Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…
Nair, Prasanna; Schuler, Maureen E; Black, Maureen M; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna
To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children's mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children's mental, motor and language development over time. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children's mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater inclination towards abusive and neglectful behavior
Kelley, Susan J.
A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…
Gellen, Murray I.; And Others
Compared abused women (N=10) with nonabused women (N=10) by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Results showed that when compared to a matched group of nonabused women, a significantly greater proportion of abused women evidenced pathological conditions. (LLL)
Yut-Lin, Wong; Othman, Sajaratulnisah
Despite being an emergent major public health problem, little research has been done on domestic violence from the perspectives of early detection and prevention. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to identify domestic violence among female adult patients attending health centers at the primary care level and to determine the relationship between social correlates of adult patients and domestic violence screening and subsequent help/health-seeking behavior if abused. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 710 female adult patients from 8 health centers in Selangor who matched the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study, using a structured questionnaire that included adaptation of a validated 8-item Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST). Statistical tests showed significant differences in ethnicity, income, and education between those screened positive and those screened negative for domestic violence. Of the participants, 92.4% reported that during consultations, doctors had never asked them whether they were abused by their husband/partner. Yet, 67.3% said they would voluntarily tell the doctor if they were abused by their husband/partner. The findings indicate that primary care has an important role in identifying domestic violence by applying the WAST screening tool, or an appropriate adaptation, with women patients during routine visits to the various health centers. Such assessment for abuse could be secondary prevention for the abused women, but more important, it will serve as primary prevention for nonabused women. This approach not only will complement the existing 1-stop crisis center policy by the Ministry of Health that copes with crisis intervention but also will spearhead efforts toward prevention of domestic violence in Malaysia.
Atmaca, Sinem; Gençöz, Tülin
The purpose of the current study is to explore the revictimization process between child abuse and neglect (CAN), and intimate partner violence (IPV) based on the schema theory perspective. For this aim, 222 married women recruited in four central cities of Turkey participated in the study. Results indicated that early negative CAN experiences increased the risk of being exposed to later IPV. Specifically, emotional abuse and sexual abuse in the childhood predicted the four subtypes of IPV, which are physical, psychological, and sexual violence, and injury, while physical abuse only associated with physical violence. To explore the mediational role of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) on this association, first, five schema domains were tested via Parallel Multiple Mediation Model. Results indicated that only Disconnection/Rejection (D/R) schema domains mediated the association between CAN and IPV. Second, to determine the particular mediational roles of each schema, eighteen EMS were tested as mediators, and results showed that Emotional Deprivation Schema and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness Schema mediated the association between CAN and IPV. These findings provided an empirical support for the crucial roles of EMSs on the effect of revictimization process. Clinical implications were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Adeline; Coles, Jan; Lee, Stuart J; Kulkarni, Jayashri
Rates of disclosure of child abuse by women survivors are low, and general practitioners seldom ask women about such history. This study explored the experiences of women survivors: child abuse disclosure, GP service use and thoughts on being asked about their abuse experiences. A cross-sectional study containing quantitative and qualitative questions was conducted with 108 women child abuse survivors. Only 5% of the women disclosed their child abuse to their GP and 19% were asked about their child abuse history. More than half of the women (58%) asked reported feeling hopeful or relieved and none reported feeling offended. Rates of child abuse inquiry by GPs and disclosures by women survivors remain low. With the majority of women survivors reporting feeling relieved and none offended when asked about their child abuse experiences, GPs should consider asking women who present to their practice about such experiences: This may facilitate early intervention.
Chambliss, Catherine; And Others
This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…
Crowley, Shannon K; Pedersen, Cort A; Leserman, Jane; Girdler, Susan S
Oxytocin (OT), associated with affiliation and social bonding, social salience, and stress/pain regulation, may play a role in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders, including menstrually-related mood disorders (MRMD's). Adverse impacts of early life sexual abuse (ESA) on adult attachment, affective regulation, and pain sensitivity suggest ESA-related OT dysregulation in MRMD pathophysiology. We investigated the influence of ESA on plasma OT, and the relationship of OT to the clinical phenomenology of MRMD's. Compared to MRMD women without ESA (n=40), those with ESA (n=20) displayed significantly greater OT [5.39pg/mL (SD, 2.4) vs. 4.36pg/mL (SD, 1.1); t (58)=-2.26, p=0.03]. In women with ESA, OT was significantly, inversely correlated with premenstrual psychological and somatic symptoms (r's=-0.45 to -0.64, p'srelationship between OT and premenstrual symptomatology was uniformly low and non-significant in women without ESA. In women with ESA, OT may positively modulate MRMD symptomatology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.
Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…
Gilroy, Heidi; McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Maddoux, John
To determine preferred communication methods of abused women. A naturalistic study utilizing principles of Community Based Participatory Research. A total of 300 first time users of criminal justice or safe shelter for abused women were interviewed in person. The Preferred Communication Questionnaire was used to determine preference. Given the choice of phone voice, face to face, phone text, e-mail, or Facebook, traditional methods of communication (face-to-face communication and phone voice) were the primary (80% combined) and secondary (58.6% combined) preferred sources among abused women. A total of 292 women (97.3%) gave at least two preferred methods of communication, 255 (85%) gave three preferred methods, 190 (63%) gave four, and 132 (44%) used all five methods. Public health nurses and other professionals who serve abused women should be aware of their preferred method of communication for contact. The women in the sample preferred face-to-face and phone-voice communication; however, many were open to newer forms of communication such as texting and Facebook. Caution should be used to protect the safety of abused women when using any kind of communication. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This study is aimed to examine preschool teachers’ knowledge of, attitudes about, and training related to child sexual abuse (CSA prevention in Beijing, China. Two hundred and forty-five preschool teachers were administered the 16-item questionnaire that contained questions on CSA prevention knowledge, attitudes, and teacher training. Results showed that Chinese preschool teachers had limited knowledge on CSA prevention (M = 4.86, SD = 2.12. Less than 5% of the teachers ever attended CSA prevention training programs. Preschool teachers’ training on CSA prevention was the significant factor for their knowledge and attitudes. To help protect children against sexual abuse, there is an urgent need to develop appropriate prevention training programs for preschool teachers in China.
Bulik, C M
The author studied patterns of drug and alcohol abuse in 35 bulimic women, 35 healthy control subjects, and their first- and second-degree relatives. The bulimic women and their families had significantly higher rates of substance abuse disorders.
This descriptive study explored whether women in substance abuse treatment who report a history of sexual and/or physical abuse have different drug use profiles than women who do not report such abuse. The data originated from a NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse) study designed to evaluate the effects of different treatment modalities in inpatient substance abuse treatment for women. The study compared the drug profiles of women in four areas: drug of choice, frequency of use, pr...
Johnson, E M
The prevalence of illicit drug use is higher among men than women, but new drug use occurs at twice the rate for females as for males. Recent data from emergency rooms and medical examiners support this pattern, but females were more likely than males to report use of tranquilizers, antidepressants, and some nonbarbiturate sedatives. Recent data show that men outnumbered women in drug treatment admissions for all drugs except tranquilizers. However, the 1984 National Institute of Mental Healt...
Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony
Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carlson, Bonnie E.
Presents an ecological model of intervention for physical abuse based on the Lazarus and Folkman conceptualization of stress and coping. Claims that the model identifies the stages that abused women may experience in their appraisal of the abuse experience. Focuses on barriers to ending abuse, stress and coping, and effective interventions. (RJM)
Hays, Kate F.; Stanley, Sheila F.
Compared the dental experiences of 132 women with a history of sexual abuse to 49 women reporting no such history. Findings show that a history of abuse, especially the severity of abuse, predicted different patterns in making and keeping dental appointments, stress-related dental problems, and post-traumatic-stress-disorder-type symptoms while at…
Elnashar, A M; El-Dien Ibrahim, M; Eldesoky, M M; Aly, O M; El-Sayd Mohamed Hassan, M
To assess the prevalence of sexual abuse (SA) and associated factors among married women in Lower Egypt. A cross-sectional clinic- and hospital-based survey was designed for married women aged between 16 and 49 years. The study was conducted with 936 women from the Dakahlia Governorate, which is considered representative of Lower Egypt. Data were collected by personal interview using a questionnaire. The response rate was 93.6%. The most commonly reported frequency of sexual intercourse was 2 to 4 times per week. More than one-third of the women (36.2%) thought this was too frequent, and 11.5% reported being sexually abused in addition to other sexual problems. The educational level of the women; the presence of genital mutilation; parity, especially for those who had more than 5 deliveries; number of gynecologic visits; and history of gynecologic interventions were significantly or highly significantly associated with SA. The husbands' educational level and age were highly significantly correlated with their wives reporting SA, particularly when the men were illiterate or were smokers or drug users. The study's findings demonstrate an immediate need for the prevention of SA in Lower Egypt.
Waldron, Jonathan Cook
The current study aimed to test the long-term impact of abuse on immune functioning and to test the mediating role of interpersonal problems in the relationship between early child abuse experiences and immune functioning. A sample of 89 undergraduate adult women (M age = 19.24) completed reports of child abuse histories, interpersonal problems, and negative life events, and provided saliva samples to measure Secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and antibody level for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1...
Sanchez, Sixto E; Pineda, Omar; Chaves, Diana Z; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Simon, Gregory E; Rondon, Marta B; Williams, Michelle A
We sought to evaluate the extent to which childhood physical and/or sexual abuse history is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during early pregnancy and to explore the extent to which the childhood abuse-PTSD association is mediated through, or modified by, adult experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). In-person interviews collected information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 2,928 women aged 18-49 years old prior to 16 weeks of gestation. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to women with no childhood abuse, the odds of PTSD were increased 4.31-fold for those who reported physical abuse only (95% CI, 2.18-8.49), 5.33-fold for sexual abuse only (95% CI, 2.38-11.98), and 8.03-fold for those who reported physical and sexual abuse (95% CI, 4.10-15.74). Mediation analysis showed 13% of the childhood abuse-PTSD association was mediated by IPV. Furthermore, high odds of PTSD were noted among women with histories of childhood abuse and IPV compared with women who were not exposed to either (OR = 20.20; 95% CI, 8.18-49.85). Childhood abuse is associated with increased odds of PTSD during early pregnancy. The odds of PTSD were particularly elevated among women with a history of childhood abuse and IPV. Efforts should be made to prevent childhood abuse and mitigate its effects on women's mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Midei, Aimee J.; Matthews, Karen A.; Chang, Yue-Fang; Bromberger, Joyce T.
Objective Previous research has suggested that childhood emotional abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse are associated with an increased risk for ischemic heart disease. Our objective was to examine whether childhood abuse predicted incident metabolic syndrome, a precursor to heart disease, in mid-life women. Methods Participants were 342 (114 Black, 228 White) women from the Pittsburgh site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). SWAN included a baseline assessment of premenopausal or early perimenopausal women in midlife (mean age = 45.7), and women were evaluated for presence of the metabolic syndrome over 7 annual follow-up visits. Women were classified as having metabolic syndrome if they met 3 of the following criteria: waist circumference > 88 cm, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl, HDL mid-life women. PMID:22775234
Mason, Susan M.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Austin, S. Bryn; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Harlow, Bernard L.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.
Purpose Abuse in childhood predicts stress-related overeating and excess weight gain in young women. We investigated whether two stress-related overeating behaviors—binge eating and coping-motivated eating—explain childhood abuse associations with weight status in young women. Methods Analyses included 4377 women participating in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), a longitudinal cohort of youth enrolled at age 9–14 years. We used marginal structural models to estimate the effects of abuse prior to age 11 years on weight status at age 22–29 years with and without adjustment for binge eating and coping-motivated eating. Results Women with severe physical, sexual, and emotional abuse had early adult body mass indexes (BMI) that were 0.74 kg/m2 (95% CI: 0.15, 1.33), 0.69 (95% CI: −0.46, 1.83), and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.24, 1.45) kg/m2 higher, respectively, than those without abuse. Adjustment for coping-motivated eating attenuated the excess BMI associated with severe physical abuse, but no other important attenuations were found. Conclusions Physical, sexual, and emotional abuse prior to age 11 years were associated with higher early adult weight status, though the sexual abuse estimate was not statistically significant. Evidence for a role of stress-related eating in abuse–BMI associations was limited and inconsistent across abuse types. PMID:26272779
Pettersson, P; Ellsinger, B M; Sjöberg, C; Björntorp, P
Anthropometric, hormonal and liver function parameters were examined in 18 premenopausal women with a history of early alcohol abuse, and compared with the data for randomly selected controls of the same age. The alcoholic women showed slightly elevated levels of transaminases, but no clinical or laboratory signs of advanced liver damage. These women were characterized by an increased waist-to-hip ratio, due to enlarged waist circumference. Several endocrine abnormalities were found, including irregular or absent menses as well as low oestrogen, progesterone and delta-4-androstendione levels. The concentration of free testosterone was high and that of sex-hormone-binding globulin was low. These data suggest abdominal distribution of body fat, as well as hyperandrogenicity in alcoholic, premenopausal women. It is postulated that the endocrine abnormalities might be responsible for the abdominal fat distribution.
Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.
Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…
Vanesa Galego Carrillo
Full Text Available Emotional regulation through cognitions is directly linked to human life and help people to maintain control on their emotions, both during and after experimenting an stressful event. Exposition to gender violence cause serious health problems related to stress that need the activation of cognitive and behavioral processes to cope with it. WHOWorld Health Organization states that women in maltreatment situation have limitations on self-autonomy (autonomy and independent behavior. For this reason, self-regulation, understood as a mechanic of self-management through cognitions, emotions, mood, impulsive control and executive task may be affected. The main objective of this research is, to know the impact that gender-based violence may result in the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies. It was an observational cross-over design of two non-equivalent women's groups/samples. A total of 116 women completed adapted versions to Spanish of "Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ”. Of these, 51 were in a situation of abuse. Results show that the greatest differences between being affected or not by abuse reside in “Rumination”, “Acceptance”, “Catastrophizing and blaming others”. These findings contribute to the empirical evidence in the field of gender-based violence and provide key elements for intervention.
Małgorzata H. Kowalczyk
Full Text Available Victims experiencing the sexual abuse are surviving not only physical injustice but above all deep traumas, which very often in different forms, are keeping them company through the entire life. Quite often at establishing different results a sex is underestimated for the perpetrator. Therefore knowing the problem of sexual abuses from a perspective of close as well as distant results is very important in the event that a woman was a perpetrator of these acts – mother, minder. In the present article based on analysis of literature, a problem of results of the sexual abuse was presented at victims which experienced these behaviours on the part of women. In order to draw up discussing the survived specificity by victims was both of sex of the trauma connected with the sexual application as well as close and distant consequences of these events in the form prime victimisation and revictimisation for figure being noticeable in the adult life of psychosexual disorders and social shortages. Amongst the consequence isolated traumatic factors are deserving the particular attention about dynamic character which are provoking the appearance of many symptoms characteristic of children which experienced the sexual violence. Recalled factors it: traumatic sexualisation of child, the betrayal, the stigmatization and the helplessness. The specificity of these factors results from the fact that they will leave distant “tracks” in the psyche and they can undergo the additional reinforcement if a woman is a perpetrator of the sexual violence. It results from frequent attitudes of “denying” towards the sexual violence applied by women. In the study they pointed also at one of possible consequences of the revictimisation process copying patterns of behaviour connected with the sexual exploitation of children in their more late life by victims is which. This process resulting from the alternating identification of the perpetrator and the victim is starting
Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.; Siegel, Jane A.
Study examined risk factors related to re-traumatization in women sexually abused in childhood. Eighty women were interviewed once in childhood, twice in early adulthood. Risk factors were measured at second interview and used to predict reported trauma exposure between interviews two and three. Some factors (e.g. homelessness, depression) were…
... Episode Data Set (TEDS), the proportion of female substance abuse treatment admissions aged 15 to 44 who were pregnant ... see http: / / store. samhsa. gov/ product/ TIP- 51- Substance- Abuse- Treatment- Addressing- the- Specific- Needs- of- Women/ SMA12- 4426. ...
McFarlane, Judith; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Sharps, Phyllis; Watson, Kathy
To describe the odds of femicide (homicide of females) for women abused during pregnancy. A ten-city case-control design was used with attempted and completed femicides as cases (n = 437) and randomly identified abused women living in the same metropolitan area as controls (n = 384). The attempted and completed femicide cases were identified from police and medical examiner records. Interviews of attempted femicide victims and a proxy for the femicide victim were compared with data from abused controls, identified via random digit dialing in the same ten cities. Abuse during pregnancy was reported by 7.8% of the abused controls, 25.8% of the attempted femicides, and 22.7% of the completed femicides. Five percent of the femicide victims were murdered while pregnant. After adjusting for significant demographic factors, such as age, ethnicity, education, and relationship status, the risk of becoming an attempted/completed femicide victim was three-fold higher (adjusted odds ratio 3.08, 95% adjusted confidence interval 1.86, 5.10) for women abused during pregnancy. Black women had more than a three-fold increase in risk (adjusted odds ratio 3.6, 95% adjusted confidence interval 2.4, 5.5) as compared with white women. Compared with women not abused during pregnancy, controls and attempted/completed femicide victims abused during pregnancy reported significantly higher levels of violence. Femicide is an important, but often unreported, cause of maternal mortality. This is the first report of a definite link between abuse during pregnancy and attempted/completed femicide. This research documents the immediate need for universal abuse assessment of all pregnant women.
Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Ryan, Gery W; Zhou, Annie J
Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on their social networks. We conducted a study to: (a) develop a typology of sheltered homeless women's social networks; (b) determine whether childhood abuse was associated with the social networks of sheltered homeless women; and (c) determine whether those associations remained after accounting for past-year substance abuse and recent intimate partner abuse. A probability sample of 428 homeless women from temporary shelter settings in Los Angeles County completed a personal network survey that provided respondent information as well as information about their network members' demographics and level of interaction with each other. Cluster analyses identified groups of women who shared specific social network characteristics. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed variables associated with group membership. We identified three groups of women with differing social network characteristics: low-risk networks, densely connected risky networks (dense, risky), and sparsely connected risky networks (sparse, risky). Multinomial logistic regressions indicated that membership in the sparse, risky network group, when compared to the low-risk group, was associated with history of childhood physical abuse (but not sexual or emotional abuse). Recent drug abuse was associated with membership in both risky network groups; however, the association of childhood physical abuse with sparse, risky network group membership remained. Although these findings support theories proposing that the experience of childhood abuse can shape women's social networks, they suggest that it may be childhood physical abuse that has the most impact among homeless women
Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R; Boggs, Deborah A; Wise, Lauren A
To investigate the association of physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence with risk of adult obesity among black women in the United States. Participants were women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study begun in 1995. In 2005, 33298 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on early life experiences of abuse. Log-binomial regression models were used to derive risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relation of child/teenager abuse with obesity (BMI ≥ 30) and central adiposity (waist circumference >35 inches) reported in 2005. The RR for BMI ≥ 30, a measure of overall obesity, was 1.29 (95% CI 1.20-1.38) for the highest severity of exposure to child/teenager physical and sexual abuse relative to no abuse. After controlling for postulated intermediates, including reproductive history, diet, physical activity, depressive symptoms, and socioeconomic status, the RR was 1.14 (95% CI 1.08-1.21). The RR for waist circumference >35 inches, which measures central obesity, for severe physical and sexual abuse relative to no abuse was 1.29 (95% CI 1.19-1.38) before adjustment for intermediates and 1.18 (95% CI 1.10-1.27) after adjustment. Early life sexual and physical abuse was associated with an increased risk of overall and central obesity in adulthood. Although the association between abuse and obesity was explained to some extent by health behaviors, reproductive history, and mental health, these factors did not fully account for the associations. Our data suggest that early life adversity is related to adult body size and weight distribution.
Jan 18, 2011 ... linking gender-based abuse and women's economic wellbeing and participation in public life have ever been conducted. It is against this background that, this .... Violence against women 5(4): 393-426. Carrillo, R. (1992). Battered dreams: Violence against women as an obstacle to development. New York ...
Full Text Available Sally StevensSouthwest Institute for Research on Women (SIROW and Department of Gender and Women’s Studies (GWS, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Research on the incidence, etiology and substance abuse treatment needs of lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LBT women is limited. Most research indicates higher levels of alcohol and drug abuse among these populations compared to their heterosexual counterparts, with recent research indicating that substance abuse is a particular concern for transgender individuals and an increasing problem among younger LBT individuals. Risk factors and reasons for substance abuse among sexual minority women are similar to those of heterosexual women, yet are substantially complicated by issues of family rejection and lack of social support, stigma and minority stress, as well as abuse and harassment. Historically, substance abuse prevention, early intervention, and clinical treatment programs were designed to meet the needs of the sexual majority population with relatively few programs designed to incorporate the specific needs of sexual minorities. This article reviews findings from previous studies and utilizes new data collected from community-based and residential substance abuse treatment programs to (1 examine issues relevant to LBT women and substance use, and (2 make recommendations for tailoring substance abuse treatment programs to meet the needs of these populations.Keywords: lesbian, bisexual, transgender, substance abuse, family rejection, social support, stigma, minority stress, abuse, harassment
Kamimura, Akiko; Ganta, Vikas; Myers, Kyl; Thomas, Tomi
Previous studies in India suggest high prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV), childhood abuse, and abuse from in-laws. Yet few studies examined IPV, childhood abuse, and abuse from in-laws together. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between IPV, childhood abuse, and abuse from in-laws, and types of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse) among women utilizing community health services for the economically disadvantaged in India. This study contributes to expanding the literature on abuse experience and providing knowledge for developing intervention programs and research projects to improve health and safety of economically disadvantaged women. The data were collected from women aged 18 years old or older at 18 community health centers that are primarily for the economically disadvantaged in Gujarat, India, in October and November 2013. Of the 219 women who completed a self-administered survey, 167 participants, who had ever been married and indicated whether they had been abused by their spouse or not, were included in analysis. More than 60% of the participants experienced IPV, childhood abuse, and/or abuse from in-laws, often with multiple types of abuse. Physical abuse is a major issue for IPV, childhood abuse, and in-law abuse. Emotional abuse potentially happens along with physical and/or sexual abuse. Abuse from in-laws requires greater attention because all types of abuse from in-laws were associated with IPV. Community health centers should provide abuse prevention and intervention programs that have involvement of family members as well as women who are at risk of being abused. © The Author(s) 2015.
According to a report by the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), up to half of the world's female population have suffered abuse at the hands of those closest to them, at some point in their lives. This report on Domestic Violence Against Women and Girls is a first effort by the UNICEF to establish the global dimensions of domestic abuse. It is also another step deeper into an aggressive campaign to address the root causes of the problems of millions of the world's women and children. Meanwhile, an outcome of the 5-day UN special meeting is a new blueprint to improve women's lives, noting domestic violence as a primary issue with emphasis on abortion, and punishment for marital rape, domestic abuse, and trafficking. In addition, the conference acknowledged the role of men in the process of improving women's lives. Moreover, the issues of welfare for women caught in armed conflict are also discussed with focus on the war in Mindanao, Philippines.
Roberts, Andrea L; Galea, Sandro; Austin, S Bryn; Corliss, Heather L; Williams, Michelle A; Koenen, Karestan C
Smoking and overweight are principal determinants of poor health for which individual-level interventions are at best modestly effective. This limited effectiveness may be partly because these risk factors are patterned by parents' experiences preceding the individual's birth. To determine whether women's experience of abuse in childhood was associated with smoking and overweight in their children. In 2012, data were linked from two large longitudinal cohorts of women (Nurses' Health Study II [NHSII], n=12,666) and their children (Growing Up Today [GUTS] Study, n=16,774), 1989-2010. ORs of children following higher-risk smoking trajectories and risk ratios (RRs) of children's overweight and obesity by their mother's childhood experience of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were calculated. The extent to which mother's smoking and overweight, socioeconomic indicators, family characteristics, and child's abuse exposure accounted for possible associations was ascertained. Children of women who experienced severe childhood abuse had greater likelihood of higher-risk smoking trajectories (OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.21, 1.61), overweight (RR=1.21, 95% CI=1.11, 1.33), and obesity (RR=1.45, 95% CI=1.21, 1.74) across adolescence and early adulthood compared with children of women who reported no abuse. Mother's smoking and overweight and children's abuse exposure accounted for more than half of the elevated risk of following the highest-risk smoking trajectory and overweight in children of women abused. These findings raise the possibility that childhood abuse may not only adversely affect the health of the direct victim but may also affect health risk factors in her children decades after the original traumatic events. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carr, Erika R.; Szymanski, Dawn M.
Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substance abuse in a…
Wellock, Vanda K
domestic abuse affects one in three women in the UK and can have long-term consequences for those concerned and their families. Guidelines suggest that all women should be asked about domestic abuse, and the Department of Health has suggested ways of supporting this issue. Health-care professionals could find themselves with a woman who cannot speak English, and may require the support of an interpreter. Current guidelines are not suitable for Black and minority-ethnic women, and midwives may not have enough cultural awareness to support these women. to interview bilingual women in the community to explore: (1) how domestic abuse is viewed in their culture; and (2) who should be questioning women about this sensitive issue. a qualitative phenomenological study using semi-structured interviews with non-pregnant bilingual workers within the local community. women's lives were influenced by their in-laws and family, status, attitudes to marriage arrangements and gossiping in the community. All of these factors affected disclosure. health-care professionals must understand that women take serious measures to hide the fact that they are victims of abuse in order to preserve family honour. Divulging information to interpreters or relatives is a problem because of lack of confidentiality and gossiping in the community. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Davila, Yolanda R
This study explored cultural and gender perspectives of abuse on condom negotiation behaviors for AIDS prevention among Mexican-American women in abusive intimate relationships. A convenience sample of 20 abused women participated in the study. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and audiotaped responses to a semistructured interview guide. Content analysis using QSR NUDIST was used to analyze the verbatim transcriptions of all participant interviews. The predominant category, "He always got his way," was developed in response to the content of the verbatim transcriptions. The category was further expanded to include the self-descriptive subcategories of "He beat me," "He made me feel bad," and "He forced me." Through content analysis, a relationship between abuse by male sexual partners and condom negotiation for AIDS prevention was identified. Trustworthiness of the data collection and analysis was established through methods suggested by Lincoln and Guba.
Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Wester, F.; Mol, S.; Romkens, R.; Hezemans, D.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore what women valued most in disclosing partner abuse to their doctor and whether disclosure played a role in handling their abuse situation. METHODS: A qualitative method was used to understand abused women's views and experiences with disclosure to their family doctor.
Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Wester, F.P.J.; Mol, S.S.L.; Römkens, R.R.; Hezemans, D.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Objective: We aimed to explore what women valued most in disclosing partner abuse to their doctor and whether disclosure played a role in handling their abuse situation. Methods: A qualitative method was used to understand abused women's views and experiences with disclosure to their family doctor.
This thesis concerns addictive substance abuse in women suffering from eating disorders. In the theoretical part it defines the term eating disorder itself and furthermore briefly works with the cause of these disorders, patients' personality and commonly associating complicating diagnoses. Afterwards it defines the term addiction and illustrates some of the possible influences on development. Then it characterises commonly abused substances and their relation with eating disorders. The empir...
Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo; Attonito, Jennifer M; Saxena, Anshul; Stein, Judith A
Substance-abusing pregnant and postpartum women are less likely to maintain consistent condom use and drug and alcohol abstinence, which is particularly concerning in high HIV-prevalence areas. Data from 224 pregnant and postpartum women in substance abuse treatment were analyzed to examine effects of history of substance use, child abuse, and mental health problems on current substance use and condom-use barriers. Mediators were depression, relationship power and social support. Most participants (72.9 %) evidenced current depression. Less social support (-0.17, p problems predicted condom-use barriers, mediated by recent depression and relationship power (0.15, p < 0.001). These findings suggest depression and diminished relationship power limit highest-risk women's ability to negotiate condom use and abstain from substance use, increasing their risk of acute HIV infection and vertical transmission.
...% of the screened women reported lifetime emotional abuse. Analyses of the cases and controls are currently underway to explore the health consequences of partner abuse and preferences for partner abuse screening...
Friestad, Christine; Åse-Bente, Rustad; Kjelsberg, Ellen
Women prisoners are known to suffer from an accumulation of factors known to increase the risk for several major health problems. This study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and the relationship between such experiences and suicide attempts and drug use among incarcerated women in Norway. A total of 141 women inmates (75% of all eligible) were interviewed using a structured interview guide covering information on demographics and a range of ACE related to abuse and neglect, and household dysfunction. The main outcome variables were attempted suicide and adult drug abuse. Emotional, physical and sexual abuse during childhood was experienced by 39%, 36% and 19%, respectively, and emotional and physical neglect by 31% and 33%, respectively. Looking at the full range of ACE, 17% reported having experienced none, while 34% reported having experienced more than five ACEs. After controlling for age, immigrant background and marital status, the number of ACEs significantly increased the risk of attempted suicide and current drug abuse. The associations observed between early life trauma and later health risk behaviour indicate the need for early prevention. The findings also emphasize the important role of prison health services in secondary prevention among women inmates.
Tutty, Leslie M; Ogden, Cindy; Giurgiu, Bianca; Weaver-Dunlop, Gillian
Violence from intimate partners is a serious reality for a number of women. For some abused women, leaving becomes a path to homelessness. In fact, when abused women and their children leave their homes because of partner abuse, they become homeless even if they subsequently seek residence in a shelter for woman abuse. This project interviewed 62 women from across Canada who had been abused by partners and were homeless at some point. The women were asked about their experiences with both partner abuse and homelessness and the effects on themselves and their children, which suggest important policy shifts.
Sharps, Phyllis; Alhusen, Jeanne L; Bullock, Linda; Bhandari, Shreya; Ghazarian, Sharon; Udo, Ifeyinwa E; Campbell, Jacquelyn
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy affects 0.9% to 17% of women and affects maternal health significantly. The impact of IPV extends to the health of children, including an increased risk of complications during pregnancy and the neonatal period, mental health problems, and cognitive delays. Despite substantial sequelae, there is limited research substantiating best practices for engaging and retaining high-risk families in perinatal home visiting (HV) programs, which have been shown to improve infant development and reduce maltreatment. The Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program (DOVE) is a multistate longitudinal study testing the effectiveness of a structured IPV intervention integrated into health department perinatal HV programs. The DOVE intervention, based on an empowerment model, combined 2 evidence-based interventions: a 10-minute brochure-based IPV intervention and nurse home visitation. Across all sites, 689 referrals were received from participating health departments. A total of 339 abused pregnant women were eligible for randomization; 42 women refused, and 239 women were randomly assigned (124 DOVE; 115 usual care), resulting in a 71% recruitment rate. Retention rates from baseline included 93% at delivery, 80% at 3 months, 76% at 6 months, and 72% at 12 months. Challenges for HV programs include identifying and retaining abused pregnant women in their programs. DOVE strategies for engaging and retaining abused pregnant women should be integrated into HV programs' federal government mandates for the appropriate identification and intervention of women and children exposed to IPV.
Schroll, Anne-Mette; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Midtgaard, Julie
Abuse in health care (AHC) has been associated with potential severe health consequences, and has further been related to maternal morbidity and mortality in childbirth. To improve our understanding of what qualifies as AHC and to support and optimise the health of women with these experiences, the objective of this study was to describe how women, who had previously endured AHC, gave meaning to and managed their experience during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the early postnatal period. Women, who had reported substantial suffering as a result of a previous experience of abuse within the healthcare system, were purposefully selected from a Danish sample of a multinational cohort study on negative life events among pregnant women (the BIDENS Study). Eleven women were interviewed individually by means of a semi-structured interview guide. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed by means of qualitative systematic text condensation analysis. Four categories were identified to describe the women's experience of AHC and its consequences on pregnancy and childbirth: abusive acts of unintentional harm, dehumanization, bodily remembrance, and finding the strength to move on. Abuse in health care may have profound consequences on the reproductive lives of the women, among others affecting sexuality, the desire to have children and the expectations of mode of delivery. However, the women described constructive ways to manage the experience, to which healthcare professionals could also contribute significantly. Regardless of whether AHC is experienced in childhood or adulthood, it can influence the lives of women during pregnancy and childbirth. By recognising the potential existence of AHC, healthcare professionals have a unique opportunity to support women who have experienced AHC.
Takahashi, Kenzo; Kanda, Hideyuki; Sugaya, Nagisa
At the end of 2013, a Japanese newspaper reported that 4,173 children were unidentified or missing in Japan. The article concluded that child abuse was a matter of national concern. In examining the strengths and weaknesses of Japan's welfare system in regard to child abuse, it would seem that a weakness exists with regard to its ambiguity on the roles of different officers who contact suspected cases. Although three types of officer (health, welfare, and police officers) can take charge, child abuse cases might be missed because the division of labor varies between the different types of officer. However, a strength exists in the periodical pediatric health check system that is in place in each of Japan's 1,742 municipalities. To efficiently implement early intervention for child abuse, it is necessary to rearrange the division of labor among the three types of officers to clarify who should intervene in suspected cases.
Ali Reza Kakavand
Full Text Available "nObjective: The aim of this study was to examine the difference of early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers. "nMethod: The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins were compared in 56 opioid abusers and 56 non-opioids abusers. Schemas were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire 3rd (short form; and parenting origins were assessed by the Young Parenting Inventory. "nResults: Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. The analysis showed that the means for schemas between opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers were different. Chi square test showed that parenting origins were significantly associated with their related schemas. "nConclusion: The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers were more than non-opioid abusers ; and parenting origins were related to their Corresponding schemas.
Roberto, Karen A; McCann, Brandy Renee
Intimate partner violence in later life includes physical, psychological, sexual, and financial abuse. Although some researchers have investigated how women in long-term violent partnerships cope with abuse, little is known about the history, experiences, and needs of older women who leave abusive relationships. From a feminist, life course perspective, we interviewed 10 women who had left their abusive partners later in life. We used qualitative methods to analyze the data and found four major themes: (a) the women used the past to account for abuse in their relationships later in life, (b) recognizing abuse signaled to the women to fight back and exit the relationship, (c) financial abuse and exploitation affected women's mental and physical health, and (d) rebuilding was especially challenging as the women faced their future alone with financial, physical, or mental health problems. We conclude that abuse presents lasting and unique challenges for older women.
Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E
Prospective longitudinal data from 585 families were used to examine parents' reports of child physical abuse in the first 5 years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first 5 years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls'substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance use at age 12. For boys, age 12 substance use predicted age 16 substance use, and age 16 substance use predicted age 24 substance use, but physical abuse in the first 5 years of life was unrelated to subsequent substance use. These findings suggest that for females, a mechanism of influence of early physical abuse on substance use into early adulthood appears to be through precocious initiation of substance use in early adolescence.
Irwin, Harvey J.
Investigates the relationship between the severity of childhood trauma and proneness to victimization in adulthood in a sample of 155 Australian women. A tendency for both violent and non-violent revictimization was found. Findings suggest that some coping styles mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and victimization in childhood,…
AIDS in Malawi. W Chilemba, NC Van Wyk, R Leech. Abstract. The aim of the study was to develop guidelines for the assessment of abuse in women living with HIV/AIDS in Malawi. In phase one of the research, the experiences of these ...
Objectives. To describe the prevalence of physical, sexual, financial, and emotional abuse of women. Methods. A cross-sectional study conducted in the Eastern. Cape (EC), Mpurnalanga (MP) and the orthern Province. (NP). The sample included one randomly selected wOmarJ aged 18 - 49 years living in each of 2 232 ...
This study is the first large-scale, communitybased prevalence study to be undertaken in South Africa The main findings are that emotional, financial and physical abuse are common features of relationships and that many women have been raped. Physical violence often continues during pregnancy and constitutes an ...
Mohammad Mehdi Rahmati
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and analyse some background factors that has some effect on the formation and continuity of addictive behavior among a sample of 1500 addicted persons on the 10 provinces of Iran. The article explores the processes under which the addictive behavior occures. Based on the findings of a survey research on a sample of 1500 drug abusers, it is concluded that factors such as addiction to cigarettes, alcohol, drug type, and methods and situations of approaching and access to drugs are effective in beginning of addiction. At last , the article pays special attention to addiction among women as the drug abusers.
Davies-Netzley, S; Hurlburt, M S; Hough, R L
Previous studies of childhood abuse levels among homeless women have typically focused either on single homeless women or female heads of families; almost none have focused specifically on homeless women with severe mental illness. This study explores rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse among 120 homeless women with severe mental illness. Correlates of experiencing childhood abuse are considered, including mental health outcomes and when women first become homeless. The prevalence of childhood abuse in this sample of women was substantially higher than among homeless women in general. The experience of childhood abuse was related to increased suicidality, and resulted in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder for some women. Women who had suffered abuse were also much more likely to become homeless during childhood and it is suggested that this is an important precursor to homelessness for many homeless women with chronic and severe mental illness.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: The previous research has demonstrated that addiction treatment services for women need to be based on knowledge of female psychological needs. Therefore, the aim of current study is to compare body image, quality of sleep and marital satisfaction among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women.Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive comparative research. 200 women including 100 substance abuser women and 100 non-substance abuser women were chosen through convenience method in Arak in 2015. The measuring instruments were Fisher body image scale (1970, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (1989 and Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale (1989. Data was analyzed utilizing t independent.Results: The results showed that there is the significant difference between marital satisfaction (P=0.001 and quality of sleep (P=0.001 among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women. Additionally, the significant difference was not observed between body image (P= 0.31 among these two groups.Conclusion: These findings emphasized that substance use decreases the quality of sleep and marital satisfaction in women. Hence, it should be considered these factors in process of therapeutic intervention in substance abuser women.
Noll, Jennie G; Trickett, Penelope K; Long, Jeffrey D; Negriff, Sonya; Susman, Elizabeth J; Shalev, Idan; Li, Jacinda C; Putnam, Frank W
The purpose was to examine whether the timing of puberty, indexed by breast development and pubic hair development, was earlier for sexually abused females compared with a matched comparison group of nonabused females, controlling for key alternative confounds. A cohort of sexually abused females and matched comparisons was followed longitudinally at mean ages 11 through 20 years. Sexually abused participants (N = 84) were referred by protective services. Comparison participants (N = 89) were recruited to be comparable in terms of age, ethnicity, income level, family constellation, zip codes, and nonsexual trauma histories. Stage of puberty was indexed at each assessment by nurse and participant ratings of breast and pubic hair development using Tanner staging-the gold standard for assessing pubertal onset and development. Cumulative logit mixed models were used to estimate the association between sexual abuse status and the likelihood of transitioning from earlier to later Tanner stage categories controlling for covariates and potential confounds. Sexual abuse was associated with earlier pubertal onset: 8 months earlier for breasts (odds ratio: 3.06, 95% CI: 1.11-8.49) and 12 months earlier for pubic hair (odds ratio: 3.49, 95% CI: 1.34-9.12). Alternative explanations including ethnicity, obesity, and biological father absence did not eradicate these findings. This study confirms an association between exposure to childhood sexual abuse and earlier pubertal onset. Results highlight the possibility that, due to this early onset, sexual abuse survivors may be at increased risk for psychosocial difficulties, menstrual and fertility problems, and even reproductive cancers due to prolonged exposure to sex hormones. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Yragui, Nanette L; Mankowski, Eric S; Perrin, Nancy A; Glass, Nancy E
The authors draw on social support theory to examine supervisor support match (support wanted and received), support mismatch (support not wanted and received) and work outcomes for abused low-wage working women, and to determine if supervisor support match and mismatch are more strongly associated with work outcomes than global supervisor support Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a community sample of abused, employed women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) in the past year (N = 163). Using hierarchical regression, we found, after accounting for global supervisor support; a higher level of supervisor support match was associated with greater job satisfaction, fewer job reprimands and less job termination. Findings from the study inform theories of social support and have practical implications for workplace interventions for IPV.
Full Text Available Research and specialised practice indicate that women who are abused by their intimate partners are at an increasing risk the longer the abuse continues. Many men show escalating violent behaviour toward their female partners and many women are killed by their partners (Roche, 1999:24. Several researchers (Artz, 1999:2; Damon, 2003:94; Flinck, Paavilainen & Asredt-Kurki, 2005:383; Gelles, 1999:168; Vincent & Jouriles, 2002:7 view domestic violence as a leading cause of female injury in almost every country. Dwyer, Smokowski, Bricout and Wodarski (1995:185 claim that injuries as a result of domestic violence are more common than from muggings, car accidents and death resulting from cancer combined
Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M
Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90 Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation.
Berger, Roni; Rosenberg, Ellen
In-depth unstructured interviews are conducted with previously abused divorced mothers about their experience with law guardians of their children. Interviews are transcribed and their content analyzed using ATLAS.ti software. Nine themes clustered in the following three groups emerge: perceived performance of law guardians; perceived shortcomings of the system, which provides a context for interaction with law guardians; and emotional effects on women. These themes are discussed and illustrated, and implications for practice are suggested.
The major reasons why women abuse drugs and alcohol are presented with a focus on societal and psychologic bases. A structured format is provided for eliciting a history while motivating the patient to obtain adequate treatment. A workable treatment contract is presented. A three-stage method of treatment is described, which focuses on the following: (1) achieving abstinence, (2) maintaining abstinence, and (3) achieving sobriety (advanced recovery).
Schonfeld, Lawrence; And Others
Two types of elderly alcohol abusers are described. Early onset or long-term alcohol abusers are abusers with long-standing behavioral problems considered well known to the social service delivery system. Late-life onset elderly alcohol abusers are those whose drinking problems began in the later years, after age 50, often in response to stresses…
Relative contributions of parent substance use and childhood maltreatment to chronic homelessness, depression, and substance abuse problems among homeless women: mediating roles of self-esteem and abuse in adulthood.
Stein, Judith A; Leslie, Michelle Burden; Nyamathi, Adeline
This study, using latent variable methodology, explores simultaneously the relative effects of childhood abuse and early parental substance abuse on later chronic homelessness, depression, and substance abuse problems in a sample of homeless women. We also examine whether self-esteem and recent violence can serve as mediators between the childhood predictors and the dysfunctional outcomes. The sample consists of 581 homeless women residing in shelters or sober living centers in Los Angeles (54% African-American, 23% Latina, 22% White, mean age=33.5 years). Multiple-indicator latent variables served as predictors and outcomes in structural models. Childhood abuse was indicated by sexual, physical, and verbal abuse. Childhood abuse directly predicted later physical abuse, chronic homelessness, depression, and less self-esteem. Parent substance use directly predicted later substance use problems among the women. Recent physical abuse predicted chronic homelessness, depression, and substance use problems. Greater self-esteem predicted less depression and fewer substance use problems. Childhood abuse also had significant indirect effects on depression, chronic homelessness, and drug and alcohol problems mediated through later physical abuse and self-esteem. Although there was a strong relationship between childhood abuse and parent drug use, childhood abuse was the more pervasive and devastating predictor of dysfunctional outcomes. Childhood abuse predicted a wider range of problems including lower self-esteem, more victimization, more depression, and chronic homelessness, and indirectly predicted drug and alcohol problems. The mediating roles of recent physical abuse and self-esteem suggest salient leverage points for change through empowerment training and self-esteem enhancement in homeless women.
Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida
This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage in e...... an assessment of the mothers’ capacity to internalize and act upon advice. It is argued that supporting Roma women’s access to human rights is likely to have positive outcomes for the women and their families, especially the young children...... in efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...... multiple barriers to their agency in particular due to multiple forms of discrimination and living in poverty on the margins of society. In such contexts of disempowerment, programme responses are likely to meet with limited success if they seek to teach mothers about child care and rearing, without...
Wester, W.N.; Wong, S.L.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the needs and expectations of abused women in shelter homes, with regard to family physicians. METHODS: Twelve women in two shelter homes were interviewed. The interview focused on women's experiences and expectations of family physicians regarding the abuse
Wester, W.N.; Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the needs and expectations of abused women in shelter homes, with regard to family physicians. METHODS: Twelve women in two shelter homes were interviewed. The interview focused on women's experiences and expectations of family physicians regarding the abuse
Durr, Marlese; Small, La Fleur F; Dunlap, Eloise
Lula Beatty (2003:59) asks, "What makes a black woman, voluntarily take a substance into her body which alters her perceptions and feelings of well-being?" This research examines African American women's substance abuse as a response to stressful life events grounded in adolescence, drawing in part on the cognitive-transactional approach and distal stressor model to discuss the effects of stressors on mental health and substance abusing behavior. Most respondents viewed their adolescent experiences and the associated stress as tribulations or lessons to be lived through, rather than a signal of needed change in their social, cultural, and ecological life circumstances. The effect of exposure to constant stressors early in the life course coupled with proximal stressors often resulted in negative active responses to stress (i.e. substance abuse) and continued stunted emotional growth. Thus, our findings indicate that the experience of African American women as adolescents contributes to understanding substance abuse amongst this population. These findings further help develop the cognitive-transactional model, while adding to the distal stressors and life process model as a way of considering gender, race, and structural forces.
Romans, S E; Martin, J L; Morris, E; Herbison, G P
The psychological defense styles of women who reported childhood sexual abuse were assessed and compared to those of women without childhood sexual abuse. Subjects in a random community sample (N = 354) of New Zealand women were interviewed and completed two relevant questionnaires, the Defense Style Questionnaire and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Women reporting childhood sexual abuse showed more immature defense styles, and those who experienced the most severe childhood sexual abuse showed the most immature styles. Dissociation, however, as measured on the Dissociative Experiences Scale, was not linked to childhood sexual abuse. Reporting childhood sexual abuse was associated with more immature coping styles, although not dissociation, in this community sample of women. Coping styles are likely to be a major mechanism through which childhood sexual abuse increases rates of later psychological problems.
Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L
We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Ryding, Elsa Lena
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of a history of abuse among women attending routine antenatal care in six northern European countries. Second, we explored current suffering from reported abuse. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care.......5% for emotional abuse. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of pregnant women attending routine antenatal care report a history of abuse. About one in ten of them experiences severe current suffering from the reported abuse. In particular, these women might benefit from being identified in the antenatal care setting...... and being offered specialized care....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner abuse (IPA is a major public health problem with serious implications for the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of women, particularly women of child-bearing age. It is a common, hidden problem in general practice and has been under-researched in this setting. Opportunities for early intervention and support in primary care need to be investigated given the frequency of contact women have with general practice. Despite the high prevalence and health consequences of abuse, there is insufficient evidence for screening in primary care settings. Furthermore, there is little rigorous evidence to guide general practitioners (GPs in responding to women identified as experiencing partner abuse. This paper describes the design of a trial of a general practice-based intervention consisting of screening for fear of partner with feedback to GPs, training for GPs, brief counselling for women and minimal practice organisational change. It examines the effect on women's quality of life, mental health and safety behaviours. Methods/Design weave is a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 40 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Approximately 500 women (16-50 years seen by the GP in the previous year are mailed a short lifestyle survey containing an item to screen for IPA. Women who indicate that they were afraid of a partner/ex-partner in the last year and provide contact details are invited to participate. Once baseline data are collected, GPs are randomly assigned to either a group involving healthy relationship and responding to IPA training plus inviting women for up to 6 sessions of counselling or to a group involving basic education and usual care for women. Outcomes will be evaluated by postal survey at 6 and 12 months following delivery of the intervention. There will be an economic evaluation, and process evaluation involving interviews with women and GPs, to inform understanding about implementation
Else, L T; Wonderlich, S A; Beatty, W W; Christie, D W; Staton, R D
Studies have suggested that personality disorders may be common among men who habitually commit domestic violence. The study reported here attempted to characterize personality traits and psychological and cognitive characteristics of men who batter women in order to distinguish them from nonbattering men. A group of 21 batterers were compared with a group of nonbatterers using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and its personality disorder scales (MMPIPDS) and the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire. Comparability of the two groups was assessed on several demographic variables and on scores on the Revised Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, three cognitive measures, and three measures of affective disturbance. Batterers scored higher on only the borderline and antisocial MMPIPDS and on the acting-out hostility and self-criticism scales of the hostility questionnaire. Problem-solving skills for both of the groups were considerably poorer than published norms. No significant differences were found between the groups in age, race, education, socioeconomic status, alcohol abuse, performance on cognitive measures, depression scale scores, or overall scores on the MMPI. As children, batterers were more likely to have experienced physical or emotional abuse. Men who commit domestic violence may be found among a larger pool of men with poor problem-solving skills, but in addition they appear to have borderline-antisocial personality traits, certain types of hostility, and histories of abuse as children that may predispose them to become violent with their female companions.
Tashkandi, A; Rasheed, F P
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to measure the prevalence, severity and type of wife abuse experienced by ever-married women attending primary health centres in Medina, Saudi Arabia. Women were interviewed in private at health centres using a questionnaire which included items from the Modified Conflict Tactic Scale, Kansas Marital Scale and the lie scale of the Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory. Of 689 eligible women, 25.7% reported physical abuse and 32.8% emotional abuse without physical violence. Of those physically abused, 36.7% suffered minor and 63.3% severe incidents. The lifetime prevalence of abuse among the women was 57.7%. Only 36.7% of 109 abused women had informed and discussed the issue with their primary care physician.
White, Helene Raskin; Widom, Cathy Spatz
This study examined mechanisms that might account for the association between early childhood abuse and neglect, and substance use and related problems in adulthood for women. Women with documented cases of early childhood abuse and/or neglect and matched controls were interviewed in young adulthood (mean age=29 years) and again in middle adulthood (mean age=40) (n=582). We examined the mediating effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, stressful life events, and delinquent and criminal behavior measured in young adulthood on substance use-related problems and illicit drug use measured in middle adulthood. We found that all three potential mediators mediated the effects of abuse and neglect on substance-use problems and illicit drug use. When all three mediators were considered simultaneously, only stressful life events mediated the effects of child abuse and neglect for substance use-related problems and PTSD mediated for illicit drug use. These relationships were not moderated by race/ethnicity, although the effects of abuse and neglect on the mediators differed for white and non-white women. These findings suggest that interventions are needed with maltreated girls to recognize and attend to their PTSD symptoms and to assist them in developing coping strategies to deal with stressful life events in an attempt to reduce risk of subsequent substance use and related problems.
Cachelin, Fary M.; Schug, Robert A.; Juarez, Laura C.; Monreal, Teresa K.
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sexual abuse and eating disorders in a voluntary community sample of Mexican American women. Eighty eating disorder cases were compared to 110 healthy controls on presence of sexual abuse and on characteristics of the abuse. The Structured Clinical Interview for the "Diagnostic and…
Williams, Linda Meyer
Of the 129 women interviewed, a large portion (38%) did not recall abuse reported 17 years earlier. Those who were younger when abuse occurred or were molested by an acquaintance were more likely to have no recall. Implications for research and practice are discussed. Periods with no memory should not suggest abuse never occurred. (52 references)…
Navalta, Carryl P; Polcari, Ann; Webster, Danielle M; Boghossian, Ani; Teicher, Martin H
Twenty-six college women with a history of repeated childhood sexual abuse were recruited from the community and compared with 19 healthy female collegiate subjects on neurocognitive measures. Abused subjects showed increased response latency variability and diminished inhibitory capacity during a GO/NO-GO/STOP vigilance task. A strong association was found between duration of abuse and memory impairments. Math Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores were significantly lower in abused subjects when matched against comparison subjects and when compared to their own Verbal SAT scores. Childhood sexual abuse appears to be associated with a constellation of neuropsychological deficiencies even in a group of relatively healthy women.
Champion, J D; Shain, R N; Piper, J; Perdue, S T
The relationship between sexual abuse and sexually transmitted disease (STD) represents an important and underinvestigated context of domestic violence. This study examined the association between sexual abuse, sexual risk behaviors, and risk for reinfection and HIV among minority women with STD. Mexican American and African American women (n = 617) with active STD entered a randomized study of behavioral intervention to reduce STD recurrence. Each underwent questioning at entry regarding sexual abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Comparisons of these behaviors using chi-square, t tests, and logistic regression were made by history of sexual abuse. Sexually abused women were more likely to have lower incomes, earlier coitus, STD history, currently abusive partners, new sex partners, anal sex, and bleeding with sex, placing them at increased risk for STD reinfection and HIV. Due to this association with sexual risk behavior, assessment for sexual abuse is essential in programs focusing on STD/HIV prevention.
Bremner, J. Douglas; Narayan, Meena; Staib, Lawrence H.; Southwick, Steven M.; McGlashan, Thomas; Charney, Dennis S.
Objective Childhood sexual abuse is very common in our society, but little is known about the long-term effects of abuse on brain function. The purpose of this study was to measure neural correlates of memories of childhood abuse in sexually abused women with and without the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method Twenty-two women with a history of childhood sexual abuse underwent injection of [15O]H2O, followed by positron emission tomography imaging of the brain while they listened to neutral and traumatic (personalized childhood sexual abuse events) scripts. Brain blood flow during exposure to traumatic and neutral scripts was compared for sexually abused women with and without PTSD. Results Memories of childhood sexual abuse were associated with greater increases in blood flow in portions of anterior prefrontal cortex (superior and middle frontal gyri—areas 6 and 9), posterior cingulate (area 31), and motor cortex in sexually abused women with PTSD than in sexually abused women without PTSD. Abuse memories were associated with alterations in blood flow in medial prefrontal cortex, with decreased blood flow in subcallosal gyrus (area 25), and a failure of activation in anterior cingulate (area 32). There was also decreased blood flow in right hippocampus, fusiform/inferior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and visual association cortex in women with PTSD relative to women without PTSD. Conclusions These findings implicate dysfunction of medial prefrontal cortex (subcallosal gyrus and anterior cingulate), hippocampus, and visual association cortex in pathological memories of childhood abuse in women with PTSD. Increased activation in posterior cingulate and motor cortex was seen in women with PTSD. Dysfunction in these brain areas may underlie PTSD symptoms provoked by traumatic reminders in subjects with PTSD. PMID:10553744
Khodakarami, N; Naji, H; Dashti, M G; Yazdjerdi, M
We carried out a descriptive analysis on the pregnancy outcome in 313 pregnant women abused, 160 non-abused). Abuse was statistically significantly correlated with mean weight gain during pregnancy, mean frequency of the prenatal care, prolonged labour (dystocia), premature rupture of membrane, low mean birth weight and mean gestational age at birth. Given the high likelihood that a woman will access health care services during her pregnancy, physicians providing prenatal care are in a strategic position to screen for partner abuse.
Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen
There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…
mehdi rostami; Nadereh Saadati; mansour abdi
Child abuse is behavior in which child faces physical, sexual, negligence and emotional abuses. This study’s aimed to investigate relationship between childhood abuse and self-compassion with stress-coping strategies among women. Statistical population included all of married women in Tehran. The sample contains 182 participants who were selected by convenience sampling method entertainment centers, shopping centers, health centers and cultural centers. The data were collected by Mohammad Kha...
Laws, A; Patsalides, B
Human rights abuses of women are ubiquitous throughout the world. Those perpetrated by governments entitle women to seek political asylum, and many women refugees do so in the United States. The asylum process often requires medical or psychological evaluations to corroborate women's reports of torture or other abuses. This article provides an overview of how to conduct such examinations and how to document findings for the asylum process.
You, Sungeun; Talbot, Nancy L.; He, Hua; Conner, Kenneth R.
Depressed women with sexual abuse histories have a heightened risk of suicidal ideation (SI), which may be only in part attributable to psychiatric symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotions and SI were studied among 106 women with histories of childhood sexual abuse enrolled in treatment trials for major depression.…
Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene
The objective of this study was to describe the predictors of substance use relapse of American Indian (AI) women up to one year following substance abuse treatment. Relapse is defined as any use of alcohol or drugs in the past 30 days at the follow-up points. Data were collected from AI women in a 45-day residential substance abuse treatment…
Dardis, Christina M.; Kelley, Erika L.; Edwards, Katie M.; Gidycz, Christine A.
Objective: This study assessed abused and nonabused women's perceptions of Investment Model (IM) variables (ie, relationship investment, satisfaction, commitment, quality of alternatives) utilizing a mixed-methods design. Participants: Participants included 102 college women, approximately half of whom were in abusive dating relationships.…
Thurston, Rebecca C; Chang, Yuefang; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; von Känel, Roland; Jennings, J Richard; Santoro, Nanette; Landsittel, Doug P; Matthews, Karen A
A childhood history of abuse or neglect may be associated with elevated adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. No studies have examined associations between child abuse/neglect and subclinical CVD using a validated measure of abuse and neglect. We hypothesized that midlife women with a history of childhood abuse or neglect would have increased subclinical CVD beyond standard CVD risk factors. We tested moderation of associations by sleep, hot flashes, and race/ethnicity. Two hundred ninety-five midlife women completed the Child Trauma Questionnaire, physiologic hot flash and actigraphic sleep monitoring, blood draw, and carotid ultrasound (intima media thickness [IMT]; plaque). Relations between abuse/neglect and outcomes were tested in linear regression models adjusting for demographic, psychosocial, and CVD risk factors. Interactions with sleep, hot flashes, and race/ethnicity were tested. Forty-five percent of women reported a history of child abuse or neglect. Women with any child abuse or neglect had higher IMT [b(SE) = .039 (.011), p = .001] and carotid plaque [odds ratio (95% [CI] = 1.95 [1.15-3.33]); p = .014] than nonabused/neglected women. Furthermore, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect were associated with higher subclinical CVD. Sexual abuse was associated with higher IMT among nonwhite women. Interactions with sleep time and sleep hot flashes (p values neglect history was observed primarily among women sleeping less than 6 hours/night or with sleep hot flashes. A history of child abuse or neglect is associated with higher subclinical CVD in women, particularly when paired with short sleep or hot flashes. Findings underscore the importance of childhood adversity in midlife women's CVD risk.
Alzyoud, Fatima; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Alnatour, Ahlam; Oweis, Arwa
Women's relationship with health care providers in maternity settings during childbirth has a significant impact on their wellbeing and lives. The current study aims to explore women exposure to neglect and verbal abuse during childbirth METHOD: a retrospective cross-sectional descriptive design was conducted at four governmental Maternal and Child Health Centers (MCHCs). A final sample of 390 Jordanian women who gave birth within the last 1-3 months was included in the study. Childbirth Verbal Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire (CVANQ) were developed to collect the data. women's age ranged between 18-45 years, and the mean age was 28 year. 32.2% women reported neglect during their last childbirth, 37.7% women reported verbal abuse during last childbirth. Women who reported being neglected also reported being verbally abused. An inverse relationship was found between age and neglect and verbal abuse. Neglect was significantly associated with women's receiving information regarding their rights and responsibilities, being attended by health care providers. Additionally, verbal abuse was significantly associated with being attended by health care provider. child birthing women participated in the current study was exposed to neglect and verbal abuse. This is the first study to report the prevalence of neglect and verbal abuse among child birthing women in Jordan. Research studies is needed to identify the consequences of exposure to neglect and verbal abuse during childbirth on women's psychological, emotional, and physical well being. Training classes and education for health care providers about how to care and communicate with child birthing women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Diquelou, J-Y; Amar, P; Boyer, S; Montilla, F; Karoubi, R
This study is performed on a population of pregnant women during the second trimester of their pregnancy. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that clinical symptoms noticeable by the obstétricians during their consultations. Eight hundred and fifty-three patients have been involved in this study by responding to an anonymous questionnary. Hundred and seventy-five patients(groupI) have been abuse either physically or psychologically or sexually. The study shows that there is a strong difference between the groupI and the group without abuse in their medical past history (678 patients) about the occurracy of several disorders. The most frequently observed troubles are sexuals disorders, school failures, deficients relationship with others persons, anxiety and troubles of humor. We can concluded, about those clinical manifestations, that they do exist during pregnancy and probably thoses symptoms are linked to traumatism occured during their past history. Obstetricians must look after thoses symptoms very seriously to propose a good management of the pregnancy either about their psychological problems or about the social environnement in which they live.
Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne
The socio-demographics and psychiatric diagnoses in a clinical sample of women with a history of mainly intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are described. The women were referred to five psychiatric centres for incest group psychotherapy. Data were gathered using interviews and self......-administered questionnaires. Over a period of 2.5 years, 385 women with mean age of 33 years were referred with a history of CSA. Three hundred and forty of those had experienced intrafamilial CSA. The average age at first abuse was 6.8 years, and it lasted for a mean of 6 years. The women had been abused by a mean of 1...
Champion, J D; Piper, J; Shain, R N; Perdue, S T; Newton, E R
Mexican American and African American women (N = 617) with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) underwent a targeted physical exam and questioning regarding sexual abuse, current genitourinary symptomatology, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) risk behaviors to determine the relationship between sexual abuse and risk for PID. Sexually abused women (n = 194) reported higher PID risk behaviors, including earlier coitus, more sex partners, higher STD recurrence, and a tendency toward delayed health-seeking behavior. They also reported more severe genitourinary symptomatology, confirmed by physical exam, and presumptive diagnoses of PID. These characteristics identify sexually abused women at high risk for PID. Because of its considerable impact on risk for PID, assessment for sexual abuse is essential in clinical management of women with STD and for diagnosis of PID. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate
Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…
Dinehart, Laura; Kenny, Maureen C.
This study sought to assess child abuse knowledge and reporting practices of a diverse sample of early care and education (ECE) practitioners. One hundred and thirty-seven practitioners in the state of Florida completed the "Early Childhood Educators Child Abuse Questionnaire." Results revealed that only a minority of participants have…
Schreier, Hannah M C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is known to be altered following events such as childhood abuse. However, despite potential adverse consequences for the offspring of women who have experienced abuse, very little is known about altered HPA axis activity during pregnancy. During pregnancy, 180 women from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds reported on their exposure to emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse before the age of 11, and general post-traumatic stress symptoms (ie, not limited to childhood years or abuse experiences). Around delivery, they provided hair samples for the assessment of cortisol levels during pregnancy. Hair cortisol was assessed for each pregnancy trimester. The effect of childhood abuse on hair cortisol was assessed using mixed-effects analyses of covariance models allowing for within-subject correlated observations, and were first performed in the entire sample and subsequently stratified by race/ethnicity. Controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms, hair cortisol levels varied by history of child abuse, F(2,166)=3.66, p=0.028. Childhood physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with greater hair cortisol levels, t(166)=2.65, p=0.009, compared with no history of abuse. Because childhood rates of abuse and hair cortisol levels varied by race/ethnicity, analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity. The associations between history of abuse and cortisol levels were only significant among black women, F(2,23)=5.37, p=0.012. Childhood abuse, especially physical and/or sexual abuse, is associated with differences in cortisol production during pregnancy, particularly among black women. Future research should investigate how these differences impact physical and mental health outcomes among offspring of affected women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Mason, Susan M; Flint, Alan J; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn; Rich-Edwards, Janet W
Child abuse appears to increase obesity risk in adulthood, but the mechanisms are unclear. This study examined the association between child abuse victimization and food addiction, a measure of stress-related overeating, in 57,321 adult participants in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). The NHSII ascertained physical and sexual child abuse histories in 2001 and current food addiction in 2009. Food addiction was defined as ≥3 clinically significant symptoms on a modified version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Confounder-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using modified Poisson regression. Over 8% of the sample reported severe physical abuse in childhood, while 5.3% reported severe sexual abuse. Eight percent met the criteria for food addiction. Women with food addiction were 6 U of BMI heavier than women without food addiction. Severe physical and severe sexual abuse were associated with roughly 90% increases in food addiction risk (physical abuse RR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.76, 2.09; sexual abuse RR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.69, 2.05). The RR for combined severe physical abuse and sexual abuse was 2.40 (95% CI: 2.16, 2.67). A history of child abuse is strongly associated with food addiction in this population. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Campbell, Doris W; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Yarandi, Hossein N; O'Connor, Annie Lewis; Dollar, Emily; Killion, Cheryl; Sloand, Elizabeth; Callwood, Gloria B; Cesar, Nicole M; Hassan, Mona; Gary, Faye
Limited research following disasters suggests that internally displaced women are disproportionately vulnerable to violence and abuse. An interdisciplinary collaborative of researchers and practitioners in Haiti, the US Virgin Islands, and the US Mainland investigated gender-based violence (GBV) pre- and post-earthquake and health outcomes among Haitian women living in tent cities/camps following the 2010 earthquake. A comparative descriptive correlational design using culturally sensitive and language appropriate computer-assisted interviews of 208 internally displaced women 2011-2013. Found high rates of violence and abuse both before (71.2 %) and after (75 %) p = 0.266, the earthquake primarily perpetrated by boy friends or husbands. Significantly more mental and physical health problems were reported by abused than non-abused women. The majority (60-78 %) of abused women did not report personal or community tolerance for violence and abuse, but acknowledged a community context of limited involvement. Coordinated planning and implementation of needed interventions are essential to provide a balanced approach to the care of displaced women after natural disasters with sensitivity to the abusive experiences of many women both before and after the disasters.
Barata, Paula C; McNally, Mary Jane; Sales, Isabel; Stewart, Donna E
This study examined Portuguese-speaking women's definitions of wife abuse and beliefs about appropriate responses to abuse. The goals were to determine the breadth of definitions and to examine cultural stereotyping. This information was sought in an effort to design education strategies in the Portuguese-speaking community. One-on-one semistructured interviews were conducted with 163 Portuguese-speaking women living in Toronto, Canada. The participants' open-ended answers were first coded using Qualitative Software Research NUDIST and then narrowed and grouped. Responses were then tagged by group label to generate descriptive statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Participants defined wife abuse broadly with respect to kind, prevalence, and severity. Six themes for abuse emerged: physical, psychological, sexual, financial, patriarchal, and infidelity. Participants provided various responses to what women should do and actually do in response to abuse. Most participants believed that Portuguese-speaking women should leave their husbands and/or seek help for the abuse, but that they actually remain quiet about the abuse and take very little action. Their responses and explanations demonstrate that they hold stereotypes about their culture. The range of definitions reported by participants suggests that a continuum of wife abuse, using Portuguese-speaking women's own words, can be created to educate them about how abusive acts are linked and used to maintain control over women. The differences that emerged with respect to appropriate responses to abuse suggest that it may be important to challenge Portuguese-speaking women about the cultural stereotypes that they hold to help them see patriarchy as widespread rather than particular to their culture.
Gelberg, Lillian; Andersen, Ronald; Longshore, Douglas; Leake, Barbara; Nyamathi, Adeline; Teruya, Cheryl; Arangua, Lisa
This paper explores associations among the vulnerabilities of being female, being a member of a minority group, and being a drug abuser in homeless women’s hospitalizations. It uses a 1997 probability survey of 974 homeless females age 15–44 in Los Angeles. In unadjusted analyses, whites were more likely than other ethnic minority groups to be hospitalized, and drug abusers were more likely to be hospitalized than non-drug abusers. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that factors associated with hospitalization differed considerably among the ethnic and drug-abuse subgroups. For example, ethnic disparities in inpatient health care were found for drug-abusing women, but not for those who did not abuse drugs. Pregnancy was the only important determinant of hospitalization in all subgroups (OR, 2.9–17.4). Preventing unintended pregnancy appears to be the most inclusive means of reducing hospitalization and attendant costs among homeless women. PMID:18923904
Bailhache, Marion; Leroy, Valériane; Pillet, Pascal; Salmi, Louis-Rachid
Early detection of abused children could help decrease mortality and morbidity related to this major public health problem. Several authors have proposed tools to screen for child maltreatment. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence on accuracy of tools proposed to identify abused children before their death and assess if any were adapted to screening. We searched in PUBMED, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, FRANCIS and PASCAL for studies estimating diagnostic accuracy of tools identifying neglect, or physical, psychological or sexual abuse of children, published in English or French from 1961 to April 2012. We extracted selected information about study design, patient populations, assessment methods, and the accuracy parameters. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS criteria. A total of 2 280 articles were identified. Thirteen studies were selected, of which seven dealt with physical abuse, four with sexual abuse, one with emotional abuse, and one with any abuse and physical neglect. Study quality was low, even when not considering the lack of gold standard for detection of abused children. In 11 studies, instruments identified abused children only when they had clinical symptoms. Sensitivity of tests varied between 0.26 (95% confidence interval [0.17-0.36]) and 0.97 [0.84-1], and specificity between 0.51 [0.39-0.63] and 1 [0.95-1]. The sensitivity was greater than 90% only for three tests: the absence of scalp swelling to identify children victims of inflicted head injury; a decision tool to identify physically-abused children among those hospitalized in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit; and a parental interview integrating twelve child symptoms to identify sexually-abused children. When the sensitivity was high, the specificity was always smaller than 90%. In 2012, there is low-quality evidence on the accuracy of instruments for identifying abused children. Identified tools were not adapted to screening because of low sensitivity and late identification
Schneider, Renee; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel
Risk for adult mental health problems associated with child sexual, physical, or emotional abuse and multiple types of child abuse was examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses in a population-based sample of women (N = 3,936). As expected, child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were independently associated with increased risk for mental health problems. History of multiple types of child abuse was also associated with elevated risk for mental health problems. In particular, exposure to all three types of child abuse was linked to a 23-fold increase in risk for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings underscore relations between child emotional abuse and adult mental health problems and highlight the need for mental health services for survivors of multiple types of child abuse.
Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel
Despite clinical studies suggesting that child abuse is associated with adult obesity, very few studies have been conducted with large community or state-based samples. This study examines the relationship between child abuse and adult obesity, relative to other risk factors such as demographics, food insecurity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity, in a representative sample of California women. Data are from the California Women's Health Survey, a state-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey of California women. Participants included 11,115 nonpregnant women aged 18 or older, who provided complete data for all study variables. The telephone interview included assessment of child abuse (abstracted from the Traumatic Stress Schedule), food insecurity, perceived stress, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, height, and weight. Data were collected in 2002, 2003, and 2004, and analyzed in 2006. Obese (body mass index [BMI] of 30 or higher) women were significantly more likely to report exposure to child abuse (odds ratio [OR]=1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.23-1.42). In a multivariate model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, food insecurity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and perceived stress, women exposed to child abuse remained significantly more likely to be obese than unexposed women (adjusted OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.13-1.40). The population-attributable fraction of obesity associated with any type of abuse was 4.5% (95% CI=2.28-6.55). Exposure to child abuse is associated with adult obesity among California women, even accounting for other relevant variables. This supports the notion that child abuse and its sequelae may be important targets for public health intervention, particularly in subpopulations where the prevalence of child abuse is known to be high.
Full Text Available There is an increased prevalence of maternal substance abuse during pregnancy in younger women in all socioeconomic classes and races. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported substance abuse among pregnant women and obstetric complications or neonatal outcomes in Iran. This retrospective cohort study is covering a five year period on medical records of pregnant women attending the maternity unit of four major hospitals (Mahdieh, Taleghani, Imam Hossein and Akbarabadi Hospitals. Women who reported using opium, heroin, crack, cannabis or methamphetamine were compared with women with no reported history of drug abuse for obstetric complications and prenatal morbidity and neonatal mortality. From 100,620 deliveries substance abuse was recorded for 519 women giving a prevalence of 0.5%. Opium was the most prevalent substance abused followed by crack (a mix of heroin and amphetamines. The exposed group had significantly more obstetric complications including preterm low birth weight and postpartum hemorrhage than the non-exposed group. The exposed group had significantly worse prenatal outcomes including more admissions to intensive care unit and higher infant mortality than the non-exposed group. None of the women in the exposed group was on methadone treatment at time of delivery. Risks of maternal and neonatal complications were increased in substance using pregnant women, especially preterm birth and low birth weight. We recommend a multidisciplinary team to provide methadone maintenance therapy for substance using pregnant women and urinary screen of all pregnant women presenting to hospital.
An exploratory study was conducted to investigate the construct of sexual self-esteem of women in substance abuse (SA) treatment. Demographical and abuse data were collected from 99 women in SA treatment centers in New York State in 2006 to explore relationships between demographic, addiction, abuse, and treatment variables and sexual self-esteem. Correlation of scores from the SSEI-W and its subscales and abuse variables were conducted to examine relationships between variables. T-tests showed significant differences between the mean scores of the physical abuse and physical/sexual abuse variables, relationship variables and sexual orientation. Regression analyses examined the effects of abuse, sexual orientation, relationship variables and treatment characteristics. Abuse and sexual orientation remained significant in all of the models and their affect is not influenced by controlling for the other variables. The results are discussed with regard to treatment implications. This study provides evidence of the reliability of this measure in a female substance-abusing population and contributes to the knowledge of sexual self-esteem as it relates to an adult female population of women in SA treatment. Limitations and future directions are discussed, along with proposed clinical use and assessment.
Full Text Available Child abuse is behavior in which child faces physical, sexual, negligence and emotional abuses. This study’s aimed to investigate relationship between childhood abuse and self-compassion with stress-coping strategies among women. Statistical population included all of married women in Tehran. The sample contains 182 participants who were selected by convenience sampling method entertainment centers, shopping centers, health centers and cultural centers. The data were collected by Mohammad Khani’s self-report questionnaire, Neff's self-compassion scale and coping strategies of Blings and Mous. The findings showed that emotional abuse with mean of 23.54 was the hisgest and physical abuse with mean of 7.87 was the lowest one. Results showed that there is negative relationship between the abuse’s total score and self-compassion’s total score. All physical abuse's subscales, emotional abuse and negligence can predict the self-compassion except sexual abuse. Also none of the abuse subscales can predict the stress-coping methods. The results have shown that the experience of abuse in childhood injury ,can be affected him in adulthood on self-concept and coping responces to stress and problems.
Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.
The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…
Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Ryding, Elsa Lena
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of a history of abuse among women attending routine antenatal care in six northern European countries. Second, we explored current suffering from reported abuse. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care...
... make friends. Abuse is a significant cause of depression in young people. Some teens can only feel better by doing things that could hurt them like cutting or abusing drugs or alcohol. They might even attempt suicide. It's common for those who have been abused ...
Ravn, Pernille; Weiss, S R; Rodriguez-Portales, J A
consented to continue and completed the extension. We are reporting data from groups using the dose of alendronate currently approved for osteoporosis prevention (5 mg) or from the group in which alendronate treatment was withdrawn: 52 women received alendronate (5 mg) for 5 yr (group I), 56 received 3 yr......We studied the effect on bone mass of alendronate treatment for 5 yr and its withdrawal. Four hundred and forty-seven postmenopausal women with normal bone mass entered a 3-yr randomized trial followed by a 2-yr open label extension. Three hundred and eleven women completed the first 3 yr, and 263...
Full Text Available Promoting respectful care at childbirth is important to improve quality of care and encourage women to utilize skilled delivery services. However, there has been a relative lack of public health research on this topic in Nigeria. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize current evidence on disrespect and abuse of women during childbirth in Nigeria in order to understand its nature and extent, contributing factors and consequences, and propose solutions.Five electronic databases were searched for relevant published studies, and five data sources for additional grey literature. A qualitative synthesis was conducted using the Bowser and Hill landscape analytical framework on disrespect and abuse of women during childbirth.Fourteen studies were included in this review. Of these studies, eleven were cross sectional studies, one was a qualitative study and two used a mixed method approach. The type of abuse most frequently reported was non-dignified care in form of negative, poor and unfriendly provider attitude and the least frequent were physical abuse and detention in facilities. These behaviors were influenced by low socioeconomic status, lack of education and empowerment of women, poor provider training and supervision, weak health systems, lack of accountability and legal redress mechanisms. Overall, disrespectful and abusive behavior undermined the utilization of health facilities for delivery and created psychological distance between women and health providers.This systematic review documented a broad range of disrespectful and abusive behavior experienced by women during childbirth in Nigeria, their contributing factors and consequences. The nature of the factors influencing disrespectful and abusive behavior suggests that educating women on their rights, strengthening health systems to respond to specific needs of women at childbirth, improving providers training to encompass interpersonal aspects of care, and implementing and
Reed, Gayle L.; Enright, Robert D.
Emotionally abused women experience negative psychological outcomes long after the abusive spousal relationship has ended. This study compares forgiveness therapy (FT) with an alternative treatment (AT; anger validation, assertiveness, interpersonal skill building) for emotionally abused women who had been permanently separated for 2 or more years…
Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Wester, F.P.J.; Mol, S.; Romkens, R.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
BACKGROUND: Female patients, abused by their partner, are heavy users of medical services. To date, valid indicators of partner abuse of women are lacking. AIM: To outline the healthcare utilisation in family practice of women who have suffered abuse, and compare this to the average female
Davies, Lorraine; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Willson, Andrea; Varcoe, Colleen; Wuest, Judith; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Scott-Storey, Kelly
Drawing on the Women's Health Effects Study, a community sample of women (N = 309) who recently left an abusive partner, this study examines patterns of cumulative abuse experiences over the life course, their socioeconomic correlates, and associations with a range of health outcomes. Latent class analysis identified four groups of women with differing cumulative abuse profiles: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Dominant, Child Abuse and IPV, All Forms, and All Forms Extreme. We find a relationship pattern between cumulative abuse and socioeconomic circumstances, and significantly worse health outcomes among women with the All Forms Extreme profile. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Amowitz, Lynn L; Kim, Glen; Reis, Chen; Asher, Jana L; Iacopino, Vincent
Although human rights abuses have been reported in Iraq, the full scope of these abuses has not been well documented. To assess the prevalence of human rights abuses since 1991 in southern Iraq, along with attitudes about women's health and human rights and women's rights and roles in society, to inform reconstruction and humanitarian assistance efforts in Iraq. Cross-sectional, randomized survey of Iraqi men and women conducted in July 2003 using structured questionnaires. Three major cities in 3 of the 9 governorates in southern Iraq. A total of 1991 respondents representing 16 520 household members. Respondent demographics, information on human rights abuses that occurred among household members since 1991, women's health and human rights, opinions regarding women's rights and roles in society, and conditions for community health and development. Respondents were a mean age of 38 years and were mostly of Arab ethnicity (99.7% [1976/1982]) and Muslim Shi'a (96.7% [1906/1971]). Overall, 47% of those interviewed reported 1 or more of the following abuses among themselves and household members since 1991: torture, killings, disappearance, forced conscription, beating, gunshot wounds, kidnappings, being held hostage, and ear amputation, among others. Seventy percent of abuses (408/586) were reputed to have occurred in homes. Baath party regime-affiliated groups were identified most often (95% [449/475]) as the perpetrators of the abuses; 53% of the abuses occurred between 1991 and 1993, following the Shi'a uprising, and another 30% between 2000 and the first 6 months of 2003. While the majority of men and women expressed support for women's equal opportunities for education, freedom of expression, access to health care, equality in deciding marriage and the number and spacing of children, and participation in community development decisions, there was less support among both men and women for women's freedom of movement, association with people of their choosing, and
Sando, David; Kendall, Tamil; Lyatuu, Goodluck; Ratcliffe, Hannah; McDonald, Kathleen; Mwanyika-Sando, Mary; Emil, Faida; Chalamilla, Guerino; Langer, Ana
HIV-related stigma and discrimination and disrespect and abuse during childbirth are barriers to use of essential maternal and HIV health services. Greater understanding of the relationship between HIV status and disrespect and abuse during childbirth is required to design interventions to promote women's rights and to increase uptake of and retention in health services; however, few comparative studies of women living with HIV (WLWH) and HIV-negative women exist. Mixed methods included interviews with postpartum women (n = 2000), direct observation during childbirth (n = 208), structured questionnaires (n = 50), and in-depth interviews (n = 18) with health care providers. Bivariate and multivariate regressions analyzed associations between HIV status and disrespect and abuse, whereas questionnaires and in-depth interviews provided insight into how provider attitudes and workplace culture influence practice. Of the WLWH and HIV-negative women, 12.2% and 15.0% reported experiencing disrespect and abuse during childbirth (P = 0.37), respectively. In adjusted analyses, no significant differences between WLWH and HIV-negative women's experiences of different types of disrespect and abuse were identified, with the exception of WLWH having greater odds of reporting non-consented care (P = 0.03). None of the WLWH reported violations of HIV confidentiality or attributed disrespect and abuse to their HIV status. Provider interviews indicated that training and supervision focused on prevention of vertical HIV transmission had contributed to changing the institutional culture and reducing HIV-related violations. In general, WLWH were not more likely to report disrespect and abuse during childbirth than HIV-negative women. However, the high overall prevalence of disrespect and abuse measured indicates a serious problem. Similar institutional priority as has been given to training and supervision to reduce HIV-related discrimination during childbirth should be focused on
Ascione, Frank R; Weber, Claudia V; Thompson, Teresa M; Heath, John; Maruyama, Mika; Hayashi, Kentaro
Women residing at domestic violence shelters (S group) were nearly 11 times more likely to report that their partner had hurt or killed pets than a comparison group of women who said they had not experienced intimate violence (NS group). Reports of threatened harm to pets were more than 4 times higher for the S group. Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, the authors demonstrated that severe physical violence was a significant predictor of pet abuse. The vast majority of shelter women described being emotionally close to their pets and distraught by the abuse family pets experienced. Children were often exposed to pet abuse, and most reported being distressed by these experiences. A substantial minority of S-group women reported that their concern for their pets' welfare prevented them from seeking shelter sooner. This seemed truer for women without children, who may have had stronger pet attachments. This obstacle to seeking safety should be addressed by domestic violence agencies.
Sossou, Marie-Antoinette; Yogtiba, Joseph A
This article discusses abuse and neglect of elderly women in Ghana and the traditional practices that adversely affect their human rights. Their situation is characterized by pervasive poverty, illiteracy, widowhood, predominantly rural dwelling, and subjection to insidious cultural practices and superstitious beliefs. Increase in life expectancy and population trends point to significant increases in the numbers of the elderly women. Breakdown of the extended family support system and the waning of filial obligations are factors affecting their welfare. Accurate data on these abuses is lacking due to cultural inhibitions and non-reporting. Legislations and NGO programs are addressed to combat abuses.
Hardesty, Jennifer L; Khaw, Lyndal; Ridgway, Marcella D; Weber, Cheryl; Miles, Teresa
The importance of pets in families, especially during major life stressors, is well documented. Research suggests links between pet ownership and intimate partner violence (IPV). This study explored abused women's decisions about pets when seeking help from a shelter. Interviews were conducted with 19 women who were pet owners. Using grounded theory methods, two patterns emerged surrounding abusers' treatment of pets, bonds to pets, women's decisions about pets upon seeking shelter, and future plans for pets. The presence of coercive control was central to these patterns. Women also discussed their experiences with and needs from shelter professionals and veterinarians with implications for practice.
. Analysis of the questionnaires revealed that compared to non-completers, completers had fewer psychiatric symptoms, higher levels of introverted behavior in stressful situations, a better sense of coherence, and less ability to share emotions. No significant differences were found with regard to demographic and substance use factors. All 19 women who completed treatment and the follow-up questionnaire remained abstinent from illicit drugs for 18 months following the end of treatment.Conclusion: Results indicate that women see the women-only treatment setting as extremely significant. Also, there is a profile of psychiatric co-morbidity, extrapunitiveness, and fewer personal resources that predict a risk for attrition. Thus, women at risk for attrition may be identified early and treatment staff can utilize the results to assist clients in achieving their treatment goals. Results can inform policymakers in making decisions regarding the allocation of resources, by pointing to the importance of long-term women-only residential treatment in increasing positive treatment outcomes.Keywords: gender, drug abuse, therapeutic community, mixed methods, program evaluation
Burton, Candace W; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rankin, Sally H; Rehm, Roberta S; Humphreys, Janice C
Adolescent dating abuse is not specifically described by any current nursing theory, and this article presents discussion of some existing theories that could inform a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse. To account for the effects of gender, this discussion is limited to young women. Adolescent dating abuse is an important and understudied international issue for nursing. Theoretical frameworks can support development of nursing scholarship for such issues. No single theory yet exists in nursing to explain the experiences and health ramifications of dating abuse among young women. A summary table of theories is provided. Literature was gathered via database search and bibliographic snowballing from reference lists of relevant articles. Included literature dates from 1982 through 2010. Theories of relationship formation and function are discussed, including attachment, investment, feminist and gender role conflict theories. Betrayal trauma theory is considered as a mechanism of injury following an abusive dating experience. Gender, relationship and adolescence combine in a complex developmental moment for young women. To improve nursing care for those at risk for or in the throes of abusive relationships, it is critical to develop specific nursing approaches to understanding these relationships. Existing theories related to relationship and traumatic experiences can be combined in the development of a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse among young women. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Brown, V B; Melchior, L A; Panter, A T; Slaughter, R; Huba, G J
The Transtheoretical, or Stages of Change Model, has been applied to the investigation of help-seeking related to a number of addictive behaviors. Overall, the model has shown to be very important in understanding the process of help-seeking. However, substance abuse rarely exists in isolation from other health, mental health, and social problems. The present work extends the original Stages of Change Model by proposing "Steps of Change" as they relate to entry into substance abuse treatment programs for women. Readiness to make life changes in four domains-domestic violence, HIV sexual risk behavior, substance abuse, and mental health-is examined in relation to entry into four substance abuse treatment modalities (12-step, detoxification, outpatient, and residential). The Steps of Change Model hypothesizes that help-seeking behavior of substance-abusing women may reflect a hierarchy of readiness based on the immediacy, or time urgency, of their treatment issues. For example, women in battering relationships may be ready to make changes to reduce their exposure to violence before admitting readiness to seek substance abuse treatment. The Steps of Change Model was examined in a sample of 451 women contacted through a substance abuse treatment-readiness program in Los Angeles, California. A series of logistic regression analyses predict entry into four separate treatment modalities that vary. Results suggest a multidimensional Stages of Change Model that may extend to other populations and to other types of help-seeking behaviors.
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise
, medicine, and substance abuse to proactively combat the "model minority" myth and to design and implement interventions targeting family dynamics, coping with immigration/acculturative stresses, mental illnesses, suicidal behaviors, and substance abuse among Asian-American populations across the developmental lifespan. This paper provides specific suggestions for interventions to adequately respond to the mental health needs of young Asian-American women. These include addressing the cultural stigma and shame of seeking help, underlying family origin issues, and excessive alcohol and drug use as unsafe coping, as well as incorporating empowerment-based and mind-body components to foster an intervention targeting suicidality among Asian-American women in early adulthood.
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise
imperative for professionals in the fields of public health, mental health, medicine, and substance abuse to proactively combat the “model minority” myth and to design and implement interventions targeting family dynamics, coping with immigration/acculturative stresses, mental illnesses, suicidal behaviors, and substance abuse among Asian-American populations across the developmental lifespan. Originality/value This paper provides specific suggestions for interventions to adequately respond to the mental health needs of young Asian-American women. These include addressing the cultural stigma and shame of seeking help, underlying family origin issues, and excessive alcohol and drug use as unsafe coping, as well as incorporating empowerment-based and mind-body components to foster an intervention targeting suicidality among Asian-American women in early adulthood. PMID:25031627
Jonker, Irene E; Jansen, Carinda C J M; Christians, Milou G M; Wolf, Judith R L M
We conducted a concept mapping exercise to gain insight into the perspectives held by abused women and professionals with regard to appropriate care in Dutch women's shelters. Three brainstorming sessions generated 92 statements that were then rated by 56 clients and 51 professionals. A total of 11 clusters were identified. The three most important clusters were "help with finding a safe house if necessary," "safety and suitable care for the children," and "a personalized, respectful approach." The most important statement was "take women seriously and treat them with respect." The mapping exercise identified key practice-based elements of intervention that should better accommodate the needs of shelter-based abused women. We have used these elements in developing a new intervention for shelter-based abused women in the Netherlands.
... someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or any sexual activity when the person is unable to understand, unwilling to consent, threatened or physically forced Willful deprivation: willfully denying ...
Belknap, Ruth Ann; Cruz, Nancy
In this descriptive study we employ episodic narrative interviews and narrative analysis to explore experiences of abuse and violence within the families of origin of Mexican women entering adulthood. Twenty-four Mexican women, 18 years of age and about to graduate from a residential school in central Mexico, were interviewed about life in their families of origin. Participants were from several Mexican states and of low socioeconomic status. Nineteen of the participants described either witnessing or experiencing violence or abuse within their families. We present an analysis of the interviews in which violence or abuse was disclosed. Women who witnessed violence against their mothers did not see this as prescriptive of their own future relationships and articulated strategies for avoiding entering an abusive relationship. Women who experienced nonsexual physical violence described physical violence as punishment. Women who experienced sexual abuse did not provide explanations for the abuse and described being silent in response to the abuse.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. Results Four (4.5 percent of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7 or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3. Conclusion A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy.
Lehavot, Keren; Walters, Karina L; Simoni, Jane M
American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women have endured a history of colonial oppression in the United States. Current manifestations of colonization include an epidemic of violence toward AIAN women, who often are sexually and physically abused from early on in life. Such violence may erode AIAN women's sense of agency or mastery and contribute to their poor physical and mental health outcomes. AIAN women who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or "two-spirit" appear to experience disproportionate levels of violence and may be particularly vulnerable to disparities in health outcomes. In this study, 152 sexual minority AIAN women were interviewed as part of an investigation addressing the health concerns of two-spirit persons. Participants reported disturbingly high prevalence of both sexual (85%) and physical (78%) assault, both of which were associated with worse overall mental and physical health. These relationships generally were mediated by a diminished sense of control or mastery. The need to indigenize the concept of mastery is discussed, as is the urgency of interventions to work toward decreasing levels of abuse and increasing mastery among sexual minority AIAN women.
Örmon, Karin; Hörberg, Ulrica
The aim of the study is to deepen the understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with health care professionals affect life. A further aim is to highlight abused women's vulnerability with a caring science perspective. Experience of abuse has consequences for the mental health of women and girls. Abused women may experience health care as unsupportive, and as a result, often chose not to disclose their experiences of abuse. The results of two qualitative empirical studies were analysed along with a phenomenological meaning analysis in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. Living one's life with experiences of abuse implies vulnerability, which can prevent abused women from achieving good health. This vulnerability results from insecurity regarding identity, along with the sense that one could have been a different individual if it were not for the abuse and thereby have a more fair chance in life. Being cared for within general psychiatric care could further increase this vulnerability. The healthcare professional's ability to care for the women who have experienced abuse leads to either an encounter of trust or else further suffering for the women. A lifeworld-oriented caring science perspective as a foundation for care can contribute to care for abused women which reaches the existential dimensions of their vulnerability and vulnerable life situation. It is evident that healthcare professionals should deepen their understanding of how abused women live, within a general psychiatric context. This study enables a deeper understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with healthcare professionals affect life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Horrocks, Julie; Kamano, Saori
Objectives. As part of the World Health Organization's cross-national research effort, we investigated the relationship between various health indicators and the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), which included emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, among women in Yokohama, Japan. Methods. We used multivariate logistic and negative binomial regression to examine the relationship between health status and IPV in a stratified cluster sample of 1371 women aged 18 to 49 years. Results. In 9 of 11 health indicators examined, the odds of experiencing health-related problems were significantly higher (P < .05) among those that reported emotional abuse plus physical or sexual violence than among those that reported no IPV, after we controlled for sociodemographic factors, childhood sexual abuse, and adulthood sexual violence perpetrated by someone other than an intimate partner. For most health indicators, there were no significant differences between those that reported emotional abuse only and those that reported emotional abuse plus physical or sexual violence. Conclusions. The similarity of outcomes among those that reported emotional abuse only and those that reported emotional abuse plus physical or sexual violence suggests the need for increased training of health care providers about the effects of emotional abuse. PMID:18703455
Haller, Deborah L; Miles, Donna R
This study examined associations between childhood abuse and personality disturbances in 228 drug-dependent women. Thirty-six percent denied abuse, 50% reported emotional, 42% physical, and 42% sexual abuse. Million Clinical Multiarial Inventory (MCMI-III) scores > 74 provided evidence of personality disturbance and scores on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scales measuring somatic complaints, depression, anxiety and postraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) served as covariates. Emotional and physical abuse survivors were at increased risk for borderline, masochistic, and avoidant disturbances and decreased risk for narcissistic disturbances. Emotional abuse survivors were also less likely to be sadistic whereas physical abuse survivors were more likely to be paranoid. Sexual abuse survivors were twice as likely be antisocial; however, no association was found with borderline personality. Finally, an increased prevalence of severe personality disturbances was observed among those experiencing multiple types of abuse. Childhood trauma predisposes drug-dependent women to develop troublesome personality characteristics that are independent of drug addiction and other psychological problems associated with childhood trauma.
Nuttbrock, Larry; Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey
We examined the effects of gender abuse (enacted stigma), depressive symptoms, and demographic, economic, and lifestyle factors on substance use among transgender women. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (December 2004 to September 2007) of 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations with logistic and linear regression links. Six-month prevalence of any substance use at baseline was 76.2%. Across assessment points, gender abuse was associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, or any substance use during the previous 6 months, the number of days these substances were used during the previous month, and the number of substances used. Additional modeling associated changes in gender abuse with changes in substance use across time. Associations of gender abuse and substance use were mediated 55% by depressive symptoms. Positive associations of employment income, sex work, transgender identity, and hormone therapy with substance use were mediated 19% to 42% by gender abuse. Gender abuse, in conjunction with depressive symptoms, is a pervasive and moderately strong risk factor for substance use among transgender women. Improved substance abuse treatment is sorely needed for this population.
CHU, JAMES A.
Both clinical experience and recent research statistics support the observation that childhood abuse survivors are vulnerable to revictimization as adults. The responsibility for revictimization, such as physical or sexual assault, belongs to the perpetrators. However, the factors that make abuse survivors more vulnerable to exploitation need to be examined and understood in order to provide adequate treatment and protection. This discussion integrates an understanding of three...
Prosman, G.J.; Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a major health problem and negatively affects the victim's mental and physical health. Evidence-based interventions in family practice are scarce. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate a low threshold home-visiting intervention for abused women
Schroll, Anne-Mette; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Midtgaard, Julie
to move on. Abuse in health care may have profound consequences on the reproductive lives of the women, among others affecting sexuality, the desire to have children and the expectations of mode of delivery. However, the women described constructive ways to manage the experience, to which healthcare...
Schiff, Miriam; Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila
This study examines the positive aspects of intimate relationships perceived by drug-involved women victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). The article examines the association of psychological distress, childhood abuse, and severity of IPV with the different positive aspects the women indicated. Most analyses were conducted on a subsample of…
Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1, the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology.
Lacelle, Céline; Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E
Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women from the province of Quebec. Results suggest that child sexual abuse survivors were more likely to report having experienced other forms of childhood victimization than were women without child sexual abuse. Women with a history of both child sexual abuse and multiple forms of victimization were at greater risk of experiencing more adverse outcomes, including risky sexual behaviors, sexual problems, and negative sexual self-concept. Regression analyses revealed that child sexual abuse was significantly related to indicators of sexual health outcomes even when controlling for the effect of single forms of victimization. Clinically, interventions optimizing sexual health may be particularly helpful for a subgroup of child sexual abuse survivors.
Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Clark, Maria; Taylor, Julie
The aim of this study was to report the findings of a qualitative case study that investigated abused women's experiences of an identification and referral intervention and to discuss the implications for nurses, specifically those working in primary and community care. Domestic violence and abuse is a significant public health issue globally but it is a hidden problem that is under-reported. In the UK, Identification and Referral to Improve Safety is a primary care-based intervention that has been found to increase referral rates of abused women to support and safety services. This paper reports on the findings of an evaluation study of two sites in England. Qualitative study with a case study design. In line with case study design, the entire evaluation study employed multiple data collection methods. We report on the qualitative interviews with women referred through the programme. The aim was to elicit their experiences of the three aspects of the intervention: identification; referral; safety. Data collection took place March 2016. Ten women took part. Eight had exited the abusive relationship but two remained with the partner who had perpetrated the abuse. Women were overwhelmingly positive about the programme and irrespective of whether they had remained or exited the relationship all reported perceptions of increased safety and improved health. Nurses have an important role to play in identifying domestic violence and abuse and in referral and safety planning. As part of a portfolio of domestic violence and abuse interventions, those that empower women to take control of their safety (such as Identification and Referral to Improve Safety) are important. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zlotnick, Cheryl; Lawental, Maayan; Pud, Dorit
This study examined the profiles of symptoms and health-related quality of life (QOL) of women in substance abuse treatment, comparing those with higher versus lower histories of adverse childhood events (ACE), and those with versus without current pain. Adult women in outpatient substance abuse treatment (n = 30) completed questionnaires (cross-sectional study) on topics including drug use, adverse childhood events (ACE), QOL, functional ability, current pain, and depression. Women with pain indicated significant differences in emotional (p substance abuse treatment illustrates areas of concern in the overall status of women in substance abuse treatment.
Pulverman, Carey S; Kilimnik, Chelsea D; Meston, Cindy M
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been identified as a potent risk factor for sexual dysfunction. Certain characteristics of the abuse experience, such as repeated abuse, appear to affect the risk of developing sexual dysfunction. Despite the robust findings that CSA can be detrimental to sexual function, there is little consensus on the exact mechanisms that lead to these difficulties. To summarize the most up-to-date research on the relation between CSA and women's sexual function. The published literature examining the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women with CSA histories, various types of sexual dysfunctions, and mechanisms proposed to explain the relation between CSA and later sexual difficulties was reviewed. Review of peer-reviewed literature. Women with abuse histories report higher rates of sexual dysfunction compared with their non-abused peers. The sexual concerns most commonly reported by women with abuse histories include problems with sexual desire and sexual arousal. Mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the relation between CSA and sexual dysfunction include cognitive associations with sexuality, sexual self-schemas, sympathetic nervous system activation, body image and esteem, and shame and guilt. Women with CSA histories represent a unique population in the sexual health literature. Review of mechanisms proposed to account for the relation between CSA and sexual health suggests that a lack of positive emotions related to sexuality, rather than greater negative emotions, appears to be more relevant to the sexual health of women with CSA histories. Treatment research has indicated that mindfulness-based sex therapy and expressive writing treatments are particularly effective for this group. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanisms that lead to sexual dysfunction for women with abuse histories to provide more targeted treatments for sexual dysfunction among women with abuse histories. Pulverman CS, Kilimnik CD, Meston CM
Jangam, Kavita; Muralidharan, Kesavan; Tansa, K A; Aravind Raj, E; Bhowmick, Paramita
Childhood abuse has been recognized as a precursor and a maintaining factor for adult psychopathology. There are very few studies that have investigated the incidence of childhood abuse in adult women with psychiatric disorders. Hence, this current investigation is an attempt to study and compare the incidence of childhood abuse (physical, emotional and sexual) among women seeking treatment for psychiatric disorders to healthy women. Using consecutive sampling, women seeking treatment for psychiatric disorders (N=609) and a group of age-education matched healthy women (N=100) were recruited for the study from a tertiary mental health-care hospital in India. The participants were screened for childhood abuse using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool - Retrospective (ICAST)-R (I-CAST R, International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) and The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), 2009). Emotional abuse was significantly more common among women with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy women (ppsychiatric disorders compared with healthy women (p=0.07). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups on physical and sexual abuse (all p>0.13). There was no statistically significant difference in all three types of abuse across disorder categories, though the report was more among women with severe mental disorders. Women with psychiatric disorders reported more emotional and overall abuse compared with healthy women. Sexual and physical abuse was similar in both groups. It is likely that more emotional abuse predisposes these women to psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clum, Gretchen A; Czaplicki, Lauren; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Hamvas, L; Ellen, Jonathan M
Young women with HIV and histories of physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood may be vulnerable to difficulties with disclosure to sexual partners. Abuse in childhood is highly prevalent in HIV-positive women, and has been associated with poorer communication, low assertiveness, low self worth, and increased risk for sexual and other risk behaviors that increase the risk of secondary transmission of HIV. HIV disclosure may be an important link between abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Qualitative interviews with 40 HIV-positive young women with childhood physical and/or sexual abuse were conducted; some women had also experienced adult victimization. Results suggest that HIV-positive women with abuse histories use a host of strategies to deal with disclosure of HIV status, including delaying disclosure, assessing hypothetical responses of partners, and determining appropriate stages in a relationship to disclose. Stigma was an important theme related to disclosure. We discuss how these disclosure processes impact sexual behavior and relationships and discuss intervention opportunities based on our findings.
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P; Urrutia, Maria T; Villarruel, Antonia M; Peragallo, Nilda
Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo ) in interventions targeting Hispanics.
Moeller, Tamerra P.; And Others
The health effects of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse during childhood were studied in 668 middle class females. Approximately 28% recounted exposure to one type of abuse, 18% to two types, and 5% to three types. Abused women reported more hospitalizations for illnesses, more physical and psychological problems, and lower overall health than…
Dekel, Bianca; Andipatin, Michelle
In this article, we explore how women survivors of intimate partner violence understand the abuse they endured and the possible link to intimate femicide. This is a qualitative study based on a feminist poststructuralist perspective. Seven South African women, aged 23 to 50 years, with a history of different manifestations of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) participated in open-ended interviews. The data was analyzed by means of discourse analysis. In their explanations, the women constructed...
CHU, JAMES A.
Both clinical experience and recent research statistics support the observation that childhood abuse survivors are vulnerable to revictimization as adults. The responsibility for revictimization, such as physical or sexual assault, belongs to the perpetrators. However, the factors that make abuse survivors more vulnerable to exploitation need to be examined and understood in order to provide adequate treatment and protection. This discussion integrates an understanding of three powerful forces—the repetition compulsion, post-traumatic syndromes, and profound relational disturbances—that permit the process of revictimization to occur. PMID:22700102
Background Although disabled women are significantly more likely to experience domestic abuse during pregnancy than non-disabled women, very little is known about how maternity care access and utilisation is affected by the co-existence of disability and domestic abuse. This systematic review of the literature explored how domestic abuse impacts upon disabled women’s access to maternity services. Methods Eleven articles were identified through a search of six electronic databases and data were analysed to identify: the factors that facilitate or compromise access to care; the consequences of inadequate care for pregnant women’s health and wellbeing; and the effectiveness of existing strategies for improvement. Results Findings indicate that a mental health diagnosis, poor relationships with health professionals and environmental barriers can compromise women’s utilisation of maternity services. Domestic abuse can both compromise, and catalyse, access to services and social support is a positive factor when accessing care. Delayed and inadequate care has adverse effects on women’s physical and psychological health, however further research is required to fully explore the nature and extent of these consequences. Only one study identified strategies currently being used to improve access to services for disabled women experiencing abuse. Conclusions Based upon the barriers and facilitators identified within the review, we suggest that future strategies for improvement should focus on: understanding women’s reasons for accessing care; fostering positive relationships; being women-centred; promoting environmental accessibility; and improving the strength of the evidence base. PMID:25029907
Perrin, Nancy A.; Yragui, Nanette L.; Hanson, Ginger C.; Glass, Nancy
The purpose of this study was to understand differences in patterns of supervisor support desired by female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) and to examine whether the pattern of support desired at work is reflective of a woman's stage of change in the abusive relationship, IPV-related work interference, and IPV-related job reprimands or…
Female survivors of domestic violence may experience symptoms of low self-esteem, insecurity, difficulty with problem solving, low self-efficacy, and high anxiety with regard to their economic future. Creative methods are needed to help abuse survivors overcome these factors so they are able to set and attain career goals. Equine assisted therapy…
Pinn, Vivian W.; Chunko, Mary T.
Difficulty in identifying and eliciting information on domestic abuse is exacerbated by social, economic, and cultural factors. Study of the relationships between race/ethnicity/culture and domestic violence must be incorporated into both research and medical school curricula to sensitize students and enable them to develop skills for detecting,…
Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; London, Bonita
Sexual minority women (SMW) are at increased risk for substance abuse compared to heterosexual women. Two psychosocial factors that have been implicated in SMW's substance abuse are outness and LGBT community involvement, but findings have been mixed as to whether these are risk or protective factors. One possible explanation is that they may have different consequences for subgroups of SMW (lesbians, bisexual women, and queer women). While being open about one's sexual orientation and involved in the community may be protective for lesbians, discrimination against bisexual women may lead these same factors to contribute to substance abuse for bisexual women. It is unclear how these associations will operate for queer women, given limited research on this subpopulation. The current study examined whether sexual identity moderated the associations between outness and community involvement with alcohol and drug abuse. We also examined whether perceived discrimination would help explain why these associations may be different for subgroups of SMW. A sample of 288 self-identified SMW (113 lesbians, 106 bisexual women, and 69 queer women) completed an online survey. Higher outness was associated with higher alcohol and drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Similarly, higher community involvement was associated with higher drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Among bisexual women, the association between community involvement and drug abuse was mediated by perceived discrimination. Further, the association between outness and drug abuse was mediated by both community involvement and perceived discrimination. Findings demonstrate that outness and community involvement function as risk factors for substance abuse for bisexual women, in part due to their associations with discrimination.
McDonald, Penelope W; Dickerson, Suzanne
The purpose of this study was to determine the common meanings a history of violence has for women out of abusive and violent relationships with an intimate male partner for 5 or more years. To describe the common meanings and shared practices of women who left violent and abusive heterosexual intimate relationships 5 or more years ago, the challenges they face in their current lives, and the resources they use to meet those challenges. An additional aim is to elucidate practical advice they have for others who want to be supportive of the efforts of women recovering from intimate partner violence. An interpretive phenomenological approach using Heideggerian hermeneutics was utilized. Approval of the University Social Sciences Institutional Review Board was obtained. Participants were recruited by means of fliers distributed through a domestic violence listserv and through postings in health clinics in western New York. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A hermeneutic team approach was used for analysis and interpretation of texts. Twenty-one women of various ages, ethnicities, and backgrounds, who self-identified as being out of abusive relationships for 5 or more years, were interviewed. Six themes were identified: developing and maintaining self reliance; negotiating relationships; creating a safe and supportive environment; challenging societal roles and expectations; nurturing the self; and protecting the children. Engendering independence while living with purpose was the constitutive pattern that unified the themes. Women can successfully establish productive, meaningful lives after violence and will fiercely protect and maintain their independence as they negotiate relationships and developmental challenges throughout their lives. A need for control of their lives and difficulty trusting others remain a lasting legacy of living with a history of violence. This is the first study that examines women's lives 5 or more years after leaving violent and
Fleming, Kimberly N; Newton, Tamara L; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J; Ellison Burns, Vicki
This study aimed to further understanding of intimate partner stalking victimization in post-abuse women, with particular attention to the definition of stalking (with or without fear and threat) most predictive of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. In community midlife women with histories of divorce (N = 192), a history of stalking victimization accompanied by fear and threat was positively correlated with PTS symptom severity, after accounting for other partner abuse. The presence, compared with absence, of fear-and-threat stalking history doubled the odds of symptomatic levels of hyperarousal. Greater physical assault and injury chronicity differentiated fear-and-threat stalked women from other stalked women. Stalking contributed to a fuller understanding of PTS symptoms in women, showing particular relevance for hyperarousal.
Haeseler, Lisa Ann
Leadership styles of service professionals--including social workers and teachers--in the area of family abuse were investigated. Leadership characteristics of the professionals were measured by their responses to a survey. Results indicated that the interviewed service professionals demonstrated productive leadership traits. Study findings are congruent with leadership styles described in the research. Holistic and collaborative services are required to enhance care for women of abuse, as their needs are multifaceted and complex. Specific leadership styles promote better care for women; leaders need to collaboratively initiate and deliver more interdisciplinary and unified service.
Castro, Roberto; Peek-Asa, Corinne; García, Lorena; Ruiz, Agustín; Kraus, Jess F
Although violence against women is gaining international attention as a prevention priority, little is known about how risks differ across countries. A comparative study of violence against pregnant Mexican women in Morelos, Mexico, and Latina women in Los Angeles County, California, United States. In 1998 and 1999, women in prenatal clinics were interviewed about psychological abuse and sexual and physical violence by their partner, during and the 1 year prior to the index pregnancy. The overall response rate for Morelos was 99%, with a sample size of 914; Los Angeles County had a response rate of 96.9%, with a sample size of 219. Women in Morelos reported a higher prevalence of violence compared to women in the California (14.8% v 11.9%, respectively). A partner aged child were more than 25 times more likely to be abused during pregnancy than women not reporting this type of abuse. The identification of factors associated with violence against women, especially as they differ by culture and ethnicity, will help clinicians to better identify victims and to design and implement culturally appropriate prevention programs.
Women and knowledge are interconnected in several ways in late ancient and early Christian discourses, not least because wisdom (Sophia) and spiritual knowledge (Gnosis) were frequently personified as female entities. Ancient texts deal with idealized women and use feminine imagery to describe...... the divine but they also debate women’s access to and capacity of gaining knowledge. Combining rhetorical analysis with social historical approaches, the contributions in this book cover a wide array of source materials, drawing special attention to the so-called Gnostic texts. The fourteen essays, written...
Sally StevensSouthwest Institute for Research on Women (SIROW) and Department of Gender and Women’s Studies (GWS), University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Research on the incidence, etiology and substance abuse treatment needs of lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LBT) women is limited. Most research indicates higher levels of alcohol and drug abuse among these populations compared to their heterosexual counterparts, with recent research indicating that substance abuse is a ...
Bloom, Tina L; Glass, Nancy E; Case, James; Wright, Courtney; Nolte, Kimberly; Parsons, Lindsay
Intimate partner violence (IPV) in pregnancy is common and harmful to maternal-child health. Safety planning is the gold standard for intervention, but most abused women never access safety planning. Pregnant women may face increased barriers to safety planning and risk of severe IPV, particularly if they are also rural residents. Internet-based safety planning interventions may be useful, but no such interventions specific to the needs of pregnant women have been developed. The aim was to evaluate feasibility (usability, safety, and acceptability) of Internet-based safety planning for rural and urban abused pregnant women and practicality of recruitment procedures for future trials. An existing Internet-based safety decision aid for pregnant and postpartum women was adapted; initial content validity was established with survivors of IPV, advocates, and national IPV experts; and a convenience sample of community-dwelling abused pregnant women was recruited and randomized into two groups to test the decision aid. Fifty-nine participants were enrolled; 46 completed the baseline session, 41% of whom (n = 19) resided in nonmetropolitan counties. Participants' average gestational age was 20.2 weeks, and 28.3% resided with the abusive partner. Participants reported severe IPV at baseline (mean Danger Assessment score of 16.1), but all were able to identify a safe computer, and 73.9% completed the baseline session in less than 1 week, with no adverse events reported. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and safety of an Internet-based safety decision aid for urban and rural abused pregnant women.
Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig
This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…
Kim, HyunSoo; Tracy, Elizabeth; Brown, Suzanne; Jun, MinKyoung; Park, Hyunyong; Min, Meeyoung; McCarty, Chris
This study compared compositional, social support, and structural characteristics of personal networks among women in residential (RT) and intensive outpatient (IOP) substance abuse treatment. The study sample included 377 women from inner-city substance use disorder treatment facilities. Respondents were asked about 25 personal network members known within the past 6 months, characteristics of each (relationship, substance use, types of support), and relationships between each network member. Differences between RT women and IOP women in personal network characteristics were identified using Chi-square and t -tests. Compared to IOP women, RT women had more substance users in their networks, more network members with whom they had used substances and fewer network members who provided social support. These findings suggest that women in residential treatment have specific network characteristics, not experienced by women in IOP, which may make them more vulnerable to relapse; they may therefore require interventions that target these specific network characteristics in order to reduce their vulnerability to relapse.
Tompsett, Carolyn J; Domoff, Sarah E; Toro, Paul A
Adolescents who experience homelessness are at higher risk for abusing substances, and for being exposed to substance-using peers. The current study used a longitudinal design to track substance abuse, affiliation with substance-using peers, and episodes of homelessness among a sample of 223 adolescents who were housed at the baseline data collection and 148 adolescents who were housed at baseline. Participants were interviewed at six waves over 6.5 years, covering an age range from 13 to 25. Many participants experienced a recurrence of homelessness during follow-up, with 64.6 % of the baseline homeless group and 22.6 % of the baseline housed group reporting an additional episode of homelessness. Both alcohol abuse and other drug abuse symptoms showed an increase in adolescence followed by slowing in early adulthood. Recent homelessness and friend alcohol use predicted alcohol abuse symptoms, and the strength of the influence of friend use decreased over time. Recent homelessness and friend drug use predicted other drug abuse symptoms. Duration of the initial episode of adolescent homelessness showed no influence on substance abuse over time, or the effects of other predictors, highlighting the importance of conceptualizing the experience of homelessness as a recent stressor rather than an enduring personal characteristic.
Pons, Francisco; de Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick K; Doudin, Pierre-André; Harris, Paul L; Giménez-Dasí, Marta
Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse and learning difficulties on simple and complex components of emotion understanding in late childhood and early adolescence. A total of 28 older children and young adolescents were selected for the study. Half of the participants had suffered from severe abuse, and half of these abused children additionally had learning disabilities. The remaining half of the sample had no history of abuse but were matched with the abused children on learning difficulties, age and gender. The participants' emotion understanding was assessed with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC). Results showed that (a) learning difficulties but not abuse had an impact on emotion understanding, (b) there was no interaction effect of abuse and learning difficulties on emotion understanding, and (b) the observed effects of learning difficulties were most apparent for the understanding of relatively complex components of emotion and not for simple components. The results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Yang Schema Questionnaire: Short Form 2 (YSQ-SF2 were used. To analyze the data, multivariate regression coefficient enter method was deployed.Results: Results showed that about 24% of the variance of the disconnection and rejection maladaptive schema domain, as well as 12% of the variance of the impaired autonomy and performance maladaptive schema domain were explained by the emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect. 13% of the other-directedness maladaptive schema domain variance, 6% of the impaired limits maladaptive schema domain, and 5% of the overvigilance and inhibition maladaptive schema domain variance were explained by the emotional abuse.Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that one could predict schemas and their respective domains with regards to abused children. Abused children are likely to develop maladaptive schemas and cognitive distortions due to the dull and harsh atmosphere of the family and its unhealthy environment.
MacIntosh, Judith; Wuest, Judith; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Varcoe, Colleen
Little is known about how patterns of workplace bullying contribute to the negative effects of lifetime violence. Analysis of longitudinal data from a study of women's health after separating from an abusive partner revealed that 76% of 229 women had experienced workplace bullying. Workplace bullying was associated with child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and ongoing partner abuse. Timing was critical, with those experiencing past workplace bullying having poorer health and fewer personal and social resources than those experiencing none, ongoing, or past and ongoing bullying. Lifetime sexual harassment (54%) was associated with higher posttraumatic stress disorder symptomology and greater likelihood of leaving workplaces and physical bullying (16%) with poorer health and personal, social, and economic resources. These findings highlight the importance of including bullying in studying lifetime violence.
Trimpey, M L
A support group was organized for women who sought help to cope with physical and emotional abuse from their male partners. Women who have lived through the cycle of violence may experience a stress response that includes fear, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. High anxiety can interfere with problem solving and with developing new coping patterns. Low self-esteem can accompany depression and intensify the sense of helplessness and powerlessness abused women feel. A descriptive study was conducted to determine to what extent women in the group experienced high anxiety and low self-esteem. Results indicated that high levels of anxiety and low self-esteem were present in the group. Anxiety reduction strategies and techniques to enhance self-esteem were developed.
Smith, S K
Qualitative, interpretive research was conducted with ten adult women who felt that their experiences of learning about themselves as female and sexual had been harmful. The term "victimizing sexualization" was developed to identify this experience, and a thematic description of these women's experiences was derived. Components of their experiences were described within four major categories, including perceptions and descriptions directly related to abuse experiences, home and family environments, community and cultural characteristics, and longer term personal impacts. This article reports on two of the major thematic categories: perceptions and descriptions related to abuse experiences and home and family environment. Findings of this study establish "victimizing sexualization" as a meaningful women's health construct with important connections to feminist perspectives on women's lives.
Bedi, Saaniya; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.
Earlier studies have found an elevated risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA); however, the degree to which risk is mediated by depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women and men remains unclear. We examined these issues in data from a family study of childhood maltreatment (N…
Plazaola-Castano, Juncal; Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta; Montero-Pinar, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen
We aimed to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) in a representative sample of 8,995 women attending general practice in Spain in 2006-2007. The factor structure analysis shows that the ISA measures four intimate partner violence (IPV) dimensions: emotional, physical, and…
Peckham, Nicholas Guy; Howlett, Susan; Corbett, Alan
Background: Sexual abuse has been associated with trauma, low self-esteem, anger, depression and challenging behaviours. This pilot study builds on a small published literature by evaluating a survivors group (SG) for women with an intellectual disability and an educational support group (ESG) for their carers. Method: The SG was delivered weekly…
Wong, Susan P. Y.; Phillips, Michael R.
Three hundred fifty-three women (median age = 32 years) admitted to the emergency rooms of nine general hospitals serving rural areas in China were interviewed for nonfatal suicidal behavior. Spousal conflict was the most commonly reported cause for their suicidal behavior and one third of respondents reported being victims of physical abuse by…
Walker-Williams, Hayley J.; Fouché, Ansie
Purpose: This study evaluated the benefits of a ''survivor to thriver'' strengths-based group intervention program to facilitate posttraumatic growth in women survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental, one group, pretest, posttest, time-delay design was employed using qualitative methods to evaluate the benefits of the…
Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung
Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…
Roland, Catherine; Butler, Scott
Literature review examines several areas repeatedly addressed concerning prevalence of eating disorders and child sexual abuse (CSA): psychological profiles of eating-disordered adult women who may have experienced CSA; psychosocial aftereffects of CSA; familial dynamics of survivors of CSA; studies connecting eating disorders and CSA; and studies…
Selvik, Sabreen; Raaheim, Arild; Øverlien, Carolina
Numerous children around the world are forced to make multiple moves with their mothers in and out of refuges for abused women. Each time, they experience a sudden upheaval of their familiar environment. For these children, domestic violence and flight from violence is not an isolated event but part of their upbringing. Few statistics and little…
Rausgaard, Nete L K; Ibsen, Inge O; Jørgensen, Jan S
submitted a urine sample and completed a short questionnaire. Urine samples were tested for opiates, cannabis, benzodiazepines, cocaine, methadone, amphetamine and methamphetamine. Positive samples underwent repeat analysis for confirmation. Of 690 pregnant women, 88.1% participated. Overall, 3.6% of women...
Full Text Available In this article, we explore how women survivors of intimate partner violence understand the abuse they endured and the possible link to intimate femicide. This is a qualitative study based on a feminist poststructuralist perspective. Seven South African women, aged 23 to 50 years, with a history of different manifestations of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV participated in open-ended interviews. The data was analyzed by means of discourse analysis. In their explanations, the women constructed gendered identities, which reflected contradictory and ambiguous subjective experiences. The women's understandings were filtered through the particular social context in which their abusive experiences occurred. The findings highlighted that contemplating femicide was too threatening, and consequently participants drew on discourses of femininity, romantic love, and others to justify their remaining in their violence-ridden relationships. It emphasizes the need for additional engagement in women's understandings of intimate femicide, as women who live in abusive relationships have largely been consigned to the periphery. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160196
Abadi, Melissa Harris; Shamblen, Stephen R; Johnson, Knowlton; Thompson, Kirsten; Young, Linda; Courser, Matthew; Vanderhoff, Jude; Browne, Thom
Denial of human rights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT) centers assesses (a) the extent to which these women have experienced human rights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b) whether there are specific risk factors for human rights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91%) reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50%) experienced at least one human rights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for human rights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on one's own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed.
Miner, Emily J; Shackelford, Todd K; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Starratt, Valerie G; Weekes-Shackelford, Viviana A
Women who are abused by their male intimate partners incur many costs, ranging in severity from fleeting physical pain to death. Previous research has linked the presence of children sired by a woman's previous partner to increased risk of woman abuse and to increased risk of femicide. The current research extends this work by securing data from samples of 111 unabused women, 111 less severely abused women, 128 more severely abused women, and 26 victims of intimate partner femicide from the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study to document an ordinal trend in the risk of experiencing more severe forms of violence for women who have children in the household sired by a previous partner. The discussion addresses two potential explanations for this trend and highlights directions for future research.
Full Text Available Melissa Harris Abadi1, Stephen R Shamblen1, Knowlton Johnson1, Kirsten Thompson1, Linda Young1, Matthew Courser1, Jude Vanderhoff1, Thom Browne21Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation – Louisville Center, Louisville, KY, USA; 2United States Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement, Washington, DC, USAAbstract: Denial of human rights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT centers assesses (a the extent to which these women have experienced human rights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b whether there are specific risk factors for human rights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91% reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50% experienced at least one human rights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for human rights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on one’s own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed.Keywords: Afghanistan, women, human rights, mental health, drug abuse treatment
López, Sílvia; Faro, Concepció; Lopetegui, Lourdes; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Monteagudo, Mònica; Avecilla-Palau, Àngels; Martínez, Cristina; Cobo, Jesús; Fernández, María-Isabel
This is a multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study of child and adolescent sexual abuse in women over 18 years in 24 primary care sexual and reproductive health centers in Catalonia. A total of 1,013 women were recruited; 345 (37.6%, 95% CI: 34.6-40.9) reported exposure to child sexual abuse: 32.4% disclosed being touched in a sexual way, and 9.6% reported completed sexual intercourse. Abuse occured before the age of 13 in 63.4% of respondents. The perpetrator was a relative or an acquaintance in almost 80% of cases. The risk was higher among women of Central or South American origin (OR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.33-6.12). Only 31.9% of women disclosed the abuse and 17.3% were blamed. Abuse that involved attempted or completed sexual intercourse was significantly associated with recurrence, physical violence, and revictimization in adulthood.
Fayez, Merfat; Takash, Hanan Mahmoud; Al-Zboon, Eman Khleif
Early childhood teachers play major roles in defying child abuse and neglect and alleviating its detrimental effects on young children. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring how Jordanian pre-service early childhood teachers define and perceive violence against children and their role in child abuse detection and prevention. Furthermore, the…
Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren
Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…
Tonsing, Jenny Chingkhannem
This qualitative study was conducted with 14 South Asian women in Hong Kong to explore their perception and experiences of domestic violence by an intimate partner. All interviews were transcribed and then coded based on the process of coding suggested by Strauss and Corbin, including both open and axial coding. Data analysis resulted in two main core categories, "Women's perception of domestic violence" and "Cultural factors that influence their help-seeking behavior," denoting that the context in which domestic violence is experienced influences women's perception and understanding of domestic violence. Participants also drew on the discourse of culture to explain its role in their experiences of domestic violence. Domestic violence is a concern among this group of South Asian women. Culturally appropriate domestic violence services and public education on domestic violence are needed for this community. © The Author(s) 2014.
Merrill, Ray M.; Richards, Rickelle; Sloan, Arielle
Background. This study examines whether the relationship between maternal stress or abuse situations and infant birth weight differs between homeless and non-homeless women. Methods. Analyses are based on data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2002–2007. Results. Homeless women were significantly more likely to experience stressful life events, abusive situations, and poor maternal health than non-homeless women during pregnancy. Birth weight among infant...
López, Sílvia; Faro, Concepció; Lopetegui, Lourdes; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Monteagudo, Mònica; Cobo, Jesús; Fernández, María Isabel
To analyse perceived sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction, satisfaction with affective relationships and confidence and communication in existing relationships, related to a past history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and type suffered, among women treated as part of the Catalonian Sexual and Reproductive Health Care Programme (PASSIR). Multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study. A total of 1,013 women over the age of 18 years, who underwent psychological therapy at any of the 24 PASSIR centres, were enrolled. A structured, anonymised, self-administered Sex History Questionnaire adapted from Wyatt (1985) & Dubé et al. (2005), and the Female Sexual Function Index (Rosen, 2000), were used. Statistical analysis was descriptive, bivariate and multivariate. Women who suffered childhood sexual abuse had a significantly higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction, with lower perceived sexual satisfaction. CSA with penetration or attempted penetration was associated with greater arousal difficulties and greater rejection. Women who experienced CSA were less confident and experienced greater communication difficulties with their partner. It is necessary to identify potential childhood sexual abuse among women who seek therapy due to relationship problems. It is also necessary to continue research into protective factors and therapeutic interventions to alleviate the consequences of CSA in adult life. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Jepsen, E.K.K.; Langeland, W.; Sexton, H.; Heir, T.
To date, most of the inpatient outcome studies among early traumatized individuals lack data on dissociative disorders. More research is needed to evaluate whether severely dissociative patients can improve following specialized inpatient treatment for chronic childhood abuse. The objectives of this
This study describes the results of the administration of the Young Schema Questionnaire in a British sample of 54 sexually abusive adolescents. This questionnaire is a measurement of the 16 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) as conceptualized by Young in his schema model of psychopathology. A clinical group of 40 was differentiated from a…
Knuuttila, Vesa; Kuusisto, Katja; Saarnio, Pekka; Nummi, Tapio
Background: The study examined the effect of the early working alliance on outcome in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Methods: A total of 327 clients and 33 therapists participated in the study. Data were collected in southern and western Finland in outpatient treatment units (N = 7). The dependent variables were percentage of days abstinent…
The middle school years should be identified as the first period at risk concerning the use of these drugs. Prevention programs should begin in early adolescence, focusing on delaying the use or abuse of any of the “gateway drugs.”
Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others
This study evaluated 202 female university students for early familial experience and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in relation to adult sexual disorders: (1) victims of multiple CSA more frequently reported sexual desire disorders; and (2) single-incident victims and nonvictims reported no significantly different rates of sexual dysfunction.…
When the author was adviser to the Australian Minister for Education for writing the national Safe Schools Framework (2003), meetings were held with early-childhood care and education administrators from all state, Catholic and independent sectors. Their unexpected message was that educators were facing new problems, those of child sexual abuse in…
Marshal, Michael P.; Stall, Ron; Cheong, JeeWon; Wright, Eric R.
This study examined relationships between timing of gay-related developmental milestones, early abuse, and emergence of poor health outcomes in adulthood among 1,383 gay/bisexual men in the Urban Men’s Health Study. Latent Profile Analysis grouped participants as developing early, middle or late based on the achievement of four phenomena including age of first awareness of same-sex sexual attractions and disclosure of sexual orientation. Participants who developed early were more likely, compared to others, to experience forced sex and gay-related harassment before adulthood. They were more likely to be HIV seropositive and experience gay-related victimization, partner abuse and depression during adulthood. Early forced-sex, gay-related harassment and physical abuse were associated with several negative health outcomes in adulthood including HIV infection, partner abuse, and depression. This analysis suggests that the experience of homophobic attacks against young gay/bisexual male youth helps to explain heightened rates of serious health problems among adult gay men. PMID:17990094
Safadi, Reema R; Daibes, Mayada A; Haidar, Waheda H; Al-Nawafleh, Ahmad H; Constantino, Rose E
In this cross-sectional study, we assessed levels and types of psychological and physical intimate partner abuse (IPA), and the association of IPA with socio-demographic factors and health consequences. The Abusive Behavior Inventory was completed by 471 Jordanian women. IPA was higher among older women who were: of older age, of younger age at marriage, married to unemployed spouses, living in urban residence, and of lower educational level. IPA was associated with most of the health problems except dental injuries and burns. We recommend educational programs that raise women's awareness to their rights to education, free choices in marital age, and policies that mitigate IPA in Jordan and similar patriarchal societies.
Full Text Available Using data from Argentina’s National Study on Violence Against Women [Estudio nacional sobre violencias contra las mujeres] carried out in 2015, the article identifies the risk factors that increase women’s vulnerability to psychological abuse. Findings show that women who are more prone to be victims of this kind of partner violence are those who are less educated, older, do not earn a wage for their work, live with children at home, are involved in less “formal” long-term relationships, as well as those whose male partners have a lower educational level than their own and/or have alcohol problems and/or were victims or witnesses of violence during their childhood. The article suggests possible intervention strategies to eradicate abuse, which should be primarily targeted at empowering women and strengthening their independence from their partners.
Trautman, R P; Phillips, M E; Hallford, G; Borrell, G K; Nixon, S J
Current studies of neurocognitive function in alcoholics are generally restricted to a relatively small subsample of persons seeking treatment. Subjects are typically excluded from study if reporting signs or symptoms of possibly confounding disorders such as comorbid psychiatric disorders, medical, or neurologic disorders. Thus, the question arises as to whether those individuals who actually participate in these reported studies are representative of the larger population of unselected persons. Studies of women are particularly subject to this concern due to higher rates of comorbid medical and psychiatric disorders in women. The current study was directed to contrasting treatment-seeking women who either were or were not selected for a laboratory study of neurocognitive function. Specifically, we compared subgroups of women identified on the basis of the presence of an alcohol use disorder and/or being selected for study. A total of 638 women were available for comparison. Contrary to anticipated concerns, analysis of basic demographic, alcohol and drug use, and affective/cognitive measures revealed considerable similarities among the groups. Consistent with other literature, the large majority of these women reported a family history of alcohol use disorders. They also reported a preference for stimulants as opposed to other illicit substances as evidenced in self-report of their most frequently used drug in the six months prior to treatment (excluding alcohol). These findings suggest that current selection procedures, although necessarily biasing samples in response to specific questions, do not result in samples that are significantly different from the majority of treatment-seeking women, at least on the basis of demographic and affective variables. Furthermore, as described herein, these findings have specific indications for primary care assessment and treatment referral.
Lacelle, Céline; Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E
The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and sexual health outcomes in young adult women. Maladaptive coping strategies and optimism were investigated as possible mediators and moderators of this relationship. Data regarding sexual abuse, coping, optimism and various sexual health outcomes were collected using self-report and computerized questionnaires with a sample of 889 young adult women from the province of Quebec aged 20-23 years old. A total of 31% of adult women reported a history of CSA. Women reporting a severe CSA were more likely to report more adverse sexual health outcomes including suffering from sexual problems and engaging in more high-risk sexual behaviors. CSA survivors involving touching only were at greater risk of reporting more negative sexual self-concept such as experiencing negative feelings during sex than were non-abused participants. Results indicated that emotion-oriented coping mediated outcomes related to negative sexual self-concept while optimism mediated outcomes related to both, negative sexual self-concept and high-risk sexual behaviors. No support was found for any of the proposed moderation models. Survivors of more severe CSA are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors that are potentially harmful to their health as well as to experience more sexual problems than women without a history of sexual victimization. Personal factors, namely emotion-oriented coping and optimism, mediated some sexual health outcomes in sexually abused women. The results suggest that maladaptive coping strategies and optimism regarding the future may be important targets for interventions optimizing sexual health and sexual well-being in CSA survivors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Austin, Anna E; Shanahan, Meghan E; Zvara, Bharathi J
Previous research has examined the association of childhood abuse with opioid misuse and dependence in adulthood. However, little research has focused specifically on prescription opioids, and no studies have examined associations with prescription opioid use, a potential pathway to later opioid misuse and dependence. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse with prescription opioid use in early adulthood. We used data from Waves I (12-18years) and IV (24-32years) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. At Wave IV, respondents reported experiences of childhood abuse occurring prior to age 18years and prescription opioid use in the last four weeks. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to examine associations of childhood abuse with recent prescription opioid use. In multivariable models adjusted for respondent sex, race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status, childhood emotional abuse (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.29, 1.90), physical abuse (OR=1.46, 95% CI 1.14, 1.87), and any childhood abuse (OR=1.51, 95% CI 1.24, 1.82) were significantly associated with recent prescription opioid use. Given continued increases in prescription opioid use and opioid-related morbidity and mortality in the U.S., understanding upstream social and environmental factors associated with prescription opioid use is important to strengthening and expanding current prevention and intervention strategies. Future research is needed to examine factors potentially mediating the association between childhood abuse and prescription opioid use in order to provide additional insights for prevention and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Compares a new approach to treatment using traditional social work. Reports on the therapeutic regimen and Results/Kinesiology (RK), which addresses body-mind control, brain hemispheric integration, energy balancing, and stress elimination. Examination of 40 women addicted to alcohol and/or drugs indicated that RK helped with anxiety,…
Leisring, Penny A
Intimate partner violence is extremely common in college samples. To inform prevention and intervention efforts, understanding the motivation for engaging in partner aggression is critically important. The predominant view in the domestic violence field has been that women's use of intimate partner violence occurs in the context of self-defense. However, there has been a dearth of solid evidence to support this claim. The present study explored the motivations for the perpetration of minor and severe physical aggression and for three types of emotional abuse (restrictive engulfment, denigration, and dominance/intimidation) among college women. A detailed definition of self-defense was used and motivations for women who were sole perpetrators of physical violence as well as motivations for women who had been aggressed against in their romantic relationships were examined. Anger, retaliation for emotional hurt, to get partner's attention, jealousy, and stress were all common reasons for perpetrating partner violence among college women. Few women indicated that self-defense was a motive for their abusive behavior. The results suggest that prevention and intervention efforts to reduce partner violence perpetration by women should include anger and stress management.
Wielaard, Ilse; Hoyer, Mathijs; Rhebergen, Didi; Stek, Max L; Comijs, Hannie C
Childhood abuse makes people vulnerable to developing depression, even in late life. Psychosocial factors that are common in late life, such as loneliness or lack of a partner, may explain this association. Our aim was to investigate whether the association between childhood abuse and depression in older adults can be explained by psychosocial factors. Cross-sectional data were derived from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (aged 60-93), including 132 without lifetime depression, 242 persons with an early-onset depression (Childhood abuse (yes/no) and a frequency-based childhood abuse index were included. Multinomial regression and multivariable mediation analyses were used to examine the association between childhood abuse and the onset of depression, and the influence of loneliness, social network, and partner status. Multinomial regression analyses showed a significant association between childhood abuse and the childhood abuse index with early- and late-onset depression. Multivariable mediation analyses showed that the association between childhood abuse and early-onset depression was partly mediated by social network size and loneliness. This was particularly present for emotional neglect and psychological abuse, but not for physical and sexual abuse. No psychosocial mediators were found for the association between childhood abuse and late-onset depression. A smaller social network and feelings of loneliness mediate the association between childhood abuse and early-onset depression in older adults. Our findings show the importance of detecting childhood abuse as well as the age at depression onset and mapping of relevant psychosocial factors in the treatment of late-life depression. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Shegog, Ross; Temple, Jeff R; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Hernandez, Belinda; Cuccaro, Paula; Gabay, Efrat K; Thiel, Melanie; Emery, Susan Tortolero
Much is known about the prevalence and correlates of dating violence, especially the perpetration of physical dating violence, among older adolescents. However, relatively little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse, particularly among early adolescents. In this study, using a predominantly ethnic-minority sample of sixth graders who reported ever having had a boyfriend/girlfriend (n = 424, 44.2 % female), almost 15 % reported perpetrating cyber dating abuse at least once during their lifetime. Furthermore, using a cross-sectional design, across multiple levels of the socio-ecological model, the individual-level factors of (a) norms for violence for boys against girls, (b) having a current boyfriend/girlfriend, and (c) participation in bullying perpetration were correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse. Collectively, the findings suggest that dating violence interventions targeting these particular correlates in early adolescents are warranted. Future studies are needed to establish causation and to further investigate the relative importance of correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse among early adolescents that have been reported among older adolescents.
Keating, Leah; Muller, Robert T; Classen, Catherine C
Women who have experienced childhood abuse often have interpersonal difficulties. The current study examines whether changes in emotion dysregulation mediate the relationship between changes in attachment patterns and changes in interpersonal problems among women who completed treatment for the sequelae of childhood abuse. Participants were 36 women who completed a program targeting the psychological consequences of childhood maltreatment. At pre-and posttreatment, participants completed a projective assessment of adult attachment, and self-report measures of emotion dysregulation and interpersonal problems. Changes in emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between shifts toward resolved attachment and changes in interpersonal problems. Compared to participants who maintained their pretreatment attachment patterns, those who shifted toward a resolved pattern became significantly more able to clarify and describe their emotions. Improvements in these abilities were associated with decreased problems with being nonassertive, overly accommodating, self-sacrificing, and socially inhibited. Additionally, improvements in emotional clarity uniquely mediated the relationship between shifts to resolved attachment and reductions in problems with being domineering and intrusive. Moreover, decreased difficulty describing feelings uniquely mediated the relationship between shifts to resolved attachment and decreases in problems with being cold. Among women who complete treatment for the sequelae of childhood abuse, shifts to resolved attachment were indirectly related to decreases in interpersonal problems through improved emotional processing.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of identifying co-occurring psychiatric disorders in substance abuse treatment programs, there are few appropriate and validated instruments available to substance abuse treatment staff to conduct brief screen for these conditions. This paper describes the development, implementation and validation of a brief screening instrument for mental health diagnoses and trauma among a diverse sample of Black, Hispanic and White women in substance abuse treatment. With input from clinicians and consumers, we adapted longer existing validated instruments into a 14 question screen covering demographics, mental health symptoms and physical and sexual violence exposure. All women entering treatment (methadone, residential and out-patient at five treatment sites were screened at intake (N = 374. Results Eighty nine percent reported a history of interpersonal violence, and 70% reported a history of sexual assault. Eighty-eight percent reported mental health symptoms in the last 30 days. The screening questions administered to 88 female clients were validated against in-depth psychiatric diagnostic assessments by trained mental health clinicians. We estimated measures of predictive validity, including sensitivity, specificity and predictive values positive and negative. Screening items were examined multiple ways to assess utility. The screen is a useful and valid proxy for PTSD but not for other mental illness. Conclusion Substance abuse treatment programs should incorporate violence exposure questions into clinical use as a matter of policy. More work is needed to develop brief screening tools measures for front-line treatment staff to accurately assess other mental health needs of women entering substance abuse treatment
Full Text Available Fulfillment of children's rights has been a concern of Indonesia stated in the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and Act No. 23 of 2002 on Child Protection. However, violence against children is increasing each year. The most dominant violence emerged in recent years is sexual abuse committed against children aged 5 to 11 years, and the perpetrators of sexual abuse are close with the children. Concern about cases of sexual abuse in early childhood and their impact, should be followed by an effort to develop a variety of approaches and methods of sex education in accordance with religious and cultural values in which children live.
Prosman, G.J.; Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Bulte, E.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
BACKGROUND: Previous studies observed an association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and increased health problems. Early detection of IPV by general practitioners (GPs) is required to prevent further harm and provide appropriate support. In general practice, a limited number of studies are
Amaro, Hortensia; Larson, Mary Jo; Zhang, Annie; Acevedo, Andrea; Dai, Jianyu; Matsumoto, Atsushi
Women in substance abuse treatment often have co-occurring mental health disorders and a history of trauma; they are also at high risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases via unprotected sex. A quasi-experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of trauma-enhanced substance abuse treatment combined with HIV/AIDS prevention…
Mclellan, A. Thomas; Gutman, Marjorie; Lynch, Kevin; Mckay, James R.; Ketterlinus, Robert; Morgenstern, Jon; Woolis, Diana
Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multiservice intervention designed to move substance-abusing women on welfare to sobriety and self-sufficiency by addressing their substance abuse, domestic violence, employment, and basic needs. Design: A field evaluation with repeated measures at 6 and 12 months on an intent-to-treat sample of 529 women…
Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.
Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…
Ma. Asunción Lara
Full Text Available Objective:To explore the relationship between individual and co-occurring childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, prenatal depressive (PDS and anxiety symptoms (PAS, and history of suicidal behavior (HSB among Mexican pregnant women at risk of depression.Methods:A sample of 357 women screened for PDS was interviewed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA-Q, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, the anxiety subscale of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90, and specific questions on verbal abuse and HSB.Results:Logistic regression analyses showed that women who had experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA were 2.60 times more likely to develop PDS, 2.58 times more likely to develop PAS, and 3.71 times more likely to have HSB. Childhood physical abuse (CPA increased the risk of PAS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.51 and HSB (OR = 2.62, while childhood verbal abuse (CVA increased PDS (OR = 1.92. Experiencing multiple abuses increased the risk of PDS (OR = 3.01, PAS (OR = 3.73, and HSB (OR = 13.73.Conclusions:Childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, especially when they co-occur, have an impact on PDS and PAS and lifetime HSB. These findings suggest that pregnant women at risk for depression should also be screened for trauma as a risk factor for perinatal psychopathology.
Donald Paul Sullins
Full Text Available Objective: To examine the links between pregnancy outcomes (birth, abortion, or involuntary pregnancy loss and mental health outcomes for US women during the transition into adulthood to determine the extent of increased risk, if any, associated with exposure to induced abortion. Method: Panel data on pregnancy history and mental health history for a nationally representative cohort of 8005 women at (average ages 15, 22, and 28 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were examined for risk of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, cannabis abuse, and nicotine dependence by pregnancy outcome (birth, abortion, and involuntary pregnancy loss. Risk ratios were estimated for time-dynamic outcomes from population-averaged longitudinal logistic and Poisson regression models. Results: After extensive adjustment for confounding, other pregnancy outcomes, and sociodemographic differences, abortion was consistently associated with increased risk of mental health disorder. Overall risk was elevated 45% (risk ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.30–1.62; p < 0.0001. Risk of mental health disorder with pregnancy loss was mixed, but also elevated 24% (risk ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–1.37; p < 0.0001 overall. Birth was weakly associated with reduced mental disorders. One-eleventh (8.7%; 95% confidence interval, 6.0–11.3 of the prevalence of mental disorders examined over the period were attributable to abortion. Conclusion: Evidence from the United States confirms previous findings from Norway and New Zealand that, unlike other pregnancy outcomes, abortion is consistently associated with a moderate increase in risk of mental health disorders during late adolescence and early adulthood.
Ng, Qin Xiang; Yong, Bob Zheng Jie; Ho, Collin Yin Xian; Lim, Donovan Yutong; Yeo, Wee-Song
Suicide is an emerging, yet preventable global health issue associated with significant mortality. Identification of underlying risk factors and antecedents may inform preventive strategies and interventions. This study serves to provide an updated meta-analysis examining the extent of association of early life sexual abuse with suicide attempts. Using the keywords [early abuse OR childhood abuse OR sexual OR rape OR molest* OR violence OR trauma OR PTSD] AND [suicid* OR premature OR unnatural OR deceased OR died OR mortality], a preliminary search on the PubMed, Ovid, PsychINFO, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases yielded 12,874 papers published in English between 1-Jan-1988 and 1-June-2017. Of these, only 47 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. The 47 studies (25 cross-sectional, 14 cohort, 6 case-control and 2 twin studies) contained a total of 151,476 subjects. Random-effects meta-analysis found early life sexual abuse to be a significant risk factor for suicide attempts, compared to baseline population (pooled OR 1.89, 95% CI: 1.66 to 2.12, p < 0.001). Subgroup analyses of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies showed similar findings of increased risk as they yielded ORs of 1.98 (95% CI: 1.70 to 2.25, p < 0.001) and 1.65 (95% CI: 1.37 to 1.93, p < 0.001), respectively. In both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, childhood sexual abuse was consistently associated with increased risk of suicide attempts. The findings of the present study provide strong grounds for funding public policy planning and interventions to prevent sexual abuse and support its victims. Areas for future research should include preventive and treatment strategies and factors promoting resilience following childhood sexual abuse. Future research on the subject should have more robust controls and explore the differential effects of gender and intra-versus extra-familial sexual abuse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article discusses the Optional Protocol of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). This convention is the only instrument protecting the human rights of women at the international level. However, even if the convention was the best possible women's human rights documentation, there was no mechanism for reporting the abuses. The women's movement has long been pressing for the approval of the mechanism like the Optional Protocol, because they believe that the Protocol would fulfill the need in allowing the individual and collective accusations of human rights abuses. It means that a woman or a group of women can go to the committee and denounce an action as discriminatory. The committee can only receive reports and make recommendations, whereas having a Protocol would allow the committee to direct complaints, be able to investigate them, and make more specific recommendations. Those countries ratifying the CEDAW don't automatically agree to the Protocol, thus it is the country's discretion to either comply with the Protocol or not. There are also those who are against the Protocol and claim ironically that an Optional Protocol for Political and Civil rights already exists. But such mechanisms do not work for women's rights. What is most needed now is to lobby all national delegations to push the 5th Commission of the United Nations' General Assembly to approve the budget for the protocol.
Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye
Objective To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. Methods This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. Results From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. Conclusions The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births. PMID:22688539
Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye
To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births.
Simões-Barbosa, Regina Helena; Dantas-Berger, Sônia Maria
The article discusses drug abuse and eating disorders from the critical gender and healthcare perspectives, postulating that subjective suffering can be expressed in the body through psychosomatic illnesses. From this perspective, craving for drugs or superfluous consumer goods, just as illness from self-imposed hunger in pursuit of an ideal of slimness, as in anorexia and bulimia, can be symptoms that expose the woman's suffering. A review in the fields of public health and feminist theories highlights the magnitude of the phenomena of medicalization and commodification of health in the psychiatrization of female discomfort. In the gender transition in capitalist societies, social demands for the performance of old and new women's roles accentuate feelings of inadequacy, expressed as the gender discomfort permeating drug abuse and eating disorders, analyzed as diseases of protest. The study proposes to reclaim the ideals of the Program for Comprehensive Women's Healthcare to deal with such challenges.
DePrince, Anne P.; Labus, Jennifer; Belknap, Joanne; Buckingham, Susan; Gover, Angela
Objective: Using a longitudinal, randomized controlled trial, this study assessed the impact of a community-based outreach versus a more traditional criminal justice system-based referral program on women's distress and safety following police-reported intimate partner abuse (IPA). Method: Women (N = 236 women) with police-reported IPA were…
Sutherland, Vickie Mecshell
Epidemiological studies have shown that substance abuse among African American women is occurring at an alarming rate that exceeds rates for White women. The heightened use of alcohol and drugs among African American women is a problem that resulted from their racial, historical, and structural position in American society. The literature reveals…
Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko; Osada, Yukiko
Objective: To understand the independent and interactive effects of childhood abuse history (CAH) and domestic violence (DV) on the mental health status of women in Japan. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among a sample of 340 women staying in 83 Mother-Child Homes in Japan to assess the women's CAH and DV…
Holden, Kisha B.; McKenzie, Robetta; Pruitt, Vikki; Aaron, Katrina; Hall, Stephanie
This study examines the relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms, substance abuse and intimate partner violence among 602 African American, Hispanic, White, Asian American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander pregnant women who are clients of the Augusta Partnership for Children, Inc., a nonprofit collaborative that works with agencies, organizations, and individuals to improve the lives of children and families in Augusta-Richmond County, Georgia. D...
Gladstone, Gemma L; Parker, Gordon B; Mitchell, Philip B; Malhi, Gin S; Wilhelm, Kay; Austin, Marie-Paule
Data from depressed women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse were used to characterize clinical features that distinguished the two groups and to examine relationships of childhood sexual abuse to lifetime deliberate self-harm and recent interpersonal violence. One hundred twenty-five women with depressive disorders were interviewed and completed self-report questionnaires. Path analysis was used to examine relationships of several childhood and personality variables with deliberate self-harm in adulthood and recent interpersonal violence. Women with a childhood sexual abuse history reported more childhood physical abuse, childhood emotional abuse, and parental conflict in the home, compared to women without a childhood sexual abuse history. The two groups were similar in severity of depression, but the women with a childhood sexual abuse history were more likely to have attempted suicide and/or engaged in deliberate self-harm. The women with a history of childhood sexual abuse also became depressed earlier in life, were more likely to have panic disorder, and were more likely to report a recent assault. Path analysis confirmed the contributory role of childhood sexual abuse to deliberate self-harm and the significance of childhood physical abuse for recent interpersonal violence. Childhood sexual abuse is an important risk factor to identify in women with depression. Depressed women with a childhood sexual abuse history constitute a subgroup of patients who may require tailored interventions to combat both depression recurrence and harmful and self-defeating coping strategies.
Leclerc, Bianca; Bergeron, Sophie; Binik, Yitzchak M; Khalifé, Samir
Dyspareunia is a women's sexual health problem that still often goes undiagnosed despite its high prevalence and its detrimental impact on sexual, relationship, and psychological adjustment. Although sexual and physical abuse may constitute risk factors for the development of dyspareunia, the effects of past abuse on current pain and associated sexual and psychosocial impairments have never been examined. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the relation between a history of sexual and physical abuse and a series of pain, psychological, dyadic, and sexual functioning variables in a sample of women with dyspareunia. A hundred and fifty-one women took part in the study via health professional referrals and advertisements in local newspapers. Each participant underwent a standardized gynecological examination and a structured interview in order to confirm the diagnosis of dyspareunia. They also completed self-report questionnaires investigating past sexual and physical abuse, in addition to current pain, psychosocial adjustment, and sexual functioning. Dependent measures included: (i) The Brief Symptom Inventory; (ii) the Sexual History Form; and (iii) the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Scale. Pain was assessed via the McGill Pain Questionnaire and a visual analogue scale. Results revealed that a history of sexual abuse involving penetration was associated with poorer psychological adjustment and sexual functioning. Additionally, findings showed that women who perceived a link between their dyspareunia and their past sexual abuse reported worse sexual functioning than those who did not. Finally, the experience of sexual abuse was not associated with pain intensity and physical abuse was not associated with any of the outcome measures. Findings suggest that the presence of a sexual abuse history in women with dyspareunia is associated with increased psychological distress and sexual impairment, although there is no relation between a history of physical abuse
Koziol-McLain, Jane; Vandal, Alain C; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Wilson, Denise; Glass, Nancy E; Eden, Karen B; McLean, Christine; Dobbs, Terry; Case, James
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and its associated negative mental health consequences are significant for women in New Zealand and internationally. One of the most widely recommended interventions is safety planning. However, few women experiencing violence access specialist services for safety planning. A safety decision aid, weighing the dangers of leaving or staying in an abusive relationship, gives women the opportunity to prioritise, plan and take action to increase safety for themselves and their children. This randomised controlled trial is testing the effectiveness of an innovative, interactive web-based safety decision aid. The trial is an international collaborative concurrent replication of a USA trial (IRIS study NCT01312103), regionalised for the Aotearoa New Zealand culture and offers fully automated online trial recruitment, eligibility screening and consent. In a fully automated web-based trial (isafe) 340 abused women will be randomly assigned in equal numbers to a safety decision aid intervention or usual safety planning control website. Intervention components include: (a) safety priority setting, (b) danger assessment and (c) an individually tailored safety action plan. Self-reported outcome measures are collected at baseline and 3, 6, and 12-months post-baseline. Primary outcomes are depression (measured by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Revised) and IPV exposure (measured by Severity Violence Against Women Scale) at 12 months post-baseline. Secondary outcomes include PTSD, psychological abuse, decisional conflict, safety behaviors and danger in the relationship. This trial will provide much-needed information on the potential relationships among safety planning, improved mental health, reduced violence as well as decreased decisional conflict related to safety in the abusive relationship. The novel web-based safety decision aid intervention may provide a cost-effective, easily accessed safety-planning resource that can be
Substance use was considered to be primarily a male problem, and many substance abuse studies are conducted with a predominance of male participants. However, recent substance abuse research indicates significant gender differences in the substance-related epidemiology, social factors and characteristics, biological responses, progressions to dependence, medical consequences, co-occurring psychiatric disorders, and barriers to treatment entry, retention, and completion. The epidemiology of women's drug use presents challenges separate from those raised by men's drug use. A convergence of evidence suggests that women with substance use disorders are more likely than men to face multiple barriers affecting access and entry to substance abuse treatment. Gender-specific medical problems as a result of the interplay of gender-specific drug use patterns and sex-related risk behaviors create an environment in which women are more vulnerable than men to human immunodeficiency virus. Individual characteristics and treatment approaches can differentially affect outcomes by gender. All of these differences have important clinical, treatment, and research implications.
Chen, Gila; Gueta, Keren
The mental health problems and pathways to drug addiction and crime among female inmates have long been of interest to researchers and practitioners. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible association between multiple types of childhood abuse, mental health problems, and drug addiction and the incarceration of 50 Israeli women in prison. The findings indicated that female inmates come from risky families with a high prevalence of family mental health problems, parental drug addiction and crime, and sibling drug addiction and crime. Furthermore, they revealed that incarcerated women from risky families were victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect by their parents, as well as their siblings. Overall, the results suggest that the adverse consequences of a family's mental health problems are much more dramatic than we assumed to date, and that women are more likely than men to be the victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect, as well as suffering more severe psychiatric problems, depression, and drug addiction. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haug, Nancy A; Duffy, Megan; McCaul, Mary E
Women who use tobacco, alcohol and drugs during pregnancy are at increased risk of maternal and fetal morbidity. Universal screening using empirically validated approaches can improve identification of substance-using pregnant women and facilitate comprehensive assessment of treatment needs. There is strong evidence for effectiveness of psychosocial and behavioral substance abuse treatments across a range of intensities and levels of care. In addition to addressing substance use, services for co-occurring psychiatric disorders, trauma exposure, and prenatal care are important components of coordinated systems of care. More research on and greater access to evidence-based interventions is needed for this underserved population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nordenfors, Monica; Höjer, Ingrid
This article is about the support given to pregnant women and mothers, at an antenatal and child welfare team in Gothenburg (Sweden), specialised on working with mothers who abuse alcohol and/or other substances. The study consists of interviews with 17 women. The aim of the article is to account for how the women experienced the support they got and how they perceived the impact. The results show the importance for the staff of finding the balance between control and support and of creating a non-judgmental attitude in order to build trusting relationships with the women. The organization of the MBHV-team is a prerequisite for the staff to be able to design support based on an assessment of the mother's whole situation.
Ghebremichael, Musie; Paintsil, Elijah; Larsen, Ulla
To assess the covariates of alcohol abuse and the association between alcohol abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Two thousand and nineteen women aged 20 to 44 were randomly selected in a 2-stage sampling from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participant's demographic and socio-economic characteristics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors, and STIs were assessed. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas, and mycoplasma genitalium infections. Adjusted analyses showed that a history of physical (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.06-3.98) and sexual violence (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.05-2.51) was associated with alcohol abuse. Moreover, alcohol abuse was associated with number of sexual partners (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01-2.73). Women who abused alcohol were more likely to report STIs symptoms (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.08-2.40). Women who had multiple sexual partners were more likely to have an STI (OR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.46-4.00) compared to women with 1 sexual partner. There was no direct association between alcohol abuse and prevalence of STIs (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.55-1.34). However, alcohol abuse was indirectly associated with STIs through its association with multiple sexual partners. The findings of alcohol abuse among physically and sexually violated women as well as the association between alcohol abuse and a history of symptoms of STIs and testing positive for STIs have significant public health implications. In sub-Saharan Africa, where women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic screening for alcohol use should be part of comprehensive STIs and HIV prevention programs.
Sônia Regina Marangoni
Full Text Available This study characterized the sociodemographic and obstetric profile of women users of drugs of abuse during pregnancy. This is a descriptive and exploratory study, whose approach technique was the document records analysis of toxicological occurrence and medical charts of 32 women referred to a center for information and toxicological assistance of the Paraná State, between 2008 and 2010. The data were subjected to descriptive statistics. Most women had between 15 and 24 years (59.4%, between the first and third gestation, without prenatal care, poorly educated, without paid occupation (93.8%, and were in a common-law marriage (50%. Tobacco was used by 27 women (84.4%, crack by 24 (75%, and alcohol by 23 (71.7%. Besides the habitual use of drugs of abuse, it also stood out as risk factors before the pregnancy: teenage pregnancy, insecure marital status, and low education. As for the risks during the pregnancy, the most important clinical and obstetric problems were associated with addictive behavior. The sociodemographic profile corroborated the literature, but the multiparity, the low adhrence to the prenatal care, the multiuse of drugs, and the high number of complications, have indicated problems of health services to reach these women, resulting in a prolonged stay length, increased use of neonatal beds, and neonatal death.
Florentina C Kunseler
Full Text Available This study tested experimentally whether the combination of a history of childhood abuse and confrontation with difficult infant temperament is associated with negative changes in parenting self-efficacy. First-time pregnant women (N = 243 participated in the Adult Attachment Interview, which was used to assess the occurrence of abuse by parents in childhood and unresolved representations, and completed a task asking them to respond to infant cries. Sixty of the 243 participants (25% experienced childhood abuse, mostly physical or sexual. The task simulated infant temperamental difficulty by manipulating soothing success in order to reflect an easy-to-soothe (80% soothing success and a difficult-to-soothe infant (20% soothing success. Both after baseline and after each of the two stimulus series women assessed their parenting self-efficacy. Women who reported childhood abuse did not differ from women who reported no childhood abuse in parenting self-efficacy at baseline or in response to the easy-to-soothe infant (relative to baseline, but decreased more in parenting self-efficacy following the difficult-to-soothe infant. Effects did not vary according to resolution of trauma. These findings suggest that in response to infant temperamental difficulty, women who experienced childhood abuse may more easily lose confidence in their parenting abilities, which underlines the importance of preparing at-risk women for the possible challenges that come along with parenthood.
Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko; Osada, Yukiko
To understand the independent and interactive effects of childhood abuse history (CAH) and domestic violence (DV) on the mental health status of women in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among a sample of 340 women staying in 83 Mother-Child Homes in Japan to assess the women's CAH and DV experiences, along with their current mental health problems, including dissociated, depressed, and traumatic symptoms. Independent from DV, CAH, especially psychological abuse, had a significant impact on all of the women's mental health symptoms. DV was found to have an independent effect on traumatic symptoms. Weak interactive effects of CAH and DV were found on dissociated and traumatic symptoms. Among those women without CAH, DV was significantly associated with dissociated and traumatic symptoms; however, DV had no impact on dissociated and traumatic symptoms if CAH was present. The findings suggest the significant impact of CAH on women's mental health problems, independent from DV. CAH and DV weakly interact on women's mental health. In psychological therapy for battered women with mental health problems, if the cases were abused during childhood, it is recommended that therapy be focused on childhood abuse, especially if the client was psychologically abused. In addition, mental health care and welfare providers should be aware that the mental health problems of mothers without CAH might be exacerbated by DV; thus, appropriate resource allocation should be considered. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Güneş, Gizem; Karaçam, Zekiye
To examine the feeling of discomfort during vaginal examinations, history of abuse and sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder in women to determine the correlation between these variables. Women who have experienced abuse or sexual abuse may feel more discomfort during vaginal examinations and may perceive a sensation similar to what they experienced during sexual abuse. Cross-sectional. This study included 320 women receiving a vaginal examination. The data were collected using a questionnaire composed of items related to descriptive characteristics, vaginal examinations and violence, a visual analogue scale of discomfort, and the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale-civilian version. The mean score for the feeling of discomfort during vaginal examinations was 3·92 ± 3·34; 26·3% of the women described discomfort. Thirty-eight (12%) of the 320 women had experienced emotional violence, 25 (8%) had experienced physical violence, and 25 (8%) had been forced into sexual intercourse by their spouses. Of the women, 64·7% suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder, and physical, emotional and sexual violence were found to increase the possibility of this disorder. Exposure to emotional violence increased the possibility of discomfort during vaginal examinations by 4·5 (OR = 4·482; 95% CI = 1·421-14·134). Post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 1·038; 95% CI = 1·009-1·066) was found to increase the possibility of discomfort during vaginal examinations; however, as the number of live births increases, women reported a reduction in their discomfort with vaginal examinations. This study revealed a positive correlation between discomfort during vaginal examinations and emotional violence and post-traumatic stress disorder but a negative correlation between discomfort during vaginal examinations and the number of live births. In addition, having a history of abuse and sexual abuse was found to increase post-traumatic stress disorder. Considering
Ísis Eloah Machado
Full Text Available The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze factors associated with alcohol consumption among adult women living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2011. Data for Belo Horizonte were obtained from the VIGITEL system (Telephone-Based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases. Alcohol use was defined as self-reported intake of at least one dose in the previous 30 days; alcohol abuse was defined as four or more doses on at least one occasion during the same period. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol use was more prevalent among women 25 to 34 years of age. Alcohol abuse was associated with age, schooling, health status, and smoking. The results suggest the need for policies to prevent alcohol abuse among women, especially targeting those who are younger, single, smokers, and with more education.
Tenkorang, Eric Y; Obeng Gyimah, Stephen
This study examined the relationship of physical abuse in early childhood and timing of first sexual intercourse among young South Africans aged 14 to 22 in Cape Town. Using the Cape area panel survey and applying log-normal models, time ratios were estimated to show how rapidly or slowly youth experience first sexual intercourse. Results indicated that boys who experienced physical abuse in early childhood had faster timing to first sex. Boys and girls with violent school environments had faster timing to first sex. Race moderated the effects of physical abuse. Compared to Blacks, Coloreds who experienced higher levels of physical abuse in early childhood had faster timing to first sex. Youth with greater knowledge about HIV/AIDS and those with greater risk perception of contracting HIV/AIDS delayed first sex. On the basis of these findings, policy makers are encouraged to consider the early childhood experiences of youth when designing policies toward HIV/AIDS prevention in South Africa.
Castelo-Branco, Camil; Parera, Nuria; Mendoza, Nicolás; Pérez-Campos, Ezequiel; Lete, Iñaki
To assess alcohol abuse as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among adolescents and young adult women, a high-risk population for unintended pregnancies. Totally 3163 adolescent and young adult women, 18-29 years, were assessed on sociodemographics, alcohol and drug use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants answered a structured questionnaire on their leisure habits, drug and alcohol consumption, contraception and sexual behaviors. Most of the young adult women perceive that sexuality is an important part of their life but not a main concern (77.6%) and that alcohol removes the barriers to have sex (62.3%). Additionally, 77.0% claimed that contraception had "a lot" (53.4%) and "quite" (23.6%) influence on the quality of their sexuality. However, up to a 38.4% of the interviewed women had had sex without using any contraception and 29.6% of them acknowledged that had taken alcohol and of these, 40.7% said that alcohol was responsible for not using contraception. Alcohol abuse predicted an increase in risky sexual behaviours (4.45 CI: 2.01-9.75, p sexual risk behavior.
Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J.; Rosanbalm, Katherine D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.
In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the presence of the participants’ target infants between birth and age 26 months. Mediating pathways were examined through structural equation modeling and tested using the products of the coefficients approach. The mediated pathway from maternal history of sexual abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization was significant (standardized mediated path [ab]=.07, 95% CI [.02, .14]; effect size=.26), as was the mediated pathway from maternal history of physical abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization (standardized mediated path [ab]=.05, 95% CI [.01, .11]; effect size =.19). There was no significant mediated pathway from maternal history of neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of specific implications for child maltreatment prevention, including the importance of assessment and early intervention for maternal history of maltreatment and substance use problems, targeting women with maltreatment histories for substance use services, and integrating child welfare and parenting programs with substance use treatment. PMID:21240556
Graziosi, Giuseppe C.; Bruinse, Hein W.; Reuwer, Paul J.; Mol, Ben W.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the preference of women with early pregnancy failure for treatment with misoprostol as compared to curettage. STUDY DESIGN: Women with early pregnancy failure were interviewed and asked whether they were motivated to trade a non-invasive but potentially
Milivojevic, V; Sinha, R; Morgan, PT; Sofuoglu, M; Fox, HC
Objective As sex differences in substance dependence may impinge upon the perception and regulation of emotion, we assess Emotional Intelligence (EI) as a function of gender, menstrual cycle (MC) phase and hormonal changes in early abstinent cocaine dependent individuals who abuse alcohol (CDA). Methods Study 1: The Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was administered to 98 CDA (55M/43F) and 56 healthy (28M/28F) individuals. Performance in women was also assessed by MC phase. Study 2: The MSCEIT was administered to 18 CDA (19M/9F) who received exogenous progesterone (400mg/day) versus placebo for 7 days. (Study 2). Results Study 1: Healthy females were better than healthy males at facilitating thought and managing emotions. This gender discrepancy was not observed in the CDA group. Additionally, all women in the high compared with the low progesterone phase of their MC were better at managing their emotions. Study 2: Exogenous progesterone improved ability to facilitate thought in both males and females. Conclusions CDA women may be vulnerable to difficulties managing and regulating emotions. Gonadal hormones may contribute to this gender effect, as increases in both endogenous and exogenous progesterone improved selective aspects of EI. PMID:25363303
Milivojevic, Verica; Sinha, Rajita; Morgan, Peter T; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Fox, Helen C
As sex differences in substance dependence may impinge upon the perception and regulation of emotion, we assess emotional intelligence (EI) as a function of gender, menstrual cycle (MC) phase and hormonal changes in early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals who abuse alcohol (CDA). Study 1: The Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was administered to 98 CDA (55 M/43 F) and 56 healthy (28 M/28 F) individuals. Performance in women was also assessed by MC phase. Study 2: The MSCEIT was administered to 28 CDA (19 M/9 F) who received exogenous progesterone (400 mg/day) versus placebo for 7 days (study 2). Study 1: Healthy females were better than healthy males at facilitating thought and managing emotions. This gender discrepancy was not observed in the CDA group. Additionally, all women in the high compared with the low progesterone phase of their MC were better at managing their emotions. Study 2: Exogenous progesterone improved ability to facilitate thought in both males and females. CDA women may be vulnerable to difficulties managing and regulating emotions. Gonadal hormones may contribute to this gender effect, as increases in both endogenous and exogenous progesterone improved selective aspects of EI. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wilcox - Boulton, Helen
This article explores aspects of the textual relationship between women and early modern London by examining three verbal 'snapshots' of the city in works either written by women or focusing on women in their urban environment. The first text, Isabella Whitney's 'Wyll and Testament' (1573),
Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht
% dyspareunia. The occurrence of sexual problems was significantly correlated to childhood physical violence, current psychological distress, flashbacks in sexual situations and discomfort with physical endearment. The prevalence of sexual pain disorders were also positively correlated to “no adult support......” in childhood. The present study finds that psychiatric patients in terms of women with a history of intrafamilial CSA have wide-ranging sexual problems. It is crucial to screen for sexual problems and address them during treatment.......This study investigated sexual function in women with a history of severe intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the correlation between sexual problems and the severity of CSA, adult support during childhood and current psychiatric symptoms. The sample consisted of 158 women who...
Gao, Y.; Raine, A.; Chan, F.; Venables, P. H.; Mednick, S. A.
Background A significant gap in the literature on risk factors for psychopathy is the relative lack of research on parental bonding. Method This study examines the cross-sectional relationship between maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and psychopathic personality at age 28 years in a community sample of 333 males and females. It also assesses prospectively whether children separated from their parents in the first 3 years of life are more likely to have a psychopathic-like personality 25 years later. Results Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that: (1) poor parental bonding (lack of maternal care and low paternal overprotection) and childhood physical abuse were both associated with a psychopathic personality; (2) parental bonding was significantly associated with psychopathic personality after taking into account sex, social adversity, ethnicity and abuse; (3) those separated from parents in the first 3 years of life were particularly characterized by low parental bonding and a psychopathic personality in adulthood; and (4) the deviant behavior factor of psychopathy was more related to lack of maternal care whereas the emotional detachment factor was related to both lack of maternal care and paternal overprotection. Conclusions Findings draw attention to the importance of different components of early bonding in relation to adult psychopathy, and may have potential implications for early intervention and prevention of psychopathy. PMID:20441692
Gao, Y; Raine, A; Chan, F; Venables, P H; Mednick, S A
A significant gap in the literature on risk factors for psychopathy is the relative lack of research on parental bonding.MethodThis study examines the cross-sectional relationship between maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and psychopathic personality at age 28 years in a community sample of 333 males and females. It also assesses prospectively whether children separated from their parents in the first 3 years of life are more likely to have a psychopathic-like personality 25 years later. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that: (1) poor parental bonding (lack of maternal care and low paternal overprotection) and childhood physical abuse were both associated with a psychopathic personality; (2) parental bonding was significantly associated with psychopathic personality after taking into account sex, social adversity, ethnicity and abuse; (3) those separated from parents in the first 3 years of life were particularly characterized by low parental bonding and a psychopathic personality in adulthood; and (4) the deviant behavior factor of psychopathy was more related to lack of maternal care whereas the emotional detachment factor was related to both lack of maternal care and paternal overprotection. Findings draw attention to the importance of different components of early bonding in relation to adult psychopathy, and may have potential implications for early intervention and prevention of psychopathy.
Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen
This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…
Kussin-Shoptaw, Alexandra L; Fletcher, Jesse B; Reback, Cathy J
Transgender women have consistently reported elevated rates of lifetime physical and sexual abuse. This study examined the associations between reported physical and/or sexual abuse and symptoms of psychological and emotional distress among a sample of urban, high-risk transgender women. From June 2005 through July 2012, 99 transgender women enrolled in a Comprehensive Risk Counseling and Services program in Hollywood, CA. Seemingly unrelated regression equations (SURE) were used to simultaneously regress psychiatric symptom reports on participant sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported history of physical/sexual abuse. Participants were African American/Black (33.3%), Caucasian/White (28.3%), or Hispanic/Latina (24.2%). Average age was 35 years (standard deviation [SD] = 9), and 37.4% of participants self-reported an HIV-positive status. Most (84.9%) participants reported experiencing physical or sexual abuse at some point in their lifetime, and symptoms of psychological and emotional distress (as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory) among those who reported abuse were more severe than those observed in cisgender psychiatric in-patient populations. After controlling for participant sociodemographics, prior experience of physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with significantly increased psychological and emotional distress across all measured symptom domains except psychoticism [χ 2 (9) = 17.56; p < 0.05]. Given these associations as well as the high prevalence of physical and/or sexual abuse among transgender women, mental health professionals and social service providers working with this population should be sensitive to the abuse history and mental health needs of the transgender women with whom they work.
Lewis, Ione R.
Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…
Full Text Available This article focuses on the quantitative grounds for the emergence and spread of addiction among women, its medical, social and psychological problems, impediments for the treatment of addiction among women as well as gender differences concerning drug abuse and its treatment. This article is a translation of a statistical research on addiction among women and a number of other researches. Based on conclusions drawn from the said researches, women become inclined to addiction mostly by their husbands due to their cordial relationships. Moreover, the negative attitudes of peer groups can overshadow girls and women more than boys and men. From the viewpoint of psychological disorders, the relationship between disorders resulting from psychological pressure after an incident and addiction is stronger among girls and women compared to boys and men. Addiction among women in addition to certain ailments such as malnutrition, hypertension and cancer, can expose them to dangerous diseases such as Hepatitis and AIDS. There is more possibility for addicted women to be infected with AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases compared to men and they are more exposed to female ailments compared to other women. As far as treatment impediments are concerned, women face a greater social stigma due to their addiction compared to men. Social approach considering addicted women as an indecent person is a major impediment for their treatment. Taking care of the child is also another obstacle for their treatment. There is less possibility for women to receive support from their families for quitting their addiction compared to men. Treatment programs also unwantedly may create obstacles for the treatment of women such as financial constraints, administrative bureaucracy, concentration of treatment programs for men and lack of sensitivity towards women’s addiction. The psychological impediments to treatment include internalizing the notion that addiction is a
Sandra K. Cesario
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To measure the impact of shelter intervention and protection orders on the mental health functioning, resiliency, and further abuse of documented and undocumented immigrant women and their children in Houston, Texas, United States. METHODS: A prospective cohort study initiated in 2011 examined a subsample of 106 immigrant mothers, primarily from Mexico and Central America, and evaluated their functioning with a battery of 13 well-established instruments as they accessed either shelter or justice services; followed-up was conducted 4 months later to measure improvement. Data were analyzed with a series of repeated measures 2 x 2 x 2 factorial analysis of variance tests. RESULTS: Large effect size improvements were observed in abused immigrant women’s mental health, resiliency, and safety, regardless of whether the intervention accessed was safe shelter or justice services, and regardless of duration of shelter stay and whether or not a protection order was issued. Similarly, large effect size improvements were observed in child functioning, independent of which type of intervention, the duration of shelter stay, or the issuance of a protection order. CONCLUSIONS: Accessing protective services has the potential to improve the health of immigrant women and their children, regardless of documentation status. Global policy for improved access and acceptability of shelter and justice services is essential to promote immigrant women’s safety and to maximize functioning of women and children.
Brabeck, Kalina M; Guzmán, Michele R
This study documented the frequency and perceived effectiveness of battered Mexican-origin women's usage of formal and informal help and personal strategies to survive abuse. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 75 battered Mexican-origin women. Consistent with survivor theory, results indicated that participants sought help multiple times from several formal and informal help sources; some (i.e., shelter, family) were perceived more effective than others (i.e., lawyer, in-laws). Participants engaged in various personal strategies to survive abuse; some (i.e., using faith/religion) were rated more effective than others (i.e., placating the batterer). Responses to open-ended questions suggest why specific help sources and strategies were/were not effective and provide socioculturally specific suggestions for improving services. This study illuminates battered Mexican-origin women's strengths and barriers that impede their survival efforts. Contributions include focusing on a subset of battered Latinas and documenting the frequency and perceived effectiveness of a wide array of help sources and strategies.
Lau, Marianne; Kristensen, Ellids
Child and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) increases the risk for adult sexual assault (ASA), and psychological vulnerability as well as aspects of CSA and upbringing might influence the risk. The aims of this study were to investigate whether women who reported both CSA and ASA: 1) have been exposed to more severe CSA and 2) have greater psychological distress and vulnerability than women who were not revictimized. The study was a cross-sectional study of 161 adult women with a reported history of intrafamilial CSA. Thirty-six per cent of the women stated they had been exposed to ASA. The severity of CSA, psychological distress (Symptoms Checklist-90-R) and Cognitive Distortion were assessed. Five factors of Cognitive Distortion (fearful, scared, shy, mistrust and vulnerable) were identified by factor analysis of Symptoms Checklist-90-R sub-scale. The CSA was significantly more severe (penetration: 77%/60%; multiple offenders: 67%/25%) in women exposed to ASA compared with their counterparts, as was the rate of suicide attempts (47%/30%). Also, the psychological distress and the factors: fearful, scared, shy and mistrust were significant higher. The results showed an increased psychological vulnerability among women with ASA, but whether the results are cause or effect of sexual revictimization or can be generalized to other clinical samples are not clear. Interventions targeting the increased risk of ASA should be developed, implemented and tested in prevention as well treatment programmes.
Cong, E; Li, Y; Shao, C; Chen, J; Wu, W; Shang, X; Wang, Z; Liu, Y; Liu, L; Gao, C; Li, Y; Wu, J; Deng, H; Liu, J; Sang, W; Liu, G; Rong, H; Gan, Z; Li, L; Li, K; Pan, J; Li, Y; Cui, Y; Sun, L; Liu, L; Liu, H; Zhao, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, R; Chen, Y; Wang, X; Li, H; Chen, Y; Lin, Y; Kendler, K S; Flint, J; Shi, S
Studies in Western countries have repeatedly shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in China? Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression and regression coefficients by linear or Poisson regression. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD [OR 3.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95-5.45]. This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.17-5.23), genital (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.32-5.83) and intercourse (OR 13.35, 95% CI 1.83-97.42). The association between any form of CSA and MD remained significant after accounting for parental history of depression, childhood emotional neglect (CEN), childhood physical abuse (CPA) and parent-child relationship. Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes and an increased risk for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.39-2.66) and dysthymia (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.52-3.09). In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes and increased co-morbidity with GAD and dysthymia. Although reporting biases cannot be ruled out, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that, as in Western countries, CSA substantially increases the risk for MD in China.
Warren, Cortney S; Lindsay, Anne R; White, Emily K; Claudat, Kim; Velasquez, Sara C
Women in substance abuse treatment increasingly report weight-related concerns as motivation for drug use. However, limited research has explored the nature of these concerns or examined whether women in substance abuse treatment with weight-related concerns related to drug use differ from those who do not on variables relevant to eating pathology. Using a sample of 297 women in substance abuse treatment, this study examined two intertwined issues: (1) the prevalence and nature of weight-related concerns related to drug use and (2) whether women who endorse weight-related concerns related to drug use differ from those without weight-related concerns on body dissatisfaction, eating pathology, perceived pressure and internalization of thin-ideal media, and appearance-related drug-use expectancies. Descriptive analyses indicated that the majority of participants were concerned about gaining weight during treatment and/or that weight gain could trigger drug relapse. Analyses of variance revealed that women who reported weight-based concerns (both with regards to weight gain during treatment and relapse potential) endorsed higher levels of body dissatisfaction, dieting, bulimic symptoms, and thin-ideal internalization than women who did not endorse weight-related concerns. Results suggest that substance abuse treatment programs should be aware of and address weight-related concerns around drug use for women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Breno, Angela L.; Galupo, M. Paz
This research provides descriptive data regarding sexual abuse histories of high-functioning women (N = 84; 18-25 years old) previously in the child welfare system. Placement histories of foster youth who were sexually abused were distinct. Girls with a history of sexual abuse were more likely to have been in restrictive housing and changed…
Matsuura, Naomi; Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko
This study examined the following hypotheses: (1) a child abuse history (CAH), domestic violence (DV), and child abuse by an intimate partner might have a crucial and specific influence but act differently on women's negative mental health; (2) CAH, DV, child abuse by an intimate partner, and negative mental health might be predictors of maternal child abuse, with complex interactions. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among a sample of mothers (N=304) and their children (N=498) staying in 83 Mother-Child Homes in Japan to assess the women's CAH and DV experiences, along with their current mental health problems, including dissociated, depressed, and traumatic symptoms. A structural equation modeling (SEM) was adapted to test whether a complex theoretical model fits the actual relationship among a set of observed measures. Our model confirmed the linkage with broader aspects of violence within the family such as CAH and DV, focusing on women's mental health problems reported by them. In addition, CAH, DV, child abuse by intimate partner, and maternal mental health might have a crucial and specific but act influence on maternal child abuse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Muzik, Maria; Bocknek, Erika London; Broderick, Amanda; Richardson, Patricia; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Thelen, Kelsie; Seng, Julia S
Our goal was to examine the trajectory of bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum in the context of maternal risk, including maternal history of childhood abuse and neglect and postpartum psychopathology, and to test the association between self-reported bonding impairment and observed positive parenting behaviors. In a sample of women with childhood abuse and neglect histories (CA+, n = 97) and a healthy control comparison group (CA-, n = 53), participants completed questionnaires related to bonding with their infants at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months postpartum and psychopathology at 6 months postpartum. In addition, during a 6-month postpartum home visit, mothers and infants participated in a dyadic play interaction subsequently coded for positive parenting behaviors by blinded coders. We found that all women, independent of risk status, increased in bonding with their infant over the first 6 months postpartum; however, women with postpartum psychopathology (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) showed consistently greater bonding impairment scores at all timepoints. Moreover, we found that, at the 6-month assessment, bonding impairment and observed parenting behaviors were significantly associated. These results highlight the adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression and PTSD on mother-infant bonding in early postpartum in women with child abuse and neglect histories. These findings also shed light on the critical need for early detection and effective treatment of postpartum mental illness in order to prevent problematic parenting and the development of disturbed mother-infant relationships. Results support the use of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire as a tool to assess parenting quality by its demonstrated association with observed parenting behaviors.
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Knighton, Joi-Sheree'; Allen, Kristin; Fisher, Sycarah; Crowell, Candice; Mahaffey, Carlos; Leukefeld, Carl; Oser, Carrie
The rates of illicit drug use among African American women are increasing, yet African American women are least likely to participate in treatment for substance use disorders when compared to women of other racial groups. The current study examined family history of substance use, perceived family support, and John Henryism Active Coping (JHAC) as correlates to seeking treatment for substance abuse. The underlying theoretical frame of JHAC (James et al., 1983) suggests that despite limited resources and psychosocial stressors, African Americans believe that hard work and self-determination are necessary to cope with adversities. The current study is a secondary data analyses of 206 drug-using African American women (N=104 urban community women with no criminal justice involvement and N=102 women living in the community on supervised probation) from urban cities in a southern state. It was expected that African American women with a family history of substance abuse, higher levels of perceived family support, and more active coping skills would be more likely to have participated in substance abuse treatment. Step-wise logistic regression results reveal that women on probation, had children, and had a family history of substance abuse were significantly more likely to report participating in substance abuse treatment. Perceived family support and active coping were significant negative correlates of participating in treatment. Implication of results suggests coping with psychosocial stressors using a self-determined and persistent coping strategy may be problematic for drug-using women with limited resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this unprecedented humanitarian crisis, women refugees are experiencing extreme vulnerability and violence, both during their journey and in the camps. Our objectives through this article are to analyze how women are being treated in the Social Media (images, discourses, social representations, or narratives. Data for this article were extracted from Twitter (with the help of Nodel XL Pro, from which we collected 1,807,901 tweets about “refugees”, using this word as search strings in six different languages. One complete year was covered (starting at mid-2015. Our final dataset was composed of 862,999 tweets. Results suggest that women refugees are targeted just because of their gender. Women are constantly victimized and mistreated due to the perpetuation of a patriarchal outlook that justifies abusing women. We also found many discourses disseminated through Twitter that reject refugees based on disproportionate generalizations and stereotypes, and unfounded and radicalised arguments., using gender difference to feed racism and xenophobia.
Calsyn, Donald A.; Peavy, K. Michelle; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Greenfield, Shelly F.; Tross, Susan
Examining attitudes and skills regarding condom use by men and women in substance abuse treatment who engage in high risk sexual behavior may help to explain their inconsistent condom use. Men and women enrolled in two multi-site HIV risk reduction studies were administered the Condom Barriers Scale, Condom Use Skills and an audio computer-assisted structured interview assessing sexual risk behavior. Men endorsed more barriers to condom use than women, especially in the Effects on Sexual Experience factor. For both men and women, stronger endorsement of barriers to condom use was associated with less use of condoms. However, the difference between condom users and condom non-users in endorsement of condom barriers in general is greater for men than women, especially for those who report having casual partners. Findings support the need to focus on gender-specific barriers to condom use in HIV/STI prevention interventions, especially risk behavior intervention techniques that address sexual experience with condoms. PMID:23414501
Calsyn, Donald A; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Meade, Christina S; Tross, Susan; Campbell, Aimee N C; Beadnell, Blair
Heterosexual anal intercourse (HAI) is an understudied risk behavior among women and men in substance abuse treatment. Rates of HAI for women (n = 441) and men (n = 539) were identified for any, main and casual partners. More men (32.8 %) than women (27.1 %) reported engaging in HAI in the previous 90 days. These rates are higher than those reported for both men (6.0-15.9 %) and women (3.5-13.0 %) ages 25-59 in the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior. Men were significantly more likely to report HAI with their casual partners (34.1 %) than women (16.7 %). In a logistic regression model generated to identify associations between HAI and variables previously shown to be related to high risk sexual behavior, being younger, bisexual, and White were significantly associated with HAI. For men, having more sex partners was also a significant correlate. HAI is a logical target for increased focus in HIV prevention interventions.
Surianti Sukeri, PhD
Full Text Available Objectives: This qualitative study aims to discover the factors that influenced the decisions of women who successfully escaped domestic violence by attaining a divorce. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 women, ages 21-56 who were either divorced or currently in the process of getting divorced in Kelantan, Malaysia. Results: Several themes emerged, indicating the following five reasons for divorce: 1 reaching the point of ultimatum, 2 having adequate support pre- and post-divorce, 3 concern for children's welfare, 4 seeking financial independence, and 5 fear of harm. Conclusion: The identification of the driving factors for divorce may spark a change in our society's mindset to empower female divorcees and allow them to lead happy, abuse-free lives. Keywords: Divorce, Domestic violence, In-depth interview, Malaysia
Women were not considered in preliminary discussions concerning the events, designation of participants, competitive attire, and problems relating to amateurism in the first Olympic games. Golf was the first sport in which women participated in the Olympics, and the first woman to achieve Olympic recognition for the United States did so by winning…
Murray-Close, Dianna; Rellini, Alessandra H
This study examined the association between cardiovascular reactivity and proactive and reactive functions of relational aggression among women with and without a history of sexual abuse. Heart rate reactivity, blood pressure reactivity, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity while recounting a relational stressor (e.g., being left out) were assessed. Participants provided self-reports of relational aggression and a history of sexual abuse prior to age 16. Results indicated that cardiovascular reactivity was only associated with relational aggression among women with a history of sexual abuse. In addition, whereas blunted reactivity was associated with proactive relational aggression, exaggerated reactivity was associated with reactive relational aggression. These findings highlight the importance of considering contextual moderators of the association between cardiovascular reactivity and aggression; moreover, results highlight distinct cardiovascular correlates of different functions of aggression. Finally, the findings underscore the need for additional research examining the physiological correlates of aggressive behavior among women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boeckel, Mariana G; Blasco-Ros, Concepción; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martínez, Manuela
Intimate male partner violence against women has been recognized as an important public health problem, with a high impact on women's mental health, including depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, fathers who have been involved in intimate partner violence (IPV) have an increased probability of being violent toward their children. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between the mental health status of abused women, their partner's violence toward the children, and their maternal behavior.
Małgorzata H. Kowalczyk
Full Text Available Discussing the genesis of the phenomenon of the sexual abuse of children is a purpose of this study, of which women are perpetrators and on this background showing the possibility influences of therapeutic and rehabilitation perpetrators taken towards this category. Because such including the problem requires the etiologic and phenomenological preparatory analysis it is possible to think that with reference to women other factors or their configurations will be playing the major part than in case of men. The genesis of the phenomenon was described based on two concepts. A concept of Ward and Keenan of Implicit Theory which is concentrating on the clarification of the role of perversions is first in the thinking of perpetrators of the sexual exploitation. Pathways Model of Child Sexual Offending is the second concept of the authorship of Ward and Siegert. Model presented in this concept of paths, not only complementary explaining the genesis of the sexual abuse constitutes but contains also rehabilitation recommendations. The suggestions concerning the possibility of influences are finishing the study of therapeutic and rehabilitation towards this category of perpetrators based on action and LFF experience i.e. Foundation Lucy Faithfull in Great Britain.
Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina; Youngstrom, Eric A; Martinez, Maria; KogosYoungstrom, Jennifer; Scovil, Kelly; Ross, Jody; Feeny, Norah C; Findling, Robert L
The objective of this study was to determine if physical and sexual abuse showed relationships to early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) consistent with findings from adult retrospective data. Participants (N = 829, M = 10.9 years old ± 3.4 SD, 60% male, 69% African American, and 18% with BPSD), primarily from a low socio-economic status, presented to an urban community mental health center and a university research center. Physical abuse was reported in 21%, sexual abuse in 20%, and both physical and sexual abuse in 11% of youths with BPSD. For youths without BPSD, physical abuse was reported in 16%, sexual abuse in 15%, and both physical and sexual abuse in 5% of youths. Among youth with BPSD, physical abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe depressive and manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, a greater likelihood of suicidality, a greater likelihood of being diagnosed with PTSD, and more self-reports of alcohol or drug use. Among youth with BPSD, sexual abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, greater mood swings, more frequent episodes, more reports of past hospitalizations, and a greater number of current and past comorbid Axis I diagnoses. These findings suggest that if physical and/or sexual abuse is reported, clinicians should note that abuse appears to be related to increased severity of symptoms, substance use, greater co-morbidity, suicidality, and a worse family environment.
Danilo de Assis Pereira
This is a qualitative study grounded in Social Representations Theory (SRT, with descriptive approach. Objectives: the research aimed to identify the life trajectories of women incarcerated in the Public Jail Women's Votorantim, its prospects and the meanings attributed to prison. The specific objectives were: (1 identify the socio-demographic and clinical data, (2 the prevalence of depressive symptoms and (3 the use, abuse or dependence symptoms in women prisoners. Methods: we interviewed 25 women, trapped interim Chain Public Women's Votorantim. The arrested after signing the Instrument of Consent, responding to a data sheet Sociodemographic and Clinical Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. We use the Collective Subject Discourse to present the result of discursive question. For the rest of the specs of sociodemographic and clinical data and the Beck Depression Questionnaire, we chose the descriptive approach. Results: most of the interviewees was arrested for drug trafficking, has fragmented family history, present history of physical abuse and/or sexual abuse, have significant mental health problems, physical and substance abuse; 80% of women who responded to the BDI were identified as having moderate to severe depression, and the items that scored more this index were: loss of libido, sadness, punishment, insomnia. Conclusion: it is vital to ensure the rights of the imprisoned health access. We suggest that every convict follow a process of initial assessment, to be diagnosed soon: substance dependence and depression.
Pulverman, Carey S; Boyd, Ryan L; Stanton, Amelia M; Meston, Cindy M
Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about the sexual self that influence the processing of sexually pertinent information and guide sexual behavior. Until recently sexual self-schemas were exclusively assessed with self-report instruments. Recent research using the meaning extraction method, an inductive method of topic modeling, identified 7 unique themes of sexual self-schemas: family and development, virginity, abuse, relationship, sexual activity, attraction, and existentialism from essays of 239 women (Stanton, Boyd, Pulverman, & Meston, 2015). In the current study, these themes were used to examine changes in theme prominence after an expressive writing treatment. Women (n = 138) with a history of childhood sexual abuse completed a 5-session expressive writing treatment, and essays on sexual self-schemas written at pretreatment and posttreatment were examined for changes in themes. Women showed a reduction in the prominence of the abuse, family and development, virginity, and attraction themes, and an increase in the existentialism theme. This study supports the validity of the 7 themes identified by Stanton and colleagues (2015) and suggests that expressive writing may aid women with a history of sexual abuse to process their abuse history such that it becomes a less salient aspect of their sexual self-schemas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Mohammad mehdi Naghizadeh
Full Text Available Background & Objective: Women’s role as a consumer or as a person who is facing with risks is so important in studies of substance abuse. However, major studies on this field aimed at studying on male population. Therefore, the aim of this study described the pattern of using illegal drugs among women belong to substance abuse control clinic of Fasa city (south of Iran.Materials & Methods: This cross sectional study as a census was done on all authorized substance abuse treatment centers in Fasa in summer 2011. Information about demographic data, types of drugs, method of using, duration of addiction and onset age was extracted from the files of self-referred women. Results: There were 88 women in Fasa substance abuse treatment centers who were 2.8% of all registered patients. The Mean age of drug onset was 30.8±11.8 years. 62 persons (70.5% used opium and 55 persons (62.5% used Opium sap which were indicated thatthese two drugs were the two common ones among addicted women. With the average of 9.4±7.1 years, Opium had the longest duration of use. There is only one woman who had used injection during the last month. Two of the women had sexual relationship out of the family in the last month in which one of them had the unsafe contact as well.Conclusion: Presently, the pattern of drug abuse among women in Fasa is traditional and is based on the opium derivatives. However, according to the increasing rate and changes in drugs type, monitoring the behavior of drug abuser can have an effective role on the improvement of health in a community.
Resick, Patricia A; Suvak, Michael K; Wells, Stephanie Y
This study examined the effect of child sexual or physical abuse on brief cognitive-behavioral therapy treatments with adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We analyzed secondary data from two randomized controlled trials (Resick, Nishith, Weaver, Astin, & Feuer, 2002; Resick et al., 2008) that included women with PTSD who did or did not have child sexual abuse (CSA) or child physical abuse (CPA) histories to determine whether childhood abuse impacted dropout rate or reduction in PTSD symptoms. In Study 1, presence, duration, or severity of CSA was not associated with dropout; however, frequency of CSA significantly predicted dropout (OR = 1.23). A significant CPA Severity × Treatment Group interaction emerged such that CPA severity was associated with greater dropout for prolonged exposure (PE; OR = 1.45), but not cognitive processing therapy (CPT; OR = 0.90). Study 2 found no differences in dropout. Study 1, comparing CPT and PE among women who experienced at least 1 rape found no differences in outcome based on childhood abuse history (rp (2) s = .000-.009). Study 2, a dismantling study of CPT with women seeking treatment for adult or child sexual or physical abuse found that for those with no childhood abuse, CPT-C, the cognitive-only version of CPT, had an advantage, whereas both forms of CPT worked best for those with higher frequency of childhood abuse; the effect size was small. Published 2014. This article is a US government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Barringer, Alexandra; Hunter, Bronwyn A; Salina, Doreen D; Jason, Leonard A
Programs for women with substance abuse and criminal justice histories often incorporate empowerment and social support into service delivery systems. Women's empowerment research has focused on the relationship between women's personal identities and the larger sociopolitical context, with an emphasis on how community-based resources are critical for promoting well-being. Social support often protects against negative outcomes for individuals who live with chronic stress. However, few studies have evaluated community resource knowledge and empowerment among marginalized women or how social support might strengthen or weaken this relationship. This study investigated resource knowledge, social support, and empowerment among 200 minority women in substance abuse recovery who had recent criminal justice involvement. Results indicated that resource knowledge was related to empowerment and belonging social support marginally moderated this relationship. In addition, education level increased and current involvement in the criminal justice system decreased empowerment. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.
Pajulo, Helena; Pajulo, Marjukka; Jussila, Heidi; Ekholm, Eeva
Substance-abusing pregnant and parenting women are considered one of the most challenging, but important, target groups for developing early parenting interventions. Some valuable efforts to develop such interventions have been made in the organizational sector in Finland. However, there is a great need for new ways of work that would simultaneously concentrate in substance-abuse treatment and enhance parenting in public healthcare settings. The present article describes the background, content, and protocol of a new prenatal intervention developed for substance-abusing pregnant women in a hospital setting in public healthcare. The intervention includes two new elements and pathways aimed to enhance the mothers' curiosity toward her developing child and provide motivation to stay abstinent from substance use. The pathways are interactive ultrasound consultation and a new pregnancy diary, both using a parental mentalization focus. The intervention elements, experiences from running the intervention, evaluation protocol, and general characteristics of the study sample gained (n = 90) are described and discussed. Two case vignettes from the study sample are presented, and the applicability of this prenatal work with other groups and settings is considered. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
By the late eighteenth century, women wrote books popularizing the major scientific advances of the times. From even an earlier stage, women translated popular science books, many written especially for the ``use of the Ladies.'' From Aphra Behn's translation of Fontenelle's famous Entretiens sur la Pluralité des Mondes in 1686 to Mary Somerville's 1831 lucid exposition in English of Laplace's well-known book, The Mechanism of the Heavens, translation moved gradually toward professional scientific exposition. Who were these women and what sparked their interest in science? How had they acquired the knowledge necessary to translate science books? The aim of this article is to shed some light on a little known area of women's activities-the translation of science books-and to show their contribution to the diffusion of the scientific knowledge.
Vourtsis, Athina; Kachulis, Aspasia
This study aimed to evaluate automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) compared to hand-held traditional ultrasound (HHUS) in the visualisation and BIRADS characterisation of breast lesions. From January 2016 to January 2017, 1,886 women with breast density category C or D (aged 48.6±10.8 years) were recruited. All participants underwent ABUS and HHUS examination; a subcohort of 1,665 women also underwent a mammography. The overall agreement between HHUS and ABUS was 99.8 %; kappa=0.994, pBI-RADS 1 in HHUS, but were graded as BIRADS 4 in ABUS; biopsy revealed a radial scar. Three carcinomas were graded as BI-RADS 2 in mammography but BI-RADS 4 in ABUS; two additional carcinomas were graded as BI-RADS 2 in mammography but BI-RADS 5 in ABUS. Two carcinomas, appearing as a well-circumscribed mass or developing asymmetry in mammography, were graded as BI-RADS 4 in mammography but BI-RADS 5 in ABUS. ABUS could be successfully used in the visualisation and characterisation of breast lesions. ABUS seemed to outperform HHUS in the detection of architectural distortion on the coronal plane and can supplement mammography in the detection of non-calcified carcinomas in women with dense breasts. • The new generation of ABUS yields comparable results to HHUS. • ABUS seems superior to HHUS in detecting architectural distortions. • In dense breasts, supplemental ABUS to mammography detects additional cancers.
Boden, Joseph M; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John
The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included assessments of experience of CSA using retrospective data gathered at ages 18 and 21, self-reported abortions from ages 15 to 25, measures of childhood socio-economic disadvantage, family stability, family functioning, experience of childhood physical abuse, and pregnancy in adolescence and early adulthood. Severity of CSA experience was significantly (pchildhood reduced the magnitude of the association, but it remained marginally statistically significant (pexperience of CSA and abortion to statistical non-significance (p>.70). The current study suggested that the association between experience of CSA and increased rates of abortion was mediated by the increased rates of pregnancy associated with CSA experiences. The results suggest a causal chain in which experience of CSA leads to increased rates of pregnancy, which in turn leads to increased rates of abortion.
Maria del Carmen Herrera
Full Text Available Violence against women in close relationships is one of the most worrying and controversial situations in modern society. The main goal of this study was to identify the social perception that people generally have of gender violence in order to obtain profiles of both men who resort to violence against their partners and women who are victims of abuse, identifying both individual (e.g. self-esteem and social (power in relationship characteristics related to gender violence. Using a questionnaire (designed between groups, 268 participants were asked to estimate the probability of men (Batterers vs. Non-batterers and women (Victims vs. Non-victims displaying certain behaviours, beliefs or attitudes. The results revealed the existence of clear social profiles of both aggressors and victims, comprising both individual and psychosocial characteristics. These profiles contained aspects that coincide with the roles traditionally associated with men and women, thus highlighting inequality between both sexes, and which seems to be one of the main causes of gender violence.
Acute and Early HIV1 Infection in Childbearing Women during Pregnancy and Postpartum Period in Tanzania, Zambia, and Botswana. National HIV prevention programs in Tanzania, Zambia, and Botswana must effectively address the infection rate among childbearing women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.
Chloe J. Jordan
Full Text Available Early adolescent substance use dramatically increases the risk of lifelong substance use disorder (SUD. An adolescent sensitive period evolved to allow the development of risk-taking traits that aid in survival; today these may manifest as a vulnerability to drugs of abuse. Early substance use interferes with ongoing neurodevelopment to induce neurobiological changes that further augment SUD risk. Although many individuals use drugs recreationally, only a small percentage transition to SUD. Current theories on the etiology of addiction can lend insights into the risk factors that increase vulnerability from early recreational use to addiction. Building on the work of others, we suggest individual risk for SUD emerges from an immature PFC combined with hyper-reactivity of reward salience, habit, and stress systems. Early identification of risk factors is critical to reducing the occurrence of SUD. We suggest preventative interventions for SUD that can be either tailored to individual risk profiles and/or implemented broadly, prior to the sensitive adolescent period, to maximize resilience to developing substance dependence. Recommendations for future research include a focus on the juvenile and adolescent periods as well as on sex differences to better understand early risk and identify the most efficacious preventions for SUD.
For analyzing the obtained data, stepwise regression method was used. Results: The results of this study showed that the schema, mistrust/Abuse, dependence/Incompetence, subjugation and restraint/ discipline insufficient predicting tendency to drug abuse. Conclusion: the results indicated that the negative perfectionism predicting tendency to drug abuse, however, the positive perfectionism cannot predict tendency to drug abuse
Carlton P. Frost
Full Text Available Adverse caregiving during development can produce long-lasting changes to neural, endocrine, and behavioral responses to stress, and is strongly related to elevated risk of adult psychopathology. While prior experience of adversity is associated with altered sympathetic nervous system (SNS and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity, the underlying neural pathways are not completely understood. In a double-blind crossover study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine whether variation in white matter structure predicts differences in HPA-SNS interactions as a function of early adversity. Participants included 74 women who exhibited a wide range of depression severity and/or childhood emotional abuse (EA. Participants attended two experimental sessions during which they were administered 20 mg cortisol (CORT or placebo and after 90 min, viewed emotionally laden pictures while undergoing MRI scanning. Immediately after emotional picture-viewing, we collected salivary alpha-amylase (sAA to index SNS activation. We tested whether EA moderated the relation between fractional anisotropy (FA, a measure of white matter fiber structure, and sAA. In the placebo condition, for participants with minimal history of EA, higher FA in corticomotor projections was negatively correlated with sAA, whereas in participants with severe EA, the correlation was trending in the opposite direction. Following CORT administration, FA and sAA were not related, suggesting that SNS tone during acute cortisol elevation may depend on neural pathways other than corticomotor projections. The results suggest that at baseline—though not during cortisol elevation—increased FA in these tracts is associated with lower levels of SNS activity in women with minimal EA, but not in women with severe EA. These findings provide evidence that corticomotor projections may be a key component of altered neural circuitry in adults with history of maltreatment, and may be
Bankoff, Sarah M; Valentine, Sarah E; Jackson, Michelle A; Schacht, Rebecca L; Pantalone, David W
To examine correlates of compensatory weight control behaviors among women in transition between adolescence and adulthood. The authors recruited a sample of undergraduate women (N = 759) at a large northwestern university during the 2009-2010 academic year. Logistic regression was used to assess relations among childhood abuse, psychosocial functioning, adult dating relationship factors, and women's endorsement of compensatory weight control behaviors. The final model reliably distinguished between participants who endorsed versus denied use of compensatory behaviors (χ(2)[5, N = 747] = 36.37, p < .001), with global psychosocial functioning and relationship avoidance accounting for the most variance. These findings illustrate the importance of considering childhood abuse histories and adult relationships while assessing young women's compensatory weight control behaviors.
Results also showed that old abused women scored significantly lower on depression than young abused women, F(1,337)=P<.01. Likewise, high education abused women self-reported significantly higher on depression than low education abused women, t(2,337)= 5.44. On self-esteem, old abused women were ...
Lindh-Åstrand, L; Hoffmann, M; Järvstråt, L; Fredriksson, M; Hammar, M; Spetz Holm, A-C
Are Swedish women age 40-44 years with assumed early menopause 'undertreated' by hormone therapy (HT)? Many women with probable early menopause discontinue their HT after a short period of time. Thus, they fail to complete the recommended replacement up to age 51-52 years, the average age of menopause. Spontaneous early menopause occurs in ∼5% of women age 40-45 years. Regardless of the cause, women who experience hormonal menopause due to bilateral oophorectomy before the median age of spontaneous menopause are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, osteoporosis, psychiatric illness and even death. The study is descriptive, and epidemiological and was based on the use of national registers of dispensed drug prescriptions (HT) linking registers from the National Board of Health and Welfare and Statistics Sweden from 1 July 2005 until 31 December 2011. The study population consisted of 310 404 women, 40-44 years old on 31 December 2005 who were followed from 1 July 2005 until 31 December 2011. Only 0.9% of women 40-44 years old started HT during the study period. A majority of these women used HT menopause was the main reason. Because of the study design-making a retrospective study of registers-we can only speculate on the reasons for most of the women in this group discontinuing HT. Another limitation of this study is that we have a rather short observation time. However, we have up to now only been able to collect and combine the data since July 2005. As the occurrence of spontaneous early menopause in women age 40-45 is reported to be ∼5%, the fact that menopause may have used combined contraceptives as supplementation therapy, but in Sweden HT is the recommended treatment for early menopause so any such women are not following this recommendation. Women who experience early menopause are at increased risk for overall morbidity and mortality, and can expect to benefit from HT until they have reached at least the median age of
Nazarov, Anthony; Walaszczyk, Victoria; Frewen, Paul; Oremus, Carolina; Lanius, Ruth; McKinnon, Margaret C
Preliminary evidence suggests that relative to healthy controls, patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show deficits on several inter-related social cognitive tasks, including theory of mind, and emotion comprehension. Systematic investigations examining other aspects of social cognition, including moral reasoning, have not been conducted in PTSD stemming from childhood trauma. To conduct a comprehensive assessment of moral reasoning performance in individuals with PTSD stemming from childhood abuse. Moral reasoning performance was assessed in 28 women with PTSD related to prolonged childhood trauma and 19 matched healthy controls. Performance was assessed using 12 modified moral dilemmas and was queried in three domains: utilitarian/deontological sacrificial dilemmas (personal and impersonal), social order vs. compassion, and altruism vs. self-interest. Participants were asked whether a proposed action was morally acceptable or unacceptable and whether or not they would perform this action under the circumstances described. Women with PTSD were less likely to carry out utilitarian actions in personal, sacrificial moral dilemmas, a choice driven primarily by consequential intrapersonal disapproval. Increased concern regarding intrapersonal disapproval was related to higher symptoms of guilt in the PTSD group. Patients with PTSD demonstrated less altruistic moral reasoning, primarily associated with decreased empathic role-taking for beneficiaries. Women with PTSD due to childhood trauma show alterations in moral reasoning marked by decreased utilitarian judgment and decreased altruism. Childhood trauma may continue to impact moral choices made into adulthood.
Nazarov, A; Frewen, P; Oremus, C; Schellenberg, E G; McKinnon, M C; Lanius, R
Although deficits in memory and cognitive processing are evident in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), difficulties with social cognition and the impact of such difficulties on interpersonal functioning are poorly understood. Here, we examined the ability of women diagnosed with PTSD related to childhood abuse to discriminate affective prosody, a central component of social cognition. Women with PTSD and healthy controls (HCs) completed two computer-based tasks assessing affective prosody: (i) recognition (categorizing foreign-language excerpts as angry, fearful, sad, or happy) and (ii) discrimination (identifying whether two excerpts played consecutively had the 'same' or 'different' emotion). The association of performance with symptom presentation, trauma history, and interpersonal functioning was also explored. Women with PTSD were slower than HCs at identifying happiness, sadness, and fear, but not anger in the speech excerpts. The presence of dissociative symptoms was related to reduced accuracy on the discrimination task. An increased severity of childhood trauma was associated with reduced accuracy on the discrimination task and with slower identification of emotional prosody. Exposure to childhood trauma is associated with long-term, atypical development in the interpretation of prosodic cues in speech. The findings have implications for the intergenerational transmission of trauma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Leeners, Brigitte; Görres, Gisela; Block, Emina; Hengartner, Michael Pascal
Although childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may seriously impair childbirth experiences, few systematic evaluations on associations, mediating influences, risk and protective factors are available. As such information is mandatory to improve obstetric care, the present study aimed to provide such data. The study compared childbirth experiences from 85 women after CSA and at least one pregnancy resulting in a life birth with those from 170 control women matched for nationality, personal age and children's age. Trained specialists from support centers investigated CSA. Obstetrical data were collected from the official personal clinical record of each pregnancy (Mutterpass) and data on CSA as well as childbirth experiences were examined by questionnaires. Childbirth was more often highly frightening (24.7 vs. 5.3%; phistory of CSA than in controls. Multivariate regression models support the hypothesis that at least part of this association was mediated by covariates (specifically, birth preparation classes, presence of a trusted person, participation in medical decision-making, pain relief, emergency during labor and extreme duration of labor), which represent important resources in improving obstetric care. In 41% of women with CSA, memories of traumatic experiences intruded during childbirth, whereas about 58% experienced dissociation. While dissociation may result in loss of contact with obstetric staff, it was also used to reduce labor pain. Childbirth following a history of CSA is associated with particular challenges. Creating a trusting environment by evaluating and integrating individual needs could ameliorate birth experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Falletta, Lynn; Hamilton, Kelsey; Fischbein, Rebecca; Aultman, Julie; Kinney, Beth; Kenne, Deric
Pregnant, opioid-using women represent a challenge to healthcare providers attempting to engage them in prenatal and substance abuse services. Limited, primarily international research suggests that child welfare clients have mixed feelings about Child Protective Services (CPS) and that fear of CPS may present a barrier to care. Understanding how pregnant opioid-using women in substance abuse treatment perceive CPS may be useful in encouraging substance abuse treatment initiation. Participants were currently or recently (within past 12 months) pregnant women with current or recent (within past 12 months) abuse/dependence of pharmaceutical opioids at a drug treatment facility. Participants were recruited by treatment staff to participate in a comprehensive study across multiple domains. Data for this analysis were collected using semi-structured qualitative interviews. Transcribed data were thematically analyzed using in vivo and interpretive coding by three coders for purposes of inter-rater reliability. Following 2, two-hour meetings, consensus was reached on primary themes and sub-themes. Two major themes and several sub-themes were identified: 1) Participants' feelings and attitudes about CPS (positive and negative); 2) Interaction-based perceptions of CPS' function and performance. Participants' feelings toward CPS were often conditioned by their experiences with individual caseworkers. While many pregnant, opioid-using women identify legitimate, and even useful features of CPS, fear of CPS can be a barrier to care. Making substance abuse treatment accessible to this population requires recognition of their complex feelings toward CPS, and coordination among CPS case workers and substance abuse treatment providers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arriola, K.R.J.; Louden, T.; Doldren, M.A.; Fortenberry, R.M.
Objective:: This study is a meta-analysis of the literature exploring the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behavior among women. Four outcome variables were tested: unprotected sex; sex with multiple partners; sex trading; and adult sexual revictimization. Method:: Forty-six studies met the inclusion criteria and were…
Loeb, Tamra B.; Gaines, Tommi; Wyatt, Gail E.; Zhang, Muyu; Liu, Honghu
Women with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely than those without such experiences to report a variety of negative sexual outcomes. This study examines the explanatory power of a CSA summed composite versus dichotomous (presence/absence) measurement in predicting a comprehensive negative sexual behavior outcome. Study…
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…
Dunne, Michael P.; Purdie, David M.; Cook, Michelle D.; Boyle, Frances M.; Najman, Jake M.
A study examined age-cohort differences of self-reported child sexual abuse (CSA) experiences of 1,784 Australian adults. CSA was reported significantly less by younger males than older males. Among females who had intercourse before 16, older women were more likely to say they were an unwilling partner on the first occasion. (Contains…
Edwards, Katie M.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Murphy, Megan J.
The purpose of the current study was to explore college women's stay/ leave decisions in abusive relationships using a prospective methodology. Participants (N = 323) completed surveys at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter for course credit. A path analysis suggested that the model--which included investment model variables (i.e.,…
In Ethiopia, there traditional early marriage is: 63.6% of women are married before 20 years of age. Some of the multiple and overlapping consequences of early marriage are premature conception, maternal mortality, infant mortality, bereavement, divorce, and abandonment of children. Traditionally women have been regarded as baby-making apparatuses and childbirth regarded as the war women must endeavour to fight through and survive. The causes of early marriage are deeply rooted in socio-cultural values created by wide-spread machoism ruthlessly practiced by men even at immediate risk to women's lives. Among the traditional practices is madego, where a young girl at an age as low as 7 is given away in marriage and fed a rich diet in preparation for the initial premature pregnancy. In May 1980 a ban on the practice of early marriage was announced by the Head of State during a visit to the northern regions, with 18 years set as the minimum age for marriage. Activities needed to promote this announcement include identifying locations and prevalence of early marriage; mounting a campaign of information and education about the dangers of early marriage and intensifying existing programs of mother and child health care and family planning against harmful traditional practices; focusing attention in social and health schools on the problems associated with early marriage; and evaluating strategies 12 months following implementation, taking corrective measures whenever indicated.
Brown, Jennifer L; Young, April M; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S; Wingood, Gina M
This study examined if relationship power, sex refusal self-efficacy, and/or fear of condom negotiation mediated the relationship between abuse history and consistent condom use (CCU) among African-American female adolescents (n=593). Participants with an abuse history (58%) were less likely to report CCU (p=.003). Women with an abuse history reported less relationship power (p=.006) and self-efficacy for refusing sex (phistory of abuse was associated with CCU across mediator models (p=.037 to p=.067), despite inclusion of psychosocial mediators. This study demonstrates the importance of understanding adolescents' condom use behaviors within the context of their life experiences, especially past abuse history.
Chen, Frances R; Rothman, Emily F; Jaffee, Sara R
The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between advanced pubertal development and adolescent dating abuse (ADA) and to test if this relationship is moderated by friendship group characteristics in a nationally representative sample of US girls. Data were drawn from wave 1 and 2 (1995-1996) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The sample included 3870 girls aged 13 to 17 years, all of whom were in romantic and/or nonromantic sexual relationships. Relative pubertal development was measured as perceived physical development as compared with peers of the same age and race and age at menarche at wave 1. Participants reported at wave 2 whether they had experienced any verbal or physical abuse in their relationships. Friendship group characteristics included the percentage of boy friends, older friends, and friends' risk behavior level. Negative binomial regression analyses revealed an interaction between advanced pubertal development and percentage of boy friends on ADA victimization, adjusted for age, race, parents' marital status, household income, number of relationships, self-esteem, self-control, and antisocial behavior history. Advanced pubertal development was associated with more ADA victimization when girls' friendship groups comprised a higher percentage of boys. Findings highlight the importance of pubertal timing and friendship group characteristics to ADA victimization. Early pubertal development is a risk marker for ADA victimization, particularly when a higher percentage of girls' friends are boys. Pediatricians and adolescent health specialists should be sensitive to the elevated risk for ADA victimization in early-maturing girls. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess rates of substance abuse (including tobacco, alcohol, and drug abuse as well as rates of intimate partner violence (IPV among African-American women seen in an urban Emergency Department (ED. Methods: Eligible participants included all African-American women between the ages of 21-55 years old who were seen in an urban ED for any complaint, and who were triaged to the waiting room. Eligible women who consented to participate were taken to complete a computer-based survey that focused on demographic information and general health questions as well as standardized instruments including the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA, the Tolerance, Worried, Eye openers, Amnesia, K(Cut down (TWEAK screen for alcohol abuse, Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST20, and Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC. This analysis uses results from a larger study evaluating the effects of providing patients with targeted educational literature based on the results of their screening. Results: 610 women were surveyed. Among these, 85 women (13.9% screened positive for IPV. Women who screened positive for IPV were significantly more likely to also screen positive for tobacco abuse (56% vs. 37.5%, p< 0.001, alcohol abuse (47.1% vs. 23.2%, p < 0.001, and drug abuse (44.7% vs. 9.5%, p<0.001. Women who screened positive for IPV were also more likely to screen positive for depression and to report social isolation. Conclusion: African-American women seen in the ED, who screen positive for IPV, are at significantly higher risk of drug, alcohol, tobacco abuse, depression and social isolation than women who do not screen positive for IPV. These findings have important implications for ED-based and community-based social services for women who are victims of intimate partner violence. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 253-257.
... Drinking to Excess U.S. National Library of Medicine, Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Last Updated: June 27, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: alcohol, alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction ...
Kent, Lindsey; And Others
Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…
Mullins, Sharon M; Suarez, Mariann; Ondersma, Steven J; Page, Melanie C
Previous studies have supported the efficacy of Motivational Interviewing (MI) in increasing treatment engagement and retention among people with substance abuse disorders. However, few studies have assessed the impact of MI with coerced populations, particularly women referred to drug abuse treatment by child welfare due to prenatal drug use. Seventy-one such women who used drugs during pregnancy were randomly assigned to either receive three MI sessions or to watch two educational videos and participate in a home visit. Treatment retention group attendance and random urine analysis results were evaluated in these women during the first 8 weeks of treatment. No differences were found between the two conditions on these variables. Possible reasons for these negative findings are discussed, as are ideas for future research with coerced populations.
Full Text Available Objective. HIV and tuberculosis represent diseases of major public health importance worldwide. Very little is known about HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant women, especially from industrialized settings. In this study, we examined the association between TB, HIV, and HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant mothers and obstetric complications, alcohol use, drug abuse, and depression. Method. We examined inpatient hospital discharges in the United States from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2014. We employed multivariable survey logistic regression to generate adjusted estimates for the association between infection status and study outcomes. Results. We analyzed approximately 57 million records of pregnant women and their delivery information. HIV-TB coinfection was associated with the highest risks for several obstetric complications, alcohol use, and drug abuse. The risk for alcohol abuse was more than twice as high among HIV-monoinfected as compared to TB-monoinfected mothers. That risk gap more than doubled with HIV-TB coinfection. Both HIV-monoinfected and HIV-TB coinfected mothers experienced similarly increased risks for depression. Conclusions. Mothers with HIV-TB coinfection experienced relatively heightened risks for obstetric complications, alcohol use, and drug abuse. The findings of this study underscore the importance of augmenting and enhancing social and structural support systems for HIV-TB coinfected pregnant women.
Full Text Available Background: In the recent decades increasing number of women have been seeking deaddiction services. Despite that the report data is very limited from India. Objectives: The present research aimed to study the demographic and clinical profile of women seeking deaddiction treatment at a tertiary care center in North India. Materials and Methods: Retrospective structured chart review of 100 women substance abusers seeking treatment at a deaddiction center between September 1978 and December 2011. Results: A typical case was of 36.3 years age, married (65%, urban (61%, nuclear family (59% based housewife (56%, with good to fair social support (69%. The commonest substance of abuse was tobacco (60%, followed by opioids (27%, alcohol (15%, and benzodiazepines (13%. The common reasons for initiation of substance use were to alleviate frustration or stress (49% and curiosity (37%. Family history of drug dependence (43%, comorbidity (25%, and impairments in health (74%, family (57%, and social domains (56% were common. Only a third of the sample paid one or more follow visit, and of those 58% were abstinent at the last follow-up. Significant predictors identified were being non-Hindu and higher educational years for abstinent status at follow-up. Conclusion: The common substances of abuse were tobacco, opioids, and alcohol and benzodiazepines; and family history of drug abuse and comorbidity were common. The follow-up and outcome were generally poor. This profile gives us some clues to address a hidden health problem of the community.
Fernandez, Dorian; Salami, Imoleayo; Davis, Janelle; Mbah, Florence; Kazeem, Aisha; Ash, Abreah; Babino, Justin; Carter, Laquiesha; Salemi, Jason L; Spooner, Kiara K; Olaleye, Omonike A; Salihu, Hamisu M
HIV and tuberculosis represent diseases of major public health importance worldwide. Very little is known about HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant women, especially from industrialized settings. In this study, we examined the association between TB, HIV, and HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant mothers and obstetric complications, alcohol use, drug abuse, and depression. We examined inpatient hospital discharges in the United States from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2014. We employed multivariable survey logistic regression to generate adjusted estimates for the association between infection status and study outcomes. We analyzed approximately 57 million records of pregnant women and their delivery information. HIV-TB coinfection was associated with the highest risks for several obstetric complications, alcohol use, and drug abuse. The risk for alcohol abuse was more than twice as high among HIV-monoinfected as compared to TB-monoinfected mothers. That risk gap more than doubled with HIV-TB coinfection. Both HIV-monoinfected and HIV-TB coinfected mothers experienced similarly increased risks for depression. Mothers with HIV-TB coinfection experienced relatively heightened risks for obstetric complications, alcohol use, and drug abuse. The findings of this study underscore the importance of augmenting and enhancing social and structural support systems for HIV-TB coinfected pregnant women.
Vink, C.W.; Labots-Vogelesang, S.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between menstruation disorders and prior sexual abuse. DESIGN: Questionnaire investigation. METHOD: A questionnaire was developed consisting of 50 questions about menstruation disorders, premenstrual syndrome and sexual abuse. The questionnaire was mailed to
Chen, Jing; Cai, Yiyun; Cong, Enzhao; Liu, Ying; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Jianguo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S; Shi, Shenxun; Flint, Jonathan
Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in our whole data set? Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) [3.19-5.24]). This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58-3.15), genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52-8.15) and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56-23.71). Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11-2.27) and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09-1.80). Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20-1.89) and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02-2.02). Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66-8.22), use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05-3.82) and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20-1.64) were significantly associated with recurrent MD. In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD.
Full Text Available Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD. Would this relationship be found in our whole data set?Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated by logistic regression.We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI [3.19-5.24]. This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58-3.15, genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52-8.15 and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56-23.71. Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11-2.27 and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09-1.80. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20-1.89 and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02-2.02. Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66-8.22, use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05-3.82 and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20-1.64 were significantly associated with recurrent MD.In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD.
Goli, Srinivas; Rammohan, Anu; Singh, Deepti
The consequences of early childbearing on the growth and nutritional status of women in India has not been quantified in previous studies. Our study aimed to fill this gap by analysing the association between early marriage and early childbearing on nutritional status of Indian women, with a focus on Bihar and Andhra Pradesh, the two states accounting for the highest proportion of women marrying and giving first birth before 18 years of age. Our findings revealed that a substantial number of women were married before 18 years and thereby exposed to early pregnancy. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of women in the 'thin' category were married before 18 years, both in the Indian sample (33 %, p marriage and age at first birth on nutritional status is significant. Our results underline the need for preventing early marriages and the consequent high adolescent pregnancies in India, particularly in high prevalence states. This will help to improve nutritional status and health care utilisation among women, thereby, prevent maternal and child mortality and thus, achieve the MDGs 4-5.
Ellen K. K. Jepsen
Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the possible predictors of treatment outcome in early chronically sexually abused adults. The current study aimed to investigate what impact initial levels of dissociation and pre-treatment negative change in interpersonal functioning have on treatment response after 3 months of first-phase trauma inpatient treatment as well as after a period of 1 year the patients returned to their usual lives. Methods: The sample comprised 48 inpatients with childhood sexual abuse histories and mixed trauma-related disorders who were examined at discharge and prospectively followed up for a period of 1 year under naturalistic conditions. Outcome variables were general psychiatric symptoms and interpersonal problems as measured with the Symptom Check List-Revised (SCL-R and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP Circumplex. Results: The central findings were that pathological dissociation and deterioration in interpersonal functioning prior to admittance predicted general psychiatric symptom levels and interpersonal problems at the end of treatment and at 1-year follow-up. Pathological dissociation, involving memory and identity problems, alone predicted negative outcome at the end of treatment. The findings at 1-year follow-up indicate that it is not pathological dissociation in isolation that affects outcomes, but rather the interaction between dissociation and change in interpersonal functioning prior to treatment. Conclusion: These findings indicate the need of addressing dissociation and interpersonal problems in treatment planning and favor an integrated treatment approach for complex trauma patients. Future research should investigate whether and how this leads to better outcome, including long-term maintenance of gains after the end of treatment.
Full Text Available Wendee M Wechsberg1, Felicia A Browne1, Winona Poulton1, Rachel Middlesteadt Ellerson1, Ashley Simons-Rudolph1, Deborah Haller2, 1RTI International,* Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA, *RTI International is a trade name of Research Triangle InstituteAbstract: An adaptation of an evidence-based, woman-focused intervention designed to reduce HIV risk behaviors was conducted for pregnant, African-American women in substance abuse treatment in North Carolina. The intervention adaptation process included focus groups, expert panels, and the filming of women who spoke about their experiences with pregnancy, drug use, sex risk behaviors, HIV testing and treatment, need for substance abuse treatment, violence, and victimization. The assessment instrument was adapted for pregnant women and the intervention was organized into a 4-session PowerPoint presentation, with an additional session if a woman tested positive for HIV. All sessions and assessment instrument were installed on laptop computers for portability in treatment programs. We pilot tested our adaptation with 59 pregnant African-American women who had used an illicit drug within the past year and were enrolled in substance abuse treatment. At baseline, 41% were currently homeless, 76% were unemployed, 90% had not planned their current pregnancy, and approximately 70% reported drug use since finding out about the pregnancy. This sample of participants rated the intervention sessions and were highly satisfied with their experience, resulting in a mean satisfaction score of 6.5 out of 7. Pregnant African-American women who use drugs need substance abuse treatment that they do not currently access. Woman-focused HIV interventions help to address intersecting risk behaviors and need for treatment prevalent among this vulnerable group.Keywords: African-American woman, HIV prevention pregnancy, drug use, violence, sexual
Baltieri, Danilo Antonio
This study aims to explore the temporal relationship between age of onset of substance use and criminal activity in women convicted of violent crimes as well as to subdivide them into clinically significant groups to which tailored treatment can be guided. Of the 353 female inmates randomised for this study, 38 (10.8%) refused to participate and 182 (51.6%) met inclusion criteria. Data were obtained only from substance-abusing female inmates serving a sentence for robbery or homicide in a female penitentiary in Brazil. Participant information was gathered through face-to-face interviews during which alcohol and drug abuse, impulsiveness levels, depressive symptoms, and criminological aspects were investigated. . Age of first alcohol and drug use significantly preceded the age of onset of criminal activities in the overall sample. Onset ages of alcohol and drug use problems significantly preceded the beginning of criminal activities in women convicted of homicide only. Latent Class Analysis resulted in two groups: cluster 1 (n = 122; 67%), early-onset alcohol and drug users; and cluster 2 (n = 60; 33%), late-onset alcohol and drug users. Higher depression levels, higher incidence of committing robbery and less official history of recidivism were associated with cluster 1 inmates. The temporal relationship between the onset age of alcohol/drug use problems and age of the beginning of criminal activities can set apart women convicted of robbery from those convicted of homicide. Further, a distinctive therapeutic approach to early- and late-onset offenders may be valuable. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.
This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…
Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Zamani, Nasim; Sarjami, Saeedeh
Sources of data about the occurrence of domestic violence are scarce in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral effects of different types of domestic violence on women who had attempted suicide by deliberate self-poisoning (DSP). A total of 195 women who had attempted suicide by DSP in response to "violence and abuse" were followed up for 2 years. The most common type of violence, as mentioned by the women themselves as the motive of self-poisoning, was physical abuse (92%) followed by verbal abuse (2.1%), multi-abuses (2.1%), emotional abuse (1.6%), and sexual abuse (1.1%). Suicidal ideation and attempt were more common in those who were consulted sometime after they had initially presented to the hospital with DSP or those who had suffered repeated domestic abuse. It was concluded that invention of methods other than the current consultation system is necessary to prevent repeated suicide attempts among abused women in Iran. © The Author(s) 2014.
McMahon, Shannon A; George, Asha S; Chebet, Joy J; Mosha, Idda H; Mpembeni, Rose N M; Winch, Peter J
Interventions to reduce maternal mortality have focused on delivery in facilities, yet in many low-resource settings rates of facility-based birth have remained persistently low. In Tanzania, rates of facility delivery have remained static for more than 20 years. With an aim to advance research and inform policy changes, this paper builds on a growing body of work that explores dimensions of and responses to disrespectful maternity care and abuse during childbirth in facilities across Morogoro Region, Tanzania. This research drew on in-depth interviews with 112 respondents including women who delivered in the preceding 14 months, their male partners, public opinion leaders and community health workers to understand experiences with and responses to abuse during childbirth. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated and coded using Atlas.ti. Analysis drew on the principles of Grounded Theory. When initially describing birth experiences, women portrayed encounters with providers in a neutral or satisfactory light. Upon probing, women recounted events or circumstances that are described as abusive in maternal health literature: feeling ignored or neglected; monetary demands or discriminatory treatment; verbal abuse; and in rare instances physical abuse. Findings were consistent across respondent groups and districts. As a response to abuse, women described acquiescence or non-confrontational strategies: resigning oneself to abuse, returning home, or bypassing certain facilities or providers. Male respondents described more assertive approaches: requesting better care, paying a bribe, lodging a complaint and in one case assaulting a provider. Many Tanzanian women included in this study experienced unfavorable conditions when delivering in facilities. Providers, women and their families must be made aware of women's rights to respectful care. Recommendations for further research include investigations of the prevalence and dimensions of disrespectful care and
Hamdullahpur, Kevin; Jacobs, Kahá Wi J; Gill, Kathryn J
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult mental health were explored in a sample of urban Aboriginal ( n = 83) and non-Aboriginal ( n = 89) women. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with negative home environments, teenage pregnancy, lifetime suicide attempts, and treatment seeking. Aboriginal women with CSA witnessed higher levels of physical/sexual abuse of family members. The severity of current psychological distress was associated with a history of childhood neglect. The results indicate that CSA rarely occurs in isolation, and that multiple ACEs are strongly associated with suicide attempts and treatment seeking in adulthood. Future studies should focus on the role of CSA in suicidality, as well as familial, community, and cultural protective factors.
Careers in astronomy for women (as in other sciences) were a rarity in Britain and Ireland until well into the twentieth century. The book investigates the place of women in astronomy before that era, recounted in the form of biographies of about 25 women born between 1650 and 1900 who in varying capacities contributed to its progress during the eighteenth, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. There are some famous names among them whose biographies have been written before now, there are others who have received less than their due recognition while many more occupied inconspicuous and sometimes thankless places as assistants to male family members. All deserve to be remembered as interesting individuals in an earlier opportunity-poor age. Placed in roughly chronological order, their lives constitute a sample thread in the story of female entry into the male world of science. The book is aimed at astronomers, amateur astronomers, historians of science, and promoters of women in science, but being writte...
Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Lynskey, Michael T.
An 18-year longitudinal study of 520 New Zealand women found that those reporting childhood sexual abuse, particularly severe abuse involving intercourse, had significantly higher rates of early onset consensual sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, sexually transmitted disease, and sexual assault…
Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Brook, David W.
Aims The objective of this study was to examine the associations between compulsive buying (CB) and substance dependence/abuse, major depressive episode (MDE), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) at mean age 43. Methods Participants came from a community-based random sample of residents in two New York counties (N=548). The participants were followed from adolescence to early midlife. The mean age of participants at the most recent interview was 43.0 (SD=2.8). Fifty five percent of the participants were females. Over 90% of the participants were white. The prevalence of substance dependence/abuse, MDE, and GAD (during the past 5 years before the interviews) was 6.6%, 13.7, and 11.5%, respectively. Results Logistic regression analyses showed that CB was significantly associated with substance dependence/abuse [Adjusted Odds Ratio (A.O.R.) = 1.60], MDE (A.O.R. = 1.70), and GAD (A.O.R. = 1.63), despite controlling for substance dependence/abuse, MDE, and GAD, respectively, at mean age 37, and demographic factors. Discussion Since the study sample is limited to predominantly white participants (over 90%) with a close association to a small geographic area, the findings may not be generalizable to racial/ethnic minority groups or individuals living in other parts of the country. Nevertheless, it is important that clinicians treating substance dependence/abuse, MDE, and GAD consider the role of CB. PMID:27215919
Susan M Mason
Full Text Available Abuse victimization in childhood is associated with a variety of age-related cardiometabolic diseases, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Telomeres, which form the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, have been proposed as measures of biological age, and a growing body of research suggests that telomere attrition may help to explain relationships between stress and cardiometabolic degradation. We examined the association between childhood abuse victimization and leukocyte telomere length among 1,135 participants in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII.The NHSII ascertained physical and sexual child abuse histories in 2001. Telomere length was measured in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes collected between 1996 and 1999. The ratio of telomere repeat copy number to a single gene copy number (T/S was determined by a modified version of the quantitative real-time PCR telomere assay. Telomere length was log-transformed and corrected for assay variation across batch. We regressed telomere length on childhood abuse exposure variables and covariates using linear regression.We observed a reduction in telomere length associated with moderate physical abuse versus no physical abuse, but there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship for increased severity of physical abuse. No associations were noted for sexual abuse.We found no evidence of an association between severity of childhood physical or sexual abuse and leukocyte telomere length in the NHSII.
Maria Rosaria Pelizzari
As concerns the reactions following the discovery of the abuse, it is possible to delineate models of behavior which are more or less constant. Above all during the period immediately following the discovery of the episode, word of mouth seems to involve mainly the women of the neighborhood. In the reconstruction of the narration of the sexual abuse, women emerge as the protagonists at crucial moments: they provide first aid, they carry out perfunctory ‘check ups’ on the victim, help the mothers to find a doctor to verify and attest the circumstance in the event of a formal complaint and the type of abuse and harm suffered.
Geeraert, L; Van den Noortgate, W; Grietens, H; Onghena, P
In this article, a meta-analysis is presented on 40 evaluation studies of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect with mostly nonrandomized designs. The main aim of all programs was to prevent physical child abuse and neglect by
J Haabrekke, Kristin; Siqveland, Torill; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Walhovd, Kristine B; Moe, Vibeke
This prospective, longitudinal study with data collected at four time points investigated how maternal psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse and maternal intrusiveness in interaction were related to early child language skills. Three groups of mothers were recruited during pregnancy: One from residential treatment institutions for substance abuse (n = 18), one from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n = 22) and one from well-baby clinics (n = 30). Maternal substance abuse and anti-social and borderline personality traits were assessed during pregnancy, postpartum depression at 3 months, maternal intrusiveness in interaction at 12 months, and child language skills at 2 years. Results showed that the mothers in the substance abuse group had the lowest level of education, they were younger and they were more likely to be single mothers than the mothers in the two other groups. There was a significant difference in expressive language between children born to mothers with substance abuse problems and those born to comparison mothers, however not when controlling for maternal age, education and single parenthood. No group differences in receptive language skills were detected. Results further showed that maternal intrusiveness observed in mother-child interaction at 12 months was significantly related to child expressive language at 2 years, also when controlling for socio-demographic risk factors. This suggests that in addition to addressing substance abuse and psychiatric problems, there is a need for applying treatment models promoting sensitive caregiving, in order to enhance child expressive language skills.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is recognised as an important public health and social problem, with far reaching consequences for women’s physical and emotional health and social well-being. Furthermore, controlling behaviour by a partner has a similar impact on women’s well-being, yet little is known about the prevalence of this type of behaviour and other related abuses in Tanzania and in other sub-Saharan African countries. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the lifetime and past 12-month prevalence of physical and sexual IPV, economic abuse, emotional abuse and controlling behaviour among ever-partnered women in Mwanza, Tanzania. Women (N = 1049 were enrolled in an ongoing trial (Maisha study to assess the impact of microfinance combined with gender training on participants’ experience IPV, and other related outcomes. Interviews were conducted by same sex interviewers to collect information about socio-demographic characteristics, experiences of specific acts of IPV and abuse, and symptoms of poor mental health status. Results Overall, about 61% of women reported ever experiencing physical and/or sexual IPV (95% CI: 58–64% and 27% (95% CI: 24–29% experienced it in the past 12 months. Partner controlling behaviour was the most prevalent type of abuse with 82% experiencing it in their lifetime and 63% during the past 12 months. Other types of abuses were also common, with 34% of women reporting economic abuse and 39% reporting emotional abuse during the past 12 months. The prevalence of IPV and abuses varied by socio-demographic characteristics, showing much higher prevalence rates among younger women, women with young partners and less educated women. After we adjusted for age and socio-economic status, physical violence (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3–2.7 and sexual violence (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.9–4.1 were associated with increased reporting of symptoms of poor mental health
Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Coury-Doniger, Patricia
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood, but little research has investigated processes that might mediate this relation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether constructs suggested by the traumagenic dynamics (TD) model (a theory of the effects of CSA) or constructs suggested by the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model (a theory of the antecedents of sexual risk behavior) better mediated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Participants were 481 women attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic (66% African American) who completed a computerized survey as well as behavioral simulations assessing condom application and sexual assertiveness skills. Forty-five percent of the sample met criteria for CSA and CSA was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. In multiple mediator models, the TD constructs mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners whereas the IMB constructs mediated the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. In addition, the TD constructs better mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners; the TD and IMB constructs did not differ in their ability to mediate the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. Sexual risk reduction interventions for women who were sexually abused should target not only the constructs from health behavior models (e.g., motivation and skills to reduce sexual risk), but also constructs that are specific to sexual abuse (e.g., traumatic sexualization and guilt).
Senn, Theresa E; Braksmajer, Amy; Hutchins, Heidi; Carey, Michael P
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Traditional sexual risk reduction interventions do not meet the unique needs of women who have been sexually abused. In the current paper, we describe the four-stage process we followed to develop and refine a targeted sexual risk reduction intervention for this population. First, initial quantitative work revealed that the intervention should address how maladaptive thoughts related to traumatic sexualization, trust, powerlessness, and guilt/shame (traumagenic dynamics constructs) influence current sexual behavior. Second, qualitative interviews with 10 women who reported a history of CSA ( M age = 34 years; 90% African American) as well as current sexual risk behavior provided support for targeting maladaptive thoughts associated with these traumagenic dynamics constructs. Third, based on the qualitative and quantitative results, we developed a 5-session, group-delivered intervention to address the maladaptive thoughts that occurred as a result of CSA, as well as the cognitive-behavioral determinants of sexual risk behavior. This intervention drew heavily on cognitive behavioral techniques to address cognitions associated with CSA and the links between these cognitions and current sexual risk behavior. Techniques from trauma-based therapies, as well as motivational techniques, were also incorporated into the intervention. Finally, we refined the intervention with 24 women ( M age = 33 years; 79% African American), and assessed feasibility and acceptability. These women reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention. The resultant intervention is currently being evaluated in a small, randomized controlled trial.
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Serbin, Lisa A; Stack, Dale M; Ledingham, Jane E; Schwartzman, Alex E
While childhood behaviors such as aggression, social withdrawal and likeability have been linked to substance abuse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood, the mechanisms by which these variables relate are not yet well established. Self and peer perceptions of childhood behaviors in men and women were compared to assess the role of context in the prediction of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence. Participants (N=676) in an ongoing longitudinal project examining the relation between childhood behavior and adult mental health outcomes completed the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM IV regarding their histories of substance abuse in mid-adulthood (mean age=34, SD=2). In women, higher levels of both self and peer reported aggression were associated with drug and alcohol abuse and dependence, and higher levels of peer reported aggression were associated with higher levels of alcohol abuse and dependence. As well, higher levels of self-perceived likeability were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. In men, higher levels of peer perceived social withdrawal were protective regarding substance abuse and dependence outcomes. Findings support the comparison of self and peer perceptions of childhood behavior as a method of assessing the mechanisms by which childhood behaviors impact adult outcomes, and suggest the importance of gender in the relation between childhood behaviors and adult substance abuse and dependence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Springer, Kristen W; Sheridan, Jennifer; Kuo, Daphne; Carnes, Molly
Child maltreatment has been linked to negative adult health outcomes; however, much past research includes only clinical samples of women, focuses exclusively on sexual abuse and/or fails to control for family background and childhood characteristics, both potential confounders. Further research is needed to obtain accurate, generalizable estimates and to educate clinicians who are generally unaware of the link between childhood abuse and adult health. The purpose of this project is to examine how childhood physical abuse by parents impacts mid-life mental and physical health, and to explore the attenuating effect of family background and childhood adversities. We analyzed population-based survey data from over 2,000 middle-aged men and women in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study using self-reported measures of parental childhood physical abuse, mental health (depression, anxiety, anger), physical health (physical symptoms and medical diagnoses), family background, and childhood adversities. Parental physical abuse was reported by 11.4% of respondents (10.6% of males and 12.1% of females). In multivariate models controlling for age, sex, childhood adversities, and family background, we found that childhood physical abuse predicted a graded increase in depression, anxiety, anger, physical symptoms, and medical diagnoses. Childhood physical abuse also predicted severe ill health and an array of specific medical diagnoses and physical symptoms. Family background and childhood adversities attenuated but did not eliminate the childhood abuse/adult health relationship. In a population-based cohort of middle-aged men and women, childhood physical abuse predicted worse mental and physical health decades after the abuse. These effects were attenuated, but not eliminated, by age, sex, family background, and childhood adversities.
Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Domoff, Sarah E.; Toro, Paul A.
Adolescents who experience homelessness are at higher risk for abusing substances, and for being exposed to substance-using peers. The current study used a longitudinal design to track substance abuse, affiliation with substance-using peers, and episodes of homelessness among a sample of 223 adolescents who were homeless at thebaseline data collection and 148 adolescents who were housed at baseline. Participants were interviewed at six waves over 6.5 years, covering an age rang...
Kubiak, Sheryl; Fedock, Gina; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah
Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19). The results indicate that prevention of women's violence requires attention to specific forms of victimization, anger expression, and targets of her aggression.
Anderson, Geri; And Others
Interviews with 51 female sexual abuse survivors revealed that over half had a diagnosis of multiple personality disorder, and the vast majority had extensive dissociative symptomatology and related features. (Author/JDD)
Amaro, Hortensia; Larson, Mary Jo; Gampel, Joanne; Richardson, Erin; Savage, Andrea; Wagler, Debra
Little attention has been given to racial/ethnic differences in studies of co-occurring disorders among women. In this article, we present findings from analyses conducted on the influence of racial/ethnic differences on the demographic and clinical profiles of 2,534 women in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration-sponsored…
Beyond the Stereotypes: Women, Addiction, and Perinatal Substance Abuse. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.
The hearing reported in this document was called to address the human havoc wreaked by substance abuse among pregnant women in America. Witnesses included leading scientists and innovative service providers qualified to supply the best information on chemically dependent women across the country and to point the way to a better understanding of…
Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schröder, Harry
This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child prostitution were more symptomatic than those who were married early. Respondents for whom less time had elapsed since their first experience of abuse demonstrated a significantly higher level of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative reactions by others, self-blame, and guilt than those for whom more time had elapsed since such an experience. The respondents in an intact marital relationship were found to be less symptomatic than their never married and divorced counterparts. Implications for intervention and further investigations are discussed.
Newberry, Jan; Marpinjun, Sri
Based on research and activism on early childhood education and care in the area of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, we argue that the Indonesian government's focus on early childhood has come at a cost to local women. Community-based early childhood programs are delivered by women whose work is unpaid or underpaid. Although early childhood education in the…
There has been a growing interest amongst researchers and practitioners regarding the various coping strategies adopted by women experiencing intimate partner abuse (IPA). These studies have tended to adopt and adapt the stress-coping model developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1984) and thus make the distinction between emotion and problem-solving coping strategies and the resources available for women to cope. Even though, contemporary coping scholars acknowledge the role of employment and coping, it is still unclear as to how employment facilitates women's coping strategies. Drawing on findings from a qualitative study, this article explores how employment and workplace environments provide survivors of IPA with resources that allow them to cope with the abuse. By incorporating theoretical insights developed in the field of organizational studies, namely boundary work and organizational identities, these findings develop our understanding of the role of employment in survivors' coping strategies. Finally, the findings demonstrate the valuable contribution of interdisciplinarity in furthering our knowledge of coping strategies and the positive aspects of employment for survivors of IPA.
Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G; Brook, David W
The objective of this study was to examine the associations between compulsive buying and substance dependence/abuse, major depressive episodes, and generalized anxiety disorder at the mean age of 43. Participants came from a community-based random sample of residents in 2 New York counties in 1975 (N = 548). The participants were followed from adolescence to early midlife. The mean age of participants at the most recent interview was 43.0 (standard deviation = 2.8). Of the participants, 55% were females. Over 90% of the participants were Caucasian. The prevalence of substance dependence/abuse, major depressive episodes, and generalized anxiety disorder (during the past 5 years before the interviews) was 6.6, 13.7, and 11.5%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses showed that compulsive buying was significantly associated with substance dependence/abuse (adjusted odds ratio = 1.60), major depressive episodes (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70), and generalized anxiety disorder (adjusted odds ratio = 1.63), despite controlling for substance dependence/abuse, major depressive episodes, and generalized anxiety disorder, respectively, at the mean age of 37, and demographic factors. Since the study sample is limited to predominantly Caucasian participants (over 90%) with a close association to a small geographic area, the findings may not be generalizable to racial/ethnic minority groups or individuals living in other parts of the country. Nevertheless, it is important that clinicians treating substance dependence/abuse, major depressive episodes, and generalized anxiety disorder consider the role of compulsive buying.
Danø, Anne Møller; Ejrnæs, Mette; Husted, Leif
The focus of this paper is to analyse why a large fraction of single elderly people choose to retire early. A structural model directly based on the individual decision of labour supply is estimated on a sample of singles, where singles are defined as those who are living alone. We find that inco...... are willing to reduce the income to 81%. Men's retirement decision is mainly influenced by income and health, whereas women's retirement decision is also affected by education and unemployment experience...... and health are important determinants of the retirement decision. Furthermore, we find substantial gender differences in the retirement pattern. Healthy single women value retirement more than healthy single men and are willing to reduce their disposable income to 74% of their previous income while men...
[Clinical Practice Guide for Early Detection, Diagnosis and Treatment of the Acute Intoxication Phase in Patients with Alcohol Abuse or Dependence: Part I: Screening, Early Detection and Risk Factors in Patients with Alcohol Abuse or Dependence].
de la Espriella Guerrero, Ricardo; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Zárate, Alina Uribe-Holguín; Menéndez, Miguel Cote; Barré, Michelle Cortés; Rentería, Ana María Cano; Hernández, Delia Cristina
Worldwide, alcohol is the second most-used psychotropic substance and the third risk factor for early death and disability. Its noxious use is a world public health problem given its personal, labor, family, economic and social impact. 70 % of people under risk of having alcohol problems go undetected in medical practice, a fact that underlines the need for specific screening measures allowing early detection leading to timely treatment. This article presents evidence gathered by alcohol abuse and dependence screening as well as by risk factor identification and screening. It also presents evidence concerning withdrawal symptoms, delirium tremens and Wernicke's encephalopathy in order to promote early detection and timely treatment. Systematic revision of the evidence available together with an evaluation of pertinent guidelines found in literature so as to decide whether to adopt or adapt the existing recommendation for each question or to develop de novo recommendations. For de novo recommendations as well as those adapted, it was carried out an evidence synthesis, together with evidence tables and formulation of recommendations based on the evidence. Evidence was found and recommendations were made for the pertinent screening and search of risk factors, in order to perform a diagnosis and carry out a timely management of alcohol abuse, dependence and ensuing complications: withdrawal syndrome, delirium tremens and Wernicke's encephalopathy. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Keller, Stephanie M; Zoellner, Lori A; Feeny, Norah C
Therapeutic alliance has been associated with better treatment engagement, better adherence, and less dropout across various treatments and disorders. In treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it may be particularly important to establish a strong early alliance to facilitate treatment adherence. However, factors such as childhood sexual abuse (CSA) history and poor social support may impede the development of early alliance in those receiving PTSD treatment. We sought to examine treatment adherence, CSA history, and social support as factors associated with early alliance in individuals with chronic PTSD who were receiving either prolonged exposure therapy (PE) or sertraline. At pretreatment, participants (76.6% female; 64.9% Caucasian; mean age = 37.1 years, SD = 11.3) completed measures of trauma history, general support (Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors), and trauma-related social support (Social Reactions Questionnaire). Over the course of 10 weeks of PE or sertraline, they completed early therapeutic alliance (Working Alliance Inventory) and treatment adherence measures. Early alliance was associated with PE adherence (r = .32, p history was not predictive of a lower early alliance. Given the associations with adherence, clinicians may find it useful to routinely assess alliance early in treatment. Positive trauma support, not CSA history, may be particularly important in the development of a strong early therapeutic alliance. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Meissner, H. O.; Kapczynski, W.; Mscisz, A.; Lutomski, J.
Objective: This double-blind, placebo-corrected clinical pilot study was aimed at assessing the use of hypocotyls of cruciferous Andean plant Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon), in alleviating symptoms of menopausal discomfort experienced by women in early post menopause as measured by profiles of serum hormones: Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH), Estrogen (E2) and Progesterone (PG) and as assessed by Greene’s Menopausal Index. Design: Study was conducted on 20 Caucasian healthy early-postmenopausal women volunteers during the three months period (Trial I) and on eight women during nine months period (Trial II). Hormone levels were determined in blood with a simultaneous assessment of menopausal index at the start of study, after one month use of placebo, and after two and eight months administration of 2g gelatinized Maca root powder (Maca-GO) in the form of two 500mg hard gel capsules, twice daily. Results: In comparison to placebo, after both, two and eight months administration of Maca-GO capsules to EPMW, level of FSH significantly (PMaca-GO treatment only. There was a significant (PMaca-GO when used in EPMW, depending on the length of use, was acting as a toner of hormonal processes as reflected by decrease in FSH and increased LH secretion, which stimulated production of both ovarian hormones, E2 and PG and resulted in a substantial reduction of menopausal discomfort felt by women participating in the study, with a distinctive placebo effect, thus, fully justifying further, more complex study on effectiveness of Maca-GO as a reliable alternative to HRT program. PMID:23674952
Umubyeyi, Aline; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla
Despite its burden on a person's life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda. Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis. The theme "Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women's health care seeking when women are abused" expressed the health care professionals' experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter. Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV.
Full Text Available Despite its burden on a person's life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda.Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis.The theme "Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women's health care seeking when women are abused" expressed the health care professionals' experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter.Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV.
Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Bulik, Cynthia M
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies evaluating the association between early childhood adversities and eating disorders have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between a range of adversities and risk of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating......, parental disability, severe parental criminality, and parental substance use disorder) were defined and exposure during the first 6 years of life was determined. Hazard ratios for eating disorders were calculated using Cox regression. RESULTS: Few adversities were significantly associated with AN...... disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in 495,244 women. METHOD: In this nationwide, register-based cohort study, nine types of early childhood adversity (family disruption, residential instability, placement in out-of-home care, familial death, parental somatic illness, parental psychiatric illness...
Andrews, B; Valentine, E R; Valentine, J D
The relation of sexual and physical abuse in childhood to subsequent depression and eating disorders was explored in a community sample of mothers and their teenage and young adult daughters respectively. It was hypothesized that age would be a moderating influence on diagnosis following abuse in that depression would be more common in the mothers and eating disorders more common in the daughters. Depression was more common in mothers than daughters, using Bedford College caseness criteria (Finlay-Jones, et al., 1980), but the difference decreased when Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC: Spitzer, Endicott & Robbins, 1978) were used. Bulimia was more common in the daughters using DSM-III criteria. Both physical and sexual abuse were associated with chronic and recurrent depression but not with single short episodes of depression in the mothers. However, the relationship of depression to abuse showed only a weak trend in the daughter sample. Both physical and sexual abuse were related to bulimia in the daughters, but not in the mothers, as only one mother had such a disorder.
Alireza Aghayousefi; Morteza Tarkhan; Tahereh Ghorbani
Objective: This study aimed to examine the effect of dialectic behavior therapy on the reduction of impulsiveness in women with comorbidity of borderline personality disorders and substance abuse. Method: An experimental single system research design using multiple baselines was employed for this study. Based on the structured diagnostic interview and entry criteria, four participants among female patients with borderline personality disorders and substance abuse were selected via purposive s...
Flicker, Sharon M.; Cerulli, Catherine; Swogger, Marc T.; Talbot, Nancy L.
This investigation examined the relationship of abuse-specific coping strategies and perceived responses to abuse disclosure to symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress among 131 women seeking a protection order against an intimate partner. Disengagement, denial, and self-blame coping strategies, as well as blaming of the participant by others, were associated with greater depressive and posttraumatic symptoms. None of the strategies of coping or responses to abuse disclosure were negatively related to depressive or posttraumatic stress symptoms. Findings suggest that mental health providers may find it useful to address these negative styles of coping while public education campaigns should target victim-blaming. PMID:22735315
Cao, Yuankui; Zhang, Shaofen; Zou, Shien; Xia, Xian
To investigate the relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women. We enrolled postmenopausal women consisting of an early group (≤ 5 years since menopause, n = 105) and a late group (≥ 10 years since menopause, n = 107). Each group was subdivided into normal weight (BMI testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured. Body fat distribution was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Late postmenopausal women had a higher proportion of body fat than early postmenopausal women. The body fat of the overweight and obese women had a greater tendency to accumulate in the abdomen compared with the normal weight women both in early and late postmenopausal groups. The overweight and obese women had a higher free testosterone (FT) than the normal weight women in early postmenopausal women (Pfat distribution both in early and late postmenopausal groups (P>0.05).The FT in early postmenopausal women and the DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlated positively with the trunk/leg fat ratio (T/L) and the proportion of android fat whereas correlated negatively with the proportion of gynoid fat in the partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses (all Pfat distribution, the FT in early postmenopausal women and DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlate positively with abdominal fat accumulation.
Full Text Available Drug addiction as the most serious social issue of the world has different sociological, psychological, legal, and political aspects. In this regard, the purpose of this study is to determine the role of early maladaptive schemas in prediction of dysfunctional attitudes toward drug abuse among students of Islamic Azad Universities in Tehran Province, Iran. Statistical population of this study includes all students of Islamic Azad Universities in Tehran Province during 2013 and sample size is equal to 300 members that are randomly chosen. First, the name of university branches in Tehran Province were determined then three branches were randomly chosen out of them and then 300 members were chosen from those branches using random sampling method. All sample members filled out Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS toward drug. Data were analyzed through regression correlation method and SPSS22 software. The obtained findings indicated a significant relation (P<0/05 between early maladaptive schemas and dysfunctional attitude toward drug abuse among students. Early maladaptive schemas can predict dysfunctional attitudes toward drug among students.
Woodard, Genevieve A; Brooks, Maria M; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Mackey, Rachel H; Matthews, Karen A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim
The risk of cardiovascular disease increases after menopause. Recent evidence suggests that it is possible for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to become proatherogenic or dysfunctional in certain situations. Our objective was to evaluate whether the relationship of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) to subclinical cardiovascular disease differed across the menopausal transition, which would provide insight for this increased risk. Aortic calcification (AC), coronary artery calcification (CAC), carotid plaque, and intima media thickness (IMT) were measured in an ancillary study of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Women not using hormone therapy were stratified into premenopausal or early perimenopausal (Pre/EP, n=316) and late perimenopausal or postmenopausal (LP/Post, n=224). The inverse relationship of HDL-C to subclinical atherosclerosis measures among Pre/EP women was weaker or reversed among LP/Post women, adjusted for age, site, race, systolic blood pressure, glucose, body mass index, smoking, menopause status, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Specifically, multivariable modeling demonstrated an inverse association between HDL-C level and AC and IMT among Pre/EP women; however, the protective effect of HDL-C for AC, left main CAC, carotid plaque, and IMT was not seen in LP/Post women. In a small subset (n=53), LP/Post women had more total and small HDL particles, higher triglyceride levels, and more total low-density lipoprotein particles compared with Pre/EP women (Pmenopause. Future studies should examine whether this may be due to changes in HDL size, functionality, or related changes in other lipids or lipoproteins. © 2011 by The North American Menopause Society
Imhoff, Laurel R; Liwanag, Loriel; Varma, Madhulika
To examine the effect of previous sexual abuse or assault (SAA) on symptom severity, quality of life, and physiologic measures in women with fecal incontinence or constipation. A cross-sectional study of a prospectively maintained clinical database. A tertiary referral center for evaluation and physiologic testing for pelvic floor disorders. Women with fecal incontinence or constipation examined during a 6-year period. Symptom severity and quality of life were measured with the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI), Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQL), Constipation Severity Instrument (CSI), Constipation-Related Quality of Life measure (CR-QOL), and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). Physiologic variables were ascertained with anorectal manometry, electromyography, and endoanal ultrasonography. Of the 1781 women included, 213 (12.0%) reported SAA. These women were more likely to be white, to report a psychiatric illness, and to have a prior hysterectomy or episiotomy. On bivariate analysis, women with prior SAA had increased symptom severity on the FISI (P = .002) and CSI (P objective measurements and may modify treatment recommendations.
Alves, Martha; Graham-Bermann, Sandra; Hunter, Erin; Miller-Graff, Laura E; Schomer, Sarah M
Prior research on intimate partner violence (IPV) and a survivor's decision whether to remain in or leave a violent relationship has often been framed by the question "why do they stay?" This study looks reframe the discussion and examine one facet of this stay-leave decision: abusers' use of coercive control tactics. Using a qualitative approach with a sample of pregnant women exposed to IPV, we sought to expand on the current knowledge by looking at coercive control more broadly via an open-ended assessment. Interview responses show that (a) coercive control was experienced by most of the women in this sample and (b) coercion most often took the form of "latent" or hidden control, including such tactics as providing incentives, showing remorse, and making promises. However, such latent coercive tactics are rarely assessed in IPV survivors and represent an important factor deserving of further research and recognition.
Padgett, Deborah K; Hawkins, Robert Leibson; Abrams, Courtney; Davis, Andrew
In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 formerly homeless mentally ill women to capture their individual life trajectories of mental illness, substance abuse, and trauma in their own words. Cross-case analyses produced 5 themes: (a) betrayals of trust, (b) graphic or gratuitous nature of traumatic events, (c) anxiety about leaving their immediate surroundings (including attending group treatment programs), (d) desire for one's own space, and (e) gender-related status loss and stigmatization. Findings suggest formerly homeless mentally ill women need (and want) autonomy, protection from further victimization, and assistance in restoring status and devalued identity. Avenues for intervention include enhanced provider training, addressing experiences of betrayal and trauma, and more focused attention to current symptoms rather than previous diagnoses. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved
DuMont, Kimberly; Mitchell-Herzfeld, Susan; Greene, Rose; Lee, Eunju; Lowenfels, Ann; Rodriguez, Monica; Dorabawila, Vajeera
Objective: To evaluate the effects of a home visiting program modeled after Healthy Families America on parenting behaviors in the first 2 years of life. Methods: A sample of 1173 families at risk for child abuse and neglect who met the criteria for Healthy Families New York (HFNY) was randomly assigned to either an intervention group that was…
Pons, Francisco; De Rosnay, Marc; Bender, Patrick Karl
Children's affective experiences and cognitive abilities have an impact on emotion understanding. However, their relative contribution, as well as the possibility of an interaction between them, has rarely been examined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of severe abuse...
Rey, Guillermina Natera; Aguilar, Perla Sonia Medina; Pérez, Fransilvania Callejas; Orford, Jim; Escudero, Guillermo Salinas; Sainz, Marcela Tiburcio
Objective Estimate the cost-effectiveness ratio of a five-step brief intervention aimed at reducing the stress and symptoms of depression caused by living with an alcohol abuser. Methods The cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out with a decision tree, based on symptoms of depression measured on the CES-D scale. The effectiveness of the brief intervention was evaluated by comparing a group of indigenous women who received the intervention (n = 43) with a similar group who did not (n = 30). The groups were evaluated before, immediately after, and 12 months after the intervention, in the state of Hidalgo (Mexico). Pharmacological treatment was selected for comparison, using different estimates. Cost-effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were used to calculate the value of the remission of depressive symptoms. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. Results The brief intervention turned out to be more effective than the pharmacological one in terms of the remission of depressive symptoms. Its cost was also lower ($US 31.24 versus $US 107.60). The brief intervention would cease to be cost-effective only if its cost increased by 338% or more, or if its effectiveness were 22.8% or less. Conclusions The five-step brief intervention is a cost-effective option that results in significant reductions in depressive symptoms in indigenous women caused by living with alcohol abusers. It is also an affordable option for primary mental health care.
Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.
Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than…
Calvo, Fran; Carbonell, Xavier; Valero, Ramón; Costa, Jordi; Turró, Oriol; Giralt, Cristina; Ramírez, Marissa
The aim of this study is to define the risk factors associated with early discharge in out-patients clinics. Cross-sectional and observational study. Substance abuse clinics in Girona (Catalonia, Spain). A total of 264 individuals were included in the sample, and 34.8% of them abandoned the process within two months of starting the therapy (n=92). Clinical and socio-demographic variables of the clinical history were compared between participants with/without adherence. The Student t test was used to measure the comparison, and the chi-squared test was used for the analysis of qualitative variables. A binary logistic regression model was adjusted, with adherence as the dependent variable. The results indicated that attending the appointments unaccompanied (OR=3.13), being female (OR=2.44), having cocaine related issues (OR=1.14), and being younger (OR=0.89) are the factors which increase the risk early abandonment. Contrarily, being referred to specialists from a Primary Health Centre reduces the risk (OR=0.28). It is concluded that special attention must be devoted to the patients' families, women, and young patients. Moreover, the appropriate coordination between specialist services and basic services increases adherence to treatment among drug users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sharon C WilsnackDepartment of Clinical Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USAAbstract: Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS is a collaborative study of gender-related and cultural influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems of women and men. Members conduct comparative analyses of data from comparable general population surveys in 38 countries on five continents. This paper presents GENACIS findings that (1 age-related declines in drinking are uncommon outside North America and Europe; (2 groups of women at increased risk for hazardous drinking include women who cohabit, women with fewer social roles, more highly educated women in lower-income countries, and sexual minority women in North America; (3 heavier alcohol use shows strong and cross-culturally consistent associations with increased likelihood and severity of intimate partner violence; and (4 one effect or accompaniment of rapid social, economic, and gender-role change in traditional societies may be increased drinking among formerly abstinent women. These findings have potentially important implications for women-focused intervention and policy. Substance abuse services should include attention to middle-aged and older women, who may have different risk factors, symptoms, and treatment issues than their younger counterparts. Creative, targeted prevention is needed for high-risk groups of women. Programs to reduce violence between intimate partners must include attention to the pervasive role of alcohol use in intimate partner aggression. Social and economic empowerment of women, together with social marketing of norms of abstention or low-risk drinking, may help prevent increased hazardous alcohol use among women in countries undergoing rapid social change. Greater attention to effects of gender, culture, and their interactions can inform the design of more effective prevention
Tiwari, Agnes; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan; Ho, Rainbow Tin Hung; Tsao, George Sai Wah; Deng, Wen; Hong, Athena Wai Lin; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Fung, Helina Yin King Yuk; Pang, Emily Pei Shin; Cheung, Denise Shuk Ting; Ma, Joyce Lai Chong
Abused women, who suffer from chronic psychological stress, have been shown to have shorter telomeres than never abused women. Telomere shortening is associated with increased risk of cell death, and it is believed that adopting health-promoting behaviors can help to increase the activity of telomerase, an enzyme that counters telomere shortening. Qigong is an ancient Chinese mind-body integration, health-oriented practice designed to enhance the function of qi, an energy that sustains well-being. Therefore, an assessor-blind, randomized, wait-list controlled trial was developed to evaluate the effect of a qigong intervention on telomerase activity (primary objective) and proinflammatory cytokines, perceived stress, perceived coping, and depressive symptoms (secondary objectives) in abused Chinese women. A total of 240 Chinese women, aged ≥ 18 years, who have been abused by an intimate partner within the past three years will be recruited from a community setting in Hong Kong and randomized to receive either a qigong intervention or wait-list control condition as follows: the qigong intervention will comprise (i) a 2-hour group qigong training session twice a week for 6 weeks, (ii) a 1-hour follow-up group qigong exercise session once a week for 4 months, and (iii) a 30-minute self-practice qigong exercise session once a day for 5.5 months. The wait-list control group will receive qigong training after the intervention group completes the program. Upon completion of the qigong intervention program, it is expected that abused Chinese women in the intervention group will have higher levels of telomerase activity and perceived coping and lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms than will abused Chinese women in the wait-list control group. This study will provide information about the effect of qigong exercise on telomerase activity and chronic psychological stress in abused Chinese women. The findings will inform the
Klettke, Bianca; Mellor, David
This study investigated perceptions of victim culpability in sexual assaults against girls and women according to victim age, perceiver gender, and perceiver parental status. Overall, 420 jury-eligible participants completed an online survey recording their attributions of guilt, responsibility, and blame toward 10-, 15-, and 20-year-old girls and women in relation to sexual assault. Attributions of culpability were affected by whether the victim physically or verbally resisted the abuse, wore sexually revealing clothes, or was described as having acted promiscuously. Fifteen-year-old victims were perceived as more culpable for the abuse than 10-year-old victims. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.
This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way
Khalifa, Najat; Duggan, Conor; Howard, Rick; Lumsden, John
Early-onset alcohol abuse (EOAA) was previously found to both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder (CD) on adult antisocial behavior (ASB) in an American community sample of young adults (Howard, R., Finn, P. R., Gallagher, J., & Jose, P. (2011). Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behavior. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/14789949.2011.641996). This study tested whether this result would generalize to a British forensic sample comprising 100 male forensic patients with confirmed personality disorder. Results confirmed that those in whom EOAA co-occurred with CD showed the highest level of personality pathology, particularly Cluster B traits and antisocial/borderline comorbidity. Those with co-occurring CD with EOAA, compared with those showing only CD, showed more violence in their criminal history and greater recreational drug use. Regression analysis showed that both EOAA and CD predicted adult ASB when covariates were controlled. Further analysis showed that EOAA significantly mediated but did not moderate the effect of CD on ASB. The failure to demonstrate an exacerbating effect of EOAA on the relationship between CD and ASB likely reflects the high prevalence of CD in this forensic sample. Some implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Terraneo, Alberto; Marini, Elena; Rabensteiner, Andrea; Vinelli, Angela; Gomez Perez, Luis Javier; Baldo, Vincenzo
The aim of our study was to examine the association between problematic cell phone use (PCPU) for text messaging and substance abuse in young adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted on the basis of an ad hoc questionnaire, during the 2014-2015 school year in a province of the Veneto Region (Italy); it involved a sample of 1156 students in grades 6 to 8 (11 to 13 years old). A self-report scale based on the Short Message Service (SMS) Problem Use Diagnostic Questionnaire (SMS-PUDQ) was administered to assess the sample's PCPU. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to seek associations between PCPU (as the dependent variable) and independent variables. The proportion of students who reported a PCPU increased with age in girls (13.5% in 6th grade, 16.4% in 7th grade, and 19.5% in 8th grade), but not in boys (14.3% in 6th grade, 18.0% in 7th grade, and 14.8% in 8th grade). Logistic regression showed that drunkenness at least once and energy drink consumption raised the odds of PCPU, whereas reading books, higher average school marks, and longer hours of sleep were associated with lower odds of PCPU in early adolescence. our findings confirm a widespread PCPU for text messaging among early adolescents. The odds of PCPU is greater in young people at risk of other substance abuse behavior.
Zollman, Gena; Rellini, Alessandra; Desrocher, Danielle
Psychopathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder are often proposed as mediators of the sexual arousal dysfunction experienced by women with a history of childhood maltreatment. However, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are only part of the difficulties experienced by these women. Other factors to consider include negative affectivity and perceived daily stress. To assess the mediating role of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative affectivity, and perceived daily stress, we collected data from 62 women with and without a history of childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical and emotional abuse). A comprehensive assessment of sexual arousal functioning and sexual responses was obtained using self-reported measures and psychophysiological measures of vaginal engorgement and subjective sexual arousal during exposure to sexual visual stimuli. The model assessed the simultaneous mediating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative affectivity and perceived daily stress on the relation between childhood maltreatment and sexual variables. Daily stress, showed a significant and stronger mediation effect on sexual arousal functioning as compared to posttraumatic stress disorder and negative affectivity. These findings suggest that daily stress may be an important mechanism to consider when treating sexual arousal functioning in women who have a history of childhood maltreatment.
Augustine Vincent Umoh
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Spousal physical violence in pregnancy is a major public health and human rights concern. Identifying its prevalence and understanding the women’s attitude towards this phenomenon in our environment is key to developing strategies for effective intervention. Methods: This was a cross sectional study of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH, Uyo in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Information was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire instrument. Results: The mean age of respondents was 28.72 ± 4.47 years with a range of 16 – 48 years. The prevalence of spousal physical violence in the current pregnancy was 10.3%. 45.2% of those who experienced violence in the current pregnancy also experienced violence in other pregnancies while 73.7% of those who reported spousal violence in previous pregnancies also experienced violence in the current pregnancy. There was a significant relationship between spousal physical violence and the woman’s number of deliveries/parity (x2 = 16.145, p=0.025, marital status (x2=11.105, p=0.025 and husband’s occupation (x2=12.786, p=0.047. About half of the respondents expressed the view that spousal violence was not excusable under any circumstance while 22.7% believed that it could be excused under certain circumstances. Also 50.0% of those who experienced physical violence in the current pregnancy expressed the view that physical violence can be excusable. Most of the women (65.8% either kept the incidence of abuse secret or just did nothing. None reported to the police. Conclusion: Spousal physical abuse is still prevalent in our society. There is need to enlighten the women on this phenomenon in order to get their cooperation towards its eradication. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 731-736
Coles, Jan; Lee, Adeline; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Loxton, Deborah
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) occurs across the world, with a prevalence of 20% internationally. Our aim was to investigate the associations between CSA, CSA plus adult violence experiences, and selected self-reported physical and mental health in a community sample of women. Data from 7,700 women aged 28-33 years from the 1973-1978 cohort who completed Survey 4 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were analyzed. Questions about prior abuse experience such as child sexual abuse, IPV, adult physical and sexual assaults, andphysical and mental health. Women who experienced CSA were 1.4 times more likely to experience bodily pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] = [1.19, 1.58]), 1.3 times more likely to have poorer general health (AOR = 1.33, CI = [1.15, 1.54]), and 1.4 times more likely to be depressed in the past 3 years (AOR = 1.44, CI = [1.22, 1.71]) compared with those without abuse.. Women who experienced both CSA and adult violence were 2.4 to 3.1 times more likely to experience poor general (AOR = 2.35, CI = [1.76, 3.14]) and mental health (AOR = 2.69, CI = [1.98, 3.64]), and suffer from depression (AOR = 2.84, CI = [2.13, 3.78]) and anxiety (AOR = 3.10, CI = [2.12, 4.53]) compared with women with no abuse. This study demonstrates the importance of CSA in pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health.. It emphasizes how prior CSA may amplify pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health among women who are again exposed to violence in adulthood. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available This paper argues that the practices and aesthetics of vidding were structured by the relationship of Star Trek's female fans to that particular televisual text. Star Trek fandom was the crucible within which vidding developed because Star Trek's narrative impelled female fans to take on two positions often framed as contradictory in mainstream culture: the desiring body, and the controlling voice of technology. To make a vid, to edit footage to subtext-revealing music, is to unite these positions: to put technology at the service of desire. Although the conflict between desire and control was particularly thematized in Star Trek, most famously through the divided character of Spock, the practices of vidding are now applied to other visual texts. This essay examines the early history of vidding and demonstrates, through the close reading of particular vids made for Star Trek and Quantum Leap, how vidding heals the wounds created by the displacement and fragmentation of women on television.
Baviskar, Siddhartha; Christensen, Else
Objectives. The objective was to study the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among the mothers of children in Greenland and its association with the psychosocial adjustment of their children. Study design. The study was based on a 2007–2008 survey of a national sample of children...... in Greenland designed by researchers at SFI – The Danish National Centre for Social Research in collaboration with the Greenlandic Home Rule. The survey was conducted via telephone interviews with the children’s mothers. Methods. The relationship between the mothers’ childhood sexual abuse and their children......’s psychosocial adjustment was examined using OLS regression. Each mother’s CSA was measured by a direct question and the child’s psychosocial adjustment was measured by the total difficulties score on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results. Thirty-six percent of the mothers reported having been...
Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Breckenridge, Jenna P; Devaney, John; Duncan, Fiona; Kroll, Thilo; Lazenbatt, Anne; Taylor, Julie
Domestic abuse is a significant public health issue. It occurs more frequently among disabled women than those without a disability and evidence suggests that a great deal of domestic abuse begins or worsens during pregnancy. All women and their infants are entitled to equal access to high quality maternity care. However, research has shown that disabled women who experience domestic abuse face numerous barriers to accessing care. The aim of the study was to identify the priority areas for improving access to maternity services for this group of women; develop strategies for improved access and utilisation; and explore the feasibility of implementing the identified strategies. This multi-method study was the third and final part of a larger study conducted in the UK between 2012 and 2014. The study used a modified concept mapping approach and was theoretically underpinned by Andersen's model of healthcare use. Seven focus group interviews were conducted with a range of maternity care professionals (n = 45), incorporating quantitative and qualitative components. Participants ranked perceived barriers to women's access and utilisation of maternity services in order of priority using a 5-point Likert scale. Quantitative data exploration used descriptive and non-parametric analyses. In the qualitative component of each focus group, participants discussed the barriers and identified potential improvement strategies (and feasibility of implementing these). Qualitative data were analysed inductively using a framework analysis approach. The three most highly ranked barriers to women's access and utilisation of maternity services identified in the quantitative component were: 1) staff being unaware and not asking about domestic abuse and disability; 2) the impact of domestic abuse on women; 3) women's fear of disclosure. The top two priority strategies were: providing information about domestic abuse to all women and promoting non-judgemental staff attitude. These were
Tiwari, Sucheta; Gray, Ron; Jenkinson, Crispin; Carson, Claire
Spousal violence against women is a global public health problem. In India, approximately 40% of women report spousal violence. Like physical and sexual violence, emotional violence may be a determinant of women's health. This study explores the association between exposure to spousal emotional abuse and poor reproductive outcomes in Indian women. Data on 60,350 women, collected in the Third Indian National Family Health Survey were analysed to assess the impact of spousal emotional abuse on seven reproductive outcomes: age at first birth, number of children, terminated pregnancies, unwanted pregnancies, access to prenatal and skilled delivery care, and breastfeeding. Spousal emotional abuse was assessed using two overlapping constructs: emotional violence and controlling behaviour. Multivariable logistic regression was used for analysis. Spousal emotional violence and controlling behaviour was reported by 16 and 38% of the women, respectively. In unadjusted analyses, spousal emotional violence was associated with all adverse reproductive outcomes, except breastfeeding. Controlling for socio-demographic risk factors attenuated the association, and further adjustment for other forms of violence removed all significant associations. Spousal controlling behaviour was significantly associated with all outcomes, except breastfeeding. The effects remained statistically significant in multivariable regression. Women's experience of violence may be under-reported. When other forms of violence were adjusted for, emotional violence was not associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, whereas controlling behaviour remained associated with all but one adverse reproductive outcome. Therefore, spousal controlling behaviour requires further investigation as a determinant of reproductive health.
Raj, A; Silverman, J G; Amaro, H
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual risk in terms of safer sex behaviour and intent, individual and gender-based HIV risk factors, and male partner HIV risk, among a lower-income community-based sample of Hispanic women reporting a current male sexual partner. Baseline survey data on HIV-related behaviours and risk factors gathered from participants (N=170) of an HIV intervention evaluation study for Hispanic women were used for current analyses. Participants were age 18-36 years, predominantly born outside of the continental US (88.8%) and not English fluent (68.2%). Adjusted logistic regression analyses and 95% confidence intervals were conducted to assess the relationships between male-perpetrated IPV in the past three months and sexual risk variables. One-fifth (21.2%) of the sample reported male-perpetrated IPV in the past three months. Abused women were significantly more likely than those not abused in the past three months to report high STD/HIV risk perceptions (OR=3.02, 95% CI=1.33-6.88), gender-based risk including sexual control by male partners (OR=3.09, 95% CI=1.41-6.76) and male partner risk including male infidelity (OR=4.58, 95% CI=1.57-13.32). Results support the need for emphasis on IPV prevention within HIV prevention programmes and demonstrate the need for HIV prevention efforts directed at men with a history of IPV perpetration.
Lako, Danielle A M; de Vet, Renée; Beijersbergen, Mariëlle D; Herman, Daniel B; van Hemert, Albert M; Wolf, Judith R L M
One of the main priorities of Dutch organisations providing shelter services is to develop evidence-based interventions in the care for abused women and homeless people. To date, most of these organisations have not used specific intervention models and the interventions which have been implemented rarely have an empirical and theoretical foundation. The present studies aim to examine the effectiveness of critical time intervention (CTI) for abused women and homeless people. In two multi-centre randomised controlled trials we investigate whether CTI, a time-limited (nine month) outreach intervention, is more effective than care-as-usual for abused women and homeless people making the transition from shelter facilities to supported or independent housing. Participants were recruited in 19 women's shelter facilities and 22 homeless shelter facilities across The Netherlands and randomly allocated to the intervention group (CTI) or the control group (care-as-usual). They were interviewed four times in nine months: once before leaving the shelter, and then at three, six and nine months after leaving the shelter. Quality of life (primary outcome for abused women) and recurrent loss of housing (primary outcome for homeless people) as well as secondary outcomes (e.g. care needs, self-esteem, loneliness, social support, substance use, psychological distress and service use) were assessed during the interviews. In addition, the model integrity of CTI was investigated during the data collection period. Based on international research CTI is expected to be an appropriate intervention for clients making the transition from institutional to community living. If CTI proves to be effective for abused women and homeless people, shelter services could include this case management model in their professional standards and improve the (quality of) services for clients. NTR3463 and NTR3425.
Fox, Helen C; Sinha, Rajita
Extensive research indicates that chronic substance abuse disrupts stress and reward systems of the brain. Gender variation within these stress-system alterations, including the impact of sex hormones on these changes, may influence sex-specific differences in both the development of, and recovery from, dependency. As such, gender variations in stress-system function may also provide a viable explanation for why women are markedly more vulnerable than men to the negative consequences of drug use. This article therefore initially reviews studies that have examined gender differences in emotional and biophysiological changes to the stress and reward system following the acute administration of drugs, including cocaine, alcohol, and nicotine. The article then reviews studies that have examined gender differences in response to various types of stress in both healthy and drug-abusing populations. Studies examining the impact of sex hormones on these gender-related responses are also reported. The implications of these sex-specific variations in stress and reward system function are discussed in terms of both comorbid psychopathology and treatment outcome.
Pulverman, Carey S; Lorenz, Tierney A; Meston, Cindy M
An expressive writing treatment was recently reported to reduce depressive symptoms and improve sexual function and satisfaction in a sample of female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (Meston, Lorenz, & Stephenson, 2013). We conducted a linguistic analysis of this data to determine whether pre- to posttreatment changes in participants' language use were associated with the improvements in sexuality and depression. Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC), a program that counts the use of word categories within a text, was used to evaluate the impact of several word categories, previously associated with changes in mental health (Frattaroli, 2006), and shown to differ between childhood sexual abuse survivors and nonabused women (Lorenz & Meston, 2012), on treatment outcomes. A reduction in the use of the word "I" and an increase in positive emotion words were associated with decreased depression symptoms. A reduction in the use of "I" and negative emotion words were associated with improvement in sexual function and sexual satisfaction. The findings suggest that, because language may serve as an implicit measure of depression and sexual health, monitoring language changes during treatment may provide a reliable indicator of treatment response free of the biases of traditional self-report assessments. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Meston, Cindy M.; Lorenz, Tierney A.
Physiological responses to sexual stimuli may contribute to the increased rate of sexual problems seen in women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We compared two physiological stress responses as predictors of sexual function and satisfaction, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and cortisol in women with (CSA, N = 136) and without CSA histories (NSA, N = 102). In CSA survivors, cortisol response to sexual stimuli did not significantly predict sexual functioning; however, i...
Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Breckenridge, Jenna P; Devaney, John; Kroll, Thilo; Lazenbatt, Anne; Taylor, Julie
Women and their babies are entitled to equal access to high quality maternity care. However, when women fit into two or more categories of vulnerability they can face multiple, compound barriers to accessing and utilising services. Disabled women are up to three times more likely to experience domestic abuse than non-disabled women. Domestic abuse may compromise health service access and utilisation and disabled people in general have suboptimal access to healthcare services. Despite this, little is known about the compounding effects of disability and domestic abuse on women's access to maternity care. The aim of the study was to identify how women approach maternity care services, their expectations of services and whether they are able to get the type of care that they need and want. We conducted a qualitative, Critical Incident Technique study in Scotland. Theoretically we drew on Andersen's model of healthcare use. The model was congruent with our interest in women's intended/actual use of maternity services and the facilitators and barriers impacting their access to care. Data were generated during 2013 using one-to-one interviews. Five women took part and collectively reported 45 critical incidents relating to accessing and utilising maternity services. Mapped to the underpinning theoretical framework, our findings show how the four domains of attitudes; knowledge; social norms; and perceived control are important factors shaping maternity care experiences. Positive staff attitude and empowering women to have control over their own care is crucial in influencing women's access to and utilisation of maternity healthcare services. Moreover these are cyclical, with the consequences and outcomes of healthcare use becoming part of the enabling or disabling factors affecting future healthcare decisions.Further consideration needs to be given to the development of strategies to access and recruit women in these circumstances. This will provide an opportunity for
Rodgers, Jazmin J.
Women are key contributors to an organizational environment, though the stereotypic perceptions about powerful women are common and often negative. Factors such as wage gap differentials between men and women imply that women are not of the same value to an organization’s success as men. Many empirical studies have examined perceptions about women in positions such as managers, CEOs, supervisors or directors. These studies have not, however, focused on how early life environments, and variabl...
Williams-Petersen, M G; Myers, B J; Degen, H M; Knisely, J S; Elswick, R K; Schnoll, S S
Eighty pregnant women (25 substance using, 55 nonusing) from an American prenatal clinic serving lower-income to working-class women responded to questionnaire measures of child-rearing attitudes. The drug users' primary substance of misuse was cocaine (68%), alcohol (16%), amphetamines (12%), or sedatives (4%); polydrug use was documented for 80% of the women. The two (user and nonuser) groups were not different on demographic (age, race, marital status, education, SES, source of income) or obstetrical factors (number of pregnancies, number of children). Drug-using women scored significantly higher on a measure of child abuse potential; more than half scored in the range of clinical criterion for extreme risk. As their babies were not yet born, no actual physical abuse was documented, only a higher potential for abuse. The subgroup who were both drug users and had lower social support scored higher on child abuse potential than all other subgroups. The drug users also had lower self-esteem scores than the nonusers. The two groups did not differ on measures of overall social support, authoritarian/democratic child-rearing beliefs, or affection for the expected baby.
Asmoredjo, Jolanda; Beijersbergen, Mariëlle D.; Wolf, Judith R. L. M.
Purpose: To gain insight into client experiences with shelter or community care services for homeless people, homeless youth, and abused women and identify priority improvement areas. Methods: Seven hundred and forty-four clients rated their experiences and 116 clients rated the services' importance. Results: Clients had most positive experiences…
Lako, D.A.M.; Vet, R. de; Beijersbergen, M.D.; Herman, D.B.; Hemert, A.M. van; Wolf, J.R.L.M.
BACKGROUND: One of the main priorities of Dutch organisations providing shelter services is to develop evidence-based interventions in the care for abused women and homeless people. To date, most of these organisations have not used specific intervention models and the interventions which have been
Asmoredjo, Jolanda; Beijersbergen, M.D.; Wolf, J.R.L.M.
Purpose: To gain insight into client experiences with shelter or community care services for homeless people, homeless youth, and abused women and identify priority improvement areas. Methods: Seven hundred and forty-four clients rated their experiences and 116 clients rated the services’
Asmoredjo, Jolanda; Beijersbergen, M.D.; Wolf, J.R.L.M.
Purpose: To gain insight into client experiences with shelter or community care services for homeless people, homeless youth, and abused women and identify priority improvement areas. Methods: Seven hundred and forty-four clients rated their experiences and 116 clients rated the services’
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia
Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with increased sexual risk behavior in adulthood, and this association may be mediated by traumagenic dynamics constructs (i.e., traumatic sexualization, trust, guilt, and powerlessness). However, few studies have investigated whether such relationships hold for women who do not identify as…
Wyatt, Gail Elizabeth; And Others
Examined differential effects of sexual revictimization in community sample of 248 African-American and white women, ages 18 to 36. Findings suggest that unintended pregnancies and abortions were significantly associated with sexual revictimization. Women who reported more than one incident in both childhood and adulthood were also likely to have…
Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Zucosky, Heather C.; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Bucossi, Meggan M.; Andersen, Shawna M.; Schonbrun, Yael C.; Stuart, Gregory L.
The substantial increase in the enrollment of women in batterer intervention programs (BIPs) over the past 30 years has greatly outpaced research on women who perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV). As a result, it is unknown whether existing programs, which were originally designed to treat male perpetrators, are effective at preventing…
Hou, Wen-Li; Ko, Nai-Ying; Shu, Bih-Ching
This article describes the recovery experiences of women who had suffered intimate partner violence in Taiwan. A phenomenological study design using semi-structured interviews was used to obtain data from a purposive sample of eight women. Colaizzi's approach to narrative analysis was applied. Findings indicate that "reconstructing the self"…
Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David
Child sexual abuse is one of the most serious forms of abuse due to the psychological consequences that persist even into adulthood. Expressions of anger among child sexual abuse survivors remain common even years after the event. While child sexual abuse has been extensively studied, the expression of displaced aggression has been studied less. Some factors, such as the maladaptive early schemas, might account for this deficiency. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and these schemas according to gender and determine if these early schemas mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression. A total of 168 Spanish subjects who were victims of child sexual abuse completed measures of childhood trauma, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. The results depict the relationship between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. Women scored higher than men in child sexual abuse, emotional abuse, disconnection or rejection and impaired autonomy. Mediational analysis found a significant mediation effect of disconnection or rejection on the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression; however, impaired autonomy did not mediate significantly.
behavioral and psychological results by itself, early trauma may also lead to biological effects. Especially traumas during neuron plasticity phase may lead hypersensitivity of neuroendocrine stress response. Early life stresses are shown to lead changes in corticotrophin releasing factor system in preclinical and clinical phase studies. In the treatment of sexual abuse, emotional process related with trauma should be focused on. This process may be conducted with play therapy. Development of higher level defense mechanism, increasing ego capacity, orientation to social activity and personal activity according to skills is aimed. For the elimination of guiltiness related with stigmatization, the child should be told that it is not herhis fault to incorporate into sexual interaction and the culprit is abuser. It is fairly important for medical staff, school and family to have sufficient information about sexual abuse for prevention and early recognition.
Moslem Abbasi; Arash Aghighi; Parviz Porzoor; Mojtaba Dehqan
Literature review shows that cosmetic surgery demand is often a consequence of psychological distress. The purpose of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and psychological well-being in women who undergo cosmetic surgery versus normal women. This was a causal-comparative study in which, the statistical population included all individuals intended to have cosmetic surgery reffered to private clinics of the city of Arak for six months in late 2014 and early 2015 (N=1000). Among ...
Background One of the main priorities of Dutch organisations providing shelter services is to develop evidence-based interventions in the care for abused women and homeless people. To date, most of these organisations have not used specific intervention models and the interventions which have been implemented rarely have an empirical and theoretical foundation. The present studies aim to examine the effectiveness of critical time intervention (CTI) for abused women and homeless people. Methods In two multi-centre randomised controlled trials we investigate whether CTI, a time-limited (nine month) outreach intervention, is more effective than care-as-usual for abused women and homeless people making the transition from shelter facilities to supported or independent housing. Participants were recruited in 19 women’s shelter facilities and 22 homeless shelter facilities across The Netherlands and randomly allocated to the intervention group (CTI) or the control group (care-as-usual). They were interviewed four times in nine months: once before leaving the shelter, and then at three, six and nine months after leaving the shelter. Quality of life (primary outcome for abused women) and recurrent loss of housing (primary outcome for homeless people) as well as secondary outcomes (e.g. care needs, self-esteem, loneliness, social support, substance use, psychological distress and service use) were assessed during the interviews. In addition, the model integrity of CTI was investigated during the data collection period. Discussion Based on international research CTI is expected to be an appropriate intervention for clients making the transition from institutional to community living. If CTI proves to be effective for abused women and homeless people, shelter services could include this case management model in their professional standards and improve the (quality of) services for clients. Trial registration NTR3463 and NTR3425 PMID:25927562
Nerum, H; Halvorsen, L; Straume, B; Sørlie, T; Øian, P
To compare the duration and outcome of the first labour in women who have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and women who have been raped in adulthood (RA). Case-control study in a clinical cohort. University Hospital of North Norway. In all, 373 primiparas: 185 subjected to CSA, 47 to RA and 141 controls without a history of abuse. Data on birth outcomes were retrieved from the patient files. Information on sexual abuse was reported in consultation with specialised midwives in the mental health team. Birth outcomes were analysed by multinominal regression analysis. Vaginal births, delivery by caesarean section, operative vaginal delivery and duration of labour. As compared with controls, the RA group showed a significantly higher risk for caesarean section (adjusted OR 9.9, 95% CI 3.4-29.4) and operative vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 12.2, 95% CI 4.4-33.7). There were no significant differences between the CSA and the control group. The RA group displayed significantly longer duration of labour in all phases as compared with the control and CSA groups. There were major differences in the duration of labour and birth outcomes in the two abuse groups. Despite a higher proportion of obstetric risk factors at onset of labour in the CSA group, women subjected to CSA had shorter labours and less risk for caesarean section and operative vaginal deliveries than women subjected to RA. The best care for birthing women subjected to sexual abuse needs to be explored in further studies. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.
Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)
McCauley, Jenna L; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Walsh, Kate; Resnick, Heidi S
To examine post-rape substance use, associated post rape medical and social concern variables, and past year substance abuse among women reporting having received medical care following a most recent or only lifetime incident of rape. Using a subsample of women who received post-rape medical care following a most recent or only rape incident (n=104) drawn from a national household probability sample of U.S. women, the current study described the extent of peritraumatic substance use, past year substance misuse behaviors, post-rape HIV and pregnancy concerns, and lifetime mental health service utilization as a function of substance use at time of incident. One-third (33%) of women seeking post-rape medical attention reported consuming alcohol or drugs at the time of their rape incident. Nearly one in four (24.7%) and one in seven (15%) women seeking medical attention following their most recent rape incident endorsed drug (marijuana, illicit, non-medical use of prescription drugs, or club drug) use or met substance abuse criteria, respectively, in the past year. One in twelve (8.4%) women reported at least monthly binge drinking in the past year. Approximately two-thirds of women reported seeking services for mental health needs in their lifetime. Post-rape concerns among women reporting peritraumatic substance use were not significantly different from those of women not reporting such use. Substance use was reported by approximately one-third of women and past year substance abuse was common among those seeking post-rape medical care. Implications for service delivery, intervention implementation, and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Jan E.; Kukulan, Annis
In recent years, early women sociologists such as Harriet Martineau, Ida B. Wells, and Jane Addams have begun to appear in some introductory textbooks and theory books. Usually, they appear in a box, as a sidebar, or as selected "others." So why do we not know more about these women? Our research seeks to answer this question. Given the…
Maker, Azmaira H; Shah, Priti V; Agha, Zia
The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian,n = 72; Latina,n = 86) completed a self-report survey on childhood experiences and beliefs regarding physical abuse. Seventy-three percent of the South Asian and Middle Eastern sample, 65% of the East Asian sample, and 78% of the Latina sample reported experiencing at least one type of physical abuse. Significant differences in characteristics and perpetrators of abuse were found across groups. Demographic factors did not predict physical abuse. Experiencing physical abuse was the only predictor for acceptance of physical discipline and as a parental privilege or right across groups. Implications of alternate cultural models of family violence based on beliefs and exposure to violence are discussed.
Seaman, Patricia M.
Purpose: This study explored to what extent early Boomer women who work for pay will be interested in and committed to formal volunteering during retirement. Method: Data for this hermeneutic study were gathered through 2 in-depth conversational interviews of 19 English-speaking early Boomer women living in New Brunswick, Canada. Results:…
Cao, Yuankui; Zhang, Shaofen; Zou, Shien; Xia, Xian
Objectives To investigate the relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods We enrolled postmenopausal women consisting of an early group (?5 years since menopause, n?=?105) and a late group (?10 years since menopause, n?=?107). Each group was subdivided into normal weight (BMI
Mar 8, 2018 ... A girl, with boy in the background, at school in the Central African Republic ... Child, early, and forced marriage is a critical barrier to women's empowerment, particularly in rural areas. ... On March 12, IDRC is hosting the panel, “What works to tackle early child marriage & empower rural women and girls?
Graziosi, GCM; Mol, BWJ; Reuwer, PJH; Drogtrop, A; Bruinse, HW
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effectiveness of misoprostol treatment in women with early pregnancy failure who have been managed expectantly. We therefore performed a randomized trial on this subject. METHODS: Women with early pregnancy failure, who had been managed expectantly for at least
Graziosi, G. C. M.; Mol, B. W. J.; Reuwer, P. J. H.; Drogtrop, A.; Bruinse, H. W.
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effectiveness of misoprostol treatment in women with early pregnancy failure who have been managed expectantly. We therefore performed a randomized trial on this subject. METHODS: Women with early pregnancy failure, who had been managed expectantly for at least
The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of intimate partner violence and health consequences in civilian and active duty military women in the same geographic area using telephone survey and a case...
Sword, Wendy; Niccols, Alison; Yousefi-Nooraie, Reza; Dobbins, Maureen; Lipman, Ellen; Smith, Patrick
Women with substance use issues and their children have unique needs that are best met through collaborative and coordinated service delivery offered by a variety of agencies. However, in Canada and elsewhere, services tend to be fragmented and fail to address children?s needs. This study aimed to describe the partnership patterns, activities, and qualities among Canadian agencies serving women with addictions and to determine predictors of partnerships. We found that a number of partnerships...
Leuridan, Liesbeth; Wens, Johan; Devlieger, Roland; Verhaeghe, Johan; Mathieu, Chantal; Benhalima, Katrien
Women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes in the years after the index pregnancy. Some women with GDM already develop glucose intolerance in early postpartum. The best screening strategy for glucose intolerance in early postpartum among women with a history of GDM is still debated. We review the most important risk factors of women with GDM to develop glucose intolerance within one year postpartum. We also discuss the current recommendations for screening in early postpartum and the many challenges to organize postpartum follow up in primary care. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women.We enrolled postmenopausal women consisting of an early group (≤ 5 years since menopause, n = 105 and a late group (≥ 10 years since menopause, n = 107. Each group was subdivided into normal weight (BMI 0.05.The FT in early postmenopausal women and the DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlated positively with the trunk/leg fat ratio (T/L and the proportion of android fat whereas correlated negatively with the proportion of gynoid fat in the partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses (all P<0.05.Serum T levels do not correlate directly with body fat distribution, the FT in early postmenopausal women and DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlate positively with abdominal fat accumulation.
Buchbinder, Eli; Birnbaum, Liora
By conceptualizing abused women as victims or survivors, the literature offers two contradictory narratives of abused women. The aim of this article is to show that these two narratives are not mutually exclusive but rather can be used simultaneously to represent battered women's existential experiences. The study sample was comprised of 20 Israeli battered women. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant-twice for data collection purposes and once for validating the themes that emerged from the content analysis. "Strength trapped in weakness/weakness trapped in strength" was found to be a dominant theme in the life narratives of the interviewees. Most interviewees grew up in families of origin in distress; most were abused physically and emotionally. Although this anguish colored their lives with pain and turmoil, their experiences were the key to their ability to overcome difficulties. From the onset, interviewees' lives were marked by a sense of threat and deprivation, but these very difficulties were also the source of a sense of power that emerged from the women's struggle with their past. In their attempts to cope with and transcend the legacies of their past, interviewees' feelings oscillated continuously between past and present, creating a unique powerful sense of simultaneously being victims and survivors. Implications for intervention are suggested.
Grella, Christine E
In the past three decades, there has been increased recognition of the role of gender in influencing the course of substance use and treatment utilization. Concurrently, a substantial body of research on gender-related issues and substance abuse and its treatment has developed. This article reviews (1) policy initiatives that led to the growth of "specialized" treatment programs and services for women and recent policy changes that influence the provision of substance abuse treatment to women; (2) gender differences in the prevalence of substance use disorders and admissions to treatment; (3) gender differences in treatment needs,utilization, and outcomes, including long-term outcomes following treatment; (4) organizational characteristics of substance abuse treatment providers for women and the types of services provided in these programs; (5) treatment outcomes in gender-specific programs for women; and (6) the effectiveness of evidence-based treatment practices that have either been modified, or have the potential to be adapted, to address the treatment needs of women. This body of research is viewed within the context of a series of paradigm shifts from a generic treatment approach to a focus on gender differences and gender specificity and, most recently, to an emergent focus on gender responsiveness.
There has been an increase in costing analysis of intimate partner violence in recent decades, including the monetary impact to government, society, and the individual. Using data collected in a Canadian longitudinal study, the empirical analysis in this article provides an economic rationale for mobilizing public resources that improve the well-being of women leaving an abusive relationship. I estimated six variants of a selection model and used a costing exercise to build an economic case for preventive and other helping services to support women over their healing journey. The removal of financial constraints suffered by abused women, in support of their training needs, as well as reduced barriers to preventive health care services, may potentially lead to fiscal resource savings in the long run.
Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Toth, Sheree L.
The impact of early physical and sexual abuse (EPA/SA) occurring in the first 5 years of life was investigated in relation to depressive and internalizing symptomatology and diurnal cortisol regulation. In a summer camp context, school-aged maltreated (n = 265) and nonmaltreated (n = 288) children provided morning and late afternoon saliva samples…
Full Text Available Relationships have both positive and negative dimensions, yet most research in the area of intimate partner violence (IPV has focused on social support, and not on social conflict. Based on the data from 309 English-speaking Canadian women who experienced IPV in the past 3 years and were no longer living with the abuser, we tested four hypotheses examining the relationships among severity of past IPV and women’s social support, social conflict, and health. We found that the severity of past IPV exerted direct negative effects on women’s health. Similarly, both social support and social conflict directly influenced women’s health. Social conflict, but not social support, mediated the relationships between IPV severity and health. Finally, social conflict moderated the relationships between social support and women’s health, such that the positive effects of social support were attenuated in the presence of high levels of social conflict. These findings highlight that routine assessments of social support and social conflict and the use of strategies to help women enhance support and reduce conflict in their relationships are essential aspects of nursing care.
Ondersma, Steven J; Winhusen, Theresa; Lewis, Daniel F
Participants in clinical trials of interventions for substance use frequently show substantial pre-treatment reductions in use. However, pre-treatment change has not been studied among pregnant women, a group with unique motivational characteristics. It is also not clear whether pre-treatment reduction in substance use can be clearly linked to research activities such as pre-treatment assessment, or if it is the result of more general factors such as the decision to seek treatment. Using an interrupted longitudinal design, we evaluated pre-treatment change among 148 pregnant women, all of whom had completed a clinical trial comparing motivational enhancement therapy to treatment as usual. When baseline period was compared to the period after randomization and before treatment, the change in substance use was substantial (dropping from an average of substance use on 30.5% of days during baseline to 16.7% of days during the pre-treatment phase; psubstance use. These findings also suggest the possible need for re-evaluation of the nature and causes of behavior change, as well as trial design, in clinical trials for substance abuse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of women with substance abuse issues is increasing. Women present with a unique constellation of risk factors and presenting needs, which may include specific needs in their role as mothers. Numerous integrated programs (those with substance use treatment and pregnancy, parenting, or child services have been developed to specifically meet the needs of pregnant and parenting women with substance abuse issues. This synthesis and meta-analysis reviews research in this important and growing area of treatment. Methods We searched PsycINFO, MedLine, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Proquest Dissertations, Sociological Abstracts, and CINAHL and compiled a database of 21 studies (2 randomized trials, 9 quasi-experimental studies, 10 cohort studies of integrated programs published between 1990 and 2007 with outcome data on maternal substance use. Data were summarized and where possible, meta-analyses were performed, using standardized mean differences (d effect size estimates. Results In the two studies comparing integrated programs to no treatment, effect sizes for urine toxicology and percent using substances significantly favored integrated programs and ranged from 0.18 to 1.41. Studies examining changes in maternal substance use from beginning to end of treatment were statistically significant and medium sized. More specifically, in the five studies measuring severity of drug and alcohol use, the average effect sizes were 0.64 and 0.40, respectively. In the four cohort studies of days of use, the average effect size was 0.52. Of studies comparing integrated to non-integrated programs, four studies assessed urine toxicology and two assessed self-reported abstinence. Overall effect sizes for each measure were not statistically significant (d = -0.09 and 0.22, respectively. Conclusions Findings suggest that integrated programs are effective in reducing maternal substance use. However, integrated programs were not
Full Text Available Given the high prevalence of domestic violence and its impact on the different aspects of women's lives, this study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence of domestic violence and its correlation with the marital satisfaction in women of Bandar Abbas in 2014.The present study was an analytical cross-sectional study based on the purposive and non-random sampling method which was carried out on 300 women referred to health centers in Bandar Abbas, Iran. The data of the study was collected by the questionnaires of demographic and obstetrics information, domestic violence, and Enrich marital satisfaction scale through interviews and was analyzed using SPSS version 22.The total amount of domestic violence was reported to be 54%. The psychological violence was the most prevalent one (45%. There was a significant negative correlation between the overall score of domestic violence and all forms of violence (physical, sexual& psychological and the marital satisfaction score (P<0.001.Psychological violence was the most frequent type of violence against women in Bandar Abbas and there was a significant correlation between the domestic violence and marital satisfaction. Therefore, screening is recommended for women to improve their health condition.
... Health (NSDUH) show that 8.5 percent of pregnant women aged 15 to 44 drank alcohol in the ... 7 percent binge drank. Most alcohol use by pregnant women occurred during the first trimester. Alcohol use was ...
Resnick, Heidi; Acierno, Ron; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Holmes, Melissa
Approximately 683,000 adult women are raped each year. Only one in seven of these victims report the assault to police and receive forensic exams and other professional services. For many rape victims, this may be the only professional contact with service providers; however these services are typically limited to evidence collection and…
Ibañez, Ximena Andión
For many years, the intersection between HIV/AIDS and sexual and reproductive rights focused on the prevention of the epidemic. The violations to reproductive rights that HIV positive women face were not visible. However, this has begun to change. In this article, which is based on her presentation in the Human Rights Networking Zone at the conference, Ximena Andión Ibañez describes six areas where women's reproductive rights have been violated. The author advocates the use of litigation as a tool for advancing these rights.
Balaam, Marie-Clare; Kingdon, Carol; Thomson, Gill; Finlayson, Kenneth; Downe, Soo
BACKGROUND OR CONTEXT: refugee and asylum seekers are over represented in maternal death data. Many asylum seeking and refugee women access maternity care infrequently, or not at all. Little is known about the role of voluntary sector workers in supporting pregnant refugees and asylum seekers. to explore the experiences of voluntary sector workers supporting asylum seeking and refugee women during pregnancy and early motherhood. a qualitative descriptive study. individual and focus group interviews in three large urban centres in North West England, United Kingdom. two main themes emerged. 'Literally through hell and back' reflected the experiences of suffering, abuse and loss recounted to the volunteers by many of the women they work with. ׳Bridging the unacknowledged gap' related to the invisible processes undertaken by the workers as they enable the women they work with to over come their marginalised position. This included the difficulties of transience, and lack of enculturation, and to support them in accessing maternity care. voluntary sector workers supporting asylum seeking and refugee women strongly identified with the extreme suffering experienced by many of the women they work with. Through this contact, they become acutely aware of the gaps in provision for such women, and developed unique and innovative approaches to bridge this gap. These findings highlight the need for maternity health system to actively collaborate with, and learn from, voluntary agencies working in this field to improve the support offered to asylum seeking and refugee women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Persson, Tonje J; Pfaus, James G; Ryder, Andrew G
Research has found that non-monosexual women report worse mental health than their heterosexual and lesbian counterparts. The reasons for these mental health discrepancies are unclear. This study investigated whether higher levels of child abuse and risky sexual behavior, and lower levels of sexual orientation disclosure, may help explain elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety among non-monosexual women. Participants included 388 women living in Canada (Mean age = 24.40, SD = 6.40, 188 heterosexual, 53 mostly heterosexual, 64 bisexual, 32 mostly lesbian, 51 lesbian) who filled out the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories as part of an online study running from April 2011 to February 2014. Participants were collapsed into non-monosexual versus monosexual categories. Non-monosexual women reported more child abuse, risky sexual behavior, less sexual orientation disclosure, and more symptoms of depression and anxiety than monosexual women. Statistical mediation analyses, using conditional process modeling, revealed that sexual orientation disclosure and risky sexual behavior uniquely, but not sequentially, mediated the relation between sexual orientation, depression and anxiety. Sexual orientation disclosure and risky sexual behavior were both associated with depression and anxiety. Childhood abuse did not moderate depression, anxiety, or risky sexual behavior. Findings indicate that elevated levels of risky sexual behavior and deflated levels of sexual orientation disclosure may in part explain mental health disparities among non-monosexual women. Results highlight potential targets for preventive interventions aimed at decreasing negative mental health outcomes for non-monosexual women, such as public health campaigns targeting bisexual stigma and the development of sex education programs for vulnerable sexual minority women, such as those defining themselves as bisexual, mostly heterosexual, or mostly lesbian. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Neglecting women's health and the domestic violence prevailing against them can cause a variety of mental and even physical diseases that threaten the health of the family. Disruptions in the life pattern of women and mothers have adverse health effects for both the family and the entire society. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between wife abuse and mental health in female victims of domestic violence referred to the Forensic Medical Center of Shiraz. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study was conducted over three months in 2013 on 197 women with abusive husbands referred to the Forensic Medical Center of Shiraz. The study data collection tools included a demographic information questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and a standard violence against women questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was measured to assess the data collection tools' reliability. Data were analyzed in SPSS-18. Results: The mean age of the study subjects was reported as 30.42±6.72. More than 50 percent of the women had been victim to domestic violence and suffered from disorders in all the aspects of general health (P<0.05. There was a positive relationship between domestic violence and all the aspects of general health. In other words, violence of any kind was a predictor of general health disorders (P<0.05. Domestic violence was found to have the greatest effect on the incidence of depression and anxiety. Conclusion: The present study revealed the psychological consequences of wife abuse and violence against women and confirmed the damaging effect of violence on women's mental health. In addition to imposing heavy costs on the society for providing healthcare and medications, mental health disorders in women are also a burden for the family life and the children's upbringing.
Should women who consume alcohol during pregnancy be seen as committing an offence against their foetuses? If we care about our future children, this is not the place to extend the criminal law. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Leisring, Penny A.
Intimate partner violence is extremely common in college samples. To inform prevention and intervention efforts, understanding the motivation for engaging in partner aggression is critically important. The predominant view in the domestic violence field has been that women's use of intimate partner violence occurs in the context of self-defense.…
Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander
This article aims to examine specific substance use profiles among former Soviet Union (FSU) immigrant and native-born women in Israeli therapeutic treatment facilities. Individuals were sampled at drug treatment facilities and assessed using the Addiction Severity Index. ASI scores suggest differences between the two groups. Among the findings…
Sword, Wendy; Niccols, Alison; Yousefi-Nooraie, Reza; Dobbins, Maureen; Lipman, Ellen; Smith, Patrick
Women with substance use issues and their children have unique needs that are best met through collaborative and coordinated service delivery offered by a variety of agencies. However, in Canada and elsewhere, services tend to be fragmented and fail to address children's needs. This study aimed to describe the partnership patterns, activities, and…
Wachter Morris, Carrie A.; Shoffner, Marie F.; Newsome, Deborah W.
Career counselors work with people from varied segments of society. For battered women, some of the challenges they face from intimate partner violence may significantly influence their career exploration and decision making. Social cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) is a framework that has important…
This research takes place within the context of several major overlapping factors in West Africa: a democratization process that, in principle, includes equal access to public services - including justice - for all citizens; the existence of formal legal systems, national and international, conducive to the protection of women from ...
Elkjaer, Henriette; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
This randomized prospective study examines durability of improvement in general symptomatology, psychosocial functioning and interpersonal problems, and compares the long-term efficacy of analytic and systemic group psychotherapy in women 1 year after completion of treatment for childhood sexual...
Meston, Cindy M.; Lorenz, Tierney A.; Stephenson, Kyle R.
Introduction Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have high rates of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems in adulthood. Aim We tested an expressive writing based intervention for its effects on psychopathology, sexual function, satisfaction and distress in women who have a history of CSA. Main Outcome measures Validated self-report measures of psychopathology and sexual function were conducted at post-treatment, 2 weeks, one month, and six months. Methods Seventy women with CSA histories completed five 30-minute sessions of expressive writing, either with a trauma focus or a sexual schema focus. Results Women in both writing interventions exhibited improved symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women who were instructed to write about the impact of the abuse on their sexual schema were significantly more likely to recover from sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Expressive writing may improve depressive and PTSD symptoms in women with CSA histories. Sexual schema-focused expressive writing in particular appears to improve sexual problems, especially for depressed women with CSA histories. Both treatments are accessible, cost-effective, and acceptable to patients. PMID:23875721
Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Beadnell, Blair; Campbell, Aimee N C; Meade, Christina S; Tross, Susan; Calsyn, Donald A
Receptive anal sex has high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission risk, and heterosexual substance-abusing individuals report higher anal sex rates compared to their counterparts in the general population. This secondary analysis evaluated the effectiveness of two gender-specific, evidence-based HIV-prevention interventions (Real Men Are Safe, or REMAS, for men; Safer Sex Skill Building, or SSSB, for women) against an HIV education (HIV-Ed) control condition on decreasing unprotected heterosexual anal sex (HAS) among substance abuse treatment-seeking men (n = 171) and women (n = 105). Two variables, engagement in any HAS and engagement in unprotected HAS, were assessed at baseline and three months postintervention. Compared to the control group, women in the gender-specific intervention did not differ on rates of any HAS at follow-up but significantly decreased their rates of unprotected HAS. Men in both the gender-specific and the control interventions reported less HAS and unprotected HAS at three-month follow-up compared to baseline, with no treatment condition effect. The mechanism of action for SSSB compared to REMAS in decreasing unprotected HAS is unclear. More attention to HAS in HIV-prevention interventions for heterosexual men and women in substance abuse treatment is warranted.
Sartor, Carolyn E.; Grant, Julia D.; Duncan, Alexis E.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Calvert, Wilma J.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.
Objective The aim of the current study was to determine whether the higher rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) but lower rates of cigarette smoking in African-American vs. European-American women can be explained in part by a lower magnitude of association between CSA and smoking in African-American women. Methods Data were drawn from a same-sex female twin study of substance use (n=3,521; 14.3% African-American). Cox proportional hazards regression analyses using CSA to predict smoking initiation and progression to regular smoking were conducted separately by race/ethnicity. Co-twin status on the smoking outcome was used to adjust for familial influences on smoking (which may overlap with family-level influences on CSA exposure). Results After adjusting for co-twin status, CSA was associated with smoking initiation in European Americans (hazards ratio (HR)=1.43, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.26–1.62) and with smoking initiation ≤16 in African Americans (HR=1.70, CI: 1.26–2.29). CSA was associated with regular smoking onset ≤15 in European Americans (HR=1.63, CI:1.21–2.18), with no change in HR after adjusting for co-twin status. In the African-American subsample, the HR for CSA was reduced to non-significance after adjusting for co-twin status (from HR=3.30, CI:1.23–8.89 to HR=1.16, CI:0.71–1.92 for regular smoking ≤15). Conclusions CSA is associated with moderate elevation in risk for initiating smoking among African-American and European-American women. By contrast, CSA is associated with elevated risk for (adolescent onset) regular smoking only in European-American women. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between risk conferred by CSA and familial influences on regular smoking in African-American but not European-American women. PMID:27131220
Mokma, Taylor R; Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L
Child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault have been linked to increased self-blame, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. The current study aims to examine (a) whether these constructs explain women's risk for later adult sexual assault and revictimization, (b) whether such factors differentially confer risk for specific types of adult sexual assault (i.e., substance-facilitated and forcible), and (c) if self-blame confers risk indirectly through other risk factors. Multiple types of self-blame, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use were examined among 929 female college students as serial mediators of the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault and as risk factors for sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse survivors. In the model predicting risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse indirectly predicted greater risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault mediated through two separate paths: global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress and global blame-to-alcohol use. In the model predicting risk for forcible adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse directly predicted greater risk for forcible adult sexual assault, and this relation was mediated by the global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress path. Among child sexual abuse survivors, child sexual abuse specific characterological and behavioral self-blame directly predicted greater risk for forcible and substance-facilitated revictimization, but the pathways were not mediated by posttraumatic stress or alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of assessing different types of self-blame in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as examining risk for sexual victimization and revictimization. Findings did not support hypotheses that increased posttraumatic stress would predict increased alcohol use but did indicate that heightened self-blame is consistently associated with heightened posttraumatic stress and that heightened global self
Fisher, Celia B; Yuko, Elizabeth
The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries. © The Author(s) 2015.
Fisher, Celia B.; Yuko, Elizabeth
The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries. PMID:26564944
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intimate partner abuse is common worldwide, damaging the short- and long-term physical, mental, and emotional health of survivors and children. Advocacy may contribute to reducing abuse, empowering women to improve their situation by providing informal counselling and support for safety planning and increasing access to different services. Advocacy may be a stand-alone service, accepting referrals from healthcare providers, or part of a multi-component (and possibly multi-agency intervention provided by service staff or others. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of advocacy interventions within or outside healthcare settings in women who have experienced intimate partner abuse. SEARCH METHODS In April 2015, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and 10 other databases. We also searched WHO ICTRP, mRCT, and UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN, and examined relevant websites and reference lists with forward citation tracking of included studies. For the original review we handsearched six key journals. We also contacted first authors of eligible papers and experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing advocacy interventions for women with experience of intimate partner abuse versus no intervention or usual care (if advocacy was minimal and fewer than 20% of women received it. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. We contacted authors for missing information needed to calculate statistics for the review and looked for adverse events. MAIN RESULTS We included 13 trials involving 2141 participants aged 15 to 65 years, frequently having low socioeconomic status. The studies were quite heterogeneous in terms of methodology, study processes and design, including with regard to the duration of follow-up (postintervention to three years, although this was not associated with differences in effect. The studies also
Rivas, Carol; Ramsay, Jean; Sadowski, Laura; Davidson, Leslie L; Dunne, Danielle; Eldridge, Sandra; Hegarty, Kelsey; Taft, Angela; Feder, Gene
Intimate partner abuse is common worldwide, damaging the short- and long-term physical, mental, and emotional health of survivors and children. Advocacy may contribute to reducing abuse, empowering women to improve their situation by providing informal counselling and support for safety planning and increasing access to different services. Advocacy may be a stand-alone service, accepting referrals from healthcare providers, or part of a multi-component (and possibly multi-agency) intervention provided by service staff or others. To assess the effects of advocacy interventions within or outside healthcare settings in women who have experienced intimate partner abuse. In April 2015, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and 10 other databases. We also searched WHO ICTRP, mRCT, and UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN), and examined relevant websites and reference lists with forward citation tracking of included studies. For the original review we handsearched six key journals. We also contacted first authors of eligible papers and experts in the field. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing advocacy interventions for women with experience of intimate partner abuse versus no intervention or usual care (if advocacy was minimal and fewer than 20% of women received it). Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. We contacted authors for missing information needed to calculate statistics for the review and looked for adverse events. We included 13 trials involving 2141 participants aged 15 to 65 years, frequently having low socioeconomic status.The studies were quite heterogeneous in terms of methodology, study processes and design, including with regard to the duration of follow-up (postintervention to three years), although this was not associated with differences in effect. The studies also had considerable clinical heterogeneity in relation to staff delivering advocacy; setting (community, shelter
Tutty, Leslie M; Radtke, H L; Ateah, Christine A; Ursel, E Jane; Thurston, Wilfreda E Billie; Hampton, Mary; Nixon, Kendra
This research examines how mental health issues associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) relate to women's intersecting identities of race/ethnicity, disability status, and child abuse history. Data ( N = 595) from a Canadian triprovincial study included women who were White ( n = 263, 44.8%), Indigenous ( n = 292, 49.7%), or visible minority ( n = 32, 5.5%). Few demographic differences were found. None of the mental health measures (Symptom Checklist-Short Form [SCL-10], Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression [CES-D-10], Posttraumatic Stress Disorder [PTSD] Checklist) were in the clinical ranges. In a MANCOVA on the mental health scales, with IPV severity, racial group, disability status, and child abuse history as variables, only disability was significantly associated with more mental health symptoms.
Levstik, Linda S.
Presents the results from a survey where middle school students discussed women's suffrage that, in turn, demonstrated their views of sexism and power in the United States. Stresses the need for a restructured curriculum that accounts for the historical relationships between men and women in order to dispel these students' stereotyped views. (CMK)
AJRH Managing Editor
transmission. The purpose of the study is to establish risk factors associated with age at first intercourse among Lesotho women ... Delaying entry into sexuality could be safer and more secure to protect the sexual and reproductive health in young women. .... sex education before first sexual intercourse were more likely to ...
This project will examine the factors that affect young women's transitions from school to work, how they choose their first job, what drives the timing of when they ... One component of the program will support 11 projects addressing barriers to women's economic empowerment and gender gaps in earnings and productivity.
Abdullah, Adina; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Yip, Cheng Har; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Taib, Nur Aishah; Ng, Chirk Jenn
The survival outcomes for women presenting with early breast cancer are influenced by treatment decisions. In Malaysia, survival outcome is generally poor due to late presentation. Of those who present early, many refuse treatment for complementary therapy. This study aimed to explore the decision making experiences of women with early breast cancer. A qualitative study using individual in-depth interviews was conducted to capture the decision making process of women with early breast cancer in Malaysia. We used purposive sampling to recruit women yet to undergo surgical treatment. A total of eight participants consented and were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. These women were recruited from a period of one week after they were informed of their diagnoses. A topic guide, based on the Ottawa decision support framework (ODSF), was used to facilitate the interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed using a thematic approach. We identified four phases in the decision-making process of women with early breast cancer: discovery (pre-diagnosis); confirmatory ('receiving bad news'); deliberation; and decision (making a decision). These phases ranged from when women first discovered abnormalities in their breasts to them making final surgical treatment decisions. Information was vital in guiding these women. Support from family members, friends, healthcare professionals as well as survivors also has an influencing role. However, the final say on treatment decision was from themselves. The treatment decision for women with early breast cancer in Malaysia is a result of information they gather on their decision making journey. This journey starts with diagnosis. The women's spouses, friends, family members and healthcare professionals play different roles as information providers and supporters at different stages of treatment decisions. However, the final treatment decision is influenced mainly by women's own experiences, knowledge
Janet E Mosher
Full Text Available For women seeking to extricate themselves from the web of entrapment woven together by the multiple threads that make up the coercive control repertoire of their abusive intimate partners, it is often difficult to avoid engagement with legal systems. Yet, the legal systems they encounter—criminal, family, child welfare, immigration among them—are frequently unwelcoming (if not hostile, controlling, demeaning, fragmented and contradictory. While there has been a recent explosion of interest in “access to justice,” little attention has been paid to how we might conceptualize access to justice in a manner that speaks meaningfully to the circumstances of women who experience abuse in their intimate relationships. For such women, access to justice is curtailed not only by lack of representation, delays, costs, and procedural complexities—the obstacles commonly associated with access to justice failings—but by three inter-related phenomena: the enduring hold of an incident-based understanding of domestic violence; the failure of legal actors to curb men’s strategic use of legal systems to further their power; and the host of complications—contradictory expectations, inconsistent orders, repetitious proceedings, sweeping surveillance—that arise when women are compelled to navigate multiple intersecting legal systems. What is required, I argue, is a conceptualization of access to justice that places women’s safety and well-being at its core. Dans la plupart des cas, les femmes qui veulent se sortir de l’enfer de la violence conjugale et échapper au contrôle de leur conjoint abusif n’ont d’autre choix que de se tourner vers les systèmes judiciaires. Pourtant, ceux qui s’offrent à elles, que ce soit en matière criminelle ou familiale, ou encore en matière d’immigration ou de protection de l’enfance, sont souvent peu accueillants (sinon hostiles, en plus d’être contrôlants, rabaissants, fragmentés et
Syahri, Nur Alfi
Skripsi ini diberi judul “A Comparative Analysis of Woman Physical Abuse in the Novels The Color Purple by Alice Walker and Women at Point Zero by Nawal el-Saadawi” yang menganalisa tentang pelecehan fisik terhadap wanita, yang terkandung dalam 4 unsur, yaitu pelecehan fisik yang dilakukan dalam hubungan keluarga, pelecehan yang dilakukan dalam hubungan pernikahan, pelecehan yang dilakukan dalam hubungan berpacaran, dan pelecehan yang dilakukan dalam hubungan sosial dan politik. Keempat unsur...
Refining Measurement of Substance Use Disorders Among Women of Child-Bearing Age Using Hospital Records: The Development of the Explicit-Mention Substance Abuse Need for Treatment in Women (EMSANT-W) Algorithm.
Derrington, Taletha Mae; Bernstein, Judith; Belanoff, Candice; Cabral, Howard J; Babakhanlou-Chase, Hermik; Diop, Hafsatou; Evans, Stephen R; Kotelchuck, Milton
Substance use disorder (SUD) in women of reproductive age is associated with adverse health consequences for both women and their offspring. US states need a feasible population-based, case-identification tool to generate better approximations of SUD prevalence, treatment use, and treatment outcomes among women. This article presents the development of the Explicit Mention Substance Abuse Need for Treatment in Women (EMSANT-W), a gender-tailored tool based upon existing International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification diagnostic code-based groupers that can be applied to hospital administrative data. Gender-tailoring entailed the addition of codes related to infants, pregnancy, and prescription drug abuse, as well as the creation of inclusion/exclusion rules based on other conditions present in the diagnostic record. Among 1,728,027 women and associated infants who accessed hospital care from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2008 in Massachusetts, EMSANT-W identified 103,059 women with probable SUD. EMSANT-W identified 4,116 women who were not identified by the widely used Clinical Classifications Software for Mental Health and Substance Abuse (CCS-MHSA) and did not capture 853 women identified by CCS-MHSA. Content and approach innovations in EMSANT-W address potential limitations of the Clinical Classifications Software, and create a methodologically sound, gender-tailored and feasible population-based tool for identifying women of reproductive age in need of further evaluation for SUD treatment. Rapid changes in health care service infrastructure, delivery systems and policies require tools such as the EMSANT-W that provide more precise identification methods for sub-populations and can serve as the foundation for analyses of treatment use and outcomes.
Full Text Available Literature review shows that cosmetic surgery demand is often a consequence of psychological distress. The purpose of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and psychological well-being in women who undergo cosmetic surgery versus normal women. This was a causal-comparative study in which, the statistical population included all individuals intended to have cosmetic surgery reffered to private clinics of the city of Arak for six months in late 2014 and early 2015 (N=1000. Among them, 40 women was selected as the experimental group. A control group matched with the experimenta group consisted of 40 women of normal subjects was also selected according to the convenience sampling. Data were collected using scales of early maladaptive schemas and psychological well-being. The results indicated a significant difference between the two groups of surgical patients and normal participants in terms of maladaptive schemas .In addition, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of psychological well-being. The women who undergo cosmetic surgery had more early maladaptive schemas probably deu to psychological problems and negative attitudes toward their physical conditions. They had low levels of psychological well-being because of the attitude toward their appearance.
VanDeMark Nancy R
Full Text Available Abstract Background The predominant U.S. policy approach toward individuals with substance abuse problems has relied on stigma and punishment by withholding access to education, cash assistance, housing, social support, and normal social roles. In contrast to this approach, the theory of reintegrative shaming asserts that providing individuals with the opportunity to reconnect with society is more effective in reducing potential to relapse to crime and drug abuse. Strategies that promote such reconnection include expanding access to basic needs and supportive relationships along with increasing opportunities to fully participate in mainstream social roles. Methods The present cross-sectional study examined the predictors of relapse and the facilitators of recovery in a sample of 325 women with histories of substance abuse. Analysis of secondary data, collected as part of a national cross-site study, employed a mixed methods approach conducting (1 logistic regression to examine the predictors of relapse and (2 an inductive qualitative analysis of responses from open-ended items to explore the women's perceptions of barriers to and facilitators of recovery. Results Results suggest that lower levels of instrumental support, affective support, and participation in normal roles (such as parent, employee, student, and citizen are significant predictors of relapse to drug use and criminal behaviors. Qualitative findings support the quantitative results, revealing that participating women perceived the variables of support and role participation as critical in facilitating their recovery. They also noted the importance of individual characteristics such as optimism and strength and emphasized the significance of their relationship with their children in motivating them to avoid relapse. Findings suggest that punitive policies toward women with substance abuse histories may be ineffective. Conclusion The author concludes that current policies designed to
Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Maas, Carl D; Barber, Sara
Court-mandated domestic violence (DV) treatment programs across the country have seen a marked increase in female clients. These programs use a variety of measurement tools to assess the needs of their clients. Increased numbers of women in treatment for DV reflect a need to address the measurement of intimate partner violence (IPV) for both males and females. Unfortunately, the reliability and validity of many of measures used to assess IPV and related constructs for women remains unknown. The current study focuses on a particular measure, the Propensity for Abusiveness Scale (PAS). The PAS is not a measure of abusive behavior per se; rather, it assesses risk factors for abuse, including affective lability, anger expression, trauma symptoms, and harsh parenting experienced by the respondent. Specifically, the current study compares the factor structure and the measurement properties of the PAS for males and females in a sample of 885 (647 female, 238 male) participants in a DV treatment program. Findings indicate that the PAS demonstrated configural, metric, and scalar invariance between the female and male samples. These results suggest that it is appropriate for researchers and clinicians to make comparisons between women and men based on PAS factor scores. © The Author(s) 2014.
Souwer, Esteban T. D.; Blaauw, Judith; Coffeng, Sophie M.; Smit, Andries J.; Van Doormaal, Jasper J.; Faas, Marijke M.; Van Pampus, Maria G.
Objective. Preeclampsia is associated with cardiovascular atherosclerotic events later in life. Impaired arterial elasticity is considered to be a marker of vascular (endothelial) dysfunction and to be involved in the atherosclerotic process. We investigated whether previously preeclamptic women
Guydish, Joseph; Masson, Carmen; Flentje, Annesa; Shopshire, Michael; Sorensen, James L
There is little information on how to increase the scientific writing productivity of early-stage investigators in the addictions field. A scientific writing seminar is presented in this article, aiming to encourage manuscript writing and dissemination of addiction research, and outcomes are reported for 14 years of the seminar. In 14 years, there were 113 postdoctoral fellow enrollments in a 6-month writing seminar. Records of submission and publication rates of manuscripts were collected for 14 cohorts. Of the 113 participant enrollments, 97 (86%) submitted a manuscript for publication, and 87 participants (77%) published their manuscript. A scientific writing seminar may benefit writing productivity, but more research is needed to compare this training model with other existing models.
This exploratory study of the incidence of physical spouse abuse in Nigeria reveals that women are the primary victims. The study further reveals that early marriages, length of marriage, number and ages of children, size of household, amount of household income and the reluctance of the police to intervene in familial ...
Abrahamsen, Bo; Shalhoub, V; Larson, E K
be demonstrated in women with rapid bone loss after the menopause. Biopsies were obtained from 23 early postmenopausal women (mean age 53.9 years) who participated in a randomized study of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and risk factors for osteoporosis. Bone mineral density was assessed by duel energy X...
preliminary and global models some of the variables expected to be related to the outcome were not, most notably these included oral contraceptives and...Detection of Breast Cancer for Young Women PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Alexander Stojadinovic...26September2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electrical Impedance Imaging for Early Detection of Breast Cancer for Young Women 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT
Herman-Smith, Robert L.
Research Findings: A 2003 amendment to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to develop plans to ensure that children younger than the age of 3 years who are victims of substantiated abuse or neglect have access to developmental screenings. Programs authorized under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities…
Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann
Child abuse and neglect are serious social problems that make extraordinary demands on teachers' knowledge and professionalism. Yet the field of education has been slow to develop a discipline-specific knowledge base about child abuse and neglect for teachers and teacher education programmes and there is a paucity empirical research into teachers'…
Moretti, Marlene M.; Craig, Stephanie G.
Objective: Current research has established that depression is a common outcome of child abuse. The current study extends previous research by examining the relationship between parental emotional and physical abuse and adolescents' depressive symptoms using a prospective longitudinal design. We anticipated that this relationship would be mediated…
Sorenson, Susan B; Shi, Rui; Zhang, Jingwen; Xue, Jia
We examined the content and usability of the Web sites of agencies serving women victims of violence. We entered the names of a systematic 10% sample of 3774 agencies listed in 2 national directories into a search engine. We took (in April 2012) and analyzed screenshots of the 261 resulting home pages and the readability of 193 home and first-level pages. Victims (94%) and donors (68%) were the primary intended audiences. About one half used social media and one third provided cues to action. Almost all (96.4%) of the Web pages were rated "fairly difficult" to "very confusing" to read, and 81.4% required more than a ninth-grade education to understand. The service and marketing functions were met fairly well by the agency home pages, but usability (particularly readability and offer of a mobile version) and efforts to increase user safety could be improved. Internet technologies are an essential platform for public health. They are particularly useful for reaching people with stigmatized health conditions because of the anonymity allowed. The one third of agencies that lack a Web site will not reach the substantial portion of the population that uses the Internet to find health information and other resources.
Baba, Kaori; Kataoka, Yaeko
The aims of this study were to determine the rate of women who are high-risk for child abuse and neglect in a perinatal unit in Japan, and to identify the factors associated with risk level. To assess the potential risk for child abuse and neglect the Japanese version of the Kempe Family Stress Checklist (FSC-J) was used to guide interviews with postpartum women. FSC-J uses a three-point scale to score 10 categories, categorizing responses as "no risk=0", "risk=5", and "high risk=10". The range of FSC-J is 0-100. Using an established cutoff point of 25, subjects were divided into high and low risk groups. For both groups, relationships between factors were analyzed. Of the 174 subjects who agreed to participate, 12 (6.9%) scored high-risk, and 162 (93.1%) scored low-risk. Adjusted odds ratio identified three associated factors as important for predicting risk level: past mental illness (OR=341.1), previous experience of intimate partner violence (OR=68.0), and having a partner who was unemployed (OR=14.5). Although this study was on a small sample of women in one hospital in Japan and a larger population would make this study much stronger, these results suggest that some 6.9% of postpartum women in Japan may be at high-risk for child abuse and neglect. It is critical, therefore, to develop a system for screening, intervention, and referral for such women and their children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gibson, Laura E.; Leitenberg, Harold
A study of 106 undergraduates who had experienced a sexual assault within the past year found that those with a history of child sexual abuse used more disengagement methods of coping. The relationship between prior sexual abuse and use of disengagement coping strategies was mediated by feelings of stigma. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Chen, Q; Shen, F; Gao, Y F; Zhao, M
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both women and fetus. Although women with early severe preeclampsia are generally considered to require expedious delivery, expectant management may benefit for pregnancy prolongation. We performed a retrospective analysis of expectant management in early-onset preeclampsia, with or without fetal grow restriction (FGR) over a 6-year period, to investigate whether these women benefit from expectant management. Data including clinical parameters and liver and renal function from 186 nulliparous women with early-onset preeclampsia were analysed. In women with early-onset preeclampsia, 76.8% were delivered after 48 h and the median pregnancy prolongation was 8 days, whereas 23.2% were delivered within 48 h. There was no difference in maternal parameters, liver or renal functions between women in these two groups, regardless of the severity of preeclampsia. However, the stillbirth number was higher in preeclamptic women delivered after 48 h compared with those delivered within 48 h. Our study demonstrates that the decision for immediate delivery or expectant management was not associated with clinical parameter or laboratory biomarker of liver and renal function. However, the risk of stillbirth should still be taken into consideration when making the decision for immediate delivery or expectant management in the clinic.
GrOW is a five-year, multi-funder partnership of the United Kingdom's Department for International Development, The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, and IDRC. With a focus on low-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, GrOW aims to support policies and interventions that improve women's ...
Age at first sexual intercourse may be a predictor of future sexual behaviour and an important indicator for exposure to HIV transmission. The purpose of the study is to establish risk factors associated with age at first intercourse among Lesotho women aged 15 to 49 years. The data used came from the 2009 Lesotho ...
2 days ago ... Fellowships with a value of up to US$50,000 each will be awarded to women scientists from countries where the capacity for science and technology is ... Please note that although the application details and a list of required supporting documents are currently available on the OWSD website, the online ...
Morgan, Sinead R; Long, Lisa; Johns, Jemma; Angwin, Chloe; Maitra, Supriya; Ross, Jackie A
Ultrasound evaluation is usually requested for women presenting with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) in early pregnancy. This is to check viability as well as to diagnose multiple pregnancies and exclude gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). The aim of this retrospective case control study was to evaluate the early pregnancy outcomes in women with HG and to compare them with an asymptomatic control group. 790 women referred with HG between 2002 and 2014 were matched for gestational age and maternal age with an asymptomatic patient attending for a reassurance or dating scan. A higher proportion of women with HG had ongoing pregnancies compared with controls and conversely, embryonic demise was less frequent in the HG group. The risk of twin pregnancy was doubled in the HG group compared to controls. There was no evidence of an increase in the prevalence of GTD. There appears to be a limited role for ultrasound in women who present with HG alone.
This article, based on archival records, published documents, interviews with elite sportswomen and three regional case studies, deals with the radical social, economic, cultural and political changes in the early years of the Communist China, the consequent changes in women's lives and the eventual extraordinary impact on elite women's sport. It analyses the complicated relations between the communist system, gender ideology, sports policy, international politics and elite women's sport. With the establishment of a variety of sports institutions, systems and structures women in increasing numbers took part in competitive sport and produced even increasingly remarkable achievements.
Meston, Cindy M; Lorenz, Tierney A
Physiological responses to sexual stimuli may contribute to the increased rate of sexual problems seen in women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We compared two physiological stress responses as predictors of sexual function and satisfaction, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and cortisol in women with (CSA, N = 136) and without CSA histories (NSA, N = 102). In CSA survivors, cortisol response to sexual stimuli did not significantly predict sexual functioning; however, in NSA women, cortisol increases were associated with poorer sexual functioning, and decreases with higher functioning. For women with CSA histories, lower SNS activity was associated with poorer sexual functioning. For CSA survivors with low lifetime trauma, lower SNS activity was associated with higher sexual satisfaction; for women with high lifetime trauma, the reverse was true. Decreased SNS activity during sexual stimuli predicted higher sexual functioning in NSA women with low lifetime exposure to traumatic events, but lower sexual functioning in those with high exposure. Differences between women with and without CSA histories in the association between cortisol and SNS response and sexual functioning and satisfaction suggests that CSA causes disruptions in both short and long-term stress responses to sexual stimuli that perpetuate into adulthood.
O'Neill, J L
Appropriate nutrition in pregnancy is fundamental for maternal and fetal health, and the long-term physiological wellbeing of the offspring. We aimed to determine whether a sample of pregnant women met the national guidelines for healthy eating during pregnancy, and to examine if compliance differs when analysed by Body Mass Index (BMI) category. Subjects completed a 24-hr dietary recall, and had their BMI calculated. The mean age was 27.8 years. The mean BMI was 25.1 kg\\/m2, with 32 (31.7%) subjects overweight and 14 (13.9%) obese based on BMI category. Although the majority of subjects thought that they had a healthy diet, less than half met the recommended guidelines for each individual food group with achievement of the dairy group being particularly low. Achievement of food group recommendations was not influenced by BMI category. Public health messages on healthy eating guidelines need to be clearly communicated to pregnant women.
There is a strong commitment among governments to address both youth unemployment and gender inequality in education. But there is little evidence on what underlies the challenges young girls face. Research is also thin on whether and how early labour market and fertility experiences can have substantial lifelong ...
Using a transnational framework, this paper focuses on four graduates of Gipsy Hill Training College (GHTC) for nursery school teachers in London, United Kingdom, in the early to mid-twentieth century. Firstly, I explore GHTC's progressive ideals and highlight ways in which its principal, Lillian de Lissa, encouraged students to "think…
Gallagher, B; Allen, M; Jones, B
Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.
Full Text Available Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.
Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets\\' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens\\' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.
Parks, Cheryl A; Heller, Nina Rovinelli
Differences exist in alcohol-related outcomes across subgroups of sexual minority women. Likewise, stressors associated with coming out and living as lesbian or bisexual are hypothesized to be highly variable. Lesbians' and bisexual women's risks for hazardous drinking are explored in a 2006 NIAAA-funded interview study of women living in the Northeastern United States. The primary objective of the present study is to replicate and extend an earlier analysis of the relationship between early drinking contexts and current drinking outcomes of adult lesbians with a convenience sample that includes a subgroup of self-identified bisexual women. Potential differences in the early drinking contexts of these two groups of self-identified lesbian and bisexual women are also explored. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses are used to examine relationships between early drinking contexts and current drinking of a racially and age-diverse convenience sample of 145 adult lesbian (N = 94) and bisexually identified (N = 51) women. Consistent with previous research, patterns established while coming out have an enduring effect on drinking outcomes of lesbians; findings for bisexual women are inconclusive. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Boddapati, Samanta; Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Jason, Leonard A.; Ferrari, Joseph
Research has demonstrated high rates of co-occurrence among anxiety and substance use disorders. However, few studies have specifically examined the relationship between substance use and social anxiety among individuals who are in substance abuse recovery. The present study examined social anxiety as a predictor of substance use among a sample randomized to a sober-living home versus usual aftercare. Given the social nature of many substance abuse treatment and aftercare programs, it was als...
Kristen L. Mackiewicz Seghete
Conclusions: Results suggest exposure to childhood abuse is associated with blunted recruitment of brain regions supporting task-set maintenance but hypervigilance for task-irrelevant information, regardless of whether distractors are emotionally neutral or emotional. Exposure to childhood abuse is also associated with less suppression of default mode brain regions associated with self-referential processing in the face of irrelevant threat information, but heightened ability to suppress similar processing for irrelevant positive information.
Yount, Kathryn M.; Carrera, Jennifer S.
We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical…
Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J
This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder.
Suppli, Nis Frederik Palm; Johansen, Christoffer; Kessing, Lars Vedel
Purpose The aim of this nationwide, register-based cohort study was to determine whether women treated for depression before primary early-stage breast cancer are at increased risk for receiving treatment that is not in accordance with national guidelines and for poorer survival. Material...... and Methods We identified 45,325 women with early breast cancer diagnosed in Denmark from 1998 to 2011. Of these, 744 women (2%) had had a previous hospital contact (as an inpatient or outpatient) for depression and another 6,068 (13%) had been treated with antidepressants. Associations between previous...... treatment of depression and risk of receiving nonguideline treatment of breast cancer were assessed in multivariable logistic regression analyses. We compared the overall survival, breast cancer-specific survival, and risk of death by suicide of women who were and were not treated for depression before...
Savis'ko, A A; Kostinov, M P; Kharseeva, G G; Labushkina, A V; Alutina, É L
Study of anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus immunity in women in early postpartum period depending on age. Women in early postpartum period (n =139) with unknown vaccine anamnesis aged 17 to 44 years and under the supervision of Rostov-on-Don maternity hospital No. 2 were examined for the evaluation of the anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus immunity state. All the women had high level of protection form these infections. The level of anti-tetanus immunity intensity in the examined was higher than anti-diphtheria. Monitoring of anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus immunity in women of childbearing age is necessary to resolve the issue of vaccine administration in this group. High level of maternal immunity intensity will allow to form a sufficient protection from infectious agents in neonates.
Al-Biate, Mawahib A.S.
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of metformin therapy in reducing early pregnancy loss in pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Materials and methods: This is a prospective cohort study conducted in the Obstetric Department of the Gulf Medical College Hospital in Ajman, UAE, for a period of 3 years. This study involved 106 nondiabetic pregnant women with PCOS who became pregnant while using metformin. They were divided into two groups, namely, the group that receive...
Rana F Obeidat
Full Text Available To use the critical social theory as a framework to analyze the oppression of Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer in the decision-making process for surgical treatment and suggest strategies to emancipate these women to make free choices. This is a discussion paper utilizing the critical social theory as a framework for analysis. The sexist and paternalistic ideology that characterizes Jordanian society in general and the medical establishment in particular as well as the biomedical ideology are some of the responsible ideologies for the fact that many Jordanian women with early stage breast cancer are denied the right to choose a surgical treatment according to their own preferences and values. The financial and political power of Jordanian medical organizations (e.g., Jordan Medical Council, the weakness of nursing administration in the healthcare system, and the hierarchical organization of Jordanian society, where men are first and women are second, support these oppressing ideologies. Knowledge is a strong tool of power. Jordanian nurses could empower women with early stage breast cancer by enhancing their knowledge regarding their health and the options available for surgical treatment. To successfully emancipate patients, education alone may not be enough; there is also a need for health care providers′ support and unconditional acceptance of choice. To achieve the aim of emancipating women with breast cancer from the oppression inherent in the persistence of mastectomy, Jordanian nurses need to recognize that they should first gain greater power and authority in the healthcare system.
Ngugi, Caroline Wangari; Boga, Hamadi; Muigai, Anne W T; Wanzala, Peter; Mbithi, John N
In this study, 50 in-depth interviews were carried out with women from the general population in Thika, Kenya. We explored awareness, attitudes, and behavior toward cervical cancer and screening measures among the women. The concept of the health belief model (HBM) was used to develop the topics for the in-depth interviews. Our findings highlight the lack of awareness of cervical cancer and the benefits of early detection measures as critical barriers that affect women's participation in screening programs. We provide a basis for designing programs that will be acceptable and accessible to a larger population, resulting in a reduced cervical cancer burden.
John Cecily, Helen Shaji
Osteoporosis is difficult to treat and is still incurable, and thus prevention is critically important. The aim of this study was to find out the high-risk women for osteoporosis and to correlate their bone mineral density (BMD) with their investigated risk factors. Cross-sectional design was used and it was conducted among 200 pre- and postmenopausal Saudi women. The study documented that postmenopausal females had high prevalence of osteopenia and majority of them had low serum calcium. Significant correlation was found between low BMD and family history of osteoporosis; increased BMD was seen in women, who consumed calcium-rich foods, exposure to sun light, and longer fertility period. Majority of the women 94.5% had inadequate knowledge on preventive measures of osteoporosis. The high prevalence of osteopenia in postmenopausal women indicates the ultimate importance of early intervention to prevent development of osteoporosis in later life.
Johnson, Charles Felzen
Child sexual abuse is a worldwide concern. It is an insidious, persistent, and serious problem that, depending on the population studied and definition used, affects 2-62% of women and 3-16% of men as victims. Pain and tissue injury from child sexual abuse can completely heal in time, but psychological and medical consequences can persist through adulthood. Associated sexually transmitted diseases (such as HIV) and suicide attempts can be fatal. All physicians who treat children should be aware of the manifestations and consequences of child sexual abuse, and should be familiar with normal and abnormal genital and anal anatomy of children. This aim is best accomplished through training and routine examination of the anus and genitalia of children. Because as many as 96% of children assessed for suspected sexual abuse will have normal genital and anal examinations, a forensic interview by a trained professional must be relied on to document suspicion of abuse.
Kako, Peninnah M.; Stevens, Patricia E.; Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Kibicho, Jennifer; Karani, Anna K.; Dressel, Anne
Early HIV testing is critical to prevention and timely treatment. Missed opportunities for HIV diagnosis can result in unnecessary deaths at a time when access to antiretroviral treatment proves life saving. While HIV prevention and treatment research has increased, less research exists on women's experiences with HIV diagnosis, despite the fact that women are most affected. Insights from local women are critical in designing culturally meaningful interventions that thwart missed opportunities for early HIV diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to uncover steps women took to know their HIV diagnosis. Using narrative inquiry methodology informed by post-colonial feminism, we interviewed 40 HIV- positive women in Kenya. Five themes emerged related to uptake of HIV testing for women: (a) spouse's critical illness or death; (b) years of suffering from HIV-related symptoms; (c) sick children; (d) prenatal testing; and (e) personal desire to know one's HIV status. These findings centered on women experiences provide an important basis for health promotion interventions related to HIV prevention, earlier detection, and treatment. PMID:24273455
Cherri, Zeinab; Gil Cuesta, Julita; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M; Guha-Sapir, Debarati
The Syrian conflict has displaced five million individuals outside their country with Lebanon hosting the largest numbers per capita. Around 24% of Syrian refugees fleeing to Lebanon are women of reproductive age (15-49). Yet, a better understanding of the sexual and reproductive health needs of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon is required to improve provided services. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted in four regions of Lebanon with 108 Syrian refugee women of reproductive age. Thematic analysis was used to examine the data. Interviewed women were mainly adults. They believed that, in Lebanon, they were subjected to early marriage compared to the norm in Syria due to their financial situation and uncertainty. Cost was reported as the main barrier to use contraception in Lebanon but some Syrian refugee women were not aware of free services covering sexual and reproductive health. In general, marriage, pregnancy, and family planning behavior of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon slightly differed from those in Syria pre-conflict in terms of age of marriage, conception subsequent to marriage, and contraception method. Hence, interventions to increase awareness of subsidized sexual and reproductive health services, including free contraceptives at primary health care centers, and those targeting protection from early marriage of Syrian refugee women in Lebanon are strongly recommended.
Obeidat, Rana Fakhri; Lally, Robin M; Dickerson, Suzanne S
Currently, limited literature addresses Arab American women's responses to the impact of breast cancer and its treatments. The objective of the study was to understand the experience of being diagnosed with and undergoing surgical treatment for early-stage breast cancer among Arab American women. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 10 Arab American women who were surgically treated for early-stage breast cancer in the United States was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using the Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Arab American women accepted breast cancer diagnosis as something in God's hands that they had no control over. Although they were content with God's will, the women believed that the diagnosis was a challenge that they should confront. The women confronted this challenge by accessing the healthcare system for treatment, putting trust in their physicians, participating when able in treatment decisions, using religious practices for coping, maintaining a positive attitude toward the diagnosis and the treatment, and seeking information. Arab American women's fatalistic beliefs did not prevent them from seeking care and desiring treatment information and options when diagnosed with breast cancer. It is important that healthcare providers encourage patients to express meanings they attribute to their illness to provide them with appropriate supportive interventions. They should also individually assess patients' decision-making preferences, invite them to participate in decision making, and provide them with tailored means necessary for such participation without making any assumptions based on patients' ethnic/cultural background.
Um, Mee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A
Although many North Korean (NK) refugee women are victims of domestic violence (DV) in North Korea, face sexual exploitation during migration, and remain at risk of DV while adapting to life in South Korea, there is no empirical evidence about risk factors for DV in this population. To fill this gap, this study examined whether gender role beliefs, child abuse history, and sociocultural adaptation were associated with past-year physical, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse, and whether they were associated with multiple forms of abuse. We also explored whether these associations were similar or different across different types of DV among NK refugee women. A sample of 180 ever-married NK refugee women in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence was used for analysis. Physical abuse was associated with more traditional gender role beliefs; emotional abuse and multiple forms of abuse were associated with lower levels of sociocultural adaptation; and sexual and economic abuse were associated with an increased likelihood of childhood abuse and poor sociocultural adaptation. Our study findings underscore the importance of assisting NK refugee women to be better adapted to the new culture in a practical way, because better sociocultural adaptation might protect them from experiencing various types of abuse. At the same time, findings of this study highlight the need for empowering NK refugee women who report physical abuse by educating their rights and altering their traditional beliefs of gender roles, and screening of childhood abuse and providing culturally sensitive psychotherapy to those who report sexual or economic abuse. Moreover, we suggest future studies to examine correlates of different forms of abuse separately because they can inform culturally tailored interventions for abused NK refugee women. To prevent further victimization, educational programs should be provided to NK refugee women at an early stage of resettlement in South Korea
... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become depressed. He or she may withdraw, ...
Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry
This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child…
Moulder, M. Amanda
This article discusses how archival documents reveal early nineteenth-century Cherokee purposes for English-language literacy. In spite of Euro-American efforts to depoliticize Cherokee women's roles, Cherokee female students adapted the literacy tools of an outsider patriarchal society to retain public, political power. Their writing served…
In this center, women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) are treated without rescreening from early pregnancy in any subsequent pregnancies, commencing with a low glycemic diet and insulin if and when indicated. The objective of this study was to see if this practice reduced the incidence of macrosomia compared with the index pregnancy.
Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.
Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…
Ding, Ding; Gebel, Klaus; Oldenburg, Brian F; Wan, Xia; Zhong, Xuefeng; Novotny, Thomas E
Despite the historically low smoking prevalence among Chinese women, there is a trend of future increase. We systematically reviewed the correlates of smoking among Chinese girls and women. We conducted a systematic review of literature on correlates of smoking among Chinese women using Medline and China Academic Journals databases. Following the PRISMA statement, two investigators independently searched for literature, identified and reviewed papers, assessed the quality of the papers, and extracted information. The characteristics of studies and correlates of smoking were synthesized separately for youth and adults. A total of 15 articles (11 on adults, 4 on youth) met the inclusion criteria. Based on these studies, peer smoking was the most consistent correlate of smoking among Chinese girls. Among Chinese women, partner smoking, job-related stress, and exposure to cigarettes made for women were consistent correlates of smoking. Knowledge of harms and negative attitudes towards smoking were found to be negatively associated with smoking. Overall, the evidence base for smoking among Chinese women is limited. Although smoking among Chinese women is still at an early stage, it is becoming more prevalent among specific population subgroups, such as rural-to-urban migrant workers. Although further research is needed, findings from the current study provide a roadmap for research and policy on prevention of smoking among Chinese girls and women.
Walsh, Kate; Blaustein, Margaret; Knight, Wanda Grant; Spinazzola, Joseph; van der Kolk, Bessel A.
Research has suggested that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may be a risk factor for adulthood sexual assault. This study examined associations between CSA experiences, cognitive resiliency variables, and revictimization. Participants were 73 college-age females who completed self-report questionnaires assessing CSA, adult assault, self-efficacy,…
Abrahamsen, Bo; Shalhoub, V; Larson, E K
be demonstrated in women with rapid bone loss after the menopause. Biopsies were obtained from 23 early postmenopausal women (mean age 53.9 years) who participated in a randomized study of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and risk factors for osteoporosis. Bone mineral density was assessed by duel energy X......The cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and IL-6 induce osteoclast formation and may contribute to the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Cross-sectional studies have suggested that both IL-1 and IL-1ra secretion increase on estrogen withdrawal......, and that postmenopausal osteoporosis is associated with an inadequate increase in monocyte IL-1ra secretion with age. We measured cytokine mRNA (IL-1beta, IL-1ra, IL-6, and TNF-alpha) directly in bone biopsies from early postmenopausal women to determine if a lower compensatory increase in IL-1ra mRNA could...
Bogart, Laura M; Collins, Rebecca L; Ellickson, Phyllis L; Martino, Steven C; Klein, David J
Previous research shows that marriage leads to reductions in alcohol use, especially for women. Because marriage prior to age 20 (early marriage) is a marker for deviance, the protective effects of marriage may not extend to those who marry in adolescence. We compared the effects of marriage in adolescence versus young adulthood on alcohol consumption, negative alcohol-related consequences and heavy episodic drinking at age 29. We analyzed data from 1,138 women in a longitudinal cohort followed from ages 18 to 29. The original sample was recruited from 30 California and Oregon middle schools and first surveyed at age 13. Women who had not married, had married early or had married between ages 20 and 29 did not differ on alcohol use at age 18. Women who married as young adults were less likely than singles to engage in any alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking or experience negative consequences and reported less alcohol use at age 29. Women who married in adolescence reported fewer negative consequences at age 29 than did singles and (if they had not divorced) were less likely to engage in heavy episodic drinking or experience any negative consequences, reported fewer consequences and consumed less alcohol. The protective effects of marriage in young adulthood were observed whether or not women divorced. Parenthood and college attendance before age 23 did not explain the marriage effect. Results support role theory, which posits that individuals who marry are socialized into conventional adult roles that discourage deviant behavior.
Full Text Available Background Globally, breast cancer (BC has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. Methods A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18–70 years who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. Results Data were analyzed in three major themes: i knowledge and perception about BC; ii barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. Conclusions Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women's ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.
Breathett, Khadijah; Filley, Jessica; Pandey, Madhaba; Rai, Nayanjot; Peterson, Pamela N
Women with pre-existing diabetes are at high maternal risk for comorbidities and death, particularly when early prenatal care is not received. Low income is a known barrier to early prenatal care. It is unknown whether recent policies to expand access to prenatal care have reduced income disparities. We hypothesized that income disparities would be minimized and that the odds of receipt of first trimester prenatal care among women with pre-existing diabetes would become similar across income strata over time. Using the Colorado birth certificate registry from 2007 to 2014, receipt of prenatal care was assessed retrospectively in 2,497 women with pre-existing diabetes. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between high (>$50,000), medium ($25,000-50,000), and low (prenatal care by birth year, adjusted for demographics. High, medium, and low income represented 29.5%, 19.0%, and 51.5% of the cohort, respectively. Women with high income were more likely to receive first trimester care than women with low income from 2007 [adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 2.16 (1.18, 3.96)] through 2013 [1.66 (1.01, 2.73)], but significant differences were no longer observed in 2014 [1.59 (0.89, 2.84)]. The likelihood of receiving first trimester prenatal care was not significantly different between medium- and low-income strata from 2007 [1.07 (0.66, 1.74)] through 2014 [0.77 (0.48, 1.23)]. From 2007 to 2013, women in Colorado with diabetes were more likely to receive early prenatal care if they were in the highest income stratum than in the lowest stratum. In 2014, receipt of first trimester care became equitable across all income strata. Future work should examine national patterns of income with receipt of prenatal care and outcomes among women with pre-existing diabetes.
Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that phthalate exposure could alter thyroid hormones during the last trimester of pregnancy. However, thyroid hormones are crucial for fetal development during the first trimester. We aimed to clarify the effect of phthalate exposure on thyroid hormones during early pregnancy.We recruited 97 pregnant women who were offered an amniocentesis during the early trimester from an obstetrics clinic in southern Taiwan from 2013 to 2014. After signing an informed consent form, we collected amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women to analyze 11 metabolites, including mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-butyl phthalate (MnBP, of 9 phthalates using liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. We collected blood samples from each subject to analyze serum thyroid hormones including thyroxine (T4, free T4, and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG.Three phthalate metabolites were discovered to be >80% in the urine samples of the pregnant women: MEP (88%, MnBP (81% and MECPP (86%. Median MnBP and MECPP levels in pregnant Taiwanese women were 21.5 and 17.6 μg/g-creatinine, respectively, that decreased after the 2011 Taiwan DEHP scandal. Results of principal component analysis suggested two major sources (DEHP and other phthalates of phthalates exposure in pregnant women. After adjusting for age, gestational age, TBG, urinary creatinine, and other phthalate metabolites, we found a significantly negative association between urinary MnBP levels and serum T4 (β = -5.41; p-value = 0.012; n = 97 in pregnant women using Bonferroni correction.We observed a potential change in the thyroid hormones of pregnant women during early pregnancy after DnBP exposure. Additional study is necessitated to clarify these associations.
Figueiredo, Bárbara; Conde, Ana
To investigate high-anxiety and depression in women and men from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum, 260 Portuguese couples (N = 520) filled in the State-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) and the Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale (EPDS) at the first, second, and third pregnancy trimesters, childbirth, and 3-months postpartum. Rates for high-anxiety (STAI-S ≥ 45) in women (13.1%; 12.2%; 18.2%; 18.6%; 4.7%) and men (10.1%; 8.0%, 7.8%; 8.5%; 4.4%) and for depression (EPDS ≥ 10) in women (20.0%, 19.6%, 17.4%, 17.6%; 11.1%) and men (11.3%; 6.6%; 5.5%; 7.5%; 7.2%) were high. Rates for depression were higher than rates for high-anxiety only in women during early pregnancy and the postpartum, but not at the third pregnancy trimester and childbirth. Rates for high-anxiety and depression were higher in women than in men during pregnancy/childbirth, but not at 3-months postpartum. Rates for high-anxiety but not rates for depression were higher during pregnancy/childbirth compared to 3-months postpartum and only in women. Considering that 15.9% of the parents-to-be were highly anxious and/or depressed during pregnancy-comparing to 9.3% at 3-months postpartum-particular attention should be drawn to both women's and men's mental health early in pregnancy.
Wood, Sarah M; Schott, Whitney; Marshal, Michael P; Akers, Aletha Y
We aimed to estimate group-based trajectories of body mass index (BMI) in a longitudinal cohort of young women and determine the association between sexual identity and BMI trajectory group, adjusting for obesity risk factors. We analyzed data from females in waves I-IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Sexual identity was categorized as heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, or lesbian (homosexual/mostly homosexual). We conducted group-based trajectory modeling of BMI with a censored normal distribution and a cubic relationship with age to identify three BMI trajectory groups. Multinomial logit regressions predicted the risk of trajectory membership associated with sexual identity, adjusting for background characteristics. At wave I, the mean (n = 7,801) age was 15.9 years (95% confidence interval: 15.6-16.1). Subjects were 16.3% African-American; and 80.0% heterosexual, 15.9% mostly heterosexual, 2.5% bisexual, and 1.7% lesbian. Group-based trajectory modeling identified three BMI trajectory groups characterized as (1) minimal obesity (62.2%), (2) developing obesity (29.9%), and (3) progressive obesity (8.0%). In multinomial logit regressions adjusted for age, race, parental obesity and education, sexual abuse, household income, screen time, depressive symptoms, and rural residence, lesbian women had a nearly two-fold higher relative risk of being in the developing obesity trajectory group (relative risk ratio = 1.91, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-3.32) relative to the minimal obesity group, compared with heterosexual women. Lesbian women were at increased risk of membership in the developing obesity trajectory group compared with heterosexual women. Adjusting for obesity risk factors had minimal impact on the point estimates for this association. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Engstrom, Malitta; Winham, Katherine; Gilbert, Louisa
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is often considered an important distal factor in HIV sexual risk behaviors; however, there are limited and mixed findings regarding this relationship among women experiencing substance use problems. In addition, research with this population of women has yet to examine differences in observed CSA-HIV sexual risk behaviors relationships by CSA type and characteristics. This study examines relationships between CSA coding, type, and characteristics and HIV sexual risk behaviors with main intimate partners among a random sample of 390 women in methadone treatment in New York City who completed individual interviews with trained female interviewers. Findings from logistic regression analyses indicate that CSA predicts substance use with sexual activity, with variations by CSA coding, type, and characteristics; however, the role of CSA is more limited than expected. Having a main partner with HIV risk mediates some relationships between CSA and drinking four or more drinks prior to sex. Intimate partner violence is the most consistent predictor of sexual risk behaviors. Other salient factors include polysubstance use, depression, social support, recent incarceration, relationship characteristics, and HIV status. This study contributes to understanding of relationships between CSA and HIV sexual risk behaviors and key correlates associated with HIV sexual risk behaviors among women in methadone treatment. It also highlights the complexity of measuring CSA and its association with sexual risk behaviors and the importance of comprehensive approaches to HIV prevention that address psychological, relational, situational, and substance use experiences associated with sexual risk behaviors among this population.