group 2 had IAI microgaps colonized by E. Coli. There was not a statistically significant difference in the mean number of E. Coli CFU detected between implants of Group 1 (mean 19.2, SD 23.6) and Group 2 (mean 12.5, SD18.9) (p > .05). The present study demonstrated that implants with a sloped marginal design exhibited similar risk for bacterial invasion into the IAI microgap under in vitro dynamic loading conditions compared to implants with conventional marginal design. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lopes de Chaves E Mello Dias, Eduardo Cláudio; Sperandio, Marcelo; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique
The aim of this study was to evaluate the microgap between the abutment and implant as well as the circularity of implant platforms and associating conformational errors with bacterial microleakage in tapered connection implant systems. Four brands of implants with a tapered abutment connection were tested. Bacterial leakage was assessed using 0.3 μL of Escherichia coli suspension inoculated into the abutment screw chamber of the implants, which were then torqued and incubated at 37°C for 14 days. All specimens used for the microbiologic experiment were then cut lengthwise, and the microgap was measured at three points on each side of the sample using scanning electron microscopy (up to 5,000× magnification). Microtomography was used to assess implant platform circularity to validate the microscopic findings qualitatively. Two samples from the Nobel Biocare system, four from the Ankylos (Dentsply) system, four from the Neodent (Straumann) system, and five from the Conexão system were positive for bacterial leakage, with no significant difference between groups. The Neodent system had the highest mean microgap values (5.84 ± 9.83 μm), followed by the Nobel Biocare systems (5.17 ± 4.10 μm), Ankylos (3.47 ± 3.28 μm), and Conexão (2.72 ± 3.19 μm), with no significant difference between systems. All systems showed conformational errors of circularity on microtomography images. The tapered connection systems evaluated herein were not able to halt bacterial leakage, nor were they free from conformational errors.
Jeng, Ming-Dih; Liu, Po-Yi; Kuo, Jia-Hum; Lin, Chun-Li
This study evaluates the load fatigue performance of different abutment-implant connection implant types-retaining-screw (RS) and taper integrated screwed-in (TIS) types under 3 applied torque levels based on the screw elastic limit. Three torque levels-the recommended torque (25 Ncm), 10% less, and 10% more than the ratio of recommended torque to screw elastic limits of different implants were applied to the implants to perform static and dynamic testing according to the ISO 14801 method. Removal torque loss was calculated for each group after the endurance limitation was reached (passed 5 × 10 6 cycles) in the fatigue test. The static fracture resistance results showed that the fracture resistance in the TIS-type implant significantly increased (P < .05) when the abutment screw was inserted tightly. The dynamic testing results showed that the endurance limitations for the RS-type implant were 229 N, 197 N, and 224 N and those for the TIS-type implant were 322 N, 364 N, and 376 N when the screw insertion torques were applied from low to high. The corresponding significant (P < .05) removal torque losses for the TIS-type implant were 13.2%, 5.3%, and 2.6% but no significant difference was found for the RS-type implant. This study concluded that the static fracture resistance and dynamic endurance limitation of the TIS-type implant (1-piece solid abutment) increased when torque was applied more tightly on the screw. Less torque loss was also found when increasing the screw insertion torque.
Sia, Priscilla Kia Suan; Masri, Radi; Driscoll, Carl F; Romberg, Elaine
Currently, no guidelines exist to help in the selection of Locator abutments for implants at different heights. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the differential heights of pairs of Locator abutments on the retention of overdentures after 6 months of simulated function. In vitro testing was performed with 4 sets of average-sized edentulous mandible analogs with 2 implants placed in the canine positions. There were 10 specimens in each of the 4 groups, with a total sample size of 40. Four groups of 2 implant-retained overdentures were fabricated, with Locator attachments at different vertical levels with differences of 0, 2, 4, and 6 mm. The overdentures were subjected to simulated function for a period corresponding to 6 months of clinical service and then tested with a universal testing machine for changes in peak load-to-dislodgement. The data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey honest significant differences test (α=.05). Varying the heights of Locator abutments had a statistically significant effect on the retentive values of the pink Locator attachments after 6 months of simulated function (F=7.342, P=.001). The peak load-to-dislodgement ranged from 32.3 N (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.0 to 38.6) for group 0 mm to 53.6 N (95% CI: 46.3 to 60.8) for group 6 mm. When the difference in Locator abutment heights was 2 and 4 mm, the peak load was 37.1 N (95% CI: 32.3 to 42.0) and 41.9 N (95% CI: 31.2 to 52.7). Statistical analysis revealed that the retention of group 0 mm and group 2 mm was significantly lower than group 6 mm. The retention of group 4 mm was not significantly different from groups 0 mm, 2 mm, or 6 mm. Although significant differences were found among the groups, these differences were small and may not be clinically detectable. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ellakwa, Ayman; Martin, F Elizabeth; Klineberg, Iven
To assess the effect of three implant abutment angulations and two types of fibers on the fracture resistance of overlaying Ceramage single crowns. Three groups, coded A to C, with different implant abutment angulations (group A/0°, group B/15°, and group C/30° angulation) were restored with 45 overlay composite restorations; 15 Ceramage crowns for each angulation. Groups A, B, and C were further subdivided into three subgroups (n = 5) coded: 1, crowns without fiber reinforcement; 2, crowns with Connect polyethylene reinforcement; and 3, crowns with Interlig glass reinforcement. All crowns were constructed by one technician using the Ceramage System. The definitive restorations (before cementation) were stored in distilled water at mouth temperature (37°C) for 24 hours prior to testing. Before testing, the crowns were cemented using Temp Bond. The compressive load required to break each crown and the mode of failure were recorded. The speed of testing was 1 mm/min. The results were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA (p crowns were examined using a stereomicroscope at 40×, and selected crowns (five randomly selected from each group) were further examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to reveal the composite-fiber interface. Fracture resistance of single crowns was not affected (p > 0.05) by the different abutment angulations chosen (0°, 15°, 30°) or fiber reinforcement (Connect and Interlig fibers). Crowns in group A exhibited average loads to fracture (N) of A1 = 843.57 ± 168.20, A2 = 1389.20 ± 193.40, and A3 = 968.00 ± 387.53, which were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from those of groups B (B1 = 993.20 ± 327.19, B2 = 1471.00 ± 311.68, B3 = 1408.40 ± 295.07), or group C (C1 = 1326.80 ± 785.30, C2 = 1322.20 ± 285.33, C3 = 1348.40 ± 527.21). SEM images of the fractured crowns showed that the origin of the fracture appeared to be located at the occlusal surfaces of the crowns, and the crack propagation tended to extend from the
Cardelli, Paolo; Belletti, Milko; Murmura, Giovanna
To describe the successful use of biphasic calcium sulfate for improving the buccal plate thickness in an immediate postextraction implant, and its fi nal restoration with custom lithium disilicate abutment and veneer. A hopeless lateral incisor was replaced with an immediate postextraction implant in conjunction with a buccal plate augmentation based on biphasic calcium sulfate. Satisfactory soft tissue height and quality were maintained following healing. The fi nal restoration managed the severely reduced prosthetic space due to deep bite, and allowed an adhesive luting procedure.
Suleyman Hakan Tuna
Full Text Available The maxillary lateral incisor is the second most common congenitally absent tooth. There are several treatment options for replacing the missing maxillary lateral incisor, including canine substitution, tooth-supported restoration, or single-tooth implant. Dental implants are an appropriate treatment option for replacing missing maxillary lateral incisor teeth in adolescents when their dental and skeletal development is complete. This case report presents the treatment of a patient with congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors using dental implants with angled abutments.
Qin, Jia-nan; Lu, Yu-miao; Zhou, Xiao-yan
To study and evaluate the effect preventing dentine hypersensitiveness by using Fluor Protector or Green Or on the prepared vital pulp abutment teeth of PFM bridges. 118 cases, 246 prepared vital pulp abutment teeth, were randomly divided into three groups: Experimental Group A--treated with the Fluor Protector and temporary crown; Experimental Group B--treated with the Green Or and temporary crown, and Control Group--only using temporary crown. The results of desensitization in 3 groups were evaluated. F test was used for analysis (DSPV6.01). Significant differences were found between experimental Group A, B and the control group after 1 week (when cementing the PFM bridges); and also after 1 month (P0.05). The effect of preventing dental hypersensitiveness by using Fluor Protector or Green Or on the prepared vital pulp abutment teeth of PFM bridges is ideal. It is easy to use and worth being widely applied.
Rammelsberg, Peter; Bernhart, Gunda; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Schmitter, Marc; Schwarz, Stefanie
Objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of complications in dental implants and abutment teeth used for combined tooth-implant- and solely implant-supported double crown-retained removable dental prostheses (RDPs). Patients were selected from a prospective clinical study. Seventy-three RDPs retained by 234 implants and 107 abutment teeth were placed in 39 men and 22 women with a mean age of 65 years. Forty-five RDPs were located in the maxilla and 28 in the mandible. Thirty-four RDPs were solely implant-supported and 39 were combined tooth-implant-supported. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate success defined as survival without severe abutment-related complications, and Cox regression was used to isolate the most relevant prognostic risk factors. After a median observation period of 2.7 years for the RDPs, six implants failed and eleven implants were diagnosed with peri-implantitis. Four abutment teeth were extracted, and three abutment teeth showed severe complications requiring extended interventions. For both abutment teeth and implants, Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed a 5-year probability of success of 85% for solely implant-supported RDPs and 92% for combined tooth-implant-supported RDPs. Multiple Cox regression identified RDP location (P = 0.01), age (P = 0.01), and gender (P = 0.04) as prognostic risk factors for severe implant-related complications. Solely implant-supported RPDs showed a poorer prognosis, but the risk difference did not reach statistical significance. Preliminary data suggest that the combination of teeth and implants to support double crown-retained RDPs may result in a prognostic advantage. The present findings should be validated in independent studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mandelaris, George A; Vlk, Scott D
Parallel use of implant treatment planning software and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can, using certain criteria, consolidate steps and streamline tooth replacement strategies. The authors describe such a case in the esthetic zone whereby flapless extraction and immediate implant placement using CT-guided surgery were performed simultaneously, with placement of a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufactured (CAD/CAM) patient-specific abutment and non-occlusal function provisional in a single visit (supporting the "one-abutment, one-time" concept). An over-retained primary cuspid in a periodontally healthy woman with well-controlled type-2 diabetes was replaced with an implant and CAD/CAM patient-specific abutment in the No. 11 position. A necessary implant-axis angle correction was customized using digital information from a CBCT scan and implant treatment planning software, without the need for site development or a conventional impression. This data integration and streamlined workflow enabled fabrication of a CAD/CAM patient-specific abutment before surgical treatment. The abutment remained in place from implant surgery to the prosthetic phase, with minimal soft-tissue changes, enabling preservation of pink esthetics and expediting treatment. The result was a preserved emergence profile in the presence of high esthetic demands. However, due to slight post-extraction soft-tissue changes, digital reformatting of the abutment was required when the final crown was fabricated, thus limiting the disruption of the biologic width to a one-time occurrence. The importance of case selection for this treatment protocol in the esthetic zone cannot be overemphasized. A thick crestal dentoalveolar bone phenotype (> 1 mm, approaching 2 mm in this case), broad zone of attached and keratinized gingiva (3 mm to 4 mm in this case), adequate peri-implant soft-tissue thickness (> 1 mm in this case), and high primary implant stability (ISQ = 80 in this case) were all
Gilja, Gordon; Valyrakis, Manousos; Michalis, Panagiotis; Bekić, Damir; Kuspilić, Neven; McKeogh, Eamon
Safety of bridges over watercourses can be compromised by flow characteristics and bridge hydraulics. Scour process around bridge foundations can develop rapidly during low-recurrence interval floods when structural elements are exposed to increased flows. Variations in riverbed geometry, as a result of sediment removal and deposition processes, can increase flood-induced hazard at bridge sites with catastrophic failures and destructive consequences for civil infrastructure. The quantification of flood induced hazard on bridge safety generally involves coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport models (i.e. 2D numerical or physical models) for a range of hydrological events covering both high and low flows. Modelled boundary conditions are usually estimated for their probability of occurrence using frequency analysis of long-term recordings at gauging stations. At smaller rivers gauging station records are scarce, especially in upper courses of rivers where weirs, drops and rapids are common elements of river bathymetry. As a result, boundary conditions that accurately represent flow patterns on modelled river reach cannot be often reliably acquired. Sediment transport process is also more complicated to describe due to its complexity and dependence to local flow field making scour hazard assessment a particularly challenging issue. This study investigates the influence of flow characteristics to the development of scour and sedimentation processes around bridge abutments of a single span masonry arch bridge in south Ireland. The impact of downstream weirs on bridge hydraulics through variation of downstream model domain type is also considered in this study. The numerical model is established based on detailed bathymetry data surveyed along a rectangular grid of 50cm spacing. Acquired data also consist of riverbed morphology and water level variations which are monitored continuously on bridge site. The obtained data are then used to compare and calibrate
Markarian, Roberto Adrian; Galles, Deborah Pedroso; Gomes França, Fabiana Mantovani
To measure the microgap between dental implants and custom abutments fabricated using different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) methods before and after mechanical cycling. CAD software (Dental System, 3Shape) was used to design a custom abutment for a single-unit, screw-retained crown compatible with a 4.1-mm external hexagon dental implant. The resulting stereolithography file was sent for manufacturing using four CAD/CAM methods (n = 40): milling and sintering of zirconium dioxide (ZO group), cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) sintered via selective laser melting (SLM group), fully sintered machined Co-Cr alloy (MM group), and machined and sintered agglutinated Co-Cr alloy powder (AM group). Prefabricated titanium abutments (TI group) were used as controls. Each abutment was placed on a dental implant measuring 4.1× 11 mm (SA411, SIN) inserted into an aluminum block. Measurements were taken using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (×4,000) on four regions of the implant-abutment interface (IAI) and at a relative distance of 90 degrees from each other. The specimens were mechanically aged (1 million cycles, 2 Hz, 100 N, 37°C) and the IAI width was measured again using the same approach. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey test. After mechanical cycling, the best adaptation results were obtained from the TI (2.29 ± 1.13 μm), AM (3.58 ± 1.80 μm), and MM (1.89 ± 0.98 μm) groups. A significantly worse adaptation outcome was observed for the SLM (18.40 ± 20.78 μm) and ZO (10.42 ± 0.80 μm) groups. Mechanical cycling had a marked effect only on the AM specimens, which significantly increased the microgap at the IAI. Custom abutments fabricated using fully sintered machined Co-Cr alloy and machined and sintered agglutinated Co-Cr alloy powder demonstrated the best adaptation results at the IAI, similar to those obtained with commercial prefabricated titanium abutments after mechanical cycling. The
All-ceramic single-tooth implant reconstructions using modified zirconia abutments: a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial of the effect of pink veneering ceramic on the esthetic outcomes.
Büchi, Dominik L E; Sailer, Irena; Fehmer, Vincent; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Thoma, Daniel S
The aim of this study was to test whether veneering of the submucosal part of zirconia abutments using pink veneering ceramic positively influences the color of the peri-implant mucosa. Single-tooth implants were restored with either white zirconia abutments (control group) or pink-veneered zirconia abutments and all-ceramic crowns. Esthetic outcome measurements included a spectrophotometric evaluation of the peri-implant mucosal color. Test and control groups induced a visible discoloration of the peri-implant mucosa after the insertion of the abutments and following cementation of the crowns compared to natural teeth. The calculated color differences were above the clinically visible threshold value and were more favorable for the control group, although not statistically significant. It is concluded that veneering of zirconia abutments with pink veneering ceramic failed to positively influence the esthetic outcome, mostly due to a decrease of the brightness compared with the control group.
Full Text Available Background. Endotoxin initiates osteoclastic activity resulting in bone loss. Endotoxin leakage through implant abutment connections negatively influences peri-implant bone levels. Objectives. (i To determine if endotoxin can traverse different implant-abutment connection (IAC designs; (ii to quantify the amount of endotoxins traversing the IAC; (iii to compare the in vitro comportments of different IACs. Materials and Methods. Twenty-seven IACs were inoculated with E. coli endotoxin. Six of the twenty-seven IACs were external connections from one system (Southern Implants and the remaining twenty-one IACs were made up of seven internal IAC types from four different implant companies (Straumann, Ankylos, and Neodent, Southern Implants. Results. Of the 27 IACs tested, all 6 external IACs leaked measurable amounts of endotoxin. Of the remaining 21 internal IACs, 9 IACs did not show measurable leakage whilst the remaining 12 IACs leaked varying amounts. The mean log endotoxin level was significantly higher for the external compared to internal types (p=0.015. Conclusion. Within the parameters of this study, we can conclude that endotoxin leakage is dependent on the design of the IAC. Straumann Synocta, Straumann Cross-fit, and Ankylos displayed the best performances of all IACs tested with undetectable leakage after 7 days. Each of these IACs incorporated a morse-like component in their design. Speculation still exists over the impact of IAC endotoxin leakage on peri-implant tissues in vivo; hence, further investigations are required to further explore this.
Garrana, Rhoodie; Mohangi, Govindrau; Malo, Paulo; Nobre, Miguel
Background . Endotoxin initiates osteoclastic activity resulting in bone loss. Endotoxin leakage through implant abutment connections negatively influences peri-implant bone levels. Objectives . (i) To determine if endotoxin can traverse different implant-abutment connection (IAC) designs; (ii) to quantify the amount of endotoxins traversing the IAC; (iii) to compare the in vitro comportments of different IACs. Materials and Methods . Twenty-seven IACs were inoculated with E. coli endotoxin. Six of the twenty-seven IACs were external connections from one system (Southern Implants) and the remaining twenty-one IACs were made up of seven internal IAC types from four different implant companies (Straumann, Ankylos, and Neodent, Southern Implants). Results . Of the 27 IACs tested, all 6 external IACs leaked measurable amounts of endotoxin. Of the remaining 21 internal IACs, 9 IACs did not show measurable leakage whilst the remaining 12 IACs leaked varying amounts. The mean log endotoxin level was significantly higher for the external compared to internal types ( p = 0.015). Conclusion . Within the parameters of this study, we can conclude that endotoxin leakage is dependent on the design of the IAC. Straumann Synocta, Straumann Cross-fit, and Ankylos displayed the best performances of all IACs tested with undetectable leakage after 7 days. Each of these IACs incorporated a morse-like component in their design. Speculation still exists over the impact of IAC endotoxin leakage on peri-implant tissues in vivo; hence, further investigations are required to further explore this.
Santos, Joanes Silva; Santos, Thiago de Santana; Martins-Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete; Krockow, Nadine von; Weigl, Paul; Pablo, Hess
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the peri-implant vertical bone loss of immediate loading of implant crowns using the one abutment at one time (AOT) protocol and implants with abutment removal (AR). This systematic review with meta-analysis was reported according to the PRISMA statement, with guidance from the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook. A total of 103 publications were identified in the PubMed database and reference lists of examined articles. After the screening of titles and abstracts, the eligibility of eight full-text articles was assessed. Five studies published between 2010 and 2015 were included in the meta-analysis. There was less peri-implant vertical bone loss at implants using an AOT protocol than at implants using AR protocol (WMD -0.19, 95% CI -0.26 to -0.13; pprotocol with platform-switched Morse implants results in less bone loss than do AR procedures, but this effect may not be clinically relevant. The preservation of marginal bone level achieved with the AOT protocol may not enhance the aesthetics. These results should be interpreted with caution.
Degidi, Marco; Nardi, Diego; Sighinolfi, Gianluca; Merla, Arcangelo; Piattelli, Adriano
Control of heat dissipation and transmission to the peri-implant area during intra-oral welding is very important to limit potential damage to the surrounding tissue. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess, by means of thermal infrared imaging, the tissue temperature peaks associated with the thermal propagation pathway through the implants, the abutments and the walls of the slot of the scaffold, generated during the welding process, in three different implant systems. An in vitro polyurethane mandible model was prepared with a 7.0 mm v-shape slot. Effects on the maximum temperature by a single welding procedure were studied using different power supplies and abutments. A total of 36 welding procedures were tested on three different implant systems. The lowest peak temperature along the walls of the 7.0 mm v-shaped groove (31.6 ± 2 °C) was assessed in the specimens irrigated with sterile saline solution. The highest peak temperature (42.8 ± 2 °C) was assessed in the samples with a contemporaneous power overflow and premature pincers removal. The results of our study suggest that the procedures used until now appear to be effective to avoid thermal bone injuries. The peak tissue temperature of the in vitro model did not surpass the threshold limits above which tissue injury could occur.
Pabst, A M; Walter, C; Bell, A; Weyhrauch, M; Schmidtmann, I; Scheller, H; Lehmann, K M
This study investigated the influence of three CAD/CAM zirconia ceramics for implant-abutment manufacturing on cell viability, migration ability, and cytotoxicity of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and oral keratinocytes (HOK) in vitro. HGF and HOK were cultured on zirconia ceramic disks (VITA In-Ceram YZ, Ivoclar IPS e.max ZirCAD, Sirona inCoris ZI) and on control disks made of tissue culture polystyrene. Cell viability was analyzed by a MTT assay. Migration ability was detected by a scratch assay. A ToxiLight assay was used to analyze the influence of the tested zirconia ceramics on adenylate kinase (ADK) release and cytotoxicity. At MTT assay, HGF showed an increased cell viability compared to the control after 9 and 12 days for all ceramics (p each ≤0.0002) while HOK demonstrated a decreased cell viability after 9 and 12 days for all ceramics (p each ≤0.0003). At scratch assay, HGF exhibited for all ceramics decreased relative distances of the scratch wound compared to the control from 24 to 48 h (p each zirconia ceramics on HGF and HOK could be shown. The analyzed zirconia ceramics could influence oral soft-tissue cells that might affect the esthetic outcome after implant placement using CAD/CAM zirconia abutments.
Full Text Available X-ray micro-tomography (micro-CT is a miniaturized form of conventional computed axial tomography (CAT able to investigate small radio-opaque objects at a-few-microns high resolution, in a nondestructive, non-invasive, and tri-dimensional way. Compared to traditional optical and electron microscopy techniques, which provide two-dimensional images, this innovative investigation technology enables a sample tri-dimensional analysis without cutting, coating or exposing the object to any particular chemical treatment. X-ray micro-tomography matches ideal 3D microscopy features: the possibility of investigating an object in natural conditions and without any preparation or alteration; non-invasive, non-destructive, and sufficiently magnified 3D reconstruction; reliable measurement of numeric data of the internal structure (morphology, structure and ultra-structure. Hence, this technique has multi-fold applications in a wide range of fields, not only in medical and odontostomatologic areas, but also in biomedical engineering, materials science, biology, electronics, geology, archaeology, oil industry, and semi-conductors industry. This study shows possible applications of micro-CT in dental implantology to analyze 3D micro-features of dental implant to abutment interface. Indeed, implant-abutment misfit is known to increase mechanical stress on connection structures and surrounding bone tissue. This condition may cause not only screw preload loss or screw fracture, but also biological issues in peri-implant tissues.
Ambré, Marcus J; Aschan, Fredrik; Vult von Steyern, Per
The aim of this study was to investigate the fracture strength and fracture mode of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) posterior three-unit FDPs with varying connector dimension and abutment core thickness. Seventy 3-unit posterior FDP cores made of Y-TZP were divided into 7 groups with varying connector dimensions and abutment core thicknesses. All the FDPs underwent a simulated aging process including veneering, firing applications, thermocycling, and cyclic preloading. Finally the FDPs were subjected to load until fracture. Significant difference was seen between the different subgroups (p < 0.05). Groups with the same connector dimension showed no significant difference in fracture strength. All fractures of the specimens involved the connector. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that the strength of an all-ceramic Y-TZP FDP beam depends more on the connector dimension than on the thickness of the abutment core. Results indicate that the minimum abutment core thickness of an all-ceramic Y-TZP FDP might be reduced, compared to the recommended thickness, without reducing the strength of the reconstruction. This indication, however, needs to be verified by further studies before being considered generally applicable. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Patil, Ratnadeep; van Brakel, Ralph; Iyer, Kavita; Huddleston Slater, James; de Putter, Cornelis; Cune, Marco
Aim To evaluate the effect of two different abutment designs on soft tissue healing and the stability of the mucosal margin in vivo. Materials and methods Twenty-nine subjects received two, non-adjacent endosseous implants in the esthetic zone. Subsequently, conventional (control) and curved
Kang, Hongpu; Li, Jianzhong; Yang, Jinghe; Gao, Fuqiang
In underground coal mining, high abutment loads caused by the extraction of coal can be a major contributor to many rock mechanic issues. In this paper, a large-scale physical modeling of a 2.6 × 2.0 × 1.0 m entry roof has been conducted to investigate the fundamentals of the fracture mechanics of entry roof strata subjected to high abutment loads. Two different types of roof, massive roof and laminated roof, are considered. Rock bolt system has been taken into consideration. A distinct element analyses based on the physical modeling conditions have been performed, and the results are compared with the physical results. The physical and numerical models suggest that under the condition of high abutment loads, the massive roof and the laminated roof fail in a similar pattern which is characterized as vertical tensile fracturing in the middle of the roof and inclined shear fracturing initiated at the roof and rib intersections and propagated deeper into the roof. Both the massive roof and the laminated roof collapse in a shear sliding mode shortly after shear fractures are observed from the roof surface. It is found that shear sliding is a combination of tensile cracking of intact rock and sliding on bedding planes and cross joints. Shear sliding occurs when the abutment load is much less than the compressive strength of roof.
Nam, Sang Yu; Rhim, Hyunchul; Kang, Tae Wook; Lee, Min Woo; Kim, Young-Sun; Choi, Dongil; Lee, Won Jae; Park, Yulri; Chang, Ilsoo; Lim, Hyo K
This study was designed to assess whether artificial ascites has a heat-sink effect on the ablation zone for percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatic tumors abutting the diaphragm. We retrospectively assessed 28 patients who underwent percutaneous RFA for the treatment of a single nodular hepatic tumor that abutted the diaphragm from July 2000 to December 2006. All patients underwent ultrasound-guided RFA using internally cooled electrodes. A single ablation for 12 minutes was applied using 3-cm active-tip electrodes. We divided patients into two groups on the basis of whether artificial ascites was introduced before RFA: Group A consisted of patients who received artificial ascites with a mean of 760 mL of a 5% dextrose in water solution (n = 15) and group B consisted of patients who did not receive artificial ascites (n = 13). The volume of the ablation zone was measured on CT images obtained immediately after the ablation procedure, and imaging findings were compared for both groups using the Student's t test. We also compared the local tumor progression rate between both groups using the chi-square test (mean follow-up, 37.4 months). There was no significant difference between the two patient groups with regard to age, sex, Child-Pugh class, or tumor location (p > 0.05). The tumors were significantly smaller in group A patients (mean +/- SD, 1.6 +/- 0.5 cm) than in group B patients (2.1 +/- 0.7 cm) (p = 0.019). The mean volume of the RFA zone was 31.6 +/- 11.9 cm(3) in group A patients and 30.9 +/- 11.0 cm(3) in group B patients. There was no significant difference between the groups in the ablation volume (p = 0.871). Local tumor progression was noted in four patients (26.7%) in group A and in three patients (23.1%) in group B. There was no significant difference in the local tumor progression rate between the two groups (p = 0.83). Artificial ascites did not show a heat-sink effect on the volume of the ablation zone after percutaneous RFA for the
Martinez-Rus, Francisco; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Ozcan, Mutlu; Pradies, Guillermo
To evaluate the marginal discrepancy of monolithic and veneered all-ceramic crown systems cemented on titanium (Ti) and zirconia implant abutments. Sixty customized implant abutments for a maxillary right central incisor were fabricated of Ti and zirconia (n = 30 of each) for an internal-connection implant system. All-ceramic crowns were fabricated using the following systems (n = 10 per group): monolithic with computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) lithium disilicate (MLD), pressed lithium disilicate (PLD), or CAD yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP). The frameworks of the PLD and Y-TZP systems were manually veneered with a fluorapatite-based ceramic. The crowns were cemented to their implant abutments, and the absolute marginal discrepancy of the gap was measured before and after cementation. Data were analyzed statistically. Marginal discrepancies were significantly influenced by the crown system and by cementation, but the material did not significantly affect the results. Interaction terms were not significant. Y-TZP crowns on both Ti and zirconia abutments presented the smallest mean marginal discrepancies before (52.1 ± 17 μm and 56.2 ± 11 μm, respectively) and after cementation (98.7 ± 17 μm and 101.8 ± 16 μm, respectively). Before cementation, MLD crowns showed significantly larger mean marginal openings than PLD crowns on both Ti and zirconia abutments (75.2 ± 12 and 77.5 ± 13 μm for MLD, 52.1 ± 17 μm and 69.7 ± 8 μm for PLD, respectively). After cementation, both Ti and zirconia abutments with MLD crowns (113.5 ± 12 μm and 118.3 ± 14 μm, respectively) showed significantly larger values than with PLD crowns (98.7 ± 17 μm and 109.4 ± 9 μm, respectively). Manually veneered Y-TZP crowns demonstrated more favorable marginal fit on both Ti and zirconia implant abutments before and after cementation compared to those of MLD and PLD.
Yao, Kuang-Ta; Chen, Chen-Sheng; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Fang, Hsu-Wei; Huang, Chang-Hung; Kao, Hung-Chan; Hsu, Ming-Lun
Conical implant-abutment connections are popular for their excellent connection stability, which is attributable to frictional resistance in the connection. However, conical angles, the inherent design parameter of conical connections, exert opposing effects on 2 influencing factors of the connection stability: frictional resistance and abutment rigidity. This pilot study employed an optimization approach through the finite element method to obtain an optimal conical angle for the highest connection stability in an Ankylos-based conical connection system. A nonlinear 3-dimensional finite element parametric model was developed according to the geometry of the Ankylos system (conical half angle = 5.7°) by using the ANSYS 11.0 software. Optimization algorithms were conducted to obtain the optimal conical half angle and achieve the minimal value of maximum von Mises stress in the abutment, which represents the highest connection stability. The optimal conical half angle obtained was 10.1°. Compared with the original design (5.7°), the optimal design demonstrated an increased rigidity of abutment (36.4%) and implant (25.5%), a decreased microgap at the implant-abutment interface (62.3%), a decreased contact pressure (37.9%) with a more uniform stress distribution in the connection, and a decreased stress in the cortical bone (4.5%). In conclusion, the methodology of design optimization to determine the optimal conical angle of the Ankylos-based system is feasible. Because of the heterogeneity of different systems, more studies should be conducted to define the optimal conical angle in various conical connection designs.
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes achieved with Computer-Assisted Design/Computer-Assisted Manufacturing implant abutments in the anterior maxilla.Material and Methods: Nineteen patients with a mean age of 41 (range form 26 to 63 years, treated with 21 single tooth implants and 21 Computer-Assisted Design/Computer-Assisted Manufacturing (CAD/CAM abutments in the anterior maxillary region were included in this study. The patients followed 4 criteria of inclusion: (1 had a single-tooth implant in the anterior maxilla, (2 had a CAD/CAM abutment, (3 had a contralateral natural tooth, (4 the implant was restored and in function for at least 6 months up to 2 years. Cases without contact point were excluded. Presence/absence of the interproximal papilla, inter tooth-implant distance (ITD and distance from the base of the contact point to dental crest bone of adjacent tooth (CPB were accessed. Results: Forty interproximal spaces were evaluated, with an average mesial CPB of 5.65 (SD 1.65 mm and distal CPB of 4.65 (SD 1.98 mm. An average mesial ITD of 2.49 (SD 0.69 mm and an average distal ITD of 1.89 (SD 0.63 mm were achieved. Papilla was present in all the interproximal spaces accessed. Conclusions: The restoration of dental implants using CAD/CAM abutments is a predictable treatment with improved aesthetic results. These type of abutments seem to help maintaining a regular papillary filling although the variations of the implant positioning or the restoration teeth relation.
Hard tissue response to argon plasma cleaning/sterilisation of customised titanium abutments versus 5-second steam cleaning: results of a 2-year post-loading follow-up from an explanatory randomised controlled trial in periodontally healthy patients.
Canullo, Luigi; Penarrocha, David; Micarelli, Costanza; Massidda, Orietta; Bazzoli, Mauro
The aim of this triple-blinded randomised controlled trial was to test if argon plasma cleaning/ sterilisation of customised abutments can affect peri-implant marginal bone levels when compared to 5 seconds of steam cleaning. A total of 20 consecutive periodontally healthy patients requiring single implant-supported restorations in the maxillary premolar or anterior area were selected. All patients received a single implant. At abutment connection, customised abutments were randomly allocated to control (subjected only to usually adopted steam cleaning, CG) and test groups (subjected to plasma cleaning/sterilisation, TG). Abutments were screwed in at 32 Ncm, provisional restorations adapted and periapical radiographs were taken using customised film holders. Two weeks later, definitive restorations were placed. Patients were followed-up for 2 years post-loading. Outcome measures were implant/crown success, complications, periapical marginal bone level changes on periapical standardised radiographs, and microbiological analyses of the abutments after customisation and cleaning procedures but before connection. Comparisons between groups were performed by independent sample t tests (significance threshold of P ≤ 0.05). No patient dropped out 2 years after loading. The presence of bacterial growth (staphylococci, including Staphylococcus aureus) was observed only on the CG abutments. No implant failed and no complications occurred. After 2 years of prosthetic loading, radiographic analysis revealed a statistically significantly higher mean bone loss for the CG group (mean difference 0.4 mm; 95% CI 0.08-0.73; P = 0.018). This study suggests that removal of contaminants from titanium abutments using plasma of argon can allow for better bone level maintenance when compared to 5-second steam cleaning of titanium abutments. It is therefore important to use cleaned and sterilised customised abutments in patients.
Full Text Available The present work aimed to outline the need to investigate different fields of research to interpret the structural behaviour of a monument as complex as the Colosseum. It is shown how defining the numerical models first. then refining them, followed by interpretation of results. is strictly linked with the inforination gathered from historical records and observation of the ~nonumenta s it is today. The study is confined to the area of the Valadier abutment. analysing its state and its seismic behaviour before and after the XIX century restoration using different ilumerical tools, from the elastic modal analysis to the non linear step by step time history direct integration. The procedure comparatiely evaluates the reliability in the interpretation of the results and identifies future lines or research.
A Clinical Study Assessing the Influence of Anodized Titanium and Zirconium Dioxide Abutments and Peri-implant Soft Tissue Thickness on the Optical Outcome of Implant-Supported Lithium Disilicate Single Crowns.
Martínez-Rus, Francisco; Prieto, Marta; Salido, María P; Madrigal, Cristina; Özcan, Mutlu; Pradíes, Guillermo
To assess the influence of anodized titanium and zirconium dioxide abutments and peri-implant soft tissue thickness on the optical outcome of implant-supported lithium disilicate single crowns. Twenty patients with a missing maxillary single incisor, canine, or first premolar received an endosseous implant after a two-stage surgery protocol. After healing and soft tissue conditioning, peri-implant soft tissues were reproduced in the impression, and the thickness was measured. Customized abutments were made of titanium, gold-anodized titanium, pink-anodized titanium, and zirconium dioxide. The definitive prosthesis was a lithium disilicate crown stratified by feldsphatic porcelain. Customized abutments were screwed (35 Ncm), and the crown was temporarily placed on the abutment with a try-in paste. Color measurements were made using a spectrophotometer. CIELab color scale was employed following the formula: ΔE = (ΔL)² + (Δa) ² + (Δb) ². Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), Bonferroni and Pearson's correlation tests (α = .05). Abutment material type significantly affected the ΔE values at both the peri-implant soft tissue (P = .0001) and coronal level (P = .001). The lowest ΔE values were obtained with zirconia abutments at both soft tissue (6.06 ± 3.2) and coronal level (5.76 ± 2.9) compared with those of other abutments (soft tissue: 8.96 ± 3.1 to 11.56 ± 3.4; coronal: 8.66 ± 6.1 to 10.42 ± 6.3). Mean soft tissue thickness (1.63 ± 0.64 mm) affected the ΔE values at the peri-implant soft tissue level for only titanium and pink-anodized titanium abutments (P = .024 and P = .048, respectively). In all conditions, correlation coefficients between ΔE and the abutment materials were higher for titanium (r = -0.544; P = .024) and the least for zirconia (r = -0.313; P = .238) and gold-anodized titanium (r = -0.393; P = .119) abutments. All abutment types demonstrated noticeable color difference at both the soft tissue
Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to compare the stress produced at the PDL of abutment teeth with two angles of cervical convergence, in otherwise similar settings.Materials and Methods: Two finite element models were designed for a second premolar and a removable partial denture frame containing an I-bar clasp. Maximum Principal Stress (S1 and Von Mises Stress (SEQV were assessed along a cervicoapical path of nodes in the PDL.Results: Output data for S1 and SEQV were the same regarding the height of contour.A gradual decrease in both models was observed. A larger decrease was found in the model with the higher angle of cervical convergence.Conclusion: I-bars placed on teeth with lower angles of cervical convergence produce a higher stress to the PDL of abutments.
Anshu Blaggana; Vikram Blaggana
Calcium channel blockers have been implicated throughout literature for gingival hyperplasia around natural teeth as an untoward side effect, with amlodipine exhibiting the least prevalence rate. This clinical report describes a rare case of hyperplasia of tissues around titanium dental implants in a 62-year-old hypertensive Caucasian male patient receiving Amlodipine® 5 mg/day for 10 years. Clinically, the enlargement appeared circumferentially enveloping the healing abutments placed 4 month...
Schwarz, Frank; Alcoforado, Gil; Nelson, Katja; Schaer, Alex; Taylor, Thomas; Beuer, Florian; Strietzel, Frank Peter
Objectives The aim of this consensus meeting was to assess the impact of implant–abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Materials and methods Two comprehensive systematic reviews were prepared in advance of the meeting. Consensus statements, practical recommendations, and implications for future research were based on within group as well as plenary scrutinization and discussions of these systematic reviews. Resu...
Uhrenbacher, Julia; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Keul, Christine; Eichberger, Marlis; Roos, Malgorzata; Gernet, Wolfgang; Stawarczyk, Bogna
The mechanical properties of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) make it an ideal material for fixed dental prostheses; however, insufficient information is available about the cementation of these restorations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retention strength of differently pretreated and conditioned PEEK crowns luted to dental abutments. Human teeth were prepared in a standardized manner, and PEEK crowns were milled (N=160, n=10 per group) and conditioned as follows: airborne-particle abrasion, sulfuric etching, piranha etching, and no conditioning. These groups were divided into adhesive systems: visio.link, Signum PEEK Bond, Ambarino P60, and no adhesive and luted to dentin abutments. After water storage (60 days) and thermocycling (5000 cycles, 5°C/55°C), the retention strength of the crowns was determined with a pull-off test, and failure types were classified. The data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis, 1-way ANOVA, and χ(2) test (α=.05). Crowns that were unconditioned and piranha etched and/or adhesively untreated or pretreated with Ambarino P60 had the lowest retention strength. The highest values were found for the airborne-particle abrasion and sulfuric etched groups and/or crowns adhesively pretreated with Signum PEEK Bond and visio.link. Composite resin cement that remained on dentin was observed more frequently for unconditioned groups in combination with Ambarino P60 and no adhesive pretreatment. Mixed failure types were found more frequently in the airborne-particle abrasion group in combination with visio.link, Signum PEEK Bond, and no adhesive pretreatment, in the sulfuric acid etched group combined with Ambarino P60 and no adhesive pretreatment, and after the piranha acid pretreatment in combination with visio.link or Signum PEEK Bond. The adhesion of the tested PEEK crowns to dentin was satisfactory after treatment with airborne-particle abrasion or etching with sulfuric acid and/or when additional adhesive systems such as visio
Full Text Available The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to investigate the clinical results obtained over four years and incidence of complications associated with one- versus two-piece custom made zirconia anchorages, in single tooth implant-supported restorations of the maxillary anterior region. Sixty-five patients, with a total of 74 missing maxillary teeth, were selected in the period from February 2007 to July 2010. Two different ways of custom made zirconia abutment and final prosthetic restoration were evaluated: a standard zirconia abutment associated with a pressed layer of lithium disilicate with an all-ceramic cemented restoration versus one-piece restoration with the facing porcelain fired and pressed straight to the custom made zirconia abutment. In 29 cases, the restoration consisted of an all-ceramic restoration for cementation (two pieces; in 45 cases the restoration was a screw-retained restoration (one piece. Three all-ceramic restorations broke during the observation time. Two one-piece restorations fractured after 26 months. At follow-up examination there were no significant differences between one-piece and two-piece groups regarding the PI, BI, and MBL. Awaiting studies with longer follow-up times, a careful conclusion is that zirconia anchorages for single-implant restorations seem to demonstrate good short-term technical and biological results.
Paolantoni, Guerino; Marenzi, Gaetano; Blasi, Andrea; Mignogna, Jolanda; Sammartino, Gilberto
The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to investigate the clinical results obtained over four years and incidence of complications associated with one- versus two-piece custom made zirconia anchorages, in single tooth implant-supported restorations of the maxillary anterior region. Sixty-five patients, with a total of 74 missing maxillary teeth, were selected in the period from February 2007 to July 2010. Two different ways of custom made zirconia abutment and final prosthetic restoration were evaluated: a standard zirconia abutment associated with a pressed layer of lithium disilicate with an all-ceramic cemented restoration versus one-piece restoration with the facing porcelain fired and pressed straight to the custom made zirconia abutment. In 29 cases, the restoration consisted of an all-ceramic restoration for cementation (two pieces); in 45 cases the restoration was a screw-retained restoration (one piece). Three all-ceramic restorations broke during the observation time. Two one-piece restorations fractured after 26 months. At follow-up examination there were no significant differences between one-piece and two-piece groups regarding the PI, BI, and MBL. Awaiting studies with longer follow-up times, a careful conclusion is that zirconia anchorages for single-implant restorations seem to demonstrate good short-term technical and biological results.
Paolantoni, Guerino; Marenzi, Gaetano; Blasi, Andrea; Mignogna, Jolanda; Sammartino, Gilberto
The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to investigate the clinical results obtained over four years and incidence of complications associated with one- versus two-piece custom made zirconia anchorages, in single tooth implant-supported restorations of the maxillary anterior region. Sixty-five patients, with a total of 74 missing maxillary teeth, were selected in the period from February 2007 to July 2010. Two different ways of custom made zirconia abutment and final prosthetic restoration were evaluated: a standard zirconia abutment associated with a pressed layer of lithium disilicate with an all-ceramic cemented restoration versus one-piece restoration with the facing porcelain fired and pressed straight to the custom made zirconia abutment. In 29 cases, the restoration consisted of an all-ceramic restoration for cementation (two pieces); in 45 cases the restoration was a screw-retained restoration (one piece). Three all-ceramic restorations broke during the observation time. Two one-piece restorations fractured after 26 months. At follow-up examination there were no significant differences between one-piece and two-piece groups regarding the PI, BI, and MBL. Awaiting studies with longer follow-up times, a careful conclusion is that zirconia anchorages for single-implant restorations seem to demonstrate good short-term technical and biological results. PMID:27027093
Schwarz, Frank; Hegewald, Andrea; Becker, Jürgen
To address the following focused question: What is the impact of implant-abutment configuration and the positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes? Electronic databases of the PubMed and the Web of Knowledge were searched for animal and human studies reporting on histological/radiological crestal bone level changes (CBL) at nonsubmerged one-/two-piece implants (placed in healed ridges) exhibiting different abutment configurations, positioning of the machined collar/microgap (between 1992 and November 2012: n = 318 titles). Quality assessment of selected full-text articles was performed according to the ARRIVE and CONSORT statement guidelines. A total of 13 publications (risk of bias: high) were eligible for the review. The weighted mean difference (WMD) (95% CI) between machined collars placed either above or below the bone crest amounted to 0.835 mm favoring an epicrestal positioning of the rough/smooth border (P bone crest amounted to -0.479 mm favoring a subcrestal position of the implant neck (P bone level changes at nonsubmerged implants, the impact of the implant-abutment connection lacks documentation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Yong-Hee; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam
Although dental implants are commonly used for tooth restoration, there is a lack of studies of treatment regimens for preventing extra-oral infection and decreasing osseointegration failures by establishing early peri-implant soft tissue seals on titanium dental implant abutments. In this study, air atmospheric-pressure plasma-jet (AAPPJ) treatment was applied to titanium disks to assay the potential for early peri-implant soft tissue seals on titanium dental implant abutment. After titanium disks were treated with AAPPJ for 10 s at 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 sccm, surface analysis was performed; the control group received air only or no treatment. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) were seeded onto the specimens for evaluating cell attachment and proliferation and adherent-cell morphology was visualized via confocal microscopy. In AAPPJ-treated specimens, the water contact angle decreased according to increased flow rate. Oxygen composition increased in XPS, but no topographical changes were detected. The effect of AAPPJ treatment at 1000 sccm was apparent 2 mm from the treated spot, with a 20% increase in early cell attachment and proliferation. Adherent HGF on AAPPJ-treated specimens displayed a stretched phenotype with more vinculin formation than the control group. Within the limitations of this study, the results indicate that AAPPJ treatment may enhance the early attachment and proliferation of HGF for establishing early peri-implant soft tissue seals on titanium dental implant abutments with possible favorable effects of osseointegration of dental implant.
Robert W. Fausett
Full Text Available As part of an investigation on the performance of integral abutment bridges, a single-span, integral abutment, prestressed concrete girder bridge near Perry, Utah was instrumented for live-load testing. The live-load test included driving trucks at 2.24 m/s (5 mph along predetermined load paths and measuring the corresponding strain and deflection. The measured data was used to validate a finite-element model (FEM of the bridge. The model showed that the integral abutments were behaving as 94% of a fixed-fixed support. Live-load distribution factors were obtained using this validated model and compared to those calculated in accordance to recommended procedures provided in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (2010. The results indicated that if the bridge was considered simply supported, the AASHTO LRFD Specification distribution factors were conservative (in comparison to the FEM results. These conservative distribution factors, along with the initial simply supported design assumption resulted in a very conservative bridge design. In addition, a parametric study was conducted by modifying various bridge properties of the validated bridge model, one at a time, in order to investigate the influence that individual changes in span length, deck thickness, edge distance, skew, and fixity had on live-load distribution. The results showed that the bridge properties with the largest influence on bridge live-load distribution were fixity, skew, and changes in edge distance.
Xie, Youneng; Zhou, Jing; Wei, Qiuping; Yu, Z M; Luo, Hao; Zhou, Bo; Tang, Z G
Abutment screw loosening is the most common complication of implanting teeth. Aimed at improving the long-term stability of them, well-adherent and homogeneous micro-crystalline diamond (MCD) and nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) were deposited on DIO(®) (Dong Seo, Korea) abutment screws using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system. Compared with bare DIO(®) screws, diamond coated ones showed higher post reverse toque values than the bare ones (pTi6Al4V disks of 0.40. Though higher cell apoptosis rate was observed on film coated disks, but no significant difference between MCD group and NCD group. And the cytotoxicity of diamond films was acceptable for the fact that the cell viability of them was still higher than 70% after cultured for 72h. It can be inferred that coating diamond films might be a promising modification method for Ti6Al4V abutment screws. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ivete Aparecida de Mathias Sartori
Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the behavior of implant-supported dentures and their components, made by cemented cylinder technique, using threetypes of resin cements. Methods: Fifty three patients, of whom 26 were women and 27 men, aged between 25 and 82 years. Results: With partial (54.43% and total (45.57% implant-supported dentures, of the Cone Morse, external and internal hexagon types (Neodent®, Curitiba, Brazil, totaling 237 fixations, were analyzed. The resin cements used were Panavia® (21.94%, EnForce® (58.23% and Rely X® (19.83% and the components were used in accordance with the Laboratory Immediate Loading - Neodent® sequence. The period of time of denture use ranged between 1 and 5 years. The results reported that 5(2.1% cylinders were loosened from metal structure (both belonging to Rely X group, 2(0.48% implants were lost after the first year of use, 16(6.75% denture retention screws wereloosened and 31(13.08% abutment screws were unloosened.Conclusion: The reasons for these failures probably are: metal structure internal retention failure, occlusal pattern, cementation technique and loading conditions. The cemented cylinder technique was effective when used in partial and total implant-supported rehabilitations, keeping prosthetic components stable, despite the resin cement utilized. However, further clinical studies must be conducted.
Helen Mary Abraham
Full Text Available Introduction: Load transfer mechanisms from the implant to surrounding bone and failure of osseointegrated implants are affected by implant geometry and mechanical properties of the site of placement as well as crestal bone resorption. Estimation of such effects allows for a correct design of implant geometry to minimize crestal bone loss and implant failure. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of implant and abutment diameter on stress distribution in the peri-implant area. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element models created to replicate completely osseointegrated endosseous titanium implants and were used for the purpose of stress analysis. Two study groups that consisting of a regular platform (RP group and narrow platform (NP group were used with a standard bone density and loaded using the ANSYS Workbench software to calculate the von Mises and Principal (maximum tensile and minimum compressive stress. Results: The von Mises, compressive, and tensile stresses in the peri-implant bone were lower in the RP model compared to the NP model. Conclusion: RP model yielded a positive result with regard to lowering of peri-implant bone stress levels, in healthy as well as compromised bone qualities when compared to NP designs.
Comparison of strain generated in bone by "platform-switched" and "non-platform-switched" implants with straight and angulated abutments under vertical and angulated load: A finite element analysis study
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microstrain exhibited by bone around immediately loaded, platform-switched, and non-platform-switched implants under vertical and angled loading using a finite element analysis (FEA and also to evaluate whether platform-switched implants evoke a better response than non-platform-switched implants on a mechanical basis. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element study was undertaken to model and analyze an immediate loaded situation. FEA was chosen for this study since it is useful in determining the stress and strain around the dental implant. Bone responses to vertical and angulated loads on straight and angulated abutments (platform-switched and non-platform-switched abutments were evaluated. Results: Non-platform-switched abutments tend to exhibit a lower tensile stress and compressive stress but higher microstrain value (conducive to higher chance of bone resorption than platform-switched abutments. Ideal bone remodeling values of microstrain (50-3000 μϵ were exhibited by platform-switched straight abutments under vertical load and angled load (with an abutment-implant diameter difference of 1 mm. Conclusion: In spite of the obvious advantages, the practice of immediate loading is limited due to apprehension associated with compromised bone response and a higher rate of bone loss around an immediately loaded implant. The mechanical basis for the concept of "platform switching" in immediately loaded situation is analyzed in this context. The results of this limited investigation indicated that the ideal values of microstrain (50-3000 microstrain can be exhibited by platform switching of dental implants (with an abutment-implant diameter difference of 1 mm and can be considered as a better alternative for prevention of crestal bone loss when compared to non-platform-switched implants.
Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido Araujo; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Bonfante, Estevam Augusto; Santiago Júnior, Joel Ferreira; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza
The systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to answer the PICO question: "Do patients that received external connection implants show similar marginal bone loss, implant survival and complication rates as internal connection implants?". Meta-analyses of marginal bone loss, survival rates of implants and complications rates were performed for the included studies. Study eligibility criteria included (1) randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and/or prospective, (2) studies with at least 10 patients, (3) direct comparison between connection types and (4) publications in English language. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the quality and risk of bias in RCTs, while Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used for non-RCTs. A comprehensive search strategy was designed to identify published studies on PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and The Cochrane Library databases up to October 2017. The search identified 661 references. Eleven studies (seven RCTs and four prospective studies) were included, with a total of 530 patients (mean age, 53.93 years), who had received a total of 1089 implants (461 external-connection and 628 internal-connection implants). The internal-connection implants exhibited lower marginal bone loss than external-connection implants (PInternal connections had lower marginal bone loss when compared to external connections. However, the implant-abutment connection had no influence on the implant's survival and complication rates. Based on the GRADE approach the evidence was classified as very low to moderate due to the study design, inconsistency, and publication bias. Thus, future research is highly encouraged. Internal connection implants should be preferred over external connection implants, especially when different risk factors that may contribute to increased marginal bone loss are present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Benic, Goran I; Ge, Yanjun; Gallucci, German O; Jung, Ronald E; Schneider, David; Hämmerle, Christoph H F
To test whether implant placement with simultaneous guided bone regeneration (GBR) differs from implant placement without GBR regarding the change in marginal mucosal contour. In 28 patients, single implants were placed >4 months after tooth extraction. Eighteen implants were completely surrounded by native bone, and no bone augmentation was performed. At 10 implant sites, bone defects and thin bone plates were grafted with deproteinized bovine-derived bone mineral and covered with collagen membrane. Impressions were taken prior to implant placement (baseline), at 3 months before abutment connection, at 6 months immediately after crown insertion, at 1 year, and at 3 years. Models were optically scanned and 3D images were superimposed for the evaluation of mucosal contour changes at the mid-buccal aspect. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to detect differences. From baseline to 6 months, horizontal contour change at the level 1 and 2 mm apical to the mucosal margin measured 0.65 ± 0.74 mm and 0.55 ± 0.56 mm at sites without GBR, and 1.92 ± 0.87 mm and 1.76 ± 0.70 mm at sites with GBR (P tissue contour in comparison with implant placement without GBR. Abutment connection increased the contour of the marginal mucosa at the augmented and the nonaugmented sites. GBR procedure contributed more to the contour gain than did the abutment connection. The augmented and the nonaugmented ridges exhibited stable peri-implant mucosal contour over a 3-year period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Verstraeten, Nadia; Zarowski, Andrzej J; Somers, Thomas; Riff, Daphna; Offeciers, Erwin F
1) To quantify the audiometric differences between the preoperative tests with the Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) attached to the headband or the testband and the final postoperative result with the BAHA positioned at the implanted abutment. 2) To compare the results obtained with the headband and the testband. 3) To quantify the magnitude of the damping through the skin for the BAHA placed at the testband (important for comparison with the implantable hearing aids). Prospective. Tertiary otological referral centre. Ten adult (> or = 14 yr old) BAHA patients (6 male and 4 female subjects) with bilateral air-bone gaps of minimum 40-dB hearing loss and with more than 6 months of BAHA experience with the BAHA "Compact." Audiometric free-field thresholds and speech audiometry scores (Consonant-Vowel-Consonant lists, phonemic score) have been evaluated for 3 conditions: BAHA attached to the implanted "Snap" abutment, to the headband, or to the testband. For frequencies 1 to 4 kHz, significant differences in the range of 5 to 20 dB were found between the BAHA coupled with the Snap abutment and the preoperative testing conditions with the BAHA positioned at the headband or the testband. These differences were also reflected in the speech audiometry with a difference in speech reception threshold of approximately 4 to 7 dB. 1) Significant differences in the audiometric thresholds and the speech understanding scores were found between the preoperative test conditions and the final postoperative result. 2) Audiometric results obtained with the headband and the testband are comparable; therefore, the more comfortable headband is also suitable for the preoperative audiologic evaluation. 3) The magnitude of the skin damping must be accounted for when referring to the audiometric results obtained with the BAHA attached to the testband or headband.
Khorshidi, Hooman; Raoofi, Saeed; Moattari, Afagh; Bagheri, Atoosa; Kalantari, Mohammad Hassan
Background and Aim. The geometry of implant-abutment interface (IAI) affects the risk of bacterial leakage and invasion into the internal parts of the implant. The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of an 11-degree Morse taper IAI with that of a butt joint connection. Materials and Methods. Two implants systems were tested (n = 10 per group): CSM (submerged) and TBR (connect). The deepest inner parts of the implants were inoculated with 2 μL of Streptococcus mutans suspension with a concentration of 108 CFU/mL. The abutments were tightened on the implants. The specimens were stored in the incubator at a temperature of 37°C for 14 days and the penetration of the bacterium in the surrounding area was determined by the observation of the solution turbidity and comparison with control specimens. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was traced for the estimation of bacterial leakage and the results between two groups of implants were statistically analyzed by chi-square test. Results. No case of the implant system with the internal conical connection design revealed bacterial leakage in 14 days and no turbidity of the solution was reported for it. In the system with butt joint implant-abutment connection, 1 case showed leakage on the third day, 1 case on the eighth day, and 5 cases on the 13th day. In total, 7 (70%) cases showed bacterial leakage in this system. Significant differences were found between the two groups of implants based on the incidence of bacterial leakage (p < 0.05). Conclusion. The 11-degree Morse taper demonstrated better resistance to microbial leakage than butt joint connection. PMID:27242903
Full Text Available Background and Aim. The geometry of implant-abutment interface (IAI affects the risk of bacterial leakage and invasion into the internal parts of the implant. The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of an 11-degree Morse taper IAI with that of a butt joint connection. Materials and Methods. Two implants systems were tested (n=10 per group: CSM (submerged and TBR (connect. The deepest inner parts of the implants were inoculated with 2 μL of Streptococcus mutans suspension with a concentration of 108 CFU/mL. The abutments were tightened on the implants. The specimens were stored in the incubator at a temperature of 37°C for 14 days and the penetration of the bacterium in the surrounding area was determined by the observation of the solution turbidity and comparison with control specimens. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was traced for the estimation of bacterial leakage and the results between two groups of implants were statistically analyzed by chi-square test. Results. No case of the implant system with the internal conical connection design revealed bacterial leakage in 14 days and no turbidity of the solution was reported for it. In the system with butt joint implant-abutment connection, 1 case showed leakage on the third day, 1 case on the eighth day, and 5 cases on the 13th day. In total, 7 (70% cases showed bacterial leakage in this system. Significant differences were found between the two groups of implants based on the incidence of bacterial leakage (p<0.05. Conclusion. The 11-degree Morse taper demonstrated better resistance to microbial leakage than butt joint connection.
Buzayan, Muaiyed; Baig, Mirza Rustum; Yunus, Norsiah
This in vitro study evaluated the accuracy of multiple-unit dental implant casts obtained from splinted or nonsplinted direct impression techniques using various splinting materials by comparing the casts to the reference models. The effect of two different impression materials on the accuracy of the implant casts was also evaluated for abutment-level impressions. A reference model with six internal-connection implant replicas placed in the completely edentulous mandibular arch and connected to multi-base abutments was fabricated from heat-curing acrylic resin. Forty impressions of the reference model were made, 20 each with polyether (PE) and polyvinylsiloxane (PVS) impression materials using the open tray technique. The PE and PVS groups were further subdivided into four subgroups of five each on the bases of splinting type: no splinting, bite registration PE, bite registration addition silicone, or autopolymerizing acrylic resin. The positional accuracy of the implant replica heads was measured on the poured casts using a coordinate measuring machine to assess linear differences in interimplant distances in all three axes. The collected data (linear and three-dimensional [3D] displacement values) were compared with the measurements calculated on the reference resin model and analyzed with nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney). No significant differences were found between the various splinting groups for both PE and PVS impression materials in terms of linear and 3D distortions. However, small but significant differences were found between the two impression materials (PVS, 91 μm; PE, 103 μm) in terms of 3D discrepancies, irrespective of the splinting technique employed. Casts obtained from both impression materials exhibited differences from the reference model. The impression material influenced impression inaccuracy more than the splinting material for multiple-unit abutment-level impressions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, mapping of overlapping and abutting regulatory gene expression domains by chromogenic two-color in situ hybridization has helped define molecular subdivisions of the developing vertebrate brain and shed light on its basic organization. Despite the benefits of this technique, visualization of overlapping transcript distributions by differently colored precipitates remains difficult because of masking of lighter signals by darker color precipitates and lack of three-dimensional visualization properties. Fluorescent detection of transcript distributions may be able to solve these issues. However, despite the use of signal amplification systems for increasing sensitivity, fluorescent detection in whole-mounts suffers from rapid quenching of peroxidase (POD activity compared to alkaline phosphatase chromogenic reactions. Thus, less strongly expressed genes cannot be efficiently detected. Results We developed an optimized procedure for fluorescent detection of transcript distribution in whole-mount zebrafish embryos using tyramide signal amplification (TSA. Conditions for hybridization and POD-TSA reaction were optimized by the application of the viscosity-increasing polymer dextran sulfate and the use of the substituted phenol compounds 4-iodophenol and vanillin as enhancers of POD activity. In combination with highly effective bench-made tyramide substrates, these improvements resulted in dramatically increased signal-to-noise ratios. The strongly enhanced signal intensities permitted fluorescent visualization of less abundant transcripts of tissue-specific regulatory genes. When performing multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH experiments, the highly sensitive POD reaction conditions required effective POD inactivation after each detection cycle by glycine-hydrochloric acid treatment. This optimized FISH procedure permitted the simultaneous fluorescent visualization of up to three unique transcripts
Stawarczyk, Bogna; Stich, Nicola; Eichberger, Marlis; Edelhoff, Daniel; Roos, Malgorzata; Gernet, Wolfgang; Keul, Christine
To test the tensile bond strength of luted composite computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) crowns after use of different adhesive systems combined with different resin composite cements on dentin abutments. Human molars (n=200) were embedded in acrylic resin, prepared in a standardized manner and divided into 20 groups (n=10). The crowns were treated as follows: (i) Monobond Plus/Heliobond (MH), (ii) Ambarino P60 (AM), (iii) Visio.link (VL), (iv) VP connect (VP), and (v) non-treated as control groups (CG) and luted with Variolink II (VAR) or Clearfil SA Cement (CSA). Tensile bond strength (TBS) was measured initially (24h water, 37°C) and after aging (5000 thermal cycles, 5/55°C). The failure types were evaluated after debonding. TBS values were analyzed using three-way and one-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc Scheffé-test, and two-sample Student's t-tests. Among VAR and after aging, CG presented significantly higher TBS (p=0.007) than groups treated with MH, AM and VP. Other groups showed no impact of pre-treatment. A decrease of TBS values after thermal aging was observed within CSA: CG (p=0.002), MH (p<0.001), VL (p<0.001), AM (p=0.002), VP (p<0.001) and within VAR: MH (p=0.002) and AM (p=0.014). Groups cemented with VAR showed significantly higher TBS then groups cemented with CSA: non-aged groups: CG (p<0.001), and after thermal aging: CG (p=0.003), MH (p<0.001), VL (p=0.005), VP (p=0.010). According to the study results nano-composite CAD/CAM crowns should be cemented with VAR. Pre-treatment is not necessary if the tested resin composite cements are used. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Esposito, Marco; Bressan, Eriberto; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella; D'Avenia, Ferdinando; Neumann, Konrad; Sbricoli, Luca; Luongo, Giuseppe
To evaluate the influence of at least three abutment changes in conventionally loaded implants against placement of a definitive abutment in immediately non-occlusal loaded implants on hard and soft tissue changes. Eighty patients requiring one single crown or one fixed partial prosthesis supported by a maximum of three implants were randomised, after implants were placed with more than 35 Ncm, according to a parallel group design to receive definitive abutments which were loaded immediately (definitive abutment or immediate loading group) or transmucosal abutments. These were delayed loaded after 3 months and were removed at least three times: 1) at impression taking (3 months after implant placement); 2) when checking the zirconium core on titanium abutments at single crowns or the fitting the metal structure at prostheses supported by multiple implants; 3) at delivery of the definitive prostheses (repeated disconnection or conventional loading group). Patients were treated in four centres and each patient contributed to the study with only one prosthesis followed for 1 year after initial loading. Outcome measures were: prosthesis failures, implant failures, complications, pink esthetic score (PES), buccal recessions, patient satisfaction, peri-implant marginal bone level changes and height of the keratinised mucosa. Forty patients were randomly allocated to each group according to a parallel group design. Two patients dropped out from the definitive abutment group but no implant failed. Four provisional and one definitive single crowns had to be remade (due of misfitting) and one definitive crown (due to ceramic fracture) in the repeated disconnection group versus one provisional prosthesis of the immediate loading group due to frequent debondings (difference = 12%; CI95%: 0%, 25%; P = 0.109). Eight patients were affected by complications: four patients from each group (difference = 1%; CI95%: -13%, 14%; P = 1). PES scores assessed at 1
Full Text Available To promote the utilization of fly-ash, based on the orthogonal experiment method, wet density and unconfined compressive strength of Foamed Mixture Lightweight Soil mixed with fly-ash and quicklime (FMLSF are studied. It is shown that the wet density and unconfined compressive strength of FMLSF increase with the increase of cement content, while decreasing with the increase of foam content. With the mixing content of fly-ash increase, the wet density and unconfined compressive strength of FMLSF increase firstly and then decrease. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM tests show that ball effect or microaggregate effect of fly-ash improves the wet density and unconfined compressive strength of FMLSF. With the mixing content of quicklime increase, the wet density and unconfined compressive strength of FMLSF increase firstly within a narrow range and then decrease. In addition, the primary and secondary influence order on wet density and 28-day compressive strength of FMLSF are obtained, as well as the optimal mixture combination. Finally, based on two abutments in China, behind which they are filled with FMLSF and Foamed Mixture Lightweight Soil (FMLS, the construction techniques and key points of quality control behind abutment are compared and discussed in detail, and the feasibility of utilization fly-ash as FMLSF is verified by the experimental results.
Lages, Frederico Santos; Willya Douglas-de-Oliveira, Dhelfeson; Ibelli, Guilherme Siqueira; Assaf, Fatimah; Queiroz, Thallita Pereira; Costa, Fernando Oliveira
Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) has become the main tool used to assess the osseointegration of dental implants. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between the ISQ values with different prosthetic abutments and with the implant platform. The hypothesis was that ISQ values changes according to the abutment height. Twelve patients were included, whose contribution to the study was 31 dental implants (external hexagon connection implants, 4.1x10 mm). The temporary implant-supported crown and prosthetic components were removed and the following smartpegs were inserted, one at a time: type 1, in the implant platform (G1); type A3, in the microunit component with 1mm transmucosal height (G2) and type A3, in the microunit component with 5mm transmucosal height (G3). In all the smartpegs, RFA measurements were taken on mesial, distal, buccal and lingual surfaces. All evaluations were performed by a single calibrated examiner (ICC = 0.989). Data were analyzed by Friedman and Spearman correlation tests and log-linear marginal regression (pplatform.
Tee-Khin, Neo; Cheng, Ansgar C; Lee, Helena; Wee, Alvin G
Functional rehabilitation of edentulous jaws using a CAD/CAM-guided implant protocol is commonly recommended as a definitive treatment modality. A patient with an edentulous maxilla received 7 endosseous implants using a CAD/CAM surgical template. A provisional maxillary acrylic resin fixed complete denture was connected immediately after implant placement using a combination of screw-retained and cement-retained abutments.
Nelson, Katja; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Taylor, Thomas D; Zabler, Simon; Wiest, Wolfram; Fretwurst, Tobias
The purpose of this study was to visualize the mode and impact of force transmission in narrowdiameter implants with different implant-abutment designs and material properties and to quantify the displacement of the abutment. Narrow-diameter implants from two manufacturers were examined: Astra 3.0-mm-diameter implants (Astra OsseoSpeed TX; n = 2) and Straumann Bone Level implants with a 3.3-mm diameter made of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) Gr. 4 (n = 2) and 3.3-mm TiZr-alloy (n = 2; Bone Level, Straumann) under incremental force application using synchrotron radiography (absorption and inline x-ray phase-contrast) and tomography. During loading (250 N), Astra 3.0 and Bone Level 3.3- mm implants showed a deformation of the outer implant shoulder of 61.75 to 95 μm independent of the implant body material; the inner implant diameter showed a deformation of 71.25 to 109.25 μm. A deformation of the implant shoulder persisted after the removal of the load (range, 42.75 to 104.5 μm). An angulated intrusion of the abutment (maximum, 140 μm) into the implant body during load application was demonstrated; this spatial displacement persisted after removal of the load. This study demonstrated a deformation of the implant shoulder and displacement of the abutment during load application in narrow-diameter implants.
Mason, Amy G; Sutton, Alan; Turkyilmaz, Ilser
Thermal injury to the implant-bone interface may lead to bone necrosis and loss of osseointegration. This is a concern during manipulation of the implant throughout the restorative phase of treatment. The risk of heat transfer to the implant-bone interface during abutment preparation or prosthesis removal should be considered. The purpose of the study was to examine the amount of heat transferred to the implant-bone interface when a zirconia crown is drilled to access the screw channel or section a crown with a high-speed dental handpiece. Of the 64 ceramic-veneered zirconia crowns fabricated, 32 had a coping thickness of 0.5 mm and 32 had a coping thickness of 1.0 mm. The crowns were cemented on either titanium stock abutments or zirconia stock abutments. Each group was further subdivided to evaluate heat transfer when the screw channel was accessed or the crown was sectioned with a high-speed handpiece with or without irrigation. Temperature change was recorded for each specimen at the cervical and apical aspect of the implant with thermocouples and a logging thermometer. ANOVA was used to assess the statistical significance in temperature change between the test combinations, and nonparametric Mann-Whitney U tests were used to evaluate the findings. The use of irrigation during both crown removal processes yielded an average temperature increase of 3.59 ±0.35°C. Crown removal in the absence of irrigation yielded an average temperature increase of 18.76 ±3.09°C. When all parameter combinations in the presence of irrigation were evaluated, the maximum temperature change was below the threshold of thermal injury to bone. The maximum temperature change was above the threshold for thermal injury at the coronal aspect of the implant and below the threshold at the apical aspect in the absence of irrigation. Within the limitations of this investigation, the use of irrigation with a high-speed dental handpiece to remove a ceramic-veneered zirconia crown results in
Gamborena, Inãki; Lee, Jaebum; Fiorini, Tiago; Wenzel, Brent A; Schüpbach, Peter; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Susin, Cristiano
Crestal remodeling/bone loss appears to be a common sequel to dental implant placement. Several hypotheses/clinical strategies have been proposed to explain/avert crestal remodeling; however, causative mechanisms remain unclear and the efficacy of these clinical approaches uncertain. The objective of the present study was to provide a histological account of crestal bone levels and mucosal profile at platform shift/switch and concave abutments following flapless and conventional flap surgery and subcrestal implant placement using a dog model. Four dental implants each were placed in the left/right mandibular posterior jaw quadrants in five adult male Hound/Labrador mongrel dogs using flap surgery with a 1 × 5 mm gap defect or using a flapless approach, both involving placement 2 mm subcrestally and platform shift/switch versus concave abutments. Block biopsies for histological/histometric analysis were collected at 8 weeks. No significant differences were observed regarding crestal bone levels, with all groups showing mean bone levels above the implant platform. Similarly, crestal bone-implant contact was not significantly different among groups. Moreover, peri-implant mucosal profiles were not statistically different among groups for buccal sites; average mucosal height reached 4.1 to 4.9 mm above the implant platform. Comparison between buccal and lingual sites showed a nonsignificant tendency toward greater crestal resorption at buccal sites, adjusting for other factors. Mean crestal bone-implant contact level approximated the implant platform for lingual sites while consistently remaining below the platform at the buccal sites. Peri-implant mucosal height was significantly higher at buccal than at lingual sites, with the epithelial attachment located a significant distance away from the implant platform at buccal sites. The surgical approaches (subcrestal implant placement by flap surgery or a flapless approach) and abutment designs (platform shift/switch or
Carbajal Mejía, Jeison B; Wakabayashi, Kazumichi; Nakamura, Takashi; Yatani, Hirofumi
Direct (intraoral) and indirect (desktop) digital scanning can record abutment tooth preparations despite their geometry. However, little peer-reviewed information is available regarding the influence of abutment tooth geometry on the accuracy of digital methods of obtaining dental impressions. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of abutment tooth geometry on the accuracy of conventional and digital methods of obtaining dental impressions in terms of trueness and precision. Crown preparations with known total occlusal convergence (TOC) angles (-8, -6, -4, 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 22 degrees) were digitally created from a maxillary left central incisor and printed in acrylic resin. Each of these 9 reference models was scanned with a highly accurate reference scanner and saved in standard tessellation language (STL) format. Then, 5 conventional polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions were made from each reference model, which was poured with Type IV dental stone scanned using both the reference scanner (group PVS) and the desktop scanner and exported as STL files. Additionally, direct digital impressions (intraoral group) of the reference models were made, and the STL files were exported. The STL files from the impressions obtained were compared with the original geometry of the reference model (trueness) and within each test group (precision). Data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA with the post hoc least significant difference test (α=.05). Overall trueness values were 19.1 μm (intraoral scanner group), 23.5 μm (desktop group), and 26.2 μm (PVS group), whereas overall precision values were 11.9 μm (intraoral), 18.0 μm (PVS), and 20.7 μm (desktop). Simple main effects analysis showed that impressions made with the intraoral scanner were significantly more accurate than those of the PVS and desktop groups when the TOC angle was less than 8 degrees (Pgeometry. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Evaluation of surface characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V and Tilite alloys used for implant abutments Avaliação das características de superfície das ligas de Ti-6Al-4V e Tilite usadas para "abutments" de implantes
Emilena Maria Castor Xisto Lima
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate surface free energy (SFE, surface roughness (SR and surface hardness (SH of two commercially available materials for fabricating dental implant abutments. In addition, the specimens were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM to determine the surface morphology. Twenty five discs (5 x 2 mm of Ti-6Al-4V and Tilite (Ni-Cr-Ti alloys were used in this study. Surface free energy was determined by the contact angle formed between a drop of distilled, deionized water and the surface of the specimen of each material. The surface roughness was measured with a mechanical profilometer and the surface hardness was evaluated by means of the Vickers hardness micro indentation test. SFE, SR and SH data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (p 0.05. Evaluations by SEM revealed different surface morphology. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that the Ti-6Al-4V and Tilite alloys showed differences in surface properties, except for surface hardness, suggesting that both alloys may be considered appropriate for producing abutments. Further studies are, however, necessary to elucidate the biological responses to implant abutments made with these alloys.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a energia livre de superfície (ELS, rugosidade superficial (RS e dureza de superfície (DS de dois materiais disponíveis comercialmente para fabricação de "abutments" de implante. Em acréscimo, os espécimes foram investigados por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV para determinar a morfologia de superfície. Vinte e cinco discos de ligas de Ti-6Al-4V e Tilite (Ni-Cr-Ti (5 x 2 mm foram usados neste estudo. A energia livre de superfície foi determinada pela mensuração do ângulo de contato formado entre uma gota de água destilada e deionizada e a superfície do espécime para cada material. A rugosidade superficial foi mensurada com uso de um rugosímetro e a dureza de superfície foi avaliada por meio do
Full Text Available Calcium channel blockers have been implicated throughout literature for gingival hyperplasia around natural teeth as an untoward side effect, with amlodipine exhibiting the least prevalence rate. This clinical report describes a rare case of hyperplasia of tissues around titanium dental implants in a 62-year-old hypertensive Caucasian male patient receiving Amlodipine® 5 mg/day for 10 years. Clinically, the enlargement appeared circumferentially enveloping the healing abutments placed 4 months, following the placement of the implants. Elimination of local factors followed by surgical resection to facilitate the insertion of prosthesis with supportive periodontal therapy was planned. The area healed satisfactorily with no recurrence observed for the next 2 years, thus confirming that periodontal treatment alone without any drug substitution or withdrawal can efficiently generate agreeable gingival response.
Nayak, Aishwarya Gajanan; Fernandes, Aquaviva; Kulkarni, Raghavendra; Ajantha, Ganavalli Subramanyam; Lekha, Krishnapillai; Nadiger, Ramesh
Gaps and hollow spaces at the implant abutment interface will act as a bacterial reservoir that may cause peri-implantitis. Hence, the sealing ability of O-ring (in addition to polysiloxane) and GapSeal (an antibacterial sealing gel) was evaluated. A total of 45 identical implant systems (ADIN Dental Implant Systems) were divided into 3 groups of 15 implants each: an unsealed group, a group sealed with O-rings, and a group sealed with GapSeal gel. The implant and abutment were gamma sterilized after assembly. Two implants from each group were randomly incubated in sterile brain heart infusion (BHI) broth tubes and checked for sterility. The remaining 13 implants were incubated in BHI broth inoculated with Enterococcus and incubated for 5 days. They were then removed from the tubes, dried aseptically, placed in 2% sodium hypochlorite solution for 30 minutes, and washed with sterile saline for 5 minutes. Next, the assembly was dried aseptically and put in sterile BHI broth tubes and incubated for 24 hours to check surface sterility. Keeping 2 implants as controls from each group, the remaining 11 implants were dismantled group-wise and placed in liquid BHI broth; the test tubes were then shaken thoroughly so that the broth would come in contact with all implant surfaces. The solution from this tube was poured on pre-prepared sterile agar plates and incubated for 24 hours. The colonies formed on the agar plate were then counted using a digital colony counter. The data thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis by Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U test. It was concluded that though microbial growth is seen in all the 3 groups, the least growth was seen in the GapSeal group followed by the O-ring group.
Full Text Available Objectives: This study sought to assess the effects of length and inclination of implants on stress distribution in an implant and terminal abutment teeth in an implant assisted-removable partial denture (RPD using three-dimensional (3D finite element analysis (FEA. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, a 3D finite element model of a partially dentate mandible with a distal extension RPD (DERPD and dental implants was designed to analyze stress distribution in bone around terminal abutment teeth (first premolar and implants with different lengths (7 and 10 mm and angles (0°, 10° and 15°.Results: Stress in the periodontal ligament (PDL of the first premolar teeth ranged between 0.133 MPa in 10mm implants with 15° angle and 0.248 MPa in 7mm implants with 0° angle. The minimum stress was noted in implants with 10mm length with 0° angle (19.33 MPa while maximum stress (25.78 MPa was found in implants with 10mm length and 15° angle. In implants with 7 mm length, with an increase in implant angle, the stress on implants gradually increased. In implants with 10 mm length, increasing the implant angle gradually increased the stress on implants.Conclusion: Not only the length of implant but also the angle of implantation are important to minimize stress on implants. The results showed that vertical implant placement results in lower stress on implants and by increasing the angle, distribution of stress gradually increases.Keywords: Dental Implants, Single-Tooth; Dental Stress Analysis; Finite Element Analysis.
Luongo, Giuseppe; Bressan, Eriberto; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella; d'Avenia, Ferdinando; Neumann, Konrad; Sbricoli, Luca; Esposito, Marco
To evaluate the influence of at least three abutment changes against the placement of a definitive abutment, which was no longer removed, on hard and soft tissue changes, and to compare the clinical outcomes of immediate non-occlusal loading versus conventional loading. Eighty patients requiring one single crown or one fixed partial prosthesis supported by a maximum of three implants were randomised, after implants were placed with more than 35 Ncm, according to a parallel group design to receive definitive abutments which were loaded immediately (definitive abutment or immediate loading group) or transmucosal abutments which experienced delayed loading after 3 months and were removed at least three times: 1) during the making of the impression (3 months after implant placement); 2) when checking the zirconium core of titanium abutments at single crowns or the fitting of the metal structure at prostheses supported by multiple implants; 3) at delivery of the definitive prostheses (repeated disconnection or conventional loading group). Patients were treated in four centres and each patient contributed to the study with only one prosthesis followed for 4 months after initial loading. Outcome measures were: prosthesis/implant failures, any complication, peri-implant marginal bone level changes, and patient satisfaction. Forty patients were randomly allocated to each group according to a parallel group design. No patient dropped-out and no implants failed. However four provisional prostheses and one definitive prosthesis had to be remade because of misfitting (five single crowns) in the repeated disconnection group; and one provisional prosthesis had to be remade because of frequent debondings in the immediate loading group (difference=10%; 95% CI: -1%, 21%; P=0.109). Five complications (all debondings of the provisional prostheses) were reported in two patients of the immediate loading group, in comparison to three biological complications in three patients of the
Stasinopoulou, Ioanna; Manda, Marianthi; Galanis, Christos; Koidis, Petros
Periodontally compromised teeth (PCT) that serve as terminal abutments (TAs) are often challenging depending on the post-and-core treatment, the type of partial fixed dental prosthesis (PFDP), and the periodontal support. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical impact of 3 types of PFDP supported by cast post-and-cores on PCT serving as terminal abutments. A 3-dimensional (3D) model of a human mandible was fabricated by using computed tomography (CT) images and parameterized in a computer-aided design (CAD) environment as follows: Right premolar preparation geometries were designed. The second premolar was assembled with 7-mm or 10-mm cast post-and-core models. Both premolar-models were designed to support single, splinted, or 1-unit cantilever splinted crowns. In each situation, their periodontium geometries were designed to be reduced by 10%, 50%, and 70%. All models were imported into a 3D finite element analysis (FEA) environment and loaded; von Mises stress values and distribution patterns were evaluated. Insertion of the post primarily affected the apical areas of both the root and post; the type of PFDP and periodontal support mainly affected stress distribution. In patients with a normal periodontium, splinting the teeth did not contribute to their stress relief. By extending the post length, a stressful area close to the apex of the post was developed. Splinting mitigated the stress field of the coronal part of the 50% PCT (up to 98.9%); the 30% PCT experienced a substantial decrease (up to 215.9%) in stress in the radical part as well. The increase in the length of the post produced negligible stress-related differences in the apical part of the 50% PCT (0.2% to 2.6%). The use of the 7-mm post effectively relieved the radical part of the splinted 30% PCT. The magnitude of the stress on the radical part of post-restored PCT was considerably increased in the presence of a cantilever. Splinted crowns supported by a 7-mm cast post
Schnider, Nicole; Forrer, Fiona Alena; Brägger, Urs; Hicklin, Stefan Paul
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of one-piece, screw-retained implant crowns based on hand-veneered computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) zirconium dioxide abutments with a crossfit connection at least 1 year after insertion of the crown. Consecutive patients who had received at least one Straumann bone level implant and one-piece, screw-retained implant crowns fabricated with CARES zirconium dioxide abutments were reexamined. Patient satisfaction, occlusal and peri-implant parameters, mechanical and biologic complications, radiologic parameters, and esthetics were recorded. A total of 50 implant crowns in the anterior and premolar region were examined in 41 patients. The follow-up period of the definitive reconstructions ranged from 1.1 to 3.8 years. No technical and no biologic complications had occurred. At the reexamination, 100% of the implants and reconstructions were in situ. Radiographic evaluation revealed a mean distance from the implant shoulder to the first visible bone-to-implant contact of 0.06 mm at the follow-up examination. Screw-retained crowns based on veneered CAD/CAM zirconium dioxide abutments with a crossfit connection seem to be a promising way to replace missing teeth in the anterior and premolar region. In the short term, neither failures of components nor complications were noted, and the clinical and radiographic data revealed stable hard and soft tissue conditions.
Schwarz, Frank; Alcoforado, Gil; Nelson, Katja; Schaer, Alex; Taylor, Thomas; Beuer, Florian; Strietzel, Frank Peter
The aim of this consensus meeting was to assess the impact of implant-abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Two comprehensive systematic reviews were prepared in advance of the meeting. Consensus statements, practical recommendations, and implications for future research were based on within group as well as plenary scrutinization and discussions of these systematic reviews. Placing the smooth part of the implant below the alveolar crest may lead to bone loss. Despite a more pronounced bone remodeling, the subcrestal positioning of the microgap may help to retain the bony coverage of the rough surface. Crestal bone remodeling has been observed for either internal and external, or conical and butt-joint connections. There was a trend favoring the platform switching concept to prevent or minimize peri-implant marginal bone loss. Future research should consider an uniform and comparable study design, either excluding or exactly documenting possible confounding factors. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical Oral Implants Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dogan, Derya Ozdemir; Gorler, Oguzhan; Mutaf, Burcu; Ozcan, Mutlu; Eyuboglu, Gunes Bulut; Ulgey, Melih
To assess the fracture resistance of single-tooth implant-supported crown restorations made with different CAD/CAM blocks. Thirty-six titanium abutments were put on dental implant analogs (Mis Implant). For each of three test groups (n = 12/group), implant-supported, cement-retained mandibular molar single crowns were produced. Crowns were made of lithium disilicate glass (LD) IPS e.max CAD, feldspathic glass ceramic (FEL) Vita Mark II, and resin nano-ceramic (RNC) Lava Ultimate. The crowns were cemented with self-adhesive resin cement RelyX Unicem 2. After chewing cycling, crowns were tested to failure in a universal testing machine. Fracture values were calculated as initial (F-initial) and maximum fracture (F-max). The study groups were ranked, in order of having highest value, (LD > FEL) > RNC for F-initial load value and (LD > RNC) > FEL for F-max load value. This demonstrated that there was no parallel change in the F-initial and F-max values presenting the fracture resistance of specimens. There was no accordance between the F-initial and F-max values of the LD, RNC, and FEL after chewing simulation with thermocycling resembling 5 years of clinical functional use. LD had the highest fracture resistance during the fracture test. RNC had low fracture resistance; however, it had considerably high fracture resistance during the fracture test. FEL had considerably low fracture resistance values. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
de la Roche, Marc; Rutherford, Trevor J; Gupta, Deepti; Veprintsev, Dmitry B; Saxty, Barbara; Freund, Stefan M; Bienz, Mariann
Wnt/β-catenin signalling controls development and tissue homeostasis. Moreover, activated β-catenin can be oncogenic and, notably, drives colorectal cancer. Inhibiting oncogenic β-catenin has proven a formidable challenge. Here we design a screen for small-molecule inhibitors of β-catenin's binding to its cofactor BCL9, and discover five related natural compounds, including carnosic acid from rosemary, which attenuates transcriptional β-catenin outputs in colorectal cancer cells. Evidence from NMR and analytical ultracentrifugation demonstrates that the carnosic acid response requires an intrinsically labile α-helix (H1) amino-terminally abutting the BCL9-binding site in β-catenin. Similarly, in colorectal cancer cells with hyperactive β-catenin signalling, carnosic acid targets predominantly the transcriptionally active ('oncogenic') form of β-catenin for proteasomal degradation in an H1-dependent manner. Hence, H1 is an 'Achilles' Heel' of β-catenin, which can be exploited for destabilization of oncogenic β-catenin by small molecules, providing proof-of-principle for a new strategy for developing direct inhibitors of oncogenic β-catenin.
Sotiriou, Michael; Zissis, Alcibiades
Objective The aim of this survey was to record removable partial denture (RPD) retentive elements and abutment teeth in partially edentulous patients, identified in commercial laboratories in Athens, Greece. Material and Methods 628 master casts with the corresponding cast metal frameworks used in the construction of RPDs were evaluated. Casts were photographed to identify the number and position of existing teeth, the partial edentulism class and the retentive elements. Prevalence tables and the x2 test were used for the statistical analysis of the collected data (α=.05). Results There were 276 maxillary (43.9%) and 352 (56.1%) mandibular casts. Maxillary edentulism entailed almost a total absence of right third molars in 96.7% and left third molars 96.0% of casts, with lower rates for the first and second molars. Edentulism in the posterior mandible presented a similar pattern. The most profound findings concerning retentive elements were: 91.9% of the retainers used were clasps and the remaining 8.1% were attachments. Of the clasps used, 48.9% were of the Roach Τ type, a finding more common in Kennedy Class I as compared to other Kennedy Classes (p<0.01). The circumferential clasps accounted for 19.3% of the total clasps used, and it was less frequently presented (8.8%) in Kennedy I Classes (p<0.01). Conclusions Roach clasps were used in the majority of cases whereas RPI clasps and attachments were rarely used. PMID:27688367
Li, Yu-Jung; Lu, Chih-Cheng
A miniature intra-oral dental implant system including a built-in biosensor device is proposed in this article. The dental implant system, or platform, is replaced over maxilla and allows relatively non-invasive procedures for a novel biosensing scheme for human blood analysis. Due to placement of the implant fixture, periodontal ligaments and the pulp structure, which are regarded as the main origin of pain, are thus removed, and long-term, continuous blood analysis and management through maxillary bone marrow becomes achievable through the dental implant platform. The new pathway of biological sensing is for the first time presented to realize an accurate and painless approach without injections. The dental implant system mainly consists of an implant fixture and a prosthetic abutment, a biosensor module, a bluetooth 4.0 wireless module and a dc button cell battery. The electrochemical biosensor possesses three electrodes, including working, reference and counter ones, which are arranged to pass through the titanium implant fixture below the biosensor module. The electrodes are exposed to the blood pool inside the maxillary bone marrow and perform oxidation/reduction reactions with the coating of biosensing enzyme. To prove the proposed platform, the immobilization process of glucose oxidase (GOD) enzyme and in vitro detections of glucose levels are successfully carried out, and proven sensitivity, linearity and repeatability of the glucose biosensor system are obtained. Moreover, a preliminary canine animal model adopting the new pathway shows significant consistency with the traditional method through dermal pricks for blood sugar detection. Despite the prospective results, further challenges in engineering implementation and clinical practices are addressed and discussed. In brief, the novel biosensing pathway and intra-oral biosensor platform may increasingly reveal their promising value and feasibilities in current bio-medical analysis, diagnosis, drug
Full Text Available A miniature intra-oral dental implant system including a built-in biosensor device is proposed in this article. The dental implant system, or platform, is replaced over maxilla and allows relatively non-invasive procedures for a novel biosensing scheme for human blood analysis. Due to placement of the implant fixture, periodontal ligaments and the pulp structure, which are regarded as the main origin of pain, are thus removed, and long-term, continuous blood analysis and management through maxillary bone marrow becomes achievable through the dental implant platform. The new pathway of biological sensing is for the first time presented to realize an accurate and painless approach without injections. The dental implant system mainly consists of an implant fixture and a prosthetic abutment, a biosensor module, a bluetooth 4.0 wireless module and a dc button cell battery. The electrochemical biosensor possesses three electrodes, including working, reference and counter ones, which are arranged to pass through the titanium implant fixture below the biosensor module. The electrodes are exposed to the blood pool inside the maxillary bone marrow and perform oxidation/reduction reactions with the coating of biosensing enzyme. To prove the proposed platform, the immobilization process of glucose oxidase (GOD enzyme and in vitro detections of glucose levels are successfully carried out, and proven sensitivity, linearity and repeatability of the glucose biosensor system are obtained. Moreover, a preliminary canine animal model adopting the new pathway shows significant consistency with the traditional method through dermal pricks for blood sugar detection. Despite the prospective results, further challenges in engineering implementation and clinical practices are addressed and discussed. In brief, the novel biosensing pathway and intra-oral biosensor platform may increasingly reveal their promising value and feasibilities in current bio-medical analysis
Rodríguez, Xavier; Vela, Xavier; Méndez, Víctor; Segalà, Maribel; Calvo-Guirado, Jose L; Tarnow, Dennis P
The purpose of this animal study was to radiologically measure the influence of abutment disconnection on bone resorption and to compare this influence on platform-switched vs. non-platform-switched implants. The study design included extraction of all mandibular premolars in five canines . After 2 months, six implants were placed in each dog. Four of them were platform-switched (PS) implants and two were non-platform-switched (NPS) implants. Some or all of the abutments connected to the implants were disconnected at pre-ordained post-surgical intervals. Radiographs were taken at the time of implant placement and at every handling. The values for mesial (horizontal and vertical) and distal (horizontal and vertical) bone resorption were taken and compared for each implant at every abutment dis/reconnection. The average vertical bone resorption around NPS implants after four dis/reconnections was 1.09 mm (SD 0.25 mm), and the average horizontal bone resorption was 0.98 mm (SD 0.27 mm). The average vertical bone resorption around PS implants after four dis/reconnections was 0.24 mm, (SD 0.08 mm) and the average horizontal bone resorption was 0.24 mm (SD 0.13 mm). The difference of the average horizontal and vertical bone resorption around NPS (site D) and PS (site A) implants was statically significant (P dis/reconnected NPS implants. The location of the PS implant next to a tooth may decrease radiographically visible peri-implant bone resorption significantly. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Luciana Martins Cres Moraes
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure marginal fit at cylinder-abutment interface, before and after overcasting procedure. A hexagonal implant was fixed to a stainless steel base and a Estheticone-like abutment used during all the experiment. Before casting procedure, gold (Group I and Ni-Cr-Be (Group II premachined cylinders were tightened to the abutment with gold and titanium screws (in both groups, with 10Ncm and 20Ncm torque values for the same screw type. Vertical measures were taken at the light microscope (Mitutoyo 5050, Tokyo, Japan three times in six different parts along the abutment-cylinder interface for each torque value. Cylinders were overcast with Ag-Pd (Group I or Ni-Cr-Be (Group II alloy. After casting, the same measures and torque values were repeated. Intragroup differences (10 or 20Ncm torque values, before and after casting and intergroup differences (10 and 20Ncm torque values, before or after casting were analyzed by the Paired t Test; (pO objetivo deste estudo foi medir a adaptação marginal na interface intermediário-cilindro, antes e após a sobrefundição. Um implante do tipo hexágono externo afixado numa base de aço inoxidável e um intermediário do tipo Estheticone foram usados durante todo o experimento. Antes das fundições, cilindros pré-usinados de ouro (Grupo I e de Ni-Cr-Be (Grupo II foram aparafusados ao intermediário com parafusos de ouro e titânio em ambos os grupos, com torques de 10Ncm e 20Ncm para o mesmo tipo de parafuso. As medidas verticais foram feitas num microscópio óptico (Mitutoyo 5050, Tóquio, Japão três vezes em seis locais diferentes ao longo da interface intermediário-cilindro para cada valor de torque. Os cilindros foram encerados e fundidos tanto em liga de Ag-Pd (Grupo I ou liga de Ni-Cr-Be (Grupo II. Após as fundições, as mesmas medidas e os mesmos valores de torque foram repetidos. As diferenças intra-grupo (torques de 10 ou 20Ncm, antes e após as fundições e as
Luis Alberto Laguado Villamizar
Full Text Available El presente estudio caracteriza una aleación aplicable al diseño de pilares para implantes dentales. Se propone un material biocompatible y de alta resistencia mecánica como alternativa a las aleaciones de Titanio, disminuyendo los costos de materia prima y procesamiento. Se realizan pruebas mecánicas de tracción y de compresión a la aleación de Ni-Cr-Mo, posteriormente se realiza modelado 3D y simulación de sus propiedades mecánicas por medio de análisis de elementos finitos. Como resultado se obtiene que el material disminuye su resistencia mecánica después del proceso de fundición empleado. El modelo de simulación es válido para análisis de resistencia en pilares dentales.This study presents the characterization of a dental implant alloy for abutments. It proposes a biocompatible material and high mechanical resistance as an alternative to Titanium alloys, lowering costs of raw materials and processing. Mechanical testing of the Ni-Cr-Mo alloy and subsequently perform simulations of its mechanical properties by means of finite element analysis. As a result is obtained that the material reduces its mechanical strength after the casting for electric induction molding process. The simulation model is valid to make analysis of resistance to this type of dental devices.
Starch-Jensen, Thomas; Christensen, Ann-Eva; Lorenzen, Henning
in combination with a hand-search of relevant journals was conducted. No language or year of publication restriction was applied. RESULTS: The search provided 298 titles. Three studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The included studies were characterized by low or moderate risk of bias. Survival...
Julio Cesar Joly
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar em microscopia eletrônica de varredura as características da superfície e da fenda existente entre os componentes de implantes de dois e um estágios. Foram selecionados 3 implantes de dois estágios revestidos com fosfato de cálcio cerâmico (RBM e 3 implantes de um estágio revestidos com plasma de titânio (TPS. Nos implantes de dois estágios, os intermediários tipo esthetic-cone foram adaptados ao hexágono externo e travados com parafuso com torque definitivo de 20 N/cm. Nos implantes de um estágio foram utilizados intermediários sólidos que foram adaptados e fixados por travamento friccional com torque definitivo de 30 N/cm. Os espécimes foram montados em stubs e analisados em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A fenda foi medida em quatro pontos com três repetições em cada implante. Os valores obtidos foram avaliados pelo teste t pareado de Student. Os resultados mostraram que não houve diferença estatística significativa (P > 0,05 na extensão da fenda entre os sistemas de um e dois estágios e que os tratamentos proporcionaram diferentes características de superfície.The aim of this study was to evaluate under scanning electron microscopy the characteristics of the implant surface and the gap between the components of two- and one-stage systems. Three two-stage implants coated with RBM and three one-stage implants coated with TPS were selected. In the two-stage implants, the esthetic-cone abutments were adapted and screw tightened with 20 N/cm . In the one stage implants, solid abutments were adapted and torque tightened mechanical frictional with 30 N/cm. The specimens were mounted on stubs and analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The gap in each implant was measured in four different points and repeated three times. The paired Student-t test was applied to detect the difference in the gap extension. The results showed that no significant differences (P > 0.05 were found
The fitness of copings constructed over UCLA abutments and the implant, constructed by different techniques: casting and casting with laser welding Adaptação de copings de ritânio ao implante, construídos sobre pilares UCLA por duas técnicas: fundição e fundição com soldagem de bordo laser
Elza Maria Valadares da Costa
Full Text Available The alternative for the reposition of a missing tooth is the osteointegrated implant being the passive adaptation between the prosthodontic structure and the implant a significant factor for the success of this experiment, a comparative study was done between the two methods for confectioning a single prosthodontic supported by an implant. To do so a screwed implant with a diameter of 3.75mm and a length of 10.0mm (3i Implant innovations, Brasil was positioned in the middle of a resin block and over it we screwed 15 UCLA abutments shaped and anti-rotationable (137CNB, Conexão Sistemas de Próteses, Brasil with a torque of 20N.cm without any laboratorial procedure (control group - CTRLG. From a silicon model 15 UCLA-type calcinatable compounds (56CNB, Conexão Sistemas de Próteses, Brasil were screwed (20 N.cm, received a standard waxing (plain buccal surface and were cast in titanium (casting group - CG and other 15 compounds, UCLA - type shaped in titanium (137 CNB, Conexão Sistemas de Próteses, Brasil received the same standard waxing. These last copings were cast in titanium separated from each other and were laser-welded to the respective abutments on their border (Laser-welding group - LWG. The border adaptation was observed in the implant/compound interface, under measurement microscope, on the y axis, in 4 vestibular, lingual, mesial and distal referential points previously marked on the block. The arithmetical means were obtained and an exploratory data analysis was performed to determine the most appropriate statistical test. Descriptive statistics data (µm for Control (mean±standard deviation: 13.50 ± 21.80; median 0.00, for Casting (36.20±12.60; 37.00, for Laser (10.50 ±12.90; 3.00 were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, alpha = 5%. Results test showed that distorsion median values differ statistically (kw = 17.40; df =2; p = 0.001A reposição de um elemento dentário pode ser feita por um implante osseointegrado sendo que a
Full Text Available One of the most regularly encountered forms of partial hand loss causing physical, psychosocial and financial burden to an individual is the finger amputation followed by trauma. The prosthetic rehabilitation of amputated finger is a good treatment option, when compared to all other means of complex and unaffordable options. Osseointegrated implant retained silicone finger prosthesis with innovative prosthetic designs can provide the patient a life changing experience.
This report details Phase II of the study titled Strengthening of Bridge Wood Piling Retrofits for Moment Resistance. Phase I of the research (project : R27-082) was focused on developing a load rating method for timber piles under eccentric load and...
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
acoustic sensor consisted of one transmitting transducer and three receiving transducers. The receiving transducers were mounted on short arms the transmitting transducer at 120. ◦ azimuth intervals. Acoustic beams with a frequency of 10 MHz were emitted from the transmitting. Figure 1. Sections of flow mea- surements.
Adam Senalik; James P. Wacker; Travis K. Hosteng; John Hermanson
Recently, Buchanan County, Iowa, has cooperated with the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), and Iowa State Universityâs Bridge Engineering Center (ISUâBEC) to initiate a project involving the construction and monitoring of a glued-laminated (glulam) timber superstructure on geosynthetic reinforced soil (...
Ferrari, M; Vichi, A; Zarone, F
In last years the use of zirconia in dentistry has become very popular. Unfortunately, the clinical indications for a dental use of zirconia are not completely clear yet, neither are their limitations. The objective of this review was to evaluate the basic science knowledge on zirconia and to discuss some aspects of the clinical behavior of zirconia-based restorations. In particular, one of the goals was highlighting the possible correlation between in vitro and in vivo studies. The definition of concepts like success, survival and failure was still debated and the correlation between in vitro results and predictability of clinical behavior was investigated. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Jagadish Reddy Gooty
Full Text Available Dental implants made of titanium for replacement of missing teeth are widely used because of ease of technical procedure and high success rate, but are not free of complications and may fail. Fracturing of the prosthetic screw continues to be a problem in restorative practice and great challenge to remove the fractured screw conservatively. This case report describes and demonstrates the technique of using an ultrasonic scaler in the removal of the fracture screw fragment as a noninvasive method without damaging the hex of implants.
Full scale lateral load tests were performed on eight piles located at various distances behind MSE walls. The objective of the testing was to determine the effect of spacing from the wall on the lateral resistance of the piles and on the force induc...
Materials and Methods: In this study, the digital OPTGs of adult patients between the ages of 20 and 70 who appealed to the Endodontics Endodontics Department of the Dentistry Faculty at Marmara University (Istanbul, Turkey) for the first time to have their endodontic treatment needs met were used. The periapical health ...
Kirss, Tiina, 1957-
Irene Lääne ja Toomas Hiio koostatud raamatust "Ühtekuuluvuse teel : Johan Laidoneri kirjad abikaasale" (Tallinn : Varrak, 2008) ja Käbi Laretei raamatust "Kuhu kadus kõik see armastus?" (Tallinn : SE & JS, 2008)
This study investigated the lateral load response of a full-scale pile cap with nine different backfill conditions, more specifically being: 1) no backfill present (baseline response), 2) densely compacted clean sand, 3) loosely compacted clean sand,...
DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE 59TH MEDICAL WING (AETC) JOINT BASE SAN ANTONIO - LACKLAND TEXAS MEMORANDUMFOR SGDTG ATrN: MAJ EVAN ROBERTS FROM: 59...Roberts, Evan, Maj , SGDTG 181 YES D NO FWH20 I 60024N 5. PROTOCOL TITLE: (NOTE: For each new release of medical research or technical information as a...59 MOW) a. Primary/Corresponding Author Roberts, Evan E . Maj 59 OTS/ 59 DG/SGDTG b. Bailey, Clifton W. Lt Col 17 MDG/MDOS/ SGOD c. Ashcraft
M. C. SPADEA
Full Text Available Si espongono i dati sperimentali riguardanti le velocità delle onde
elastiche longitudinali ottenute nelle rocce d'imposta di alcune grandi
dighe del Nord Italia e se ne studia la variazione nel tempo. Sulla
base della trattazione di O'Connell e Budiansky sulla velocità delle onde
sismiche in solidi fratturati asciutti, si è poi stimata la densità di frattura
nei vari casi.
Lo studio eseguito ha permesso di evidenziare una diminuzione nei
valori di velocità e un conseguente aumento della fratturazione da imputarsi
dapprima all'azione dirompente dell'esplosivo (nella fase di costruzione
e poi alla microsismicità provocata nei sistemi rocciosi di spalla
dalla dinamica del manufatto. La fenomenologia si presenta diversa nei
vari casi; l'effetto, comunque, è per lo più consistente.
Scour and other natural hazards have the potential to undermine the stability of piers in highway bridges. This has led to brid : collapse in the past, and significant efforts have been undertaken to address the potential danger of scour and other ha...
Author Affiliations. M H Mazumder1 A K Barbhuiya2. Department of Civil Engineering, Silchar Polytechnic, Silchar 788 010, India; Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Silchar 788 010, India ...
Current displacement based seismic design of gravity retaining walls utilizes a sliding block idealization, and considers only a translation mode of deformation. Authors update and extend the coupled equations of motion that appear in the literature....
Suryakant C. Deogade
Full Text Available A successful implant-supported restoration must provide adequate function and esthetics. Osseointegrated implants have given an alternative choice for patients who have lost their teeth. Most commonly encountered problems while doing a transfer from patient to the master cast in restoring implant-supported crowns are an uneven distribution of occlusal loads and undue torquing forces on the various elements of implant. This is caused due to poor fit of frameworks connected to implant, which further leads to marginal bone loss, loosening of screws, fatigue fracture of implant components, and ultimately implant failure. This paper presents a simplified and easy solution to overcome such problems by introducing an innovative gingival retraction system for restoring implant-supported crowns to achieve superior and predictable long-term outcomes.
Kumar, Lalit; Sehgal, Komal
Implants have been designed to rehabilitate edentulous patients with fixed prosthesis or implant supported overdentures. Implant-supported single crowns and fixed partial dentures have become successful treatment alternatives to removable and fixed partial dentures. However, it is common to have clinical situations which make it impossible to use conventional as well as implant supported fixed partial dentures. The implant supported removable partial dentures can be a treatment modality that offers the multitude of benefits of implant-based therapy-biologic, biomechanical, social, and psychological to such patients. The aim of this article is to present a case report describing the fabrication and advantages of removable partial denture supported by teeth and implants for a patient with long edentulous span. The patient was satisfied with his dentures in terms of function and aesthetics. Regular follow-up visits over a period of three years revealed that the periodontal condition of remaining natural dentition and peri-implant conditions were stable. There was no evidence of excessive residual ridge resorption or mobility of the teeth, nor were any visible changes in the bone levels of the natural teeth or implants noted on radiographs.
Etxeberria Urra, Marina
[spa] Los materiales compuestos de resina reforzados con fibras de vidrio E (FRC) están aumentando su uso en aplicaciones dentales y ortopédicas como materiales de soporte de carga. Esto es debido a que exhiben una mejor adaptación biomecánica con los tejidos vivos en comparación con los materiales tradicionales, así como por sus propiedades biocompatibles. Recientemente, se ha observado que mejora la formación del tejido gingival peri-implantario. Además, pilares de FRC reforzados unidirecc...
Mandelli, Federico; Gherlone, Enrico; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Ferrari, Marco
The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of different laboratory scanners using a calibrated coordinate measuring machine as reference. A sand blasted titanium reference model (RM) was scanned with an industrial 3D scanner in order to obtain a reference digital model (dRM) that was saved in the standard tessellation format (.stl). RM was scanned ten times with each one of the tested scanners (GC Europe Aadva, Zfx Evolution, 3Shape D640, 3Shape D700, NobilMetal Sinergia, EGS DScan3, Open Technologies Concept Scan Top) and all the scans were exported in .stl format for the comparison. All files were imported in a dedicated software (Geomagic Qualify 2013). Accuracy was evaluated calculating trueness and precision. Trueness values (μm [95% confidence interval]) were: Aadva 7,7 [6,8-8,5]; Zfx Evolution 9,2 [8,6-9,8]; D640 18,1 [12,2-24,0]; D700 12,8 [12,4-13,3]; Sinergia 31,1 [26,3-35,9]; DScan3 15,6 [11,5-19,7]; Concept Scan Top 28,6 [25,6-31,6]. Differences between scanners were statistically significant (pSinergia 16,3 [15,0-17,5]; DScan3 9,5 [8,3-10,6]; Concept Scan Top 19,5 [19,1-19,8]. Differences between scanners were statistically significant (p<.0005). The use a standardized scanning procedure fabricating a titanium reference model is useful to compare trueness and precision of different laboratory scanners; two laboratory scanners (Aadva, Zfx Evolution) were significantly better that other tested scanners. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shim, Hye Won; Yang, Byoung-Eun
PURPOSE To evaluate the cumulative survival rate (CSR) and mechanical complications of single-tooth Ankylos? implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a retrospective clinical study that analyzed 450 single Ankylos? implants installed in 275 patients between December 2005 and December 2012. The main outcomes were survival results CSR and implant failure) and mechanical complications (screw loosening, fracture, and cumulative fracture rate [CFR]). The main outcomes were analyzed according to ag...
Abstract Supra- and subgingival biofilm formation is considered to be mainly responsible for early implant failure caused by inflammations of periimplant tissues. Nevertheless, little is known about the complex microbial diversity and interindividual similarities around dental implants. An atraumatic assessment was made of the diversity of microbial communities around titanium implants by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons as well...
Schepke, Ulf; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Vermeulen, Karin M.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Cune, Marco S.
Background: New dental materials are introduced and promoted in the field without extensive clinical testing. Using those materials in a clinical setting might result in unacceptable early failure rates. Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to analyze bonding of a new dental restorative material
AASHTO LRFD (2010) requires combined live and thermal load effects for the service : limit state design. The Design Procedure described in the appendix will follow the : rationale developed by Ulku et al. (2009). Link slab design moments are calculat...
prosthesis is as esthetieally pleasing, as effective, and as durable as the muco-adhesive partial denture it would presumably supplant. FINDINGS...temporary) partial dentures were previously constructed. ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION This investigation was conducted as part of Bureau of Medi- cine...chairside without laboratory support, is suggested for use in place of muco- adhesion partial dentures (flippers). The durability of these
M., Peng; W.-J., Zhao; M., Hosseini
Restorations of 98 implant-supported single crowns in anterior maxillary area were divided into 5 groups: zirconia abutment, titanium abutment, and gold/gold hue abutment with zirconia coping, respectively, and titanium abutment with metal coping as well as gold/gold hue abutment with metal copin...
Gilberto Valenzuela Vásquez
Full Text Available Catorce perros mestizos adultos (5 intactos y 9 esterilizados, compuestos por siete machos y siete hembras fueron utilizadas para evaluar el efecto de dos tipos de aditamentos protésicos de implantes dentales sobre el nivel de la cresta ósea alveolar. Los implantes dentales fueron colocados quirúrgicamente en zonas de cuartos premolares inferiores y restaurados con aditamentos protésicos convencionales (CONV y de cambio de plataforma (PFS. Ambos aditamentos protésicos fueron evaluados en cada perro. El estudio duró 180 días, en los que se realizó la restauración al día 60 post-quirúrgicamente colocados los implantes, la evaluación del nivel de la cresta ósea alveolar se realizó en los días 0, 30, 60 y 90 después de la restauración (corona cementada a través de medición indirecta utilizando un sensor radiográfico digital. Los datos experimentales se analizaron mediante un diseño completamente al azar, la unidad experimental fue el perro (efecto aleatorio, el tratamiento era el tipo de pilar protésico (efectos fijos, y el nivel de la cresta ósea de cada lado del implante (mesial y distal fue la observación. Además, factores como la condición gonadal (intactos y castrados y el género (masculino y femenino se incluyeron en el análisis estadístico para evaluar su papel en la magnitud de los cambios (interacciones en los niveles de cresta ósea alveolar. El promedio de pérdida de hueso crestal fue 0.400 ± 0.186 mm. En general, los perros con CONV tuvieron una mayor pérdida de la cresta ósea que los perros con PFS. En los perros intactos que recibieron PFS se observó una menor pérdida ósea, pero en perros castrados, el tipo de aditamento no tuvo efecto (P = 0,98 en el nivel de pérdida de la cresta ósea; por lo tanto, se detectó una interacción (P 0.77 entre el género y el tipo de aditamento, de manera similar, analizado como único factor de variación, el género no tuvo efecto (P = 0,26 en las respuestas del nivel de la cresta ósea al tipo de pilar protésico (-0.401vs. -0.385 mm, para macho y hembras respectivamente. Sin importar el tipo de pilar protésico, tanto machos como hembras mostraron pérdidas similares (-0.405 vs. -0.393, P>0.65, mientras que los perros castrados mostraron una mayor (30,8%, P <0,01 pérdida ósea crestal comparado con perros intactos. En conclusión, los perros con PFS mostraron una menor pérdida ósea crestal que áquellos que recibieron CONV; sin embargo, independientemente del género, esta respuesta sólo se mantuvo en perros intactos, por lo tanto, la condición gonadal tiene un efecto sobre la magnitud de los cambios de los niveles de hueso crestal alveolares como respuesta al tipo de aditamento protésico en perros con implantes dentales .
Full Text Available Objectives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the shear bond strength of zirconia cylinders on a modified titanium surface using different luting cement types. Material and Methods. Eighty titanium disks were divided into two groups (n=40, which were treated with either grinding or a combination of sandblasting and grinding. Then, each group was subdivided into 4 groups (n=10 and the disks were bonded to disks of sintered zirconia using one of four cement types (permanent: composite cement; temporary: polycarboxylate cement, zinc-oxide-eugenol cement, and resin cement. Shear bond strength (SBS was measured in a universal testing machine. Fracture pattern and site characteristic were recorded. A fractographic analysis was performed with SEM. The chemical analysis of the composition of the fractures was performed using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The results of the experiment were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test. Results. The highest mean values of SBS were achieved when grinding was combined with sandblasting and when composite cement was used (18.18 MPa. In the temporary cement group, the highest mean values of SBS were for polycarboxylate cement after grinding (3.57 MPa. Conclusion. The choice of cement has a crucial influence on the titanium-cement-zirconia interface quality.
Keul, Christine; Kohen, Daliah; Eichberger, Marlis; Roos, Malgorzata; Gernet, Wolfgang; Stawarczyk, Bogna
The objective of the study was to test the effect of different pretreatments on tensile bond strength (TBS) of adhesively bonded CAD/CAM-generated polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) crowns to dentin. Two hundred human molars were prepared and divided into 20 groups (n = 10/group). PMMA crowns were pretreated thusly: Monobond Plus/Heliobond (MH), Visio.link (VL), Ambarino P60 (AM), VP connect (VP), and nontreated as control groups (CG). Two resin cements were used for cementation of crowns: Clearfil SA Cement (CSA) and Variolink II (VAR). TBS was measured initially (24 h water storage, 37 °C) and after aging (5,000 thermal cycles, 5/55 °C). TBS was analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Scheffé post hoc, unpaired Student t, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H, and chi-squared tests. Within CSA, pretreatment with MH and VL showed higher initial TBS compared with AM-treated groups. All other groups showed no statistical differences. For MH, VL, AM, and VP in combination with CSA, a negative impact of aging was observed (p < 0.001), whereas in all VAR groups, no impact was measured. Pretreatment with MH (p = 0.001) and VP (p = 0.008) presented higher initial TBS for CSA than for VAR. After aging, MH (p = 0.025) and VL (p = 0.034) cemented with VAR showed higher results than CSA. All tested groups showed very low TBS values. Pretreatments with MH, VL, and VP have minimally improved the tensile strength after aging. Although the tensile strength results were low, crowns adhesively cemented with pretreatments with MH, VL, and VP showed, after aging, a higher tensile strength than nontreated groups.
de la roche, Marc; Rutherford, Trevor J.; Gupta, Deepti; Veprintsev, Dmitry B.; Saxty, Barbara; Freund, Stefan M; Bienz, Mariann
Wnt/β-catenin signalling controls development and tissue homeostasis. Moreover, activated β-catenin can be oncogenic and, notably, drives colorectal cancer. Inhibiting oncogenic β-catenin has proven a formidable challenge. Here we design a screen for small-molecule inhibitors of β-catenin's binding to its cofactor BCL9, and discover five related natural compounds, including carnosic acid from rosemary, which attenuates transcriptional β-catenin outputs in colorectal cancer cells. Evidence fro...
the area S beyond the northerly abutment was breached, although the dam proper remained intact. Heavy stone fill was used to close this breach. U.S...left abutment. ~0 P~1,0’T’, -,ntl anfc f anfo riqht abutme-nt. fioo dmfo PHOTO NO. 1I Downstream face of dam from laft abutment. 0 PHOTO Pu, Lcmface
Full Text Available In this article, three techniques for maxillo-mandibular relationship for Replace-Select implants are described. The use of healing abutments, planning abutments,and Impression copings are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed.
Conclusion: Kiddy dentures do interfere with the transverse growth of the dental arch over the abutment tooth area during a 1-year follow-up period. However the teeth adjacent to the confined abutments still show transverse growth.
Tan, Kian M; Masri, Radi; Driscoll, Carl F; Limkangwalmongkol, Penwadee; Romberg, Elaine
Compromised angulation of implants may result in abutment preparation that is less than ideal. Compromised abutment preparation may affect the retention of implant-retained crowns. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 5 implant abutment designs on the retention of cement-retained crowns by varying the number and position of the axial walls. Five prefabricated abutments were attached to an implant analog and embedded in an acrylic resin block. The first abutment was left intact without modification. Axial walls were partially removed from the remaining abutments to produce abutments with 3 walls, 2 adjacent walls, 2 opposing walls, and 1 wall. Five crowns were made for each group. The screw access channel for the first abutment was completely filled with composite resin and the rest were partially filled. The retentive surface area of each abutment was calculated. Crowns were cemented with zinc phosphate cement. Tensile force was applied to separate the castings from the abutments. Peak load to dislodgment was recorded. A 1-way ANOVA was used to test for a significant difference followed by the Tukey Honestly Significant Difference test (α=.05). The abutment with 2 opposing axial walls had significantly higher retention than that of all other groups (F=149.9, df =24, P<.001). The abutment with 3 walls exhibited the second highest retention and was significantly greater than abutments with 2 adjacent walls, 1, and 4 walls. Abutments with 2 adjacent walls and 1 wall were not significantly different from each other. The unmodified abutment with 4 walls exhibited the lowest retention despite having a large retentive surface area. The retention of cemented crowns on implant abutments is influenced by the number and position of axial walls. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
van den Wijngaarden, E; van Pelt, A W J; Meisberger, E W; Tams, J; Cune, M S
In a study, the effectivity and durability of telescopic dentures on abutment teeth provided with telescope crowns were investigated. The prognosis for the prosthetic structure and for the abutment teeth were both investigated. The survival rate of 234 telescopic dentures (886 abutment teeth) in 147
A three-dimensional finite element analysis of a passive and friction fit implant abutment interface and the influence of occlusal table dimension on the stress distribution pattern on the implant and surrounding bone
Conclusion : It can thus be concluded that the conical connection distributes more stress to the implant body and dissipates less stress to the surrounding bone. A narrow occlusal table considerably reduces the occlusal overload.
Long-term stability of peri-implant tissues after bone or soft tissue augmentation. Effect of zirconia or titanium abutments on peri-implant soft tissues. Summary and consensus statements. The 4th EAO Consensus Conference 2015
Sicilia, Alberto; Quirynen, Marc; Fontolliet, Alain; Francisco, Helena; Friedman, Anton; Linkevicius, Tomas; Lutz, Rainer; Meijer, Henny J.; Rompen, Eric; Rotundo, Roberto; Schwarz, Frank; Simion, Massimo; Teughels, Wim; Wennerberg, Ann; Zuhr, Otto
Introduction: Several surgical techniques and prosthetic devices have been developed in the last decades, aiming to improve aesthetic, hygienic and functional outcomes that may affect the peri-implant tissues, such as procedures of bone and soft tissue augmentation and the use of custom-made
Panza, Leonardo Henrique Vadenal
Conclusão: Os tipos de conexão do implante ou pilar fetaram a manutenção do préaparafusamento. As conexões de hexágono interno e externo foram efetivas para evitar o deslocamento horizontal das coroas
Nardi, Diego; Degidi, Marco; Sighinolfi, Gianluca; Tebbel, Florian; Marchetti, Claudio
This study evaluated the retention strength of welding caps for Ankylos standard abutments using a pull-out test. Each sample consisted of an implant abutment and its welding cap. The tests were performed with a Zwick Roell testing machine with a 1-kN load cell. The retention strength of the welding caps increased with higher abutment diameters and higher head heights and was comparable or superior to the values reported in the literature for the temporary cements used in implant dentistry. Welding caps provide a reliable connection between an abutment and a fixed prosthesis without the use of cement.
This ETL provides guidance for characterizing and measuring rock discontinuities on natural slopes or slopes constructed in rock above reservoirs, darn abutments, or other types of constructed slopes...
The performance of soft computing techniques to analyse and interpret the experimental data of local scour depth around bridge abutment, measured at different laboratory conditions and environment, is presented. The scour around bridge piers and abutments is, in the majority of cases, the main reason for bridge failures.
Lee, Jaebum; Fiorini, Tiago; Gamborena, Inãki; Wenzel, Brent A; Schüpbach, Peter; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Susin, Cristiano
Crestal remodeling/bone loss appears a common sequel to dental implant placement. Several hypotheses and clinical strategies have been advanced to explain and avert crestal remodeling; however, causative mechanisms remain unclear and the efficacy of clinical protocol uncertain. The objective of the present study was to provide a histologic record of crestal versus subcrestal implant placement on crestal remodeling and mucosal profile comparing platform shift/switch and standard abutments following flapless implant surgery using a dog model. Four dental implants each were placed into the left and right edentulated posterior mandibles in five adult male hound-Labrador mongrel dogs using a flapless approach including crestal versus subcrestal placement and using platform shift versus standard abutments. Block biopsies were collected for histological/histometric analysis following an 8-week healing interval. Both crestal and subcrestal implant installation resulted in significant crestal remodeling and bone loss, in particular at buccal sites, without significant differences between platform shift/switch and standard abutments. Implants installed subcrestally exhibited a significantly taller mucosal profile over crestal-level implants without significant differences between platform shift/switch and standard abutments; the epithelial attachment at all times arrested on the abutment surface. Comparing platform shift/switch versus standard abutments using a minimally invasive flapless approach including crestal or subcrestal implant placement, the platform shift/switch abutments offer no selective advantage over standard abutments. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
QUIRYNEN, M; VANDERMEI, HC; BOLLEN, CML; VANDENBOSSCHE, LH; DOORNBUSCH, GI; VANSTEENBERGHE, D; BUSSCHER, HJ
THE INFLUENCE OF SURFACE FREE ENERGY on supra- and subgingival plaque microbiology was examined in 9 patients with functional fixed prostheses supported by endosseous titanium implants. Two abutments (trans-mucosal part of the 2 stage implant) were replaced by either a new titanium abutment or a
torfare. Trhe interface, approximately 25 microns in width contained adult connective tissue. Though tissue disruption occured during retallographic...oral cavity was used as a distal abutment for a fixed bridge. A natural tooth was used as the mesial abutment. D I t 1473 EDITION or I Nov sag$ OUSOLETE SECURITY CLASIFICATION OF ThIS PA6E (Wham Vate Enlaced)
Nicolaisen, Maj Høygaard; Bahrami, Golnosh; Schropp, Lars
with the manufacturer’s guidelines by one operator. Before and after veneering, the FDPs were placed on the abutment teeth with a light-body A-silicone impression material (Extrude Wash, Kerr) between the restoration and the abutment teeth. After setting, the FDPs were removed and the light-body material was stabilized...
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Abutments. Velocity and turbulence at a wing-wall abut- ment. 35. Acoustic noise. Application of holography in jet acoustic studies. 389. Air-fuel combustion. Numerical study of effect of oxygen fraction on local entropy generation in a methane-air burner. 641. All solid-state exciter. A compact spark pre-ionized pulser ...
Danza, Matteo; Palmieri, Annalisa; Farinella, Francesca; Brunelli, Giorgio; Carinci, Francesco; Girardi, Ambra; Spinelli, Giuseppe
The aim of research was to study spiral family implant by finite element analysis (FEA) inserted in different bone qualities connected with abutments of different angulations. The biomechanical behaviour of 4.2 × 13 mm dental implants, connecting screw, straight and 15° and 25° angulated abutments subjected to static loads, in contact with high and poor bone qualities was evaluated by FEA. The lowest stress value was found in the system composed by implants and straight abut-ments loaded with a vertical force, while the highest stress value was found in implants with 15° angulated abutment loaded with an angulated force. In addition, we found the lower the bone quality, the higher the distribution of the stress within the bone. Spiral family implants can be used successfully in low bone quality but applying a straight force is recommended.
da Silveira-Júnior, Clebio Domingues; Neves, Flávio Domingues; Fernandes-Neto, Alfredo Júlio; Prado, Célio Jesus; Simamoto-Júnior, Paulo César
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of abutment screw tightening force before laser welding procedures on the vertical fit of metal frameworks over four implants. To construct the frameworks, prefabricated titanium abutments and cylindrical titanium bars were joined by laser welding to compose three groups: group of manual torque (GMT), GT10 and GT20. Before welding, manual torque simulating routine laboratory procedure was applied to GTM. In GT10 and GT20, the abutment screws received 10 and 20 Ncm torque, respectively. After welding, the implant/framework interfaces were assessed by optical comparator microscope using two methods. First, the single screw test (SST) was used, in which the interfaces of the screwed and non-screwed abutments were assessed, considering only the abutments at the framework extremities. Second, the interfaces of all the abutments were evaluated when they were screwed. In the SST, intergroup analysis (Kruskal Wallis) showed no significant difference among the three conditions of tightening force; that is, the different tightening force before welding did not guarantee smaller distortions. Intragroup analysis (Wilcoxon) showed that for all groups, the interfaces of the non-screwed abutments were statistically greater than the interfaces of the screwed abutments, evidencing distortions in all the frameworks. ANOVA was applied for the comparison of interfaces when all the abutments were screwed and showed no significant difference among the groups. Under the conditions of this study, pre-welding tightness on abutment screws did not influence the vertical fit of implant-supported metal frameworks.
Wadhwani, Chandur; Goodwin, Sabine; Chung, Kwok-Hung
Cementing restorations to implants is a widely used clinical procedure. Little is known about the dynamics of this process. Using a systems approach and advanced computing software modeling this can be investigated virtually. These models require validation against real-life models. The study aims to consider the system effect of a crown, abutment, and cement flow under different conditions and comparing real physical models to virtual computer simulations. A physical model of implant abutments and crowns provided three groups according to abutment screw access modification (n = 9): open (OA), closed (CA), and internal vented (IVA) abutment groups. Crowns were cemented using standardized amounts and site application. Proportion of cement retained within the crown-abutment system was recorded and compared. Differences among groups were identified using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's post hoc test (α ≤ 0.05). Three-dimensional multiphysics numerical stimulation software (STAR-CCM+, CD-adapco) with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was applied to a virtual model system of a scanned abutment and crown system. Three-dimensional real-time model simulations of cement and air displacement were produced, evaluating cement application site, speed of crown seating, and abutment modifications. Statistically significant differences in cement retained within the system (p OA > OCA abutment groups. The CFD virtual simulations followed this trend. Site application and speed of seating also affected cement extrusion and cement marginal infill. Fast crown seating and occlusal cement site application produced air incorporation at the margins. The CFD approach provides a convenient way to evaluate crown-cement-implant abutment systems with respect to cement flow. Preliminary evaluation indicates that the results achieved follow those of a physical actual cement-retained crown-implant abutment study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Tabata, Lucas Fernando; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Gomes, Érica Alves
The passive fit between prosthesis and implant is a relevant factor for screw joint stability and treatment success. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of vertical misfit in abutment-implant interface on preload maintenance of retention screw of implant-supported crowns. The crowns were fabricated with different abutments and veneering materials and divided into 5 groups ( n = 12): Gold UCLA abutments cast in gold alloy veneered with ceramic (Group I) and resin (Group II), UCLA abutments cast in titanium veneered with ceramic (Group III) and resin (Group IV), and zirconia abutments with ceramic veneering (Group V). The crowns were attached to implants by gold retention screws with 35-N cm insertion torque. Specimens were submitted to mechanical cycling up to 106 cycles. Measurements of detorque and vertical misfit in abutment-implant interface were performed before and after mechanical cycling. ANOVA revealed statistically significant difference ( P 0.05) between vertical misfit and detorque value. It was concluded that vertical misfit did not influence torque maintenance and the abutments cast in titanium exhibited the highest misfit values.
Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Nowadays, removable partial dentures are applied to patients who are not able to use dental implants or fixed prosthesis. Although based on the studies the users of removable partial dentures are in the risk of plaque accumulation and unacceptable changes such as gingivitis, periodontitis and mobility in abutment tooth. It is not clear whether the negative effects of removable partial dentures are more on the isolated teeth which are a kind of abutment adjacent to endentulous area in both sides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical condition of isolated abutment teeth without splinting in comparison to control abutment from the aspects of B.O.P (bleeding on probing, mobility, pocket depth and gingivitis."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the prepared questionnaires were filled out by 50 patients who received removable partial dentures in department of removable prosthodontics of dental school of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The patients had isolated abutment tooth and did not have any systemic disease. The obtained data were analyzed. Using Wilcoxon, exact Fisher and Kruskal-Wallis test."nResults: B.O.P (P=0.004, pocket depth (P=0.035, and mobility (P<0.001 in isolated abutments were more than those in control abutments, but there were not significant differences in the degree of caries (P=0.083 and gingivitis (P=0.07."nConclusion: This study showed that clinical condition of isolated abutments is worse than that of control abutments. More attention should be paid to healthiness of isolated teeth without splinting and periodic follow ups should be done in these cases.
大溝, 隆史; 竹下, 義仁; 岩井, 啓三; 石原, 善和; 片岡, 滋; 高橋, 喜博; 大島, 俊昭; 稲生, 衡樹; 伊藤, 晴久; 乙黒, 明彦; 三沢, 京子; 岩根, 健二; 甘利, 光治; 中根, 卓
A study was made of 1120 crowns which had been fabricated for patients at the Prosthodontic Clinic of Matsumoto Dental College during 1985. Some of the results were as follows: 1) 43.15% of the patients were males and 56.85% were females. 2) 87.70% of the patients were between 20 and 59 years old. 3) Crowns of the upper abutment teeth were more abuted than the lower abutment teeth. 4) 75.54% of the crowns were fabricated for nonvital teeth. 5) 50.27% of the crowns were fabricated as full cast...
The outer rail retains two lateral screw webs of an intermediate rail to construct a base for wall plate covering. Two retention devices are disposed oppositely on respective inner sides of each retention web for retaining a respective screw web of the intermediate rail. Each retention device...... including an abutment part, which extends inwards from the inner side of the retention web such as to form an abutment surface for the respective screw web when the latter is positioned to be retained in the retention device, and extends from the abutment part into a locking part, which extends at an angle...
Cortizo, María C; Cortizo, Ana M; Cortizo, María S; Oberti, Tamara G; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica A
.... This study was designed to develop a CHX delivery system appropriate for healing caps and abutments, with suitable drug release rate, effective as antimicrobial agent, and free of cytotoxic effects...
Yilmaz, Yucel; Kocogullari, Mutlu Elcin; Belduz, Nihal
This study investigates the clinical performance of fixed space maintainers placed on seriously damaged abutment teeth. Crowns were placed on damaged abutment primary teeth. Fixed space maintainers were prepared by using rectangular wire between the window in the facial surface of the crowns and other abutment teeth and were subsequently bonded with a flowable resin composite. This procedure was introduced clinically, and the cases were observed over a period of twelve months. Twenty-seven fixed space maintainers (25 on lower jaw, two on upper jaw) were included in this study. No clinical failure was recorded in any of the cases in the observation time, and the rate of clinical performance was 100%. The study shows the effectiveness of fixed space maintainers combined with stainless steel crowns ("open-face fixed space maintainers") which were placed on primary molar teeth used as abutments in cases with extensive caries and loss of occlusogingival dimension.
... abutment; (5) a single S. Morgan Smith vertical propeller generating unit having a rated capacity of 485...://www.ferc.gov using the ``eLibrary'' link. Enter the docket number excluding the last three digits in...
... 80-foot-wide, 55-foot-high powerhouse located in the right abutment, containing two vertical Kaplan... Commission's Web site at http://www.ferc.gov using the ``eLibrary'' link. Enter the docket number excluding...
Dupras, A; Levy, J; Samson, J M; Tessier, D
A random sample of 407 French Canadian adults responded to a questionnaire about perception of AIDS. Negative attitudes about AIDS are better predicted by homophobia than other measures as are attitudes about extramarital relations and attitudes abut adolescent heterosexuality.
The scouring process excavates and carries away materials from the bed and banks of streams, and from : around the piers and abutments of bridges. Scour undermines bridges and may cause bridge failures due to : structural instability. In the last 30 ...
..., cultural resources, and visitor experiences of a national park unit and any tribal lands within or abutting... The following locations within Death Valley National Park: Furnace Creek Visitor Center & Museum...
..., if any, of commercial air tour operations upon the natural and cultural resources, visitor experiences and tribal lands within or abutting GGNRA and the Seashore. It should be noted that an ATMP has no...
... operations upon the natural and cultural resources, visitor experiences and tribal lands within or abutting.... August 17, 2011: 4:30-6:30 p.m. Bay Model Visitor Center, 2100 Bridgeway, Sausalito, CA. FOR FURTHER...
The goal of this research was to propose an alternate system of precast bridge substructures which can : substitute for conventional cast in place systems in Wisconsin to achieve accelerated construction. : Three types of abutment modules (hollow wal...
Scour, an engineering term for erosion, is : the result of the erosive action of flowing : water excavating and carrying away : material from the bed and banks of : streams and from around the piers and : abutments of bridges. For analysis : purposes...
Mohammed M Abd El.Khalik
Conclusion: Compound Aker clasp is better than the multiple circlet clasp assembly as it reduces abutment alveolar bone resorption regards broad stress distribution philosophy is considered for distal extension cases.
Full Text Available Examples of structural repairs a) repairs to culvert wing walls, abutment walls as well as deck slab, b) replacement of existing steel bridge handrails with precast concrete rails, c) repairs to bridge abutment by means of externally reinforced concrete... general problem of reinforcement corrosion. New precast reinforced concrete railings were proposed in instances were vandalism had occurred; • Bearings were generally in a good condition; • Selected road safety elements were also identified for repair...
Garoushi, Sufyan; Vallittu, Pekka
Fiber-reinforced composite resin (FRC) prostheses offer the advantages of good esthetics, minimal invasive treatment, and an ability to bond to the abutment teeth, thereby compensating for less-than-optimal abutment tooth retention and resistance form. These prostheses are composed of two types of composite materials: fiber composites to build the framework and hybrid or microfill particulate composites to create the external veneer surface. This review concentrates on the use of fiber reinfo...
and Chuck for further inspection, I visited this site on Tuesday, July 11, 1978. Major spauling of the concrete of the right abutment/ gatehouse...exists possibly induced by major seepage along what appears to be a construction joint. The spauling has progressed to a point where large surface pockets...concrete abutment 0 above the area of spauling and the relatively low head generating flow through this area (approximately 15’), I do not believe there
is the left abutment 0 . . and gatehouse . The right abutment shows signs of erosion and could well - be the first section to fail. Owing to the...its age of almost 80 years, is in fair condition. It is virtually impossible to , 0 ascertain where the embankment or fill behind the concrete wing...Appurtenant Structures. The only appurtenant structure, the gatehouse , is in fair condition. d. Reservoir Area. The banks are flat and wooded. There
Chang, Chih-Ling; Lu, Hsien-Kun; Ou, Keng-Liang; Su, Peng-Yu; Chen, Chung-Ming
Background/purpose: This study investigated in seven patients the main causes of accidental fractures of various implant components. Materials and methods: We used a scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope to observe the fracture interfaces of four fixtures, six abutment screws, and nine gold screws retrieved from patients with prosthetic problems. Results: In all fixtures and some abutment screws, parafunctional force and a cantilever design ultimately resulte...
Arun Ramchandran; Kaushal Kishor Agrawal; Pooran Chand; Ramashanker,; Raghuwar Dayal Singh; Anusar Gupta
The Kennedy Class I and II distal extension situation poses a challenge to the prosthodontist as it inherently possesses a lack of stability, which may be attributed to the difference in compressibility of the mucosa and the periodontal ligament surrounding the distal-most abutment tooth. This results in a rotational tendency of the prosthesis around the line connecting its terminal abutments. Placement of osseointegrated dental implants in the posterior edentulous regions, distal to the term...
C FISHER LAKE 50670 CONCHO RIVER. TEEAS AS-BUILT SECTION FOUNDATioN GROUTING-RIGHT ABUTMENT STA 150+50 TD 155+50 500 -SCALE AS SHOWN OIA r NCT56...FISHER LN E NORTH COMCMI RIVER. TEXAS 164+00 164+50 6s+00 ..... - .: ,AS-BUJILT SECTION ~~ 55M &N----- FTI ~- OUNDATION GROUTING -RIGHT ABUTMENT STA
Apaza-Bedoya, K; Tarce, M; Benfatti, C A M; Henriques, B; Mathew, M T; Teughels, W; Souza, J C M
Two-piece implant systems are mainly used in oral implantology involving an osseointegrated implant connected to an abutment, which supports prosthetic structures. It is well documented that the presence of microgaps, biofilms and oral fluids at the implant-abutment connection can cause mechanical and biological complications. The aim of this review paper was to report the degradation at the implant-abutment connection by wear and corrosion processes taking place in the oral cavity. Most of the retrieved studies evaluated the wear and corrosion (tribocorrosion) of titanium-based materials used for implants and abutments in artificial saliva. Electrochemical and wear tests together with microscopic techniques were applied to validate the tribocorrosion behavior of the surfaces. A few studies inspected the wear on the inner surfaces of the implant connection as a result of fatigue or removal of abutments. The studies reported increased microgaps after fatigue tests. In addition, data suggest that micromovements occurring at the contacting surfaces can increase the wear of the inner surfaces of the connection. Biofilms and/or glycoproteins act as lubricants, although they can also amplify the corrosion of the surfaces. Consequently, loosening of the implant-abutment connection can take place during mastication. In addition, wear and corrosion debris such as ions and micro- and nanoparticles released into the surrounding tissues can stimulate peri-implant inflammation that can lead to pathologic bone resorption. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bowley, John Francis; Kaye, Elizabeth Krall; Garcia, Raul Isidro
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of long base lengths of a fixed partial denture (FPD) to rotational resistance with variation of vertical wall angulation. Trigonometric calculations were done to determine the maximum wall angle needed to resist rotational displacement of an experimental-FPD model in 2-dimensional plane. The maximum wall angle calculation determines the greatest taper that resists rotation. Two different axes of rotation were used to test this model with five vertical abutment heights of 3-, 3.5-, 4-, 4.5-, and 5-mm. The two rotational axes were located on the mesial-side of the anterior abutment and the distal-side of the posterior abutment. Rotation of the FPD around the anterior axis was counter-clockwise, Posterior-Anterior (P-A) and clockwise, Anterior-Posterior (A-P) around the distal axis in the sagittal plane. Low levels of vertical wall taper, ≤ 10-degrees, were needed to resist rotational displacement in all wall height categories; 2-to-6-degrees is generally considered ideal, with 7-to-10-degrees as favorable to the long axis of the abutment. Rotation around both axes demonstrated that two axial walls of the FPD resisted rotational displacement in each direction. In addition, uneven abutment height combinations required the lowest wall angulations to achieve resistance in this study. The vertical height and angulation of FPD abutments, two rotational axes, and the long base lengths all play a role in FPD resistance form.
Styranivska, Oksana; Kliuchkovska, Nataliia; Mykyyevych, Nataliya
To analyze the stress-strain states of bone and abutment teeth during the use of different prosthetic designs of fixed partial dentures with the use of relevant mathematical modeling principles. The use of Comsol Multiphysics 3.5 (Comsol AB, Sweden) software during the mathematical modeling of stress-strain states provided numerical data for analytical interpretation in three different clinical scenarios with fixed dentures and different abutment teeth and demountable prosthetic denture with the saddle-shaped intermediate part. Microsoft Excel Software (Microsoft Office 2017) helped to evaluate absolute mistakes of stress and strain parameters of each abutment tooth during three modeled scenarios and normal condition and to summarize data into the forms of tables. In comparison with the fixed prosthetic denture supported by the canine, first premolar, and third molar, stresses at the same abutment teeth with the use of demountable denture with the saddle-shaped intermediate part decreased: at the mesial abutment tooth by 2.8 times, at distal crown by 6.1 times, and at the intermediate part by 11.1 times, respectively, the deformation level decreased by 3.1, 1.9, and 1.4 times at each area. The methods of mathematical modeling proved that complications during the use of fixed partial dentures based on the overload effect of the abutment teeth and caused by the deformation process inside the intermediate section of prosthetic construction.
Miura, Shoko; Kasahara, Shin; Yamauchi, Shinobu; Egusa, Hiroshi
The purpose of this study were: to perform stress analyses using three-dimensional finite element analysis methods; to analyze the mechanical stress of different framework designs; and to investigate framework designs that will provide for the long-term stability of both cantilevered fixed partial dentures (FPDs) and abutment teeth. An analysis model was prepared for three units of cantilevered FPDs that assume a missing mandibular first molar. Four types of framework design (Design 1, basic type; Design 2, framework width expanded buccolingually by 2 mm; Design 3, framework height expanded by 0.5 mm to the occlusal surface side from the end abutment to the connector area; and Design 4, a combination of Designs 2 and 3) were created. Two types of framework material (yttrium-oxide partially stabilized zirconia and a high precious noble metal gold alloy) and two types of abutment material (dentin and brass) were used. In the framework designs, Design 1 exhibited the highest maximum principal stress value for both zirconia and gold alloy. In the abutment tooth, Design 3 exhibited the highest maximum principal stress value for all abutment teeth. In the present study, Design 4 (the design with expanded framework height and framework width) could contribute to preventing the concentration of stress and protecting abutment teeth. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.
Puskar, Tatjana; Vasiljević, Darko; Marković, Dubravka; Jevremović, Danimir; Pantelić, Dejan; Savić-Sević, Svetlana; Murić, Branka
The mathematical model of the abutment tooth is the starting point of the finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The simplest and easiest way is to form a model according to the literature data of dimensions and morphological characteristics of teeth. Our method is based on forming 3D models using standard geometrical forms (objects) in programmes for solid modeling. Forming the mathematical model of abutment of the second upper premolar for finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The abutment tooth has a form of a complex geometric object. It is suitable for modeling in programs for solid modeling SolidWorks. After analysing the literature data about the morphological characteristics of teeth, we started the modeling dividing the tooth (complex geometric body) into simple geometric bodies (cylinder, cone, pyramid,...). Connecting simple geometric bodies together or substricting bodies from the basic body, we formed complex geometric body, tooth. The model is then transferred into Abaqus, a computational programme for finite element analysis. Transferring the data was done by standard file format for transferring 3D models ACIS SAT. Using the programme for solid modeling SolidWorks, we developed three models of abutment of the second maxillary premolar: the model of the intact abutment, the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining cavity walls and the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining walls and inserted post. Mathematical models of the abutment made according to the literature data are very similar with the real abutment and the simplifications are minimal. These models enable calculations of stress and deformation of the dental structures. The finite element analysis provides useful information in understanding biomechanical problems and gives guidance for clinical research.
Baffone, Gabriele; Lang, Niklaus P; Pantani, Fabio; Favero, Giovanni; Ferri, Mauro; Botticelli, Daniele
To study bony and soft tissue changes at implants installed in alveolar bony ridges of different widths. In 6 Labrador dogs, the mandibular premolars and first molars were extracted, and a buccal defect was created in the left side at the third and fourth premolars by removing the buccal bone and the inter-radicular and interdental septa. Three months after tooth extraction, full-thickness mucoperiosteal flaps were elevated, and implants were installed, two at the reduced (test) and two at the regular-sized ridges (control). Narrow or wide abutments were affixed to the implants. After 3 months, biopsies were harvested, and ground sections prepared for histological evaluation. A higher vertical buccal bony crest resorption was found at the test (1.5 ± 0.7 mm and 1.0 ± 0.7 mm) compared to the control implants (1.0 ± 0.5 mm and 0.7 ± 0.4 mm), for both wide and narrow abutment sites. A higher horizontal alveolar resorption was identified at the control compared to the test implants. The difference was significant for narrow abutment sites. The peri-implant mucosa was more coronally positioned at the narrow abutment, in the test sites, while for the control sites, the mucosal adaptation was more coronal at the wide abutment sites. These differences, however, did not reach statistical significance. Implants installed in regular-sized alveolar ridges had a higher horizontal, but a lower vertical buccal bony crest resorption compared to implants installed in reduced alveolar ridges. Narrow abutments in reduced ridges as well as wide abutments in regular-sized ridges yielded less soft tissue recession compared to their counterparts. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction. The mathematical model of the abutment tooth is the starting point of the finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The simplest and easiest way is to form a model according to the literature data of dimensions and morphological characteristics of teeth. Our method is based on forming 3D models using standard geometrical forms (objects in programmes for solid modeling. Objective. Forming the mathematical model of abutment of the second upper premolar for finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. Methods. The abutment tooth has a form of a complex geometric object. It is suitable for modeling in programs for solid modeling SolidWorks. After analyzing the literature data about the morphological characteristics of teeth, we started the modeling dividing the tooth (complex geometric body into simple geometric bodies (cylinder, cone, pyramid,.... Connecting simple geometric bodies together or substricting bodies from the basic body, we formed complex geometric body, tooth. The model is then transferred into Abaqus, a computational programme for finite element analysis. Transferring the data was done by standard file format for transferring 3D models ACIS SAT. Results. Using the programme for solid modeling SolidWorks, we developed three models of abutment of the second maxillary premolar: the model of the intact abutment, the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining cavity walls and the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining walls and inserted post. Conclusion Mathematical models of the abutment made according to the literature data are very similar with the real abutment and the simplifications are minimal. These models enable calculations of stress and deformation of the dental structures. The finite element analysis provides useful information in understanding biomechanical problems and gives guidance for clinical research.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of implant tilting and the loading direction on the displacement and micromotion (relative displacement between the implant and bone) of immediately loaded implants by in vitro experiments and finite element analysis (FEA). Methods Six artificial bone blocks were prepared. Six screw-type implants with a length of 10 mm and diameter of 4.3 mm were placed, with 3 positioned axially and 3 tilted. The tilted implants were 30° distally inclined to the axial implants. Vertical and mesiodistal oblique (45° angle) loads of 200 N were applied to the top of the abutment, and the abutment displacement was recorded. Nonlinear finite element models simulating the in vitro experiment were constructed, and the abutment displacement and micromotion were calculated. The data on the abutment displacement from in vitro experiments and FEA were compared, and the validity of the finite element model was evaluated. Results The abutment displacement was greater under oblique loading than under axial loading and greater for the tilted implants than for the axial implants. The in vitro and FEA results showed satisfactory consistency. The maximum micromotion was 2.8- to 4.1-fold higher under oblique loading than under vertical loading. The maximum micromotion values in the axial and tilted implants were very close under vertical loading. However, in the tilted implant model, the maximum micromotion was 38.7% less than in the axial implant model under oblique loading. The relationship between abutment displacement and micromotion varied according to the loading direction (vertical or oblique) as well as the implant insertion angle (axial or tilted). Conclusions Tilted implants may have a lower maximum extent of micromotion than axial implants under mesiodistal oblique loading. The maximum micromotion values were strongly influenced by the loading direction. The maximum micromotion values did not reflect the abutment
Full Text Available Objective. To longitudinally follow the osseointegration using Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA for different lengths of abutment on a new wide bone-anchored implant, introduced with the non-skin thinning surgical technique. Study Design. A single-center, prospective 1 year study following adults with bone-anchored hearing implants. Materials and Methods. Implantation was performed and followed for a minimum of 1 year. All patients were operated on according to the tissue preserving technique. A 4.5 mm wide fixture (Oticon Medical with varying abutments (9 to 12 mm was used and RFA was tested 1 week, 7 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months later. Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ, was measured from 1 to 100. Stability was compared to a group of patients (N=7 implanted with another brand (Cochlear BI400 of 4.5 mm fixtures. Results. All 10 adults concluded the study. None of the participants lost their implant during the test period indicating a good anchoring of abutments to the wide fixture tested. Stability testing was shown to vary depending on abutment length and time after surgery and with higher values for shorter abutments and increasing values over the first period of time. One patient changed the abutment from 12 to 9 mm and another from a 9 to a 12 during the year. No severe skin problems, numbness around the implant, or cosmetic problems arose. Conclusion. After 1 year of follow-up, combination of a wide fixture implant and the non-skin thinning surgical technique indicates a safe procedure with good stability and no abutment losses.
Canullo, Luigi; Cocchetto, Roberto; Marinotti, Fabio; Oltra, David Peñarrocha; Diago, María Peñarrocha; Loi, Ignazio
Cement remnants were frequently associated with peri-implantitis. Recently, a shoulderless abutment was proposed, raising some concern about cement excess removal. To compare different cementation techniques for implant-supported restorations assessing the amount of cement remnants in the peri-implant sulcus. Additional aim was to compare the effect of these cementation techniques using two different abutment designs. Forty-six patients requiring double implant-supported restoration in the posterior maxilla were randomly divided in two groups according to the cementation modality: intraoral and extraoral. According to the abutment finishing line, implants in each patient were randomly assigned to shoulderless or chamfer subgroup. In the intraoral group, crowns were directly seated onto the titanium abutment. In the extraoral group, crowns were firstly seated onto a resin abutment replica and immediately removed, then cleansed of the cement excess and finally seated on the titanium abutment. After cement setting, in both groups, cement excess was carefully tried to remove. Three months later, framework/abutment complexes were disconnected and prepared for microscopic analysis: surface occupied by exposed cement remnants and marginal gaps were measured. Additionally, crown/abutment complexes were grinded, and voids of cement were measured at abutment/crown interface. Related-samples Friedman's two-way analysis of variance by ranks was used to detect differences between groups and subgroups (P ≤ 0.5). At the end of the study, a mean value of 0.45 mm(2) (±0.80), 0.38 mm(2) (±0.84), and 0.065 mm(2) (±0.13) and 0.07 mm(2) (±0.15) described surface occupied by cement remnants in shoulderless and chamfer abutment with intraoral cementation and shoulderless and chamfer abutment with extraoral cementation, respectively. A mean value of 0.40 mm(2) (±0.377), 0.41 mm(2) (±0.39) and 0.485 mm(2) (±0.47) and 0.477 mm(2) (±0.43) described cement voids at the
Khamis, Mohamed Moataz; Medra, Ahmed; Gauld, John
Placing craniofacial implants in a 2-stage procedure requires an additional second-stage surgery that is tedious for patients and clinicians and results in additional cost. The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate the use of a newly designed craniofacial implant for retaining facial prostheses, placed in a single-stage surgical procedure. Twenty-one newly designed craniofacial implants (OsteoCare Implant System) were placed in 7 patients, all seeking implant-retained auricular prostheses, using a single-stage surgical procedure. Modified O-ring abutments were directly screwed onto the implants at the time of surgery. Plastic washers were attached to the O-ring heads of the exposed abutments to avoid skin overgrowth to allow a single-stage surgical procedure. After a delayed loading period of 4 months, a silicone prosthetic ear was fabricated and retained using clips over the O-ring abutments. Implants and surrounding tissues were clinically evaluated at 1, 6, and 12 months following prosthesis insertion. The following were evaluated: periimplant abutment sebaceous crusting, periimplant abutment exudate, skin thickness, periimplant abutment tissue reaction, and implant mobility. Data was collected and statistically analyzed using the nonparametric Friedman's test for overall comparisons and Wilcoxon signed rank test for post hoc assessment of significance between follow-up periods. None of the implants failed to osseointegrate, providing a survival rate of 100%. Periimplant abutment sebaceous crusting values were significantly reduced at the 12-month test session (P<.05). Periimplant abutment skin thickness was also significantly reduced (P<.05) between the 6- and 12-month, and 1- and 12-month, follow-up visits. No significant difference was found throughout the follow-up period for periimplant abutment exudates and tissue reactions. None of the implants showed any signs of mobility throughout the study period. The use of the single-stage surgical
Li, Bei Bei; Xu, Jia Bin; Cui, Hong Yan; Lin, Ye; Di, Ping
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of partial carbon or glass fiber reinforcement on the flexural properties of All-on-Four provisional fixed denture base resin. The carbon or glass fibers were woven (3% by weight) together in three strands and twisted and tightened between the two abutments in a figure-of-"8" pattern. Four types of specimens were fabricated for the three-point loading test. The interface between the denture base resin and fibers was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Reinforcement with carbon or glass fibers between two abutments significantly increased the flexural strength and flexural modulus. SEM revealed relatively continuous contact between the fibers and acrylic resin. The addition of carbon or glass fibers between two abutments placed on All-on-Four provisional fixed denture base resin may be clinically effective in preventing All-on-Four denture fracture and can provide several advantages for clinical use.
Ramchandran, Arun; Agrawal, Kaushal Kishor; Chand, Pooran; Ramashanker; Singh, Raghuwar Dayal; Gupta, Anusar
The Kennedy Class I and II distal extension situation poses a challenge to the prosthodontist as it inherently possesses a lack of stability, which may be attributed to the difference in compressibility of the mucosa and the periodontal ligament surrounding the distal-most abutment tooth. This results in a rotational tendency of the prosthesis around the line connecting its terminal abutments. Placement of osseointegrated dental implants in the posterior edentulous regions, distal to the terminal abutment provides improved vertical support to the distal extension removable partial denture, effectively converting its intraoral performance from a Kennedy Class I to a Class III situation, thereby resulting in improved stability of the prosthesis and consequently, enhanced patient satisfaction. This case report describes such an approach to the restoration of a Kennedy Class I partially edentulous situation.
Full Text Available The Kennedy Class I and II distal extension situation poses a challenge to the prosthodontist as it inherently possesses a lack of stability, which may be attributed to the difference in compressibility of the mucosa and the periodontal ligament surrounding the distal-most abutment tooth. This results in a rotational tendency of the prosthesis around the line connecting its terminal abutments. Placement of osseointegrated dental implants in the posterior edentulous regions, distal to the terminal abutment provides improved vertical support to the distal extension removable partial denture, effectively converting its intraoral performance from a Kennedy Class I to a Class III situation, thereby resulting in improved stability of the prosthesis and consequently, enhanced patient satisfaction. This case report describes such an approach to the restoration of a Kennedy Class I partially edentulous situation.
Liu, Siyu; Tang, Chunbo; Yu, Jinhua; Dai, Wenyong; Bao, Yidong; Hu, Dan
It is unknown whether dental implant systems with a platform-switched configuration have better periimplant bone stress distribution and lead to less periimplant bone level changes. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively investigate interfacial stress and stress distribution in implant bone in 2 implant abutment designs (platform-switched design and conventional diameter matching) by using a nonlinear finite element analysis method. A finite element simulation study was applied to 2 commercially available dental implant systems: the Ankylos implant system with a reduced-diameter abutment (platform-switched implant) and the Anthogyr implant system with an abutment of the same diameter (regular platform implant). These 2 dental implant systems were positioned in a bone block, which was constructed based on a cross-sectional image of a human mandible in the molar region. In simulation, a single vertical load of 50 N, 100 N, or 150 N and horizontal loads of 50 N and 100 N were applied to the occlusal surface of the abutment. The finite element analysis found that the Ankylos implant system has a higher maximum von Mises stress in the implant abutment connection section and a lower maximum von Mises stress in the periimplant bone. The opposite results were found in the Anthogyr implant system. Lower stress levels in the periimplant bone with a more uniform stress distribution were found for the Ankylos implant system with a platform-switched configuration. Although relatively higher stress was found in the abutment, premature implant failure is not anticipated because of the high strength of titanium alloy. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
López-Píriz, Roberto; Solá-Linares, Eva; Rodriguez-Portugal, Mercedes; Malpica, Beatriz; Díaz-Güemes, Idoia; Enciso, Silvia; Esteban-Tejeda, Leticia; Cabal, Belén; Granizo, Juan José; Moya, José Serafín; Torrecillas, Ramón
The aim of the present study is to evaluate, in a ligature-induced peri-implantitis model, the efficacy of three antimicrobial glassy coatings in the prevention of biofilm formation, intrasulcular bacterial growth and the resulting peri-implant bone loss. Mandibular premolars were bilaterally extracted from five beagle dogs. Four dental implants were inserted on each hemiarch. Eight weeks after, one control zirconia abutment and three with different bactericidal coatings (G1n-Ag, ZnO35, G3) were connected. After a plaque control period, bacterial accumulation was allowed and biofilm formation on abutments was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Peri-implantitis was induced by cotton ligatures. Microbial samples and peri-implant crestal bone levels of all implant sites were obtained before, during and after the breakdown period. During experimental induce peri-implantitis: colony forming units counts from intrasulcular microbial samples at implants with G1n-Ag coated abutment remained close to the basal inoculum; G3 and ZnO35 coatings showed similar low counts; and anaerobic bacterias counts at control abutments exhibited a logarithmic increase by more than 2. Bone loss during passive breakdown period was no statistically significant. Additional bone loss occurred during ligature-induce breakdown: 0.71 (SD 0.48) at G3 coating, 0.57 (SD 0.36) at ZnO35 coating, 0.74 (SD 0.47) at G1n-Ag coating, and 1.29 (SD 0.45) at control abutments; and statistically significant differences (p<0.001) were found. The lowest bone loss at the end of the experiment was exhibited by implants dressing G3 coated abutments (mean 2.1; SD 0.42). Antimicrobial glassy coatings could be a useful tool to ward off, diminish or delay peri-implantitis progression.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate, in a ligature-induced peri-implantitis model, the efficacy of three antimicrobial glassy coatings in the prevention of biofilm formation, intrasulcular bacterial growth and the resulting peri-implant bone loss.Mandibular premolars were bilaterally extracted from five beagle dogs. Four dental implants were inserted on each hemiarch. Eight weeks after, one control zirconia abutment and three with different bactericidal coatings (G1n-Ag, ZnO35, G3 were connected. After a plaque control period, bacterial accumulation was allowed and biofilm formation on abutments was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Peri-implantitis was induced by cotton ligatures. Microbial samples and peri-implant crestal bone levels of all implant sites were obtained before, during and after the breakdown period.During experimental induce peri-implantitis: colony forming units counts from intrasulcular microbial samples at implants with G1n-Ag coated abutment remained close to the basal inoculum; G3 and ZnO35 coatings showed similar low counts; and anaerobic bacterias counts at control abutments exhibited a logarithmic increase by more than 2. Bone loss during passive breakdown period was no statistically significant. Additional bone loss occurred during ligature-induce breakdown: 0.71 (SD 0.48 at G3 coating, 0.57 (SD 0.36 at ZnO35 coating, 0.74 (SD 0.47 at G1n-Ag coating, and 1.29 (SD 0.45 at control abutments; and statistically significant differences (p<0.001 were found. The lowest bone loss at the end of the experiment was exhibited by implants dressing G3 coated abutments (mean 2.1; SD 0.42.Antimicrobial glassy coatings could be a useful tool to ward off, diminish or delay peri-implantitis progression.
Full Text Available Background: Connecting an osseointegrated implant and a natural tooth is a treatment alternative for partially edentulous patients in some clinical situations. The main issue of a connected tooth-implant system is derived from the dissimilar mobility patterns of the osseointegrated fixtures and natural abutments causing potential biomechanical problems within the entire system. Purpose: The aim of this review was to multilaterally analyze and discuss the main biomechanical factors that may question the reliability of splinted tooth-implant system and the long-term success of fixed partial prostheses (FPPs supported by both teeth and implants with an emphasis on the disparity of mobility of these two different abutments.
left2 abutment. Wiehle Avenue, a four-lane highway, runs along the crest of the dam. A macadam path runs along the berm on the upstream slope...adequate cover of grass. NAME OF DAM: LAKE ANNE DAM 13 The junctions of the embankment and abutments are composed of vegetated earth. There is grouted ...rprap to El 327 where the Macadam path is located, it actually appears that the top of riprap is about 2 feet below the surface of the path (See Photo
玉岡, 玲洋; 若松, 正憲; 柳田, 史城; 土屋, 総一郎; 奥田, 晃則; 石原, 信彦; 垣花, 賢; 倉沢, 郁文; 甘利, 光治; 中根, 卓
A study was made of 1006 crowns which had been fabricated for patients at the Prosthodontic Clinic of Matsumoto Dental College during 1992. Some of results were as follows. 1) 42.8% of the patients were males and 57.2% were females. 2) 90.0% of the patients were between 20 and 69 years old. 3) Crowns of the upper abutment teeth were more numerous than those of lower abutment teeth. 4) 75.0% of the crowns were fabricated for nonvital teeth. 5) 49.2% of the crowns were fabricated as full cast c...
土屋, 総一郎; 柳田, 史城; 小坂, 茂; 竹内, 善彦; 稲生, 衡樹; 高橋, 喜博; 岩崎, 精彦; 岩井, 啓三; 甘利, 光治; 中根, 卓
A study was made of 758 crowns which had been fabricated for patients at the Prosthodontic Clinic of Matsumoto Dental College during 1990. Some of results were as follows: 1) 40.0% of the patients were males and 60.0% were females. 2) 90.5% of the patients were between 20 and 69 years old. 3) Crowns of the upper abutment teeth were more numerous than for the lower abutment teeth. 4) 71.4% of the crowns were fabricated for nonvital teeth. 5) 42.9% of the crowns were fabricated as full cast cro...
小林, 賢一; 清水, くるみ; 岩井, 啓三; 岩崎, 精彦; 片岡, 滋; 高橋, 喜博; 森岡, 芳樹; 栂尾, 正弘; 甘利, 光治; 中根, 卓
A study was made of 725 crowns which had been fabricated for patients at the Prosthodontic Clinic of Matsumoto Dental College during 1988. Some of results are as follows; 1) 47.8% of the patients were males and 52.2% were females. 2) 93.5% of the patients were between 20 and 69 years old. 3) Crowns of the upper abutment teeth were more numerous than for the lower abutment teeth. 4) 72.6% of the crowns were fabricated for nonvital teeth. 5) 48.4% of the crowns were fabricated as full cast crow...
平井, 拓也; 玉岡, 玲洋; 吉原, 隆二; 岩崎, 精彦; 岩井, 啓三; 甘利, 光治; 中根, 卓
A study was made of 792 crowns which had been fabricated for patients at the Prosthodontic Clinic of Matsumoto Dental College during 1991. Some of the results were as follows: 1) 44.2% of the patients were male and 55.8% were female. 2) 88.0% of the patients were between 20 and 69 years old. 3) Crowns of the upper abutment teeth than lower abutment teeth. 4) 75.4% of the crowns were fabricated for nonvital teeth. 5) 50.0% of the crowns were fabricated as full cast crowns, 17.3% as facing crow...
竹下, 義仁; 大溝, 隆史; 岩井, 啓三; 石原, 善和; 片岡, 滋; 大島, 俊昭; 稲生, 衡樹; 小林, 賢一; 甘利, 光治; 中根, 卓
A study was made of 1156 crowns which had been fabricated for patients at the Prosthodontic Clinic of Matsumoto Dental College during 1986. Some of results were as follows: 1) 41.91% of the patients were males and 58.09% were females. 2) 84.43% of the patients were between 20 and 59 years old. 3) Crowns of the upper abutment teeth were more numerous than for the lower abutment teeth. 4) 72.40% of the crowns were fabricated for nonvital teeth. 5) 47.50% of the crowns were fabricated as full ca...
柳田, 史城; 小坂, 茂; 土屋, 総一郎; 若松, 正憲; 岩崎, 精彦; 岩井, 啓三; 甘利, 光治; 中根, 卓
In 1989 study was made of 839 Crowns which had been fabricated for patients at the Prosthodontic Clinic of Matsumoto Dental College. Some of results were as follows; 1) 44.5% of the patients were male and 55.5% were female. 2) 91.7% of the patients were between 20 and 69 years old. 3) There were more crowns of the upper abutment teeth than of the lower abutment teeth. 4) 73.8% of the crowns were fabricated for nonvital teeth. 5) 39.2% of the crowns were fabricated as full cast crowns; 28.2% a...
稲生, 衡樹; 森岡, 芳樹; 片岡, 滋; 宮崎, 晴朗; 大島, 俊昭; 小林, 賢一; 岩井, 啓三; 石原, 善和; 甘利, 光治; 中根, 卓
A study was made of 945 crowns which had been fabricated for patients at the Prosthodontic Clinic of Matsumoto Dental College during 1987. Some of results are as follows; 1) 43.69% of the patients were males and 56.31% were females. 2) 87.16% of the patients were between 20 and 59 years old. 3) Crowns of the upper abutment teeth were more numerous than for the lower abutment teeth. 4) 71.96% of the crowns were fabricated for nonvital teeth. 5) 45.19% of the crowns were fabricated as full cast...
Full Text Available Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC, prostheses offer the potential advantages of optimized esthetics, low wear of the opposing dentition and the ability to bond the prosthesis to the abutment teeth, thereby compensating for less-than-optimal abutment tooth retention and resistance form. These prostheses are composed of two types of composite materials: Fiber-composites to build the substructure and hybrid or micro fill particulate composites to create the external veneer surface. This article reviews the various types of FRCs and its mechanical properties.
Ronaghi, Gelareh; Chee, Winston; Yeung, Stephanie
This clinical report describes a method for predictably shade matching a highly opaque yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) implant restoration adjacent to relatively translucent lithium disilicate veneers in the maxillary anterior region. To achieve a satisfactory outcome, the milled Y-TZP abutment was layered with low-fusing feldspathic porcelain to match the stump shade of the adjacent prepared teeth; this layer subsequently facilitated adhesive bonding of a veneer to the abutment before insertion. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dholakia, Anil R. (Inventor)
Bars of integral laser diode devices cleaved from a wafer are placed with their p regions abutting and n regions abutting. A thin BeCu mask having alternate openings and strips of the same width as the end facets is used to mask the n region interfaces so that multiple bars can be partially coated over their exposed p regions with a reflective or partial reflective coating. The partial coating permits identification of the emitting facet from the fully coated back facet during a later device mounting procedure.
Full Text Available Introduction: Abutment screw loosening has been considered as a common complication of implant-supported dental prostheses. This problem is more important in cement-retained implant restorations due to their invisible position of the screw access opening. Case Report: This report describes a modified retrievability method for cement-retained implant restorations in the event of abutment screw loosening. The screw access opening was marked with ceramic stain and its porcelain surface was treated using hydrofluoric acid (HF, silane, and adhesive to bond to composite resin. Discussion: The present modified technique facilitates screw access opening and improves the bond between the porcelain and composite resin.
Full Text Available Aim of this study was to prove the possibility of manufacturing patient specific root analogue two-part (implant and abutment implants by direct metal laser sintering. The two-part implant design enables covered healing of the implant. Therefore, CT-scans of three patients are used for reverse engineering of the implants, abutments and crowns. Patient specific implants are manufactured and measured concerning dimensional accuracy and surface roughness. Impacts of occlusal forces are simulated via FEA and compared to those of standard implants.
Göre, Evrim; Evlioğlu, Gülümser
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bruxing forces on implants configured under 2 different occlusal schemes by dynamic finite element analysis. A main model consisting of a 5-unit fixed partial denture supported by 3 implants was simulated with bone, implants, and superstructures. All calculations were made individually for each component, namely porcelain crowns, abutments, abutment screws, implants, and bone. Maximum stresses were found in the group-function occlusion. Group-function loading may result excess stresses on the components compared with canine-guidance loading. According to the results of this study, use of canine guidance is encouraged in bruxers with implant-supported prostheses.
Lazzery, Angelo G.; Crouthamel, Marvin S.; Coyle, Peter J.
A first set of pre-tabbed solar cells are assembled in a predetermined array with at least part of each tab facing upward, each tab being fixed to a bonding pad on one cell and abutting a bonding pad on an adjacent cell. The cells are held in place with a first vacuum support. The array is then inverted onto a second vacuum support which holds the tabs firmly against the cell pads they abut. The cells are exposed to radiation to melt and reflow the solder pads for bonding the tab portions not already fixed to bonding pads to these pads.
Gurgel-Juarez, Nália Cecília; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Freitas, Amílcar Chagas; Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; de Vargas, Luis Carlos Merçon; Kina, Sidney; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes
This study aimed to evaluate stress distribution on peri-implant bone simulating the influence of platform switching in external and internal hexagon implants using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Four mathematical models of a central incisor supported by an implant were created: External Regular model (ER) with 5.0 mm × 11.5 mm external hexagon implant and 5.0 mm abutment (0% abutment shifting), Internal Regular model (IR) with 4.5 mm × 11.5 mm internal hexagon implant and 4.5 mm abutment (0% abutment shifting), External Switching model (ES) with 5.0 mm × 11.5 mm external hexagon implant and 4.1 mm abutment (18% abutment shifting), and Internal Switching model (IS) with 4.5 mm × 11.5 mm internal hexagon implant and 3.8 mm abutment (15% abutment shifting). The models were created by SolidWorks software. The numerical analysis was performed using ANSYS Workbench. Oblique forces (100 N) were applied to the palatal surface of the central incisor. The maximum (σ(max)) and minimum (σ(min)) principal stress, equivalent von Mises stress (σ(vM)), and maximum principal elastic strain (ε(max)) values were evaluated for the cortical and trabecular bone. For cortical bone, the highest stress values (σ(max) and σ(vm) ) (MPa) were observed in IR (87.4 and 82.3), followed by IS (83.3 and 72.4), ER (82 and 65.1), and ES (56.7 and 51.6). For ε(max), IR showed the highest stress (5.46e-003), followed by IS (5.23e-003), ER (5.22e-003), and ES (3.67e-003). For the trabecular bone, the highest stress values (σ(max)) (MPa) were observed in ER (12.5), followed by IS (12), ES (11.9), and IR (4.95). For σ(vM), the highest stress values (MPa) were observed in IS (9.65), followed by ER (9.3), ES (8.61), and IR (5.62). For ε(max) , ER showed the highest stress (5.5e-003), followed by ES (5.43e-003), IS (3.75e-003), and IR (3.15e-003). The influence of platform switching was more evident for cortical bone than for trabecular bone, mainly for the external hexagon
Geramipanah, Farideh; Sahebi, Majid; Davari, Maryam; Hajimahmoudi, Mohammadreza; Rakhshan, Vahid
It is crucial to keep the misfit of the abutment-fixture unit at the lowest possible rate. There are a few controversial studies on the accuracy of impression making of angulated implants, and much fewer (and controversial) studies on the abutment-level impression technique, which is a convenient and clinically favorable method. Besides, there are no studies on comparison of sectional vs. full-arch trays. We aimed to assess these. A trapezoidal model with four angulated implants installed at 20° and 30° buccal tilts was fabricated. Forty impressions were taken from this model, with two groups of full-arch and sectional custom trays (n = 2 × 20), each divided into two subgroups of implant-level and abutment-level techniques (n = 2 × 2 × 10 in four subgroups). Absolute and non-absolute linear and angular impression errors were estimated by comparing the fabricated casts with the model, using a coordinate measuring machine. The effects of sectional/full-arch trays and abutment-level and fixture-level techniques on impression accuracies were analyzed using one- and two-way analyses of variance (ANOVA), Tukey, Mann-Whitney, and one-sample t-tests (α = 0.05, Mann-Whitney's α using the Bonferroni Bonferroni method). No significant differences between the absolute linear errors of the two trays (P = 0.100 [ANOVA]) and the two levels (P = 0.400 [ANOVA]) were observed. The assessment of absolute angular errors showed no significant differences (all P values ≥ 0.4 [ANOVA]). The difference between the linear errors in the full-arch vs. sectional trays was not significant in the fixture-level group (P = 0.290). However, in the abutment-level group, the linear error was significantly greater in the sectional tray compared to full-arch tray (P = 0.013, α = 0.025 [Mann-Whitney]). Using sectional trays might not be advantageous over full-arch trays. Sectional trays are not recommended for taking abutment-level impressions. The abutment
Toledo, Fabiane Lopes; Freitas, Marcia Furtado Antunes de; Oliveira, Rickson Mello e; Guastaldi, Antonio Carlos [UNESP; Freitas, Cesar Antunes de
In this work of tensile strength was evaluated the efficacy of 4 cements (S. S. White zinc phoshate, Ketac Cem Easymix glass ionomer, RelyX Luting 2 composite resin/glass ionomer and Panavia 21 TC special acrylic resin) used to fix NiCr crowns to usinated titanium alloy abutments. Were used 40 abutments distributed in groups of 10 elements, to each material. The mechanical essays were developed at a MTS 810 universal machine, adjusted to a 0.5 mm/m velocity. The ANOVA applied to data pointed ...
Full Text Available Polyetheretherketone (PEEK is a semi-crystalline linear polycyclic thermoplastic that has been proposed as a substitute for metals in biomaterials. PEEK can also be applied to dental implant materials as a superstructure, implant abutment, or implant body. This article summarizes the current research on PEEK applications in dental implants, especially for the improvement of PEEK surface and body modifications. Although various benchmark reports on the reinforcement and surface modifications of PEEK are available, few clinical trials using PEEK for dental implant bodies have been published. Controlled clinical trials, especially for the use of PEEK in implant abutment and implant bodies, are necessary.
Xu, Lili; Rondenay, S.; Hilst, R.D. van der
Southeastern Tibet marks the site of presumed clockwise rotation of the crust due to the India-Eurasian collision and abutment against the stable Sichuan basin and South China block. Knowing the structure of the crust is a key to better understanding crustal deformation and seismicity in this
The invention relates to laser welding of at least two adjacent, abutting or overlapping work pieces in a welding direction using multiple laser beams guided to a welding region, wherein at least two of the multiple laser beams are coupled into the welding region so as to form a melt and at least...
Jan 30, 2018 ... passed and transparency if all available light is passed through it.[1,10,11] Although allceramics are translucent, metalceramics are opaque. In addition, zirconia ceramics are semi‑translucent, which means that the color of the underlying tooth or abutment and/or the thickness and color of the luting agent ...
Reactor faul elements of the elongated cylindrical type which are jacketed in a corrosion resistant material are described. Each feel element is comprised of a plurality of jacketed cylinders of fissionable material in end to end abutting relationship, the jackets being welded together at their adjoining ends to retain the individual segments together and seat the interior of the jackets.
Spinelli, E.; Cutler, A.; McQueen, J.M.
Spoken word recognition involves automatic activation of lexical candidates compatible with the perceived input. In running speech, words abut one another without intervening gaps, and syllable boundaries can mismatch with word boundaries. For instance, liaison in ’petit agneau’ creates a syllable
Korioth, T W; Johann, A R
Theoretical considerations on the ideal implant-supported prosthetic superstructure shape lack the effect of complex mandibular deformation patterns during function. This study compared implant abutment stresses for idealized superstructures with different cross-sectional shapes and material properties during a simulated, complex biting task. A simplified and idealized 3-dimensional finite element computer model was built, which consisted of a sectioned mandible rehabilitated with 5 titanium implants and an attached superstructure beam composed of metal alloy and acrylic resin. The model was submitted to loads mimicking simultaneous bending and (to a lesser degree) torsion of the mandibular corpus during a bilateral posterior bite. Maximum and minimum principal stresses were calculated at implant abutment sites for each of 6 beam cross sections of the prosthetic superstructure and 2 types of materials. Predicted implant stresses varied significantly between implant sites for different superstructure shapes. The lowest principal stresses were obtained by using a superstructure with a rectangular-shaped beam oriented vertically. Contrary to former theoretical considerations, the ideal "I-beam" superstructure cross section did not yield the lowest stresses. Superstructure materials with a lower modulus of elasticity seem to not only increase implant abutment stresses overall but also slightly reduce the tensile stresses on the most anterior implants. Simulated implant abutment stresses may be significantly affected by the shape of the prosthetic superstructure, by diverse mandibular loading conditions, and to a lesser extent, by the prosthetic material properties.
Full Text Available Removable partial denture is a treatment option where fixed prosthesis is not indicated. Due to its esthetic problems in the anterior region various modifications have been designed for its fabrication. This article describes an esthetic alternative using a round rest distal depression clasp for maxillary anterior teeth abutment while restoring the missing teeth with a cast partial denture.
All oral implant systems rely on the abutment part of the implant to provide stability for the dental prosthetic. The Ankylos implant offers precisely machined, tapered-cone abutment (Morse taper) connection. This tapered abutment connection provides high resistance to bending and rotational torque during clinical function, which significantly reduces the possibilities of screw fracture or loosening. This report describes the design and mechanical construction characteristics of the Ankylos implant system that make it possible for the system to provide final restorations that are natural looking, esthetically acceptable, durable, and cost effective. Review of the clinical literature. The clinical results of singletooth crowns borne on Ankylos implants in the lateral tooth region are excellent after a minimum of 5 years in function (mean = 6.3 years) compared with the high prosthetic complication rate with other systems. Abutment loosening occurred in only 1.3% of the 233 innovative implants restored with crowns that were designed with a physiologically shaped occlusal surface. This implant system is exceptionally well suited for use in the restoration of missing natural teeth.
Danza, M; Quaranta, A; Carinci, F; Paracchini, L; Pompa, G; Vozza, I
The aim of the present study was to analyze stress and strain distribution in dental implants with different abutment's inclination inserted in D1 and D4 bone. The biomechanical behavior of 5 mm x 16 mm dental implants with straight, 15 degrees and 25 degrees angulated abutments subjected to static loads, in contact with D1 and D4 bone, was evaluated by Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The lowest stress and strain values were found in the system composed by implants with straight abutments loaded with a 200-N vertical strength, while the highest stress and strain values were found in implants with 15 degrees angulated abutment loaded with a tilted strength (FY=200 N and FZ=140 N). Stress value increased from D1 to D4 bone, while strain value decreased due to the effect of normal elasticity mode of biological tissues. The different stress and strain distribution in D1 and D4 bone tissue surrounding dental implants with a tapered neck could favor prosthetic load and play a role in implant long-term success.
SALIBA, Felipe Miguel; CARDOSO, Mayra; TORRES, Marcelo Ferreira; TEIXEIRA, Alexandre Carvalho; LOURENÇO, Eduardo José Veras; TELLES, Daniel de Moraes
Objectives Previous studies that evaluated the torque needed for removing dental implant screws have not considered the manner of transfer of the occlusal loads in clinical settings. Instead, the torque used for removal was applied directly to the screw, and most of them omitted the possibility that the hexagon could limit the action of the occlusal load in the loosening of the screws. The present study proposes a method for evaluating the screw removal torque in an anti-rotational device independent way, creating an unscrewing load transfer to the entire assembly, not only to the screw. Material and methods Twenty hexagonal abutments without the hexagon in their bases were fixed with a screw to 20 dental implants. They were divided into two groups: Group 1 used titanium screws and Group 2 used titanium screws covered with a solid lubricant. A torque of 32 Ncm was applied to the screw and then a custom-made wrench was used for rotating the abutment counterclockwise, to loosen the screw. A digital torque meter recorded the torque required to loosen the abutment. Results There was a significant difference between the means of Group 1 (38.62±6.43 Ncm) and Group 2 (48.47±5.04 Ncm), with p=0.001. Conclusion This methodology was effective in comparing unscrewing torque values of the implant-abutment junction even with a limited sample size. It confirmed a previously shown significant difference between two types of screws. PMID:21437472
Jan 30, 2018 ... equivalent teeth mold and size. The custom tray was constructed, according to Asal, with the application of two layers of base plate wax ... silicone duplicating material (DeguformR Plus, Germany) after assembling the remaining two abutment analogues. After the application and drying of a layer of a thin.
... and Regulatory Affairs, NEOB-10202, Office of Management and Budget, Attn: Desk Office, Washington, DC... during seawall construction. A stormwater treatment system would be installed to treat stormwater runoff... and Broad Street, which abut Elliott Bay, a 21- square kilometer (km\\2\\) urban embayment in central...
Van Roekel, Gertrude B.
Geronimo's surrender in 1886 ended some 200 years' warfare against encroaching white man in that broad area abutting the Rocky Mountains. Thus, the free-roaming period of Apache life, marked by repeated instances of bad faith and broken treaties, was ended and the Jicarilla Apaches were delivered to their reservation in northern New Mexico. The…
recession. In these situations, the abutment finish lines of anterior teeth show a gradual curve, whereas with canines at the turning point of the dental...thermal cycling on fracture strength and microleakage in teeth restored with a bonded composite resin. Dent Mater, 2, 114-117. Fasbinder, D. J. (2010
Kreulen, C.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Baat, C. de; Creugers, N.H.J.
A single- or multi-unit fixed dental prosthesis can be attached to the abutment teeth through mechanical retention and gap sealing or by adhesion. For sealing the gap, water-soluble cements are appropriate, such as zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, and (resin-modified) glasionomer cement. Attachment
Pektaş, Ömer; Tönük, Ergin
At the interface between the jawbone and the roots of natural teeth, a thin, elastic, shock-absorbing tissue, called the periodontal ligament, forms a cushion which provides certain flexibility under mechanical loading. The dental restorations supported by implants, however, involve comparatively rigid connections to the jawbone. This causes overloading of the implant while bearing functional loading together with neighboring natural teeth, which leads to high stresses within the implant system and in the jawbone. A dental implant, with resilient components in the upper structure (abutment) in order to mimic the mechanical behavior of the periodontal ligament in the axial direction, was designed, analyzed in silico, and produced for mechanical testing. The aims of the design were avoiding high levels of stress, loosening of the abutment connection screw, and soft tissue irritations. The finite element analysis of the designed implant revealed that the elastic abutment yielded a similar axial mobility with the natural tooth while keeping stress in the implant at safe levels. The in vitro mechanical testing of the prototype resulted in similar axial mobility predicted by the analysis and as that of a typical natural tooth. The abutment screw did not loosen under repeated loading and there was no static or fatigue failure. © IMechE 2014.
... upper jaw protrude into one of your sinus cavities How you prepare Because dental implants require one or more surgical procedures, you ... can take several months, helps provide a solid base for your new artificial tooth ... teeth. Placing the abutment When osseointegration is complete, you ...
Iezzi, Giovanna; Iaculli, Flavia; Calcaterra, Roberta; Piattelli, Adriano; Di Girolamo, Michele; Baggi, Luigi
The association of Morse taper implant-abutment design with the use of a smaller abutment diameter (platform switching) may improve dental implant success rate and prevent peri-implant bone loss. The aim of the present study was to histologically and histomorphometrically evaluate the behavior of peri-implant tissues around an implant with a conical connection associated with platform switching. A platform-switched Morse-cone connection implant was inserted in the left posterior mandible of a 61-year-old patient. The implant was inserted at the level of the alveolar crest. After 11 months from placement and 6 months of loading, the implant was retrieved for psychological reasons and processed for histological evaluation. The retrieved implant was wholly surrounded by bone tissue, except for a small area in the apical portion. At higher magnification, in the coronal portion of the implant, it was possible to observe bone directly at the implant platform level. No resorption of the coronal bone was present, except for 0.2 mm on the vestibular aspect. Crestally, bone remodeling with areas of newly formed bone was detected; the bone-implant contact was 73.9%. Apposition of bone was detected even upon the platform. Peri-implant crestal bone preservation can be achieved with the combination of Morse taper conical internal implant-abutment connection with the use of a smaller abutment diameter (platform-switching).
Full Text Available This paper describes the design and construction of a “balanced cantilever girder” bridge over the Danube-Black Sea channel, characterized by a central span of 155m with two symmetrical side spans of 77.5m. The total length of the bridge, including portions of the abutments support, is 312.0m.
Schadee, A.; Martin, S.F.; Bentley, R.D.; Antalova, A.; Kucera, A.; Dezs, L.; Gesztelyi, L.; Harvey, K.L.; Jones, H.; Livi, S.H.B.; Wang, J.
Some sites for solar flares are known to develop where new magnetic flux emerges and becomes abutted against opposite polarity pre-existing magnetic flux (review by Galzauskas/1/). We have identified and analyzed the evolution of such flare sites at the boundaries of a major new and growing magnetic
Tada, Sayaka; Allen, Patrick Finbarr; Ikebe, Kazunori; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Maeda, Yoshinobu
Removable partial dentures (RPDs) may have a negative impact on oral health and have the potential to cause further tooth loss, especially of abutment teeth. However, no evidence indicates the effective interval of regular periodontal maintenance after RPD provision. This practice-based cohort study aimed to examine the impact of regular periodontal maintenance visits on survival of RPD abutment teeth. One hundred and ninety-two patients had been previously provided with 304 new clasp-retained RPDs at Osaka University Dental Hospital, Japan. Using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, 1094 abutments were analysed to illustrate survival curves and to compare each curve. According to the frequency of periodontal maintenance, study samples were divided into three groups; every 3-6 months (3-6M) group, 1-year (1Y) group and no-maintenance (NM) group. Seven-year cumulative survival rates were 83.7% (3-6M), 75.5% (1Y) and 71.9% (NM) respectively. Survival of abutment teeth in the 3-6M group was significantly better than both 1Y (p = 0.005) and NM (p periodontal maintenance at least once in 6 months had the most favourable outcome. Frequent periodontal maintenance after RPD provision could be effective in preventing further tooth loss. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stan Lebow; Grant Kirker; Robert White; Terry Amburgey; H. Michael Barnes; Michael Sanders; Jeff Morrell
Historic covered bridges and current timber bridges can be vulnerable to damage from biodeterioration or fire. This guide describes procedures for selecting and applying in-place treatments to prevent or arrest these forms of degradation. Vulnerable areas for biodeterioration in covered bridges include members contacting abutments, members near the ends of bridges...
Telleman, Gerdien; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Meyer, H.J.A.
Aim To assess the outcome of short implants (8.5 mm) supplied with a conventional platform-matched implant-abutment connection or a platform-switched design. Materials and Methods Eighty patients with one or more missing teeth in the posterior zone were randomly assigned to be treated with implants
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to quickly design fixation plates for fractured proximal humerus and distal radius according to the requirements of surgical treatment. Therefore, a new method to quickly design cloverleaf plate appropriate for proximal humerus and volar plate appropriate for distal radius is put forward. First, three-dimensional (3D reconstruction models of fractured proximal humerus and distal radius were generated based on deforming mean parametric models of proximal humerus and distal radius, respectively. Second, based on region-of-interest marked on the 3D reconstruction model of proximal humerus and distal radius, abutted surfaces of cloverleaf plate and volar plate were established, respectively. Then, parametric abutted surface was established after setting rational parameters for the surface of the cloverleaf plate. Parametric abutted surface of volar plate was established using the same method. Finally, parametric cloverleaf plate and volar plate are generated through thickening their respective parametric abutted surfaces. The parametric plates, acting as templates, accelerate and simplify the design process and therefore allow users to construct plate with editing valid parameters easily. Group of cloverleaf plates and volar plates with different sizes were generated quickly, showing that the proposed method is feasible and effective.
... new single-unit powerhouse with a turbine and generator constructed downstream of the right abutment... Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) filed an application for a successive preliminary permit...
Jul 18, 2017 ... A hydrometric, hydrochemical and environmental isotopic study was conducted to identify the source and origin of observed springs on the foot of the hillock abutting the left flank of the Gollaleru earthen dam, Nandyal, Andhra Pradesh, India. Water samples (springs, reservoir water and groundwater) in.
A hydrometric, hydrochemical and environmental isotopic study was conducted to identify the source and origin of observed springs on the foot of the hillock abutting the left flank of the Gollaleru earthen dam, Nandyal, Andhra Pradesh, India. Water samples (springs, reservoir water and groundwater) in and around the dam ...
foam for patients with spinal injury, creating holes in the foam over areas where the bony prominences abut, in order to allow these regions hang free of direct contact with the foam. Unfortunately, those who could not afford to buy extra foams for ...
.... There must be a gradual transition, not exceeding a slope of 1:3, in the weld between the two surfaces... minimum pipe wall thickness required by this subchapter. Weld reinforcement up to a maximum of 1/32-inch... connection fittings) that abut the outside surface of the run wall, or that are inserted through an opening...
Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)
An engine system has a gas generator, a bi-fi wall surrounding at least a portion of the gas generator, a casing surrounding a fan, and the casing having first and second thrust reverser doors which in a deployed position abut each other and the bi-fi wall.
Merıç, Gökçe; Erkmen, Erkan; Kurt, Ahmet; Eser, Atilim; özden, Ahmet Utku
The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of two distinct collar geometries of implants on stress distribution in the bone around the implants supporting cantilever fixed partial dentures (CFPDs) as well as in the implant-abutment complex and superstructures. The three-dimensional finite element method was selected to evaluate the stress distribution. CFPDs which was supported by microthread collar structured (MCS) and non-microthread collar structured (NMCS) implants was modeled; 300 N vertical, 150 N oblique and 60 N horizontal forces were applied to the models separately. The stress values in the bone, implant-abutment complex and superstructures were calculated. In the MCS model, higher stresses were located in the cortical bone and implant-abutment complex in the case of vertical load while decreased stresses in cortical bone and implant-abutment complex were noted within horizontal and oblique loading. In the case of vertical load, decreased stresses have been noted in cancellous bone and framework. Upon horizontal and oblique loading, a MCS model had higher stress in cancellous bone and framework than the NMCS model. Higher von Mises stresses have been noted in veneering material for NMCS models. It has been concluded that stress distribution in implant-supported CFPDs correlated with the macro design of the implant collar and the direction of applied force.
... instructions on the Commission's Web site ( http://www.ferc.gov ) under the ``eFiling'' link. k. A notice of... of 250.7 feet National Geodetic Vertical Datum 1988 (NGVD); and (b) a westerly abutment equipped with... site at http://www.ferc.gov using the ``eLibrary'' link. Enter the docket number excluding the three...
R.B. Hammer; V.C. Radeloff; J.S. Fried; S.I. Stewart
In the present study, we examine housing growth in California, Oregon, and Washington in the wildland-urban interface (WUI), the area where homes and other structures abut or intermingle with wildland vegetation. We combine housing density information from the 1990 and 2000 USA censuses with land cover information from the 1992/93 National Land Cover data set to...
Rabe, Per; Twetman, Svante; Kinnby, Bertil
OBJECTIVE: To develop a model in which to investigate the architecture of plaque biofilms formed on enamel surfaces in vivo and to compare the effects of anti-microbial agents of relevance for caries on biofilm vitality. Materials and Methodology : Enamel discs mounted on healing abutments...
Bressan, Eriberto; Lops, Diego; Tomasi, Cristiano; Ricci, Sara; Stocchero, Michele; Carniel, Emanuele Luigi
Nowadays, dental implantology is a reliable technique for treatment of partially and completely edentulous patients. The achievement of stable dentition is ensured by implant-supported fixed dental prostheses. Morse taper conometric system may provide fixed retention between implants and dental prostheses. The aim of this study was to investigate retentive performance and mechanical strength of a Morse taper conometric system used as implant-supported fixed dental prostheses retention. Experimental and finite element investigations were performed. Experimental tests were achieved on a specific abutment-coping system, accounting for both cemented and non-cemented situations. The results from the experimental activities were processed to identify the mechanical behavior of the coping-abutment interface. Finally, the achieved information was applied to develop reliable finite element models of different abutment-coping systems. The analyses were developed accounting for different geometrical conformations of the abutment-coping system, such as different taper angle. The results showed that activation process, occurred through a suitable insertion force, could provide retentive performances equal to a cemented system without compromising the mechanical functionality of the system. These findings suggest that Morse taper conometrical system can provide a fixed connection between implants and dental prostheses if proper insertion force is applied. Activation process does not compromise the mechanical functionality of the system. © IMechE 2014.
Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Meijers, C.C.A.J.; Vergoossen, E.L.; Creugers, N.H.J.
The degree to which single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses are able to withstand loading forces is dependent, among other things, on the quality of their retention and resistance. The quality of the retention and resistance of the configuration of an abutment tooth prepared for a metal and
Sesma, Newton; Garaicoa-Pazmino, Carlos; Zanardi, Piero R; Chun, Eliseo P; Laganá, Dalva Cruz
The aim of the present study was to perform a software-assisted radiographic assessment of the effect of platform-switching on marginal bone loss (MBL) around dental implants. Forty patients requiring a dental implant in non-grafted partially edentulous mandibles were enrolled and categorized into implants receiving a platform-matched abutment (control group) or implants with a platform-switched abutment (test group). Standardized digital periapical radiographs were taken at the time of implant placement (T0), at implant loading (T1) and 1-year after functional loading (T2). Software-assisted radiographic assessment of the MBL horizontal, vertical and area changes was performed and compared between time intervals (T1-T0, T2-T1 and T2-T0). Mean radiographic horizontal MBL (hMBL) and vertical MBL (vMBL) from implant placement to 1-year after implant loading (T2-T0) were significantly increased around platform-matched when compared to platform-switched abutments (1.04 mm vs 0.84 mm, p<0.05) and (0.99 mm vs 0.82 mm, p<0.05), respectively. Additionally, bone loss area (BLa) was greater (0.77 mm2 vs 0.63 mm2; p<0.05) for platform-matched compared to platform-switched abutments. Platform-switching has a positive impact upon the amount of bone modeling after loading implants with internal hexagon connection.
An evaluation of the northbound bridge approach and the abutment wall of (Combs-Hehl) bridge on I-275 in Kenton County was conducted in September 2007. The inspection consisted of using ground penetrating radar to look for potential voids beneath the...
Aug 17, 2010 ... This study sought to answer the following questions: Firstly, can data collected .... At the first stage of this study, 7 experimental data sets ...... di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da. Vinci 32, 20133, Milano, Italy. BALLIO F and ORSI E (2000) Time evaluation of scour around bridge abutments. Water Eng. Res.
The primary objective of this project was to determine the effect of bridge width on deck cracking in bridges. Other parameters, : such as bridge skew, girder spacing and type, abutment type, pier type, and number of bridge spans, were also studied. ...
Mainjot, Amélie; Legros, Caroline; Vanheusden, Alain
As a result of ceramics and all-ceram technologies development esthetic inlay core and abutments flooded the market. Their tooth-colored appearance enhances restoration biomimetism principally on the marginal gingiva area. This article reviews indications and types of cores designed for natural teeth and implants.
Strid, K G
Misfit between a jawbone-anchored bridge and the abutments in the patient's jaw may result in, for example, fixture fracture. To achieve improved alignment, the bridge base could be prepared in a numerically-controlled tooling machine using measured abutment coordinates as primary data. For each abutment, the measured values must comprise the coordinates of a reference surface as well as the spatial orientation of the fixture/abutment longitudinal axis. Stereophotogrammetry was assumed to be the measuring method of choice. To assess its potentials, a lower-jaw model with accurately positioned signals was stereophotographed and the films were measured in a stereocomparator. Model-space coordinates, computed from the image coordinates, were compared to the known signal coordinates. The root-mean-square error in position was determined to 0.03-0.08 mm, the maximum individual error amounting to 0.12 mm, whereas the r. m. s. error in axis direction was found to be 0.5-1.5 degrees with a maximum individual error of 1.8 degrees. These errors are of the same order as can be achieved by careful impression techniques. The method could be useful, but because of its complexity, stereophotogrammetry is not recommended as a standard procedure.
Discoveries on the mechanism of assembly of cilia (flagella) in the lowly, biflagellated, eucaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas have triggered a...but also pharmaceutical market will be presented. L9 34 BIOELECTROCATALYSIS Arkady A. KARYAKIN Electrochemistry methods lab., Analytical...which, when coupled with green plant photosynthesis, generates the fuel and food necessary for the continued existence of most known forms of life. Most
At surgery, a well localized soft tissue tumour, abutting on the sciatic nerve was widely resected without neural damage to the nerve. Histologic sections of a tru cut as well as the surgical ... The patient received six courses of cytotoxic therapy and is well eleven months after surgery. It is presented to highlight the clinical and ...
of retention, chipping of the veneering material, and abutment screw loosening. With a cement retained prosthesis, inter- occlusal space available...prosthesis results in poor aesthetics as well as increased fracture of veneering porcelain and has been proposed to compromise occlusion stability. For...used for all indirect applications, including veneers Multilink® Implant Ivoclar Vivadent Permanent cementing of implant-retained restorations
Matarazzo, James M
This handbook aims to be an integral text for students of library and information science and a ready-reference for information professional practitioners. The chapters provide a construct through which any information professional may learn abut the major challenges facing them in the early part of the 21st century.
Abdulmajeed, A.A.; Walboomers, X.F.; Massera, J.; Kokkari, A.K.; Vallittu, P.K.; Narhi, T.O.
OBJECTIVES: This in vitro study was designed to evaluate both blood and human gingival fibroblast responses on fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) aimed to be used as oral implant abutment material. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two different types of substrates were investigated: (a) Plain polymer (BisGMA
... Gateway Airport, Mesa, AZ AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Request to... acres of property abutting Phoenix-Mesa Gateway, Mesa, Arizona, from all conditions contained in a grant..., Phoenix-Gateway Airport Authority, 5835 S. Sossaman Road, Mesa, Arizona 85212, Telephone: (480) 988-7709...
Feb 18, 2009 ... 2Faculty of Dentistry, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. 3Department of ... abutment teeth of I° to II° (Berg, 1985; Junwu, 1994; Soo and Leung, 1996) ... diabetes mellitus or temporal mandibular joint disorder (TMJ). Design and .... the functions of retention of in this type of denture is rather poor.
Two-dimensional doppler echocardiography with colour flow mapping revealed a large aneurysm of the right sinus of Valsalva (4cm diameter) that abutted the right ventricular out-flow tract with distortion of the pulmonary valve. Colour flow revealed left to right shunting of blood from the aortic root into the right atrium. A year ...
Aug 17, 2010 ... around bridge abutments using artificial neural networks .... of neural networks was published by Adeli and Yeh (1989). ... learning algorithm. The structure of the model is classified according to the number of layers; 2, 3, multi-layer, etc. Some of the learning algorithms presented in the literature include:.
overflow section. 4.2 Maintenance of the Dam. The maintenance of the dam is considered to be fair. The abutments are relatively free of unwanted brush ...drainage area. STORAGE VS. ELEVATION ELEVATION AH, FEET AREA 6VOLUMV STORAI;E (acres) ( 1 ) (acre- teet ) (21 ) (acre-1e-t) 1020 83.6 q. 1009 [1 4
Felipe Miguel Saliba
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Previous studies that evaluated the torque needed for removing dental implant screws have not considered the manner of transfer of the occlusal loads in clinical settings. Instead, the torque used for removal was applied directly to the screw, and most of them omitted the possibility that the hexagon could limit the action of the occlusal load in the loosening of the screws. The present study proposes a method for evaluating the screw removal torque in an anti-rotational device independent way, creating an unscrewing load transfer to the entire assembly, not only to the screw. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty hexagonal abutments without the hexagon in their bases were fixed with a screw to 20 dental implants. They were divided into two groups: Group 1 used titanium screws and Group 2 used titanium screws covered with a solid lubricant. A torque of 32 Ncm was applied to the screw and then a custom-made wrench was used for rotating the abutment counterclockwise, to loosen the screw. A digital torque meter recorded the torque required to loosen the abutment. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the means of Group 1 (38.62±6.43 Ncm and Group 2 (48.47±5.04 Ncm, with p=0.001. CONCLUSION: This methodology was effective in comparing unscrewing torque values of the implant-abutment junction even with a limited sample size. It confirmed a previously shown significant difference between two types of screws.
This study investigated the increase in passive force produced by compacting a dense granular fill adjacent to a pile cap or abutment wall when the surrounding soil is in a relative loose state. Lateral load tests were performed on a pile cap with th...
Visco, A M; Calabrese, L; Campo, N; Torrisi, L; Oteri, G; Lo Giudice, G; Cicciù, D
In this work composite materials, based on quartz fibers and epoxy resins, were employed with the aim to restore damaged teeth. The composite materials were chosen because they show biomechanical features very similar to that of the dentine, the main constituent of the tooth. Extracted teeth were rebuilt with two different restorative procedures: in the first, the composite material was pre-formed in a conical trunk shape abutment (PA) and then bonded to a fiber quartz post with a dental bonder. In the second rebuilt system the abutment was prepared by cross linking the resin on the fiber quartz post with a halogen lamp (CRA). The restored teeth were then mechanically tested and observed with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with the aim to study the interaction between the reconstructive materials. Wetting and roughness measurements were also carried out in order to study the interface adhesion between the post and the abutments. Characterization analysis evidenced that the CRA restorative procedure improves the adhesion between the substitutive materials and shows higher fracture strength than the PA ones. Anyway both the rebuilt systems are able to support the masticator load. An explanation of the interfacial post-abutment interaction phenomenon is discussed.
Gotfredsen, Klaus; Wiskott, Anselm
This group was assigned the task to review the current knowledge in the areas of implant connections to abutments/reconstructions, fixation methods (cement vs. screw retained) for implant-supported reconstructions, as well as the optimal number of implants for fixed dental prosthesis and implant...
Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the marginal misfit of cement-retained FDPs increased continuously when the tightening torque increased. After cutting the connectors, the marginal misfit of the ANRs was higher than those of the straight abutment retainers.
Mahrous, Ahmed I; Aldawash, Hussien A; Soliman, Tarek A; Banasr, Fahad H; Abdelwahed, Ahmed
Background: This study was conducted to compare and evaluate the effect of two different attachments (locator attachment and ball and socket [B&S] attachment) on implants and natural abutments supporting structures, in cases of limited inter-arch spaces in mandibular Kennedy Class I implant supported removable partial over dentures by measuring the bone height changes through the cone beam radiographic technology. Materials and Methods: Two implants were positioned in the first or second molar area following the two-stage surgical protocol. Two equal groups were divided ten for each: Group I: Sides were the placed implants restored by the locator attachment. Group II: The other sides, implants were restored by B&S attachment. Evaluation of the implants and main abutments supporting structures of each group was done at the time of removable partial over denture insertion, 6, 12 and 18 months by measuring the bone height changes using cone beam computed tomography. Results: Implants with locator attachment showed marginal bone height better effects on implants and main abutments supporting structures. Conclusion: Implants restored by locator attachment shows better effects on bone of both main natural abutments and implant than those restored with ball and socket. PMID:26028894
Haan, R. den; Battistuzzi, P.G.F.C.M.; Witter, D.J.; Baat, C. de; Creugers, N.H.J.
When compared to a conventional attachment, a (semi)precision attachment for a cast metal frame removable partial denture can perform a number of functions better. Proper assessment of the condition of the abutment teeth is needed for an adequate indication. Selecting the type of (semi-)precision
Suzuki, Yasunori; Kono, Kentaro; Shimpo, Hidemasa; Sato, Yohei; Ohkubo, Chikahiro
The stress-breaking ball (SBB) attachment can distribute the occlusal force equally between the alveolar ridge and the implants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implant-supported distal extension removable partial dentures (RPDs) with SBB attachment in 10 patients who were partially edentulous. This randomized crossover study was designed to compare the function of RPDs with and without healing abutments and SBB attachments to support the posterior aspects of the RPDs. Mandibular jaw movements during mastication and the occlusal force and contact area were measured with a commercially available tracking device and pressure-sensitive sheets. Using a visual analog scale, 4 criteria-chewing, retention, stability, and comfort-were evaluated. All of the data obtained were analyzed using a 1-way analysis of variance (α = 0.05). There were no significant differences in either the mean time or the coefficient of variation among the SBB attachments and healing abutments of implant-supported removable partial dentures (ISRPDs) and conventional removable partial dentures (CRPDs). SBB attachments and healing abutments of ISRPDs had greater forces and contact areas than those of CRPDs with significant differences. For all criteria, patients preferred SBB attachments to healing abutments and CRPDs. The implant-supported distal extension RPDs with SBB attachment improved denture stability and patients' satisfaction.
Radović, Katarina; Čairović, Aleksandra; Todorović, Aleksandar; Stančić, Ivica; Grbović, Aleksandar
Various mobile devices are used in the therapy of unilateral free-end saddle. Unilateral dentures with precise connectivity elements are not used frequently. In this paper the problem of applying and functionality of unilateral free- end saddle denture without major connector was taken into consideration. The aim was to analyze and compare a unilateral RPD (removable partial denture) and a classical RPD by calculating and analyzing stresses under different loads. 3D models of unilateral removable partial denture and classical removable partial denture with casted clasps were made by using computer program CATIA V5 (abutment teeth, canine and first premolar, with crowns and abutment tissues were also made). The models were built in full-scale. Stress analyses for both models were performed by applying a force of 300 N on the second premolar, a force of 500 N on the first molar and a force of 700 N on the second molar. The Fault Model Extractor (FME) analysis and calculation showed the complete behaviour of unilateral removable partial denture and abutments (canine and first premolar), as well as the behaviour of RPD under identical loading conditions. Applied forces with extreme values caused high stress levels on both models and their abutments within physiological limits. Having analyzed stresses under same conditions, we concluded that the unilateral RPD and classical RPD have similar physiological values
Bird species diversity and guild composition between the edge (5-10 m from the margin) of primary forest abutting grassland and the deep interior (> 500 m from the margin) in the Dngoye Forest Reserve were compared. Edge and interior sites were chosen that were homogeneous with respect to habitat physiognomy i.e. ...
King, Gaston N; Hermann, Joachim S; Schoolfield, John D; Buser, Daniel; Cochran, David L
Accumulating evidence suggests that alveolar crestal bone resorption occurs as a result of the microgap that is present between the implant-abutment interface in dental implants. The objective of this longitudinal radiographic study was to determine whether the size of the interface or the microgap between the implant and abutment influences the amount of crestal bone loss in unloaded non-submerged implants. Sixty titanium implants having sandblasted with large grit, acid-etched (SLA) endosseous surfaces were placed in edentulous mandibular areas of 5 American fox hounds. Implant groups A, B, and C had a microgap between the implant-abutment connection of welded (1 -piece) in groups A, B, and C or non-welded (2-piece screwed) in D, E, and F. All abutment interfaces were placed 1 mm above the alveolar crest. Radiographic assessment was undertaken to evaluate peri-implant crestal bone levels at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 months after implant placement whereupon all animals were sacrificed. The size of the microgap at the abutment/implant interface had no significant effect upon crestal bone loss. At 1 month, most implants developed crestal bone loss compared with baseline levels. However, during this early healing period, the non-welded group (D, E, and F) showed significantly greater crestal bone loss from baseline to one month (P welded group (A, B, and C). No significant differences were observed between these 2 groups at 3 months (P > 0.70). Crestal bone loss was an early manifestation of wound healing occurring after 1 month of implant placement. However, the size of the microgap at the implant-abutment interface had no significant effect upon crestal bone resorption. Thus, 2-piece non-welded implants showed significantly greater crestal bone loss compared with 1-piece welded implants after 1 and 2 months suggesting that the stability of the implant/abutment interface may have an important early role to play in determining crestal bone levels. At 3 months, this
Siar, Chong Huat; Toh, Chooi Gait; Ali, Tara Bai Taiyeb; Seiz, Doris; Ong, Siew Tin
A stable oral mucosa is crucial for long-term survival and biofunctionality of implants. Most of this evidence is derived from clinical and animal studies based solely on implant-supported prosthesis. Much less is known about the dimensions and relationships of this soft tissue complex investing tooth-implant-supported bridgework (TISB). The aim here was to obtain experimental evidence on the dimensional characteristics of oral mucosa around TISB with two different abutment designs. Sixteen 3-unit TISB were constructed bilaterally in the mandible of eight adult Macaca fascicularis. An implant system with a standard progressive thread design was the bone-anchoring implant in the second mandibular molar region while the second mandibular premolar served as the natural tooth abutment. Eight implants were connected with the tapered abutment, the remaining with butt-joint abutment, in a split-mouth design. These were allowed to functional load for 6 months before sacrification for histomorphometry. Six soft tissue indices were scored: coronal gingival mucosa-to-implant top distance (DIM); sulcus depth (SD); junctional epithelium (JE); connective tissue contact (CTC); implant top to first bone-to-implant contact distance (DIB); and biologic width (BW=SD+JE+CTC); corresponding parameters in the natural tooth abutment were also measured. Mucosal dimensions in tapered implants (*BW=3.33±0.43; SD=1.03±0.24; JE=1.08±0.13; CTC=1.22±0.23 mm) were comparable with those of natural tooth abutments (BW=3.04±0.18; SD=0.93±0.1; JE=0.78±0.1; Attachment=1.33±0.09 mm), but differed from butt-joint implants (*BW=4.88±1.24; SD=1.47±0.38; JE=1.49±0.4; CTC=1.92±0.93 mm) (*PMucosa investing tapered abutment tends to recapitulate soft tissue physiologic dimensions of natural tooth. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Walker, Mary P; Ries, Dave; Borello, Blake
The aim of this study was to compare implant cast accuracy as a function of impression technique, closed tray impressions using indirect, metal impression copings at the implant level or direct, plastic impression caps at the abutment level, and impression material viscosity combinations. A stainless steel master model with three implant replicas was utilized to produce Type IV stone casts. Master model impressions were made using closed trays at the implant level with screw-on metal impression copings (indirect/implant level) or at the abutment level with snap-on plastic impression caps (direct/abutment level). With both techniques, either medium-body or heavy-body polyether impression material was syringed around the implant impression coping or abutment impression cap with medium body material in a custom tray. Twenty casts were produced with 5 casts in each test group. A measuring microscope (0.001 mm accuracy) was used to measure cast inter-implant or inter-abutment distances. Cast accuracy was calculated based on the percent difference of the measurements as compared to the master model. A repeated measures 2-factor ANOVA (alpha = .05) indicated no significant difference in cast accuracy as a function of impression viscosity. However, cast accuracy was significantly different between casts made with indirect/implant level versus direct/abutment level impressions. With the plastic impression caps, the cast inter-abutment distances were larger than the master model, with mean percent differences of 0.19% to 0.24% across the 3 measurement sites. In contrast, with the metal impression coping impressions, the cast inter-implant distances were almost equal to or slightly smaller than the master model, with mean percent differences -0.06% to 0.02%. Impression material viscosity does not appear to be a critical factor for implant cast accuracy. However, casts made with indirect, metal impression copings might be more accurate than casts made with direct, plastic
Westover, Lindsey; Faulkner, Gary; Hodgetts, William; Raboud, Don
The success of implants for bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA) relies on proper osseointegration at the bone-implant interface. Clinical evaluation of implant stability is important in prescribing loading, identifying the risk of failure, and monitoring the long-term health of the implant. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate 2 measurement systems for BAHA implant stability: the most commonly used, Osstell implant stability quotient (ISQ), and a newly developed advance system for implant stability testing (ASIST). BAHA implants (Oticon Medical Ponto and Cochlear BAHA Connect systems) were installed in plastic materials with adhesive to simulate implants integrated in bone with varying levels of interface stiffness. Different lengths of BAHA abutments were used with each implant specimen, and stability measurements were obtained with both the Osstell ISQ and the ASIST systems. The measurement systems were evaluated in terms of sensitivity to differences in interface stiffness and the effect of abutment length on the stability measurement. Repeated measures ANOVA followed by post hoc t tests were used for the comparisons with a Bonferroni adjusted alpha value of .05/15 = .003 to control for potential type 1 errors. Changing the abutment length of a single implant installation had minimal effect on the ASIST stability coefficient, whereas large variations were observed in the Osstell implant stability quotient (ISQ). The Osstell showed a clear relationship of decreasing ISQ with increasing abutment length for both the Oticon Medical and the Cochlear implant systems. Both the ASIST and the Osstell were found to be sensitive to changes in interface properties, with the ASIST being more sensitive to these changes. The ASIST system is more sensitive to changes in interface properties and shows smaller variation because of changes in abutment length than the Osstell ISQ system. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Romanos, George E; May, Stephan; May, Dittmar
Extractions in partially edentulous patients often lead to insufficient stability of an existing partial prosthesis and a need for additional anchorage. Implants may therefore be placed as supplementary abutments to increase patient comfort and satisfaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical outcome of implants combined with teeth to support telescopic abutment-retained removable full-arch prostheses under an immediate functional loading protocol. The present retrospective study included implants placed and connected via removable prostheses with periodontally healthy teeth immediately postplacement using prefabricated abutments. Secondary copings, precisely fit to the abutments, were placed and the partial dentures were relined chairside. The prosthetic restorations were not removed for 10 days. Clinical and radiographic evaluations of implants loaded for at least 2 years were performed. One hundred ten implants with a progressive thread design (Ankylos, Dentsply) were placed in 55 patients (mean age, 63.51±9.95 years). Twenty-five implants were placed in fresh extraction sockets (22.73%) and 85 implants were placed in healed ridges. All implants were placed 2 to 3 mm subcrestally (measured from the midfacial bone level). After a mean follow-up of 61.58±28.47 months (range, 24 to 125 months), there were only three failures (2.73%); another six implants (5.45%) displayed crestal bone loss greater than 2 mm but remained stable. Therefore, the failure rate was 8.18% for the entire observation period of 5.13 years. The success rate was 91.82% and the cumulative survival rate was 97.27%. All patients were satisfied with the stability of their prostheses, and no prosthetic, peri-implant, or abutment tooth problems were observed. Telescopic tooth-implant-supported mandibular restorations with immediate loading present an alternative prosthetic solution for partially edentulous patients, providing a long-term predictable clinical outcome.
Danza, Matteo; Zollino, Ilaria; Paracchini, Luigi; Riccardo, Guidi; Fanali, Stefano; Carinci, Francesco
Spiral family implants are a root-form fixtures with increasing thickness of tread. This characteristic gives a self-tapping and self-condensing bone properties to implants. To study spiral family implant inserted in different bone quality and connected with abutments of different angulations a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was performed. Once drawn the systems that were object of the study by CAD (Computer Aided Design), the FEA discretized solids composing the system in many infinitesimal little elementary solids defined finite elements. This lead to a mesh formation where the single finite elements were connected among them by nodes. For the 3 units bone-implant-abutments several thousand of tetrahedral elements having 10 parabolic nodes were employed. The biomechanical behaviour of 4.2 mm × 13 mm dental implants, connecting screw, straight and 15° and 25° angulated abutment subjected to static loads, in contact with high and poor bone quality was evaluated by FEA. A double system was analyzed: a) FY strength acting along Y axis and having 200 N intensity; b) FY and FZ couple of strengths applied along Y and Z directions and having respectively 200N and 140N intensity. The materials were considered as homogeneous, linear and isotropic. Then the FEA simulation was performed hypothesizing a linearity between loads and deformations. The lowest stress value was found in the system composed by implants and straight abutments loaded with a vertical strength, while the highest stress value were found in implants and 15° angulated abutment loaded with a angulated strength. In addition, the lower is the bone quality (i.e. D4) the higher is the distribution of the stress within the bone. Spiral family implants can be used successfully in low bone quality but a straight force is recommended.
Wang, C H; Wang, C C; Lee, H E
Guide planes are used not only for one path of insertion and removal but also to increase both the stability of the denture and resistance to lateral movement; they also protect the abutments from displacement during insertion and removal of the denture. Therefore, it is necessary to give attention to this part of the mouth preparation in the construction of removable partial dentures. Some methods have developed to form exact guide planes. They are the free-hand method, the modeling plastic index, the acrylic index, the laboratory milling technique, and the intraoral parallelism device. However, most of these instruments are either too expensive or too sophisticated to be considered practical for removable partial denture preparations. This article describes a simple and effective method to assure the development of guide planes intraorally as they are planned on the diagnostic cast. The occlusal or incisal surface of the abutment on the prepared stone cast was completely covered with a newly mixed putty type silicone rubber base. The plastic silicone was put against the prepared guide plane on the stone cast and was compressed with a blockout trimmer held on the surveyor before the silicone setting. All of the prepared guide plane was contoured to disclose the marker and to form a ledge. After the silicone setting, the template was removed and trimmed so that soft tissue will not interfere with the intraoral reorientation. As the templates are placed on the abutments intraorally, the abutments bulging out of the template area are obviously discernible and prepared guide planes on the diagnostic cast can be easily and definitely duplicated on the abutments.
Shin, Joong-Wook; Kim, Sung Huhn; Choi, Jae Young; Park, Hong-Joon; Lee, Seung-Chul; Choi, Jee-Sun; Park, Han Q; Lee, Ho-Ki
Objectives Bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA) occasionally cause soft tissue problems due to abutment. Because Sophono does not have abutment penetrating skin, it is thought that Sophono has no soft tissue problem relating to abutment. On the other hand, transcutaneous device’s output is reported to be 10 to 15 dB lower than percutaneous device. Therefore, in this study, Sophono and BAHA were compared to each other from surgical and audiological points of view. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 9 Sophono patients and 10 BAHA patients. In BAHA cases, single vertical incision without skin thinning technique was done. We compared Sophono to BAHA by operation time, wound healing time, postoperative complications, postoperative hearing gain after switch on, and postoperative air-bone gap. Results The mean operation time was 60 minutes for Sophono and 25 minutes for BAHA. The wound healing time was 14 days for Sophono and 28 days for BAHA. No major intraoperative complication was observed. Skin problem was not observed in the 2 devices for the follow-up period. Postoperative hearing gain of bilateral aural atresia patients was 39.4 dB for BAHA (n=4) and 25.5 dB for Sophono (n=5). However, the difference was not statistically significant. In all patients included in this study, the difference of air-bone gap between two groups was 16.6 dB at 0.5 kHz and 18.2 dB at 4 kHz. BAHA was statistically significantly better than Sophono. Conclusion Considering the audiologic outcome, BAHA users were thought to have more audiologic benefit than Sophono users. However, Sophono had advantages over BAHA with abutment in cosmetic outcome. Sophono needed no daily skin maintenance and soft tissue complication due to abutment would not happen in Sophono. Therefore, a full explanation about each device is necessary before deciding implantation. PMID:26976022
Barbi, Francisco C L; Camarini, Edevaldo T; Silva, Rafael S; Endo, Eliana H; Pereira, Jefferson R
The influence of different joining techniques on passive fit at the interface structure/abutment of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) superstructures has not yet been clearly established. The purpose of this study was to compare 3 different techniques of joining Co-Cr superstructures by measuring the resulting marginal misfit in a simulated prosthetic assembly. A specially designed metal model was used for casting, sectioning, joining, and measuring marginal misfit. Forty-five cast bar-type superstructures were fabricated in a Co-Cr alloy and randomly assigned by drawing lots to 3 groups (n=15) according to the joining method used: conventional gas-torch brazing (G-TB), laser welding (LW), and tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). Joined specimens were assembled onto abutment analogs in the metal model with the 1-screw method. The resulting marginal misfit was measured with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at 3 different points: distal (D), central (C), and mesial (M) along the buccal aspect of both abutments: A (tightened) and B (without screw). The Levene test was used to evaluate variance homogeneity and then the Welsch ANOVA for heteroscedastic data (α=.05). Significant differences were found on abutment A between groups G-TB and LW (P=.013) measured mesially and between groups G-TB and TIG (P=.037) measured centrally. On abutment B, significant differences were found between groups G-TB and LW (PTIG (PTIG (P=.007) measured distally; and groups G-TB and TIG (P=.001) and LW and TIG (P=.007) measured centrally. The method used for joining Co-Cr prosthetic structures had an influence on the level of resulting passive fit. Structures joined by the tungsten inert gas method produced better mean results than did the brazing or laser method. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Juloski, Jelena; Apicella, Davide; Ferrari, Marco
To evaluate via finite element analysis the effect of different ferrule heights on stress distribution within each part of a maxillary first premolar (MFP) restored with adhesively luted glass fiber-reinforced resin (GFRR) posts and a ceramic crown. The solid models consisted of MFP, periodontal ligament and the corresponding alveolar bone process. Four models were created representing different degrees of coronal tissue loss (0mm, 1mm, 2mm and 3mm of ferrule height). First set of computing runs was performed for in vivo FE-model validation purposes. In the second part, a 200-N force was applied on the buccal cusp directed at 45° to the longitudinal axis of the tooth. Principal stresses values and distribution were recorded within root, abutment, posts, crown and related adhesive interfaces. All FE-models showed similar stress distribution within roots, with highest stress present in the chamfer area. In composite abutments higher stress was observed when no ferrule was present compared to ferruled FE-models. Stress distribution within crown and GFRR posts did not differ among the models. Stress values at the adhesive interfaces decreased with increasing ferrule height. The stress state at abutment-crown and post-root interfaces was very close to their strength, when ferrule was not present. Similarly, higher ferrule produced more favorable stress distribution at post-abutment and abutment-root interfaces. Endodontically treated teeth with higher ferrule exhibit lower stress at adhesive interfaces that may be expected to lower the probability of clinical failure. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jörn, Daniela; Kohorst, Philipp; Besdo, Silke; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch, Meike
Since bacterial leakage along the implant-abutment interface may be responsible for peri-implant infections, a realistic estimation of the interface gap width during function is important for risk assessment. The purpose of this study was to compare two methods for investigating microgap formation in a loaded dental implant, namely, microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA); additionally, stresses to be expected during loading were also evaluated by FEA. An implant-abutment complex was inspected for microgaps between the abutment and implant in a micro-CT scanner under an oblique load of 200 N. A numerical model of the situation was constructed; boundary conditions and external load were defined according to the experiment. The model was refined stepwise until its load-displacement behavior corresponded sufficiently to data from previous load experiments. FEA of the final, validated model was used to determine microgap widths. These were compared with the widths as measured in micro-CT inspection. Finally, stress distributions were evaluated in selected regions. No microgaps wider than 13 μm could be detected by micro-CT for the loaded implant. FEA revealed gap widths up to 10 μm between the implant and abutment at the side of load application. Furthermore, FEA predicted plastic deformation in a limited area at the implant collar. FEA proved to be an adequate method for studying microgap formation in dental implant-abutment complexes. FEA is not limited in gap width resolution as are radiologic techniques and can also provide insight into stress distributions within the loaded complex.