WorldWideScience

Sample records for abuse tnd dissemination

  1. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  2. Influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics: implications for the dissemination of innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly; Quanbeck, Andrew; Maus, Adam; Gustafson, David H; Dearing, James W

    2015-09-01

    Understanding influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics may speed the diffusion of innovations. The purpose of this study was to describe influence networks in Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Oregon, and Washington and test two expectations, using social network analysis: (1) Social network measures can identify influential clinics; and (2) Within a network, some weakly connected clinics access out-of-network sources of innovative evidence-based practices and can spread these innovations through the network. A survey of 201 clinics in a parent study on quality improvement provided the data. Network measures and sociograms were obtained from adjacency matrixes created by UCINet. We used regression analysis to determine whether network status relates to clinics' adopting innovations. Findings suggest that influential clinics can be identified and that loosely linked clinics were likely to join the study sooner than more influential clinics but were not more likely to have improved outcomes than other organizations. Findings identify the structure of influence networks for SUD treatment organizations and have mixed results on how those structures impacted diffusion of the intervention under study. Further study is necessary to test whether use of knowledge of the network structure will have an effect on the pace and breadth of dissemination of innovations.

  3. Direct-to-Consumer Marketing: A Complementary Approach to Traditional Dissemination and implementation Efforts for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sara J

    2015-03-01

    The overall chasm between those who need treatment for mental health and substance abuse (M/SU) and those who receive effective treatment consists of two, interrelated gaps: the research-to-practice gap and the treatment gap. Prior efforts to disseminate evidence-based practice (EBP) for M/SU have predominantly targeted the research-to-practice gap, by focusing efforts toward treatment providers. This article introduces direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing that targets patients and caregivers as a complementary approach to existing dissemination efforts. Specific issues discussed include: rationale for DTC marketing based on the concept of push versus pull marketing; overview of key stakeholders involved in DTC marketing; and description of the Marketing Mix planning framework. The applicability of these issues to the dissemination of EBP for M/SU is discussed.

  4. Direct-to-Consumer Marketing: A Complementary Approach to Traditional Dissemination and implementation Efforts for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sara J.

    2014-01-01

    The overall chasm between those who need treatment for mental health and substance abuse (M/SU) and those who receive effective treatment consists of two, interrelated gaps: the research-to-practice gap and the treatment gap. Prior efforts to disseminate evidence-based practice (EBP) for M/SU have predominantly targeted the research-to-practice gap, by focusing efforts toward treatment providers. This article introduces direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing that targets patients and caregivers as a complementary approach to existing dissemination efforts. Specific issues discussed include: rationale for DTC marketing based on the concept of push versus pull marketing; overview of key stakeholders involved in DTC marketing; and description of the Marketing Mix planning framework. The applicability of these issues to the dissemination of EBP for M/SU is discussed. PMID:25937710

  5. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basic needs like food, shelter, and love. Family violence can affect anyone. It can happen in any kind of family. Sometimes parents abuse each other, which can be hard for a child to witness. Some parents abuse their kids by using physical or verbal cruelty as a way of discipline. ...

  6. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indicate neglect. Belittling, threats or other uses of power by spouses, family members or others may indicate verbal or emotional abuse. Strained or tense relationships and frequent arguments between ...

  7. Disseminated sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Romero-Feregrino, Raúl; Sánchez, Carlos Javier; Linares, Yancy; Zavala, Jorge Tay; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Romero-Feregrino, Rodrigo; Vega, José T Sánchez

    2011-03-25

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is a primary cutaneous infection and it has different clinical forms: disseminated by lymphatic vessels (75%), localised cutaneous form (20%), disseminated cutaneous and extracuteus rarely. The systemic disseminated sporotrichosis is considered a severe opportunistic infection. The best diagnostic test is the culture. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man, originally from Puebla, Mexico, with a diagnosis of disseminated sporotrichosis. Differential diagnosis with other pathologies includes leishmaniasis, chromoblastomycosis, tuberculosis verrucose and lymphangitis. The development of unusual presentations in immunocompromised patients has been reported.

  8. Disseminated sporotrichosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Romero-Feregrino, Raúl; Sánchez, Carlos Javier; Linares, Yancy; Zavala, Jorge Tay; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Romero-Feregrino, Rodrigo; Vega, José T Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is a primary cutaneous infection and it has different clinical forms: disseminated by lymphatic vessels (75%), localised cutaneous form (20%), disseminated cutaneous and extracuteus rarely. The systemic disseminated sporotrichosis is considered a severe opportunistic infection. The best diagnostic test is the culture. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man, originally from Puebla, Mexico, with a diagnosis of disseminated sporotrichosis. Differential diagnosis with other pathologies includes leishmaniasis, chromoblastomycosis, tuberculosis verrucose and lymphangitis. The development of unusual presentations in immunocompromised patients has been reported. PMID:22700076

  9. Ultra-pure soft water ameliorates atopic skin disease by preventing metallic soap deposition in NC/Tnd mice and reduces skin dryness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Ishizaka, Saori; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Arkwright, Peter D; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Mineral ions in tap water react with fatty acids in soap, leading to the formation of insoluble precipitate (metallic soap) on skin during washing. We hypothesised that metallic soap might negatively alter skin conditions. Application of metallic soap onto the skin of NC/Tnd mice with allergic dermatitis further induced inflammation with elevation of plasma immunoglobulin E and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Pruritus and dryness were ameliorated when the back of mice was washed with soap in Ca2+- and Mg2+-free ultra-pure soft water (UPSW). Washing in UPSW, but not tap water, also protected the skin of healthy volunteers from the soap deposition. Furthermore, 4 weeks of showering with UPSW reduced dryness and pruritus of human subjects with dry skin. Washing with UPSW may be therapeutically beneficial in patients with skin troubles.

  10. Disseminated histoplasmosis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by inhaling dust from spore-infected bird droppings. In the disseminated ... fairly high for people with untreated widespread (disseminated) histoplasmosis, but is reduced significantly with treatment.

  11. Dissemination Strategy Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Kjems, Jørgen; Farinetti, Laura;

    This report describes the dissemination and exploitation strategy for project Virtual Campus Hub (EU FP7 contract RI-283746). The project duration is October 2011-13 and the dissemination and exploitation plan will be revised continuously during the project’s lifecycle.......This report describes the dissemination and exploitation strategy for project Virtual Campus Hub (EU FP7 contract RI-283746). The project duration is October 2011-13 and the dissemination and exploitation plan will be revised continuously during the project’s lifecycle....

  12. Public Service Advertising and Social Problems: the Case of Drug Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, William J.; Hanneman, Gerhard J.

    This paper explores certain findings of a DAIR (Drug Abuse Information Research) project undertaken at the University of Connecticut which is investigating the dissemination and impact of drug abuse information. Specifically, findings regarding audience response to persuasive antidrug abuse messages on television are discussed. On the basis of the…

  13. 75 FR 42102 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, Research Dissemination (1143). Date..., Contract Review Specialist, Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS,...

  14. Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be acquaintances, sons, daughters, grandchildren, or others. Physical abuse that is perpetrated by spouses or intimate partners in order to gain power and control over the victim is described in ...

  15. Dissemination and Exploitation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten

    of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final dissemination and exploitation strategy...

  16. Developing an Effective Dissemination Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, Austin, TX. National Center for the Dissemination of Disability Research.

    This booklet offers guidelines for the development of dissemination strategies, especially those concerned with research and programs. Individual sections address: the importance of including sound dissemination plans in grant proposals, factors found to be closely related to information utilization in the dissemination process, a philosophical…

  17. Disseminating Service Registry Records

    OpenAIRE

    A. Apps

    2006-01-01

    The JISC Information Environment Service Registry (IESR) contains descriptions of collections of resources available to researchers, learners and teachers in the UK, along with technical service access details. This paper describes the data model and metadata description schema of IESR, and the services IESR provides to disseminate its records. There is a particular focus on the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) interface, including a possible use scenario. I...

  18. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whether they're using street drugs or medications, drug abusers often have trouble at school, at home, with ... a short period of time may make a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not ...

  19. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  20. Delusions of Disseminated Fungosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Gassiep

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Delusional infestation is a rare monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013. It can be a primary disorder or associated with an underlying psychological or physical disorder. It commonly presents as delusional parasitosis, and less than 1% may be fungi related. We present this case as it is a rare presentation of a rare condition. Case Presentation. Our patient is a 60-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a 7-year history of delusional infestation manifested as a disseminated fungal infection. He had previously been reviewed by multiple physicians for the same with no systemic illness diagnosed. After multiple reviews and thorough investigation we diagnosed him with a likely delusional disorder. As is common with this patient cohort he refused psychiatric review or antipsychotic medication. Conclusion. A delusion of a disseminated fungal infestation is a rare condition. It is exceedingly difficult to treat as these patients often refuse to believe the investigation results and diagnosis. Furthermore, they either refuse or are noncompliant with treatment. Multidisciplinary outpatient evaluation may be the best way to allay patient fears and improve treatment compliance.

  1. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  2. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  3. Selected Dissemination/Diffusion Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Marshall L.

    This analysis of selected diffusion and dissemination methods used by developer-demonstrator projects in the National Diffusion Network discusses strategies under the following headings: managing the project, developing materials, disseminating information, conducting awareness sessions, training personnel, using certified trainers, providing…

  4. Performativity: enrollments, contexts, dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Soares Leite

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The term performativity and its inflexions have been applied to several concepts in the field of educational research. In this study, we trace the dissemination of the word performativity and its correlates, starting from the meanings attributed to the term by Stephen Ball, in his analysis of contemporary educational policies, but also using the theories of Jacques Derrida and Judith Butler, who used these terms to refer to social processes of signification and identification, and also references made to the term in studies of Anthropology, Arts, Political Science, Linguistics, Philosophy and Physics. On top of that, we researched studies in the field of academic education, examining articles from journals and other periodicals published over the last five years, in order to discuss the various meanings attributed to the term within the educational field. We present, in this paper, a synthesis of our investigations, highlighting the affirmations, negations and truth effects that can be construed from the use of these terms in educational research, in particular when approaching current educational policies.

  5. How Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Treated? Treatment for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) depends ... and treat the underlying cause. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation People who have acute DIC may have severe ...

  6. Herpes zoster (shingles) disseminated (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. Herpes ...

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  8. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  9. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  10. What is Elder Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strategic Plan Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) What is Elder Abuse? What ... Elder Justice & Adult Protective Services Elder Justice Coordinating Council Prevention of Elder Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation (Title ...

  11. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way Uses harsh discipline Was abused as a child Alcohol or drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness ... Physical abuse - children References Berkowitz CD, Stewart ST. Child maltreatment. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  12. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  13. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan.

  14. Disseminating an Effective Educational Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Saul

    1992-01-01

    Reasons for the failure to adopt behavior-analytic teaching strategies include the perception that behavior analysis is coercive and controlling, difficulties in implementation, university factors, and marketing problems. The goal of dissemination of these strategies could be met through creating motivational conditions and devising marketing…

  15. Solvent abuse: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, G E

    1979-01-01

    The literature on solvent abuse is reviewed. Methods of use, symptoms of use, and effects of long-term solvent abuse are discussed. Several surveys on solvent use are summarized. The highest prevalence of solvent abuse seems to occur in native peoples undergoing periods of cultural change. Environmental conditions which are postulated as leading to psychological vulnerability and solvent abuse include: low social assets, parental drug use, peer and sibling influence, and acculturative stress. Solvent abuse seems to provide a pharmacological way out of a stressful environment for people who feel helpless to improve their situation in other ways. Methods of intervention that have been proposed for dealing with solvent abuse are discussed. Methods of intervention thus far employed generally have not been evaluated in any systematic fashion. Suggestions for future research are provided.

  16. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano Rubeena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  17. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  18. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know Getting Rid of Old Medicines Dealing With Addiction Understanding Medications and What They Do Prescription Drug Abuse Bath Salts Depressants Ketamine MDMA (Ecstasy) Contact Us Print Resources ...

  19. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or ...

  20. Acute disseminated histoplasmosis and endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCAPELLATO Pablo G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated histoplasmosis is a frequent condition in HIV carriers. Thirty-five cases of endocarditis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum have been reported in international literature, and all these descriptions correspond to a context of subacute disseminated histoplasmosis. This paper presents the case of a HIV-positive patient with fever, dyspnea, weight loss, vomiting and polyadenopathies to whom histoplasmosis was diagnosed following blood-cultures and isolation of the agent responsible for cutaneous lesions, and in whom aortic-valve vegetations were found during an echocardiogram. The patient was treated with amphotericin B and had a good outcome; subsequent echocardiograms showed no vegetations. Literature on the subject is reviewed, with special emphasis on diagnosis and treatment of previously described cases.

  1. Knowledge dissemination: a core mission

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    It’s been a year since the CERN Council approved our policy on intellectual property management, so I’d like to take a look at what we’ve achieved since then. In short, a great deal. We’ve moved away from a fairly unregulated approach towards a well balanced and clearly defined system built around sound intellectual property management designed to deliver maximum dissemination and benefit for society from CERN innovation. It’s a move that I celebrate and fully support.   In 2009, CERN signed two partnership agreements to develop CERN technologies, two commercial licenses and eleven R&D licenses. Last year, the figures were six partnership agreements, five commercial licenses and twenty R&D licenses, indicating a real increase in dissemination efforts. From 2009 to 2010, however, the number of new technologies that were identified and disclosed hardly changed: nine in 2009, ten in 2010. These numbers are good, but we must improve, particu...

  2. Disseminated sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Kareem; Turker, Tolga; Zangeneh, Tirdad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, is a relatively rare infection. Local infection usually occurs through direct inoculation of the organism through the skin; disseminated disease is rarely seen. This article describes a case of disseminated sporotrichosis in a middle-aged man without the commonly seen risk factors for dissemination. PMID:27583270

  3. MRI in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldemeyer, K.S. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Smith, R.R. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Harris, T.M. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Edwards, M.K. (Div. of Neuroradiology, Dept. of Radiology, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States))

    1994-04-01

    A retrospective analysis of CT and MRI studies in 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was performed. MRI was the definitive modality for the assessment of the lesions of ADEM: all patients had abnormalities consistent with the clinical diagnosis. Ten had abnormalities in the brain, three spinal cord lesions, and three showed evidence of optic neuritis. CT was normal in 6 of the 7 patients in which it was performed. (orig.)

  4. Perforating Disseminated Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Lozanova; Lyubomir Dourmishev; Snejina Vassileva; Ljubka Miteva; Maria Balabanova

    2013-01-01

    Perforating necrobiosis lipoidica is a very rare clinical variant which consists of degeneration and transepidermal elimination of the collagen with few cases reported in the literature. In two-thirds of the patients it associates with diabetes, with no relation with the glucose control. We present a 42-year-old female patient with a 7-year history of diabetes on insulin therapy, referred to our clinic with a 3-year history of multiple asymptomatic firm plaques disseminated on the upper and l...

  5. Myeloma multiplex with pulmonary dissemination

    OpenAIRE

    Terzić Brankica; Maksić Đoko; Škuletić Vesna; Pilčević Dejan; Mijušković Mirjana; Čukić Zoran; Obrenčević Katarina; Petrović Marijana; Tadić-Pilčević Jelena; Petrović Milica

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Multiple myeloma is a hemathological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone the marrow. Extramedullary dissemination of multiple myeloma is uncommon. In several cases only, the multiple myeloma malignant plasma cells had diseminated to the lung parenchyma. Case report. We presented a case of multiple myeloma with lung plasmacytoma, in a 79-year-old patient, hospitalized for febrility and infiltrative m...

  6. Child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymel, K P; Jenny, C

    1997-08-01

    Multiple obstacles can hinder the medical evaluation of suspected child sexual abuse in pediatric primary care. The need for diagnostic accuracy is high. Knowledge of sexual abuse risk factors, an understanding of the victimization process, and awareness of the varied clinical presentations of sexual abuse can be of assistance. Open-ended questioning of the suspected victim is the most critical component of the evaluation. Skillful medical interviewing requires time, training, patience, and practice. Pediatricians lacking any of these four requirements should defer interviewing in sexual abuse cases to other professionals. Abnormal physical findings from sexual abuse are uncommon. Colposcopy has assisted pediatricians greatly in reaching consensus regarding diagnostic physical findings. Cases of acute sexual assault require familiarity with the forensic rape examination, STD screening and prophylaxis, and pregnancy prevention. Victimization from sexual abuse continues long after the abusive acts end, often requiring long-term therapeutic intervention. An emerging standard of care for medical evaluations of suspected child sexual abuse recognizes the requirement for patience and compassion while retaining objectivity. The pediatrician's primary concern must be for the child's physical and emotional well-being.

  7. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  8. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n = 17...

  9. Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018

  10. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse in substance-abusing adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Goodale, Leslie A; Shay-Fiddler, Michele A; Gloster, Susan P; Chang, Samuel Y

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine misuse and abuse was examined in 450 adolescents referred for substance abuse treatment. Twenty three percent reported nonmedical use of these substances and six percent were diagnosed as methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine abusers. Abuse was more common in individuals who were out of school and had an eating disorder. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse appears to be much less common than abuse of most other substances. It does occur, however, and parents and schools need to exert greater control over the dispensing of these medications. Physicians are advised to prescribe non-stimulant medications (eg, bupropion) when treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in substance-abusing individuals.

  11. Perforating Disseminated Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Lozanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perforating necrobiosis lipoidica is a very rare clinical variant which consists of degeneration and transepidermal elimination of the collagen with few cases reported in the literature. In two-thirds of the patients it associates with diabetes, with no relation with the glucose control. We present a 42-year-old female patient with a 7-year history of diabetes on insulin therapy, referred to our clinic with a 3-year history of multiple asymptomatic firm plaques disseminated on the upper and lower extremities. The clinical and histological findings proved the diagnosis of perforating necrobiosis lipoidica.

  12. Data Dissemination in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingelmann, Peter; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Heide, Janus;

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of efficient data dissemination in Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) with high mobility. A testbed is presented; which provides a high degree of mobility in experiments. The testbed consists of 10 autonomous robots with mobile phones mounted on them. The mobile...... phones form an IEEE 802.11g ad hoc network to communicate with each other. A dynamic network topology is assumed, where the mobile devices form a cooperative cluster in order to exchange data packets among each other. In our multimedia exchange scenario, the initial state is that one device carries all...

  13. Disseminated Tuberculosis Mimicking Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Huyge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting mainly the axial skeleton. Here we report a case of a man with a clinical suspicion of ankylosing spondylitis but with a persistence of increased inflammatory markers. In this case, 18F-FDG-PET/CT revealed multiple hypermetabolic lesions in axial skeleton, lymph nodes, and the lung, suggestive of either disseminated tuberculosis or lymphoma. Histological analysis of the pulmonary lesion revealed mycobacterium tuberculosis. This case highlights, firstly, the importance of excluding other diagnoses in the presence of clinical picture of ankylosing spondylitis and high inflammatory markers and, secondly, the determining role of PET/CT.

  14. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  15. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  16. Myeloma multiplex with pulmonary dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Brankica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Multiple myeloma is a hemathological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone the marrow. Extramedullary dissemination of multiple myeloma is uncommon. In several cases only, the multiple myeloma malignant plasma cells had diseminated to the lung parenchyma. Case report. We presented a case of multiple myeloma with lung plasmacytoma, in a 79-year-old patient, hospitalized for febrility and infiltrative mass in the right lung. Two months before the patient was admitted, because of developing terminal renal failure, hemodialysis treatment had started three times a week. Since then, the patient was oliguric, but because of febrility and hemoptysis that appeared, at first he was treated with dual antibiotic therapy which resulted in temporary improvement of his general condition, but pleural effusion remained. After thoracocentesis, followed by myelogram, the multiple myeloma diagnosis was established. Conclusion. In patients of middle and older age, with general weakness, exhaustion, loss of weight, renal failure which progresses to the end stage rapidly, if symptoms of respiratory tract occur, consider this uncommon disease - extramedullary dissemination of multiple myeloma.

  17. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. Such treatment can help reduce the ... Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists Teen Suicide ...

  18. Opioid Abuse after TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0373 TITLE: " Opioid Abuse after TBI...2014 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 July 2013 - 30 June 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE " Opioid Abuse after TBI" 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...the brain’s reward circuitry which may make an injured brain more susceptible to the rewarding effects of opioids . We are currently conducting

  19. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  20. Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takao

    2014-06-01

    Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is usually a very acute, serious complication of pregnancy. The obstetrical DIC score helps with making a prompt diagnosis and starting treatment early. This DIC score, in which higher scores are given for clinical parameters rather than for laboratory parameters, has three components: (i) the underlying diseases; (ii) the clinical symptoms; and (iii) the laboratory findings (coagulation tests). It is justifiably appropriate to initiate therapy for DIC when the obstetrical DIC score reaches 8 points or more before obtaining the results of coagulation tests. Improvement of blood coagulation tests and clinical symptoms are essential to the efficacy evaluation for treatment after a diagnosis of obstetrical DIC. Therefore, the efficacy evaluation criteria for obstetrical DIC are also defined to enable follow-up of the clinical efficacy of DIC therapy.

  1. Treatment of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makruasi, Nisa

    2015-11-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic activation of blood coagulation, generation of thrombin, and leading to disturbance of the microvasculature. In this article, definition and diagnostic criteria of DIC depend on the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH). There is no gold standard for diagnosis of DIC, only low quality evidence is used in general practice. Many diagnostic tests and repeated measurement are required. For the treatment of DIC, there is no good quality evidence. The most important treatment for DIC is the specific treatment of the conditions associated DIC. Platelets and/or plasma transfusion may be also necessary if indicated. Nevertheless, there is no gold standard for diagnosis and treatment of DIC, we use only low quality evidence in general practice.

  2. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of…

  3. The Tenth National Dissemination Conference. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlig, Richard K.

    This report on the Tenth National Dissemination Conference of 1977 outlines the purposes of the conference and summarizes the present state of educational information dissemination. National programs are described, including the National Institute of Education State Capacity Building Program, the National Diffusion Network, the Dissemination…

  4. Curriculum Dissemination as Planned Cultural Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudduck, Jean

    The author traces the change from the use of the term "diffusion" to the term "dissemination" with reference to curriculum projects in Britain and discusses implications of the change. Although at one time the two terms were used interchangeably, the term "dissemination" now emphasizes techniques of effective management rather than the educational…

  5. D5.1 Dissemination Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Ryberg, Thomas; Eleftheriou, Paraskevi

    2009-01-01

    at defining the dissemination goals as well as the project’s target audience and channels through which the EATrain2 solution is going to be promoted. It also includes partners competences in the dissemination area and detailed schedule of events thematically related to the project’s scope. The deliverable...

  6. The complexities of elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. The Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein abbasnezhadriyabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While a large number of children are losing their lives due to poverty, malnutrition, contagious diseases and war, we are witnessing hundreds of children death by reason of misbehaving. Today, "child abuse" as a social-cultural phenomenon which shows crisis in a society, has a growing process in our country. The goal of this research was to investigate the base factors of child abuse that according to the results are consist as follows, poverty, unemployment, addiction, large families, single-parent, Considering the increase of factors such as poverty, addiction, unemployment, divorce, temporary marriage, street children and other effective factors, the hypothesis based on growth of child abuse was proved in Iran.

  8. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  9. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981-2663 (301) ... welfare services to report a suspected case of child abuse. The child is taken away from the parents ...

  10. Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit provides information and strategies on how to: incorporate abuse prevention into programming; conduct staff training;...

  11. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Review Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  12. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  13. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capriola M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. Keywords: designer drugs/chemistry, street drugs/pharmacology, substance-related disorders/epidemiology, alkaloids/poisoning

  14. The Drug-Abuse Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The drug-abuse questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the alcoholism questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about drug abuse and drug abusers, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  15. Recognizing the adolescent drug abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, R G; Jacobs, E A

    1987-03-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for using and abusing illicit drugs. Guidelines for recognizing drug abusers are presented as well as a staging process for progression of drug use. The family physician is in an ideal position to identify young users/abusers and to assist them and their families in obtaining much needed assistance.

  16. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  17. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  18. Substance abuse and criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Motayne, G G

    1992-09-01

    As forensic psychiatry develops as a clinical subspecialty, clinical skill in understanding, treating, and predicting violent behavior will become more important. This article addresses the importance of understanding the relationship between substance abuse and violent behavior. This article also discusses morbidity and mortality in substance abuse, the demographics of substance abuse and criminality, and the clinical aspects of the forensic psychiatric evaluation.

  19. Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers: a comparison with drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J A; Mayr, S

    1990-07-01

    Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers were examined with Calsyn, Roszell, and Anderson's (1988) nine-type system for classifying FIRO-B profiles. The frequencies of the nine FIRO-B types among a sample of 135 male veteran alcohol abusers were compared with Calsyn et al.'s (1988) previously published data for a sample of male veteran drug abusers, a normative veteran sample, and a general population sample. The alcohol abusers, like Calsyn et al.'s sample of drug abusers, were more likely to be categorized as "loners," "rebels," and "pessimists" than was the general population sample. While exhibiting preferences for interpersonal types that emphasized social withdrawal, avoidance of responsibility, and mistrust of others, both the alcohol abusers and the drug abusers were heterogeneous groups whose members demonstrated a variety of interpersonal types.

  20. Treatment for Child Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James J.; Clark, Elizabeth H.

    1974-01-01

    Staff of a child abuse program in a Philadelphia hospital worked with parents in their own homes to help them develop greater competence as adults and as parents. This article describes the use of social learning theory, with some techniques of behavior therapy, as the basis for treatment. (Author)

  1. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OtherDrugsofAbuse_012017.pdf Previous Index Español English Español PDF Version Download Treatment & Recovery Information Treatment and Recovery ... the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word ...

  2. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  3. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an opportunity to confront the person about the consequences of addiction and ask him or her to accept treatment. Think of an intervention as giving your loved one a clear opportunity to make changes before things get really bad. Prescription drug abuse may occur in people who ...

  4. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; van der Wal, M.F.; Brugman, E.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  5. New drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases.

  6. Drugs and Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Robert, Comp.; And Others.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Drugs and drug abuse. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into several sections, each of which is in outline or list form. It is xeroxed and spiral-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: No objectives are mentioned. The major portion of the guide contains a…

  7. Partnerships and Pathways of Dissemination: The NIDA-SAMHSA Blending Initiative in the Clinical Trials Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Steve; Brigham, Gregory S.; Higgins, Christine; Gallon, Steve; Freese, Thomas E.; Albright, Lonnetta M.; Hulsey, Eric G.; Krom, Laurie; Storti, Susan A.; Perl, Harold; Nugent, Cathrine D.; Pintello, Denise; Condon, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2001, the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) has worked to put the results of its trials into the hands of community treatment programs, in large part through its participation in the National Institute on Drug Abuse - Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Blending Initiative and its close involvement with the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment’s Addiction Technology Transfer Centers. This article describes 1) the CTN’s integral role in the Blending Initiative, 2) key partnerships and dissemination pathways through which the results of CTN trials are developed into blending products and then transferred to community treatment programs, and 3) three blending initiatives involving buprenorphine, motivational incentives, and motivational interviewing. The Blending Initiative has resulted in high utilization of its products, preparation of over 200 regional trainers, widespread training of service providers in most U.S. States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and movement toward the development of web-based implementation supports and technical assistance. Implications for future directions of the Blending Initiative and opportunities for research are discussed. PMID:20307793

  8. Disseminated Herpes Zoster in Association with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchabal D

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV infected individuals are susceptible to a wide variety of skin manifestations due to profound defect in cell-mediated immunity. We describe 2 patients with Disseminated Herpes Zoster, both the patients has associated HIV infection.

  9. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi

    2009-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome that may complicate a variety of diseases, including malignant disease. DIC is characterized by widespread, intravascular activation of coagulation (leading to intravascular fibrin deposition) and simultaneous consumption of coagulation fact

  10. Smart-tag Based Data Dissemination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Beaufour, Allan; Leopold, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring wide, hostile areas requires disseminating data between fixed, disconnected clusters of sensor nodes. It is not always possible to install long-range radios in order to cover the whole area. We propose to leverage the movement of mobile individuals, equipped with smart......-tags, to disseminate data across disconnected static nodes spread across a wide area. Static nodes and mobile smart-tags exchange data when they are in the vicinity of each other; smart-tags disseminate data as they move around. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for update propagation and a model for smart......-tag based data dissemination. We use simulation to study the characteristics of the model we propose. Finally, we present an implementation based on Bluetooth smart-tags....

  11. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  12. PTSD and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Psychological Association’s addiction syndrome handbook. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 35. Najavits, L.M., Highley, J., Dolan, S., Fee...Version (total and criterion D); and the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (sexual abuse trauma index and anxiety subscale); functioning on the Sheehan ...months (scaled 0-4). Functioning. The Sheehan Disability Scale [15] has 5 items assessing functioning in work/school, social life, and family life

  13. Agricultural information dissemination using ICTs: A review and analysis of information dissemination models in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, China’s agriculture sector has been transformed from the traditional to modern practice through the effective deployment of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs. Information processing and dissemination have played a critical role in this transformation process. Many studies in relation to agriculture information services have been conducted in China, but few of them have attempted to provide a comprehensive review and analysis of different information dissemination models and their applications. This paper aims to review and identify the ICT based information dissemination models in China and to share the knowledge and experience in applying emerging ICTs in disseminating agriculture information to farmers and farm communities to improve productivity and economic, social and environmental sustainability. The paper reviews and analyzes the development stages of China’s agricultural information dissemination systems and different mechanisms for agricultural information service development and operations. Seven ICT-based information dissemination models are identified and discussed. Success cases are presented. The findings provide a useful direction for researchers and practitioners in developing future ICT based information dissemination systems. It is hoped that this paper will also help other developing countries to learn from China’s experience and best practice in their endeavor of applying emerging ICTs in agriculture information dissemination and knowledge transfer.

  14. Postoperative systemic dissemination of injected elemental mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Hyung; Park, Seung Won; Moon, Kyung-Yoon

    2011-04-01

    There were only a few reports of mercury on pulmonary artery. However, there is no data on surgery related mercury dissemination. The objective of the present article is to describe one case of postoperative injected mercury dissemination. A 19-year-old man presented severe neck pain including meningeal irritation sign and abdominal pain after injection of mercury for the purpose of suicide. Radiologic study showed injected mercury in the neck involving high cervical epidural space and subcutaneous layer of abdomen. Partial hemilaminectomy and open mercury evacuation of spinal canal was performed. For the removal of abdominal subcutaneous mercury, C-arm guided needle aspiration was done. After surgery, radiologic study showed disseminated mercury in the lung, heart, skull base and low spinal canal. Neck pain and abdominal pain were improved after surgery. During 1 month after surgery, there was no symptom of mercury intoxication except increased mercury concentration of urine, blood and hair. We assumed the bone work during surgery might have caused mercury dissemination. Therefore, we recommend minimal invasive surgical technique for removal of injected mercury. If open exposures are needed, cautious surgical technique to prohibit mercury dissemination is necessary and normal barrier should be protected to prevent the migration of mercury.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of information dissemination in disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Huang, H.; Su, Boni

    2016-11-01

    China is a country that experiences a large number of disasters. The number of deaths caused by large-scale disasters and accidents in past 10 years is around 900,000. More than 92.8 percent of these deaths could be avoided if there were an effective pre-warning system deployed. Knowledge of the information dissemination characteristics of different information media taking into consideration governmental assistance (information published by a government) in disasters in urban areas, plays a critical role in increasing response time and reducing the number of deaths and economic losses. In this paper we have developed a comprehensive information dissemination model to optimize efficiency of pre-warning mechanics. This model also can be used for disseminating information for evacuees making real-time evacuation plans. We analyzed every single information dissemination models for pre-warning in disasters by considering 14 media: short message service (SMS), phone, television, radio, news portals, Wechat, microblogs, email, newspapers, loudspeaker vehicles, loudspeakers, oral communication, and passive information acquisition via visual and auditory senses. Since governmental assistance is very useful in a disaster, we calculated the sensitivity of governmental assistance ratio. The results provide useful references for information dissemination during disasters in urban areas.

  16. Smart-tag Based Data Dissemination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Beaufour, Allan; Leopold, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring wide, hostile areas requires disseminating data between fixed, disconnected clusters of sensor nodes. It is not always possible to install long-range radios in order to cover the whole area. We propose to leverage the movement of mobile individuals, equipped with smart-tags, to dissemi......-tag based data dissemination. We use simulation to study the characteristics of the model we propose. Finally, we present an implementation based on Bluetooth smart-tags.......Monitoring wide, hostile areas requires disseminating data between fixed, disconnected clusters of sensor nodes. It is not always possible to install long-range radios in order to cover the whole area. We propose to leverage the movement of mobile individuals, equipped with smart......-tags, to disseminate data across disconnected static nodes spread across a wide area. Static nodes and mobile smart-tags exchange data when they are in the vicinity of each other; smart-tags disseminate data as they move around. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for update propagation and a model for smart...

  17. Tracking Users for a Targeted Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bautier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How to build a dissemination and communication strategy in a world where users have easy access to a deluge of data and information from various origins and where IT tools and design standards change so quickly that users behaviour and their expectations are continuously modified? The first challenge of Eurostat is clearly to know what users want: we know our different types of users but we have to identify how they get our data, what they do with our data, how they react to our outputs and which sort of new service they would like us to propose. Translating these needs into a visual dissemination is a new challenge undertaken by Eurostat through a new portal, new mobile apps and new info graphs and basic application as well as increasing the visibility on Google. The objective of this paper is to share Eurostat's experience in identifying user Leeds and to show how concretely this information has been visually disseminated.

  18. A rare case of disseminated cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debananda Gonjhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a common tropical disease and a common cause of seizures and neurological morbidity. Neurocysticercosis (NCC is the most common manifestation of the disease involving the central nervous system (CNS. One of the uncommon manifestations of cysticercosis is its disseminated form. The most commonly affected organs are the subcutaneous tissues, skeletal muscles, lungs, brain, eyes, liver, and occasionally the heart, thyroid, and pancreas but in widespread dissemination it can involve any organ in the body. We report here a case of a 35-year-old-female with disseminated cysticercosis (DCC. She attended our hospital with headache, fever, and symptoms of multiple palpable nodules. After the investigations, she was diagnosed with DCC involving the brain and subcutaneous tissues all over the body. Then she was successfully treated with albendazole and steroids.

  19. Pineocytoma with diffuse dissemination to the leptomeninges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Selch

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pineal parenchymal tumors are rare. Of the three types of pineal parenchymal tumors, pineocytomas are the least aggressive and are not known to diffusely disseminate. In this paper, we report the successful treatment of a case of pineocytoma with diffuse leptomeningeal relapse following initial stereotactic radiotherapy. A 39-year-old female presented with headaches, balance impairment, urinary incontinence, and blunted affect. A pineal mass was discovered on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. A diagnosis of pineocytoma was established with an endoscopic pineal gland biopsy, and the patient received stereotactic radiotherapy. Ten years later, she developed diffuse leptomeningeal dissemination. The patient was then successfully treated with craniospinal radiation therapy. Leptomeningeal spread may develop as late as 10 years after initial presentation of pineocytoma. Our case demonstrates the importance of long-term follow-up of patients with pineal parenchymal tumors following radiation therapy, and the efficacy of craniospinal radiation in the treatment of leptomeningeal dissemination.

  20. Primary disseminated extrapulmonary multidrug resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Das

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated tuberculosis is a common mode of presentation of tuberculosis in patients both with and without HIV/AIDS in India. However, primary multidrug resistance in disseminated tuberculosis involving only the extrapulmonary sites in an immunocompetent adult is rare. Here, we report a case of a 19-year-old man who had disseminated tuberculosis involving left pleura, pericardium, peritoneum and intraabdominal lymph nodes. He was initially taking WHO category I antituberculous drugs, but was not responding in spite of 5 months of chemotherapy. Culture of the pleural biopsy specimen grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis which was resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin. He was put on therapy for multidrug resistant tuberculosis,following 24 months of chemotherapyhe had an uneventful recovery.

  1. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome) KidsHealth > For Parents > Abusive Head ... babies tend to cry the most. How These Injuries Happen Abusive head trauma results from injuries caused ...

  2. Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers.

  3. Loperamide dependence and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Ryan; Heiner, Jason; Villarreal, Joshua; Strote, Jared

    2015-05-02

    Loperamide is a common over-the-counter antidiarrheal considered safe in a broad range of dosages and thought devoid of abuse potential. We describe the first case of a patient with loperamide dependence due to misuse of its opiate-like effects achieved by chronic massive oral ingestions. A 26-year-old man who was taking 800 mg of loperamide per day presented requesting detoxification referral. Loperamide has potential for euphoric effects and information on how to facilitate such effects is easily available. It is important for physicians to be aware of the potential for misuse of and dependence on loperamide, with symptoms mimicking opiate use.

  4. Opportunities for computer abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willison, Robert Andrew; Backhouse, James

    2005-01-01

    Systems risk refers to the likelihood that an IS is inadequately guarded against certain types of damage or loss. While risks are posed by acts of God, hackers and viruses, consideration should also be given to the `insider' threat of dishonest employees, intent on undertaking some form of computer...... for the offender. To achieve this goal a model known as the `Crime Specific Opportunity Structure' is advanced. Focussing on the opportunities for computer abuse, the model addresses the nature of such opportunities with regards to the organisational context and the threats posed by rogue employees. Drawing...

  5. Abusing National Privilege

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As U.S. mortgage finance giants-Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac-try to sell their huge backlog of foreclosed homes, they face foreclosures themselves as the U.S. Government contemplates cutting their government-backed support as indicated by a white paper issued by the Obama administration in February. Zhang Monan, an associate research fellow with the State Information Center, said the downfall of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac is the result of abuses of privileges the two companies have enjoyed since their inception.

  6. Suicide Attempts among Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrsi, Rachel; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between substance abuse and suicide is indicated by high rate of attempted suicide among alcoholics and drug abusers, as well as increased likelihood of repeated attempts in these populations. This study reports on psychological characteristics of male drug suicide attempters who are in treatment for their addiction problem.…

  7. Counseling with the Drug Abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, George D.

    Counselors, in the past few years, have had to work with a great many drug abusers. While successes are difficult to evaluate, the failures are glaringly evident. In a search for a more effective method of working with drug abusers, 12 questions were devised. These are self-evaluative and directed at the counselor. If a counselor can openly and…

  8. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  9. Elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inger Plaisier; Mirjam de Klerk

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Ouderenmishandeling in Nederland It is twenty years since the last study was carried out on the number of older persons in the Netherlands who are deliberate or accidental victims of abuse in the form of verbal, physical or sexual violence, financial abuse and/or neglect by those o

  10. CHRONIC DISSEMINATED HISTOPLASMOSIS WITH PROLONGED LATENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case of chronic disseminated histoplasmosis in an ex-serviceman is described. Evidence is presented to support a latency period of over sixty years between acquisition of infection and clinical manifestation. This is the longest latency period for histoplasmosis described in the medical literature...

  11. Data Dissemination in Mobile Phone Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Viet-Duc; Le, Viet-Duc

    2012-01-01

    Deploying sensors over large areas is costly in terms of configuration, hardware, and maintenance. Using onboard sensors of today mobile phones can significantly reduce the expenses in monitoring areas and disseminating events or data. Via the available short-range Bluetooth and/or WiFi interfaces,

  12. Disseminated Gastrointestinal Mucormycosis in Immunocompromised Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Sun Ha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is an uncommon opportunistic fungal infection mostly affecting immunocompromised patients and gastrointestinal mucormycosis is a rare and life-threatening. We describe a 31-year-old man with a history of idiopathic cyclic neutropenia who developed perforations of the stomach and intestine and intra-abdominal bleeding due to disseminated gastrointestinal mucormycosis after the initial operation.

  13. Disseminated Enteroviral Infection Associated with Obinutuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendle, Claire; Gilbertson, Michael; Korman, Tony M; Golder, Vera; Morand, Eric; Opat, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Two cases of disseminated enteroviral infection occurred in patients who received the CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab. Clinical features included hepatitis, edema, and a dermatomyositis-like syndrome. These manifestations may be unfamiliar to clinicians and are possibly responsive to intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinicians should remain vigilant for enteroviral infections in patients receiving obinutuzumab.

  14. Disseminated Enteroviral Infection Associated with Obinutuzumab

    OpenAIRE

    Dendle, Claire; Gilbertson, Michael; Korman, Tony M; Golder, Vera; Morand, Eric; Opat, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of disseminated enteroviral infection occurred in patients who received the CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab. Clinical features included hepatitis, edema, and a dermatomyositis-like syndrome. These manifestations may be unfamiliar to clinicians and are possibly responsive to intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinicians should remain vigilant for enteroviral infections in patients receiving obinutuzumab.

  15. Strategies for Production and Dissemination of CAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, W. P.; Scott, G. F.

    The Individualization Project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) was organized on a cooperative basis with a federal agency and several community colleges. The main design goals were to produce needed courseware, move smoothly from research and development to a production mode of operation, and to emphasize dissemination of…

  16. Disseminating Traffic Information in Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alyas Shahid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Wifi based system is described for disseminating traffic information in vehicular networks. Basic aim of this approach is to distribute information regarding the traffic conditions such as traffic congestions or safety warnings to vehicles in an effective way.

  17. The FAIR-INNOVATION dissemination project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, R

    2001-08-01

    The goal of the FAIR-INNOVATION dissemination project (FLAIR-FLOW 3) (1997-2000) was to disseminate R&D results from the EU FAIR programme to small and medium-sized food enterprises (SMEs), health professionals (HPs) and consumer groups (CGs) in 19 European countries. The dissemination routes were: (i) one-page technical documents on research results; (ii) their reproduction on the internet; (iii) their reproduction in journals Europe-wide; (iv) workshops on results from EU-supported food research programmes; and (v) lectures and poster presentations by FLAIR-FLOW network personnel. Of the 135 one-pagers produced, 62% were targeted at SMEs, 18% at HPs and 5% at CGs. The remaining 15% were on food safety and were common to the three target groups. There were 1047 publications arising from one-pages in trade journals, and over 8000 requests (paper route) were received for follow-up information. These were in addition to 240 k downloads from the FLAIR-FLOW 3 web site (www.flair-flow.com). Initiatives for HPs included specially collated versions of the one-pagers for major conferences, 20 focused workshops, and interaction with the European Federation of Associations of Dieticians. Currently, dissemination is continuing through FLAIR-FLOW 4 (2001-2003) in 24 countries. FLAIR-FLOW 4 is co-ordinated by M. Jean François Quillien from INRA-CRIAA (FR) at criaa@rennes.inra.fr.

  18. Evolution of diffusion and dissemination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, James W

    2008-01-01

    The article provides a review and considers how the diffusion of innovations Research paradigm has changed, and offers suggestions for the further development of this theory of social change. Main emphases of diffusion Research studies are compared over time, with special attention to applications of diffusion theory-based concepts as types of dissemination science. A considerable degree of paradigmatic evolution is observed. The classical diffusion model focused on adopter innovativeness, individuals as the locus of decision, communication channels, and adoption as the primary outcome measures in post hoc observational study designs. The diffusion systems in question were centralized, with fidelity of implementation often assumed. Current dissemination Research and practice is better characterized by tests of interventions that operationalize one or more diffusion theory-based concepts and concepts from other change approaches, involve complex organizations as the units of adoption, and focus on implementation issues. Foment characterizes dissemination and implementation Research, Reflecting both its interdisciplinary Roots and the imperative of spreading evidence-based innovations as a basis for a new paradigm of translational studies of dissemination science.

  19. ESEA III Evaluation and Dissemination: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyeat, Ralph R.; Norman, C. Douglas

    This study surveyed evaluation and dissemination/diffusion practices of ESEA III projects funded in the 1969 fiscal year, which projects are nearing the end of their operations as federally supported programs. The study attempted to discover if (1) the projects were evaluated in accordance with generally accepted procedures, (2) the project…

  20. The Hawaii Educational Dissemination Diffusion System Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kellet; And Others

    Hawaii's endeavor to use information technology to improve educational practices within the state is described in four major sections: (1) the framework of the plan, including a brief history of dissemination, the goals of the plan, and philosophic statements on resources, linkages, and leadership; (2) the resource component, including an…

  1. Building State Capacity in Dissemination: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Ernest W.

    This review was developed by and principally for the National Testing Service (NTS) Dissemination Project Staff. It is one of eight activities being used by NTS to develop a design for an evaluation of the State Capacity Building Program. The review is in two parts. The first part provides background information, evaluation methodologies and…

  2. A Proposed Framework for Educational Innovation Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Benjamin T.; Wu, Yun; Sankar, Chetan S.; Jones-Farmer, L. Allison

    2012-01-01

    Although the need for new educational technologies is increasing, the process for disseminating these innovations remains a challenge. A literature review shows that few studies have thoroughly investigated this area. Furthermore, there is no comprehensive framework or coordinated research agenda that may be used to guide such investigation. This…

  3. Differential diagnosis of disseminated periventricular calcifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, P.; Piepgras, U.

    1986-08-01

    Juvenile disseminated periventricular calcifications may occur in tuberous sclerosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegaly, and in tuberculous meningitis. Cysticercosis, by contrast, does not result in corresponding intracerebral foci until an older age. Differential diagnosis is no problem if clinical findings are typical (tuberous sclerosis) or if serological verification is positive. However, any unclear clinical diagnosis can often be secured by CT.

  4. Computer software management, evaluation, and dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center involving the collection, processing, and distribution of software developed under the auspices of NASA and certain other federal agencies are reported. Program checkout and evaluation, inventory control, customer services and marketing, dissemination, program maintenance, and special development tasks are discussed.

  5. Knowledge Management and Global Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    The paper looked at knowledge management and global information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge management knowledge…

  6. A Primer on Disseminating Applied Quantitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Bethany A.; DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    Transparency and replication are essential features of scientific inquiry, yet scientific communications of applied quantitative research are often lacking in much-needed procedural information. In an effort to promote researchers dissemination of their quantitative studies in a cohesive, detailed, and informative manner, the authors delineate…

  7. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  8. Child abuse by drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griest, K J; Zumwalt, R E

    1989-01-01

    Drowning as a form of subtle fatal child abuse is difficult to distinguish from accidental immersion or from sudden unexpected natural death when the circumstances of immersion are concealed. Homicidal drownings are unwitnessed, usually occurring in the home, and the victims are young, either infants or toddlers. Accidental drownings are more likely to involve toddlers or older children in public areas such as swimming pools, drainage ditches, lakes, and rivers. This is especially true in rural areas. In cities, bathtubs remain a major site of accidental childhood drownings. Perpetrators of deliberate drownings often fit the sociopathologic profile of a child abuser. Because there is often a survival interval between immersion and death, pathologic findings consistent with postimmersion syndrome suggest the cause of death. Foreign material in the lungs, if immersion was other than in clear tap water, and injuries of the face are other positive correlating factors. A thorough investigation of the circumstances and cooperation between the investigating agency and the pathologist are essential to determine the correct manner of death in these cases.

  9. Drug abuse among the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.

  10. Changing systems to address elder abuse: examples from aging services, the courts, the long-term care ombudsman, and the faith community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malks, Betty F; Strobel, Donna M; Leung, Yolanda; Court, Michelle Williams; Morris, Janet R; May, Gus; Reeves, Shawna; Davies, Molly; Cartan, Heidi; Philyaw, Meredith L

    2010-07-01

    The authors describe their use of systems change as a means of ameliorating elder abuse. After assessing the needs of their target audiences, projects developed a variety of strategies. These include disseminating promising practices in courts, creating Elder Law Clinics to assist with conservatorships, educating older adults about predatory mortgage lending, building a new response system for complaints of abuse and neglect in unlicensed care facilities, and convening clergy and lay leader groups to learn how faith communities can make a difference in elder abuse and neglect. The authors share tips on replicating their work, describing barriers to implementation and possible solutions.

  11. Dissemination Matters: Influences of Dissemination Activities on User Types in an Online Educational Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Emerging online educational communities provide spaces for teachers to find resources, create instructional activities, and share these activities with others. Within these online communities, individual users’ activities may vary widely, and thus different user types can be identified. In addition, users’ patterns of activities in online communities are dynamic, and further can be affected by dissemination activities. Through analyzing usage analytics in an online teacher community called the Instructional Architect, this study explores the influences of dissemination activities on the usage patterns of different user types. Results show that dissemination activities can play an important role in encouraging users’ active participation, while the absence of dissemination activities can further increase participation inequality.

  12. [Child abuse in the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  13. Designing Opioids That Deter Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Raffa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prescription opioid formulations designed to resist or deter abuse are an important step in reducing opioid abuse. In creating these new formulations, the paradigm of drug development target should be introduced. Biological targets relating to the nature of addiction may pose insurmountable hurdles based on our current knowledge and technology, but products that use behavioral targets seem logical and feasible. The population of opioid abusers is large and diverse so behavioral targets are more challenging than they appear at first glance. Furthermore, we need to find ways to correlate behavioral observations of drug liking to actual use and abuse patterns. This may involve revisiting some pharmacodynamic concepts in light of drug effect rather than peak concentration. In this paper we present several new opioid analgesic agents designed to resist or deter abuse using physical barriers, the inclusion of an opioid agonist or antagonist, an aversive agent, and a prodrug formulation. Further, this paper also provides insight into the challenges facing drug discovery in this field. Designing and screening for opioids intended to resist or deter abuse is an important step to meet the public health challenge of burgeoning prescription opioid abuse.

  14. Child abuse, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri M.T. Lubis

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  15. EMPOWER. Deliverable no 7.1 Dissemination Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwissen, M.; Fioreze, T.; Thomas, T.; Pickerden, C.; Hof, T.

    2015-01-01

    This deliverable describes the general plan regarding all dissemination activities of the consortium partners and work packages during the project. This links directly to D7.4 where the realization of different dissemination activities will be reported.

  16. Family of Origin Violence and Courtship Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Linda L.; Rose, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Responses from 336 undergraduates revealed 75 percent of respondents had expressed threats or actual violence and 64 percent had received abuse in intimate relationship. In the sample, 30 percent had parents who abused each other; less often the mother or father had been sole abuser. Multiple regression indicated being abused as child predicted…

  17. Sexual abuse in children -- what to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual abuse - children Signs of sexual abuse in children Suspect sexual abuse when children: Tell you that they are being ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Sexual Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  18. Elder Abuse: The Status of Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrick-Cornell, Claire; Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problems of definition of elderly abuse. Examines data and research on the rates of elderly abuse and factors found related to elderly abuse. Critiques theories developed to explain the abuse of the elderly. Presents recommendations for research and practice. (RC)

  19. Women and Drugs: The Heroin Abuser and the Prescription Drug Abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierres, Sara E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on female drug use/abuse and derived descriptions of the female heroin abuser and the female prescription drug abuser. Researchers suggest that problems of female drug abusers should be viewed in terms of the feminine role as well as the role of drug abuser. (BH)

  20. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  1. Meth abuse and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deviprasad Makonahally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine abuse is spreading its roots in India due to its widespread appeal, ease of manufacture and low cost compared with other stimulant drugs. Methamphetamine-induced caries is a characteristic finding among methamphetamine abusers. Thus, it is important to understand the typical clinical manifestations inclusive of cervical and proximal caries, elicit proper case history and develop a comprehensive treatment plan to help patients in a complete rehabilitation. We present a series of cases of "meth" abuser for dental professionals to help ensure successful treatment and prevention of disease progression.

  2. Drug abuse among the students

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine...

  3. Dissemination of CERN Technologies Through External Entrepreneurs

    CERN Document Server

    Lande, Bjørnulf Visdal; Huuse, Henning

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on dissemination of innovations through external entrepreneurs. The innovations studied are developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and commercialized by entrepreneurs establishing spin-off companies on the outside of the Organization. The objective of this study is to provide knowledge to facilitate future external entrepreneurs to increase dissemination of CERN technologies. The research questions looks at the timeline from preparations for creating the spin-off company, until having a product for commercialization in the market. A qualitative cross case investigation was conducted to assess the experiences of four spin-off companies. A framework was created to structure the discussion by finding and categorizing impeding- and success factors seen from the entrepreneurs point of view. The findings where structured in three phases respectively, the time before starting the company, the beginning of the company and the final development before selling products. Th...

  4. Dissemination of Educational Tools and Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, C.

    1998-05-01

    The IDEAS program is oriented towards innovative approaches to education and therefore result in a wide range of programs including Astro Capella (the creation of a capella astronomy songs written and performed by a group from NASA/GSFC, Smale, Boyd, and Granger), video kiosks in the Air and Space Museum (SAO, Dow), teaching astronomy in the parks (U of Wisconsin, Bjorkman, Wilcots), as well as the more bread and butter programs of teacher training and curriculum development. In addition to describing some of the diverse programs to come out of the IDEAS programs, I will discuss the dissemination of the results of those programs, and especially the role of the broker/facilitator in that dissemination. The audience is invited to participate in this discussion.

  5. Abused Sexuality- Experience of Sexuality Post Experiences of Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sunanda Jalote

    2016-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been happening from times immemorial and is that brutal aspect of society which also talk about spirituality, peace and harmony in the same breath. Youth gets irrevocably scarred by such childhood traumas which linger on in their adult life too. In the present study, an effort was made to study and understand how heterosexual and queer youth in contemporary middle class in Delhi explore the relationship sexual abuse survivors have with their own sexuality and how their negoti...

  6. Disseminated histoplasmosis with oral and cutaneous manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vidyanath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycotic infection caused by the dimorphic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum. Systemic histoplasmosis has emerged as an important opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients and those in endemic areas. Reported cases of histoplasmosis have been low in India with less than 50 cases being reported. We are reporting a case of disseminated histoplasmosis with oral and cutaneous involvement in an HIV seronegative patient.

  7. Tension Hydrothorax Related to Disseminated Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnaKate Deal, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 34-year-old woman presenting to the emergency department (ED with dyspnea, cough, and fever. She was found to have a tension hydrothorax and was treated with ultrasound-guided thoracentesis in the ED. Subsequent inpatient evaluation showed the patient had disseminated endometriosis. Tension hydrothorax has not been previously described in the literature as a complication of this disease.

  8. [Disseminated intravascular coagulation in solid tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, François Régis; Garcia-Hejl, Carine; Moussaid, Yassine; Schernberg, Antoine; Bidard, François-Clément; Pavic, Michel; Khenifer, Safia; Stoclin, Annabelle

    2014-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex abnormality of hemostasis with dramatic consequences and long described as associated with tumors. Yet the diagnosis and management of paraneoplastic DIC are poorly defined. The purpose of this paper is to review DIC associated with solid tumors, at the pathophysiological and therapeutic levels in particular. We also report data from a recent retrospective series of patients with DIC in the context of a solid tumor, to illustrate the epidemiological, clinical and prognostic.

  9. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Harnalikar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis, a systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum and Histoplasma capsulatum var duboisii is endemic to many parts of the world. The clinical manifestations range from acute or chronic pulmonary infection to a progressive disseminated disease. After initial exposure to the fungus, the infection is self-limited and restricted to the lungs in 99% of healthy individuals. The remaining 1%, however, progress to either disseminated or chronic disease involving the lungs, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow or rarely, the skin and mucous membranes. Mucocutaneous histoplasmosis is frequently reported in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, but it is rare in immunocompetent hosts. A 60-year-old male presented with asymptomatic swelling of the hard palate and crusted papules and nodules over the extremities, face and trunk. Clinically, the diagnoses of cutaneous cryptococcosis versus histoplasmosis was considered in this patient. A chest X-ray revealed hilar lymphadenopathy. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV was nonreactive. Skin biopsy revealed multiple tiny intracellular round yeast forms with a halo in the mid-dermis. Culture of the skin biopsy in Sabouraud′s dextrose agar showed colonies of Histoplasma capsulatum. Despite an investigation including no evidence of underlying immunosuppression was found, he was started on IV amphotericin-B (0.5 mg/kg/day. However, the patient succumbed to his disease 2 days after presentation. We report a rare case of disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual.

  10. Use of UDP for efficient imagery dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandolini, Robert; Au, T. A.; Lui, Andrew K.; Owen, Michael J.; Grigg, Mark W.

    2000-05-01

    In the defence organization, imagery represents an important information source for users in the tactical, operational and strategic environments. Its wider dissemination may rely on deployed communication networks that are often unstable with high bit error rates and outages. This paper presents efficient techniques for imagery dissemination using the user datagram protocol (UDP). The use of UDP is compared with the popular transmission control protocol and shown to be superior in performance for error prone IP networks. We have employed a wavelet based coder producing an embedded bit-stream. The packetization of the bit-stream is investigated and we show that it is better to tile an image into independent embedded bit-streams when the network performance is poor. Variable-size tiling is compared with, and shown to be superior to, a fixed-size tiling approach. Selective re-transmission of lost packets is implemented for efficient imagery dissemination using UDP. The selective re- transmission scheme is a function of network bandwidth, delay times, error rates and the significance of the packet.

  11. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Over-the-Counter Medications Stimulant ADHD Medications: Methylphenidate and Amphetamines Synthetic Cannabinoids Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts") Effects of Drug Abuse Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Disorders Drug Use ...

  12. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    precise identification of alcohol abuse. However, the inability of the questionnaires to detect short-term changes in intake and abuse without dependence, the inconsistent predictive values of the biological markers, and the lack of evidence of an association to postoperative morbidity reduces......Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re...

  13. The Abuse of Drug Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Peter G.

    1973-01-01

    Today's drug information programs may be responsible for increasing drug abuse. A large percentage of existing materials are inaccurate, moralistic and ineffective. This article discusses these points and recommends materials that avoid them. (40 references) (DH)

  14. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  15. Meth abuse and oral health

    OpenAIRE

    Deviprasad Makonahally; Vaibhav Gupta; Pushpanjali Krishnappa

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is spreading its roots in India due to its widespread appeal, ease of manufacture and low cost compared with other stimulant drugs. Methamphetamine-induced caries is a characteristic finding among methamphetamine abusers. Thus, it is important to understand the typical clinical manifestations inclusive of cervical and proximal caries, elicit proper case history and develop a comprehensive treatment plan to help patients in a complete rehabilitation. We present a series o...

  16. Immunotherapy for Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders continue to be major medical and social problems worldwide. Current medications for substance use disorders have many limitations such as cost, availability, medication compliance, dependence, diversion of some to illicit use and relapse to addiction after discontinuing their use. Immunotherapies using either passive monoclonal antibodies or active vaccines have distinctly different mechanisms and therapeutic utility from small molecule approaches to treatment. They have great potential to help the patient achieve and sustain abstinence and have fewer of the above limitations. This review covers the cocaine vaccine development in detail and provides an overview of directions for developing anti-addiction vaccines against the abuse of other substances. The notable success of the first placebo-controlled clinical trial of a cocaine vaccine, TA-CD, has led to an ongoing multi-site, Phase IIb clinical trial in 300 subjects. The results from these trials are encouarging further development of the cocaine vacine as one of the first anti-addiction vaccines to go forward to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for review and approval for human use. PMID:22229313

  17. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  18. Erythropoietin use and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Joseph John

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO is arguably the most successful therapeutic application of recombinant DNA technology till date. It was isolated in 1977 and the gene decoded in 1985. Since then, it has found varied applications, especially in stimulating erythropoiesis in anemia due to chronic conditions like renal failure, myelodysplasia, infections like HIV, in prematurity, and in reducing peri-operative blood transfusions. The discovery of erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R and its presence in non-erythroid cells has led to several areas of research. Various types of rhEPO are commercially available today with different dosage schedules and modes of delivery. Their efficacy in stimulating erythropoiesis is dose dependent and differs according to the patient′s disease and nutritional status. EPO should be used carefully according to guidelines as unsolicited use can result in serious adverse effects. Because of its capacity to improve oxygenation, it has been abused by athletes participating in endurance sports and detecting this has proved to be a challenge.

  19. Psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, T B; Jeffrey, L K

    1991-12-01

    This paper reviews psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in female adolescents. It documents that sexual abuse is widespread, occurring at an alarming rate at all socioeconomic levels of society. It is perpetrated principally by adult men in the victim's family. Often its effects are tragic. Adolescent female sexual abuse victims are at high risk for subsequent acting out behavior, sexual promiscuity, physical and sexual abuse, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, alcohol and drug abuse or dependence, chronic sleep disturbance, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, emotional numbing, dissociation, guilt, shame, hyperalertness, suicidal ideation, and multiple associated psychiatric disorders. Although it may appear at a surface level that sexual abuse victims recover from such abuse, follow-up studies suggest that many remain disabled long after the abuse has ended. Health care professionals should be especially cognizant of the magnitude of the impact of sexual abuse on adolescent girls and recognize the need of these patients for psychologic and medical services.

  20. The Diagnosis and Man Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flelcher B.; Taylor.Jr

    2003-01-01

    @@ This review describes disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIC) as a syndrome in which hemostatic factors are activated and products are generated. This syndrome ranges in severity from an obvious decompensated coagulopathy (overt-DIC) to the subclinical compensated activation of hemostatic factors(non-overt DIC). Ths first part of this review emphasizes two points: First, activation of the hemostatic system is controlled by a vast network of capillaries and venules through anticoagulant and antiinflammatory regulatory factors that operate from the endothelium( e. G. , protein C and thrombomodulin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor).

  1. Disseminated lupus vulgaris: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Burce; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes; Ulucay, Vasfiye; Demir, Filiz Topaloglu

    2014-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is a secondary form of cutaneous tuberculosis which persists for years if not treated. The head and neck are the most commonly affected sites. While less frequently arms and legs, and rarely the trunk and the scalp are involved. Herein, we describe a 73-year-old man with a 5-year history of slowly growing, atrophic, some eroded and ulcerated, red-brown plaques on his forehead, nose, cheeks, ear lobes, trunk and extremites. All of his disseminated lesions healed after antituberculosis therapy.

  2. Thinking of modern wushu dissemination method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    martial arts in China for thousands of years culture heritage plays an important role, today has become a symbol of Chinese national culture. Martial arts in the long history of several thousand years, continuous development and fusion, formed a unique mode of transmission, and under the changing trend of the development of modern science and technology, not according to the traditional Chinese wushu dissemination, combined with the contemporary science and technology, network promotion, development of martial arts school, strengthen the cultural background, is the best way out for the spread of Chinese martial arts.

  3. Disseminated toxocariasis in an immunocompetent host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madan; Raj; Aryal; Paras; Karmacharya; Amrit; Pokharel; Smith; Giri; Ranjan; Pathak; Richard; Alweis

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Toxocara canis,or less commonly,Toxocara cati,which is one of the most common zoonotic infections worldwide.It commonly affects the pediatric and immunocompromised population;however,it has rarely been reported in the immunocompetent adults.Two of the well-recognized syndromes in children are visceral larva migrans and ocular larva migrans.Infection in adults usually ranges from asymptomatic to nonspecific symptoms which makes the diagnosis challenging.A case of 36 year-old male was presented with disseminated toxocariasis with pulmonary and hepatic involvement and striking peripheral eosinophilia.

  4. Disseminated toxocariasis in an immunocompetent host

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madan Raj Aryal; Paras Karmacharya; Amrit Pokharel; Smith Giri; Ranjan Pathak; Richard Alweis

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Toxocara canis, or less commonly, Toxocara cati, which is one of the most common zoonotic infections worldwide. It commonly affects the pediatric and immunocompromised population; however, it has rarely been reported in the immunocompetent adults. Two of the well-recognized syndromes in children are visceral larva migrans and ocular larva migrans. Infection in adults usually ranges from asymptomatic to non-specific symptoms which makes the diagnosis challenging. A case of 36 year-old male was presented with disseminated toxocariasis with pulmonary and hepatic involvement and striking peripheral eosinophilia.

  5. Development of the scale of economic abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris M; Bybee, Deborah; Greeson, Megan R

    2008-05-01

    Economic abuse is part of the pattern of behaviors used by batterers to maintain power and control over their partners. However, no measure of economic abuse exists. This study describes the development of the Scale of Economic Abuse, which was designed to fill this gap. Interviews were conducted with 103 survivors of domestic abuse, each of whom responded to measures of economic, physical, and psychological abuse as well as economic hardship. Results provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the scale. This study is an important first step toward understanding the extent and impact of economic abuse experienced by survivors.

  6. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed.

  7. [Disseminated sporotrichosis - clinical case and discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso Pereira, João Cláudio; Grijó, Amorita; Ribeiro Machado Pereira, Rosângela; Noel S Oliveira, Andreza; de Andrade, Ana Cláudia; Ferreira, Ana Cláudia M; Corrêa Brant Machado, Christiane; Veiga Coutinho, Débora; Vale Rios, Danilo; Pereira Pires, Bárbara

    2008-01-01

    The authors report a case of a patient with a prior history of alcohol abuse who developed nodules and ulcerated skin lesions on his trunk and lower extremities along the line of the lymphatic draining area. The patient's X-ray showed reticular nodular intersticial infiltrates at the lung bases. There was a positive culture of supraclavicular lymph node for Sporothrix schenckii. After specific treatment using mainly potassium iodide, there was regression of cutaneous lesions and lung infiltrates. The authors present a discussion on the deseases' forms of presentation, highlighting the lung involvement ans further discuss the diagnosis and treatment of sporotrichosis.

  8. Substance abuse as a precipitant of wife abuse victimizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, G K; Straus, M A

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the question of whether drug and alcohol use by victims constitutes a risk factor increasing the chances of their being assaulted by their partners. Data from a subsample of the 1985 National Family Violence Survey consisting of the 2,033 female respondents who were currently married or living in a male-female couple relationship are used as the basis of the analysis. The logistic analysis revealed that, of the ten variables in the model, the most important for distinguishing abused from nonabused women are husband's drug use, a history of paternal violence in womens' family or origin, husband's drunkenness, low income, and wife's drunkenness. Women who abuse alcohol are more likely to be victims of minor marital violence, but female substance abuse of any type is not a significant factor in severe violence.

  9. Benzodiazepine use, abuse, and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'brien, Charles P

    2005-01-01

    Although benzodiazepines are invaluable in the treatment of anxiety disorders, they have some potential for abuse and may cause dependence or addiction. It is important to distinguish between addiction to and normal physical dependence on benzodiazepines. Intentional abusers of benzodiazepines usually have other substance abuse problems. Benzodiazepines are usually a secondary drug of abuse-used mainly to augment the high received from another drug or to offset the adverse effects of other drugs. Few cases of addiction arise from legitimate use of benzodiazepines. Pharmacologic dependence, a predictable and natural adaptation of a body system long accustomed to the presence of a drug, may occur in patients taking therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines. However, this dependence, which generally manifests itself in withdrawal symptoms upon the abrupt discontinuation of the medication, may be controlled and ended through dose tapering, medication switching, and/or medication augmentation. Due to the chronic nature of anxiety, long-term low-dose benzodiazepine treatment may be necessary for some patients; this continuation of treatment should not be considered abuse or addiction.

  10. Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of a computer-based depression and substance abuse intervention for people attending residential substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Peter J

    2012-02-01

    , and 12 months post intervention. Participants will also complete weekly self-report measures during the treatment period. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the effect of introducing a computer delivered, cognitive behavioral therapy based co-morbidity treatment program within a residential substance abuse setting. If shown to be effective, this intervention can be disseminated within other residential substance abuse programs. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12611000618954

  11. [Disseminated histoplasmosis treated by boluses of fluconazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandengue Ebenye, C; Takuefou Mfangam, B; Nouédoui, C; Atangana, P J A

    2015-01-01

    We report a case in which an HIV-infected man was cured of disseminated histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum var duboisii) after treatment by high-dose fluconazole (1,600 mg taken four times daily) for 2 months, combined with active antiretroviral therapy. The choice of fluconazole at this dosage was motivated by its availability as a generic and thus inexpensive medication, the patient's precarious status, and his critical clinical condition. At the end of the second month of treatment, the patient chose to stop the fluconazole, which he could no longer afford, while continuing the antiretroviral treatment, which was free. The clinical and laboratory improvement observed from the first week has continued to progress for more than 8 months after fluconazole treatment stopped. This single case needs - and deserves - to be confirmed in a series of patients. Nonetheless it makes it possible to envision fluconazole as a low-cost and efficacious antifungal agent for the treatment of disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS patients in sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Disseminated Cerebrospinal Embryonal Tumor in the Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armocida, Daniele; Caporlingua, Federico; Lapadula, Gennaro; Elefante, Grazia Maria; Antonelli, Manila; Salvati, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. According to the 2016 World Health Organization classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System, the term Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor has been replaced by the term Embryonal Tumor (ET). We present a case of disseminated cerebrospinal ET presenting in an adult patient. Illustrative Case. A 49-year-old male presenting with low back pain, dysuria, and hypoesthesia of the lower extremities referred to our emergency department. Brain and whole spine contrast-enhanced MRI documented a diffusively disseminated heterogeneous neoplasm with intradural extra- and intramedullary involvement of the cervicothoracic tract and cauda equina. A primary biopsy of the lumbosacral localization was performed through L5 bilateral laminectomy. Histologic diagnosis was Embryonal Tumor Not Otherwise Specified. The patient underwent chemotherapy with postoperative adjuvant alternating Vincristine-Doxorubicin-Ifosfamide (VAI) and Ifosfamide-Etoposide (IE). Discussion. Spinal ETs are exceedingly rare especially when presenting in the adult patient. Neurosurgical and oncologic management is still unclear. When feasible, surgical removal should always be performed to obtain a histologic diagnosis. Postoperative adjuvant therapy might entail both chemo- and radiotherapy; however a consensus on this matter is still lacking. PMID:27818821

  13. Clean coal technology promotion and dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.J.; McMullan, J.T.; Kubica, K. (and others) [IEA Coal Research Ltd, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    This project has provided a means to valorise the technical achievements of the CCT power generation RD&D activities arising from the ECSC and RFCS coal utilisation programmes. The focus has been on promotion and dissemination of such results to major coal-using Member States that have recently joined the European Union, namely Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania. A comprehensive review of the scope and achievements of the ECSC and RFCS projects on coal-fired power generation RD&D has been prepared and posted on the IEACCC website. This document has been translated by the partners in the three designated States and disseminated to their respective national stakeholders. Workshops have been held successfully in each country to promote the findings of the review and to determine their respective primary interests in future RD&D. The attendees have included representatives of major power plant operators, equipment manufacturers and developers, research institutes and universities. Very positive feedback was received from those stakeholders. The project has been completed with the circulation of the report and associated information to comparable stakeholders in the EU-15 countries and other newer members of the European Union via various networks and associations. 2 tabs., 3 apps.

  14. New trends in knowledge dissemination: TED Talks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Scotto di Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the key elements of ethos, pathos and logos linguistic strategies as some main features of TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design Talks, popularizing speeches aiming at Knowledge Dissemination. Through a comparison between the TED Talk ‘HIV - How to fight an epidemic of bad laws’, by Shereen El-Feki (2012a, and another speech held by the same author at the  2012 Symposia The Global Commission on HIV and the Law, addressed to specialists, the paper analyses TED Talks as an innovative tool of popularization, which breaches the typical triangularisation ‘scientist-mediator-audience’, bringing scientists directly into contact with their audiences. Drawing upon Aristotle’s three pillars of rhetoric, the paper analyses the strategies used to establish the ethos of the speech, by proposing a topic as morally worth of spreading; pathos, by creating a direct contact with the public; and logos, investigated through an analysis of the elements used to recontextualise scientific discourses into popularized speeches. The analysis suggests that TED Talks are a recodification, not a mere translation of texts; they are a means to disseminate knowledge reducing the asymmetry between audiences and scientists.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, M

    2014-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which systemic activation of coagulation without a specific localization occurs, resulting in extensive formation of intravascular fibrin, particularly in small and midsize vessels. Disseminated intravascular coagulation may lead to several altered coagulation parameters, including a low platelet count, abnormal global clotting assays, low levels of physiological anticoagulant proteases, or increased fibrin degradation products. Also, more complex assays for activation of coagulation factors or pathways may indicate involvement of these molecules in DIC. None of these tests alone, however, can accurately ascertain or rebuff a diagnosis of DIC. Nonetheless, a combination of readily available routine assays may be instrumental in establishing a diagnosis of DIC and can also be useful to point to a subset of patients with DIC that may need definite, often costly, interventions in the hemostatic system. Current insights on relevant etiological pathways that may contribute to the occurrence of DIC have led to innovative therapeutic and adjunctive approaches to patient with DIC. Management options directed at the amelioration of hemostatic activation may tentatively be indicated and were found to be advantageous in experimental and clinical investigations. These treatments encompass elimination of tissue factor-mediated thrombin generation or restitution of normal anticoagulant function.

  16. Hydrogen Technical Analysis -- Dissemination of Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Kervitsky, Jr.

    2006-03-20

    SENTECH is a small energy and environmental consulting firm providing technical, analytical, and communications solutions to technology management issues. The activities proposed by SENTECH focused on gathering and developing communications materials and information, and various dissemination activities to present the benefits of hydrogen energy to a broad audience while at the same time establishing permanent communications channels to enable continued two-way dialog with these audiences in future years. Effective communications and information dissemination is critical to the acceptance of new technology. Hydrogen technologies face the additional challenge of safety preconceptions formed primarily as a result of the crash of the Hindenburg. Effective communications play a key role in all aspects of human interaction, and will help to overcome the perceptual barriers, whether of safety, economics, or benefits. As originally proposed SENTECH identified three distinct information dissemination activities to address three distinct but important audiences; these formed the basis for the task structure used in phases 1 and 2. The tasks were: (1) Print information--Brochures that target the certain segment of the population and will be distributed via relevant technical conferences and traditional distribution channels. (2) Face-to-face meetings--With industries identified to have a stake in hydrogen energy. The three industry audiences are architect/engineering firms, renewable energy firms, and energy companies that have not made a commitment to hydrogen (3) Educational Forums--The final audience is students--the future engineers, technicians, and energy consumers. SENTECH will expand on its previous educational work in this area. The communications activities proposed by SENTECH and completed as a result of this cooperative agreement was designed to compliment the research and development work funded by the DOE by presenting the technical achievements and validations

  17. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  18. Misuse and abuse of quetiapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Piróg-Balcerzak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent, frequently used in psychiatry, often for symptomatic treatment against a number of mental disorders differing from the registration indications. One of the use is to soothe the clinical conditions caused by the use of various psychoactive substances. The paper presents and discusses the reports of quetiapine misuse, abuse, and even mental addiction, as well as symptoms similar to the so-called discontinuation syndrome, often mixed with withdrawal syndrome occurring in the course of addiction. Most reports concern males, and especially those with a history of other psychoactive substance abuse, and personality disorders, often in conflict with the law. Therefore, clinicians should be cautious when prescribing quetiapine to such patients. The article discusses potential mechanisms responsible for quetiapine abuse. This is probably related to its sedative and anxiolytic activity which results in the frequent use with stimulants. Also, high affinity for the H1 receptor, as antihistamines agents causes rewarding action.

  19. Leisure and parties: Study on the dissemination of alcoholic drinks on university campuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Abrão Romera

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses the issue of alcohol consumption, emphasizing that persuasion to consumption can be observed in different contexts through advertising, mainly by posters put up at parties in university campuses. University parties represent one of the numerous forms of leisure of young adults, and sociability, flirt, and entertainment are some marks of these festive contexts. Binge-drinking has also become part of these scenarios, sometimes abusively. Generally, the parties aimed at this public are publicized with posters scattered throughout college campuses in order to convince this public to adhere and participate. This study aimed to verify the persuasion to alcohol abuse, found in fliers and posters disseminating these parties, based on the arguments used. This qualitative descriptive study was developed by combining a methodological framework composed of bibliographic and documental analysis of 173 party posters, aimed at the young public, collected in universities in the state of Sao Paulo. The analysis indicates verbal and imagetic arguments that encourage excessive drinking. The apology to beverage consumption in leisure activities puts this field of study in an important place for analyzing the behaviors experienced in it, especially by youth groups. The results represent an important step for the understanding of new modes of alcohol consumption, occupation and experience of leisure, and alert to the evelopment of prevention programs directed to this public and specific spaces.

  20. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Parents > Cough ... cough and cold medicine. Why Do Kids Abuse Cough and Cold Remedies? Before the U.S. Food and ...

  1. Abuse of rights in Community Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    The article analyses the case law of the ECJ on abuse of rights with the aim to determine the extent to which EU law allows Member States and others to take measures to prevent abuse of Community rights...

  2. Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160478.html Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives Extreme stress may ... 300 middle-aged U.S. adults, female survivors of child abuse were more likely to die over the next ...

  3. Psychophysiological aspects of amphetamine-methamphetamine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J B

    1998-03-01

    Abuse of amphetamines-methamphetamines has increased worldwide. Profiles of abusers, effects of different methods of administration, and research on amphetamine psychosis are reviewed, along with research on psychophysiological mechanisms, addictive potential, and psychotherapeutic strategies.

  4. Inhalant Abuse: Is Your Child at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be valuable as well. With help, your child can end inhalant abuse and learn how to make healthy choices for a lifetime. References Baydala L. Inhalant abuse. Paediatrics and Child Health. 2010;15:443. Results from the 2013 ...

  5. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Hidden Abuse within the Home: Recognizing and Responding to Sibling Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutey, Diane; Clemens, Elysia V.

    2015-01-01

    Sibling abuse is a serious phenomenon in our society that often goes unaddressed. Victims of sibling abuse experience psychological effects similar to those of child abuse (Caspi, 2012; Wiehe, 2002). The purpose of this article is to provide school counselors with a definition of sibling abuse and a five-step model to recognize and respond. A…

  7. Neighborhood Crime Rates among Drug Abusing and Non-Drug Abusing Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Norris; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between paternal drug abuse status and neighborhood crime rates. Although paternal drug abusing families resided in neighborhoods with higher crime rates than parental non-drug abusing families, when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and domicile, drug abuse status was not associated with neighborhood crime…

  8. Elder abuse: speak out for justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jenna M; Hoglund, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    It is estimated that 1 in 10 older adults experience abuse, but only 1 in 5 to as little as 1 in 24 cases are reported. Elder abuse is expected to increase as the population ages. Nurses are in a prime position to identify, assess, manage, and prevent elder abuse. This article explores elder abuse and its prevalence, potential causes, and risk factors offering case studies, assessment tools, resources, and interventions.

  9. Measuring Economic Abuse in the Lives of Survivors: Revising the Scale of Economic Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postmus, Judy L; Plummer, Sara-Beth; Stylianou, Amanda M

    2016-05-01

    Recent attention has been given by researchers to understanding how abusers use economic abuse strategies. Unfortunately, limited measures are available to accurately understand the prevalence of economic abuse in the lives of survivors. Recently, researchers created the 28-item Scale of Economic Abuse (SEA) but further validation is needed. This article describes the psychometric evaluation of the SEA through confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses using data collected with 120 survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the SEA-12 as a shorter instrument to measure economic abuse as a distinct form of abuse.

  10. Establishing "abuse-deterrence equivalence" for generic abuse-deterrent opioid formulations: A proposed development framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setnik, Beatrice; Cone, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Abuse-deterrent formulations are one strategy for mitigating the epidemic of prescription opioid abuse. Regulatory guidance documents describe the requirements for developing abuse-deterrent formulations of novel drugs and formulations; however, they do not address "abuse-deterrence equivalence" for generic formulations. As generics may be produced with different excipients and formulations compared to reference drugs, differences in their properties may impact their abuse-deterrent features. Currently, it is unclear what specific studies are needed to support generic abuse-deterrence claims. This commentary outlines several recommendations on the in vitro and in vivo testing required, including the conditions for conducting a human abuse potential study.

  11. Attitudes of Psychologists Toward Drug Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Wilma J.

    1976-01-01

    The present survey sought to define drug abuse, its causes, recommended treatments, treatment settings, prognosis, and personal commitment to treating drug abusers. The use of prison and courts was contrasted with hospitals, and willingness to treat drug abusers was contrasted with alcoholics. (Author)

  12. An unusual case of baclofen abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumitra Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Baclofen was initially used for the treatment of spastic conditions. Last decade has seen its emergence as a treatment of profound interest in alcohol dependence, opiates and cocaine abuse, and tobacco addiction. However, the published literature on baclofen abuse is sparse. Here, we report a patient with baclofen abuse.

  13. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  14. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  15. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  16. An uncommon presentation of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH caused by Histoplasma capsulatum generally develops in immunocompromised patients or those on long-term systemic corticosteroid therapy. Here, we report a case of PDH in an immunocompetent patient, which is a rare occurrence. A 56- year-old male patient, whose work often led him to caves, now reported with a low-grade fever and altered sensorium. Investigations revealed hyponatremia, bilateral adrenal enlargement, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A rare complication of the manifestations of histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient, in the form of ring lesions in the brain, came to light during the clinical investigations. The patient developed generalized tonic–clonic convulsions and needed care for the critical condition 2 weeks into treatment. This case report traces the clinical course, histological and serological findings, and response to amphotericin B therapy in the patient.

  17. Quinine-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Abed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every drug comes with some side effect. It is the benefit/risk ratio that determines the medical use of the drug. Quinine, a known antimalarial drug, has been used for nocturnal leg cramps since the 1930s; it is associated with severe life-threatening hematological and cardiovascular side effects. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, albeit rare, is a known coagulopathy associated with Quinine. It is imperative to inquire about the Quinine intake in medication history in patients with coagulopathy, as most patients still consider it a harmless home remedy for nocturnal leg cramps. In this report, we present a case of coagulopathy in a middle-aged woman, who gave a history of taking Quinine for nocturnal leg cramps, as her home remedy. Early identification of the offending agent led to the diagnosis, prompt discontinuation of the medication, and complete recovery and prevented the future possibility of recurrence.

  18. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, E.M. [London Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (author)

  19. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, E.M. [London University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore, to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB)) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (authors)

  20. Multilocular disseminated tarlov cysts: importance of imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, P Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    With technological advancements and wider availability of multimodality imaging, incidental lesions are frequently identified in patients undergoing various imaging studies. We report here a case of multiloculated disseminated perineural or Tarlov cysts (TCs). The primary aim of our study was to (1) provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging and histopathological features of TCs (2) to draw attention to the fact that multiple lumbo-sacral and dorsal TCs can produce nerve injuries and serious movement disturbances (3) to document the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scan in noninvasive diagnosis and guiding management in such cases. These cysts are clearly identified by MR and computerized tomography imaging of the lumbosacral spine. However, there are no reports on the scintigraphic findings of TCs in literature. TCs are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. Until date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to be followed for their management.

  1. Telemedicine: challenges to dissemination in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Santos de Varge Maldonado

    Full Text Available Abstract: Telemedicine has been seen as an important tool for facing the challenges of universal health systems. The goal of this article is to discuss the main challenges to its full dissemination in Brazil. Being a somewhat new area, there are not many scientific papers that systematize it. This article is an exploratory paper, as it aims to provide an overall perspective on the subject. From an economic point of view, telemedicine is a strategic area due to its an intrinsic potential of being a source for generating innovation, for requiring and incorporating technological breakthroughs from other areas, and for its interdisciplinary nature and dynamic inter-relations that drive different industries. From the social perspective, it has the potential to make access to health services democratic, by connecting remote regions with health services located in hospitals and centers of reference for prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Ventricular metastasis resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Ian D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC complicates up to 7% of malignancies, the commonest solid organ association being adenocarcinoma. Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC has rarely been associated with DIC. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman with TCC bladder and DIC was found to have a cardiac lesion suspicious for metastatic disease. The DIC improved with infusion of plasma and administration of Vitamin K, however the cardiac lesion was deemed inoperable and chemotherapy inappropriate; given the patients functional status. We postulate that direct activation of the coagulation cascade by the intraventricular metastasis probably triggered the coagulopathy in this patient. Conclusion Cardiac metastases should be considered in cancer patients with otherwise unexplained DIC. This may influence treatment choices.

  3. [Disseminated intravascular coagulation: clinical and biological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touaoussa, Aziz; El Youssi, Hind; El Hassani, Imane; Hanouf, Daham; El Bergui, Imane; Zoulati, Ghizlane; Amrani Hassani, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by the systemic activation of blood coagulation. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are complex and dependent on the underlying pathology, making the clinical and biological expression of quite variable DIC. Among the various biological parameters disrupted, most are not specific, and none of them allows in itself to make the diagnosis. All this does not facilitate the task of the practitioner for diagnosis of overt DIC, much less that of the non-overt DIC, early stage whose treatment would improve the prognosis. These considerations have led to develop scores, combining several parameters depending on their availability in daily practice, as well as their diagnostic relevance. Of all the scores, the ISTH (International society of thrombosis and hemostasis) remains the most used.

  4. Subcapsular sinus macrophages limit acute gammaherpesvirus dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederico, Bruno; Chao, Brittany; Lawler, Clara; May, Janet S; Stevenson, Philip G

    2015-08-01

    Lymphocyte proliferation, mobility and longevity make them prime targets for virus infection. Myeloid cells that process and present environmental antigens to lymphocytes are consequently an important line of defence. Subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSMs) filter the afferent lymph and communicate with B-cells. How they interact with B-cell-tropic viruses is unknown. We analysed their encounter with murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), an experimentally accessible gammaherpesvirus related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. MuHV-4 disseminated via lymph nodes, and intranasally or subcutaneously inoculated virions readily infected SSMs. However, this infection was poorly productive. SSM depletion with clodronate-loaded liposomes or with diphtheria toxin in CD169-diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice increased B-cell infection and hastened virus spread to the spleen. Dendritic cells provided the main route to B-cells, and SSMs slowed host colonization, apparently by absorbing virions non-productively from the afferent lymph.

  5. Data Dissemination in Mobile Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr A. Venugopal Reddy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Data dissemination in asymmetrical communicationenvironment, where the downlink communication capacity ismuch greater than the uplink communication capacity, is bestsuited for mobile environment. In this architecture there will bea stationary server continuously broadcasting different dataitems over the air. The mobile clients continuously listen to thechannel and access the data of their interest whenever itappears on the channel and download the same. The typicalapplications of such architecture are stock market information,weather information, traffic information etc. The importantissue that is to be addressed in this type of data disseminationis – how quickly the mobile clients access the data item of theirinterest i.e. minimum access time so that the mobile clients savethe precious battery power while they are on mobile. Thispaper reviews the various techniques for achieving theminimum access time. The advantages and disadvantages arediscussed and explored different research areas for achievingthe minimum access time.

  6. [Analysis of dissemination pathways for poliovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohka, Seii

    2009-06-01

    Poliomyelitis is an acute disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by poliovirus (PV). In humans, an infection is initiated by oral ingestion of the virus, followed by multiplication in the alimentary mucosa, from which the virus spreads through the bloodstream. Paralytic poliomyelitis initiates from the invasion of the central nervous system by circulating poliovirus, probably via the blood-brain barrier. After the virus enters the central nervous system, it replicates in neurons, especially in motor neurons, inducing the cell death that causes paralytic poliomyelitis. Along with this route of dissemination, a neuron-specific pathway has been reported in humans, monkeys, and PV-sensitive transgenic (Tg) mice carrying the PV receptor (hPVR/CD155) gene. It is important for the efficient virus dissemination to overcome the barriers as follows; i) to access the target tissue, ii) to enter the cells, iii) to reach the place for the replication, iv) to replicate efficiently. PV is easily transferred to humans orally; however, no rodent model for oral infections has been developed. We analyzed the each barrier above, and showed that PV is inactivated by the low pH of the gastric contents in mice. We also demonstrated that type 1 interferon signaling plays an important role in determining permissivity in the alimentary tract. As for the neural pathway, we demonstrated that direct efficient interaction between the cytoplasmic domain and cytoplasmic dynein is essential for the efficient retrograde transport of PV-containing vesicles along microtubules for the hPVR-dependent PV transport. On the other hand, we found that hPVR-independent axonal transport of PV was also observed in hPVR-Tg and non-Tg mice, indicating that several different pathways for PV axonal transport exist.

  7. Intracranial germinoma with ventricular system dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-yun CHEN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the clinical, neuroimaging and histopathological features of intracranial germinoma.  Methods One case of intracranial germinoma with ventricular system dissemination was reported, and related literatures were reviewed.  Results A 34-year-old male complained of progressive dizziness for 30 d and manifested unsteady gait for 45 d. Radiological examinations revealed low signal intensity on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI in the corpus callosum, left cerebellum, around the fourth ventricle, aqueduct mesencephalon, the ventral pons and pineal region, with even or uneven enhancement after contrast. The clinical initial diagnosis was "intracranial multiple focal lesions and high possibility of multiple sclerosis". After well response to glucocorticoid impact and dehydration, the patient stopped taking drugs but presented relapse and exacerbation. Later, he underwent biopsy on pineal region and was diagnosed as intracranial germinoma. Microscopically, the big germ cells and lymphocytes coexisted. Tumor cells were epithelioid cells with transparent cytoplasm, prominent nuclei and mitotic activity. Lymphocytes were distributed along interstitial substance of vessel and fiber, and individual syncytiotrophoblasts were sprasely distributed. Immunohistochemical staining showed tumor cells were positive for CD117 and OCT3/4, and the syncytiotrophoblasts were positive for β-human chorionic gonadotropin ( β-hCG. The clinical symptoms were completely alleviated after radiotherapy and chemotherapy.  Conclusions Because of the sensitivity for radiotherapy and chemotherapy, intracranial germinoma can be diagnosed and treated early to improve its prognosis. However, it is very easy to disseminate along with ventricular system and form multiple lesions, leading to atypical clinical and imaging manifestations, which is a big challenge for clinical diagnosis. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.05.010

  8. Childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depression in individuals with extreme obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; Vivian, Dina; O'Leary, K Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to examine (a) a mediational model of childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depressive symptoms and (b) the impact of weight-related teasing on rates and correlates of childhood abuse. Charts of 187 extremely obese individuals seeking psychological clearance for bariatric (weight-loss) surgery were retrospectively examined. Among the participants, 61% reported a history of childhood abuse, 30.5% reported adult interpersonal abuse, and 15% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Initially, the relationship between childhood abuse and current depressive symptoms was significant (pinterpersonal abuse as a mediator in the model reduced the magnitude of its significance (Sobel's test p=.01). The associations between childhood abuse and adult interpersonal abuse and between adult interpersonal abuse and depressive symptoms were significant (prelationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse. Bariatric surgery patients report elevated rates of childhood abuse that are comparable to rates in psychiatric populations (e.g., eating disorders, depression), and higher than those in community samples and other medical populations. The relationship between child abuse and depressive symptomatology may be partially explained by the presence of adult interpersonal abuse; additionally, the relationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse was stronger for those who did not endure weight-related teasing than for those who did.

  9. Substance Abuse by Anesthesiology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsky, Irving; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of 183 responses to a survey of former anesthesiology residents of the Medical College of Wisconsin found that 29 had been self-administered problematic substance abusers during their residencies, 23 had been alcohol dependent, and 6 had been drug dependent. More than 85 percent of respondents considered the drug policy information…

  10. Growth Hormone: Use and Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Growth Hormone: Use Abuse What is huma n gr owth hormone? Human growth hormone (GH) is a substance that controls your body’s ... too little GH, they may have health problems. Growth hormone deficiency (too little GH) and some other health ...

  11. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 1 Molnar, B., Berkman, L., & Buka, S. (2001). Psychopathology, childhood sexual abuse, and other childhood adversities: Relative links ... 4 Shapiro, S. (1992). Suicidality and the sequelae of childhood victimization. In S. ... and psychopathology. NY: Lexington Books. 56 Goldsmith et al., (2000). ...

  12. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum and Ecstasy abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Pittman, J A; Pounsford, J C

    1997-01-01

    Ecstasy is an illegal recreationally used drug. A case of a young woman who had taken this drug and was found to have a spontaneous pneumomediastinum is reported. The association of spontaneous pneumomediastinum with drug abuse is discussed. The possible mechanism for this complication of Ecstasy, which has not been previously reported, is discussed.

  13. Financial Fraud and Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Allison Dare

    2014-01-01

    A modern form of abuse of children by parents and foster parents is to use the identity of children in their care for their own financial benefit, such as accessing their unused social security numbers to secure credit. This article reviews examples and implications of this identity theft.

  14. Crime, Abuse, and Hacker Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Deborah G.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses computer ethics and the use of computer networks. Topics addressed include computer hackers; software piracy; computer viruses and worms; intentional and unintentional abuse; intellectual property rights versus freedom of thought; the role of information in a democratic society; individual privacy; legislation; social attitudes; and the…

  15. 76 FR 36557 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Abuse and Mental Health Services, Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug Testing... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse......

  16. Hypothesis: Disseminated Intravascular Inflammation as the Inflammatory Counterpart to Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Brian S.; Bull, Maureen H.

    1994-08-01

    We have identified a leukocyte activation syndrome that is occasionally associated with the transfusion of intraoperatively recovered erythrocytes. This syndrome appears to result from intravascular damage caused by leukocytes activated during the erythrocyte salvage process. We hypothesize that this syndrome is part of a larger disease grouping: disseminated intravascular inflammation (DII). DII is the analog of the coagulation disorder disseminated intravascular coagulation. In disseminated intravascular coagulation, the organ damage results from uncontrolled activation of the clotting pathway; in DII the damage is caused by leukocytes that have become activated by direct contact with bacteria or in rare instances-such as erythrocyte salvage-in the absence of bacteria and bacterial products. Recent studies of the hazards associated with intraoperative blood salvage indicate that activation of leukocytes can be achieved by exposure to activated platelets alone. If such activated leukocytes are reinfused along with the washed erythrocytes, widespread organ damage may result. The lung is the organ most severely affected by activated leukocytes. Adult respiratory distress syndrome is one outcome. It is likely that DII is a presently unrecognized pathophysiological process that complicates a variety of primary disease states and increases their lethality.

  17. Recent trends in drug abuse in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-xia FANG; Yan-bo WANG; Jie SHI; Zhi-min LIU; Lin LU

    2006-01-01

    Drug abuse has spread quickly since reemerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70 000 in1990 to more than one million by the end of 2004. In addition to opioids, abuse of "new" types of drugs including 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)and ketamine has spread since 1997. Illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most of southern China, and throughout the country drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drug-related problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. In response, the Chinese government has begun an anti-drug campaign, including legislative measures to control drug abuse. However, changing the public' s attitudes toward drug abusers and breaking the link between drug use and HIV spread are equally important.

  18. Forensic odontology, part 5. Child abuse issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-05-14

    Child abuse, child maltreatment, non-accidental injury and child homicide: all terms that are hard to believe exist in the 21st civilised century, but non-accidental injury of children is a major problem, crossing all socioeconomic, ethnic and educational groups, and is happening all over the world. Available statistics on child abuse and deaths related to abuse are frightening, and as many cases are not reported, actual numbers are likely to be much higher. This paper aims to increase understanding of child abuse issues and encourage the dental team to be alert to the possibility of abuse, recognise the physical injuries and make referrals to the appropriate agency if necessary. In child abuse cases physical injuries to the head and facial area are common while other types of abuse are less visible but are damaging to a vulnerable child in other ways. Keeping children safe is a shared responsibility and a top priority for all of us.

  19. Client Abuse to Public Welfare Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Korczynski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    market economy – in which workers are accorded power and resources, in which workers tend to frame the abuse as the outcome of a co-citizen caught in system failure and in which workers demonstrate some resilience to abuse. Another expectation is that New Public Management reforms push the case to follow......We analyse a case study of workers’ experience of client abuse in a Danish public welfare organisation. We make an original contribution by putting forward two different theoretical expectations of the case. One expectation is that the case follows a pattern of customer abuse processes in a social...... patterns of customer abuse associated with a liberal market economy – in which the customer is treated as sovereign against the relatively powerless worker, and in which workers bear heavy emotional costs of abuse. Our findings show a greater match to the social processes of abuse within a social market...

  20. Drugs of abuse and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mursaleen, Leah R; Stamford, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    The term "drug of abuse" is highly contextual. What constitutes a drug of abuse for one population of patients does not for another. It is therefore important to examine the needs of the patient population to properly assess the status of drugs of abuse. The focus of this article is on the bidirectional relationship between patients and drug abuse. In this paper we will introduce the dopaminergic systems of the brain in Parkinson's and the influence of antiparkinsonian drugs upon them before discussing this synergy of condition and medication as fertile ground for drug abuse. We will then examine the relationship between drugs of abuse and Parkinson's, both beneficial and deleterious. In summary we will draw the different strands together and speculate on the future merit of current drugs of abuse as treatments for Parkinson's disease.

  1. Understanding cycles of abuse: A multimotive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lauren S; Hurst, Charlice; Kelley, Ken; Judge, Timothy A

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental to the definition of abusive supervision is the notion that subordinates are often victims of a pattern of mistreatment (Tepper, 2000). However, little research has examined the processes through which such destructive relational patterns emerge. In this study, we draw from and extend the multimotive model of reactions to interpersonal threat (Smart Richman & Leary, 2009) to formulate and test hypotheses about how employees' emotional and behavioral responses may ameliorate or worsen supervisors' abuse. To test this model, we collected 6 waves of data from a sample of 244 employees. Results revealed reciprocal relationships between abusive supervision and both supervisor-directed counterproductive behavior and supervisor-directed avoidance. Whereas the abusive supervision--counterproductive behavior relationship was partially driven by anger, the abusive supervision--avoidance relationship was partially mediated by fear. These findings suggest that some may find themselves in abusive relationships, in part, because their own reactions to mistreatment can, perhaps unknowingly, reinforce abusive behavior.

  2. Client Abuse to Public Welfare Workers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Korczynski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    We analyse a case study of workers’ experience of client abuse in a Danish public welfare organisation. We make an original contribution by putting forward two different theoretical expectations of the case. One expectation is that the case follows a pattern of customer abuse processes in a social...... market economy – in which workers are accorded power and resources, in which workers tend to frame the abuse as the outcome of a co-citizen caught in system failure and in which workers demonstrate some resilience to abuse. Another expectation is that New Public Management reforms push the case to follow...... patterns of customer abuse associated with a liberal market economy – in which the customer is treated as sovereign against the relatively powerless worker, and in which workers bear heavy emotional costs of abuse. Our findings show a greater match to the social processes of abuse within a social market...

  3. Photoletter to the editor: Disseminated histoplasmosis with initial oral manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Surabhi; Sardana, Kabir; Vijay K Garg

    2013-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that may present in a variety of clinical manifestations. Involvment of the oral mucosa is very rare and may occur as part of disseminated histoplasmosis or as isolated involvement. We present a patient with disseminated histoplasmosis, in whom oral lesions were the initial manifestation of the disease.

  4. Disseminated histoplasmosis in a Danish patient with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, E; Franzmann, M; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1989-01-01

    We present the first case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an AIDS patient in Europe, a 33-year-old Danish homosexual man, and recommend a detailed travel history in HIV-positive patients presenting with fever, weight loss and organomegaly. In Scandinavia disseminated histoplasmosis is rare...

  5. A directional data dissemination protocol for vehicular environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Ramon S.; Barbosa, Rafael R.R.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Heijenk, Geert; Scholten, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a simple and robust dissemination protocol that efficiently deals with data dissemination in both dense and sparse vehicular networks. Our goal is to address highway scenarios where vehicles equipped with sensors detect an event, e.g., a hazard and broadcast an event message to a

  6. Cultivating Change: Disseminating Innovation in Higher Education Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannaway, Deanne; Hinton, Tilly; Berry, Bianca; Moore, Kaitlin

    2013-01-01

    Effective dissemination is crucial if innovation and development in teaching and learning in higher education are to lead to sustainable changes in practice. In 2003, King used an agricultural metaphor to challenge innovators to understand the purposes behind their dissemination aims. Similar to the way that seed can be spread, one could choose to…

  7. Fair and adaptive data dissemination for traffic information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Ramon S.; Ohazulike, Anthony E.; Sommer, Christoph; Scholten, Hans; Dressler, Falko; Havinga, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) are expected to serve as support to the development of not only safety applications but also information-rich applications that disseminate relevant data to vehicles. Due to the continuous collection, processing, and dissemination of data, one crucial requirement i

  8. Host defence against disseminated and invasive Candida albicans infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Alouise Gabrielle

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent of disseminated and invasive candidiasis. The incidence of disseminated and invasive candidiasis has paralleled the use of modern medical procedures that adversely affect the immune system, and highlights the difficulty of treating disseminat

  9. Disseminated Fusariosis Occurring in Two Patients Despite Posaconazole Prophylaxis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Prithviraj; Parekh, Hiral D.; Holter, Jennifer L.; Greenfield, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    Posaconazole is widely used for prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections in patients undergoing myeloablative therapy. Disseminated fusariosis is a serious invasive mold infection in such patients. Preclinical and clinical studies indicate activity of posaconazole against Fusarium. We describe two cases of disseminated fusariosis that occurred despite posaconazole prophylaxis.

  10. DISSEMINATION OF AND USE OF HIV/AIDS INFORMATION BY STUDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauretta Wamunza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Presents part of the findings of a study that was carried out at the University of Botswana to determine in general how HIV/AIDS information is disseminated to and used by undergraduate students. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. A survey design was used to study a population of 9000 plus undergraduate students. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. SPSS was used to analyse quantitative data while qualitative data was analysed using thematic categorization.Key findings revealed that the HIV/AIDS information disseminated to students include information on behaviour change; information on HIV/AIDS prevention; transmission and treatment. The means of disseminating information to students include the use of multiple channels such as the university Health and Wellness Centre, Lectures, peer groups, seminars/workshops, students meetings, the University Clinic and the library. The study found that the most common media used to disseminate information to students include video, print, CDs and verbal means. Finally, factors that affect access to and use of HIV/AIDS information by students include: religious orientations, substance abuse, low income levels, multiple relationships, age and gender.There is need for the University of Botswana to review its overall approach of disseminating HIV/AIDS information to students in order to make it more effective. Moreover, strong liaison among agencies involved in the fight against the spread of HIV/AIDS at the University is needed. Furthermore, a more rigorous research into issues of students’ attitudes and values in relation to HIV/AIDS is needed. Similarly, more efforts are needed to create awareness and educate students on the dangers associated with substance abuse, multiple partners and practicing unprotected sex. The need to encourage testing for HIV/AIDS among students is needed so that appropriate interventions can be put in place.The world over, HIV/AIDS has

  11. DDDRC: decentralised data dissemination in VANET using raptor codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Dave, Mayank

    2015-06-01

    The design of data dissemination protocol has been a great challenge due to the highly dynamic and unreliable wireless channel in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET). In literature, several interesting solutions are proposed to perform data dissemination for this environment. But these solutions either use architectures requiring centralised coordination or global network knowledge or large intermediate buffers. In this paper, we propose a decentralised technique that overcomes above requirements and provides reliable and scalable communication in both dense and sparse traffic for VANET. Random walks are used in the proposed technique to disseminate data from one vehicle to other vehicles in the network. We use raptor codes to provide low decoding complexity and more scalability for data dissemination. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed technique has better fault tolerance with lower complexity than general random-walk-based dissemination process and more scalability as compared to the other protocols.

  12. [The physician, the drug abuser and drug abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størksen, P

    1990-09-20

    Drug abusers have a low tolerance for unpleasant and painful emotions and experience a need for chemical relief through use of narcotics, tranquilizers and analgesics. Physicians may show a tendency to comply with their request for such drugs, partly because they give way under pressure (threats, violence) and partly because of their own unconscious need for acceptance and appreciation from the patients. The use of prescribed drugs may inspire an illusion that drug therapy is a "solution" and withdraw attention from other therapies. The prescription of medicaments may represent an extension of already existing abuse. Physicians must be aware of these problems of prescription and of the problems connected to patients' use of threats and violence.

  13. DISSEMINATING MULTICULTURALISM THROUGH THE TEACHING OF TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arido Laksono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 ABSTRACT Students are expected to change the world. Their perspectives represent the way they view the world and its phenomena. The broader knowledge they possess, the more tolerance they have in interpreting life. In the global era, students should understand the importance of having good knowledge in multiculturalism. They will involve in an inter-cultural encounter since sources of information are widely offered. The willingness to have such an open mind is required in order to develop a better place to live and work. One way to disseminate multiculturalism values is using text containing information about culture and social values. The text written in English or Bahasa Indonesia for the class designed in disseminating multiculturalism is Translation. Here, students are taught to interpret the messages conveyed and translate the information from the source language to the target language correctly. Teacher must have good and creative technique in delivering the material so that students really enjoy the class and deeply understand the topic. The teaching and learning process in Translation class, therefore, is an effective medium to achieve the expected purpose as stated above. Theory of translation will not be the one and only theory to do the translation job, but it also needs comprehensive knowledge on other social sciences. Hence, translation class will not only discuss lines of words in a paragraph, but also reciprocal discussion among the members of the class. At the end, students will have the ability to translate such information in a text correctly and to establish civic society with more open comprehension over society and its culture. Keywords: theory of translation, multiculturalism, teaching-learning process, globalization. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0

  14. The importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegić, Merima; Numanović, Fatima; Delibegović, Zineta; Tihić, Nijaz; Nurkić, Mahmut; Hukić, Mirsada

    2013-03-01

    Candidiasis is defined as an infection or disease caused by a fungus of the genus Candida. Rate of disseminated candidiasis increases with the growth of the number of immunocompromised patients. In the the last few decades the incidence of disseminated candidiasis is in growth as well as the mortality rate. The aim of this survey is to show the importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose. This is a prospective study involving 60 patients with malign diseases with and without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis and 30 healthy people who represent the control group. Apart from hemoculture, detection of circulating mannan antigen and adequate antibodies of Candida species applying comercial ELISA test was determined in each patient. This survey deals with relevant factors causing disseminated candidiasis. This survey showed that the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis had more patients with positive hemoculture to Candida species, then the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis. The number of patients being examined and positive to antigens and antibodies was higher (p candidiasis (7/30; 23.3%), then in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis (0/30; 0%): Average value of titra antigen was statistically higher (p candidiasis 6/30 (20%) of patients had Candida spp.positive hemocultures while in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis 1/30 (3.3%) of patients had Candida spp. positive hemocultures, which was considerably higher (p candidiasis were statistically significant, while correlation of results of hemoculture and antibodies was insignificant. Because of low sensitivity of hemoculture and time needed for isolation of Candida spp., introducing serological tests in regular procedures would speed disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

  15. Hawaii Educational Dissemination Diffusion System: An Action Report. Hawaii State Dissemination Conference, Hawaii Department of Education (Honolulu, Hawaii, October 1979).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    The first intensive exposure to organized dissemination at the state, regional, and national level for many of the participants, this 2-day conference consisted of a series of sessions held in Honolulu and neighboring islands. Explanations of how these dissemination efforts are organized and operated were followed by detailed information on the…

  16. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zheng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is a disease that is characterized by an immune-mediated inflammatory reaction and demyelination in the central nervous system, including optic nerve, brain and spinal cord, which is common in children, but also appears in adults. ADEM happens probably with a causative relationship to viral diseases or prior vaccinations. It can also occur without any cause. The clinical symptoms of ADEM can begin with fever, headache and meningeal signs, followed by abnormal mental status, seizures and focal neurological signs, such as limb pareses, visual decline and speech disturbances. And their clinical courses may be monophasic, recurrent or multiphasic, mild but also very aggressive. Neuroimaging may be characterized by large demyelinating lesions in the brain involving both the white and the grey matter, and spinal cord. Lesions in ADEM are typically large globular lesions, multiple, and asymmetric, partially with diffuse or ring-like gadolinium enhancement. The diagnosis of ADEM requires both multifocal involvement and encephalopathy by consensus criteria. The differential diagnoses of ADEM include a variety of disorders, such as viral encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and primary central nervous system vasculitis, etc. Treatments of ADEM include corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis and other immunosuppressive agents.

  17. Laboratory testing in disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2010-06-01

    The diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) relies on clinical signs and symptoms, identification of the underlying disease, the results of laboratory testing, and differentiation from other pathologies. The clinical features mainly depend on the underlying cause of the DIC. The laboratory diagnosis of DIC uses a combination of tests because no single test result alone can firmly establish or rule out the diagnosis. Global tests of hemostasis may initially provide evidence of coagulation activation and later in the process provide evidence of consumption of coagulation factors, but their individual diagnostic efficiency is limited. Fibrinolytic markers, in particular D-dimer, are reflective of activation of both coagulation and fibrinolysis, so that a normal finding can be useful for ruling-out DIC. Decreased levels of the natural anticoagulants (in particular, antithrombin and protein C) are frequently observed in patients with DIC, but their measurement is not normally incorporated into standard diagnostic algorithms. New tests are being explored for utility in DIC, and some additional tests may be useful on a case-by-case basis, depending on the proposed cause of the DIC or their local availability. For example, clot waveform analysis is useful but currently limited to a single instrument. Also, procalcitonin is an inflammatory biomarker that may be useful within the context of septic DIC, and activated factor X clotting time is an emerging test of procoagulant phospholipids that also seems to hold promise in DIC.

  18. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; Akute disseminierte Enzephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Politi, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Roth, C.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acute widespread autoimmune demyelinating condition, which principally affects the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. It usually follows an infection or vaccination. The typical presentation is that of multifocal neurologic disturbances accompanied by change in mental status. CSF analysis reveals lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein content, but may also yield normal results. MRI is regarded as the diagnostic imaging modality of choice and typically demonstrates involvement of deep cerebral hemispheric and subcortical white matter as well as lesions in the basal ganglia, gray-white junction, diencephalon, brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. Unlike multiple sclerosis (MS), ADEM has a monophasic course and a favorable long-term prognosis. (orig.) [German] Die akute disseminierte Enzephalomyelitis (ADEM) ist eine akut auftretende autoimmune demylinisierende Erkrankung der weissen Substanz, die hauptsaechlich Gehirn und Rueckenmark befaellt. Ueblicherweise tritt sie nach einer Infektion oder Impfung auf. Die Entwicklung einer fokalen oder multifokalen neurologischen Funktionsstoerung ist das Kennzeichen der klinischen Praesentation der ADEM. Lymphozytaere Pleozytose und Eiweisserhoehung sind typische Befunde in der Liquoruntersuchung. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) ist die Untersuchungsmethode der Wahl. Die ADEM-Laesionen sind typischerweise gross, multipel und asymmetrisch. Sie koennen in den Gross- und Kleinhirnhemisphaeren, im Hirnstamm und im Rueckenmark lokalisiert sein. Die subkortikale und die zentrale weisse Substanz sind am haeufigsten befallen. Weniger haeufig ist die graue Substanz der Thalami und der Basalganglien betroffen. Im Gegensatz zur Multiplen Sklerose (MS) ist die Prognose der ADEM im Allgemeinen guenstig. (orig.)

  19. Modeling news dissemination on nuclear issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis Junior, Jose S.B.; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Menezes, Mario O., E-mail: jsbrj@ime.usp.b, E-mail: barroso@ipen.b, E-mail: mario@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Using a modified epidemiological model, the dissemination of news by media agents after the occurrence of large scale disasters was studied. A modified compartmented model was developed in a previous paper presented at INAC 2007. There it used to study to the Chernobyl's nuclear accident (1986) and the Concorde airplane crash (2000). Now the model has been applied to a larger and more diverse group of events - nuclear, non-nuclear and naturally caused disasters. To be comprehensive, old and recent events from various regions of the world were selected. A more robust news repository was used, and improved search techniques were developed to ensure that the scripts would not count false positive news. The same model was used but with improved non-linear embedded simulation optimization algorithms to generate the parameters of interest for our model. Individual parameters and some specific combination of them allow some interesting perceptions on how the nature of the accident / disaster gives rise to different profiles of growth and decay of the news. In our studies events involving nuclear causes generate news repercussion with more explosive / robust surge profiles and longer decaying tails than those of other natures. As a consequence of these differences, public opinion and policy makers are also much more sensitive to some issues than to others. The model, through its epidemiological parameters, shows in quantitative manner how 'nervous' the media content generators are with respect to nuclear installations and how resilient this negative feelings about nuclear is. (author)

  20. Dissemination and experience with cognitive processing therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M. Chard, PhD

    Full Text Available Clinical practice guidelines suggest that cognitive behavioral therapies are recommended for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. One of these treatments, cognitive processing therapy (CPT, is an evidence-based treatment that has been shown to be effective at treating combat, assault, and interpersonal violence trauma in randomized controlled trials. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Office of Mental Health Services has implemented an initiative to disseminate CPT as part of a broad effort to make evidence-based psychotherapies widely available throughout the VA healthcare system. This article provides an overview of CPT and reviews the efficacy and program evaluation data supporting its use in a variety of settings. In addition, we report on survey data from individuals who have participated in the VA initiative and on outcome data from patients treated by rollout-trained therapists. Our data suggest that many clinicians trained in the rollout show good adoption of the CPT model and demonstrate solid improvements in their patients’ PTSD and depressive symptomotology. Finally, we offer recommendations for using CPT in clinical settings.

  1. Vasogenic edema characterizes pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Sreedher, Gayathri; Bailey, Ariel [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Laney, Ernest John [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rush University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); La Colla, Luca [University of Parma, Department of Anesthesiology, Parma (Italy); UPMC Shadyside Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Alper, Gulay [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Neuroimmunology Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-08-15

    MR imaging criteria for diagnosing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have not been clearly established. Due to the wide spectrum of differential considerations, new imaging features allowing early and accurate diagnosis for ADEM are needed. We hypothesized that ADEM lesions would be characterized by vasogenic edema due to the potential reversibility of the disease. Sixteen patients who met the diagnostic criteria for ADEM proposed by the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG) and had complete MR imaging studies performed at our institution during the acute phase of the disease were identified retrospectively and evaluated by experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. Vasogenic edema was demonstrated on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in 12 out of 16 patients; cytotoxic edema was identified in two patients while the other two patients displayed no changes on DWI/ADC. ADC values for lesions and normal-appearing brain tissue were 1.39 ± 0.45 x 10{sup -3} and 0.81 ± 0.09 x 10{sup -3} mm/s{sup 2}, respectively (p = 0.002). When considering a cutoff of 5 days between acute and subacute disease, no difference between ADC values in acute vs. subacute phase was depicted. However, we found a significant correlation and an inverse and significant relationship between time and ADC value. We propose that vasogenic edema is a reliable diagnostic sign of acute neuroinflammation in ADEM. (orig.)

  2. Methylphenidate abuse in Texas, 1998-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2006-06-01

    Methylphenidate is a stimulant used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and is subject to abuse. This study describes the patterns of methylphenidate abuse and drug identification (ID) calls received by several poison control centers in Texas. Cases were calls involving methylphenidate received by Texas poison control centers during 1998-2004. Drug ID and drug abuse calls were assessed by call year and geographic location. Drug abuse calls were then compared to all other human exposure (nonabuse) calls with respect to various factors. Of 6798 calls received involving methylphenidate, 35% were drug IDs and 56% human exposures. Of the human exposures, 9% involved abuse. The number of drug ID calls and drug abuse calls received per year both declined during the first part of 7-yr period but then increased. Male patients accounted for approximately 60% of both drug abuse and nonabuse calls. Adolescent patients comprised 55% of drug abuse calls and children less than 13 yr old comprised 62% of nonabuse calls. Although the majority of both types of human exposures occurred at the patient's own residence, drug abuse calls were more likely than non-abuse calls to involve exposures at school (15% vs. 6%) and public areas (3% vs. 0.4%). While drug abuse calls were less likely than nonabuse calls to present with no clinical effects (29% vs. 52%), they were more likely to show more serious medical outcomes. Methylphenidate abusers are more likely to be adolescents. Methylphenidate abuse as compared to other exposures is more likely to occur outside of the person's home and to involve more serious medical outcomes.

  3. Early Prevention Toward Sexual Abuse on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Paramastri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a worldwide problem. Although most studies on the longterm consequences of child sexual abuse have focused on women, sexual abuse of both boys and girls is common. Peer sexual abuse in schools was an often overlooked problem that contributes to a hostile school environment: one major study found that 85% of girls and 76% of boys reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse in school. 85% of child sexual abuse is committed by relatives, close family friend or an adult that the child knows and trusts. The childhood sexual abuse variables taken into account are commonly age of onset, duration, abuse forms and relationship between the child and the perpetrator. The objective of this study was to gather information or opinion about sexual abuse concept, methods and media of the elementary students, parents, teachers and experts. A qualitative study, involving one to one interviews, was conducted with 7 experts, focus group discussion with 40 elementary students, and with 40 parents in Yogyakarta district about child sexual abuse issues. Data were analysed according to Miles and Huberman’s data reduction, data display and conclusion verification process. These findings strongly indicate that boys and girls are vulnerable to this form of childhood sexual abuse ; the similarity in the likelihood for multiple behavioral, mental and social outcomes among men and women suggest the need to identify and treat all adults affected by child sexual abuse. Themes related to the child sexual abuse were: paperwork design, good facilitator, guidelines for students, parents and teachers. Students prefer media that can help them understand concept with komik paperwork as media for early prevention. Parents, teachers and experts prefer that this prevention program can run as soon. With careful paperwork design and evaluation of prevention program, the success of program implementation can be enhanced.

  4. Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Kirk J

    2002-10-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are mainly used to treat androgen deficiency syndromes and, more recently, catabolic states such as AIDS-associated wasting. There is no evidence in the reviewed literature that AAS abuse or dependence develops from the therapeutic use of AAS. Conversely, 165 instances of AAS dependence have been reported among weightlifters and bodybuilders who, as part of their weight training regimens, chronically administered supraphysiologic doses, often including combinations of injected and oral AAS as well as other drugs of abuse. A new model is proposed in which both the "myoactive" and psychoactive effects of AAS contribute to the development of AAS dependence. The adverse consequences of AAS are reviewed, as well as their assessment by means of a history and physical, mental status examination, and laboratory testing. When patients with AAS use disorders are compared with patients with other substance use disorders, both similarities and differences become apparent and have implications for treatment.

  5. [Neurologic complications of cocaine abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Viet, H; Chevalier, P; Sereni, C; Bornet, P; Bautier, P; Degos, C F; Rullière, R

    1990-06-02

    Cocaine is increasingly used by drug addicts. It is considered harmless, but numerous, varied and often serious complications due to its abuse have been published. Among these, neurological complications are in the forefront. They include generalized or partial epileptic seizures, ischaemic or haemorrhagic cerebral vascular accidents, visual loss caused by optic neuropathy or by retinal artery occlusion, headaches and exacerbation of tics. Infections of the central nervous system are possible via endocarditis or septicaemia of venous or nasal origin. Neurological disorders may also occur as a consequence of a major cardiovascular complication induced by cocaine (myocardial infarction and/or dysrhythmia, aortic dissection). These neurological complications are unpredictable, and they weigh heavily on the functional and sometimes vital prognosis in habitual or occasional cocaine abusers.

  6. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to examine preschool teachers’ knowledge of, attitudes about, and training related to child sexual abuse (CSA prevention in Beijing, China. Two hundred and forty-five preschool teachers were administered the 16-item questionnaire that contained questions on CSA prevention knowledge, attitudes, and teacher training. Results showed that Chinese preschool teachers had limited knowledge on CSA prevention (M = 4.86, SD = 2.12. Less than 5% of the teachers ever attended CSA prevention training programs. Preschool teachers’ training on CSA prevention was the significant factor for their knowledge and attitudes. To help protect children against sexual abuse, there is an urgent need to develop appropriate prevention training programs for preschool teachers in China.

  7. Family conditions and children abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Platone, Maria Luisa

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with family conditions (structure and family system interactive patterns) which are considered as risk factors for children abuse. Method. Descriptive research multimethod (cuantitative and cualitative), data were obtained from a retrospective study (1970-2000) of public and private elementary schools, from pre-school to sixth grade. The instruments used were: 1) the family test drawing, 2) a questionnaire to the child. 3) a questionnaire to the teachers about family condit...

  8. [Substance abuse in older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen

    2014-09-03

    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.

  9. Strategies for Disseminating Qualitative Research Findings: Three Exemplars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Keen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Assuming there are those who do pay attention to the dissemination of qualitative research findings, what can we learn from them? For this article, we searched for examples of qualitative research where findings have been disseminated beyond the journal article and/or conference presentation. The rationale for pursuing examples of how good qualitative research has been disseminated is that we pay attention to both scientific and communicative concerns. All three exemplars in this article go beyond the forms of dissemination that traditionally serve academic communities and attempt to address the communicative concern of qualitative research findings. This is not to say that these modes of dissemination replace the scholarship of qualitative research and/or the peer-reviewed journal manuscript—far from it. In disseminating qualitative data, researchers have an array of presentational styles and formats to choose from that best fit their research purposes, such as drama, dance, poetry, websites, video and evocative forms of writing. We conclude by considering the ethical issues that may be involved in these forms of disseminating qualitative research, as well as the challenges for evaluating the impact of such strategies. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703174

  10. A Spread Willingness Computing-Based Information Dissemination Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haojing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs a kind of spread willingness computing based on information dissemination model for social network. The model takes into account the impact of node degree and dissemination mechanism, combined with the complex network theory and dynamics of infectious diseases, and further establishes the dynamical evolution equations. Equations characterize the evolutionary relationship between different types of nodes with time. The spread willingness computing contains three factors which have impact on user’s spread behavior: strength of the relationship between the nodes, views identity, and frequency of contact. Simulation results show that different degrees of nodes show the same trend in the network, and even if the degree of node is very small, there is likelihood of a large area of information dissemination. The weaker the relationship between nodes, the higher probability of views selection and the higher the frequency of contact with information so that information spreads rapidly and leads to a wide range of dissemination. As the dissemination probability and immune probability change, the speed of information dissemination is also changing accordingly. The studies meet social networking features and can help to master the behavior of users and understand and analyze characteristics of information dissemination in social network.

  11. Cacades: A reliable dissemination protocol for data collection sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Song, W.; Huang, R.; Xu, M.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.; Pei, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast and reliable data dissemination protocol Cascades to disseminate data from the sink(base station) to all or a subset of nodes in a data collection sensor network. Cascades makes use of the parentmonitor-children analogy to ensure reliable dissemination. Each node monitors whether or not its children have received the broadcast messages through snooping children's rebroadcasts or waiting for explicit ACKs. If a node detects a gap in its message sequences, it can fetch the missing messages from its neighbours reactively. Cascades also considers many practical issues for field deployment, such as dynamic topology, link/node failure, etc.. It therefore guarantees that a disseminated message from the sink will reach all intended receivers and the dissemination is terminated in a short time period. Notice that, all existing dissemination protocols either do not guarantee reliability or do not terminate [1, 2], which does not meet the requirement of real-time command control. We conducted experiment evaluations in both TOSSIM simulator and a sensor network testbed to compare Cascades with those existing dissemination protocols in TinyOS sensor networks, which show that Cascades achieves a higher degree of reliability, lower communication cost, and less delivery delay. ??2009 IEEE.

  12. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the... inmates of the consequences of drug/alcohol abuse and addiction; and (2) Motivate inmates needing drug abuse treatment to apply for further drug abuse treatment, both while incarcerated and after release....

  13. Familial Correlates of Selected Types of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Walters, James

    1982-01-01

    Studied 489 cases of child abuse and neglect to determine specific patterns of family circumstance which tended to be present in families in which abandonment, physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, or sexual abuse had been substantiated. Findings indicated that different kinds of abuse are related to different antecedent variables. (Author)

  14. A CASE OF DISSEMINATED HISTOPLASMOSIS IN AN IMMUNOCOMPETENT PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debkumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. Most infections are asymptomatic or self-limiting but some may develop acute pulmonary infections or severe and progressive disseminated infection. Disseminated histoplasmosis frequently affects the adrenal gland; however, unilateral involvement in immunosuppressed patients is the usual presentation. We report a case of a middle aged immunocompetent male with history of weight loss, fever, hepatomegaly and bilateral adrenal mass who was diagnosed to be suffering from disseminated histoplasmosis and successfully treated with Itraconazole

  15. Coexistence of disseminated granuloma annulare and asymptomatic multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şebnem Aktan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma annulare (GA is a benign inflammatory dermatosis of unknown cause, characterized by necrobiotic dermal papules. Several morphologic forms of GA including localized, disseminated, linear, nodular, perforating, subcutaneous, pustular and arcuate dermal erythema have been reported in the literature. Disseminated GA, a rarely seen form, has been reported in association with some hematopoietic and solid malignancies; however, it has been suggested that the exact causative relationship between malignancy and GA is unclear. We present here a 66-year-old female patient with disseminated GA associated with asymptomatic multipl myeloma.

  16. Disseminated encephalomyelitis-like central nervous system neoplasm in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhui; Bao, Xinhua; Fu, Na; Ye, Jintang; Li, Ting; Yuan, Yun; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yuehua; Qin, Jiong; Wu, Xiru

    2014-08-01

    A malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system with diffuse white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rare in children. It could be misdiagnosed as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. This report presents our experience based on 4 patients (3 male, 1 female; aged 7-13 years) whose MRI showed diffuse lesions in white matter and who were initially diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. All of the patients received corticosteroid therapy. After brain biopsy, the patients were diagnosed with gliomatosis cerebri, primitive neuroectodermal tumor and central nervous system lymphoma. We also provide literature reviews and discuss the differentiation of central nervous system neoplasm from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  17. Multi-Scale Dissemination of Time Series Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qingsong; Zhou, Yongluan; Su, Li

    2013-01-01

    , which is an abstract indicator for both the physical limits and the amount of data that the subscriber would like to handle. To handle this problem, we propose a system framework for multi-scale time series data dissemination that employs a typical tree-based dissemination network and existing time......-series compression models. Due to the bandwidth limits regarding to potentially sheer speed of data, it is inevitable to compress and re-compress data along the dissemination paths according to the subscription level of each node. Compression would caused the accuracy loss of data, thus we devise several algorithms...

  18. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Ippolito, Luigi; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2010-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex and multifaceted disorder characterized by the activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways, consumption of coagulation factors, and depletion of coagulation regulatory proteins. The introduction into the circulation of cellular debris characterized by strong thromboplastic activity due to tissue factor exposition or release (in or from burned tissues), which can thereby activate extrinsic pathway of coagulation system and trigger massive thrombin generation when present in sufficient concentration, represents the most plausible biological explanation to support the development of intravascular coagulation in patients with burn injury. Severe burns left untreated might also lead to an immunological and inflammatory response (activation of the complement cascade), which can amplify fibrinolysis and blood clotting. Overall, the real prevalence of DIC in patients with burns is as yet unclear. Postmortem, retrospective, and even longitudinal investigations are in fact biased by several factors, such as the objective difficulty to establish whether DIC might have occurred as a primary complication of burns or rather as a consequence of other superimposed pathologies (e.g., sepsis, multiple organ failure), the different diagnostic criteria for assessing DIC, and the heterogeneity of the patient samples studied. Nevertheless, the current scientific evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that biochemical changes suggestive for DIC (hypercoagulability, hypo- and hyperfibrinolysis) are commonplace in patients with burn trauma, and their severity increases exponentially with the severity of injury. Overt DIC seems to occur especially in critically ill burn patients or in those with severe burns (up to third degree) and large involvement of body surface area, in whom an appropriate therapy might be effective to prevent the otherwise fulminant course. Although early prophylaxis with antithrombin concentrates

  19. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna S. Nagel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C, had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  20. Methylphenidate Abuse and Psychiatric Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, W. Alexander; Stockton, Gwendolyn G.

    2000-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant drug that has become the primary drug of choice in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Side effects are usually mild and are generally well tolerated by patients. Along with increases in prescribing frequency, the potential for abuse has increased. Intranasal abuse produces effects rapidly that are similar to the effects of cocaine in both onset and type. The clinical picture of stimulant abuse produces a wide ar...

  1. National profiling of elder abuse referrals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clancy, Marguerite

    2011-05-01

    there is little consistent data on patterns of reporting of elder abuse in Europe. Between 2002 and 2007, the Irish Health Service Executive developed dedicated structures and staff to support the prevention, detection and management of elder abuse without mandatory reporting. Public awareness campaigns, staff training and management briefings heightened awareness regarding this new service. Central to this process is the development of a national database which could provide useful insights for developing coordinated responses to elder abuse in Europe.

  2. Domestic and institutional elder abuse legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Jeanette M

    2011-12-01

    Statutes pertinent to elder abuse vary widely. This article provides examples of organizational structure, dependency and age of the victim, definitions of abuse, classification of penalties, and investigation processes. Health care providers must learn their state's elder abuse laws and review any operating manuals produced from the statutes or regulations. All health care workers must know and implement the law to protect the welfare of older persons.

  3. CHILD ABUSE, FENOMENA DAN KEBIJAKAN DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Suci Wulansari

    2012-01-01

    Research about child abuse in Indonesia done by United Nations Children's Funds (UNICEF) results a concerned condition. The same opinion is also declared by Indonesian Commission on Children Protection. The increasing number of child abuse in Indonesia is highlighted in international society. Child abuse causes many negative effects for physical, mental, and or sexual of children, that effect for the growth and development of child thus leads to rise the lost generation. Medical officers hope...

  4. Hair Testing for Drugs of Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Karačić, Višnja; Skender, Ljiljana

    2003-01-01

    Hair testing for drugs of abuse is a developing technology, which offers the possibility of longer detection times than is commonly obtained with urine analysis. It is the main method for evaluation of an individual’s drugs of abuse history. In many countries hair analysis is routinely used to detect drug abuse in forensic cases, occupational and traffic medicine and clinical toxicology. Hair analysis in pregnant women, neonates and infants is a useful tool for the detection of...

  5. 76 FR 14980 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will...: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse....

  6. Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Acehan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that can cause serious injury, disability and even death, and have medical, legal, and social aspects. Prevention of repeated abuse at an early stage is necessary to limit long-term effects of abuse. Unfortunately, these children often do not receive the diagnosis in the emergency department, despite using emergency service. We aimed at the evaluation and management of child abuse and neglect which has a very important social dimension, in the light of the latest information. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 591-614

  7. The evaluation of sexual abuse in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Nancy

    2005-08-01

    This clinical report serves to update the statement titled "Guidelines for the Evaluation of Sexual Abuse of Children," which was first published in 1991 and revised in 1999. The medical assessment of suspected sexual abuse is outlined with respect to obtaining a history, physical examination, and appropriate laboratory data. The role of the physician may include determining the need to report sexual abuse; assessment of the physical, emotional, and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse; and coordination with other professionals to provide comprehensive treatment and follow-up of victims.

  8. Oral and dental aspects of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Suzy Puspa Pertiwi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is defined as those acts or omissions of care that deprive a child from the opportunity to fully develop his or her unique potentials as a person either physically, socially or emotionally. The overall incidence of child abuse is not really clear. Statistical data do not show the actual rate because of the unreported cases. Dentists are in a strategic position to recognize and report the children being abused because they often see the child and parents interacting during multiple visits and over a long period of time. The orofacial region is commonly traumatized during episodes of child abuse. The characteristics and diagnostic finding of child abuse, and the protocol of reporting such cases, should be familiar to the dentist so that appropriate notification, treatment and prevention of further injury can be instituted. Dentists with experience or expertise in child abuse and neglect will strengthen their ability to prevent and detect child abuse and neglect and enhance the ability to care for and protect children. This paper discusses the oral and dental aspects of child abuse and the dentist role in evaluating this situation including prevention of child abuse.

  9. Emotional Abuse dalam Hubungan Suami-Istri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Vidya Paramita

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In a marriage relationship, generally husband and wife has the commitment to live together and make each other happy. A spouse is expected to be a sparring partner, one who will always be there to share the good and bad times. Unfortunately, this situation doesn't always happen. One of the factors leading to this unhappiness is the presence of emotional abuse. Emotional abuse is a psychological violence which has the contribution in decreasing the victims self-confidence. Article describes various patterns of emotional abuse, characteristic of the abuser, consequences of the abuse, and how to respond to the abuse. There are also some suggestions to prevent or either cope the emotional abuse. The method used in this research is literature study. As a conclusion, emotional abuse in marriage relationship can be prevented by getting to know the partner personalities before the marriage. If emotional abuse occurs in a husband and wife relationship, the victim alone or together with the partner should seek professional help.

  10. Postmarketing surveillance of abuse liability of sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Schuster, Charles R; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn

    2003-03-01

    The abuse liability of medications is a growing concern as the number of newly approved psychoactive medications increases. Postmarketing surveillance can assist in determining abuse liability, but strategies are not well-defined for medications believed to be at low abuse risk. Using a newly approved medication (sibutramine--an anorectic drug), a novel approach to postmarketing abuse surveillance was introduced. A one-page anonymous questionnaire covering sibutramine, a scheduled anorectic drug (phentermine), and a fabricated name was added to the intake process of 58 treatment programs. From the 8780 completed questionnaires, 8.8% had heard of sibutramine and phentermine. For continued use to get high (a proxy for abuse), the rate for sibutramine was lower than for phentermine (0.6 vs. 2.2%, McNemar's chi(2) = 110.45, P < 0.001) but was higher than for the fabricated name (0.6 vs. 0.3%, McNemar's chi(2) = 11.86, P < 0.001). These results suggest the risk of abuse associated with sibutramine was lower than that associated with a known abused drug, one that itself is considered low risk despite decades of population exposure. The relatively high rate of hearing of sibutramine may be due to the direct-to-consumer advertisement. This approach is only one indicator in a surveillance framework but appears promising and validates findings from laboratory-based abuse liability studies that also indicate low abuse liability for sibutramine.

  11. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on... visit. Name of Committees: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National...

  12. Holding Abusers Accountable: An Elder Abuse Forensic Center Increases Criminal Prosecution of Financial Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Adria E.; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing awareness of elder abuse, cases are rarely prosecuted. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an elder abuse forensic center compared with usual care to increase prosecution of elder financial abuse. Design and Methods: Using one-to-one propensity score matching, cases referred to the Los Angeles County…

  13. Non-Abusive Mothers of Sexually Abused Children: The Role of Rumination in Maternal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    This study of 125 mothers examined the role of rumination in maternal emotional and behavioral outcomes subsequent to discovery of the sexual abuse of their children. Abuse severity, a maternal history of child abuse experiences, and life hassles were examined as predictors of negative outcomes. The central finding was that these factors, many of…

  14. The Relationship between Bullying and Animal Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents: The Importance of Witnessing Animal Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida

    2008-01-01

    Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…

  15. Relationships among Abuse Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Abused Women's Psychological Health: A Path Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Glennys; Lee, Christina

    2007-01-01

    We examined relationships between abuse, coping, and psychological health among 143 women who had experienced abuse in adult relationships. Measures included characteristics of the abuse, problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, Sense of Coherence, and four measures of psychological wellbeing--the SF-36 Mental Component Scale, the General…

  16. Data Dissemination in Wireless Networks with Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Firooz, Mohammad H

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the use of network coding for information dissemination over a wireless network. Using network coding allows for a simple, distributed and robust algorithm where nodes do not need any information from their neighbors. In this paper, we analyze the time needed to diffuse information throughout a network when network coding is implemented at all nodes. We then provide an upper bound for the dissemination time for ad-hoc networks with general topology. Moreover, we derive a relation between dissemination time and the size of the wireless network. It is shown that for a wireless network with N nodes, the dissemination latency is between O(N) and O(N^2), depending on the reception probabilities of the nodes. These observations are validated by the simulation results.

  17. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar;

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to the evolution of bacterial genomes and can facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental reservoirs and potential pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are believed to play a central role...

  18. Activity of posaconazole in treatment of experimental disseminated zygomycosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannaoui, E; Meis, JFGM; Loebenberg, D; Verweij, PE

    2003-01-01

    Three isolates of zygomycetes were used to produce a disseminated infection in nonimmunocompromised mice. Against all zygomycete strains, amphotericin B significantly prolonged survival. Itraconazole was inactive against Rhizopus microsporus and Rhizopus oryzae but was partially active against Absid

  19. Activity of posaconazole in treatment of experimental disseminated zygomycosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaoui, E.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Loebenberg, D.; Verweij, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    Three isolates of zygomycetes were used to produce a disseminated infection in nonimmunocompromised mice. Against all zygomycete strains, amphotericin B significantly prolonged survival. Itraconazole was inactive against Rhizopus microsporus and Rhizopus oryzae but was partially active against Absid

  20. Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Christopher; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2007-09-01

    A juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) died with rapidly progressive pyrexia, tachypnea, abdominal effusion, and hepatomegaly. Postmortem examination revealed lesions consistent with acute disseminated infection with Toxoplasma gondii. The presence of this organism was confirmed in multiple organs by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. To the best of our knowledge, we propose this to be the first reported case of primary acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a cheetah.

  1. A Powerful Optimization Approach for the Multi Channel Dissemination Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Mogren, Ahmad Saad

    2010-01-01

    In the wireless environment, dissemination techniques may improve data access for the users. In this paper, we show a description of dissemination architecture that fits the overall telecommunication network. This architecture is designed to provide efficient data access and power saving for the mobile units. A concurrency control approach, MCD, is suggested for data consistency and conflict checking. A performance study shows that the power consumption, space overhead, and response time associated with MCD is far less than other previous techniques.

  2. Disseminated BCG infection in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Tae Il [Eulji University School of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    Disseminated mycobacterial infection after bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) accination is a very rare disorder, occurring mostly in patients with immunologic eficiency. We report a case of disseminated BCG infection in a 16-month-old girl with severe combined immunodeficiency. Plain radiographs showed multiple osteolytic lesions in the femora, tibiae, humerus, and phalanges. Abdominal sonography and CT scanning revealed multiple nodules in the spleen, and portocaval lymphadenopathy.

  3. Disseminated BCG Infection in a patient with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Tae Il; Kim, In-One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    2000-01-01

    Disseminated mycobacterial infection after bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination is a very rare disorder, occurring mostly in patients with immunologic deficiency. We report a case of disseminated BCG infection in a 16-month-old girl with severe combined immunodeficiency. Plain radiographs showed multiple osteolytic lesions in the femora, tibiae, humerus, and phalanges. Abdominal sonography and CT scanning revealed multiple nodules in the spleen, and portocaval lymphadenopathy.

  4. A Survey on Data Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑霄龙; 万猛

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been applied in a variety of application areas. Most WSN systems, once deployed, are intended to operate unattended for a long period. During the lifetime, it is necessary to fix bugs, reconfigure system parameters, and upgrade the software in order to achieve reliable system performance. However, manually collecting all nodes back and reconfiguring through serial connections with computer is infeasible since it is labor-intensive and inconvenient due to the harsh deploying environments. Hence, data dissemination over multi-hop is desired to facilitate such tasks. This survey discusses the requirements and challenges of data dissemination in WSNs, reviews existing work, introduces some relevant techniques, presents the metrics of the performance and comparisons of the state-of-the-art work, and finally suggests the possible future directions in data dissemination studies. This survey elaborates and compares existing approaches of two categories: structure-less schemes and structure-based schemes, classified by whether or not the network structure information is used during the disseminating process. In existing literatures, different categories have definite boundary and limited analysis on the trade-off between different categories. Besides, there is no survey that discusses the emerging techniques such as Constructive Interference (CI) while these techniques have the chance to change the framework of data dissemination. In a word, even though many efforts have been made, data dissemination in WSNs still needs some more work to embrace the new techniques and improve the efficiency and practicability further.

  5. Abused Sexuality- Experience of Sexuality Post Experiences of Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda Jalote

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse has been happening from times immemorial and is that brutal aspect of society which also talk about spirituality, peace and harmony in the same breath. Youth gets irrevocably scarred by such childhood traumas which linger on in their adult life too. In the present study, an effort was made to study and understand how heterosexual and queer youth in contemporary middle class in Delhi explore the relationship sexual abuse survivors have with their own sexuality and how their negotiate their sexual selves. The secondary aim of the study was to investigate the function and effects of guilt, shame, desire, fantasies and gender roles in their lives and how, if at all, they connect to the experiences of sexual assault suffered by individuals within this socio-cultural group. The approach that frames this study is a discourse analytic approach and this is seen as central to the methodology of this study and the language used to talk about the findings and implications of this research.

  6. Children intoxications: what is abuse and what is not abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    The curiosity and the natural tendency to explore the environment put young children at an increased risk of poisoning over older children and adults. Poisonings are a significant area of concern from 1 year of age and progressively contribute more to overall rates of morbidity and mortality until children reach adulthood. Particularly, the abuse of children by poisoning is also highly common with thousands of fatalities. A practical strategy is presented that aims to alert health, forensic, and law enforcement professionals to this problem and to demystify the preconception that it is a rare form of abuse or neglect. Compounds that are foreign to a living organism (xenobiotics) and those present within body (endobiotics), mainly involved in children intoxications and contextual examples related to exposure are also reviewed. Particular concern is given to concepts in the field of children poisoning. The described history and the clinical and toxicological evaluation are discussed, and harmonized protocols regarding correct procedures for sample collection to forensic toxicological analysis are proposed. Since children are particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of high doses of xenobiotics and endobiotics, special consideration on the preparation of the environment that surrounds children in order minimize all possible risks will be also considered.

  7. 'Racist abuse ruined my life'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Rosie

    Rosie Purves, a black nurse who was prevented from looking after a white baby, won a racial discrimination claim against her employer in May this year. Ms Purves was awarded pounds sterling 20,000--the highest payout possible for her type of claim--after an employment tribunal ruled that Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust was 'effectively silent and complicit' in the racist demands made by a woman who did not want her baby treated by black staff. Here Ms Purves tells Nursing Times her harrowing story of how for seven years she suffered this abuse in silence.

  8. Moving beyond disrespect and abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadler, Michelle; Mario, Santos; Ruiz Buron, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    research and policy-making to address these problems, changing childbirth practices has proved to be difficult. We argue that the excessive rates of medical interventions and disrespect towards women during childbirth should be analysed as a consequence of structural violence, and that the concept...... of obstetric violence, as it is being used in Latin American childbirth activism and legal documents, might prove to be a useful tool for addressing structural violence in maternity care such as high intervention rates, non-consented care, disrespect and other abusive practices...

  9. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-05

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  10. [Domestic accident or child abuse?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Wolf-Rüdiger; Faller-Marquardt, Maria; Henke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    While playing, a 33/4-year-old girl was hiding in a tumble dryer, which had been running before and started the drying process with rotation of the drum again after the girl had climbed into the machine and shut the door. The child suffered multiple haematomas, especially on the back and the lower arms, as well as second-degree burns on body regions not covered by the clothing. The injury pattern was consistent with the properties of the appliance, and the initial suspicion that the child had been physically abused could not be maintained.

  11. Body image among victims of sexual and physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Inbar; Orbach, Israel; Rosenbloom, Tova

    2013-01-01

    This study tries to understand the differences in body experience between victims of sexual abuse and physical abuse. Ninety-eight women completed questionnaires that measured personal information, body-image aberration, body sensitivity and control, and body investment. Findings indicated that victims of sexual abuse demonstrate less body maintenance and protection in addition to greater injury to body sensitivity and control than victims of physical abuse. Moreover, comparing victims of sexual abuse to physical abuse, findings revealed that only victims of sexual abuse report body-image aberrations. Thus, sexual and physical abuse should be addressed discretely because each has differential effects on bodily attitudes of victims.

  12. Tipping Points and the Accommodation of the Abuser: Ongoing Incestuous Abuse during Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick Middleton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the widespread reality of ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood had attracted no systematic research. The scientific literature was limited to the occasional case study and brief anecdotal references. This minimal literature was supplemented by biographical works written by or about victims of this form of abuse, and by press reports. With the advent of the Josef Fritzl case there was a very marked increase in the press reporting of such abuse, which in turn provided a reference point for more fine-grained data collection and scientific reporting. This paper introduces the subject of prolonged incest via the lens of organised abuse, summarises research on incestuous abuse and draws on multiple clinical examples to elucidate the mechanisms by which such abuse merges with, or develops into, variations of organised abuse, including that centred on the family, on prostitution, or on that involving abuse networks. The abuse practices, the net-working, and the ploys used to avoid prosecution practiced by the father perpetrating ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood have much in common with other variants of organised sexual abuse.

  13. 76 FR 50236 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Drug... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance......

  14. 76 FR 20994 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug Testing... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse... meeting of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for...

  15. Adolescent Drug Abuse: Etiological and Treatment Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Fariboz; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Issues involved in treating adolescent drug abusers and literature describing abuser personality traits are examined. The Youth Service at Langley Porter Institute and the problems encountered and solutions attempted there are discussed. The importance of residential as opposed to outpatient treatment and honesty in staff-patient relationships is…

  16. Preventing Drug Abuse: Where Are We Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Richard W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Through a review of the research literature, this article provides information about the characteristics of drug abusers and drug abuse programs that promise to be effective. Common themes which would have meaning for counselors involved in the development and implementation of drug prevention programs are presented. (Author)

  17. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  18. New Directions for Substance-Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation and for a very long time, campuses and students have been plagued by drug and alcohol abuse. And it seems that many of our efforts to address that abuse, while necessary, have been woefully insufficient to the task. This article describes the nature and significance of the problem, examines current strategies for addressing it,…

  19. Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

  20. Allegations of Sexual Abuse in Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; DeVoe, Ellen

    1995-01-01

    Examines a clinical sample of 215 cases of allegations of sexual abuse in families involved in divorce. Cases are categorized according to the circumstances surrounding abuse allegations, clinical substantiation, and legal outcomes. Court substantiation rate is about half the clinic substantiation rate. Nearly one-fifth of parents raising concerns…

  1. Correlates of cyber dating abuse among teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Janine M; Lachman, Pamela; Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith

    2014-08-01

    Recent advancements in technology (e.g., social networking, texting) have created new ways for dating youth to relate to one another, including in abusive ways via "cyber dating abuse." Cyber dating abuse is a form of teen dating violence that overlaps with other types of abuse (e.g., psychological) but also has several unique characteristics. Given the phenomenon's limited presence in dating violence literature, we focus on identifying how experiencing cyber dating abuse relates to youths' individual behaviors and experiences (e.g., substance use, sexual activity), psychosocial adjustment, school connection, family relationships, and partner relationships. A total of 3,745 youth (52% female, 74% White) in three northeastern states participated in the survey and reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. We found that experiences of cyber dating abuse were most significantly correlated with being female, committing a greater variety of delinquent behaviors, having had sexual activity in one's lifetime, having higher levels of depressive symptoms, and having higher levels of anger/hostility. Further, cyber dating abuse appeared somewhat more strongly related to depressive symptoms and delinquency than did other forms of teen dating violence and abuse.

  2. Bruising and Hemophilia: Accident or Child Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles F.; Coury, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Two case histories illustrate the difficulty in evaluating abuse/neglect in children with bleeding problems such as hemophilia. Discussed are guidelines for diagnosis and prevention of abuse, including: screening techniques, the need for protection from environmental trauma, parental stress, evaluation of parents' disciplinary methods, and the…

  3. Active Surveillance of Child Abuse Fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Patricia; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Birth and death certificates were correlated with information in the state Child Abuse and Neglect Registry on 104 abuse-related fatalities. Significant findings included young age of parents at first pregnancy; high rate of single parenthood; and lower educational achievement among mothers. A model for data collection is discussed. (Author/BRM)

  4. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  5. Aging and Alcohol Abuse: Increasing Counselor Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, June M.; Ballard, Mary B.; Alessi, Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in older adulthood is a rapidly growing but often hidden problem. The authors provide an overview of the issues related to older adult alcohol abuse through a discussion of physiological, psychological, and social risk factors; an examination of appropriate assessment procedures; and an overview of factors related to treatment.

  6. Medical Advances in Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…

  7. Sexually abusive youths’ moral reasoning on sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerthuizen, M.G.C.J.; Brugman, D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sociomoral Reflection Measure – Short Form Objective (SRM-SFO) with additional items related to sexual moral issues was applied to an incarcerated sexually abusive juvenile population. Sexually abusive youths were expected to show a lower level of moral development related to sexual issues when

  8. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  9. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, H.C.; Exel, E. van; Mast, R.C. van der; Paauw, A.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. METHODS: Data

  10. School-Based Counseling of Abused Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Rivelis, Erin; Diaz, Vielka

    2009-01-01

    Abused children experience high rates of behavior, emotional, and learning problems but infrequently receive treatment. Most services provided to abused children and their families are not based on any clear evidence that they work. A number of evidence-based treatments (EBTs), demonstrated to be safe and effective in treating a range of…

  11. Parent’s Addiction and Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study is review the theorical approches of child abuse and its prevalency, ethiology, prevention, assessment and treatment. Also, we try to difine the relationship between child abuse and parents addiction and their side effects in different areas of childs life .

  12. Abuse of Disabled Children in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Agbota, Tete Kobla

    2012-01-01

    Even though disabled children are targets of various forms of abuse, such issues remain mostly undocumented open secrets in many countries including Ghana. The article is based on a qualitative data provided by three key informants. Six stories emerged from the data and are discussed in terms of four main forms of abuse. Labelling theories are…

  13. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  14. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  15. Identifying and Evaluating Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Kissal

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Elder abuse and neglect have been put into agenda because of the increasing number of elderly people, changing family and socio-cultural structure, worsening of the economic conditions in recent years. Abuse and neglect has been considered as a critical and complex subject which affects the health of elderly people and their life quality. Health professionals are a central position to reveal, manage and prevent elder abuse. For this reason, They need to know the reason, risk-factor and findings of abuse. Health professionals who support elder-especially nurse- shouldn’t only deal with this subject but also they should be educated about diagnosing, reporting and attempting. This paper’s aim is to inform people about the evaluation of risk-factors, findings and prevention of elder abuse and neglect and to increase sensitivity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 357-364

  16. Prescription drug abuse in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Caren McHenry

    2008-12-01

    The increased use of prescription drugs has brought pain relief too many and often improved the quality of life of elderly patients. But the increase in use and availability of prescription medications-especially controlled substances-brings with it an increased potential for abuse. Studies have shown that intentional abuse of prescription drugs is increasing among all age groups. As the number of persons 65 years of age and older skyrockets with the aging of the baby boomers, experts predict that prescription drug abuse among the elderly also will rise significantly. Efforts to increase awareness of drug abuse among elderly patients, caregivers, and health care practitioners, as well as research into how best to prevent and treat the elderly drug abuser, will be necessary to thwart what could become a significant public health problem.

  17. Violence, sexual abuse and health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2002-01-01

    % and 3%) (p = 0.001). Having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse was significantly associated with a number of health problems: chronic disease, recent illness, poor self-rated health, and mental health problems. The associations between having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse......The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993...

  18. Urethralism concomitant with amphetamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-Ping Jiann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Urethralism is a paraphilia disorder in which a person exhibits the habitual self-insertion of a foreign body into the urethra to achieve sexual gratification. We report a patient who habitually inserted a foreign body into his urethra and abused amphetamines to cope with stress. A 48-year-old man presented at the emergency room because of urine leakage from the penile base. Prior to this incident, he had been admitted to hospital 10 times from 2000 to 2005 for the removal of foreign bodies from the lower urinary tract. The patient also reported repeatedly inhaling a high dose of amphetamine to reach a “high” status prior to inserting a foreign body into his urethra. After the successful removal of the foreign bodies, the patient was referred to a psychiatrist for management in coping with stress and illicit drug withdrawal. Psychiatric support and treatment appeared to have a beneficial effect on his sexual behavior. In the management of a case involving recurrent insertion of a foreign body into the lower urinary tract, clinicians should enquire about a history of drug abuse and consult the psychiatry department regarding stress management and drug abstinence.

  19. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    = 1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.8). Significantly increased incidences were found of cancer in the tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, liver, larynx, lung and pleura and secondary cancer. The women had significantly increased risk of cervical cancer (RR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.0). The men developed prostatic cancer......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... with that of the total Danish population. On average the 15,214 men were observed for 12.9 years and the 3,093 women for 9.4 years. The overall morbidity of cancer was increased significantly. Of the men, 1,441 developed cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.7], while 182 women did (RR...

  20. Cultural adaptation process for international dissemination of the strengthening families program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpfer, Karol L; Pinyuchon, Methinin; Teixeira de Melo, Ana; Whiteside, Henry O

    2008-06-01

    The Strengthening Families Program (SFP) is an evidence-based family skills training intervention developed and found efficacious for substance abuse prevention by U.S researchers in the 1980s. In the 1990s, a cultural adaptation process was developed to transport SFP for effectiveness trials with diverse populations (African, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, and Native American). Since 2003, SFP has been culturally adapted for use in 17 countries. This article reviews the SFP theory and research and a recommended cultural adaptation process. Challenges in international dissemination of evidence-based programs (EBPs) are discussed based on the results of U.N. and U.S. governmental initiatives to transport EBP family interventions to developing countries. The technology transfer and quality assurance system are described, including the language translation and cultural adaptation process for materials development, staff training, and on-site and online Web-based supervision and technical assistance and evaluation services to assure quality implementation and process evaluation feedback for improvements.

  1. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  2. Selective dissemination and indexing of scientific information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J H

    1971-07-23

    Selective dissemination of information to individuals provides a new and promising method for keeping abreast of current scientific information. Since SDI services are directed to the information needs of each individual, they are a significant step beyond grouporiented services and products, which require considerable expenditure of effort by each user as he sorts useful information from trash. However, SDI systems do require a high degree of precision in matching scientists against documents. They must operate more efficiently and economically than many current systems which occasionally provide a useful item of information to users. To meet these stringent requirements for quality, precision, efficiency, and economy, more research must be devoted to comparing and improving indexing methods, which are the basic component of all information storage and retrieval systems. It is incredible that so much money has been spent on the development and operation of scientific information systems before basic data on the comparative performance of various indexing methods have been gathered, analyzed, and confirmed by multiple investigators. The design of an effective information system would seem to require this type of basic knowledge, just as basic properties of alternative materials must be known before an engineer can design a building, bridge, or factory. Yet, except for the few studies mentioned in the previous section, research on indexing methods has been greatly neglected. Bourne's comment about studies of indexing languages is still an appropriate description of the situation: "In almost all the experimental reports, the investigator worked with an indexing language different than that of other experimenters. Consequently, no one has ever had his test results verified, or expanded, or made more precise by another experimenter" (47). Most existing information systems are based on keyword indexing, with concepts broken into isolated terms during input operations

  3. Childhood sexual abuse: sources of trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, C B

    1993-01-01

    Many American women who were sexually abused as children seek mental health services to help them heal from their abuse. An appreciation of the varied sources of trauma that may stem from a sexual abuse experience may guide clinicians in facilitating a meaningful discussion with survivors of the ways in which their childhood development and their current lives have been influenced by their sexual abuse. Therefore, the goal of this study was to provide a beginning delineation of possible sources of trauma in the abuse situation, based on the retrospective reflections of women who have survived abuse. One hundred and eighty-six survivors were asked to identify the most traumatic aspects of their abuse experience. A content analysis was performed on their written responses, and the following eight categories, reflecting different sources of trauma, were identified: abandonment, powerlessness, violence, betrayal, guilt and shame, loss of self, loss of childhood, and impact on sexual adjustment. Possible treatment implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  4. Frequency of childhood abuse in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Zeren

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Child abuse or bad behaviors against childrenis a social, medical problem and is old as the historyof humanity. The analysis of the frequency of childhoodabuse in university students and the comparison of thefactors related with abuse were aimed in this study.Materials and methods: A questionnaire of social anddemographic features and Childhood Trauma Questionnairewhich is valid and reliable in Turkey were used inthis study.Results: The questionnaires were performed to 150students and 60 % of them were female. The mean agewas 19.04±1.28 (17-26 years. The emotional (p=0.025,physical (p=0.004 and sexual (p=0.001 abuse of malestudents were significantly higher than female students.The emotional (p=0.009 and total (p=0.026 abuse ofstudents who had families with lower income levels weresignificantly high. Also the frequency of emotional abusein students with divorced parents was significantly increased(p=0.012.Conclusions: Since child abuse and neglect may beassociated with the stresses of family life, the economicand social stresses of family should be determined andsolution advices to these should be developed. A multidisciplinarymanagement is required to detect, treat andrehabilitate the childhood abuse.Key words: Childhood, university student, sexual abuse

  5. CHILD ABUSE, FENOMENA DAN KEBIJAKAN DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Wulansari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research about child abuse in Indonesia done by United Nations Children's Funds (UNICEF results a concerned condition. The same opinion is also declared by Indonesian Commission on Children Protection. The increasing number of child abuse in Indonesia is highlighted in international society. Child abuse causes many negative effects for physical, mental, and or sexual of children, that effect for the growth and development of child thus leads to rise the lost generation. Medical officers hope to be able to do an early diagnose, prevention, and right therapy to minimize the negative impacts that can happen. Raising competencies of health care providers and building more hospitals that can be an integrated crisis centre in child abuse is a must. The government has built some policies to prevent children from child abuse, that has to be socialized, implemented an evaluated. It is hoped that Health Department has to make a continued and integrated systems and make a standard procedures for all of health care providers to prevent and provide the right therapy for the victim of child abuse. Key words: Child Abuse, growth and development, policies

  6. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Pala

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

  7. Drug abuse. Its relationship to dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, R

    1984-07-01

    Drug abuse appears destined to become an exacerbating cultural phenomenon despite intrinsic dangers to the abuser and accelerating costs to society. Dentists cannot afford to ignore the problem or its sequelae either in terms of their personal involvement or in terms of the clinical implications of such a practice for their patients. Abuse of agents, such as opioids and amphetamines, by the dental practitioner leads to devastating personal, social, and professional consequences. The abuser jeopardizes his or her reputation, family relationships, professional practice, and, not uncommonly, his or her very life through accidental overdose of drugs or by suicide. Nitrous oxide abuse is particularly prevalent among dentists and, although producing no psychological dependence, may result in long-term myeloneuropathy and physical disability making continued dental practice impossible. The dentist's responsibilities in this area lie within clinical and social domains. Clinically, the dentist must (1) learn to detect those physical and behavioral signs in patients that are indicators of drug abuse; (2) become familiar with tactics employed by drug abusers to obtain drugs for themselves or for further criminal diversion, and be prepared to defend against such tactics; (3) understand and make clinical allowance for therapeutic complications that may arise in the treatment of drug-abuse patients. The dentist's social role as an informed, concerned, and empathic counselor in matters of drug abuse must be assumed as a personal imperative and not viewed as an intellectual abstraction. Whenever we are made aware of the drug-related devastation or death of a friend, colleague, or student, we discern the immediacy of an ethical responsibility of social dimensions, so eloquently expressed over 350 years ago, by John Donne in his "Devotions XVII": "No man is an island, ... Any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in Mankind; And therefore never send to know for whom the

  8. Acute Myopericarditis Likely Secondary to Disseminated Gonococcal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bunker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI is a rare complication of primary infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Cardiac involvement in this condition is rare, and is usually limited to endocarditis. However, there are a number of older reports suggestive of direct myocardial involvement. We report a case of a 38-year-old male with HIV who presented with chest pain, pharyngitis, tenosynovitis, and purpuric skin lesions. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed acute biventricular dysfunction. Skin biopsy showed diplococci consistent with disseminated gonococcal infection, and treatment with ceftriaxone improved his symptoms and ejection fraction. Though gonococcal infection was never proven with culture or nucleic acid amplification testing, the clinical picture and histologic findings were highly suggestive of DGI. Clinicians should consider disseminated gonococcal infection when a patient presents with acute myocarditis, especially if there are concurrent skin and joint lesions.

  9. Achieving Timeliness and High Throughput Metrics in Dissemination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANNE ANUSHA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing systems for information dissemination is inadequate and typically results in information gaps. The lack of a clear concise system for information dissemination makes it difficult to determine the most efficient and effective way to pass information especially in the fields of ecommerce and security alerting systems to the appropriate parties. These systems usually require that the desired information be matched between numerous sources and sinks based on established subscriptions. Timeliness and Throughput are performance metrics used for evaluation. And these existing systems fail to achieve a balance between the two. So a much better system termed INFOD (INFOrmation Dissemination was proposed earlier that achieves a balance between performance metrics. We observed that an Integrated Control Loop used by admission control scheme of INFOD employs PL/SQL stored procedures that are huge computation overhead. We propose to replace them with Java stored procedures that can tremendously increase the performance.

  10. Acute Myopericarditis Likely Secondary to Disseminated Gonococcal Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Daniel; Kerr, Leslie Dubin

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) is a rare complication of primary infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Cardiac involvement in this condition is rare, and is usually limited to endocarditis. However, there are a number of older reports suggestive of direct myocardial involvement. We report a case of a 38-year-old male with HIV who presented with chest pain, pharyngitis, tenosynovitis, and purpuric skin lesions. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed acute biventricular dysfunction. Skin biopsy showed diplococci consistent with disseminated gonococcal infection, and treatment with ceftriaxone improved his symptoms and ejection fraction. Though gonococcal infection was never proven with culture or nucleic acid amplification testing, the clinical picture and histologic findings were highly suggestive of DGI. Clinicians should consider disseminated gonococcal infection when a patient presents with acute myocarditis, especially if there are concurrent skin and joint lesions. PMID:26246922

  11. Stopping Drug Abuse. ERIC Digest Series Number EA32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    This digest discusses the issue of stopping drug abuse as a national priority. Several aspects of the drug abuse issue are covered in question-and-answer format: (1) Why should educators be concerned about drug abuse by students? (2) What are school districts doing to stop drug abuse? (3) What social issues are involved? (4) How can schools plan…

  12. A Clinical Sample of Women Who Have Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study of a clinical sample of 72 women who allegedly abused 332 children. Perspectives include whether the abuse was intrafamilial, extrafamilial, or both, and whether the abuse involved single or multiple abusers. Also examines situational factors, individual deficits, and other factors that might lead women to sexually abuse…

  13. A Stress and Coping Approach to Intervention with Abused Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bonnie E.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an ecological model of intervention for physical abuse based on the Lazarus and Folkman conceptualization of stress and coping. Claims that the model identifies the stages that abused women may experience in their appraisal of the abuse experience. Focuses on barriers to ending abuse, stress and coping, and effective interventions. (RJM)

  14. Characteristics of Child Sexual Abuse Victims According to Perpetrator Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Margaret M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of 87 child abuse victims of lone female perpetrators with 93 victims of lone male perpetrators found that female perpetrators abused children 3.3 years younger than male perpetrators. Both female and male perpetrators abused more girls than boys and did not differ in severity of abuse. (Author/DB)

  15. Physical and Emotional Abuse of Primary School Children by Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoklitou, D.; Kabitsis, N.; Kabitsi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The existence of child abuse is unfortunately a reality of contemporary society. Although various organizations and researchers have been making progress in the struggle against abuse, it has not been decisively dealt with thus far. Most of the research on abuse has focused on the abuse of children in their family environment. Objective: The aim…

  16. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  17. Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

  18. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, pinternet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.

  19. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate: A drug of abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drasbek, Kim Ryun; Christensen, Jakob; Jensen, Kimmo

    2006-01-01

    γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse that causes euphoria, anxiolysis and hypnosis. The recent rise in the recreational intake of GHB, as well as its association with “drug rape”, has turned the attention to GHB in acute hospital settings. Acutely admitted GHB intoxicated patients may display...... available. As a basis for understanding the clinical features of GHB intoxication and abuse, we here review the pharmacological and neurophysiological knowledge about GHB, which stems from decades of clinical and basic GHB research. Also, we discuss the latest discoveries in the quest for distinct GHB...... receptors in the brain, and their possible implications for future therapies of GHB abuse....

  20. Multiple Gastrointestinal Complications of Crack Cocaine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Carlin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine and its alkaloid free base “crack-cocaine” have long since been substances of abuse. Drug abuse of cocaine via oral, inhalation, intravenous, and intranasal intake has famously been associated with a number of medical complications. Intestinal ischemia and perforation remain the most common manifestations of cocaine associated gastrointestinal disease and have historically been associated with oral intake of cocaine. Here we find a rare case of two relatively uncommon gastrointestinal complications of hemorrhage and pancreatitis presenting within a single admission in a chronic crack cocaine abuser.

  1. Missed cases of multiple forms of child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect.

  2. The puzzle of intrafamilial child sexual abuse: a meta-analysis comparing intrafamilial and extrafamilial offenders with child victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Babchishin, Kelly M; Pullman, Lesleigh E; McPhail, Ian V

    2015-07-01

    Intrafamilial child sexual abuse is a serious social and health problem, yet explanations of sexual offending against children that emphasize antisocial tendencies and atypical sexual interests do not adequately explain intrafamilial offending. In this meta-analysis, we tested other explanations of intrafamilial child sexual abuse by examining 78 independent samples that compared a total of 6605 intrafamilial offenders to a total of 10,573 extrafamilial offenders, in studies disseminated between 1978 and 2013 (Mdn=2000). Intrafamilial offenders were significantly lower on variables reflecting antisocial tendencies (e.g., criminal history, juvenile delinquency, impulsivity, substance use, and psychopathy) and atypical sexual interests (e.g., pedophilia, other paraphilias, and excessive sexual preoccupation). Contrary to other explanations that have been proposed, intrafamilial offenders scored lower on offense-supportive attitudes and beliefs, emotional congruence with children, and interpersonal deficits; intrafamilial offenders also did not differ from extrafamilial offenders on most indicators of psychopathology. Intrafamilial offenders were, however, more likely to have experienced sexual abuse, family abuse or neglect, and poor parent-child attachments. There were too few studies to examine family dynamics - spousal relationship quality, parent-child victim relationship, and family functioning more generally - even though these factors have been frequently mentioned in the clinical and theoretical literatures. Implications for theories of intrafamilial sexual offending, treatment, and future directions for research are discussed.

  3. Family-based interventions for the prevention of substance abuse and other impulse control disorders in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpfer, K L

    2014-01-01

    Standardized family-based interventions are the most effective way of preventing or treating adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. This paper first reviews the incidence of adolescent substance abuse worldwide emphasizing gender and causes by etiological risk and protective factors. New epigenetic research is included suggesting that nurturing parenting significantly prevents the phenotypic expression of inherited genetic diseases including substance abuse. Evidence-based family interventions are reviewed including family change theories behind their success, principles and types of family-based interventions, research results, cultural adaptation steps for ethnic and international translation, and dissemination issues. The author's Strengthening Family Program is used as an example of how these principles of effective prevention and cultural adaptation can result in highly effective prevention programs not only for substance abuse, but for other impulse control disorders as well. The conclusions include recommendations for more use of computer technologies to cut the high cost of family interventions relative to youth-only prevention programs and increase the public health impact of evidence-based prevention programs. The paper recommends that to reduce health care costs these family-based approaches should be applied to the prevention and treatment of other impulse control disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases, and delinquency.

  4. Disseminated cryptococcosis with cutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent patient*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacht, Gabriely Lessa; de Lima, Alexandre Moretti; Perdomo, Yuri Chiarelli; Boigues, Rafaela Suguimoto; Takita, Luiz Carlos; Hans Filho, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection of opportunistic behavior that is unusual in immunocompetent patients. We report a rare case of disseminated cryptococcosis with cutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent individual. During hospitalization, Cryptococcus gattii was isolated from skin lesions, lung and spinal fluid. The diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed and treatment was established. The patient showed improvement. Due to the probable clinical severity of the disease and the possibility that skin lesions may be the first manifestation of this illness, prompt diagnosis must be established and treatment provided. PMID:28099613

  5. Extremely refractory Kawasaki disease with disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Young Kwon; Lee, Jae Hee; Park, Yeong Bong

    2017-03-07

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a rare complication of Kawasaki disease and appears in Kawasaki disease patients. We report a case of refractory Kawasaki disease complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation and giant coronary aneurysm. A 5-month-old boy presented with Kawasaki disease with coagulopathy. Although the coagulopathy improved after fresh-frozen plasma and antithrombin-III administration, the fever persisted despite two rounds of intravenous immunoglobulin, along with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy and infliximab administration. Despite all efforts to treatment, the patient had giant coronary aneurysms and died suddenly.

  6. Multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with atypical rubella virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Koji; Asahara, Hideaki; Uehara, Taira; Miyoshi, Katsue; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Iwaki, Toru; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of an occurrence of multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with atypical rubella virus infection with no rash and long-term increased titers of serum anti-rubella IgM in a 17-year-old male who had no history of rubella vaccination. He suffered from at least six clinical exacerbations with disseminated hyperintense lesions on FLAIR MR images during the course of 18 months. Repeated methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy resolved the exacerbations. In patients with multiphasic ADEM of unknown etiology, clinicians should also consider the possibility of preceding infection with rubella virus.

  7. Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermelho, Marli Batista Fernandes; Correia, Ademir Silva; Michailowsky, Tania Cibele de Almeida; Suzart, Elizete Kazumi Kuniyoshi; Ibanes, Aline Santos; Almeida, Lanamar Aparecida; Khoury, Zarifa; Barba, Mario Flores, E-mail: marlivermelho@globo.com [Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas (IIER), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Objective: to evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results: abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion: computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  8. Insomnia, Nightmare Frequency, and Nightmare Distress in Victims of Sexual Abuse: The Role of Perceived Social Support and Abuse Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steine, Iris M.; Krystal, John H.; Nordhus, Inger H.; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Harvey, Allison G.; Eid, Jarle; Gronli, Janne; Milde, Anne M.; Pallesen, Stale

    2012-01-01

    In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics,…

  9. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  10. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  11. Childhood Abuse and Harmful Substance Use among Criminal Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Childhood abuse is a serious problem that has been linked to harmful alcohol and drug use in non-offender samples. In a sample of 219 criminal offenders, we examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and three indices of harmful substance use. Results indicate that physical abuse was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorder and sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of drug use disorder among offenders. Both forms of childhood abuse were associated with s...

  12. Meaning of Life-Setting Life Goals: Comparison of Substance Abusers and Non-Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    ERYILMAZ, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to make a comparison between young men who are substance-abusers and non-abusers in terms of how they set their life goals and attribute meanings to life. In line with this purpose, this study was conducted through quantitative and qualitative method. In the quantitative analysis, the study group consists of 108 participants between 20 and 24 years old, 56 of whom are substance abusers and 52 of whom are non-substance abusers. In the qualitative analysis, the study grou...

  13. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  14. Propylhexedrine: a vintage drug of abuse, rediscovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Julia, Paige; Francis, Elie M

    2012-01-01

    In 1949, propylhexedrine replaced amphetamine sulfate as the active ingredient in over the counter Benzedrex due to reports of widespread abuse, psychosis and sudden death. Since its introduction, cases of psychosis, myocardial infarction, pulmonary vascular disease, pulmonary hypertension, and sudden death attributed to propylhexedrine abuse have been well documented, usually in the form of single case reports. Although growing concerns during the 1980's regarding its abuse potential and its use as a precursor in the manufacture of compounds of even higher abuse potential caused propylhexedrine to be reviewed by the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence, no formal studies of the dependence potential of propylhexedrine exists to date. The following is a case of propylhexedrine dependence, with some of its history, revisited.

  15. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  16. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  17. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  18. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  19. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  20. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  1. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  2. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a time when drugs may be offered. Drug abuse prevention starts with parents learning how to talk with their children about difficult topics. Then, the programs offered by school, sports, and other groups can support what you have ...

  3. The First Lady Talks about Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Mrs. Reagan discusses effects of drug use among teenagers and offers suggestions to teachers, parents, and students for combating drug abuse. She stresses parent involvement and the formation of parent peer groups, as well as teachers' responsibilities. (NJ)

  4. A History of Abuse and Operative Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam; Ryding, Elsa Lena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess whether a history of abuse, reported during pregnancy, was associated with an operative delivery. Secondly, we assessed if the association varied according to the type of abuse and if the reported abuse had been experienced as a child or an adult....... DESIGN: The Bidens study, a cohort study in six European countries (Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden) recruited 6724 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care. History of abuse was assessed through questionnaire and linked to obstetric information from hospital records....... The main outcome measure was operative delivery as a dichotomous variable, and categorized as an elective caesarean section (CS), or an operative vaginal birth, or an emergency CS. Non-obstetrically indicated were CSs performed on request or for psychological reasons without another medical reason. Binary...

  5. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  6. INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS IN INTRAVENOUS DRUGS ABUSED PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Ponomareva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-year observation of acute tricuspid infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abused patient: diagnosis, clinical features, visceral lesions, the possibility of cardiac surgery and conservative treatment, outcome.

  7. Ischial apophyseal fracture in an abused infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bixby, Sarah D.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Wilson, Celeste R. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Child Protection Program, Department of Pediatrics, Boston, MA (United States); Barber, Ignasi [Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    We report a previously healthy 4-month-old who presented to the hospital with leg pain and swelling and no history of trauma. Radiographs demonstrated a comminuted left femur fracture. Given the concern for child abuse, skeletal survey was performed and revealed four vertebral compression deformities. Although abuse was suspected, the possibility of a lytic lesion associated with the femur fracture and multiple spinal abnormalities raised the possibility of an underlying process such as Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Subsequently 18F-NaF positron emission tomographic (PET) scintigraphy revealed increased tracer activity in the ischium, and MRI confirmed an ischial apophyseal fracture. Pelvic fractures, particularly ischial fractures, are extremely rare in the setting of child abuse. This case report describes the multimodality imaging findings of an ischial fracture in an abused infant. (orig.)

  8. Dynamics of Abusive IPv6 Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS DYNAMICS OF ABUSIVE IPV6 NETWORKS by Mark J. Turner September 2014 Thesis Advisor: Robert... IPV6 NETWORKS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS CNS-1111445 6. AUTHOR(S) Mark J. Turner 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School... IPv6 . As IPv6 becomes more commonplace, it permits abusive and malicious parties to exploit both new and existing vulnerabilities. Among such

  9. Risk factors of child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Apraez-Villamarin, Genny Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To show a review of specialized literature concerning risk factors ofchild sexual abuse. Initially, the definitions of sexual abuse suggested by various authors are presented. Source and types of publications: Publications were obtained from libraries, periodicals and websites; the review includes articles, essays, books, chapters and laws. Point of view: Emphasis on risk contexts highlighting social, family and environmental characteristics, as well as personal features, whose prese...

  10. Genetic and perinatal effects of abused substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.

  11. Medicolegal aspects of child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Richard D; Bross, Donald C

    2002-04-01

    Neurosurgeons that see children and care for those with traumatic injury are highly likely to see cases of child abuse and neglect. That fact makes it inevitable that they will encounter the legal system. It is hoped that this article has demystified the legal process and systems that one encounters in day-to-day practice. Avoiding the diagnosis of abuse because of lack of knowledge or phobia of the legal system is hazardous to the health and well-being of children.

  12. Substance abuse on the college campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimsza, Mary Ellen; Moses, Karen S

    2005-02-01

    Substance abuse is a major health and behavioral concern in college students. Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly abused drugs on college campuses. Others include tobacco, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), lysergic acid, ketamine, methamphetamine, phencyclidine, cocaine, and psilocybin mushrooms. This article reviews the use of these drugs by college students. Substance use is a major contributing factor in poor academic performance and failure to successfully complete a college education.

  13. Paradoxical Neurobehavioral Rescue by Memories of Early-Life Abuse: The Safety Signal Value of Odors Learned during Abusive Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A.; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2014-01-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces a...

  14. Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis presenting with cachexia and hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasawneh FA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Faisal A Khasawneh,1 Subhan Ahmed,2 Ruba A Halloush31Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, 2Section of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK, 3Amarillo Pathology Group, Amarillo, TX, USAAbstract: Histoplasmosis is a common endemic mycosis. The majority of infections involving this dimorphic fungus are asymptomatic. Manifestations in symptomatic patients are diverse, ranging from flu-like illness to a more serious disseminated disease. We present here a case of chronic disseminated histoplasmosis mimicking a metastatic cancer. We reviewed the literature for cases of disseminated histoplasmosis presenting with hypercalcemia, focusing particularly on clinical presentation, risk factors predisposing for fungal infection, and outcome. We report a case of a 65-year-old diabetic male who presented with unexplained weight loss and hypercalcemia. Multiple brain space-occupying lesions and bilateral adrenal enlargement were evident on imaging studies. Biopsies showed caseating granulomas with budding yeast, consistent with histoplasmosis. The patient's symptoms resolved after liposomal amphotericin B and itraconazole therapy. Granulomatous diseases, including fungal infections, should be considered alongside malignancies, in patients with similar presentation.Keywords: disseminated histoplasmosis, hypercalcemia

  15. DISSEMINATE CYSTICERCOSIS. One-day treatment in a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashiyi MK

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient presenting disseminated cysticercosis characterized by neurocysticercosis, subcutaneous, muscular, and cardiac cysticercosis treated with praziquantel during one day RESUMEN: Se comenta el caso de un paciente que presentó cisticercosis diseminada, caracterizada por neurocisticercosis, y cisticercosis subcutánea, muscular y cardiaca, tratada con praziquantel durante un dia.

  16. Integrity and dissemination control in administrative applications through information designators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, W.G.

    2005-01-01

    When more and more information sources are being linked, it seems that it becomes ever more easy to track individuals in ways that are not deemed appropriate. However, increased linking of information does not need to imply increased dissemination of privacy-sensitive information. We present a new a

  17. Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis with malignant change, in a male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausen, I; Jensen, O J; Andersen, E

    1990-01-01

    Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis (DPL) is a rare disorder, characterized by the occurrence of multiple leiomyomas scattered throughout the peritoneal cavity. Until this report DPL had been observed only in women and there is only one previous case with malignant change. A case of DPL...

  18. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy in dengue:a brief review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-01-01

    Dengue infection is an arboviral infection with a very high prevalence in tropical Southeast Asia.This infection presents as a clinical illness comprising of very high fever with several hematologic aberrations.In this article, the author briefly reviewed the report on disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC),a severe complica-tion,in dengue.

  19. 45 CFR 1388.7 - Program criteria-dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disabilities and their families. (f) The values of the UAP must be reflected in the language and images used in UAP products. (g) Dissemination products must reflect the cultural diversity of the community. (h... variety of products to promote public awareness and visibility of the UAP, and facilitate replication...

  20. Disseminated tuberculosis with rare involvements; Tuberculose floride avec localisations rares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goasdoue, P.; Dubayle, P.; Boyer, B.; Le Clainche, P.; Pharaboz, C.; Debord, T. [Hopital d`Instruction des Armees Begin, 94 - Saint-Mande (France)

    1997-09-01

    We report a case of disseminated tuberculosis involving the middle ear, the central nervous system, the spine and the lung. The tuberculous epidural abscess and otomastoiditis don`t have any specific imaging features. But their coexistence with an other tuberculous involvement might suggest their tuberculous nature. The epidural abscess may result from direct extension from otomastoiditis. (authors).

  1. Packaging for Dissemination. Diffusion of Innovations Handbook Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Andrew D.; And Others

    This handbook reviews some of the forms that can be used to package educational projects for dissemination to other schools, such as written reports, slide tape presentations, news releases, conference presentations, and workshops. Guidelines and suggestions in the essays on each format are supplemented by the appendices, which include a report…

  2. Evaluation Designs for the Improving Teaching Competencies Program Dissemination Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Diane L.; And Others

    Evaluation designs are presented for these work components of the Improving Teaching Competencies Program (ITCP): (1) developing, implementing, and evaluating a strategy for disseminating selected ITCP instructional systems in Individually Guided Education (IGE) schools; (2) developing, implementing, and evaluating a strategy for disseminating…

  3. Exploiting beacons for scalable broadcast data dissemination in VANETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Ramon S.; Das, Kallol; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) enable the timely broadcast dissemination of event-driven messages to interested vehicles. However, when dealing with broadcast communication, suppression techniques must be designed to prevent the so-called broadcast storm problem. Numerous suppression schemes aim

  4. CT of disseminated plasmacytoma - in an AIDS patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, D.S.; Nazarian, L.N.; Burke, M. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    It is well known that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is associated with increased risk of neoplasms, particularly Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. There have been several recent reports in the literature describing plasma cell tumors in AIDS patients. We report the imaging findings in a case of widely disseminated plasmacytoma in a patient with known AIDS. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Opportunistic Beacon Networks: Information Dissemination via Wireless Network Identifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents OBN, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model particularly intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the utilization of universally-available wireless network identifiers. As a ubiquitous

  6. Use micro letter school education information dissemination of innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张弟龙

    2014-01-01

    Discussing the content spread on wechat during the process of school education is of great signiifcance. The main bodies of the spread of the school education can be summarized as: in the ofifcial institutions with the participation of school organizations, non-governmental organizations committed to the school education dissemination activities, and pedagogical authors, the scientiifc researchers, as wel as the general public.

  7. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in malaria: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laltanpuii Sailo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC is seen in <5% of patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria and is more common in cerebral malaria. Here, we report the diagnosis and management of a case of severe P. falciparum malaria with DIC.

  8. Using scenarios for dissemination - Experiences from the IMS GLOBEMEN project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollus, Martin; Hartel, Ingo; Tølle, Martin;

    2002-01-01

    due to the complexities of the interdisciplinary field addressed. As an instrument for communication to the non-specialist public the IMS GLOBEMEN project produces a web-based scenario as part of its dissemination activities. It is aimed at giving a practical overview of specific challenges...

  9. Proceedings: panel on information dissemination for wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, P. [ed.

    1980-04-01

    This meeting was called as part of a multi-year planning effort. Groups involved in the production and/or dissemination of information on wind energy were invited to describe their current activities and their perceptions of the needs of the 80's in this area. Participants exchanged copies of materials they distribute regularly and discussed frequently asked questions.

  10. An unusual cystic appearance of disseminated low-grade gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, T.; Zimmerman, R.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States); Perilongo, G. [Dipt. di Pediatria, Univ. di Padova (Italy); Kaufman, B.A. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, St Louis Children' s Hospital, St Louis, MO (United States); Holden, K.R. [Division of Pediatric Neurology, Room 511, Children' s Hospital, Medical University of South Carolina, 171 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425-2232 (United States); Carollo, C. [Division of Neuroradiology, Regione Veneto, Azienda Ospedalieri di Padova, Universita di Padova, Via Giustiniani 3, 35 128 Padua (Italy); Kling Chong, W.K. [Dept. of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-10-01

    We report five cases of pediatric disseminated low-grade gliomas of the brainstem or spinal cord that exhibited an unusual, cystic pattern. Leptomeningeal disease was present in three of these at diagnosis, and was detected shortly afterwards in the other two. Four patients are alive up to 5 years later, following minimal to no intervention, while one is dead. (orig.)

  11. Deliverable 9.7 - GALA Dissemination Report 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim; Berta, Riccardo; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Bellotti, Francesco; Nadolski, Rob; Padrón-Nápoles, Carmen; Boyle, Liz; Beligan, Daniel; Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke

    2014-01-01

    We have created and executed a separate plan for the transition of GALA to the Serious Games Society for securing the conditions in the post-project phase. For assessing the effectiveness of the dissemination efforts we have devised 5 outward- looking KPIs. All KPI requirements were met. Also, addi

  12. RMD: Reliable Multicast Data Dissemination within Groups of Collaborating Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin-Perianu, M.; Havinga, P.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Factory and industrial automation systems gradually start to incorporate wireless networks of smart objects and sensor nodes. In this context, one fundamental problem is the reliability of data dissemination, particularly in the case of total or partial network reconfiguration. We propose RMD, a rel

  13. Disseminated aspergillosis attributable to Aspergillus deflectus in a springer spaniel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, J S; Leach, M W; Jang, S; Wong, A

    1990-10-01

    Disseminated aspergillosis attributable to Aspergillus deflectus was diagnosed in a Springer Spaniel with lethargy, lameness, anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia, lymphadenopathy, hematuria, and urinary incontinence. Necropsy revealed granulomatous inflammation and numerous fungal hyphae in many organs. The conidial heads of the fungus have a characteristic briar-pipe appearance in culture.

  14. Disseminating Improved Practices: Are Volunteer Farmer Trainers Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukuyu, B.; Place, F.; Franzel, S.; Kiptot, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses the effectiveness of volunteer farmer trainers in promoting adoption of agricultural technologies in western Kenya. Specifically, the purpose was to assess the type of information they disseminated, farmer trainers' characteristics desirable to farmer trainees, and how trainees evaluate farmer trainers.…

  15. Data Model of the BNL Archive and Dissemination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, J; Osterer, L

    1977-02-01

    The Data Model, i.e., the information content of the data base as it is viewed by the users, of the BNL Archive and Dissemination System is presented. The syntax of the data model is stated in BNF form, and the semantic meaning is discussed. Examples of the use of the data model are given. 3 figs.

  16. 48 CFR 2905.101 - Methods of disseminating information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information. Contracting officers may only use the Government Point of Entry (GPE) for synopsis and dissemination of information concerning procurement actions. The Division of Acquisition Management Services... information. 2905.101 Section 2905.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  17. Mucosal damage and neutropenia are required for Candida albicans dissemination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Y Koh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans fungemia in cancer patients is thought to develop from initial gastrointestinal (GI colonization with subsequent translocation into the bloodstream after administration of chemotherapy. It is unclear what components of the innate immune system are necessary for preventing C. albicans dissemination from the GI tract, but we have hypothesized that both neutropenia and GI mucosal damage are critical for allowing widespread invasive C. albicans disease. We investigated these parameters in a mouse model of C. albicans GI colonization that led to systemic spread after administration of immunosuppression and mucosal damage. After depleting resident GI intestinal flora with antibiotic treatment and achieving stable GI colonization levels of C. albicans, it was determined that systemic chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide led to 100% mortality, whereas selective neutrophil depletion, macrophage depletion, lymphopenia or GI mucosal disruption alone resulted in no mortality. Selective neutrophil depletion combined with GI mucosal disruption led to disseminated fungal infection and 100% mortality ensued. GI translocation and dissemination by C. albicans was also dependent on the organism's ability to transform from the yeast to the hyphal form. This mouse model of GI colonization and fungemia is useful for studying factors of innate host immunity needed to prevent invasive C. albicans disease as well as identifying virulence factors that are necessary for fungal GI colonization and dissemination. The model may also prove valuable for evaluating therapies to control C. albicans infections.

  18. 10 CFR 602.18 - Dissemination of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of results. 602.18 Section 602.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL... that is published or accepted for publication in a recognized scientific or technical journal and...

  19. 10 CFR 605.20 - Dissemination of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of results. 605.20 Section 605.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE... publication in a recognized scientific or technical journal and which satisfies the information...

  20. Marketing: Exploring Applications for Educational Dissemination. Literature Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Linda

    This synthesis of information about marketing and information dissemination of education-related products is divided into three parts: an overview of major writings, specific marketing strategies, and resources for further study. The first part opens with a definition of marketing as it relates to education. A review of the literature provides…

  1. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-11-27

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.

  2. Residential Treatment Centers for Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Nasiroglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Every year millions of reports are being held and cases regarding those reports in courts are carrying on about abusement and omission against children . Abusement against children has been seen throughout of the history. Significant and permanent impacts can occur upon child abusement and neglect on victim children. It is important to know the psychological dynamics which have been lived by the children by the mental health professionalsto protect the children after the abusement report has been written. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and medications are being used commonly in the treatment of abusement cases. However in some cases it is necessary to send away the victims from environment, enable them to continue their education life, make sure that they are treated by the professional individuals in safe area. For this end there are many Residential Treatment Centers around the world. and ldquo;Oguz Kagan Koksal Social Care and Rehabilitation Center and rdquo; was established in Adana as the first Residential Treatment Center in Turkey. In this report the historical dimensions of the child abusement, the definition of it, its psychological dynamics, the psychological disorders caused by it, treatment approaches and residential treatment centers have been reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 67-78

  3. Temperament Style and Substance Abuse Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Melinda J.; Galen, Luke W.; DeLuca, John W.

    1998-06-01

    The relationship of temperament to different patterns and types of alcohol abuse has received much attention over the last decade in order to provide clues to matching patients optimally to treatment strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of temperament with a number of relevant substance abuse characteristics in a substance abusing population. One hundred forty-five male veterans were interviewed on their lifetime use of substances and on their psychiatric symptoms, problems associated with use, context, and family history of substance abuse. Subjects filled out the TPQ and the MPQ, which were subjected to factor analysis and revealed four factors: (1) Negative Affectivity/Impulsivity, (2) Positive Affectivity/Sociability, (3) Persistence/Achievement, and (4) Constraint. There was partial support for the hypotheses. Impulsivity was negatively correlated with age of onset and positively correlated with substance-related problems and a family history of substance abuse. Subjects with a history of depression scored significantly lower on the Positive Affectivity/Sociability factor than those who had not experienced a significant depression. Individuals who used alone scored lower on this factor than those who used in social contexts. The temperament factors of Persistence/Achievement and Constraint were, for the most part, unrelated to substance abuse.

  4. Lung Dendritic Cells Facilitate Extrapulmonary Bacterial Dissemination during Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva eRosendahl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide. Given the critical role of dendritic cells (DCs in regulating and modulating the immune response to pathogens, we investigated here the role of DCs in S. pneumoniae lung infections. Using a well-established transgenic mouse line which allows the conditional transient depletion of DCs, we showed that ablation of DCs resulted in enhanced resistance to intranasal challenge with S. pneumoniae. DC-depleted mice exhibited delayed bacterial systemic dissemination, significantly reduced bacterial loads in the infected organs and lower levels of serum inflammatory mediators than non-depleted animals. The increased resistance of DC-depleted mice to S. pneumoniae was associated with a better capacity to restrict pneumococci extrapulmonary dissemination. Furthermore, we demonstrated that S. pneumoniae disseminated from the lungs into the regional lymph nodes in a cell-independent manner and that this direct way of dissemination was much more efficient in the presence of DCs. We also provide evidence that S. pneumoniae induces expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 in cultured bone marrow-derived DCs. MMP-9 is a protease involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix proteins and is critical for DC trafficking across extracellular matrix and basement membranes during the migration from the periphery to the lymph nodes. MMP-9 was also significantly up-regulated in the lungs of mice after intranasal infection with S. pneumoniae. Notably, the expression levels of MMP-9 in the infected lungs were significantly decreased after depletion of DCs suggesting the involvement of DCs in MMP-9 production during pneumococcal pneumonia. Thus, we propose that S. pneumoniae can exploit the DC-derived proteolysis to open tissue barriers thereby facilitating its own dissemination from the local site of infection.

  5. Elder abuse and dementia--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, C; Mortimer, A

    1995-01-01

    An anonymous postal questionnaire was distributed to 200 members of a voluntary organisation providing information and support for the carers of dementia sufferers. Carers were asked about the possible occurrence of verbal, physical abuse and neglect. Those carers who admitted to any form of abuse were compared with those who did not and risk factors in both carers and patients were analysed to determine risk factors for abuse. Fifty-five per cent of carers admitted to some form of abuse with verbal abuse being the most common form. Verbal abuse was associated with a poor premorbid relationship and social isolation of the carer and was found to be a risk factor for physical abuse. Those carers who had high GHQ scores and who had been caring for longer were more likely to physically abuse the person they cared for. This study supports the hypothesis that various categories of abuse have different correlates.

  6. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rebecca; Mayer, Joseph

    Research on the role of alcoholism and opiate addiction in child abuse and neglect is reviewed, and a study of the adequacy of child care in families of 200 alcohol or opiate addicted parents is reported. Demographic data is included, and incidence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and neglect are reported. Sex of the addicted…

  7. Substance Abuse Training and Perceived Knowledge: Predictors of Perceived Preparedness to Work in Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Rena; Yum, Joohee; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Sowbel, Lynda; Mollette, Angela; Jani, Jayshree; Smith-Osborne, Alexa

    2008-01-01

    As frontline mental health care providers, social workers need to be prepared to confront and properly manage substance abuse issues in practice. This study examined predictors of recent master of social work (MSW) graduates' perceptions of preparedness to practice in the area of substance abuse. A cross-sectional design was used, and 232 recent…

  8. Evaluating the Risk of Child Abuse: The Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2012-01-01

    The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…

  9. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  10. The Truth about Abuse? A Comparative Approach to Inquiry Narratives on Historical Institutional Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, the history of childhood and history of education have gained status as political concerns through the establishment of numerous truth commissions and inquiries into historical institutional child abuse. This article discusses the methodological and ethical dilemmas that arise when writing the history of abused children with the…

  11. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  12. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…

  13. Talking matters: Abused women's views on disclosure of partner abuse to the family doctor and its role in handling the abuse situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, S Lo Fo; Wester, F.P.J.; Mol, S.; Romkens, R.; Hezemans, D.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore what women valued most in disclosing partner abuse to their doctor and whether disclosure played a role in handling their abuse situation. METHODS: A qualitative method was used to understand abused women's views and experiences with disclosure to their family doctor.

  14. Tooth decay in alcohol abusers compared to alcohol and drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Harris, Colin K; Cooper, Derek J; Peters, Timothy J; Gelbier, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 "alcohol only" abusers to 300 "alcohol and drug" abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the "alcohol and drug" group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the "alcohol only" group (P tooth decay among "alcohol only" abusers is significantly lower compared to "alcohol and drug" abusers.

  15. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavarajah Rooban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods : We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result : The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion : The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.

  16. Sexual abuse of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, M

    1983-01-01

    Parents, relatives, and friends may inflict their passions on children of the same or opposite sex. This is often initiated by sleeping together. Sexual abuse contributes to and causes emotional trauma, although the child's turmoil, confusion, wish for acceptance, and anxiety may be overlooked by the parent and professional. Mutual silence aided by threats adds to the anxiety. Despite the notion that reports of parental sexual exploitation of their children are usually fantasies, there appear to be increasing data that incest and sexual abuse are frequent traumata. At present, there is increased risk of lowering the incest barrier because of increased rates of divorce and step- or surrogate parenthood, since they provide additional potential for being sexually and emotionally traumatized. Sexual abuse seems to be part of a constellation involving neglect and a pathological symbiosis. That sexual abuse is emotionally traumatic is apparent, but it needs emphasizing. Children's defensive reactions may cloud this, and it may be years before such incidents are connected to symptomatic behavior, even when the child is in intensive therapy. In the reported cases, there appears to be a pattern of reactions and defenses related to the traumata that are embedded in imprinting and identification with the aggressor. This leads to sexual abuse being a legacy passed on to the next generation of victims, as the victim becomes the molester through identification. Adolescent self-destructive behavior may stem from guilt about sexually abusing younger children. Therapists may be better able to understand and deal with some of their patients' symptoms if sexual abuse is considered as a possible factor in one or both directions.

  17. IGF-I abuse in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Nishan; Dashwood, Alexander; Thomas, Nicholas J; Skingle, Alexander J; Sönksen, Peter H; Holt, Richard I G

    2009-09-01

    It is widely believed that growth hormone (GH) is abused by athletes for its anabolic and lipolytic effects. Many of the physiological effects of GH are mediated by the production of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Both GH and IGF-I appear on the World Anti-Doping Agency list of prohibited substances. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of abuse with exogenous IGF-I. IGF-I has effects on carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism and some of these actions could prove beneficial to competitive athletes. No studies have demonstrated a positive effect of IGF-I on physical performance in healthy individuals but this has not yet been studied in appropriately designed trials. Two pharmaceutical preparations of IGF-I have recently become available for the treatment of growth disorders in children. This availability is likely to increase the prevalence of IGF-I abuse. Combining IGF-I with its binding protein IGFBP-3 in one preparation has the potential to reduce the side-effect profile but the adverse effects of long term IGF-I abuse are currently unknown. Detection of abuse with IGF-I is a major challenge for anti-doping authorities. It is extremely difficult to distinguish the exogenous recombinant form of the hormone from endogenously-produced IGF-I. One approach currently being investigated is based on measuring markers of GH and IGF-I action. This has already proved successful in the fight against GH abuse and, it is hoped, will subsequently lead to a similar test for detection of IGF-I abuse.

  18. Incest and substance abuse: implications for treatment professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janikowski, T P; Glover, N M

    1994-01-01

    Seventy-seven volunteer participants enrolled in eight substance abuse treatment facilities were surveyed using the Substance Abuse and Incest Survey. Of the sample, 36 (48%) reported histories of incest. For participants reporting incest, data on substance abuse history, perceptions of the relationship between incest and substance abuse, and opinions regarding incest-related counseling in the context of substance abuse treatment are presented. Recommendations for substance abuse professionals and facilities are made, including intake screening, barriers to treatment, counselor education, and future research.

  19. Blind, deaf, and dumb: why elder abuse goes unidentified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Sharon W

    2011-12-01

    Elder abuse is a growing public health concern that affects elders regardless of residence, socioeconomic status, or geographic locale. Elder abuse includes acts of physical, psychological, verbal, and financial abuses as well as abandonment and neglect. Elder abuse has the potential to occur in multiple settings, whether in the home, rehabilitation centers, long-term care facilities, nursing homes, and/or senior day care centers. Children, family members, friends, and formal caregivers are prospective perpetrators of elder abuse. Public policy changes are necessary to standardize and delineate guidelines and procedures for the detection and prevention of elder abuse in the future.

  20. Testing the "Sexually Abused-Abuser Hypothesis" in Adolescents: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Landolt, Markus A; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Schnyder, Ulrich; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2015-11-01

    A long-standing belief in the literature on sex offenders is that sexually victimized youths are at increased risk of becoming sex offenders themselves. The present study tested the link between past sexual abuse, either with or without contact, and sexually offending behavior in a representative sample of male and female adolescents while controlling for other types of abuse, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behaviors. Self-reported data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 6,628 students attending 9th grade public school in Switzerland (3,434 males, 3,194 females, mean age = 15.50 years, SD = 0.66 years). Exposure to contact and non-contact types of sexual abuse was assessed using the Child Sexual Abuse Questionnaire and sexually offending behavior by the presence of any of three behaviors indicating sexual coercion. Two-hundred-forty-five males (7.1 %) and 40 females (1.2 %) reported having sexually coerced another person. After controlling for non-sexual abuse, low parent education, urban versus rural living, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behavior, male adolescents who were victims of contact sexual abuse and non-contact sexual abuse were significantly more likely to report coercive sexual behaviors. Females who experienced contact or non-contact sexual abuse were also found at increased risk of committing sexual coercion after controlling for covariates. The present findings demonstrate a strong relationship between past sexual abuse, with and without physical contact, and sexual-offending behavior in male and female adolescents. Reducing exposure to non-contact sexual abuse (like Internet-based sexual exploitation) should become a new area of sexual violence prevention in youths.

  1. 78 FR 69702 - Center for Substance Abuse Prevention; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) Drug... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Drug Testing... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance...

  2. Helping Yourself Heal: A Recovering Woman's Guide to Coping with Childhood Abuse Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the publication Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons With Child Abuse and Neglect Issues , #36 in the Treatment Improvement ... people who have been abused as children. Addressing child abuse issues takes time; you’ll need to develop ...

  3. Echocardiographic Finding in Anabolic Steroids Abuser Athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Haji Moradi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Abuse of anabolic steroids in body builders and competitive sports (doping is common and prevalent in our country. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs and existing controversy in published articles, this study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic finding in athletics who are current user of these drugs. Materials & Methods: Body builders with continues sport for preceding year and at least twice weekly selected and divided into steroid abuser and not abuser and compared with age and BMI matched non athletic healthy volunteers .Results: There was not significant difference in age, body mass index, ejection fraction, ventricular compliance and valve function between three groups. But diastolic size of septum and free wall is significantly thicker in both of athletics in comparison with non athletic volunteer but observed differences were only significant (Pvalue = 0.05 between first and third group. The difference between the above mentioned index was not significant between two groups of athleticConclusion: Observed differences in diastolic size of septum and free wall between first and third group and also absence of difference between two athletic groups is in favor of that long term abuse of anabolic steroid (more than one year results in augmentation of physiologic hypertrophy due to isometric exercise. Furthermore long term abuse and supra pharmacologic dose does not have significant effect in size and left ventricular function.

  4. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF OPIOID DRUG ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Carballo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the prescription of opioid analgesics is related to increased rates of opioid abuse and the negative consequences of medication misuse. Several international health organisations recommend comprehensive and multidisciplinary patient assessment for the duration of the opioid treatment in order to identify and prevent medication abuse. Due to the lack of specific clinical guidelines in the Spanish National Health System, the aim of this paper is to present a proposal for psychological assessment based on the main psychological tools currently available for assessing opioid abuse. The assessment guidelines have been established based on the psychological variables that can predict and prolong the abuse, classifying all of the variables depending on the current stage of the therapeutic process for each patient. Although there are instruments with good psychometric properties, further research is necessary to adapt, translate and validate these instruments for use in the Spanish population. Future studies are also needed to investigate intervention and prevention strategies in depth in order to reduce the likelihood of abuse in patients treated with opioids.

  5. Typological and Integrative Models of Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demidova L.Y.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the basic typological and integrative theoretical models that explain the occurrence of child sexual abuse and the differences detected among the perpetrators of crimes against sexual integrity of minors. A comprehensive review of the theoretical concepts of sexual abuse in our country, in fact has not been carried out, and in this paper for the first time we made such an attempt. It is shown that the existing notions of sexual abuse largely overlap each other, but each of the models somehow takes into account the factors not explicitly addressed in other concepts. Systematic consideration of the theoretical models of sexual abuse can generalize and systematize the available data on the mechanisms of pedophile behavior. This review provides an opportunity to develop a new benchmark in the study of sexual abuse, get closer to building the most accurate and comprehensive model. In turn, this may contribute to solving the questions about the factors, dynamics, and the prevention of criminal sexual conduct against children

  6. Client perceptions of incest and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janikowski, T P; Bordieri, J E; Glover, N M

    1997-01-01

    Clients receiving substance abuse treatment from 35 treatment facilities throughout the United States were surveyed using the Substance Abuse and Incest Survey-Revised (SAIS-R). A total of 732 participants responded to the survey; 518 (71%) were males, 204 (28%) were females, and 10 (1%) did not indicate gender. Participants had a mean age of 33.8 years, were predominately Caucasian (61.6%), never married (45.2%), were currently unemployed (69.4%), and had completed an average of 11.7 years of education. Of the entire sample, 266 (36.3%) reported having been victims of incest; 151 were males and 113 were females (2 did not indicate gender). The group reporting incest histories had a significantly greater percentage of females that did the group not reporting incest histories (chi 2 = 48.1, p incest histories were asked about their perceptions regarding incest, substance abuse, and counseling. Item responses were examined using descriptive statistics and factor analysis. The factor analysis on SAIS-R perception items identified five factors that accounted for 68.9% of the variance; these factors were Stigma and Resistance to Counseling; Substance Abuse and Incest; Ambivalence; Fear and Anticipation; and Receptivity to Counseling. Results are presented and the implications for substance abuse treatment and counseling are discussed.

  7. Drugs of Abuse Can Entrain Circadian Rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E. K. Kosobud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms prepare organisms for predictable events during the Earth's 24-h day. These rhythms are entrained by a variety of stimuli. Light is the most ubiquitous and best known zeitgeber, but a number of others have been identified, including food, social cues, locomotor activity, and, most recently drugs of abuse. Given the diversity of zeitgebers, it is probably not surprising that genes capable of clock functions are located throughout almost all organs and tissues. Recent evidence suggests that drugs of abuse can directly entrain some circadian rhythms. We have report here that entrainment by drugs of abuse is independent of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the light/dark cycle, is not dependent on direct locomotor stimulation, and is shared by a variety of classes of drugs of abuse. We suggest that drug-entrained rhythms reflect variations in underlying neurophysiological states. This could be the basis for known daily variations in drug metabolism, tolerance, and sensitivity to drug reward. These rhythms could also take the form of daily periods of increased motivation to seek and take drugs, and thus contribute to abuse, addiction and relapse.

  8. Accidents and child abuse in bathtub submersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A M; Mott, A M; Sibert, J R

    1994-05-01

    Non-accidental bath drowning is an infrequently reported form of child abuse. Details of 44 children who suffered from drowning or near drowning in the bath were analysed from a two year (1988-9) UK study to investigate factors that might point to abuse. Cases of near drowning were notified through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit inquiry system and drowning cases from the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, the Scottish Government Record Office, and the Northern Ireland Office. In 28 cases the story was of accidental submersion with a baby of modal age 9 months being left unsupervised in a bath. Two other neonates briefly slipped from the parents arms while having a bath. Four bathtub drownings were related to epilepsy. In contrast 10 cases (six drowning and four near drowning) had stories very suggestive of abuse with inconsistent histories, previous history of abuse, and late presentation for medical care. A diagnosis of abuse should be considered in the differential diagnosis of atypical bathtub immersions in the absence of epilepsy and developmental delay.

  9. Mono- versus polydrug abuse patterns among publicly funded clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relyea George

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To examine patterns of mono- versus polydrug abuse, data were obtained from intake records of 69,891 admissions to publicly funded treatment programs in Tennessee between 1998 and 2004. While descriptive statistics were employed to report frequency and patterns of mono- and polydrug abuse by demographic variables and by study years, bivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the probability of being a mono- or polydrug abuser for a number of demographic variables. The researchers found that during the study period 51.3% of admissions reported monodrug abuse and 48.7% reported polydrug abuse. Alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana were the most commonly abused substances, both alone and in combination. Odds ratio favored polydrug abuse for all but one drug category–other drugs. Gender did not affect drug abuse patterns; however, admissions for African Americans and those living in urban areas exhibited higher probabilities of polydrug abuse. Age group also appeared to affect drug abuse patterns, with higher odds of monodrug abuse among minors and adults over 45 years old. The discernable prevalence of polydrug abuse suggests a need for developing effective prevention strategies and treatment plans specific to polydrug abuse.

  10. Disseminated cryptococcal lymphadenitis with negative latex agglutination test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-guang; BI Xin-ling; WU Jian-hua; XU Hong; LIAO Wan-qing

    2012-01-01

    We reported an unusual case of disseminated cryptococcal lymphadenitis in an immunocompetent host who presented with fever and lymphadenopathy,which were the only two symptoms and signs.Latex agglutination test of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were negative,while lymph node biopsy showed Cryptococcus neoformans.A diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcal lymphadenitis was made.Then the patient was treated with amphotericin B for 15 days as initial therapy and itraconazole for 6 months as maintenance therapy respectively.The patient received re-examination per 6 months and was followed up for 2 years.Swollen lymph nodes diminished gradually,and no fever or other symptoms were found.Latex agglutination test of serum and CSF were negative throughout the follow-up period,and anti-HIV,syphilis and tuberculosis antibody were all negative.

  11. Editorial opinion: public dissemination of raw turbulence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillero, Juan A.; Jiménez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Many of the papers in this issue deal with processing of pre-existing large-scale turbulence data. We argue here that there is a certain urgency to the discussion of whether raw data should be made publicly available within the turbulence community, and of which are the best procedures, technology and rules for possible dissemination. Besides expressing the personal opinion that such sharing would be advantageous for the field, the urgency mostly arises from the danger that funding agencies and other institutions would otherwise set standards without proper community input. The experience of the Madrid School of Aeronautics with the dissemination of numerical simulation results is briefly reviewed, including the present technological solutions and usage statistics.

  12. Scientific knowledge dissemination in Danish seed communities of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Misfeldt, Morten; Boelt, Birte

    2012-01-01

    scientific knowledge communication. Theoretically, we consider these actors participants in different communities of practice relating to the production of seeds (Seed-CoP), and we conclude that strong network collaboration is present among Danish seed-CoP effectuated by the valuable work undertaken...... by the consultants. We discovered a divergence in knowledge dissemination among the growers – an innovative group of growers with a high demand for new scientific knowledge versus a majority of growers content with the level of knowledge provided by the consultants. ‘Time’ was recognized as an important parameter......, as only the innovative growers prioritized time allocation for additional knowledge search. To improve scientific knowledge dissemination and interdisciplinary collaboration among Danish seed-CoP we recommend a combination of face-to-face and online communication processes....

  13. [A case of disseminated gonococcal infection without typical skin rash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Kazuhisa; Gomi, Harumi; Morisawa, Yuji

    2011-07-01

    Few case reports have been published on disseminated gonococcal infection in Japan. We report such a non-HIV case without typical skin rash. A 49-year-old Japanese man living in Thailand on business was seen for fever and multiple arthralgia after returning to Japan. Given the travel history, differential diagnoses included endemic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue fever, and chikungunya. Diagnosis was based on right-knee arthrocentesis, and synovial fluid culture followed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The isolated strain was sensitive to penicillin. The man was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone and oral levofloxacin. Disseminated gonococcal infection should thus be considered when examining those with classical polyarthralgia symptoms even without a typical skin rash.

  14. Multiagent Based Information Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Manvi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs are a compelling application of ad hoc networks, because of the potential to access specific context information (e.g. traffic conditions, service updates, route planning and deliver multimedia services (Voice over IP, in-car entertainment, instant messaging, etc.. This paper proposes an agent based information dissemination model for VANETs. A two-tier agent architecture is employed comprising of the following: 1 'lightweight', network-facing, mobile agents; 2 'heavyweight', application-facing, norm-aware agents. The limitations of VANETs lead us to consider a hybrid wireless network architecture that includes Wireless LAN/Cellular and ad hoc networking for analyzing the proposed model. The proposed model provides flexibility, adaptability and maintainability for traffic information dissemination in VANETs as well as supports robust and agile network management. The proposed model has been simulated in various network scenarios to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach.

  15. Congestion Reduction Using Ad hoc Message Dissemination in Vehicular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hewer, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle communications can be used effectively for intelligent transport systems (ITS) and location-aware services. The ability to disseminate information in an ad-hoc fashion allows pertinent information to propagate faster through the network. In the realm of ITS, the ability to spread warning information faster and further is of great advantage to the receivers of this information. In this paper we propose and present a message-dissemination procedure that uses vehicular wireless protocols for influencing traffic flow, reducing congestion in road networks. The computational experiments presented in this paper show how an intelligent driver model (IDM) and car-following model can be adapted to 'react' to the reception of information. This model also presents the advantages of coupling together traffic modelling tools and network simulation tools.

  16. Modelling information dissemination under privacy concerns in social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Huang, Cheng; Lu, Rongxing; Li, Hui

    2016-05-01

    Social media has recently become an important platform for users to share news, express views, and post messages. However, due to user privacy preservation in social media, many privacy setting tools are employed, which inevitably change the patterns and dynamics of information dissemination. In this study, a general stochastic model using dynamic evolution equations was introduced to illustrate how privacy concerns impact the process of information dissemination. Extensive simulations and analyzes involving the privacy settings of general users, privileged users, and pure observers were conducted on real-world networks, and the results demonstrated that user privacy settings affect information differently. Finally, we also studied the process of information diffusion analytically and numerically with different privacy settings using two classic networks.

  17. Multilocular disseminated Tarlov cysts: Importance of imaging and management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, Subramanyam; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

    2012-04-01

    With technological advancements and wider availability of multimodality imaging, incidental lesions are frequently identified in patients undergoing various imaging studies. We report here a case of multiloculated disseminated perineural or Tarlov cysts (TCs). The primary aim of this case study was to (1) provide a comprehensive review of the clinical, imaging, and histopathological features of TCs (2) to draw attention to the fact that multiple lumbosacral and dorsal TCs can produce nerve injuries and serious movement disturbances, and (3) to document the usefulness of the magnetic resonance imaging and bone scan in non-invasive diagnosis and guiding management in such cases. These cysts are clearly identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography imaging of the lumbosacral spine. However, there are no reports on the scintigraphic findings of multilocular disseminated TC in literature. TCs are typically benign, asymptomatic lesions that can simply be monitored. To date, no consensus exists about the best surgical strategy to use when indicated.

  18. GigaDB: promoting data dissemination and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Tam P; Zhe, Xiao Si; Edmunds, Scott C; Li, Peter; Goodman, Laurie; Hunter, Christopher I

    2014-01-01

    Often papers are published where the underlying data supporting the research are not made available because of the limitations of making such large data sets publicly and permanently accessible. Even if the raw data are deposited in public archives, the essential analysis intermediaries, scripts or software are frequently not made available, meaning the science is not reproducible. The GigaScience journal is attempting to address this issue with the associated data storage and dissemination portal, the GigaScience database (GigaDB). Here we present the current version of GigaDB and reveal plans for the next generation of improvements. However, most importantly, we are soliciting responses from you, the users, to ensure that future developments are focused on the data storage and dissemination issues that still need resolving. Database URL: http://www.gigadb.org.

  19. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in an immunocompetent pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts, which is associated with abnormal cellular immunity. Case presentation A 26-year-old pregnant woman presented with fever and general weakness. Miliary lung nodules were noted on chest X-ray. Under the impression of miliary tuberculosis, anti-tuberculosis medication was administered. However, the patient was not improved. Further work-up demonstrated MAC in the sputum and placenta. The patient was treated successfully with clarithromycin-based combination regimen. Conclusion This appears to be the first case of disseminated MAC in an otherwise healthy pregnant woman. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of MAC infection in diverse clinical conditions.

  20. A case of adult onset disseminated juvenile xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havva Hilal Ayvaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JX is a rare, benign, non-Langerhans histiocytic proliferative disease that etiology is unknown. It is usually seen in children and infants. JX in adult is very rare. A 41-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with papules on her face, torso and extremities. A few lesions had occured 3 years ago on her face, they disseminated all over her body after having a traffic accident one year ago which for she had operations and she also concurrently was diagnosed asdiabetes mellitus (DM. Based on clinical and histopathological findings, the diagnosis of JX was made. There is no systemic involvement of JX detected. JX seen in adults are very rare and usually associated with hematological malignancy. The present case is a rare adult onset disseminated JX case without malignancy

  1. Reframing the dissemination challenge: a marketing and distribution perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Matthew W; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2009-12-01

    A fundamental obstacle to successful dissemination and implementation of evidence-based public health programs is the near-total absence of systems and infrastructure for marketing and distribution. We describe the functions of a marketing and distribution system, and we explain how it would help move effective public health programs from research to practice. Then we critically evaluate the 4 dominant strategies now used to promote dissemination and implementation, and we explain how each would be enhanced by marketing and distribution systems. Finally, we make 6 recommendations for building the needed system infrastructure and discuss the responsibility within the public health community for implementation of these recommendations. Without serious investment in such infrastructure, application of proven solutions in public health practice will continue to occur slowly and rarely.

  2. [Disseminated mucormycosis in immunocompetent patients: A disease that also exists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo Laderas, Juan Carlos; Pontes Moreno, Antonio; Pozo Salido, Carmen; Robles Arista, Juan Carlos; Linares Sicilia, María José

    2015-01-01

    Mucormycosis is usually an acute angioinvasive infections, which leads to non-suppurative necrosis and significant tissue damage. It represents 1.6% of all the invasive fungal infections and predominates in immunosuppressed patients with risk factors. Incidence has been significantly increased even in immunocompetent patients. Due to finding a case of disseminated mucormycosis caused by Rhizomucor pusillus in a young immunocompetent patient, a systematic review was carried out of reported cases in PubMed of mucormycosis in immunocompetent adults according to the main anatomic locations, and especially in disseminated cases. A review of the main risk factors and pathogenicity, clinical manifestations, techniques of early diagnosis, current treatment options, and prognosis is presented. Taxonomy and classification of the genus Mucor has also been reviewed.

  3. Concept of scientific wildlife conservation and its dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue-Hong; Wan, Xiao-Tong; Jin, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Wei

    2016-09-18

    In recent years, wildlife conservation has attracted great public attention. However, substantial distinctions can be found in the prevailing concepts of wildlife conservation, particularly with the recent notion that emphasizes animal rights. Wildlife welfare and wildlife rights are not synonymous, with welfare more compatible with the reasonable and legal utilization of wildlife. The key to scientific wildlife conservation is the appropriate awareness and appreciation of the relationship between wildlife conservation and utilization and the theoretical basis of holism. Nevertheless, rational biases regarding the public's understanding of wildlife conservation and the spread of information via social media still exist. As such, expansion of the concept of scientific wildlife conservation requires the application of several measures. Wildlife conservation researchers should be regarded as the most important disseminators of scientifically-based information, with education in schools and universities of growing importance. Furthermore, the media should shoulder the social responsibility for the accurate dissemination of conservation information.

  4. Mexican journals of educational research towards mainstream dissemination of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera-Flores, Mayer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the Electronic Journal of Educational Research (REDIE on its path towards the common manner of scientific dissemination. This research presents the evolution of Mexican policy with regards to the journals, the situation of the Educational Research Mexican journals, and its profundity relating to REDIE. In its evolution, there were three moments that stood out the most: the standardization of quality criteria, the digitalization and open access of the scientific journals, those that came together with REDIE like REDALYC and LATINDEX , and the individual initiatives of those journals that motivated the development of the scientific dissemination in Mexico. The investigation concludes with the realization of the necessity of achieving agreement on the efforts of various principal actors: governmental bodies, institutions, and academic communities.

  5. Overcoming Legal Limitations in Disseminating Slovene Web Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Web texts are becoming increasingly relevant sources of information, with web corpora useful for corpus linguistic studies and development of language technologies. Even though web texts are directly accessable, which substantially simplifies the collection procedure compilation of web corpora is still complex, time consuming and expensive. It is crucial that similar endeavours are not repeated, which is why it is necessary to make the created corpora easily and widely accessible both to researchers and a wider audience. While this is logistically and technically a straightforward procedure, legal constraints, such as copyright, privacy and terms of use severely hinder the dissemination of web corpora. This paper discusses legal conditions and actual practice in this area, gives an overview of current practices and proposes a range of mitigation measures on the example of the Janes corpus of Slovene user-generated content in order to ensure free and open dissemination of Slovene web corpora.

  6. Topology for efficient information dissemination in ad-hoc networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, E.; Okino, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the information dissemination problem in ad-hoc wirless networks. First, we analyze the probability of successful broadcast, assuming: the nodes are uniformly distributed, the available area has a lower bould relative to the total number of nodes, and there is zero knowledge of the overall topology of the network. By showing that the probability of such events is small, we are motivated to extract good graph topologies to minimize the overall transmissions. Three algorithms are used to generate topologies of the network with guaranteed connectivity. These are the minimum radius graph, the relative neighborhood graph and the minimum spanning tree. Our simulation shows that the relative neighborhood graph has certain good graph properties, which makes it suitable for efficient information dissemination.

  7. JPEG2000 and dissemination of cultural heritage over the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politou, Eugenia A; Pavlidis, George P; Chamzas, Christodoulos

    2004-03-01

    By applying the latest technologies in image compression for managing the storage of massive image data within cultural heritage databases and by exploiting the universality of the Internet we are now able not only to effectively digitize, record and preserve, but also to promote the dissemination of cultural heritage. In this work we present an application of the latest image compression standard JPEG2000 in managing and browsing image databases, focusing on the image transmission aspect rather than database management and indexing. We combine the technologies of JPEG2000 image compression with client-server socket connections and client browser plug-in, as to provide with an all-in-one package for remote browsing of JPEG2000 compressed image databases, suitable for the effective dissemination of cultural heritage.

  8. Disseminated histoplasmosis causing reversible gaze palsy and optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J D; Girkin, C A; Miller, N R; Mann, R B

    1999-06-01

    Subacute disseminated histoplasmosis is an uncommon entity. Typical neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations are usually secondary to histoplasmomas or encephalitis. A 45-year-old man noted blurred vision while receiving empiric antituberculosis therapy for fever and diffuse granulomatous disease of unknown origin. Vertical-gaze palsy, right horizontal-gaze paresis, and mild right optic neuropathy were found on neuro-ophthalmologic examination. Further questioning revealed a history of frequent contact with fighting cocks from South America. Magnetic resonance images were consistent with multiple hemorrhagic infarcts, areas of inflammation, or both, and cerebral angiography showed changes consistent with vasculitis. A previously obtained biopsy specimen from the duodenum was restained and found to be positive for fungal elements. Serum antigen titers for Histoplasma capsulatum demonstrated evidence of active infection. This case is a rare example of a supranuclear ocular motility disturbance and optic neuropathy secondary to an occlusive vascular process in a patient with subacute disseminated histoplasmosis.

  9. Promising Website Practices for Disseminating Research on Family-School Partnerships to the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavkin, Nancy Feyl; Chavkin, Allan

    2008-01-01

    The issue of research dissemination via websites is part of the larger research utilization question, and the authors begin with a review of literature on the theory and best practices in dissemination. The second part of the study involves an exploratory examination of the websites and dissemination practices of 30 research centers focusing on…

  10. National Dissemination Conference. Proceedings. (9th, Kansas City, Missouri, June 22-24, 1976).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlig, Richard K.

    The objectives of this conference included (1) bringing conferees in contact with leaders of recent national dissemination endeavors, (2) allowing them to interact in voicing dissemination problems and posing possible solutions, and (3) eliciting concerns related to dissemination/diffusion efforts. The proceedings include lists of the…

  11. 34 CFR 412.31 - What existing dissemination systems must be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... existing dissemination systems must be used? In carrying out its activities, each CCC must use existing dissemination systems, including the National Diffusion Network and the National Center or Centers for Research... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What existing dissemination systems must be used?...

  12. Disseminating Chronic Disease Prevention "to or with" Canadian Public Health Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Jeffrey R.; Robinson, Kerry; Elliott, Susan; Eyles, John

    2009-01-01

    This article follows a conceptual article published in this journal by Elliott et al. and provides an empirical evaluation of the Canadian Heart Health Initiative-Dissemination Phase. Between 1994 and 2005, seven provincial research teams of the Canadian Heart Health Initiative-Dissemination Phase undertook projects to disseminate and evaluate the…

  13. Disseminated lymphoma presenting as acute thigh pain and renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    A 66-year-old diabetic man presented with severe right thigh swelling and pain together with acute renal failure. At autopsy, this was found to be due to disseminated high grade B cell lymphoma invading the psoas muscle and multiple organs, including the kidneys. The unique presentation of this case emphasizes the need for increased awareness of the variety of ways in which lymphoma can manifest itself.

  14. Visualization and dissemination of global crustal models on virtual globes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang-feng; Pan, Xin; Sun, Jian-zhong

    2016-05-01

    Global crustal models, such as CRUST 5.1 and its descendants, are very useful in a broad range of geoscience applications. The current method for representing the existing global crustal models relies heavily on dedicated computer programs to read and work with those models. Therefore, it is not suited to visualize and disseminate global crustal information to non-geological users. This shortcoming is becoming obvious as more and more people from both academic and non-academic institutions are interested in understanding the structure and composition of the crust. There is a pressing need to provide a modern, universal and user-friendly method to represent and visualize the existing global crustal models. In this paper, we present a systematic framework to easily visualize and disseminate the global crustal structure on virtual globes. Based on crustal information exported from the existing global crustal models, we first create a variety of KML-formatted crustal models with different levels of detail (LODs). And then the KML-formatted models can be loaded into a virtual globe for 3D visualization and model dissemination. A Keyhole Markup Language (KML) generator (Crust2KML) is developed to automatically convert crustal information obtained from the CRUST 1.0 model into KML-formatted global crustal models, and a web application (VisualCrust) is designed to disseminate and visualize those models over the Internet. The presented framework and associated implementations can be conveniently exported to other applications to support visualizing and analyzing the Earth's internal structure on both regional and global scales in a 3D virtual-globe environment.

  15. First case of disseminated cryptococcosis in a Gorilla gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischnik, Alexander; Stockklausner, Julia; Hohneder, Nicole; Jensen, Henrik E; Zimmermann, Stefan; Reuss, David E; Rickerts, Volker; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Stockklausner, Clemens

    2014-11-01

    In humans, Cryptococcus mainly infects individuals with HIV infection or other types of immunosuppression. Here, we report the first case of disseminated cryptococcosis in a simian immunodeficiency virus-negative 27-year-old female Gorilla gorilla presenting with lethargy, progressive weight loss and productive cough. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive lung biopsy culture, serum cryptococcal antigen, and cerebral histopathology demonstrating encapsulated yeasts. Molecular characterisation of lung culture isolate yielded Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. An immune-deficiency could not be demonstrated.

  16. Disseminated Streptococcus pneumoniae infection involving a ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J S; Rajagopalan, N; Huaman, M A

    2015-08-01

    We describe the first reported case, to our knowledge, of disseminated pneumococcal infection involving a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). The management of this infection was extremely challenging, requiring multiple surgical debridements, LVAD removal, and prolonged courses of antibiotics. The Streptococcus pneumoniae isolate was found to be serotype 19F, which is included in both the pneumococcal polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines. This report highlights the importance of routine screening for up-to-date vaccination in patients who undergo LVAD implantation.

  17. Macrophage Function in Early Dissemination and Dormancy of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    of Oncological Sciences, The Immunology Institute, Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA 3Department of...cell 13, 58-68. Joyce, J. A., and Pollard, J. W. (2009). Microenvironmental regulation of metastasis. Nature reviews Cancer 9, 239-252. Kaplan, R. N...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0365 TITLE: Macrophage Functions in Early Dissemination and Dormancy of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nina

  18. Efficient Information Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks using Mobile Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    a large number of mobile sinks. They describe the SEAD (Scalable Energy-efficient Asynchronous Dissemination) protocol to build and maintain an...the most loaded sensor node ( Emax ) can be approximated as follows. Sensors that are only one hop away from the sink towards the event location (i.e...is proportional to the ratio of A1/A0, i.e., (12) where (13) (14) Thus, Emax is a linear function of the distance d between the sink

  19. Survey Study of Moso Bamboo Management Techniques Dissemination in Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By PRA survey to 1 245 farmer households of 10 key Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) production counties, the source and demand of the management techniques in Zhejiang were studied. The conducted principal factor analysis revealed that experience and traditional knowledge are currently major technical sources of farmer households' Moso bamboo forest management techniques and that the demonstrative household is a highly expected technical source, in which the prime factor is interpersonal dissemination ...

  20. Ultrasound, CT and MRI of ruptured and disseminated hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N. von (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Department of Radiology)

    Three cases of echinococcus granulosus with rupture of hydatid cysts and widespread abdominal, pelvic of pleural dissemination are described. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed recognition of ruptured hydatid cysts. This assisted to come to an appropriate therapy and exclusion or confirmation of hydatid cysts elsewhere in the body. Ultrasound, CT and MRI are also important for follow-up, evaluation of therapeutic response and/or early diagnosis of recurrence. (author). 22 refs.; 3 figs.

  1. Disseminated Histoplasmosis with Oral Manifestation in an Immunocompetent Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Aishwarya; Agarwal, Manoj; Mathur, Meetu; Mathur, Setu; Mallikarjun, R.; Banerjee, Subrata

    2017-01-01

    A case of disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) in a 60-year-old female patient is reported from Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. The patient presented with multiple papules on the skin surrounding the lips, face, torso, trunk, and back. She also complained of growth in the palate. Histoplasmosis was confirmed by biopsy and histopathology of skin and palatal lesions. This case report highlights the presenting features and occurrence of histoplasmosis in nonendemic region in India. PMID:28255468

  2. Disseminated Chrysosporium infection in a German shepherd dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Cook

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated Chrysosporium spp. infection was diagnosed in a German shepherd dog based on a positive fungal culture and cytological findings of intralesional fungi associated with granulomatous splenitis and neutrophilic lymphadenitis. The clinical presentation that could mimic a multicentric lymphoma, including markedly enlarged lymph nodes and a very abnormal splenic appearance on ultrasound makes this case even more atypical. The patient showed rapid clinical improvement on oral posaconazole and remains clinically stable ten months after diagnosis.

  3. Dissemination of information to General Practitioners: a questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortnum Heather

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early identification of permanent hearing impairment in children enables appropriate intervention which reduces adverse developmental outcomes. The UK Government has introduced a universal hearing screening programme for neonates. All involved health professionals, including those in Primary Care, need to be aware of the service to enable them to offer appropriate support to their patients. A programme of information dissemination within Primary Care was therefore undertaken. The aim of the current study was to determine the extent to which the information had reached General Practitioners (GPs, the GPs' preferred mode of dissemination and the sources from which GPs accessed information Methods Postal questionnaire survey of a randomised sample of 1000 GPs in the Phase I pilot sites of the Neonatal Hearing Screening Programme (NHSP. Results Responses were received from 54.2% of the sample. Just under 50% of those responding had received information, 62.2% of respondents said they would like to receive more information and the preferred methods of dissemination were the written word and web-sites to allow access when needed. Few GPs perceive themselves to have a core role in the delivery of the NHSP and thence a need for knowledge in the subject. Many are keen to delegate detail to a third party, usually the health visitor, who has traditionally had responsibility for hearing screening. Conclusions Dissemination efforts for service developments of relevance to GPs should concentrate on advertising a website address via brief but memorable posted literature and/or articles in relevant journals and magazines. The website should be GP-friendly, and have a dedicated area for GPs including information of specific relevance and downloadable information sheets.

  4. Endothelial JAM-A promotes reovirus viremia and bloodstream dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Caroline M; Boehme, Karl W; Pruijssers, Andrea J; Parekh, Vrajesh V; Van Kaer, Luc; Parkos, Charles A; Dermody, Terence S

    2015-02-01

    Viruses that cause systemic disease often spread through the bloodstream to infect target tissues. Although viremia is an important step in the pathogenesis of many viruses, how viremia is established is not well understood. Reovirus has been used to dissect mechanisms of viral pathogenesis and is being evaluated in clinical trials as an oncolytic agent. After peroral entry into mice, reovirus replicates within the gastrointestinal tract and disseminates systemically via hematogenous or neural routes. Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is a tight junction protein that serves as a receptor for reovirus. JAM-A is required for establishment of viremia and viral spread to sites of secondary replication. JAM-A also is expressed on the surface of circulating hematopoietic cells. To determine contributions of endothelial and hematopoietic JAM-A to reovirus dissemination and pathogenesis, we generated strains of mice with altered JAM-A expression in these cell types and assessed bloodstream spread of reovirus strain type 1 Lang (T1L), which disseminates solely by hematogenous routes. We found that endothelial JAM-A but not hematopoietic JAM-A facilitates reovirus T1L bloodstream entry and egress. Understanding how viruses establish viremia may aid in development of inhibitors of this critical step in viral pathogenesis and foster engineering of improved oncolytic viral vectors.

  5. A Personalized Information Dissemination System Based on How-Net

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 杜小勇; 王珊

    2002-01-01

    The information dissemination model is becoming increasingly important inwide-area information systems. In this model, a user subscribes to an information disseminationservice by submitting profiles that describe his interests. There have been several simple kindsof information dissemination services on the Internet such as mailing list, but the problemis that it provides a crude granularity of interest matching. A user whose information needdoes not exactly match certain lists will either receive too many irrelevant or too few relevantmessages. This paper presents a personalized information dissemination model based on How-Net, which uses a Concept Network-Views (CN-V) model to support information filtering, user'sinterests modeling and information recommendation. A Concept Network is constructed uponthe user's profiles and the content of documents, which describes concepts and their relationsin the content and assigns different weights to these concepts. Usually the Concept Network isnot well arranged, from which it is hard to find some useful relations, so several views from areextracted it to represent the important relations explicitly.

  6. Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection in a FIV-positive cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M S; Ball, N W; Love, D N; Canfield, P J; Wigney, D I; Dawson, D; Davis, P E; Malik, R

    1999-03-01

    An 8-year-old FIV-positive Australian cat was presented with coughing, periocular alopecia, pyrexia and inappetence. Skin scrapings demonstrated Demodex cati mites. Antibiotics were administered and it was treated successfully for periocular demodectic mange, but the cat continued to exhibit respiratory signs and lose weight. Further investigation revealed an ascarid infection and active chronic inflammation of undetected cause affecting the lower airways. Repetitive treatment with pyrantel failed to eradicate the ascarid infection. The cat became cachectic and developed moist ulcerative dermatitis of the neck, severe non-regenerative anaemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. Necropsy and histopathology revealed mycobacteriosis affecting skin, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes, liver and kidney. Attempted culture of frozen tissues at a mycobacteria reference laboratory was unsuccessful. Paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue was retrieved and examined using PCR to amplify part of the 16S rRNA gene. A diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection was made based on the presence of acid fast bacteria in many tissues and partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Although M genavense has been identified previously as a cause of disseminated disease in AIDS patients, this is the first report of infection in a cat. It was suspected that the demodecosis, recurrent ascarid infections and disseminated M genavense infection resulted from an immune deficiency syndrome consequent to longstanding FIV infection.

  7. Predicting links based on knowledge dissemination in complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Jia, Yifan

    2017-04-01

    Link prediction is the task of mining the missing links in networks or predicting the next vertex pair to be connected by a link. A lot of link prediction methods were inspired by evolutionary processes of networks. In this paper, a new mechanism for the formation of complex networks called knowledge dissemination (KD) is proposed with the assumption of knowledge disseminating through the paths of a network. Accordingly, a new link prediction method-knowledge dissemination based link prediction (KDLP)-is proposed to test KD. KDLP characterizes vertex similarity based on knowledge quantity (KQ) which measures the importance of a vertex through H-index. Extensive numerical simulations on six real-world networks demonstrate that KDLP is a strong link prediction method which performs at a higher prediction accuracy than four well-known similarity measures including common neighbors, local path index, average commute time and matrix forest index. Furthermore, based on the common conclusion that an excellent link prediction method reveals a good evolving mechanism, the experiment results suggest that KD is a considerable network evolving mechanism for the formation of complex networks.

  8. Disseminating Comparative Effectiveness Research Through Community-based Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Margaret; Stevenson, Lynn; Davis, Brandy R.; Evans, R. Lee

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To launch and evaluate a comparative effectiveness research education and dissemination program as part of an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE). Methods. First- through third-year PharmD students received training on comparative effectiveness research and disseminated printed educational materials to patients in the community who they were monitoring longitudinally (n=314). Students completed an assessment and initial visit documentation form at the first visit, and a follow-up assessment and documentation form at a subsequent visit. Results. Twenty-three diabetes patients, 29 acid-reflux patients, 30 osteoarthritis patients, and 50 hypertension patients received materials. Aside from the patient asking questions, which was the most common outcome (n=44), the program resulted in 38 additional actions, which included stopping, starting, or changing treatments or health behaviors, or having additional follow-up or diagnostic testing. Small but positive improvements in patient understanding, confidence, and self-efficacy were observed. Conclusions. Dissemination of comparative effectiveness research materials in an IPPE program demonstrated a positive trend in markers of informed decision-making. PMID:28289299

  9. [Child psychiatric assessment and the debate regarding the abuse of abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegert, J M

    1995-03-01

    The current discussion on false allegations in sexual abuse cases has led to a polarization in the views expressed about the credibility of children. Some authors even speak of a "child sexual accuse syndrome" or of a "sexual abuse allegation in divorce" (SAID) syndrome. A phenomenological analysis of the multiple reasons for misinterpretations is presented. Instead of stressing the importance only of false positives in child sexual abuse questions, an attempt is made to describe reasons for false negatives. Based on a retrospective analysis of 50 consecutive child psychiatric experts in connection with court cases, there does not appear to be an increase in false accusations. Rather, only about one third of the cases even involved suspected sexual abuse. Sexual abuse allegations were much more frequent in girls than in boys. Of 20 abuse allegations we judge four to be false allegations. In only one of these cases, that of an adolescent girl who had been abused in childhood, was the false allegation intended.

  10. Assessment of Substances Abuse in Burn Patients by Using Drug Abuse Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Gaseminegad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the frequency of substance abuse among hospitalized burn injury patients. However, few studies have investigated substance abuse among burn patients. This study was aimed to identify the incidence of substance abuse in burn injury patients using the "Drug Abuse Screening Test" (DAST-20. We determined the validity of DAST-20 in spring 2010. Subsequently, this descriptive study was performed on 203 burn injury patients who fit the study's inclusion criteria. We chose a score of 6 as the cutoff and thus achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 85% for the DAST-20. During the study, we gathered demographic data, burn features and DAST-20 results for all patients. Patients with scores of 6 or more were considered to be substances abusers. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS v16 software. According to the DAST-20 results, 33% of the patients were in the user group. The mean score of DAST-20 was significantly higher among users than it was among nonusers (P<0.05. The level of substance abuse was severe in 77% of users. No significant differences were found among the substances, with the exception of alcohol. Substance abuse is an important risk factor for burn patients. In addition, this study showed that DAST-20 is a valid screening measure for studies on burn patients.

  11. Cultures of Abuse: ‘Sex Grooming’, Organised Abuse and Race in Rochdale, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Salter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Revelations of organised abuse by men of Asian heritage in the United Kingdom have become a recurrent feature of international media coverage of sexual abuse in recent years. This paper reflects on the similarities between the highly publicised ‘sex grooming’ prosecutions in Rochdale in 2012 and the allegations of organised abuse in Rochdale that emerged in 1990, when twenty children were taken into care after describing sadistic abuse by their parents and others. While these two cases differ in important aspects, this paper highlights the prominence of colonial ideologies of civilisation and barbarism in the investigation and media coverage of the two cases and the sublimation of the issue of child welfare. There are important cultural and normative antecedents to sexual violence but these have been misrepresented in debates over organised abuse as racial issues and attributed to ethnic minority communities. In contrast, the colonialist trope promulgating the fictional figure of the rational European has resulted in the denial of the cultural and normative dimensions of organised abuse in ethnic majority communities by attributing sexual violence to aberrant and sexually deviant individuals whose behaviours transgress the boundaries of accepted cultural norms. This paper emphasises how the implicit or explicit focus on race has served to obscure the power dynamics underlying both cases and the continuity of vulnerability that places children at risk of sexual and organised abuse.

  12. An integral approach to substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodia, Diana S; Cano, Carol; Eliason, Michele J

    2005-12-01

    There is a pressing need in the substance abuse field for more comprehensive models of etiology and treatment that address the complex issues of addiction, including the biological, social, cultural, spiritual and developmental needs of individuals and groups. This article presents a theoretical framework for an integral approach to substance abuse that expands on the existing biopsychosocial model. One contribution of the model is an integrated approach to spirituality from a cross-cultural perspective. This integral approach examines substance abuse etiology and treatment from a four-quadrant perspective adapted from the work of Ken Wilber, and incorporates concepts from integrative medicine and transpersonal psychology/psychiatry. Implications of the model are explored.

  13. Gender-based abuse: the global epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Heise

    Full Text Available Gender Based violence-including rape, domestic violence, murder and sexual abuse-is a profund health problem for women across the globe. Although a significant cause of female morbidity and mortality, violence against women has only recently begun to be recognized as an issue for public health. This paper draws together existing data on the dimensions of violence against women worldwide and reviews available literature on the health consequences of abuse. It argues that the health sector has an important role to play in combatting violence against women through increased research, screening and referral of victims, and behavioral interventions. Any strategy to confrnt violence must address the root causes of abuse in addition to meeting the immediate needs of victims. This means challenging the social attitudes and beliefs that undergird men's violence and renegotiating the balance of power between women and men at all levels of society.

  14. Macrotheories: child physical punishment, injury and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Judy

    2005-08-01

    This is the first paper in a series of two that focus on causational factors that contribute to child physical punishment and the continuum between physical punishment, injury and child physical abuse. The papers will explore macro and microtheoretical perspectives, examine their influence on child discipline and child physical abuse and propose a framework to guide and inform professional practice in the field of child physical maltreatment Paper one introduces the reader to the political context of child physical discipline and analyses current definitions. The extent of punishment and injuries sustained is explored and the relationship between macrotheoretical perspectives examined. The paper concludes by highlighting the continuum between child physical punishment and child physical abuse.

  15. Amphetamine Abuse Related Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphetamine abuse is a global problem. The cardiotoxic manifestations like acute myocardial infarction (AMI, heart failure, or arrhythmia related to misuse of amphetamine and its synthetic derivatives have been documented but are rather rare. Amphetamine-related AMI is even rarer. We report two cases of men who came to emergency department (ED with chest pain, palpitation, or seizure and were subsequently found to have myocardial infarction associated with the use of amphetamines. It is crucial that, with increase in amphetamine abuse, clinicians are aware of this potentially dire complication. Patients with low to intermediate risk for coronary artery disease with atypical presentation may benefit from obtaining detailed substance abuse history and urine drug screen if deemed necessary.

  16. Gender-based abuse: the global epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heise Lori

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender Based violence-including rape, domestic violence, murder and sexual abuse-is a profund health problem for women across the globe. Although a significant cause of female morbidity and mortality, violence against women has only recently begun to be recognized as an issue for public health. This paper draws together existing data on the dimensions of violence against women worldwide and reviews available literature on the health consequences of abuse. It argues that the health sector has an important role to play in combatting violence against women through increased research, screening and referral of victims, and behavioral interventions. Any strategy to confrnt violence must address the root causes of abuse in addition to meeting the immediate needs of victims. This means challenging the social attitudes and beliefs that undergird men's violence and renegotiating the balance of power between women and men at all levels of society.

  17. Substance Abuse and Prison Recidivism: Themes from Qualitative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lindsay A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.

  18. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affects Young Adults Most Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most Email Facebook Twitter Text Description of Infographic Young adults (age 18 to 25) are the biggest abusers of prescription (Rx) opioid pain relievers, ADHD stimulants, ...

  19. Preventing Growth Hormone Abuse: An Emerging Health Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, George L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Facts about growth hormone abuse should be incorporated into substance abuse components of health education curriculums. Sources, uses, and dangers associated with human growth hormones are discussed. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  20. Supervisor's HEXACO personality traits and subordinate perceptions of abusive supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, Kimberley; Vries, de Reinout E.

    2017-01-01

    Abusive supervision is detrimental to both subordinates and organizations. Knowledge about individual differences in personality related to abusive supervision may improve personnel selection and potentially reduce the harmful effects of this type of leadership. Using the HEXACO personality framewor

  1. Kids with Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Kids With Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol: Study And those who also have conduct disorder ... with bipolar disorder, the risk that they will abuse alcohol and drugs may increase as they get older, ...

  2. HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DrugFacts » HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics Email Facebook ... to AIDS, greatly prolonging lives. What Exactly Is HIV/AIDS? HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. This ...

  3. Mixed News on Drug Abuse Among Lesbian, Gay Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161477.html Mixed News on Drug Abuse Among Lesbian, Gay Americans This group is more ... said Kana Enomoto, deputy principal administrator at the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). She spoke ...

  4. Skeletal imaging of child abuse (non-accidental injury)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offiah, A.; van Rijn, R.R.; Perez-Rossello, J.M.; Kleinman, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years there has been a worldwide increased awareness that children are physically abused by their carers. Radiologists play a vital role in the detection of inflicted injuries. This article reviews the skeletal imaging findings seen in child abuse

  5. MODUS OPERANDI OF SEXUAL ABUSERS AND THEIR GROOMING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miraç Burak GÖNÜLTAŞ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse has detrimental effects on both psychological and sociological development of children. In recent years, attention of sexual abuse and abuser has increased because of missing and abducted children. According to literature, sexual abusers are more opportunist and agile than offenders of other crime types. Academic researches related to sexual absusers aim to understand how to sexual abusers groom children and their methods. Therefore these studies intend to prevent sexual abuse, because sexual abuse harms victim seriously and irreversibly. The present study is compilation in that the researches conducted in this field are gathered in context to modus operandi and sexual grooming. Thus, it aims to remark attention to this field and to present some proposal for the prevention of sexual abuse in our country

  6. Study Ties Alcohol Abuse to Increased Heart Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162836.html Study Ties Alcohol Abuse to Increased Heart Risks Association similar to that ... 2009. About 2 percent had been diagnosed with alcohol abuse. The researchers adjusted statistics so they wouldn't ...

  7. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data System Glossary Listen Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, ... This document is the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), including terms from ...

  8. Childhood Predictors of Adult Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Irma; Chen, Chin-Chih; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2010-08-01

    Identification of the early determinants of substance abuse is a major focus of life course research. In this study, we investigated the child, family, and school-related antecedents of the onset and prevalence of substance abuse by age 26 for a cohort of 1,208 low-income minority children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Data onon well-being have been collected prospectively since birth from administrative records, parents, teachers, and children. Results indicated that the prevalence of substance abuse by age 26 was 32 percent (self reports or criminal justice system records) with a median age of first use of 17. Probit regression analysis indicated that substance abuse prevalence was primarily determined by gender (males had a higher rate), trouble making behavior by age 12, school mobility, and previous substance use. Family and peer predictors included involvement in the child welfare system by age 9, parent expectations for school success at age 9, parent substance abuse by children's age 15, and deviant peer affiliation by age 16. Age of first substance use was predicted by gender and race/ethnicity (males and Blacks had earlier incidence), involvement in the child welfare system, and family risk status at age 8. As with prevalence, the pattern of predictors for males was similar to the overall sample but the magnitude of effects was stronger.. The predictors of the timing of substance use dependency were gender, family conflict by age 5, involvement in the child welfare system, social maturity at age 9, adolescent school mobility, and school dropout by age 16. Findings indicate that the promotion of family involvement and positive school and social behavior can reduce the risk of substance abuse.

  9. Interdisciplinary evaluations of alleged sexual abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaudes, P K; Martone, M

    1992-06-01

    Children who are alleged to have been sexually abused often go through gruelling interrogations to relate their experiences to adults and, even then, most are not viewed as reliable sources of information. The Victim Sensitive Interviewing Program (VSIP) was initiated to decrease the number of interviews endured by a child who allegedly had been sexually abused. The program brought together the disciplines involved in the evaluation of these cases: hospital-based social worker and pediatrician, state child protective agency worker, police, and assistant state's attorney. This team established a protocol for an investigative interview to be conducted by a team member. Pre-VSIP sexual abuse evaluations from 1985 and 1986 (38) were compared with VSIP evaluations (226) from 1987 and 1988. There was no significant difference between the two groups in relation to gender or age of victim, physical symptoms, physical findings, sexually transmitted diseases present, age of perpetrator, or length of stay in hospital. However, there were significant differences between the two groups in (1) number of interviews, 11% pre-VSIP vs 79% VSIP receiving only one interview (P less than .001); (2) number of interviewers, 24% pre-VSIP vs 88% VSIP were interviewed by only one interviewer (P less than .001); (3) indicated cases of sexual abuse, 68% pre-VSIP vs 88% VSIP (P less than .006); (4) identification of the perpetrator, 71% pre-VSIP vs 85% VSIP (P less than .035); and (5) charges pressed if perpetrator identified, 33% pre-VSIP vs 60% VSIP (P less than .010). It is concluded that interdisciplinary evaluations of alleged sexual abuse in children not only decreased the number of interviews a child must undergo but also increased the likelihood of indicated cases, identification of the perpetrator, and charges being pressed. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that interdisciplinary teams be formed to assess alleged sexual abuse in children.

  10. DISSEMINATED HISTOPLASMOSIS IN IMMUNOCOMPETENT INDIVIDUALS- NOT A SO RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu De

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Histoplasmosis is a rare fungal disease caused by dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum. The causative fungus is present in soil, infects through inhalation and manifests in three main types-acute primary, chronic cavitary and progressive disseminated Histoplasmosis. Disseminated Histoplasmosis (DH is defined as a clinical condition where fungus is present in more than one location. Among the forms of histoplasmosis, DH is the rarest and generally found in immune-compromised individual. Here we are presenting our experiences of the series of cases of Disseminated Histoplasmosis in immune-competent individuals who have been diagnosed in our institute in last 5 years. Materials and methods: This is a single centre retrospective observational study, from May 2009 to April 2014. Only cases with Disseminated Histoplasmosis in otherwise healthy immune-competent individuals were included in the study. The Histoplasmosis is confirmed by either presence of Histoplasma in biopsy specimen from extra-pulmonary organ or by positive growth in fungal culture Result: Total seven patients met the inclusion criteria. Five out of 7 patients were male. The mean age was 35 years. Five of the 7 patients presented with fever for long duration. Six patients complained of significant weight loss before diagnosis. On examination, one patient had skin nodules, five patients had hepato-splenomegaly, and two patients had lymphadenopathy. The laboratory investigation revealed anaemia in six out of 7 patients, and pancytopenia in 3 patients. Two patients had features of hemophagocytic syndrome in the bone marrow. All of the patient had undergone treatment with conventional amphotericine B  deoxy-cholate and azole antifungal. One patient with adrenal involvement died in hospital. The patient with skin nodule had recurrent relapses. The other patients had resolution of symptoms and clinically cured. Conclusion: Disseminated Histoplasmosis is not an uncommon

  11. Molecular approaches to treatments for cocaine abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen-Anderson, Judith L.; George, Clifford; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.

    2003-02-01

    Cocaine is a potent stimulant of the central nervous system with severe addiction potential. Its abuse is a major problem worldwide. The exact mechanism of action of cocaine is still uncertain but it is known that its reinforcing and stimulant effects are related to its ability to inhibit the membrane bound dopamine transporter (DAT). This paper discusses efforts that are underway to identify ligands for possible use in the treatment of cocaine abuse. Much of this effort has been focussed on understanding cocaine interactions at DAT receptor sites.

  12. Neuroimaging differential diagnoses to abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Aix Marseille University, UMR CNRS 7339, Marseille (France); Brunel, Herve; Dory-Lautrec, Philippe [AP-HM Timone 2, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille cedex 05 (France); Chabrol, Brigitte [AP-HM Timone, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Marseille (France)

    2016-05-15

    Trauma is the most common cause of death in childhood, and abusive head trauma is the most common cause of traumatic death and morbidity in infants younger than 1 year. The main differential diagnosis of abusive head trauma is accidental traumatic brain injury, which is usually witnessed. This paper also discusses more uncommon diagnoses such as congenital and acquired disorders of hemostasis, cerebral arteriovenous malformations and metabolic diseases, all of which are extremely rare. Diagnostic imaging including CT and MRI is very important for the distinction of non-accidental from accidental traumatic injury. (orig.)

  13. Renal infarction secondary to ketamine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Li; Chen, Jin-Li; Cha, Tai-Lung; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Tang, Shou-Hung; Tsao, Chih-Wei; Meng, En

    2013-07-01

    Renal infarction is an uncommon condition that resulted from inadequate perfusion of the kidney and is easily missed diagnosed due to its nonspecific clinical presentations. Major risk factors for renal infarction are atrial fibrillation, previous embolism, and ischemic and valvular heart disease. Progressive decrease in renal function or even death can occur if renal infarction is not diagnosed accurately and promptly. Ketamine abuse may cause variable urinary tract injury. However, renal infarction caused by ketamine abuse has never been reported. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of renal infarction following nasal insufflation of ketamine.

  14. Expanding Slayer Statutes to Elder Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    Common law has a dictum that people must not benefit from their crimes. In years past, states have enacted slayer rules to prevent killers from inheriting from their victims. The specific criteria and applicability of slayer rules vary by jurisdiction. Recently, several states, including Washington, have expanded their slayer rules to disqualify persons from inheriting if they have been involved in abuse or financial exploitation of the deceased. Reviewed herein are the abuse disinheritance laws, the relationship of the laws to concepts of testamentary capacity and undue influence, and the relevance to forensic psychiatric evaluations.

  15. Domestic abuse against minors: A victomological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN M. RĂDULESCU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the main findings of the secondary analysis conducted by the author on the statistics of the Prosecutors' Office with the High Court of Cassation and Justice in the period between 2005 and the first semester of 2007, regarding domestic physical and sexual abuse against minors. The study emphasizes the increase or decrease trends in the number of victims of domestic abuse according to the category of crime (for example manslaughter, battery resulting in death, battery and other types of violence, rape, incest, sexual corruption, etc. as well as in relation to aggressors and victims.

  16. Spouse abuse and other domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, L J

    1988-12-01

    Concern about the different forms of domestic violence continues to escalate. Beginning with identification of child abuse in the 1960s; spouse abuse, primarily of women, in the 1970s; and, most recently, identification of the rising incidence of elder abuse and neglect, the medical community, state, local, and federal governmental agencies and the public continue to promote joint programs to identify, guide to treatment, and simultaneously develop prevention and early intervention programs. Emphasis initially on the use of legal systems to stop, the abuse must almost be mandatory, because numerous studies show that treatment is most successful when abusers are forced to admit to themselves and others that they have, in fact, committed crimes. For women victims, safe refuge, self-help, and advocacy-support groups were found to be effective, whereas children first need the same protection and a great deal of empathy and explanation. Psychiatrists' roles lie in the important area of early diagnosis and treatment, as most domestic abuse victims do not readily admit to this violence, primarily out of shame, guilt, and fear. Numerous studies demonstrate that following a protocol with every patient, in every setting and under every circumstance, psychiatrists must ask about domestic violence when they least suspect it and when other diagnoses are obvious. The multiple etiologies include general sociocultural pressures, such as poverty and crowding, stereotypic sex role socialization, alcohol and drug abuse, history of head injury, and personal childhood abuse. Psychiatric treatment modalities must occur within a framework of acknowledging that domestic violence victims suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatrists can serve as leaders in coordinating multi-pronged treatment options for the victims: advocacy groups; alcohol and drug detoxification; and individual, couple, and family therapy. Psychiatrists can also serve as consultants, leaders, and educators

  17. Forensic child abuse evaluation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraque, Danielle; DeMattia, Amy; Low, Christine

    2006-12-01

    This review discusses the forensic medical and psychological assessments of children and adolescents suspected of being victims of sexual or physical abuse/neglect. Evaluation of the whole child and the need to minimize trauma during the investigative and assessment processes are stressed. The forensic medical examination is reviewed, including the specifics of the pediatric anogenital examination. The key components of the forensic medical examination in sexual assault cases are also reviewed, with particular attention to maintaining the integrity of the process. Special emphasis is placed on the forensic interview in child sexual abuse cases, the best evidence available and areas in need of further research.

  18. Children and animal abuse: Criminological, victimological and criminal justice aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Batrićević Ana

    2011-01-01

    Animal abuse represents a complex social, psychological, criminological, victimological and legal phenomenon whose gravity is increased if a child appears either as the perpetrator or as the observer of violence against animals. Etiology and phenomenology of animal abuse suggest that it tends to overlap with various deviant, delinquent and criminal activities, including physical, emotional and sexual abuse of family or other community members, alcohol and drug abuse, illegal gambling an...

  19. The Intersection of Medical Child Abuse and Medical Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petska, Hillary W; Gordon, John B; Jablonski, Debra; Sheets, Lynn K

    2017-02-01

    Children with medical complexity and victims of medical child abuse may have similar clinical presentations. Atypical or unexplained signs and symptoms due to rare diseases may lead providers to suspect medical child abuse when not present. Conversely, medical child abuse may be the cause of or coexist with medical complexity. Careful consideration of whether or not medical child abuse is present is essential when assessing a child with medical complexity since either diagnosis has significant consequences for children and families.

  20. Heart rate variability biofeedback in adolescent substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurstone, Chris; Lajoie, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Strategies are needed to improve adolescent substance abuse treatment outcomes. For example, during outpatient substance abuse treatment, up to 80% of adolescents continue to use.(1),(2) Following residential substance abuse treatment, 88% of adolescents relapse within 6 months.(3.)