WorldWideScience

Sample records for abuse tnd dissemination

  1. The Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND) dissemination trial: implementation fidelity and immediate outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Gunning, Melissa; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve

    2010-03-01

    One of the important research issues in the emerging area of research on dissemination of prevention programs relates to the type and extent of training needed by program providers to prepare them to implement effective programs with fidelity. The present paper describes the immediate outcomes of a dissemination and implementation trial of Project Toward No Drug Abuse, an evidence-based prevention program for high school students. A total of 65 high schools in 14 school districts across the USA were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: comprehensive implementation support for teachers, regular workshop training only, or standard care control. The comprehensive intervention was comprised of on-site coaching, web-based support, and technical assistance, in addition to the regular workshop. Students (n = 2,983) completed self-report surveys before and immediately after program implementation. Fidelity of implementation was assessed with a classroom observation procedure that focused on program process. Results indicated that relative to the controls, both intervention conditions produced effects on hypothesized program mediators, including greater gains in program-related knowledge; greater reductions in cigarette, marijuana and hard drug use intentions; and more positive changes in drug-related beliefs. There were stronger effects on implementation fidelity in the comprehensive, relative to the regular, training condition. However, seven of the ten immediate student outcome measures showed no significant differences between the two training conditions. The implications of these findings for dissemination research and practice are discussed.

  2. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  3. Is Project Towards No Drug Abuse (Project TND) an evidence-based drug and violence prevention program? A review and reappraisal of the evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M

    2014-08-01

    This paper critically reviews the published evidence pertaining to Project Towards No Drug Abuse (Project TND). Publications from seven evaluation studies of Project TND are reviewed, and the results from these are discussed as related to the following outcomes: main effects on the use of cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana; main effects on the use of "hard drugs," defined in the evaluations as cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, inhalants, ecstasy and other drugs (e.g., depressants, PCP, steroids and heroin); subgroup and interaction analyses of drug use; and violence-related behaviors. Very few main effects have been found for cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use in the Project TND evaluations. While studies do report main effects for hard drug use, these findings are subject to numerous threats to validity and may be attributable to the data analyses employed. Similarly, while isolated subgroup and interaction effects were found for alcohol use among baseline nonusers and some violence-related behaviors in the early Project TND evaluations, these findings have not been replicated in more recent studies and may result from multiple comparisons between study conditions. In conclusion, there is little evidence to support the assertion that Project TND is an effective drug or violence prevention program. The broader implications of these findings for prevention science are discussed and suggestions are made as to how the quality of research in the field might be improved.

  4. A longitudinal study of organizational formation, innovation adoption, and dissemination activities within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Paul M; Abraham, Amanda J; Rothrauff, Tanja C; Knudsen, Hannah K

    2010-06-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse established the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) to conduct trials of promising substance abuse treatment interventions in diverse clinical settings and to disseminate results of these trials. This article focuses on three dimensions of CTN's organizational functioning. First, a longitudinal dataset is used to examine CTN's formation as a network of interorganizational interaction among treatment practitioners and researchers. Data indicate strong relationships of interaction and trust, but a decline in problem-centered interorganizational interaction over time. Second, adoption of buprenorphine and motivational incentives among CTN's affiliated community treatment programs (CTPs) is examined over three waves of data. Although adoption is found to increase with CTPs' CTN participation, there is only modest evidence of widespread penetration and implementation. Third, CTPs' pursuit of the CTN's dissemination goals are examined, indicating that such organizational outreach activities are underway and likely to increase innovation diffusion in the future.

  5. Influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics: implications for the dissemination of innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly; Quanbeck, Andrew; Maus, Adam; Gustafson, David H; Dearing, James W

    2015-09-01

    Understanding influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics may speed the diffusion of innovations. The purpose of this study was to describe influence networks in Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Oregon, and Washington and test two expectations, using social network analysis: (1) Social network measures can identify influential clinics; and (2) Within a network, some weakly connected clinics access out-of-network sources of innovative evidence-based practices and can spread these innovations through the network. A survey of 201 clinics in a parent study on quality improvement provided the data. Network measures and sociograms were obtained from adjacency matrixes created by UCINet. We used regression analysis to determine whether network status relates to clinics' adopting innovations. Findings suggest that influential clinics can be identified and that loosely linked clinics were likely to join the study sooner than more influential clinics but were not more likely to have improved outcomes than other organizations. Findings identify the structure of influence networks for SUD treatment organizations and have mixed results on how those structures impacted diffusion of the intervention under study. Further study is necessary to test whether use of knowledge of the network structure will have an effect on the pace and breadth of dissemination of innovations.

  6. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Types of abuse Signs of abuse Reporting abuse Types of abuse Abuse comes in many forms: Physical: ...

  7. First case report of atypical disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis in an opium abuser in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Hashemi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis is a worldwide tropical infectious disease caused by different species of intracellular protozoa parasites of the genus Leishmania . Herein, we report a 78-year-old man with unusual diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL who had a history of opium abuse and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. He had multiple papular, crusted and severely ulcerated lesions extended to his arm and chest. Direct smears and skin punch biopsy of the lesions were suggestive of leishmaniasis. Parasite DNA was amplified from ulcers, and identified as Leishmania major by PCR-RFLP, confirmed by sequencing analyses. The aim of the current study was to bring to attention this atypical form of disease in CL endemic countries. Thus, this is the first case of DCL in an opium abuser with COPD due to L. major in Northeastern Iran indicating that atypical and extensive forms of CL (DCL owing to L. major are increasing in Iran.

  8. Direct-to-Consumer Marketing: A Complementary Approach to Traditional Dissemination and implementation Efforts for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sara J

    2015-03-01

    The overall chasm between those who need treatment for mental health and substance abuse (M/SU) and those who receive effective treatment consists of two, interrelated gaps: the research-to-practice gap and the treatment gap. Prior efforts to disseminate evidence-based practice (EBP) for M/SU have predominantly targeted the research-to-practice gap, by focusing efforts toward treatment providers. This article introduces direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing that targets patients and caregivers as a complementary approach to existing dissemination efforts. Specific issues discussed include: rationale for DTC marketing based on the concept of push versus pull marketing; overview of key stakeholders involved in DTC marketing; and description of the Marketing Mix planning framework. The applicability of these issues to the dissemination of EBP for M/SU is discussed.

  9. Direct-to-Consumer Marketing: A Complementary Approach to Traditional Dissemination and implementation Efforts for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sara J.

    2014-01-01

    The overall chasm between those who need treatment for mental health and substance abuse (M/SU) and those who receive effective treatment consists of two, interrelated gaps: the research-to-practice gap and the treatment gap. Prior efforts to disseminate evidence-based practice (EBP) for M/SU have predominantly targeted the research-to-practice gap, by focusing efforts toward treatment providers. This article introduces direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing that targets patients and caregivers as a complementary approach to existing dissemination efforts. Specific issues discussed include: rationale for DTC marketing based on the concept of push versus pull marketing; overview of key stakeholders involved in DTC marketing; and description of the Marketing Mix planning framework. The applicability of these issues to the dissemination of EBP for M/SU is discussed. PMID:25937710

  10. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical injury, leave marks, or cause pain. Sexual abuse is any type of sexual contact between an adult and anyone younger than 18; between a significantly older child and a younger child; or if one person ...

  11. Biodegradation of nicotine by a novel nicotine-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida TND35 and its new biotransformation intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Gurusamy; Mohan, KasiNadar; Manohar, Venkat; Sakthivel, Natarajan

    2014-02-01

    Tobacco wastes that contain nicotine alkaloids are harmful to human health and the environment. In the investigation, a novel nicotine-biodegrading bacterium TND35 was isolated and identified as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida on the basis of phenotypic, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence homology. We have studied the nicotine biodegradation potential of strain TND35 by detecting the intermediate metabolites using an array of approaches such as HPLC, GC-MS, NMR and FT-IR. Biotransformation metabolites, N-methylmyosmine, 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB) and other three new intermediate metabolites namely, 3,5-bis (1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl) pyridine, 2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-(pyridin-3-yl)-1H-pyrrol-2-ol and 5-(pyridin-3-yl)-1H-pyrrol-2(3H)-one have been identified. Interestingly, these intermediate metabolites suggest that the strain TND35 employs a novel nicotine biodegradation pathway, which is different from the reported pathways of Aspergillus oryzae 112822, Arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1, Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33 and other species of Pseudomonas. The metabolite, HPB reported in this study can also be used as biochemical marker for tobacco related cancer studies.

  12. National Center on Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Synthesize and disseminate high quality research on elder abuse to encourage the translation of research into practice. ... to further the field for those interested in elder abuse identification and prevention. What’s Happening National Center on ...

  13. Disseminated sporotrichosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Romero-Feregrino, Raúl; Sánchez, Carlos Javier; Linares, Yancy; Zavala, Jorge Tay; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Romero-Feregrino, Rodrigo; Vega, José T Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is a primary cutaneous infection and it has different clinical forms: disseminated by lymphatic vessels (75%), localised cutaneous form (20%), disseminated cutaneous and extracuteus rarely. The systemic disseminated sporotrichosis is considered a severe opportunistic infection. The best diagnostic test is the culture. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man, originally from Puebla, Mexico, with a diagnosis of disseminated sporotrichosis. Differential diagnosis with other pathologies includes leishmaniasis, chromoblastomycosis, tuberculosis verrucose and lymphangitis. The development of unusual presentations in immunocompromised patients has been reported. PMID:22700076

  14. Amelioration of atopic-like skin conditions in NC/Tnd mice by topical application with distilled Alpinia intermedia Gagnep extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagai, Yosuke; Katsuta, Chihiro; Nomura, Yoshihiro; Oida, Kumiko; Matsuda, Kenshiro; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Hamasaki, Tetsuyoshi; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akane

    2017-11-01

    Alpinia intermedia, a perennial plant that belongs to the Zingiberaceae family, has been used in folk medicine for a long time in the southern region of Japan. Because skin care is an effective approach that enables patients to manage their atopic dermatitis (AD), various herbal ingredients with few adverse effects have been evaluated for use in AD patients in recent years. In this study, we examined whether distilled extracts obtained from A. intermedia were beneficial for AD-like skin conditions in NC/Tnd mice. Topical application with the A. intermedia extracts significantly reduced the severity of AD, transepidermal water loss and scratching behavior in the mice. Supplementation of the extracts to cell cultures suppressed the expression of Tslp mRNA in PAM212 keratinocytes, degranulation in bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMCMC), and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and dorsal root ganglia. In addition, the component analysis revealed that β-pinene was a major constituent of the A. intermedia extracts. The inhibitory effects of β-pinene both in vivo and in vitro were also demonstrated. These results indicate that topical application with the A. intermedia extract to the skin of NC/Tnd mice improved the condition of the skin by suppressing multiple inflammatory responses. The extracts may become novel skin-care remedies for AD patients. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Ultra-pure soft water ameliorates atopic skin disease by preventing metallic soap deposition in NC/Tnd mice and reduces skin dryness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Ishizaka, Saori; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Arkwright, Peter D; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Mineral ions in tap water react with fatty acids in soap, leading to the formation of insoluble precipitate (metallic soap) on skin during washing. We hypothesised that metallic soap might negatively alter skin conditions. Application of metallic soap onto the skin of NC/Tnd mice with allergic dermatitis further induced inflammation with elevation of plasma immunoglobulin E and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Pruritus and dryness were ameliorated when the back of mice was washed with soap in Ca2+- and Mg2+-free ultra-pure soft water (UPSW). Washing in UPSW, but not tap water, also protected the skin of healthy volunteers from the soap deposition. Furthermore, 4 weeks of showering with UPSW reduced dryness and pruritus of human subjects with dry skin. Washing with UPSW may be therapeutically beneficial in patients with skin troubles.

  16. Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cocaine Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Prescription drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to ...

  17. Dissemination Strategy Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Kjems, Jørgen; Farinetti, Laura

    This report describes the dissemination and exploitation strategy for project Virtual Campus Hub (EU FP7 contract RI-283746). The project duration is October 2011-13 and the dissemination and exploitation plan will be revised continuously during the project’s lifecycle.......This report describes the dissemination and exploitation strategy for project Virtual Campus Hub (EU FP7 contract RI-283746). The project duration is October 2011-13 and the dissemination and exploitation plan will be revised continuously during the project’s lifecycle....

  18. Dissemination and Exploitation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten

    of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final dissemination and exploitation strategy...... for project Virtual Campus Hub. A preliminary dissemination and exploitation plan was setup early in the project as described in the deliverable D6.1 Dissemination strategy paper - preliminary version. The plan has been revised on a monthly basis during the project’s lifecycle in connection with the virtual...

  19. Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is when you pour the product into a bag, hold it over your mouth and nose, and inhale. How is inhalant abuse diagnosed? If you think your child is abusing inhalants, talk to them. Be honest and open. Tell them ...

  20. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  1. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 141. Thachil J, Toh CH. Current concepts in the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromb Res . 2012;129 ...

  2. Adolescent Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  3. Elder abuse

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Elder abuse takes many forms and occurs in a variety of settings; it is both under-recognised and under-reported. Despite a lack of statutory guidelines or legislation, effective management is possible. More could be done to recognise abuse, and healthcare workers need to be vigilant, paying attention to both the circumstances in which abuse occurs and its warning signs.

  4. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  5. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  6. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shurong; Hersh, Andrew M; Naughton, Greg; Mullins, Kevin; Fung, Maxwell A; Sharon, Victoria R

    2013-11-15

    The dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii commonly causes localized cutaneous disease with lymphocutaneous distribution. However, disseminated sporotrichosis occurs predominantly in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in a patient with newly diagnosed HIV with a CD4 count of 208. The patient presented with multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules as well as fever and malaise. Tissue culture and skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of sporotrichosis. He was started on itraconazole 200mg twice a day with rapid resolution of fever along with cessation of the development of new lesions.

  7. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  8. Gossip-Based Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Roy; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Miranda, Hugo; Rodrigues, Luís

    Gossip-based networking has emerged as a viable approach to disseminate information reliably and efficiently in large-scale systems. Initially introduced for database replication [222], the applicability of the approach extends much further now. For example, it has been applied for data aggregation [415], peer sampling [416] and publish/subscribe systems [845]. Gossip-based protocols rely on a periodic peer-wise exchange of information in wired systems. By changing the way each peer is selected for the gossip communication, and which data are exchanged and processed [451], gossip systems can be used to perform different distributed tasks, such as, among others: overlay maintenance, distributed computation, and information dissemination (a collection of papers on gossip can be found in [451]). In a wired setting, the peer sampling service, allowing for a random or specific peer selection, is often provided as an independent service, able to operate independently from other gossip-based services [416].

  9. Acute disseminated cutaneous candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, P H; Chan, H L; Lee, Y S; Wong, H B

    1988-10-01

    Acute disseminated candidiasis is a serious and difficult problem often seen in immunocompromised states. Appearance of a characteristic skin eruption is helpful in the diagnostic. We report below a case report of an eight year old girl with aplastic anemia who had received multiple courses of antibiotics. A profuse monomorphic papular nodular eruption subsequently appeared on the face, palms and soles. Candida tropicalis was identified from the skin biopsy taken from one such lesion.

  10. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  11. Indonesia knowledge dissemination: a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.

    2018-03-01

    The educational progress of a country or educational institution is measured through the implementation of knowledge dissemination. Evidence of knowledge dissemination has carried out be in form of the type of published document, which is based on the databases of the index of scientific publications: Scopus. This paper expresses a simple form of knowledge dissemination based on document type. Although the growth of knowledge dissemination does not have the same pattern based on the appearance of document types, the general implementation is almost the same. However, maximum effort needs to be done by PTN-bh to support Indonesia knowledge dissemination.

  12. Sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Takač

    2012-11-01

    Conclusions: Effective and efficient treatment of victims of sexual abuse requires a systematic approach to the patient, starting with a thorough history, and continuing with a clinical investigation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse. The complete management must include sampling of any potential biological traces from the body of the victim. The key to success is a coordinated cooperation with investigators and forensics.

  13. Spouse Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The term spouse abuse is commonly used to refer to Aggressive, violent and/or controlling behaviours that take place between two people involved in an intimate Relationship. Spouse abuse is a high frequency crime resulting in victims from all social classes, ethnicities, genders and educational backgrounds. Preventative methods at societal and community levels are required in addition to more traditional intervention approaches in order to adequately address this problem. This entry will prov...

  14. Delusions of Disseminated Fungosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Gassiep

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Delusional infestation is a rare monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013. It can be a primary disorder or associated with an underlying psychological or physical disorder. It commonly presents as delusional parasitosis, and less than 1% may be fungi related. We present this case as it is a rare presentation of a rare condition. Case Presentation. Our patient is a 60-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a 7-year history of delusional infestation manifested as a disseminated fungal infection. He had previously been reviewed by multiple physicians for the same with no systemic illness diagnosed. After multiple reviews and thorough investigation we diagnosed him with a likely delusional disorder. As is common with this patient cohort he refused psychiatric review or antipsychotic medication. Conclusion. A delusion of a disseminated fungal infestation is a rare condition. It is exceedingly difficult to treat as these patients often refuse to believe the investigation results and diagnosis. Furthermore, they either refuse or are noncompliant with treatment. Multidisciplinary outpatient evaluation may be the best way to allay patient fears and improve treatment compliance.

  15. Leaving an Abusive Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elder abuse Emotional and verbal abuse Financial abuse Harassment Human trafficking Physical abuse Sexual coercion Stalking Violence ... A teacher, counselor, or principal at your child’s school. An adult at your child’s school can help ...

  16. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  17. DISSEMINATED HISTOPLASMOSIS DIAGNOSED ON BONE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... Histoplasmosis, caused by two varieties of dimorphic fungi, Histoplasma ... from asymptomatic primary infection to disseminated disease in immunocompromised .... Addison's disease) tongue, gingivae, buccal mucosa,.

  18. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Hareaki; Shiga, Yusei; Ichikawa, Nobumichi.

    1988-01-01

    A previously healthy 39-year-old woman suddenly became stuporous following a slight upper respiratory infection. She went into a coma within a few hours. On admission to our hospital, adenine arabinoside was administered upon the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis, but it had no apparent effect. The patient showed moderate leukocytosis, but no other abnormal laboratory data. Serological examinations for virus titer were all negative. A CT scan on the 9th day showed a diffuse low-density area extending into the cerebral and cerebellar white matter, but no contrast-enhancement effect or midline shift was observed. She has since remained in a coma, and repeated CT scans have revealed marked ventricular dilatation. The clinical course, laboratory data, and CT findings suggest acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, but acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis cannot exactly be ruled out. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a widespread white-matter lesion, while positron-emission CT demonstrated a dysfunction in both the white and gray matter. (author)

  19. Battlefield Awareness and Data Dissemination Intelligent Information Dissemination Server

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schlossberg, Jon

    1999-01-01

    This report describe the research performed to design and develop software tools to facilitate the dissemination of battlefield data based on the Warfighter's needs and the ever changing world environment...

  20. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...

  1. Herpes zoster (shingles) disseminated (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

  2. Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to smallholder farmers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa: extension personnel's awareness of stewardship requirements and dissemination practices.

  3. Abusive Legalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Alvin

    2018-01-01

    This paper suggests that one response to growing scrutiny of authoritarian tactics is to turn to sub-constitutional public law, or private law. By using “ordinary” law in ways that seem consistent with formal and procedural aspects of rule of law, autocrats can nonetheless frustrate the rule of law and consolidate power, while also avoiding drawing unfavourable attention to that consolidation. I refer to this phenomenon as “abusive legalism.” This paper makes three main contributions to the s...

  4. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  5. Abusing ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...

  6. How to Handle Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Handle Abuse KidsHealth / For Kids / How to Handle Abuse What's in this article? Tell Right Away How Do You Know Something Is Abuse? ... babysitter, teacher, coach, or a bigger kid. Child abuse can happen anywhere — at ... building. Tell Right Away A kid who is being seriously hurt ...

  7. Active solar information dissemination activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The principal objective of the project has been the development of an information dissemination strategy for the UK active solar heating industry. The project has also aimed to prepare the industry for the implementation of such a strategy and to produce initial information materials to support the early stages of the implementation process. (author)

  8. Information Dissemination: Case Studies on Electronic Dissemination at Four Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Departments of Health and Human Services, Agriculture , and Commerce; and the Chairmen, House Committee on Government Operations and Senate and House...AVLINE Audio Visuals On-line BIOETHICSLINE Bioethics On-line Page 5 GAOIIMTEC-92-6FS Electronic Information Dissemination Contents CANCERLIT Cancer...Network TOXLINE Toxicology Information On-line TOXLIT Toxicology Literature from special sources USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture Page 6 GAOIIMTEC-92

  9. Knowledge dissemination: a core mission

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    It’s been a year since the CERN Council approved our policy on intellectual property management, so I’d like to take a look at what we’ve achieved since then. In short, a great deal. We’ve moved away from a fairly unregulated approach towards a well balanced and clearly defined system built around sound intellectual property management designed to deliver maximum dissemination and benefit for society from CERN innovation. It’s a move that I celebrate and fully support.   In 2009, CERN signed two partnership agreements to develop CERN technologies, two commercial licenses and eleven R&D licenses. Last year, the figures were six partnership agreements, five commercial licenses and twenty R&D licenses, indicating a real increase in dissemination efforts. From 2009 to 2010, however, the number of new technologies that were identified and disclosed hardly changed: nine in 2009, ten in 2010. These numbers are good, but we must improve, particu...

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  11. Aerogenic Dissemination of Aphtae Epizooticae

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-14

    animals, birds, insects, aerial dissemination in cattle purchasing centers, transport, and contaminated products such as milk and butter. Besides the above...enormous amounts of ephtose virus into the environment, whose main source is bladder epithelium along with lympy. saliva, milk , urine, excrement, and...opinion the proliferation of the aphtosa virus takes place mainly in the mucous membranes of the uppez respiratory tract, namely in the nasal mucus

  12. MRI in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldemeyer, K.S.; Smith, R.R.; Harris, T.M.; Edwards, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of CT and MRI studies in 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was performed. MRI was the definitive modality for the assessment of the lesions of ADEM: all patients had abnormalities consistent with the clinical diagnosis. Ten had abnormalities in the brain, three spinal cord lesions, and three showed evidence of optic neuritis. CT was normal in 6 of the 7 patients in which it was performed. (orig.)

  13. Disseminated sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Kareem; Turker, Tolga; Zangeneh, Tirdad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, is a relatively rare infection. Local infection usually occurs through direct inoculation of the organism through the skin; disseminated disease is rarely seen. This article describes a case of disseminated sporotrichosis in a middle-aged man without the commonly seen risk factors for dissemination.

  14. Disseminated sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Kareem; Turker, Tolga; Zangeneh, Tirdad

    2016-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, is a relatively rare infection. Local infection usually occurs through direct inoculation of the organism through the skin; disseminated disease is rarely seen. This article describes a case of disseminated sporotrichosis in a middle-aged man without the commonly seen risk factors for dissemination.

  15. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  16. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Talking to Teens about Healthy Relationships ... of child abuse prevention through our Pinwheels for Prevention campaign. ...

  17. Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Elder Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  19. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  20. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  1. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  2. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...

  3. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  4. Elder Abuse in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  5. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  6. Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana S. Rothenburg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is a rare but emerging disease caused by dematiaceous fungi. Here we describe the case of an immunosuppressed dog with disseminated phaeohyphomycosis secondary to Bipolaris spicifera infection. Regionally extensive infiltration of the paw pads, skin, myocardium, liver, renal interstitium and diaphragm was identified on histopathology. Candida glabrata and Fusarium oxysporum were also cultured from multiple sites post-mortem. The dog was treated with fluconazole, itraconazole, terbinafine and liposomal amphotericin B, but was euthanized due to its poor prognosis after 12 days of therapy.

  7. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  9. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  10. Elder physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    Physical abuse of the elderly is a significant public health concern. The true prevalence of all types is unknown, and under-reporting is known to be significant. The geriatric population is projected to increase dramatically over the next 10 years, and the number of abused individuals is projected to increase also. It is critical that health care providers feel competent in addressing physical elder abuse. This article presents cases illustrating the variety of presenting symptoms that may be attributed to physical elder abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Introduction to the special section on dissemination: dissemination research and research dissemination: how can we close the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Jon; Rimer, Barbara; Emmons, Karen

    2005-09-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing health promotion and disease prevention is translating research findings into evidence-based public health and clinical practices that are actively disseminated and widely adopted. Despite the tremendous strides made in developing effective disease prevention and control programs, there has been little study of effective dissemination of evidence-based programs to and adoption by community, public health, and clinical practice settings. This special section provides a venue in which to highlight exemplary dissemination research efforts while also identifying limitations in research to date and framing important future research questions. This issue establishes a resource for investigators interested in dissemination research, with relevance to health psychology. In this sense, it can serve as a benchmark by which to examine subsequent progress. The 6 articles reflect the state of the science in dissemination research for the promotion and adoption of health behavior change interventions. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I

    1998-11-01

    To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.

  13. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Courts Cultural Competence Diverse Populations and Communities Domestic Violence Human Trafficking Laws & Policies Service Array Statistics ... Home Topics Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children ...

  14. Trauma complexity and child abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2017-01-01

    and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information...

  15. Sensitive Information Gathering and Dissemination: An Assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet the freedom of expression granted to all men is not absolute. This paper on sensitive information gathering and dissemination focuses on the role of the military and that of the media in the gathering and dissemination of information often termed sensitive, contentious and inciting. It is based on past and present media ...

  16. D5.1 Dissemination Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Ryberg, Thomas; Eleftheriou, Paraskevi

    2009-01-01

    at defining the dissemination goals as well as the project’s target audience and channels through which the EATrain2 solution is going to be promoted. It also includes partners competences in the dissemination area and detailed schedule of events thematically related to the project’s scope. The deliverable...

  17. Factors influencing message dissemination through social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yang, Huancheng; Fu, Yang; Fu, Dianzheng; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-06-01

    Online social networks strongly impact our daily lives. An internet user (a "Netizen") wants messages to be efficiently disseminated. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) dissemination model is the traditional tool for exploring the spreading mechanism of information diffusion. We here test our SIR-based dissemination model on open and real-world data collected from Twitter. We locate and identify phase transitions in the message dissemination process. We find that message content is a stronger factor than the popularity of the sender. We also find that the probability that a message will be forwarded has a threshold that affects its ability to spread, and when the probability is above the threshold the message quickly achieves mass dissemination.

  18. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming ... find Facts for Families © helpful and would like to make good mental health a reality, consider donating to the Campaign for ...

  19. Signs of domestic abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-07-13

    Essential facts The government's definition of domestic violence and abuse, published in 2016 by the Home Office, is: 'Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those 16 years or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality.'

  20. SNL Abuse Testing Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESSs) for electric vehicles. This report serves as a revision to the FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (SAND2005-3123).

  1. Elder Abuse Awareness Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettler, Darla

    The Elder Abuse Prevention Project sponsored by the Seniors' Education Centre, University Extension, University of Regina (Saskatchewan, Canada) emerged from a provincial workshop held by the Centre in 1989. The workshop was designed to examine possible avenues for addressing elder abuse issues in Saskatchewan. The purposes of the project were to…

  2. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  3. Opioid Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... means feeling withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes a person to compulsively seek out drugs, even though they cause harm. The risks of dependence and addiction are higher if you abuse the medicines. Abuse ...

  4. sexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic ... Some researchers recognize that power also plays a role in sexual abuse, but this abuse of ..... Gender, power, and organizational culture.

  5. Recreational drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.

  6. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  7. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n = 17...

  8. Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018

  9. Infantile abuse: Radiological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Araujo Reyes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Infantile abuse is a frequent problem, that must be suspected to bediagnosed, the children victims of infantile abuse can present anytype of injury, nevertheless there are associated injuries common toan inferred trauma that constitute radiological patterns highly specific for abuse, among them are the metafisial injuries, posterior costal fractures and first costal arc fractures, fractures of the toracolumbar region, fractures without apparent explanation, fractures in different stage of evolution, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenquimatose contusion and diffuse axonal injury, which combined with the history of the trauma, the age, the development of mental abilities, as well as the mechanism guides the injury diagnose.

  10. Workplace abuse: finding solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, Kate

    2007-01-01

    The atmosphere within the work setting speaks volumes about your culture, and is often a primary factor in recruitment and retention (or turnover) of staff. Workplace tension and abuse are significant contributing factors as to why nurses are exiting workplaces--and even leaving the profession. Abuse can take many forms from inappropriate interpersonal communication to sexual harassment and even violence. Administrators should adopt a zero tolerance policy towards abusive communication. Addressing peer behavior is essential, but positive behavior must also be authentically modeled from the CNO and other nursing leaders. Raising awareness and holding individuals accountable for their behavior can lead to a safer and more harmonious work environment.

  11. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  12. Documenting and disseminating agricultural indigenous knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Documenting and disseminating agricultural indigenous knowledge for sustainable food security in Uganda. ... University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal ... Moreover, small-scale farmers should be involved in agricultural extension services ...

  13. Early dissemination seeds metastasis in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hedayatollah; Obradović, Milan M.S.; Hoffmann, Martin; Harper, Kathryn; Sosa, Maria Soledad; Werner-Klein, Melanie; Nanduri, Lahiri Kanth; Werno, Christian; Ehrl, Carolin; Maneck, Matthias; Patwary, Nina; Haunschild, Gundula; Gužvić, Miodrag; Reimelt, Christian; Grauvogl, Michael; Eichner, Norbert; Weber, Florian; Hartkopf, Andreas; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Brucker, Sara Y.; Fehm, Tanja; Rack, Brigitte; Buchholz, Stefan; Spang, Rainer; Meister, Gunter; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.; Klein, Christoph A.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that metastatic dissemination often occurs early during tumour formation but the mechanisms of early metastatic spread have not yet been addressed. Here, we studied metastasis in a HER2-driven mouse breast cancer model and found that progesterone-induced signalling triggered migration of cancer cells from early lesions shortly after HER2 activation, but promoted proliferation in advanced primary tumour cells. The switch from migration to proliferation was regulated by elevated HER2 expression and increased tumour cell density involving miRNA-mediated progesterone receptor (PGR) down-regulation and was reversible. Cells from early, low-density lesions displayed more stemness features than cells from dense, advanced tumours, migrated more and founded more metastases. Strikingly, we found that at least 80% of metastases were derived from early disseminated cancer cells (DCC). Karyotypic and phenotypic analysis of human disseminated cancer cells and primary tumours corroborated the relevance of these findings for human metastatic dissemination. PMID:27974799

  14. Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in Lebanon. The Tobacco ... IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University Conference ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change. IDRC is ...

  15. Utilization of Presentation Software for Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The abundance of information that needs to be disseminated to students about events in space exploration and the theories and technology utilized maybe overwhelming to the beginning teacher or lecturer. No matter the age of the learner, one must cons...

  16. Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated by Olam Organisation in ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... level, household size, no of farm family assisting on the farm, management system adopted, ...

  17. Disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mada, Pradeep; Nowack, Brad; Cady, Beth; Joel Chandranesan, Andrew Stevenson

    2017-07-18

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection which is commonly associated with immune-compromised state. Disseminated infection in immunocompetent individuals is extremely rare. We present a case of a 56-year-old African American patient who presented with unilateral knee pain and swelling and was subsequently diagnosed with cryptococcal bone mass with dissemination of infection. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Sexually Abused Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    Reports of male victims (N=189) of child sexual abuse were retrospectively reviewed. Comparison to an age- and race-matched group of female victims revealed similarities in patterns of disclosure and perpetrator characteristics. (Author/DB)

  19. Substance abuse in anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guasch, Roser; Roigé, Jaume; Padrós, Jaume

    2012-04-01

    Anaesthesiologists have a significantly higher frequency of substance abuse by a factor of nearly 3 when compared with other physicians. This is still a current problem that must be reviewed. Many hypotheses have been formulated to explain why anaesthesiologists appear to be more susceptible to substance abuse than other medical professionals (genetic differences in sensitivity to opioids, stress, the association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology or the second-hand exposure hypothesis). Environmental exposure and sensitization may be an important risk factor in physician addiction. There is a long debate about returning to work for an anaesthetist who has been depending on opioid drugs, and recent debates are discussed. Institutional efforts have been made in many countries and physician health programmes have been developed. As drug abuse among anaesthesiologists has continued, new studies have been conducted to know the theories about susceptibility. Written substance abuse policies and controls must be taken in place and in all countries.

  20. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  1. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Showing private parts ("flashing"), forcing children to watch pornography, verbal pressure for sex, and exploiting children as prostitutes or for pornography can be sexual abuse as well. Researchers estimate ...

  2. Generational Reproduction of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    García Ampudia, Lupe; Orellana M., Oswaldo; Pomalaya V., Ricardo; Yanac Reynoso, Elisa; Malaver S., Carmela; Herrera F., Edgar; Sotelo L., Noemi; Campos C., Lilia; Sotelo L., Lidia; Orellana García, Daphne; Velasquez M., Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is the study of the abuse rising in two generations, of parents and children and establishing the relationship between background child’s abuse with the potential abuse. The sample is comprised of 441 students and 303 parents who agreed to answer the Memories of Abuse Questionnaire. The used instruments were the Child History Questionnaire adapted for the purpose of this research, the Inventory of Potential Child Abuse (Milner, J. 1977), adapted by De Paul, Arru...

  3. Antitussives and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns JM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. Keywords: dextromethorphan, purple drank, sizzurp, codeine/promethazine

  4. Sexual Abuse of Children as a Form of Power Abuse and Abuse of the Body

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaert, Machteld

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic theological viewpoint. The article starts with the relationship between sexual abuse and power. It is argued that sexual abuse is always a form of power abuse. A second step examines the relation between sexual abuse and the body. We may not ignore the theme of the body when we speak about sexual abuse as a form of power abuse. The article also explores whether the body is a theme in recent (th...

  5. Substance abuse associated with elder abuse in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogerst, Gerald J; Daly, Jeanette M; Galloway, Lara J; Zheng, Shimin; Xu, Yinghui

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse by either victim or perpetrator has long been associated with violence and abuse. Sparse research is available regarding elder abuse and its association with substance abuse. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of state-reported domestic elder abuse with regional levels of substance abuse. Census demographic and elder abuse data were sorted into substate regions to align with the substance use treatment-planning regions for 2269 US counties. From the 2269 US counties there were 229 substate regions in which there were 213,444 investigations of abuse. For the other Ns (reports and substantiations) there were fewer counties and regions. See first sentence of data analyses and first sentence of results. Elder abuse report rates ranged from .03 to .41% (80 regions), investigation rates .001 to .34% (229 regions), and substantiation rates 0 to .22% (184 regions). Elder abuse investigations and substantiations were associated with various forms of substance abuse. Higher investigation rates were significantly associated with a higher rate of any illicit drug use in the past month, a lower median household income, lower proportion of the population graduated high school, and higher population of Hispanics. Higher substantiation rates were significantly associated with higher rate of illicit drug use in the past month and higher population of Hispanics. It may be worthwhile for administrators of violence programs to pay particular attention to substance abuse among their clients and in their community's environment, especially if older persons are involved. Measures of documented elder abuse at the county level are minimal. To be able to associate substance abuse with elder abuse is a significant finding, realizing that the substance abuse can be by the victim or the perpetrator of elder abuse.

  6. Smart-tag Based Data Dissemination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Beaufour, Allan; Leopold, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring wide, hostile areas requires disseminating data between fixed, disconnected clusters of sensor nodes. It is not always possible to install long-range radios in order to cover the whole area. We propose to leverage the movement of mobile individuals, equipped with smart-tags, to dissemi......-tag based data dissemination. We use simulation to study the characteristics of the model we propose. Finally, we present an implementation based on Bluetooth smart-tags.......Monitoring wide, hostile areas requires disseminating data between fixed, disconnected clusters of sensor nodes. It is not always possible to install long-range radios in order to cover the whole area. We propose to leverage the movement of mobile individuals, equipped with smart......-tags, to disseminate data across disconnected static nodes spread across a wide area. Static nodes and mobile smart-tags exchange data when they are in the vicinity of each other; smart-tags disseminate data as they move around. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for update propagation and a model for smart...

  7. Comprehensive analysis of information dissemination in disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Huang, H.; Su, Boni

    2016-11-01

    China is a country that experiences a large number of disasters. The number of deaths caused by large-scale disasters and accidents in past 10 years is around 900,000. More than 92.8 percent of these deaths could be avoided if there were an effective pre-warning system deployed. Knowledge of the information dissemination characteristics of different information media taking into consideration governmental assistance (information published by a government) in disasters in urban areas, plays a critical role in increasing response time and reducing the number of deaths and economic losses. In this paper we have developed a comprehensive information dissemination model to optimize efficiency of pre-warning mechanics. This model also can be used for disseminating information for evacuees making real-time evacuation plans. We analyzed every single information dissemination models for pre-warning in disasters by considering 14 media: short message service (SMS), phone, television, radio, news portals, Wechat, microblogs, email, newspapers, loudspeaker vehicles, loudspeakers, oral communication, and passive information acquisition via visual and auditory senses. Since governmental assistance is very useful in a disaster, we calculated the sensitivity of governmental assistance ratio. The results provide useful references for information dissemination during disasters in urban areas.

  8. Methamphetamine enhances Cryptococcus neoformans pulmonary infection and dissemination to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhavan; Desai, Gunjan M; Frases, Susana; Cordero, Radames J B; DeLeon-Rodriguez, Carlos M; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Martinez, Luis R

    2013-07-30

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a major addictive drug of abuse in the United States and worldwide, and its use is linked to HIV acquisition. The encapsulated fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of fungal meningitis in patients with AIDS. In addition to functioning as a central nervous system stimulant, METH has diverse effects on host immunity. Using a systemic mouse model of infection and in vitro assays in order to critically assess the impact of METH on C. neoformans pathogenesis, we demonstrate that METH stimulates fungal adhesion, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) release, and biofilm formation in the lungs. Interestingly, structural analysis of the capsular polysaccharide of METH-exposed cryptococci revealed that METH alters the carbohydrate composition of this virulence factor, an event of adaptation to external stimuli that can be advantageous to the fungus during pathogenesis. Additionally, we show that METH promotes C. neoformans dissemination from the respiratory tract into the brain parenchyma. Our findings provide novel evidence of the impact of METH abuse on host homeostasis and increased permissiveness to opportunistic microorganisms. Methamphetamine (METH) is a major health threat to our society, as it adversely changes people's behavior, as well as increases the risk for the acquisition of diverse infectious diseases, particularly those that enter through the respiratory tract or skin. This report investigates the effects of METH use on pulmonary infection by the AIDS-related fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. This drug of abuse stimulates colonization and biofilm formation in the lungs, followed by dissemination of the fungus to the central nervous system. Notably, C. neoformans modifies its capsular polysaccharide after METH exposure, highlighting the fungus's ability to adapt to environmental stimuli, a possible explanation for its pathogenesis. The findings may translate into new knowledge and development of therapeutic and public health

  9. Agricultural information dissemination using ICTs: A review and analysis of information dissemination models in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, China’s agriculture sector has been transformed from the traditional to modern practice through the effective deployment of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs. Information processing and dissemination have played a critical role in this transformation process. Many studies in relation to agriculture information services have been conducted in China, but few of them have attempted to provide a comprehensive review and analysis of different information dissemination models and their applications. This paper aims to review and identify the ICT based information dissemination models in China and to share the knowledge and experience in applying emerging ICTs in disseminating agriculture information to farmers and farm communities to improve productivity and economic, social and environmental sustainability. The paper reviews and analyzes the development stages of China’s agricultural information dissemination systems and different mechanisms for agricultural information service development and operations. Seven ICT-based information dissemination models are identified and discussed. Success cases are presented. The findings provide a useful direction for researchers and practitioners in developing future ICT based information dissemination systems. It is hoped that this paper will also help other developing countries to learn from China’s experience and best practice in their endeavor of applying emerging ICTs in agriculture information dissemination and knowledge transfer.

  10. Emerging drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2014-02-01

    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tracking Users for a Targeted Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bautier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How to build a dissemination and communication strategy in a world where users have easy access to a deluge of data and information from various origins and where IT tools and design standards change so quickly that users behaviour and their expectations are continuously modified? The first challenge of Eurostat is clearly to know what users want: we know our different types of users but we have to identify how they get our data, what they do with our data, how they react to our outputs and which sort of new service they would like us to propose. Translating these needs into a visual dissemination is a new challenge undertaken by Eurostat through a new portal, new mobile apps and new info graphs and basic application as well as increasing the visibility on Google. The objective of this paper is to share Eurostat's experience in identifying user Leeds and to show how concretely this information has been visually disseminated.

  12. The complexities of elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Dissemination and Exploitation: Project Goals beyond Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Kristin; Reitz, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Dissemination and Exploitation are essential parts of public funded projects. In Horizon 2020 a plan for the exploitation and dissemination of results (PEDR) is a requirement. The plan should contain a clear vision on the objectives of the project in relation to actions for dissemination and potential exploitation of the project results. The actions follow the basic idea to spread the knowledge and results gathered within the project and face the challenge of how to bring the results into potentially relevant policy circle and how they impact the market. The plan follows the purpose to assess the impact of the project and to address various target groups who are interested in the project results. Simply put, dissemination concentrates on the transfer of knowledge and exploitation on the commercialization of the project. Beyond the question of the measurability of project`s impact, strategies within science marketing can serve purposes beyond internal and external communication. Accordingly, project managers are facing the challenge to implement a dissemination and exploitation strategy that ideally supports the identification of all partners with the project and matches the current discourse of the project`s content within the society, politics and economy. A consolidated plan might unite all projects partners under a central idea and supports the identification with the project beyond the individual research questions. Which applications, strategies and methods can be used to bring forward a PEDR that accompanies a project successfully and allows a comprehensive assessment of the project afterwards? Which hurdles might project managers experience in the dissemination process and which tasks should be fulfilled by the project manager?

  14. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in patient with alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Benvegnú

    Full Text Available Abstract Sporotrichosis is the most prevalent subcutaneous mycosis and is characterized by a subacute or chronic development of a cutaneous or subcutaneous nodular lesion. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix spp, which may manifest in different clinical forms. The disseminated cutaneous form is uncommon and is more likely to occur in immunocompromised patients. We report a 47-year-old male patient with multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules. The patient was diagnosed with disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis based on the isolation and identification of Sporothrix spp. The patient was treated with potassium iodide, which resulted in clinical improvement of the lesions.

  15. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in patient with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvegnú, Ana Maria; Stramari, Juliana; Dallazem, Lia Natália Diehl; Chemello, Raíssa Massaia Londero; Beber, André Avelino Costa

    2017-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is the most prevalent subcutaneous mycosis and is characterized by a subacute or chronic development of a cutaneous or subcutaneous nodular lesion. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix spp, which may manifest in different clinical forms. The disseminated cutaneous form is uncommon and is more likely to occur in immunocompromised patients. We report a 47-year-old male patient with multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules. The patient was diagnosed with disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis based on the isolation and identification of Sporothrix spp. The patient was treated with potassium iodide, which resulted in clinical improvement of the lesions.

  16. Alienation and Domestic Abuse: How Abused Women Cope with Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokach, Ami

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…

  17. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poor weight gain Emotional issues such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety Extreme behavior such as acting ... child was abused The success of therapy and parenting classes Alternative Names Neglect - child; Emotional abuse - child ...

  18. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  19. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises No. 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  20. Sex Differences in Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...

  1. Constructing a model of effective information dissemination in a crisis. Information dissemination, Crisis, Crises, Tuberculosis, Dissemination of information, Meta-ethnographic analysis, Social marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Fiona Duggan; Linda Banwell

    2004-01-01

    A model of effective information dissemination in a crisis was developed from a Ph.D. study of information dissemination during a suspected TB outbreak. The research aimed to characterise and evaluate the dissemination of information to the community during the incident. A qualitative systematic review of the research literature identified twenty relevant studies. Meta-ethnographic analysis of these studies highlighted the key factors in effective dissemination. Consideration of these factors...

  2. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  3. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  4. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  5. Quinine-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, R L; Hickton, C M; Sizeland, P; Hannah, A; Bailey, R R

    Recurrent disseminated intravascular coagulation occurred in 3 women after ingestion of quinine tablets for cramp. All had circulating quinine-dependent antibodies to platelets and in 2 there was initial evidence of antibody consumption, with low titres that rose steeply over the next few days and remained high for many months.

  6. Adoption of improved agricultural technologies disseminated via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... disseminated via radio farmer programme by farmers in ... absence of such facilities as road, light and water are no hindrance to ... topography, distance, time and socio-political exigencies ... constraints to effective utilization of information aired on .... rice, maize, potatoes and cassava while only 13.3% were.

  7. Sporothrix schenckii fungemia without disseminated sporotrichosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kosinski, R M; Axelrod, P; Rex, J H; Burday, M; Sivaprasad, R; Wreiole, A

    1992-01-01

    Fungemia is a rare complication of Sporothrix schenckii infection and has always been associated with disseminated sporotrichosis. We describe an immunocompetent patient with localized lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis from whose blood the fungus was isolated. A lysis-centrifugation blood culture system may have improved our ability to detect low-level S. schenckii fungemia.

  8. Evolution of diffusion and dissemination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, James W

    2008-01-01

    The article provides a review and considers how the diffusion of innovations Research paradigm has changed, and offers suggestions for the further development of this theory of social change. Main emphases of diffusion Research studies are compared over time, with special attention to applications of diffusion theory-based concepts as types of dissemination science. A considerable degree of paradigmatic evolution is observed. The classical diffusion model focused on adopter innovativeness, individuals as the locus of decision, communication channels, and adoption as the primary outcome measures in post hoc observational study designs. The diffusion systems in question were centralized, with fidelity of implementation often assumed. Current dissemination Research and practice is better characterized by tests of interventions that operationalize one or more diffusion theory-based concepts and concepts from other change approaches, involve complex organizations as the units of adoption, and focus on implementation issues. Foment characterizes dissemination and implementation Research, Reflecting both its interdisciplinary Roots and the imperative of spreading evidence-based innovations as a basis for a new paradigm of translational studies of dissemination science.

  9. Knowledge Management and Global Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    The paper looked at knowledge management and global information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge management knowledge…

  10. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Following Induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Disseminated Intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) has been reported following use of Misoprostol which is an old drug with new indications in Obstetrics and. Gynecology. Its effectiveness, low cost, stability in tropical conditions and ease of administration as well as side effects like gastrointestinal effect, uterine ...

  11. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement in a setting of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. ... Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver and Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) stains revealed a relative paucity of intracellular, narrow-neck budding fungal organisms. Culture findings confirmed the ...

  12. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.

  13. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, J Paul

    2002-05-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.

  14. A Primer on Disseminating Applied Quantitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Bethany A.; DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    Transparency and replication are essential features of scientific inquiry, yet scientific communications of applied quantitative research are often lacking in much-needed procedural information. In an effort to promote researchers dissemination of their quantitative studies in a cohesive, detailed, and informative manner, the authors delineate…

  15. Differential diagnosis of disseminated periventricular calcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, P.; Piepgras, U.

    1986-01-01

    Juvenile disseminated periventricular calcifications may occur in tuberous sclerosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegaly, and in tuberculous meningitis. Cysticercosis, by contrast, does not result in corresponding intracerebral foci until an older age. Differential diagnosis is no problem if clinical findings are typical (tuberous sclerosis) or if serological verification is positive. However, any unclear clinical diagnosis can often be secured by CT. (orig.) [de

  16. Data Dissemination in Mobile Phone Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Viet Duc, Duc Viet

    Deploying sensors over large areas is costly in terms of configuration, hardware, and maintenance. Using onboard sensors of today mobile phones can significantly reduce the expenses in monitoring areas and disseminating events or data. Via the available short-range Bluetooth and/or WiFi interfaces,

  17. Differential diagnosis of disseminated periventricular calcifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, P.; Piepgras, U.

    1986-08-01

    Juvenile disseminated periventricular calcifications may occur in tuberous sclerosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegaly, and in tuberculous meningitis. Cysticercosis, by contrast, does not result in corresponding intracerebral foci until an older age. Differential diagnosis is no problem if clinical findings are typical (tuberous sclerosis) or if serological verification is positive. However, any unclear clinical diagnosis can often be secured by CT.

  18. The AFT Educational Research and Dissemination Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brochure is developed to provide information for local unions within the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) who may be interested in becoming Education Research and Dissemination (ER&D) sites. The following questions are addressed: (1) What Is ER&D? (2) What Can ER&D Accomplish? (3) What Makes ER&D Different? (4) What Do ER&D Participants…

  19. Drug abuse in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana dos Reis Nunes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a pregnant woman admitted to cocaine overdose and discuss maternal and fetal complications of cocaine abuse in pregnancy. Considering the increased frequency of users in the female population, the obstetric team should be able to make the patient's care and your baby.

  20. New drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  1. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  2. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  3. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  4. Sex differences in drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; Hu, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed.

  5. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  6. Children's knowledge of sexual abuse prevention in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig L; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel; Nosike, Digna

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) remains a global health problem that must be addressed. In a country with limited resources such as El Salvador, we sought an alternative way to disseminate CSA prevention information to elementary school children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention exhibit at a children's museum. We asked 189 children to answer a questionnaire about CSA prevention before entering a museum exhibit on the subject and then asked 59 different children to answer the questionnaire after visiting the exhibit. Children's knowledge scores on CSA prevention significantly improved after visiting the exhibit (P School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Substance abuse and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G

    2017-01-01

    Substance abuse is a health problem with serious psychological and psychiatric dimensions and multiple social and economic consequences. Cancer is a disease that threatens not only life and physical integrity but mental health as well. Oncology patients suffer from mental disorders in high rates, especially from depression and anxiety. The role of substance abuse in the pathogenesis of cancer is studied systematically, since there are research data supporting the mutagenic effects of certain substances. It has been supported that a possible dysregulation of the immune system is linked to the oncogenic processes induced by substances of abuse. Specifically, opioids are the first addictive substances that have been identified as oncogenic factors. However, conflicting results have been offered by experimental animal studies, which showed that opioids, such as morphine, depending on the dosage administered, may not only enhance the process of tumor growth, but also inhibit it. Additionally, research data indicate that the use of cannabis may be associated with cancer, either as an independent factor or in relation to other mutagenics, although it is not yet clear to which extent these effects may be connected to the disease, especially once the consumption of tobacco and alcohol by these patients are taken into account. However, it has been argued that certain cannabinoids may have biological -anticancer- activities which could be used therapeutically without being accompanied by the corresponding 9-tetrahydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is well known that alcohol is a risk factor for developing head and neck cancer, and epidemiological studies indicate that the higher the consumption of alcohol, the more mortality due to cancer increases. In addition, it is suggested that there is no safety level for alcohol consumption regarding the risk of developing cancer; that is even a minimum daily consumption is associated with the occurrence of certain types of cancer

  8. Dissemination of information in a networked environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, C.; Narayanan, A.

    1999-01-01

    The advent of Internet technology and its adoption by the organisations has resulted in the evolution of Intranets. Intranets ultimately use the technology to meet the information and computational needs to achieve organisational objectives and goals. Important services like E mail and Web are a handy solution to disseminate information for research and special libraries. The campus wide network and the creation of networked society are ubiquitous and an attempt has been made to extend the information service to the patrons by possible means. The role of library and information professionals in dissemination of information for the networked society is relevant and highly demanding. The right information for the right people at right time is to be achieved with available infrastructure. Few sample applications are described in this paper and the information need has to be met for the present and future networked information users. (author)

  9. Disseminated neurocysticercosis presenting as acute stress reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the most common and preventable parasitic infection of the central nervous system, but disseminated cysticercosis is said to be rare. We report a case of a 31-year-old male, who presented with anxiety manifestations temporally associated with stress related to job. After initial clinical improvement, he presented with an incapacitating headache which was diagnosed as disseminated neurocysticercosis after thorough evaluation and investigations. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with contrast showed multiple small hyperintense lesions involving bilateral, temporoparietal, occipital, gangliothalamic with ring enhancement. His cysticercosis antibody IgG serum (EIA was 2.05. The clinical management consisted of antihelminthic and antiepileptic drugs along with stress management.

  10. Dissemination of CERN Technologies Through External Entrepreneurs

    CERN Document Server

    Lande, Bjørnulf Visdal; Huuse, Henning

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on dissemination of innovations through external entrepreneurs. The innovations studied are developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and commercialized by entrepreneurs establishing spin-off companies on the outside of the Organization. The objective of this study is to provide knowledge to facilitate future external entrepreneurs to increase dissemination of CERN technologies. The research questions looks at the timeline from preparations for creating the spin-off company, until having a product for commercialization in the market. A qualitative cross case investigation was conducted to assess the experiences of four spin-off companies. A framework was created to structure the discussion by finding and categorizing impeding- and success factors seen from the entrepreneurs point of view. The findings where structured in three phases respectively, the time before starting the company, the beginning of the company and the final development before selling products. Th...

  11. Video based OER: Production, discovery, dissemination

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, Graham R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports lessons learned from a range of ESRC, HEA and Jisc funded projects. Four dimensions will be discussed, economic costs, quality, dissemination and pedagogy.\\ud \\ud Cost issues include the expense of making video, and the variety of skills and expertise required such as interviewing, scripting and editing. Quality issues are similar to those in broadcast video but not as great. However, there are specific requirements for special needs and issues around copyright and licensin...

  12. Tension Hydrothorax Related to Disseminated Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnaKate Deal, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 34-year-old woman presenting to the emergency department (ED with dyspnea, cough, and fever. She was found to have a tension hydrothorax and was treated with ultrasound-guided thoracentesis in the ED. Subsequent inpatient evaluation showed the patient had disseminated endometriosis. Tension hydrothorax has not been previously described in the literature as a complication of this disease.

  13. How Airbnb Captures and Disseminates Value

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Stephan; Dolnicar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses two of the six vital business model elements, explaining the functioning of peer-to-peer accommodation networks: value capture and dissemination. The other elements are discussed in detail in Chapter 4. We focus on Airbnb because it is the international market leader. Separate business analyses are necessary for other peer-to-peer accommodation networks given that each functions in a slightly different way. In this chapter the business model value capture and value disse...

  14. Disseminated MRSA infection with purulent pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mada, Pradeep Kumar; Cady, Beth; De Silva, Anajana; Alam, Mohammad

    2017-03-30

    The risk of developing pericarditis secondary to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in the absence of preceding surgical procedure is extremely low. We present a case report of a 36-year-old woman who developed disseminated MRSA infection leading to purulent pericarditis. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Intrathecal chemotherapy for refractory disseminated medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Junichi; Nishiyama, Kenichi; Mori, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hideaki; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2008-05-01

    To analyze the effect of intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy for disseminated medulloblastoma. Twenty-one patients received IT chemotherapy using the chemotherapeutic agents of methotrexate (MTX) and nitrosoureas (ACNU, MCNU) including nine patients for residual leptomeningeal lesions after initial surgery and radiation, and 12 for a recurrence with leptomeningeal dissemination. Of these 21 patients, 12 received a lumbar and/or ventricular bolus injection of the chemotherapeutic agents, one received the ventriculolumbar perfusion of the agents, and eight received both the perfusion and bolus injection. The doses ranged from 6-7 mg/m(2) of ACNU for perfusion and 3-3.5 mg/m(2) of ACNU, MCNU, or MTX for the bolus injection, and the cycles were administered from 3 to 12 times for perfusion and from 5 to 54 times for the bolus injection. The effects of chemotherapy were assessed by both radiological and cytological examinations, and the clinical symptoms were also assessed. Radiological and/or cytological responses were observed in 10 of 21 patients (47.6%), including seven cases demonstrating a complete remission. The 5-year overall survival rate and 5-year survival rate after dissemination were 61.5 and 46.4%, respectively. Five patients who received a lumbar bolus injection of nitrosoureas experienced paraplegia and double incontinence. One patient who received a ventricular injection of nitrosoureas experienced truncal ataxia. IT chemotherapy was found to be effective in some cases with refractory disseminated medulloblastoma and it seems to be an appropriate treatment choice for leptomeningeal recurrence. However, the frequent bolus injections of nitrosoureas should be avoided to prevent the side effects.

  16. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Harnalikar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis, a systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum and Histoplasma capsulatum var duboisii is endemic to many parts of the world. The clinical manifestations range from acute or chronic pulmonary infection to a progressive disseminated disease. After initial exposure to the fungus, the infection is self-limited and restricted to the lungs in 99% of healthy individuals. The remaining 1%, however, progress to either disseminated or chronic disease involving the lungs, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow or rarely, the skin and mucous membranes. Mucocutaneous histoplasmosis is frequently reported in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, but it is rare in immunocompetent hosts. A 60-year-old male presented with asymptomatic swelling of the hard palate and crusted papules and nodules over the extremities, face and trunk. Clinically, the diagnoses of cutaneous cryptococcosis versus histoplasmosis was considered in this patient. A chest X-ray revealed hilar lymphadenopathy. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV was nonreactive. Skin biopsy revealed multiple tiny intracellular round yeast forms with a halo in the mid-dermis. Culture of the skin biopsy in Sabouraud′s dextrose agar showed colonies of Histoplasma capsulatum. Despite an investigation including no evidence of underlying immunosuppression was found, he was started on IV amphotericin-B (0.5 mg/kg/day. However, the patient succumbed to his disease 2 days after presentation. We report a rare case of disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual.

  17. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Felix Boon-Bin

    2011-10-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic fungal infection caused by the ubiquitous fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis is an uncommon entity and is usually present in the immunosuppressed. Here, a case of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient is reported. This 70-year-old healthy woman presented with multiple painful ulcerated nodules on her face and upper and lower extremities of 6-month duration, associated with low-grade fever, night sweats, loss of appetite, and loss of weight. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsy revealed epidermal hyperplasia and granulomatous inflammation in the dermis, with budding yeast. Fungal culture identified S. schenckii. She had total resolution of the lesions after 2 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B and 8 months of oral itraconazole. All investigations for underlying immunosuppression and internal organ involvement were negative. This case reiterates that disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis, although common in the immunosuppressed, can also be seen in immunocompetent patients. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhihal, B; Hasnaoui, A; Ghfir, I; Moustachi, A; Aoufi, S; Lyagoubi, M

    2015-09-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis is a serious opportunistic fungal infection caused by a yeast-encapsulated fungus of the genus Cryptococcus neoformans. It occurs most often in patients with a significant deficit of cellular immunity and preferentially affects the central nervous system. The skin and the lungs are the most commonly affected sites outside the neuro-subarachnoid location. We report the case of a patient apparently immunocompetent who had a disseminated cryptococcosis. The disease started with the multiple purplish skin lesions, large umbilicated on the face, groin, forearm and leg with progressively increasing volume. This symptomatology had evolved in the context of weight loss and poor general condition. The diagnosis was established by the presence of cryptococcal at the skin biopsy and cerebrospinal fluid. Research of immunosuppression common pathologies were negative. Treatment was initiated based on amphotericin B for 40 days. The patient's condition deteriorates onset of paraplegia and swallowing disorders causing death in an array of cachexia. This observation points out that disseminated cryptococcosis can occur in an immunocompetent patient. The skin lesions may be the first sign of the disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Computational scalability of large size image dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooper, Rob; Bajcsy, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the computational scalability of image pyramid building needed for dissemination of very large image data. The sources of large images include high resolution microscopes and telescopes, remote sensing and airborne imaging, and high resolution scanners. The term 'large' is understood from a user perspective which means either larger than a display size or larger than a memory/disk to hold the image data. The application drivers for our work are digitization projects such as the Lincoln Papers project (each image scan is about 100-150MB or about 5000x8000 pixels with the total number to be around 200,000) and the UIUC library scanning project for historical maps from 17th and 18th century (smaller number but larger images). The goal of our work is understand computational scalability of the web-based dissemination using image pyramids for these large image scans, as well as the preservation aspects of the data. We report our computational benchmarks for (a) building image pyramids to be disseminated using the Microsoft Seadragon library, (b) a computation execution approach using hyper-threading to generate image pyramids and to utilize the underlying hardware, and (c) an image pyramid preservation approach using various hard drive configurations of Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) drives for input/output operations. The benchmarks are obtained with a map (334.61 MB, JPEG format, 17591x15014 pixels). The discussion combines the speed and preservation objectives.

  20. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    A Chitsaz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injec...

  1. Abusive families and character formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, J B

    1990-06-01

    Family research studies confirm that abusive parents tend to be undifferentiated partners who compete with each other and with their children for attention and nurturance. More or less healthy parents make demands on children to counteract their own injured narcissism, but they do so largely without devaluation and the sadistic use of projective identification. Under sufficient stress abusive parents attack the child who fails to gratify their needs, thereby giving vent to longstanding frustrations and feelings of being threatened by the child's individuation and competency. The emotional atmosphere in such families facilitates ego deficits like those of the borderline personality as it molds the child's efforts to avoid anxiety. Devaluation, loss, and defenses against mourning partially account for depression and paranoid traits in abused youngsters. Early neglect and abuse exposes them to influential models who act out rage and primitive defenses. Some abused individuals project their rage and later become paranoid or antisocial, whereas others fragment or retain infantile defenses. The destructiveness of severe psychological abuse lies in the constriction of the experiencing self and healthy character development, together with the conditioning to repeat abusive relationships and to avoid intimacy. Achieving individuation under these circumstances entails overcoming the internalized abusive relationships and relinquishing the unconscious wish to be transformed from the abused into the abuser.

  2. Information, Vol. 1, Number 4. Teacher Corps Dissemination Project Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenau, Fred S., Ed.

    Guidelines are provided for disseminating information on teacher corps projects. Information is given on experienced disseminators such as existing networks that are available to help in planning. Suggestions are made on targeting information and marketing. (JD)

  3. Abuse of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, J [UKAEA

    1976-09-01

    This paper reproduces an address by Sir John Hill, Chairman of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, at a conference in London organised by the Financial Times in July 1976. Actions that, in the author's view, could be regarded as constituting abuse of nuclear power are first summarised, and the various aspects of the use and abuse of nuclear power are discussed. The author considers that achieving the maximum degree of acceptance of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is the most important political objective in nuclear power, but considers that nuclear terrorism would be abortive and that, so far as the UK is concerned, the present precautions are adequate and will remain so. It is considered that much abuse of nuclear power arises from the prevalence of its critics, particularly with reference to Pu hazards, the health of nuclear employees, and possible damage to the health of the public. The Pu problem is considered to be far more emotive than rational. The possibility of lung cancer and leukaemia is discussed. It is concluded that atomic energy is one of the best of industries in which to work, both from the health and interest points of view.

  4. Child abuse in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, a large number of children are deprived of their basic human rights due to unacceptable health, nutrition, education as well as social conditions. In addition, children are exposed to severe forms of sexual, physical and mental abuses at home, in the work place, in institutions and other public places. The nature and extent of violence against children irrespective of age, sex and class has been increasing day by day. These include physical torture, rape, homicide and sometimes heinous attacks with acid. Children are also victims of child labor and trafficking, both of which are treated as the most severe form of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. This review article is aimed to focus on the present situation of various forms of child abuses in our country. Data collection is based on secondary sources of information from Dhaka Medical College Hospital, One Stop Crisis Center (OCC,UNICEF, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, several Dhaka based organizations and news paper clipping. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2015; 9(1: 18-21

  5. Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Lacher; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann

    2016-01-01

    Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to the victim or the perpetrator were assessed. Bi- and multivariate analysis were used to identify abuse and neglect determinants. A total of 150 cases reflected at least one form of elder abuse or neglect; 104 cases were categorised as abuse with at least one type of abuse (overall 135 mentions), 46 cases were categorised as neglect (active or passive). Psychological abuse was the most reported form (47%), followed by financial (35%), physical (30%) and anticonstitutional abuse (18%). In 81% of the 150 cases at least two risk factors existed. In 13% no associated risk factor could be identified. Compared with neglect, elders with abuse were less likely to be a nursing home resident than living at home (odds ratio [OR] 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.19). In addition, they were more likely to be cohabiting with their perpetrators (OR 18.01, 95% CI 4.43-73.19). For the majority of the reported elder abuse cases at least two associated risk factors could be identified. Knowledge about these red flags and a multifaceted strategy are needed to identify and prevent elder abuse.

  6. Sustainability of State-Level Substance Abuse Prevention Infrastructure After the Completion of the SPF SIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica M; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Flewelling, Robert L; Orwin, Robert G; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Recent national substance abuse prevention efforts that have been disseminated at the state level have provided fertile ground for addressing the dearth of systematic research on state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure. The Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Program (SPF SIG), a national public health initiative sponsored by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and its Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, is one such effort, providing an opportunity to examine state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure across the country. The aims of the SPF SIG initiative include reducing substance abuse and its related problems, as well as enhancing state and local prevention infrastructure and capacity. In this article, we describe the status of state-level substance abuse prevention infrastructure and capacity 1 year after the first 26 funded states ended their projects, based on follow-up interviews with state prevention decision-makers. We found that, in five of the six prevention domains we measured, prevention infrastructure capacity increased during the 12-month period after the grants ended. The evidence for further SPF capacity development even after the conclusion of the grants suggests that states recognized the benefits of using the SPF and took deliberate steps to sustain and enhance the integration of this framework into their state prevention systems. In addition, the findings suggest that state agencies and organizations can benefit from time-limited resources aimed at increasing their capacity and that such efforts can have a lasting impact on measures of state prevention system capacity.

  7. 21 CFR 99.101 - Information that may be disseminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information that may be disseminated. 99.101 Section 99.101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Information To Be Disseminated § 99.101 Information that may be disseminated. (a) A manufacturer may...

  8. 48 CFR 3052.242-71 - Dissemination of contract information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.242-71 Dissemination of contract information. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3042.202-70, insert the following clause: Dissemination of Contract Information... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of contract...

  9. 48 CFR 2905.101 - Methods of disseminating information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information. 2905.101 Section 2905.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Dissemination of Information 2905.101 Methods of disseminating... dissemination of information concerning procurement actions. The Division of Acquisition Management Services...

  10. 48 CFR 1252.242-72 - Dissemination of contract information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....242-72 Dissemination of contract information. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1242.7000(c), insert the following clause: Dissemination of Contract Information (OCT 1994) The Contractor shall not publish, permit... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of contract...

  11. 10 CFR 470.20 - Dissemination of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of information. 470.20 Section 470.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.20 Dissemination of information. DOE shall disseminate to the public, in an appropriate manner, information of the...

  12. 32 CFR 2400.28 - Dissemination of classified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of classified information. 2400.28... SECURITY PROGRAM Safeguarding § 2400.28 Dissemination of classified information. Heads of OSTP offices... originating official may prescribe specific restrictions on dissemination of classified information when...

  13. 45 CFR 1388.7 - Program criteria-dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) Introduction to dissemination: The UAP disseminates information and research findings, including... Affiliated Programs, and State service systems to disseminate information to target audiences. (e) The...) The UAP must be a resource for information for individuals with developmental disabilities and their...

  14. Dissemination of health information through social networks: twitter and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanfeld, Daniel; Scanfeld, Vanessa; Larson, Elaine L

    2010-04-01

    This study reviewed Twitter status updates mentioning "antibiotic(s)" to determine overarching categories and explore evidence of misunderstanding or misuse of antibiotics. One thousand Twitter status updates mentioning antibiotic(s) were randomly selected for content analysis and categorization. To explore cases of potential misunderstanding or misuse, these status updates were mined for co-occurrence of the following terms: "cold + antibiotic(s)," "extra + antibiotic(s)," "flu + antibiotic(s)," "leftover + antibiotic(s)," and "share + antibiotic(s)" and reviewed to confirm evidence of misuse or misunderstanding. Of the 1000 status updates, 971 were categorized into 11 groups: general use (n = 289), advice/information (n = 157), side effects/negative reactions (n = 113), diagnosis (n = 102), resistance (n = 92), misunderstanding and/or misuse (n = 55), positive reactions (n = 48), animals (n = 46), other (n = 42), wanting/needing (n = 19), and cost (n = 8). Cases of misunderstanding or abuse were identified for the following combinations: "flu + antibiotic(s)" (n = 345), "cold + antibiotic(s)" (n = 302), "leftover + antibiotic(s)" (n = 23), "share + antibiotic(s)" (n = 10), and "extra + antibiotic(s)" (n = 7). Social media sites offer means of health information sharing. Further study is warranted to explore how such networks may provide a venue to identify misuse or misunderstanding of antibiotics, promote positive behavior change, disseminate valid information, and explore how such tools can be used to gather real-time health data. 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Elder Abuse: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Nan Hervig; Giordano, Jeffrey A.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the literature on elder abuse and examines categories of abuse, the incidence of abuse, and characteristics of the typical abused person. Concluded that the abused person is characteristically a severely impaired woman, aged 75 and over, White, widowed, and living with relatives. (LLL)

  16. Psychological Consequences of Wife Abuse | Chovwen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results also showed that old abused women scored significantly lower on depression than young abused women, F(1,337)=P<.01. Likewise, high education abused women self-reported significantly higher on depression than low education abused women, t(2,337)= 5.44. On self-esteem, old abused women were ...

  17. Several unusual cases of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, H; Weston, J T

    1976-10-01

    All childhood deaths which occurred in New Mexico during 1974 and 1975 were reviewed. Nine fatal instances of abuse were identified representing the entire spectrum of physical abuse: neglect, abuse in a single episode of injury, repetitive abuse, or sexual abuse. Several cases are summarized. These are unusual either in the distribution of pathologic findings or in the problems encountered in court presentation.

  18. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  19. Benzodiazepine abuse among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzodiazepines belong to the hypnotic-sedative class of drugs which have anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic properties. These drugs have been in clinical use for at least half a century. The propensity for development of dependence, especially on prescription benzodiazepines, coupled with the risk of falls and cognitive impairment due to benzodiazepines makes the elderly population susceptible to adverse outcomes with the use of benzodiazepines, and hence, cautious use is desired in this population. This review discusses the various aspects pertaining to benzodiazepine abuse in the elderly including pharmacology, prevalence of abuse, adverse consequences of benzodiazepine abuse, and subsequently assessment and management of elderly patients with benzodiazepine abuse.

  20. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  1. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  2. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori

    2002-01-01

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  3. Spouse Abuse, Child Abuse, and Substance Abuse Among Army Facilities: Co-Occurrence, Correlations and Service Delivery Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibbs, Deborah A

    2006-01-01

    ...: spouse abuse child abuse and substance abuse. By supporting the development of improved responses to troubled families findings from this study can potentially reduce mortality and morbidity among military personal and their family members...

  4. Disseminated toxocariasis in an immunocompetent host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Raj Aryal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Toxocara canis, or less commonly, Toxocara cati, which is one of the most common zoonotic infections worldwide. It commonly affects the pediatric and immunocompromised population; however, it has rarely been reported in the immunocompetent adults. Two of the well-recognized syndromes in children are visceral larva migrans and ocular larva migrans. Infection in adults usually ranges from asymptomatic to non-specific symptoms which makes the diagnosis challenging. A case of 36 year-old male was presented with disseminated toxocariasis with pulmonary and hepatic involvement and striking peripheral eosinophilia.

  5. Rapid weather information dissemination in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martsolf, J. D.; Heinemann, P. H.; Gerber, J. F.; Crosby, F. L.; Smith, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the Florida Agricultural Services and Technology (FAST) plan to provide ports for users to call for weather information is described. FAST is based on the Satellite Frost Forecast System, which makes a broad base of weather data available to its users. The methods used for acquisition and dissemination of data from various networks under the FAST plan are examined. The system provides color coded IR or thermal maps, precipitation maps, and textural forecast information. A diagram of the system is provided.

  6. Disseminated coccidoidomycosis in a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Stalis, Ilse H; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2012-03-01

    A16-yr-old male koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) presented for nonspecific signs of illness and weight loss. Despite 2 mo of diagnostics and supportive care, the koala's health declined and euthanasia was elected. On histopathologic examination, lesions containing fungal organisms morphologically consistent with coccidioidomycosis were found in the lung, liver, spleen, kidney, lymph node, heart, eye, and bone marrow. Although disseminated infection was present, the koala was IgM and IgG seronegative for Coccidioides spp. 1 mo prior to euthanasia.

  7. Wife Abuse and the Wife Abuser: Review and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Ann D.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews clinical, theoretical, and empirical literature on wife abuse/abusers. Presents historical and contextual information, overview of domestic violence, prevalence data, and descriptions of evolution and current status of public and professional awareness and response. Proposes integrative model for understanding etiologic, dynamic, and…

  8. Violence and Abuse in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Violence and Abuse in Rural America Violence and abuse ... of harassment, stalking, and bullying? How prevalent is violence and abuse in rural America? According to the ...

  9. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzieff, V.; Alonso, I.; Vázquez, A.

    2004-01-01

    It is estimated that 20-25% of cases of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) relate to an underlying neoplasia primarily hematologic. It is estimated that about 5% of patients with solid tumors have CID clinic, although the incidence of subclinical alterations is much higher. The CID is not limited to the activation of the coagulation cascade, which leads to bleeding micro thrombosis and consumption of coagulation factors. Solid tumors are frequently associated adenocarcinomas producers mucin (especially gastric), usually in the context of a disseminated disease. The mucin may act as a promoter of the cascade, but probably it is a multi-event. High levels of TNF to produced by the tumor mass and chemotherapy-induced cell lysis have Also linked. Although the bleeding is usually oriented diagnosis, the most frequent cause of death is thrombosis. There are no specific tests for diagnosis. Elevated levels of D-dimer and products oriented fibrinogen degradation diagnosis. No reduction fibrinogen and almost always, one thrombocytopenia consumption. Treatment is complex and there is no consensus on many points. To recover the lost factors for consumption, it is recommended to use fresh frozen plasma and / or washed red blood cells. the heparin anticoagulation low dose is indicated since the disease causal can not be controlled quickly, but should not be initiated if there thrombocytopenia 50.000.El under profuse bleeding can require the use of tranexamic acid or EACA. Acute DIC, the case of our patient, is rare and very serious

  10. ANENT Activities for Knowledge Sharing and Dissemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Y.; Rho, S.; Chanyota, S.; Hanamitsu, K.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the main activities and achievement of the Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (ANENT) related to knowledge sharing and dissemination in the Asia and Pacific region, and how it has strengthened its networks. Since the establishment of ANENT in 2004, the basic framework and infrastructure of collaboration among universities, R&D organizations, and training institutes have been established and improved. The ANENT web-portal was opened in 2004 to share, exchange, and disseminate information and experiences of interest for the educational communities in the region. A regional learning management system (LMS) was installed in the Korean server as an innovative tool for facilitating and promoting e-Learning. Using this LMS, six e-Training courses and five Train the Trainer (TTT) courses were implemented. In 2016, a newly launched four year IAEA Technical Cooperation project will facilitate ANENT activities to strengthen the nuclear knowledge management (NKM), develop the human resources and enhance young nuclear scientists’ and public understanding of nuclear science and technology. Internet technology will help implement these activities by providing effective and efficient methods and tools and use the regional scientific infrastructures such as research reactors for nuclear education and training through regional LMS. (author

  11. New trends in knowledge dissemination: TED Talks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Scotto di Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the key elements of ethos, pathos and logos linguistic strategies as some main features of TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design Talks, popularizing speeches aiming at Knowledge Dissemination. Through a comparison between the TED Talk ‘HIV - How to fight an epidemic of bad laws’, by Shereen El-Feki (2012a, and another speech held by the same author at the  2012 Symposia The Global Commission on HIV and the Law, addressed to specialists, the paper analyses TED Talks as an innovative tool of popularization, which breaches the typical triangularisation ‘scientist-mediator-audience’, bringing scientists directly into contact with their audiences. Drawing upon Aristotle’s three pillars of rhetoric, the paper analyses the strategies used to establish the ethos of the speech, by proposing a topic as morally worth of spreading; pathos, by creating a direct contact with the public; and logos, investigated through an analysis of the elements used to recontextualise scientific discourses into popularized speeches. The analysis suggests that TED Talks are a recodification, not a mere translation of texts; they are a means to disseminate knowledge reducing the asymmetry between audiences and scientists.

  12. [Healthcare aspects of domestic abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kórász, Krisztián

    2015-03-08

    The paper reviews the forms of domestic abuse, its causes, prevalence and possible consequences. British and Hungarian Law, guidelines and the roles and responsibilities of healthcare professionals in relation to dealing with domestic abuse in their practice is also addressed within the paper.

  13. Working on Memories of Abuse....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsman, Jenny

    1994-01-01

    Through working with a woman abused as a child, a teacher concluded that the violence of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse is common among many adults who read and write poorly. Their experiences should be acknowledged in literacy programs that encourage people to develop skills with which to tell their stories. (SK)

  14. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? A child is brought into the emergency room with a fractured leg. The parents are unable to explain how ... the fractures is not child abuse. It is osteogenesis imperfecta , or OI. OI is a genetic disorder characterized ...

  15. Elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inger Plaisier; Mirjam de Klerk

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Ouderenmishandeling in Nederland It is twenty years since the last study was carried out on the number of older persons in the Netherlands who are deliberate or accidental victims of abuse in the form of verbal, physical or sexual violence, financial abuse and/or neglect by

  16. [Recognizing signs of sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, T.A.; Wong, S.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual abuse is very common. In the Netherlands 42% of women and 13% of men aged over 25 years have experienced unacceptable sexual behaviour. Most victims do not seek professional help nor do they report the abuse to the police, and most of the victims who do seek medical help do not mention the

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and frequency of abuse increases.” 76 o Among adolescents, suicide attempters report more sexual abuse than non-attempters ... suicide attempts among junior and senior high school youth. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, 358-372. 1011 ...

  18. The abuse of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.

    1977-01-01

    Different aspects of possible abuse of nuclear power by countries or individuals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the advantage of nuclear power, despite the risk of weapon proliferation or terrorism. The concepts of some nuclear power critics, concerning health risks in the nuclear sector are rejected as untrue and abusive

  19. Hydrogen Technical Analysis -- Dissemination of Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Kervitsky, Jr.

    2006-03-20

    SENTECH is a small energy and environmental consulting firm providing technical, analytical, and communications solutions to technology management issues. The activities proposed by SENTECH focused on gathering and developing communications materials and information, and various dissemination activities to present the benefits of hydrogen energy to a broad audience while at the same time establishing permanent communications channels to enable continued two-way dialog with these audiences in future years. Effective communications and information dissemination is critical to the acceptance of new technology. Hydrogen technologies face the additional challenge of safety preconceptions formed primarily as a result of the crash of the Hindenburg. Effective communications play a key role in all aspects of human interaction, and will help to overcome the perceptual barriers, whether of safety, economics, or benefits. As originally proposed SENTECH identified three distinct information dissemination activities to address three distinct but important audiences; these formed the basis for the task structure used in phases 1 and 2. The tasks were: (1) Print information--Brochures that target the certain segment of the population and will be distributed via relevant technical conferences and traditional distribution channels. (2) Face-to-face meetings--With industries identified to have a stake in hydrogen energy. The three industry audiences are architect/engineering firms, renewable energy firms, and energy companies that have not made a commitment to hydrogen (3) Educational Forums--The final audience is students--the future engineers, technicians, and energy consumers. SENTECH will expand on its previous educational work in this area. The communications activities proposed by SENTECH and completed as a result of this cooperative agreement was designed to compliment the research and development work funded by the DOE by presenting the technical achievements and validations

  20. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  1. Drug abuse among the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.

  2. [Child abuse in the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  3. Ventricular metastasis resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Ian D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC complicates up to 7% of malignancies, the commonest solid organ association being adenocarcinoma. Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC has rarely been associated with DIC. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman with TCC bladder and DIC was found to have a cardiac lesion suspicious for metastatic disease. The DIC improved with infusion of plasma and administration of Vitamin K, however the cardiac lesion was deemed inoperable and chemotherapy inappropriate; given the patients functional status. We postulate that direct activation of the coagulation cascade by the intraventricular metastasis probably triggered the coagulopathy in this patient. Conclusion Cardiac metastases should be considered in cancer patients with otherwise unexplained DIC. This may influence treatment choices.

  4. Dissemination of photovoltaics in the Gambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Able-Thomas, U.; Pearsall, N.M. [University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Hill, R.; O`Keefe, P. [University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1995-11-01

    The Gambia has abundant solar energy but a significant shortfall in electrical generation and distribution capacity, along with a growing demand for electricity. This paper will outline areas in the application of photovoltaics (PV) in The Gambia which are both technically and economically viable. Photovoltaics is beginning to contribute to developmental efforts, but this contribution is rarely quantified. The paper will discuss the socio-economic benefits that The Gambia has derived from this appropriate technology. The application of PV on a scale much wider than at present will require strengthening of the infrastructure in PV systems, construction and maintenance and financing. The infrastructural needs of the country and its manufacturing capabilities will be assessed along with the organizational aspects for successful PV dissemination. (Author)

  5. Dissemination and geovisualization of territorial entities' history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Plumejeaud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an innovative solution for geovisualization of the demographic and administrative history of French municipalities, named "communes" in French. This solution allows for the open dissemination of such data. The challenge is to provide a web interface for unskilled users in order to help them understand complex information about the demographic evolution of French territories. Our approach combines interactive thematic, spatial, and temporal views. We describe our architecture, based on open-source technologies, and the organization of this imperfect geo-historical information in our spatiotemporal database. Our second contribution concerns the concept of an acquaintance graph that has been used to obtain an efficient design with good performance in our geovisualization website.

  6. Disseminated Pleural Siliconoma Mimicking Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiki; Tao, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Yoshiyama, Koichi; Furukawa, Masashi; Yoshida, Kumiko; Okabe, Kazunori

    2015-12-01

    A 48-year-old woman with a 3-month history of back pain was admitted for further examination of multiple left pleural nodules. She had undergone bilateral breast augmentation with silicone implants 10 years previously. Nine years after the operation, both ruptured implants were removed, and autologous fat was injected. Computed tomography revealed multiple pleural nodules suggestive of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Thoracoscopic exploration revealed multiple pleural nodules with massive pleural adhesions. The nodules were filled with viscous liquid and were histologically determined to be siliconomas. Disseminated pleural siliconoma should be recognized as a late adverse event of silicone breast implantation. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Disseminated gonococcal infection: an unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Lohani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gonococcus typically affects the mucosal surfaces but in rare cases can spread to bloodstream causing disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI. The usual presentation of DGI is rash, polyarthralgia, and tenosynovitis. We present the case of a 23-year-old female who presented to our hospital with pustular rash and tenosynovitis of hand and was sent home on Augmentin. Her symptoms worsened despite treatment and she presented back to the ED. On investigation, she was found to have DGI and was appropriately treated. DGI should be kept in mind in sexually active youngsters who have only one or two features of the classic triad of rash, tenosynovitis, and arthritis. Timely management and appropriate treatment of DGI is very important to avoid complications and morbidity.

  8. Climate indicators for Italy: calculation and dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiato, F.; Fioravanti, G.; Fraschetti, P.; Perconti, W.; Toreti, A.

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, meteorological data necessary and useful for climate studies are collected, processed and archived by a wide range of national and regional institutions. As a result, the density of the stations, the length and frequency of the observations, the quality control procedures and the database structure vary from one dataset to another. In order to maximize the use of those data for climate knowledge and climate change assessments, a computerized system for the collection, quality control, calculation, regular update and rapid dissemination of climate indicators was developed. The products publicly available through a dedicated web site are described, as well as an example of climate trends estimates over Italy, based on the application of statistical models on climate indicators from quality-checked and homogenised time series.

  9. Collection, verification, sharing and dissemination of data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Utzinger, Jürg; Kristensen, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    that would enable all project partners to have access through a password protected Internet-based data portal. This required anonymous agreement on several common standardised sample forms, ranging from the mundane but important issue of using the same units of measurement to more complex challenges......, for instance agreeing on the same protocols for double-treatment of praziquantel in different settings. With the experiences gained by the CONTRAST project, this paper discusses issues of data management and sharing in research projects in the light of the current donor demand, and offers advice and specific......The scientific community is charged with growing demands regarding the management of project data and outputs and the dissemination of key results to various stakeholders. We discuss experiences and lessons from CONTRAST, a multidisciplinary alliance that had been funded by the European Commission...

  10. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore, to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB)) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. 211 At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (authors)

  11. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in dengue viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Sulaiman, Wan Aliaa; Inche Mat, Liyana Najwa; Hashim, Hasnur Zaman; Hoo, Fan Kee; Ching, Siew Mooi; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Mohamed, Mohd Hazmi; Basri, Hamidon

    2017-09-01

    Dengue is the most common arboviral disease affecting many countries worldwide. An RNA virus from the flaviviridae family, dengue has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DEN-1-DEN-4). Neurological involvement in dengue can be classified into dengue encephalopathy immune-mediated syndromes, encephalitis, neuromuscular or dengue muscle dysfunction and neuro-ophthalmic involvement. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune mediated acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system following recent infection or vaccination. This monophasic illness is characterised by multifocal white matter involvement. Many dengue studies and case reports have linked ADEM with dengue virus infection but the association is still not clear. Therefore, this article is to review and discuss concerning ADEM in dengue as an immune-medicated neurological complication; and the management strategy required based on recent literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimal control of epidemic information dissemination over networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Yu; Cheng, Shin-Ming; Chen, Kwang-Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Information dissemination control is of crucial importance to facilitate reliable and efficient data delivery, especially in networks consisting of time-varying links or heterogeneous links. Since the abstraction of information dissemination much resembles the spread of epidemics, epidemic models are utilized to characterize the collective dynamics of information dissemination over networks. From a systematic point of view, we aim to explore the optimal control policy for information dissemination given that the control capability is a function of its distribution time, which is a more realistic model in many applications. The main contributions of this paper are to provide an analytically tractable model for information dissemination over networks, to solve the optimal control signal distribution time for minimizing the accumulated network cost via dynamic programming, and to establish a parametric plug-in model for information dissemination control. In particular, we evaluate its performance in mobile and generalized social networks as typical examples.

  13. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Chitsaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injectors are at risk of infections endocarditis, which carries risk for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage usually occurs after rupture of a septic (mycotic aneurysm. Heroine users can are also at risk for hemorrhagic stroke secondary to liver failure with deranged clotting and to heroin nephropathy with uremia or malignant hypertension. In some heroin users the drug it self is directly causal due to vasculitis, hypersensitivity and immunologic changes. Embolization of foreign material to brain due to mixed of heroine with quinine can cause cerebral embolism. AMPHETAMINE AND other psychostimulants: In abuser of amphetamine hemorrhagic stroke can occur, oral, intravenous, nasal, and inhalational routes of administration have been reported. Most were chronic user, but in several patients, stroke followed a first exposure. Some of amphetamine induced intracranial hemorrhages are secondary to acute hypertension, some to cerebral vacuities, and some to a combination of two. Decongestants and diet pills: Phenylpropanolamine (PPA, an amphetamine – like drug, in decongestants and diet pills, induce acute hypertension, sever headache, psychiatric symptoms, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Ephedrine and pseudo ephedrine are present in decongestants and bronchodilators and induce headache, tachyarrhythmia, hypertensive emergency, and hemorrhagic and occlusive stroke. Ecstasy, 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamin (MDMA with amphetamine like can

  14. Update on child abuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Scott D; Lane, Wendy G; Walsh, Christina M

    2007-12-01

    Child abuse remains a significant problem in the United States with 2.9 million reports and 825 000 indicated cases in 2005. This report will highlight recent efforts toward child abuse prevention, focusing on home visiting programs, abusive head trauma primary prevention, parent training programs, sexual abuse prevention, and the effectiveness of laws banning corporal punishment. Most home visitation programs have demonstrated a lack of effectiveness in recent randomized trials. One exception is the Nurse Family Partnership, which remains the most effective and longest enduring intervention for high-risk families. Child sexual abuse prevention programs and parent training programs need further evaluation with more rigorous methodology and outcome measures. Providing universal parent education about coping with crying infants appears to be effective in lowering the incidence of abusive head trauma. Although advocated for, further study will determine the effectiveness of laws banning corporal punishment or mandating abusive head trauma education to parents of newborns. Pediatricians play an important role in the prevention of child maltreatment. Their knowledge of the effectiveness of different programs can help guide parents toward appropriate services.

  15. Child abuse, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri M.T. Lubis

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  16. Optimal channel choice for collaborative ad-hoc dissemination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Boudec, J-Y. L.; Vojnovic, M.

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative ad-hoc dissemination of information has been proposed as an efficient means to disseminate information among devices in a wireless ad-hoc network. Devices help in forwarding the information channels to the entire network, by disseminating the channels they subscribe to, plus others...... by a Metropolis-Hastings sampling algorithm. We also give a variant that accounts for battery level. This leads to a practical channel selection and re-selection algorithm that can be implemented without any central control....

  17. Dissemination strategy for Lean thinking in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannapfel, Petra; Poksinska, Bozena; Thomas, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to knowledge about dissemination strategies for Lean thinking throughout multiple healthcare organisations. The Ostergötland county council, Sweden (CCO) was chosen as a case study for an healthcare Lean-thinking dissemination strategies. Document analysis and interviews were used and results were compared with similar strategies employed by staff at the National Health Service Institute for Innovation (NHSI) and improvement in Great Britain and the Odense University Hospital in Denmark. The Lean improvement programme was introduced to tackle challenges such as an ageing society, rising care expectations and budgetary and economic constraints. It was designed as a long-term programme to create added value for patients and employee involvement. The dissemination strategy was: forming clear visions and objectives; piloting; training potential adopters; and formal dissemination. The CCO strategy was focused primarily on managers and was not meant to involve all staff until the implementation stage. Staff at the NHSI attempted to address nurses needs during dissemination, which questioned whether the CCO managers' dissemination strategy is sustainable. This paper inspires healthcare managers and decision makers who aim to disseminate Lean production in their organisations. There are many case studies describing Lean implementation in single healthcare organisations, but little is known about effective dissemination and implementation strategies in large healthcare systems. The authors, therefore, suggest activities for developing and implementing dissemination strategies in multiple healthcare organisations.

  18. Clinical characteristics associated with the intracranial dissemination of gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xu; Qin, Jun-Jie; Hao, Shu-Yu; Li, Huan; Zeng, Chun; Sun, Sheng-Jun; Yu, Lan-Bing; Gao, Zhi-Xian; Xie, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Glioma is the most common malignant tumor of the brain and the intracranial dissemination of gliomas is the late stage of the development of the tumor. However, there is little research in literature on the occurrence of intracranial dissemination of gliomas. In order to provide a reference for clinical work, we carried out this study on intracranial dissemination of glioma. A total of 629 patients with gliomas received tumor resection by the same surgeon from August 2010 to September 2015 were included in this study. The authors performed a retrospective review of the patients and the information regarding clinical features, histopathological results, molecular pathologic results and clinical outcomes was collected and analyzed. In this retrospective study, we found that the intracranial dissemination phenomenon occurred in 53 patients (8.43%). We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients and found that the age at diagnosis (P = 0.011), WHO grade of the tumor (P dissemination. The higher grade of the tumor, the more prone to disseminate. Deletion of 1p/19q had no significant correlation with the intracranial dissemination. MMP9, Ki-67, and EGFR were highly expressed in tumor cells that caused dissemination, and the level of Ki-67 expression had significance in statistics (P 40 years), high pathological grade, invasion of the corpus callosum and high levels of Ki-67 expression were risk factors associated with the intracranial dissemination of gliomas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Melanie

    1992-01-01

    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

  20. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  1. On the methodology of the intercomparison of TND evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiftah, S.; Caner, M.; Gur, Y.

    1979-03-01

    The paper presents the problems which arise when two independent complete nuclear data evaluations of the same nuclide are available. A detailed intercomparison of the evaluations can be a multi-levelled exercise of considerable detail, the stages of which cannot always be performed. However, a detailed intercomparison can be a rich source for improving considerably the nuclear data used for the different applications. Preliminary examples of intercomparison are given for illustrative purpose. (B.G.)

  2. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  3. Agricultural information dissemination using ICTs: A review and analysis of information dissemination models in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Zhang; Lei Wang; Yanqing Duan

    2016-01-01

    Over the last three decades, China’s agriculture sector has been transformed from the traditional to modern practice through the effective deployment of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Information processing and dissemination have played a critical role in this transformation process. Many studies in relation to agriculture information services have been conducted in China, but few of them have attempted to provide a comprehensive review and analysis of different informatio...

  4. Leisure and parties: Study on the dissemination of alcoholic drinks on university campuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Abrão Romera

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses the issue of alcohol consumption, emphasizing that persuasion to consumption can be observed in different contexts through advertising, mainly by posters put up at parties in university campuses. University parties represent one of the numerous forms of leisure of young adults, and sociability, flirt, and entertainment are some marks of these festive contexts. Binge-drinking has also become part of these scenarios, sometimes abusively. Generally, the parties aimed at this public are publicized with posters scattered throughout college campuses in order to convince this public to adhere and participate. This study aimed to verify the persuasion to alcohol abuse, found in fliers and posters disseminating these parties, based on the arguments used. This qualitative descriptive study was developed by combining a methodological framework composed of bibliographic and documental analysis of 173 party posters, aimed at the young public, collected in universities in the state of Sao Paulo. The analysis indicates verbal and imagetic arguments that encourage excessive drinking. The apology to beverage consumption in leisure activities puts this field of study in an important place for analyzing the behaviors experienced in it, especially by youth groups. The results represent an important step for the understanding of new modes of alcohol consumption, occupation and experience of leisure, and alert to the evelopment of prevention programs directed to this public and specific spaces.

  5. Moving beyond disrespect and abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadler, Michelle; Mario, Santos; Ruiz Buron, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    During recent decades, a growing and preoccupying excess of medical interventions during childbirth, even in physiological and uncomplicated births, together with a concerning spread of abusive and disrespectful practices towards women during childbirth across the world, have been reported. Despi...

  6. Connecting Network Properties of Rapidly Disseminating Epizoonotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Ariel L.; Fasina, Folorunso O.; Hoogesteyn, Almira L.; Konah, Steven N.; Febles, José L.; Perkins, Douglas J.; Hyman, James M.; Fair, Jeanne M.; Hittner, James B.; Smith, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background To effectively control the geographical dissemination of infectious diseases, their properties need to be determined. To test that rapid microbial dispersal requires not only susceptible hosts but also a pre-existing, connecting network, we explored constructs meant to reveal the network properties associated with disease spread, which included the road structure. Methods Using geo-temporal data collected from epizoonotics in which all hosts were susceptible (mammals infected by Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Uruguay, 2001; birds infected by Avian Influenza virus H5N1, Nigeria, 2006), two models were compared: 1) ‘connectivity’, a model that integrated bio-physical concepts (the agent’s transmission cycle, road topology) into indicators designed to measure networks (‘nodes’ or infected sites with short- and long-range links), and 2) ‘contacts’, which focused on infected individuals but did not assess connectivity. Results The connectivity model showed five network properties: 1) spatial aggregation of cases (disease clusters), 2) links among similar ‘nodes’ (assortativity), 3) simultaneous activation of similar nodes (synchronicity), 4) disease flows moving from highly to poorly connected nodes (directionality), and 5) a few nodes accounting for most cases (a “20∶80″ pattern). In both epizoonotics, 1) not all primary cases were connected but at least one primary case was connected, 2) highly connected, small areas (nodes) accounted for most cases, 3) several classes of nodes were distinguished, and 4) the contact model, which assumed all primary cases were identical, captured half the number of cases identified by the connectivity model. When assessed together, the synchronicity and directionality properties explained when and where an infectious disease spreads. Conclusions Geo-temporal constructs of Network Theory’s nodes and links were retrospectively validated in rapidly disseminating infectious diseases. They distinguished

  7. DISSEMINATING MULTICULTURALISM THROUGH THE TEACHING OF TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arido Laksono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 ABSTRACT Students are expected to change the world. Their perspectives represent the way they view the world and its phenomena. The broader knowledge they possess, the more tolerance they have in interpreting life. In the global era, students should understand the importance of having good knowledge in multiculturalism. They will involve in an inter-cultural encounter since sources of information are widely offered. The willingness to have such an open mind is required in order to develop a better place to live and work. One way to disseminate multiculturalism values is using text containing information about culture and social values. The text written in English or Bahasa Indonesia for the class designed in disseminating multiculturalism is Translation. Here, students are taught to interpret the messages conveyed and translate the information from the source language to the target language correctly. Teacher must have good and creative technique in delivering the material so that students really enjoy the class and deeply understand the topic. The teaching and learning process in Translation class, therefore, is an effective medium to achieve the expected purpose as stated above. Theory of translation will not be the one and only theory to do the translation job, but it also needs comprehensive knowledge on other social sciences. Hence, translation class will not only discuss lines of words in a paragraph, but also reciprocal discussion among the members of the class. At the end, students will have the ability to translate such information in a text correctly and to establish civic society with more open comprehension over society and its culture. Keywords: theory of translation, multiculturalism, teaching-learning process, globalization. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0

  8. Investigating sexual violence and abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Synnott, John

    2017-01-01

    This special issue brings together emerging research concerning the issue of Sexual Violence and Abuse from around the world. The importance of pulling together research that explores the central topic of sexual violence and abuse is more pressing than ever and having a collection of work using different methodological approaches to unique samples previously unexplored contributes significantly to our understanding towards this type of offence.

  9. Drugs of abuse--opiates.

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, W; Wesson, D R

    1990-01-01

    Treating opiate-dependent patients can be difficult for many physicians because the patients' life-styles, values, and beliefs differ from those of the physicians. Primary care physicians, however, are often involved in the treatment of the medical complications of opiate abuse, and physicians must often manage a patient's opiate dependence until appropriate referral to a drug abuse treatment program can be arranged. Treatment is guided by an understanding of the patient's addictive disease, ...

  10. Trauma Symptoms in Abused Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are many traumatic events (including natural disasters, physical, psychological and sexual abuse that may befall children and there is clear evidence that such experiences can produce a plethora of negative psychological effects. Children’s exposure to such traumas has been associated with a wide variety of negative mental health outcomes, including anxiety and depression, post-traumatic stress and dissociation and anger and aggression. It seems that the impacts of traumatic events are significantly related to type and intensity of trauma. Materials & Method: Through a systematized clustral sampling 3042 male and female students from junior high school who were participated in a survey study for investigating point prevalence of child abuse, completed Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A and Child Abuse Self-report Scale (CASRS. After recognition of abused children, they were compared based on trauma symptoms. TSCC-A is a self-report measure of post-traumatic distress and related psychological symptomatology in male and female children aged 8-16 years. It is useful in the evaluation of children who have experienced traumatic events, including physical and sexual assault, victimization by peers, major losses, the witnessing of violence done to others and natural disasters. TSCC-A makes no reference to sexual issues. CASRS is a self-report scale to assess child abuse and neglect with 38 items and four subscales (psychological abuse, neglect, physical and sexual abuse. Results: Considering the type of traumatic experiences, the results showed that abused children significantly received higher scores in scales and subscales of TSCC-A than nonabused group. They specially reported more symptoms (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, anger and dissociation comparing normal children. Conclusion: It is concluded that the type and rate of traumatic event is related to intensity of symptomatology.

  11. Personality development after physical abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Oates, R K

    1984-01-01

    Personality development after child abuse was studied in 39 children who had, on average, been admitted to hospital five and a half years previously. In contrast to a control group, the abused children had fewer friends, lower ambitions, and lower self esteem. They were more serious, shy, and subdued on a personality assessment and were more likely than the control children to have behaviour disturbances recorded on a questionnaire for teachers. Their mothers also noted a higher incidence of ...

  12. Examining the utility of a train-the-trainer model for dissemination of sexual violence prevention in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Christine; Rabago, Jina; Reynolds, Jasmine; Gates, Kalani; Yanagida, Evie; Baker, Charlene

    2018-06-01

    Rates of childhood sexual abuse are unacceptably high, with potentially long-lasting consequences for those who have been victimized. Currently, there are a number of sexual violence prevention programs that have been developed to lower rates of victimization, increase awareness, and connect victims with resources. Within this area of research, there has been less focus on effective methods of program dissemination. For example, school-based sexual violence prevention programs have had positive outcomes; however, little is known about how these programs are disseminated. The train-the-trainer model of dissemination utilizes master trainers to equip others to implement programs, thereby allowing more adults to teach and subsequently more children to receive the program. This study used survey data from teachers and other school personnel (n = 127) to analyze the utility of a train-the-trainer model of dissemination for a sexual violence prevention program in the state of Hawai'i. Through responses of people who were trained to implement the program (59.8% of whom did implement), aspects of the training, the program itself, and factors affecting whether a person implemented the program were explored. Results suggest that time spent in training, job position, and time in that position predicted whether a person trained to implement the sexual violence prevention program followed through with teaching the program to students. Additionally, 54.7% of people who did implement the program had at least one student disclose sexual violence to them, indicating the importance of sexual violence prevention programming and dissemination of these programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alexithymia in Egyptian Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rasheed, Amany Haroun

    2001-03-01

    Alexithymia is thought of as a trait that predisposes to drug abuse. Moreover, it is suggested to be related to type of the substance abused, with the worst-case scenario including a worse prognosis as well as tendency to relapse or even not to seek treatment at all. To address this important subject in Egyptian patients, a sample of 200 Egyptian substance abusers was randomly selected from inpatients in the Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Egypt. The study also included 200 group-matched controls. DSM-IV criteria were used for assessment of substance use disorders, and toxicologic urine analysis was used to confirm the substances of abuse. Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS)-Arabic version was used for assessment of alexithymia. It was found that alexithymia was significantly more prevalent in the substance use disorders group as compared to healthy controls. It was also found that among the substance use disorders group, alexithymics reported more polysubstance abuse, more opiate use (other than heroin IV), lower numbers of hospitalizations, lower numbers of reported relapses, and a lower tendency to relapse as a result of internal cues compared to patients without alexithymia. Statistically significant associations were also found between alexithymia and more benzodiazepine abuse and nonpersistence in treatment. The results suggest that alexithymia should be targeted in a treatment setting for substance use disorders.

  14. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A case series and review of literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Rezai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a rare immune mediated and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that usually affects children. It is a monophasic disorder related with multifocal neurologic symptoms. In this paper, we report seven cases of Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in pediatrics in addition; a review of literatures is presented.

  15. Identifying the challenges of creating an optimal dissemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is crucial that census data is disseminated in such a way that it satisfies most user needs as far as possible, to ensure that there is optimum use of the information and that maximum value for money is provided. In the past, Statistics South Africa disseminated data at the same geographic level created for data collection.

  16. Do Haphazard Reviews Provide Sound Directions for Dissemination Efforts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrill, Eileen; Littell, Julia H.

    2010-01-01

    Comments on The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments: A review of current efforts by Kathryn R. McHugh and David H. Barlow. The lead article in the February-March issue by McHugh and Barlow (2010) emphasized the need for "dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments."…

  17. Study on Dissemination Patterns in Location-Aware Gossiping Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Nobuharu; Baba, Teruyuki; Yoshikawa, Takashi; Morikawa, Hiroyuki

    We study the properties of information dissemination over location-aware gossiping networks leveraging location-based real-time communication applications. Gossiping is a promising method for quickly disseminating messages in a large-scale system, but in its application to information dissemination for location-aware applications, it is important to consider the network topology and patterns of spatial dissemination over the network in order to achieve effective delivery of messages to potentially interested users. To this end, we propose a continuous-space network model extended from Kleinberg's small-world model applicable to actual location-based applications. Analytical and simulation-based study shows that the proposed network achieves high dissemination efficiency resulting from geographically neutral dissemination patterns as well as selective dissemination to proximate users. We have designed a highly scalable location management method capable of promptly updating the network topology in response to node movement and have implemented a distributed simulator to perform dynamic target pursuit experiments as one example of applications that are the most sensitive to message forwarding delay. The experimental results show that the proposed network surpasses other types of networks in pursuit efficiency and achieves the desirable dissemination patterns.

  18. 44 CFR 19.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 19.140 Dissemination of policy. (a... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of policy. 19.140 Section 19.140 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  19. Health information dissemination for breast cancer awareness, early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is to explore how information about breast cancer (BC) is disseminated to working class mothers in Lagos State. It is to investigate how information disseminated is used by the respondents to detect early this deadly disease and ascertain if they are aware of any support by organisation and the government.

  20. Host defence against disseminated and invasive candida albicans infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent of disseminated and invasive candidiasis. The incidence of disseminated and invasive candidiasis has paralleled the use of modern medical procedures that adversely affect the immune system, and highlights the difficulty of treating

  1. An Adaptive Directed Query Dissemination Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatterjea, Supriyo; De Luigi, Simone; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Sun, M.T.

    This paper describes a directed query dissemination scheme, DirQ that routes queries to the appropriate source nodes based on both constant and dynamicvalued attributes such as sensor types and sensor values. Unlike certain other query dissemination schemes, location information is not essential for

  2. 48 CFR 1205.101 - Methods of disseminating information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of disseminating information. 1205.101 Section 1205.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... disseminating information. (b) The DOT Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (S-40), 400 7th...

  3. Fair and adaptive data dissemination for traffic information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza Schwartz, Ramon; Ohazulike, Anthony; Sommer, Christoph; Scholten, Johan; Dressler, Falko; Havinga, Paul J.M.; IEEE,

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) are expected to serve as support to the development of not only safety applications but also information-rich applications that disseminate relevant data to vehicles. Due to the continuous collection, processing, and dissemination of data, one crucial requirement

  4. Report on dissemination, monitoring and research into policy repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chereches, Razvan; Rus, Diana; Aro, Arja R.

    This report covers the dissemination activities of the project REPOPA months 2 to 60 (November 2011 to September 2016). This is the second major report of the dissemination work package (WP6) submitted to the European Commission (EC), which was aimed to provide the detailed results for disseminat...

  5. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  6. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; Akute disseminierte Enzephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Politi, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Roth, C.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acute widespread autoimmune demyelinating condition, which principally affects the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. It usually follows an infection or vaccination. The typical presentation is that of multifocal neurologic disturbances accompanied by change in mental status. CSF analysis reveals lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein content, but may also yield normal results. MRI is regarded as the diagnostic imaging modality of choice and typically demonstrates involvement of deep cerebral hemispheric and subcortical white matter as well as lesions in the basal ganglia, gray-white junction, diencephalon, brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. Unlike multiple sclerosis (MS), ADEM has a monophasic course and a favorable long-term prognosis. (orig.) [German] Die akute disseminierte Enzephalomyelitis (ADEM) ist eine akut auftretende autoimmune demylinisierende Erkrankung der weissen Substanz, die hauptsaechlich Gehirn und Rueckenmark befaellt. Ueblicherweise tritt sie nach einer Infektion oder Impfung auf. Die Entwicklung einer fokalen oder multifokalen neurologischen Funktionsstoerung ist das Kennzeichen der klinischen Praesentation der ADEM. Lymphozytaere Pleozytose und Eiweisserhoehung sind typische Befunde in der Liquoruntersuchung. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) ist die Untersuchungsmethode der Wahl. Die ADEM-Laesionen sind typischerweise gross, multipel und asymmetrisch. Sie koennen in den Gross- und Kleinhirnhemisphaeren, im Hirnstamm und im Rueckenmark lokalisiert sein. Die subkortikale und die zentrale weisse Substanz sind am haeufigsten befallen. Weniger haeufig ist die graue Substanz der Thalami und der Basalganglien betroffen. Im Gegensatz zur Multiplen Sklerose (MS) ist die Prognose der ADEM im Allgemeinen guenstig. (orig.)

  7. Modeling news dissemination on nuclear issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis Junior, Jose S.B.; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Menezes, Mario O., E-mail: jsbrj@ime.usp.b, E-mail: barroso@ipen.b, E-mail: mario@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Using a modified epidemiological model, the dissemination of news by media agents after the occurrence of large scale disasters was studied. A modified compartmented model was developed in a previous paper presented at INAC 2007. There it used to study to the Chernobyl's nuclear accident (1986) and the Concorde airplane crash (2000). Now the model has been applied to a larger and more diverse group of events - nuclear, non-nuclear and naturally caused disasters. To be comprehensive, old and recent events from various regions of the world were selected. A more robust news repository was used, and improved search techniques were developed to ensure that the scripts would not count false positive news. The same model was used but with improved non-linear embedded simulation optimization algorithms to generate the parameters of interest for our model. Individual parameters and some specific combination of them allow some interesting perceptions on how the nature of the accident / disaster gives rise to different profiles of growth and decay of the news. In our studies events involving nuclear causes generate news repercussion with more explosive / robust surge profiles and longer decaying tails than those of other natures. As a consequence of these differences, public opinion and policy makers are also much more sensitive to some issues than to others. The model, through its epidemiological parameters, shows in quantitative manner how 'nervous' the media content generators are with respect to nuclear installations and how resilient this negative feelings about nuclear is. (author)

  8. MRI findings of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sei Jung; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, Tae Sub; Lee, So Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Acute disseminate encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating disease of probable autoimmune etiology. The MR images of patients with clinically suspected ADEM were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical symptoms occurred 5 days to 1 month after viral upper respiratory infection (4) and Coxsakie viral infection (1). The symptoms had begun with fever (3), headache (3), sore throat (1), and drowsy mental state (1), which progressed with monophasic course to altered mental change (2), extremity weakness (2), seizure (1) and/or cerebellar symptom (1). MRI findings of ADEM showed patchy (4), non hemorrhagic (5), asymmetric (5) high signal intensity lesions on T2-weighted images. The number of the lesions was mostly multiple (4). The lesions mainly involved the brain stem (3) and subcortical while matter (3). Follow-up MR images of 13 days to 20 days after high dose steroid therapy showed marked improvement in two of three, which well corrected with clinical manifestations. MR finding of multiple, patchy, nonhemorrhagic and asymmetric lesions in subcortical white matter and brain stem on T2-weighted images seem to be characteristic features of ADEM, but nonspecific. Therefore, clinical correlation is required in evaluating ADEM.

  9. Vasogenic edema characterizes pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Sreedher, Gayathri; Bailey, Ariel [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Laney, Ernest John [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rush University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); La Colla, Luca [University of Parma, Department of Anesthesiology, Parma (Italy); UPMC Shadyside Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Alper, Gulay [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Neuroimmunology Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-08-15

    MR imaging criteria for diagnosing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have not been clearly established. Due to the wide spectrum of differential considerations, new imaging features allowing early and accurate diagnosis for ADEM are needed. We hypothesized that ADEM lesions would be characterized by vasogenic edema due to the potential reversibility of the disease. Sixteen patients who met the diagnostic criteria for ADEM proposed by the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG) and had complete MR imaging studies performed at our institution during the acute phase of the disease were identified retrospectively and evaluated by experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. Vasogenic edema was demonstrated on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in 12 out of 16 patients; cytotoxic edema was identified in two patients while the other two patients displayed no changes on DWI/ADC. ADC values for lesions and normal-appearing brain tissue were 1.39 ± 0.45 x 10{sup -3} and 0.81 ± 0.09 x 10{sup -3} mm/s{sup 2}, respectively (p = 0.002). When considering a cutoff of 5 days between acute and subacute disease, no difference between ADC values in acute vs. subacute phase was depicted. However, we found a significant correlation and an inverse and significant relationship between time and ADC value. We propose that vasogenic edema is a reliable diagnostic sign of acute neuroinflammation in ADEM. (orig.)

  10. Vasogenic edema characterizes pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Sreedher, Gayathri; Bailey, Ariel; Laney, Ernest John; La Colla, Luca; Alper, Gulay

    2014-01-01

    MR imaging criteria for diagnosing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have not been clearly established. Due to the wide spectrum of differential considerations, new imaging features allowing early and accurate diagnosis for ADEM are needed. We hypothesized that ADEM lesions would be characterized by vasogenic edema due to the potential reversibility of the disease. Sixteen patients who met the diagnostic criteria for ADEM proposed by the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG) and had complete MR imaging studies performed at our institution during the acute phase of the disease were identified retrospectively and evaluated by experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. Vasogenic edema was demonstrated on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in 12 out of 16 patients; cytotoxic edema was identified in two patients while the other two patients displayed no changes on DWI/ADC. ADC values for lesions and normal-appearing brain tissue were 1.39 ± 0.45 x 10 -3 and 0.81 ± 0.09 x 10 -3 mm/s 2 , respectively (p = 0.002). When considering a cutoff of 5 days between acute and subacute disease, no difference between ADC values in acute vs. subacute phase was depicted. However, we found a significant correlation and an inverse and significant relationship between time and ADC value. We propose that vasogenic edema is a reliable diagnostic sign of acute neuroinflammation in ADEM. (orig.)

  11. Modeling news dissemination on nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Junior, Jose S.B.; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Menezes, Mario O.

    2011-01-01

    Using a modified epidemiological model, the dissemination of news by media agents after the occurrence of large scale disasters was studied. A modified compartmented model was developed in a previous paper presented at INAC 2007. There it used to study to the Chernobyl's nuclear accident (1986) and the Concorde airplane crash (2000). Now the model has been applied to a larger and more diverse group of events - nuclear, non-nuclear and naturally caused disasters. To be comprehensive, old and recent events from various regions of the world were selected. A more robust news repository was used, and improved search techniques were developed to ensure that the scripts would not count false positive news. The same model was used but with improved non-linear embedded simulation optimization algorithms to generate the parameters of interest for our model. Individual parameters and some specific combination of them allow some interesting perceptions on how the nature of the accident / disaster gives rise to different profiles of growth and decay of the news. In our studies events involving nuclear causes generate news repercussion with more explosive / robust surge profiles and longer decaying tails than those of other natures. As a consequence of these differences, public opinion and policy makers are also much more sensitive to some issues than to others. The model, through its epidemiological parameters, shows in quantitative manner how 'nervous' the media content generators are with respect to nuclear installations and how resilient this negative feelings about nuclear is. (author)

  12. Medical image of the week: disseminated coccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ynosencio T

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 67-year-old African American man with no significant past medical history presented with shortness of breath and flu-like symptoms. On exam, he was noted to be profoundly hypoxemic with imaging showing diffuse thoracic changes (Figure 1 and a diffuse papular rash (Figure 2. Initial workup included coccidioidomycosis serologies which returned positive with a titer of 1:128. While exposure to coccidioidomycosis is very common in southern Arizona, dissemination is a rare occurrence. The incidence is estimated between 0.2 and 4.7 percent. Patients at highest risk include those that are immunosuppressed or that are of African or Filipino ancestry. Common extra-pulmonary sites include skin or subcutaneous tissue, meninges of brain or spinal cord, and bones. Even rarer sites include the eyes, liver, prostate, mediastinum, and kidneys. Treatment is usually the same as with pulmonary infection which is an azole agent. However, if the patient’s symptoms are severe or if the lesions involve …

  13. Intracranial tumors with risk of dissemination in neuroaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, F.A.; Hornedo, J.; de la Torre, A.; Sachetti, A.; Arellano, A.; Aramburo, P.; Aragon, G.; Otero, J.

    1983-01-01

    The experience of the Radiotherapy Service, Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain), in the treatment of intracranial tumors with risk of neural axis dissemination is analyzed. In 15 years (1964 to 1979) 415 primary central nervous system tumors were studied and treated; 67 corresponded to tumors with risk of meningeal dissemination. Clinical dissemination in cerebrospinal fluid was proven in 14 patients. The actuarial survival of 10 years for patients with neural axis dissemination, without prophylactic treatment to the neuroaxis, is 14% with an average survival of 10.5 months. In approximately 20% of meduloblastomas, ependymal and pineal region tumors, meningeal metastases at some distance from the primary tumor can take place. Patients at risk with these types of neoplasia must be identified, ad an adequate radical therapeutic focus devised, not only for the primary tumor, but also for the risk of dissemination

  14. The importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegić, Merima; Numanović, Fatima; Delibegović, Zineta; Tihić, Nijaz; Nurkić, Mahmut; Hukić, Mirsada

    2013-03-01

    Candidiasis is defined as an infection or disease caused by a fungus of the genus Candida. Rate of disseminated candidiasis increases with the growth of the number of immunocompromised patients. In the the last few decades the incidence of disseminated candidiasis is in growth as well as the mortality rate. The aim of this survey is to show the importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose. This is a prospective study involving 60 patients with malign diseases with and without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis and 30 healthy people who represent the control group. Apart from hemoculture, detection of circulating mannan antigen and adequate antibodies of Candida species applying comercial ELISA test was determined in each patient. This survey deals with relevant factors causing disseminated candidiasis. This survey showed that the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis had more patients with positive hemoculture to Candida species, then the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis. The number of patients being examined and positive to antigens and antibodies was higher (p candidiasis (7/30; 23.3%), then in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis (0/30; 0%): Average value of titra antigen was statistically higher (p candidiasis 6/30 (20%) of patients had Candida spp.positive hemocultures while in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis 1/30 (3.3%) of patients had Candida spp. positive hemocultures, which was considerably higher (p candidiasis were statistically significant, while correlation of results of hemoculture and antibodies was insignificant. Because of low sensitivity of hemoculture and time needed for isolation of Candida spp., introducing serological tests in regular procedures would speed disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

  15. Converting hard copy documents for electronic dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.

    1994-12-31

    Since the advent of computer systems, the goal of a paperless office, and even a paperless society, has been pursued. While the normal paper flow in an organization is far from totally automated, particularly for items requiring signatures or authorizations, electronic information dissemination is becoming an almost simple task. The reasons for providing on-line documents are many and include faster and easier access for everyone, elimination of printing costs, reduction of wasted shelf and desk space, and the security of having a centrally-located, always up-to-date document. New computer software even provides the user with the ability to annotate documents and to have bookmarks so that the old scribbled-in and dog-eared manual can be replaced without loosing this `customizability`. Moreover, new hypermedia capabilities mean that documents can be read in a non-linear fashion and can include color figures and photographs, audio, and even animation sequences, capabilities which exceed those of paper. The proliferation of network-based information servers, coupled with the growth of the Internet, has enticed academic, governmental, and even commercial organizations to provide increasing numbers of documents and data bases in electronic form via the network, not just to internal staff, but to the public as well. Much of this information, which includes everything from mundane company procedures to spiffy marketing brochures, was previously published only in hard copy. Converting existing documents to electronic form and producing only electronic versions of new documents poses some interesting challenges to the maintainer or author.

  16. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna S. Nagel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C, had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  17. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P

    2013-02-14

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  18. Development of the scale of economic abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris M; Bybee, Deborah; Greeson, Megan R

    2008-05-01

    Economic abuse is part of the pattern of behaviors used by batterers to maintain power and control over their partners. However, no measure of economic abuse exists. This study describes the development of the Scale of Economic Abuse, which was designed to fill this gap. Interviews were conducted with 103 survivors of domestic abuse, each of whom responded to measures of economic, physical, and psychological abuse as well as economic hardship. Results provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the scale. This study is an important first step toward understanding the extent and impact of economic abuse experienced by survivors.

  19. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. Copyright © 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cacades: A reliable dissemination protocol for data collection sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Song, W.; Huang, R.; Xu, M.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.; Pei, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast and reliable data dissemination protocol Cascades to disseminate data from the sink(base station) to all or a subset of nodes in a data collection sensor network. Cascades makes use of the parentmonitor-children analogy to ensure reliable dissemination. Each node monitors whether or not its children have received the broadcast messages through snooping children's rebroadcasts or waiting for explicit ACKs. If a node detects a gap in its message sequences, it can fetch the missing messages from its neighbours reactively. Cascades also considers many practical issues for field deployment, such as dynamic topology, link/node failure, etc.. It therefore guarantees that a disseminated message from the sink will reach all intended receivers and the dissemination is terminated in a short time period. Notice that, all existing dissemination protocols either do not guarantee reliability or do not terminate [1, 2], which does not meet the requirement of real-time command control. We conducted experiment evaluations in both TOSSIM simulator and a sensor network testbed to compare Cascades with those existing dissemination protocols in TinyOS sensor networks, which show that Cascades achieves a higher degree of reliability, lower communication cost, and less delivery delay. ??2009 IEEE.

  1. A Spread Willingness Computing-Based Information Dissemination Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhiming; Zhang, Shukui

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a kind of spread willingness computing based on information dissemination model for social network. The model takes into account the impact of node degree and dissemination mechanism, combined with the complex network theory and dynamics of infectious diseases, and further establishes the dynamical evolution equations. Equations characterize the evolutionary relationship between different types of nodes with time. The spread willingness computing contains three factors which have impact on user's spread behavior: strength of the relationship between the nodes, views identity, and frequency of contact. Simulation results show that different degrees of nodes show the same trend in the network, and even if the degree of node is very small, there is likelihood of a large area of information dissemination. The weaker the relationship between nodes, the higher probability of views selection and the higher the frequency of contact with information so that information spreads rapidly and leads to a wide range of dissemination. As the dissemination probability and immune probability change, the speed of information dissemination is also changing accordingly. The studies meet social networking features and can help to master the behavior of users and understand and analyze characteristics of information dissemination in social network. PMID:25110738

  2. A spread willingness computing-based information dissemination model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haojing; Cui, Zhiming; Zhang, Shukui

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a kind of spread willingness computing based on information dissemination model for social network. The model takes into account the impact of node degree and dissemination mechanism, combined with the complex network theory and dynamics of infectious diseases, and further establishes the dynamical evolution equations. Equations characterize the evolutionary relationship between different types of nodes with time. The spread willingness computing contains three factors which have impact on user's spread behavior: strength of the relationship between the nodes, views identity, and frequency of contact. Simulation results show that different degrees of nodes show the same trend in the network, and even if the degree of node is very small, there is likelihood of a large area of information dissemination. The weaker the relationship between nodes, the higher probability of views selection and the higher the frequency of contact with information so that information spreads rapidly and leads to a wide range of dissemination. As the dissemination probability and immune probability change, the speed of information dissemination is also changing accordingly. The studies meet social networking features and can help to master the behavior of users and understand and analyze characteristics of information dissemination in social network.

  3. A Spread Willingness Computing-Based Information Dissemination Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haojing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs a kind of spread willingness computing based on information dissemination model for social network. The model takes into account the impact of node degree and dissemination mechanism, combined with the complex network theory and dynamics of infectious diseases, and further establishes the dynamical evolution equations. Equations characterize the evolutionary relationship between different types of nodes with time. The spread willingness computing contains three factors which have impact on user’s spread behavior: strength of the relationship between the nodes, views identity, and frequency of contact. Simulation results show that different degrees of nodes show the same trend in the network, and even if the degree of node is very small, there is likelihood of a large area of information dissemination. The weaker the relationship between nodes, the higher probability of views selection and the higher the frequency of contact with information so that information spreads rapidly and leads to a wide range of dissemination. As the dissemination probability and immune probability change, the speed of information dissemination is also changing accordingly. The studies meet social networking features and can help to master the behavior of users and understand and analyze characteristics of information dissemination in social network.

  4. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared with th...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers.......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... with that of the total Danish population. On average the 15,214 men were observed for 12.9 years and the 3,093 women for 9.4 years. The overall morbidity of cancer was increased significantly. Of the men, 1,441 developed cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.7], while 182 women did (RR...

  5. Child Sexual Abuse in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantula, Fennie; Saloojee, Haroon

    2016-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse is a significant public health problem globally, its incidence, prevention, and management is less well described in resource-poor settings. In poorer settings prevention initiatives assume even more importance since resources for managing abused children are severely limited. This article examines the current status of policy and practice related to the prevention of child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe. It identifies implementation challenges and highlights opportunities that could be embraced to reduce CSA in Zimbabwe, based on evidence synthesized from recent work. Although Zimbabwe has a well-established legal and regulatory framework to protect children from child sexual abuse, implementation of existing policies is weak. Financial, human, and material resource constraints are frequently cited to explain limited prevention activity. Effective strategies for the prevention of child sexual abuse should focus on implementing existing legislation, targeting schoolchildren, and getting community involvement. A dedicated budget would help entrench these strategies, but gains can be achieved even in the absence of this.

  6. REPAiR: REsource Management in Peri-urban AReas: Going Beyond Urban Metabolism : D 8.6 Detailed Dissemination Plan and Dissemination Kit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerić, Dennis; Amenta, L.; Attademo, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The Detailed Dissemination Plan and Dissemination Kit is a strategic document for the beneficiaries helping them to establish the bases for their dissemination activities. It is a more detailed version of the Basic Dissemination Plan and Corporate Identity, deliverables of the REPAiR project D 8.3

  7. [Can acute disseminated encephalomyelitis progress in a deferred way?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gener, B; Garaizar-Axpe, C; Ruiz Espinosa, C; Prats-Viñas, J M

    To report on the heterogeneity with regard to the clinical course of the acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). A 5 year old boy suffered of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis of unknown origin. This child suffered two episodes of different neurologic symptoms separated by several weeks. Based on the clinical manifestations and typical appearance of magnetic resonance imaging findings and the absence of oligoclonal bands in CSF immunoglobulins, multiple sclerosis (MS) was ruled out. We postulate that the recurrent symptoms in our patient could be explained as a multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM). Favourable outcome after simultaneous treatment with methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin is emphasized in this report.

  8. Multi-Scale Dissemination of Time Series Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qingsong; Zhou, Yongluan; Su, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of continuous dissemination of time series data, such as sensor measurements, to a large number of subscribers. These subscribers fall into multiple subscription levels, where each subscription level is specified by the bandwidth constraint of a subscriber......, which is an abstract indicator for both the physical limits and the amount of data that the subscriber would like to handle. To handle this problem, we propose a system framework for multi-scale time series data dissemination that employs a typical tree-based dissemination network and existing time...

  9. The differential diagnosis of ritual abuse allegations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, W; Chang, D K

    1997-01-01

    Because psychiatrists do not have a consistent way to classify and define the forms of child abuse that may be mistaken for ritual abuse, the objective of this paper is to create a comprehensive differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse. The authors reviewed 60 articles, chapters, and books that contained allegations of ritual abuse or behaviors that might be mistaken for ritual abuse, that were made by patients or caretakers. This paper clarifies the behaviors that represent or may be mistaken for ritual abuse: Cult-based ritual abuse, pseudoritualistic abuse, activities by organized satanic groups, repetitive psychopathological abuse, sexual abuse by pedophiles, child pornography portraying ritual abuse, distorted memory, false memory, false report due to a severe mental disorder, pseudologia phantastica, adolescent behavior simulating ritual abuse, epidemic hysteria, deliberate lying, and hoaxes. The differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse is important in both clinical and forensic psychiatry. In some cases, it will not be possible to tell whether a particular allegation is factual or what the underlying mental processes are. It is important to separate the role of the mental health professional as therapist from the role as an expert witness in court.

  10. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  11. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... colonic (RR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.8-1.3) or rectal cancer (RR = 1.0; CI 0.7-1.3) than expected. The risk of breast cancer in women was slightly increased (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.7), but not statistically significant. Thus, the associations between alcohol and cancer of the upper digestive and respiratory tract...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers....

  12. Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of a computer-based depression and substance abuse intervention for people attending residential substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Peter J

    2012-02-01

    , and 12 months post intervention. Participants will also complete weekly self-report measures during the treatment period. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the effect of introducing a computer delivered, cognitive behavioral therapy based co-morbidity treatment program within a residential substance abuse setting. If shown to be effective, this intervention can be disseminated within other residential substance abuse programs. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12611000618954

  13. Organizational theory for dissemination and implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Sarah A; Bunger, Alicia C; Powell, Byron J; Turner, Kea; Clary, Alecia S; Klaman, Stacey L; Yu, Yan; Whitaker, Daniel J; Self, Shannon R; Rostad, Whitney L; Chatham, Jenelle R Shanley; Kirk, M Alexis; Shea, Christopher M; Haines, Emily; Weiner, Bryan J

    2017-05-12

    Even under optimal internal organizational conditions, implementation can be undermined by changes in organizations' external environments, such as fluctuations in funding, adjustments in contracting practices, new technology, new legislation, changes in clinical practice guidelines and recommendations, or other environmental shifts. Internal organizational conditions are increasingly reflected in implementation frameworks, but nuanced explanations of how organizations' external environments influence implementation success are lacking in implementation research. Organizational theories offer implementation researchers a host of existing, highly relevant, and heretofore largely untapped explanations of the complex interaction between organizations and their environment. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of organizational theories for implementation research. We applied four well-known organizational theories (institutional theory, transaction cost economics, contingency theories, and resource dependency theory) to published descriptions of efforts to implement SafeCare, an evidence-based practice for preventing child abuse and neglect. Transaction cost economics theory explained how frequent, uncertain processes for contracting for SafeCare may have generated inefficiencies and thus compromised implementation among private child welfare organizations. Institutional theory explained how child welfare systems may have been motivated to implement SafeCare because doing so aligned with expectations of key stakeholders within child welfare systems' professional communities. Contingency theories explained how efforts such as interagency collaborative teams promoted SafeCare implementation by facilitating adaptation to child welfare agencies' internal and external contexts. Resource dependency theory (RDT) explained how interagency relationships, supported by contracts, memoranda of understanding, and negotiations, facilitated SafeCare implementation by balancing

  14. Abusive Supervision Scale Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenika Wulani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a scale of abusive supervision in Indonesia. The study was conducted with a different context and scale development method from Tepper’s (2000 abusive supervision scale. The abusive supervision scale from Tepper (2000 was developed in the U.S., which has a cultural orientation of low power distance. The current study was conducted in Indonesia, which has a high power distance. This study used interview procedures to obtain information about supervisor’s abusive behavior, and it was also assessed by experts. The results of this study indicated that abusive supervision was a 3-dimensional construct. There were anger-active abuse (6 items, humiliation-active abuse (4 items, and passive abuse (15 items. These scales have internal reliabilities of 0.947, 0.922, and 0.845, in sequence.

  15. Overview: Clinical Identification of Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, David L.; Olafson, Erna

    1993-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on clinical identification of sexually abused children reviews the history of the study of child sexual abuse and describes the 14 papers included in the special issue. (JDD)

  16. Abuse of rights in Community Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    The article analyses the case law of the ECJ on abuse of rights with the aim to determine the extent to which EU law allows Member States and others to take measures to prevent abuse of Community rights...

  17. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article Body ... for a time when drugs may be offered. Drug abuse prevention starts with parents learning how to talk ...

  18. SEXUAL ABUSE IN ADOLESCENTS - DATA FROM A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abused patients scored higher on depression rating scales than non sexually ... between sexual abuse and depresSIon, suicidal symptoms and alcohol nse is .... psychiatric symptoms, including negative cognitions, suicidal. Not present.

  19. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ... and other substance use disorders are defined as psychiatric disorders. Many individuals who misuse alcohol also abuse ...

  20. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ..., HHS). (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and National Cancer Institute; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...

  1. Hidden Abuse within the Home: Recognizing and Responding to Sibling Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutey, Diane; Clemens, Elysia V.

    2015-01-01

    Sibling abuse is a serious phenomenon in our society that often goes unaddressed. Victims of sibling abuse experience psychological effects similar to those of child abuse (Caspi, 2012; Wiehe, 2002). The purpose of this article is to provide school counselors with a definition of sibling abuse and a five-step model to recognize and respond. A…

  2. Chordoma with postoperative subcutaneous implantation and meningeal dissemination: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, T.; Okudera, T.; Shimosegawa, E.; Hatazawa, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Yasui, N.; Ogawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    Chordomas are histologically benign tumours which are locally invasive. We present an unusual case of recurrent chordoma with subcutaneous implantation and widespread meningeal dissemination after surgery. Contrast-enhanced MRI was useful for determining the extent of the tumour. (orig.)

  3. Page 34 Survey of Information Acquisition and Dissemination to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consisted of registered library user which was 2,284. Simple ... information acquisition and dissemination were inadequate sources of information, lack .... Open University of Nigeria Ibadan study centre among 5 schools Law, Education, Arts.

  4. Twiddlenet: Metadata Tagging and Data Dissemination in Mobile Device Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clotfelter, Christopher T; Towle, Jonathon E

    2007-01-01

    .... TwiddleNet is a distributed architecture of personal servers that harnesses the power of these mobile devices, enabling real time information dissemination and file sharing of multiple data types...

  5. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Toh, C. H.; Thachil, J.; Watson, H. G.

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) should encompass both clinical and laboratory information. The International Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) DIC scoring system provides objective measurement of DIC. Where DIC is present the scoring system correlates with

  6. Radiologic aspects of disseminated strongyloidiasis with pulmonary involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, E.G.; Ferreira, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    The clinical and radiological aspects of three cases of disseminated strongyloidiasis with pulmonary involvement are presented and commented. The necessity of Keeping in mind this pathologic entity particularly in the immunossupressive conditions is emphasized. (Author) [pt

  7. Novel approaches to the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; de Jonge, E.; van der Poll, T.; ten Cate, H.

    2000-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic intravascular activation of coagulation, leading to widespread deposition of fibrin in the circulation. We addressed the issue of whether there is evidence that this fibrin deposition contributes to multiple organ

  8. Measuring Economic Abuse in the Lives of Survivors: Revising the Scale of Economic Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postmus, Judy L; Plummer, Sara-Beth; Stylianou, Amanda M

    2016-05-01

    Recent attention has been given by researchers to understanding how abusers use economic abuse strategies. Unfortunately, limited measures are available to accurately understand the prevalence of economic abuse in the lives of survivors. Recently, researchers created the 28-item Scale of Economic Abuse (SEA) but further validation is needed. This article describes the psychometric evaluation of the SEA through confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses using data collected with 120 survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the SEA-12 as a shorter instrument to measure economic abuse as a distinct form of abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Disseminated histoplasmosis in a Danish patient with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, E; Franzmann, M; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1989-01-01

    We present the first case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an AIDS patient in Europe, a 33-year-old Danish homosexual man, and recommend a detailed travel history in HIV-positive patients presenting with fever, weight loss and organomegaly. In Scandinavia disseminated histoplasmosis is rare...... but should be kept in mind as the disease is a major opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Treatment with amphotericin B followed by fluconazole was effective....

  10. A strategic model for PV dissemination in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiranvarodom, S. [Rajamangala Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Pathumthani (Thailand); Hill, R. [University of Northumbria, Newcastle Photovoltaics Applications Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); O' Keefe, P. [University of Northumbria, Dept. of Geography and Environmental Management, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The process of information dissemination is necessary for the successful implementation for photovoltaic (PV) programmes in developing countries, and it is essential to consider the strategies for implementation of a PV project to ensure that it will be successful. This paper proposes a strategic model for PV dissemination in Thailand and discusses the roles of key players in the implementation of the strategy and the responsibilities of these organisations. (Author)

  11. Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography–Computed Tomography in Disseminated Cryptococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sarthak; Parida, Girish Kumar; Roy, Shambo Guha; Singhal, Abhinav; Mallick, Saumya Ranjan; Tripathi, Madhavi; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis without pulmonary involvement is a very rare phenomenon. Patterns of organ involvement in cryptococcosis resemble various other infective conditions as well as malignant conditions on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography. We present a case of a 43-year-old male patient who had disseminated cryptococcosis. The rarity of the case being noninvolvement of lungs and meninges and resembling more like lymphoma due to the diffuse involvement of the lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm. PMID:29142368

  12. Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography in Disseminated Cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sarthak; Parida, Girish Kumar; Roy, Shambo Guha; Singhal, Abhinav; Mallick, Saumya Ranjan; Tripathi, Madhavi; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis without pulmonary involvement is a very rare phenomenon. Patterns of organ involvement in cryptococcosis resemble various other infective conditions as well as malignant conditions on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. We present a case of a 43-year-old male patient who had disseminated cryptococcosis. The rarity of the case being noninvolvement of lungs and meninges and resembling more like lymphoma due to the diffuse involvement of the lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm.

  13. Disseminated BCG infection in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Il; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    2000-01-01

    Disseminated mycobacterial infection after bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) accination is a very rare disorder, occurring mostly in patients with immunologic eficiency. We report a case of disseminated BCG infection in a 16-month-old girl with severe combined immunodeficiency. Plain radiographs showed multiple osteolytic lesions in the femora, tibiae, humerus, and phalanges. Abdominal sonography and CT scanning revealed multiple nodules in the spleen, and portocaval lymphadenopathy

  14. Disseminated BCG infection in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Tae Il [Eulji University School of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    Disseminated mycobacterial infection after bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) accination is a very rare disorder, occurring mostly in patients with immunologic eficiency. We report a case of disseminated BCG infection in a 16-month-old girl with severe combined immunodeficiency. Plain radiographs showed multiple osteolytic lesions in the femora, tibiae, humerus, and phalanges. Abdominal sonography and CT scanning revealed multiple nodules in the spleen, and portocaval lymphadenopathy.

  15. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar

    2015-01-01

    in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the contribution of the dominant members of the WWTP resistome to resistance in human pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we use a combination of metagenomic functional selections and comprehensive metagenomic sequencing to uncover the dominant genes...... of the WWTP resistome. We find that this core resistome is unique to the WWTP environment, with ... that the overall dissemination of the WWTP resistome is comparable to that of the soil resistome....

  16. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome

    OpenAIRE

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar; Ellabaan, Mostafa M Hashim; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to the evolution of bacterial genomes and can facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental reservoirs and potential pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are believed to play a central role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the contribution of the dominant members of the WWTP resistome to resistance in human pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we use a combination of...

  17. Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Christopher; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2007-09-01

    A juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) died with rapidly progressive pyrexia, tachypnea, abdominal effusion, and hepatomegaly. Postmortem examination revealed lesions consistent with acute disseminated infection with Toxoplasma gondii. The presence of this organism was confirmed in multiple organs by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. To the best of our knowledge, we propose this to be the first reported case of primary acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a cheetah.

  18. Disseminated intravascular and intracardiac thrombosis after cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K Tempe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive intracardiac and intravascular thrombosis is a rare complication following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. Most of the cases of the disseminated thrombosis have been reported in patients undergoing complex cardiac surgeries and those receiving antifibrinolytic agents during CPB. We report the occurrence of disseminated intravascular and intracardiac thrombosis after CPB in a patient undergoing mitral valve replacement in which no antifibrinolytic agent was used. The possible pathophysiology and management of the patient is discussed.

  19. Disseminated histoplasmosis in a Danish patient with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, E; Franzmann, M; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1989-01-01

    We present the first case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an AIDS patient in Europe, a 33-year-old Danish homosexual man, and recommend a detailed travel history in HIV-positive patients presenting with fever, weight loss and organomegaly. In Scandinavia disseminated histoplasmosis is rare but ...... but should be kept in mind as the disease is a major opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Treatment with amphotericin B followed by fluconazole was effective....

  20. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share You are here Home » Drugs That People Abuse » Alcohol Facts » Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen ©istock. ...

  1. Signs of Painkiller Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share You are here Home » Drugs That People Abuse » Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts » Signs of Pain Medicine Abuse and Addiction Signs of Pain Medicine Abuse and Addiction Listen © ...

  2. Sexual abuse in children -- what to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... look at pornography Masturbating in front of a child Signs of Sexual Abuse in Children Suspect sexual abuse when children: Tell ... update 04-03-18. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Sexual Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  3. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  4. Domestic abuse in the household of God

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    long term effects of my father's physical, verbal, emotional and financial abuse of my mother along ... are astonishingly similar to my childhood experiences in an abusive household ..... An over labelling of any type of negative affectivity as anger is likely. Self- ... divorce has physical abuse as its root cause. More difficult to ...

  5. Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention Project Quarterly Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Garry L.

    The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide collaborative elder abuse prevention project, to prevent abuse of elderly and disabled adults. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for…

  6. Understanding elder abuse in family practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Mark J.; Tazkarji, Bachir

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss what constitutes elder abuse, why family physicians should be aware of it, what signs and symptoms might suggest mistreatment of older adults, how the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index might help in identification of abuse, and what options exist for responding to suspicions of abuse. Sources of information MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Social Work Abstracts were searched for publications in English or French, from 1970 to 2011, using the terms elder abuse, elder neglect, elder mistreatment, seniors, older adults, violence, identification, detection tools, and signs and symptoms. Relevant publications were reviewed. Main message Elder abuse is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. While family physicians are well placed to identify mistreatment of seniors, their actual rates of reporting abuse are lower than those in other professions. This might be improved by an understanding of the range of acts that constitute elder abuse and what signs and symptoms seen in the office might suggest abuse. Detection might be enhanced by use of a short validated tool, such as the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index. Conclusion Family physicians can play a larger role in identifying possible elder abuse. Once suspicion of abuse is raised, most communities have social service or law enforcement providers available to do additional assessments and interventions. PMID:23242889

  7. Elder Abuse Reporting: Limitations of Statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salend, Elyse; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compares 16 state elder abuse reporting statutes and analyzes their implementation. Generally, the statutes have failed to ensure consistent information about elder abuse within or across states. Neglect is more often reported than abuse and little prosecutory activity was noted. Suggestions for improving reporting policies are made. (JAC)

  8. Elder Abuse: What's a Clinician To Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Bruce E.

    Incidence rates are critically examined in light of varying definitions of what constitutes elder abuse. It is suggested that the clinician's position of mandatory reporting is an unrealistic response in many cases of elder abuse due to the lack of adequate support services for either the abuser or the elder. Outcome studies are used to support…

  9. Physicians' Mandatory Reporting of Elder Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, R. Steven; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated physicians' responses to Alabama state elder abuse reporting statutes in Alabama Protective Services Act of 1976. Survey responses from over 100 Alabama physicians suggest that they have reservations about their ability to diagnose abuse, operation of the law, and their willingness to report abuse. (Author/NB)

  10. Protocols for the Assessment of Elder Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Terry; Wetle, Terrie

    The fact that many states have passed elder abuse reporting laws has left care providers with a dilemma. If suspected abuse is reported, the relationship between caregiver and patient may change and the family's difficulties may increase. Indicators of abuse are not easy to differentiate from health problems, especially in the frail elderly. An…

  11. Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Employees Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse DHSS State of Alaska Home Divisions and ; Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Page Content Alison Kulas Executive Director If you, a family Kulas Begins Tenure as Executive Director The Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse, The Alaska

  12. Accumulating experience in a child abuse clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behaviour problems were recorded in 73% of cases. Many different ... management is now a priority in our setting. S Afr Med J 1996; 86: ... abused children, registered nurses, social workers and ... physical abuse, emotional abuse, and "-'1§ct. ~N<: .... aggression (10% of patients), 'clinginess' (12%) and temper tantrums ...

  13. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  14. Further exploration of dissemination bias in qualitative research required to facilitate assessment within qualitative evidence syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Ingrid; Booth, Andrew; Berg, Rigmor C; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M; Noyes, Jane; Schroter, Sara; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2017-08-01

    To conceptualise and discuss dissemination bias in qualitative research. It is likely that the mechanisms leading to dissemination bias in quantitative research, including time lag, language, gray literature, and truncation bias also contribute to dissemination bias in qualitative research. These conceptual considerations have informed the development of a research agenda. Further exploration of dissemination bias in qualitative research is needed, including the extent of non-dissemination and related dissemination bias, and how to assess dissemination bias within qualitative evidence syntheses. We also need to consider the mechanisms through which dissemination bias in qualitative research could occur to explore approaches for reducing it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Amsterdam Sexual Abuse Case (ASAC)-study in day care centers: longitudinal effects of sexual abuse on infants and very young children and their parents, and the consequences of the persistence of abusive images on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, Ramón J L; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; Diehle, Julia; Verlinden, Eva; Teeuw, Arianne H; Middeldorp, Christel M; Tuinebreijer, Wilco; Bosschaart, Thekla F; van Duin, Esther; Verhoeff, Arnoud

    2014-11-08

    Little research has been done on the signs of child sexual abuse (CSA) in infants and very young children, or on the consequences that such abuse - including the persistence of the abusive pornographic images on the internet - might have for the children and their parents. The effects of CSA can be severe, and a variety of risk- and protective factors, may influence those effects. CSA may affect the psychosocial-, emotional-, cognitive-, and physical development of children, their relationships with their parent(s), and the relations between parents. In the so called 'the Amsterdam sexual abuse case' (ASAC), infants and very young children were victimized by a day-care employee and most of the victims were boys. Research involving the children and their parents would enable recognition of the signs of CSA in very young children and understanding the consequences the abuse might have on the long term. The proposed research project consists of three components: (I) An initial assessment to identify physical- or psychological signs of CSA in infants and very young children who are thought to have been sexually abused (n = 130); (II) A cross-sequential longitudinal study of children who have experienced sexual abuse, or for whom there are strong suspicions; (III) A qualitative study in which interviews are conducted with parents (n = 25) and with therapists treating children from the ASAC. Parents will be interviewed on the perceived condition of their child and family situation, their experiences with the service responses to the abuse, the effects of legal proceedings and media attention, and the impact of knowing that pornographic material has been disseminated on the internet. Therapists will be interviewed on their clinical experiences in treating children and parents. The assessments will extend over a period of several years. The outcome measures will be symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), dissociative symptoms, age-inappropriate sexual behaviors

  16. Substance Abuse and the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John P.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the effect that a substance abuser may have on the family system and the maladaptive roles sometimes assumed by family members. Discusses dysfunctional family phases and therapeutic issues and presents 11 guidelines for counselors working with chemically dependent families. (JAC)

  17. Worldwide actions to combat abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports several developments on the global efforts to combat abuse and violence against women and children. It is noted that in South Africa, Belem, Brazil, and Lesotho, protest actions were conducted against women and child abuse. Although the protests were made separately, the protests generally called for implementation of initiatives from the government to address the issue of child and women abuse. In the context of preventing abusive behaviors, a study by the University of Cape Town in South Africa on the appropriateness and feasibility of short-term community-based group therapy concluded that such an approach might be effective in treating delinquent behavior. In Indonesia, the Rifka Annisa Women's Crisis Centre is working to combat violence against women by providing services to victims; while in Israel, a media campaign is aiming to increase awareness and support for women's help centers. In addition, the government of Bangladesh has established a Cell Against Violence Against Women that provides legal counseling and assistance for civil and criminal cases related to violence against women. Furthermore, the WHO and the International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have collaborated to conduct a joint workshop to explore how violence against women can be eliminated.

  18. Legal Aspects of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Robert S.

    Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)

  19. child sexual abuse in zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J MUGUMBATE

    This paper bemoans the current scourge of child- sexual abuse as well as the recent .... What we must bear in mind is that these are the. 'reported cases' ..... Plato was trying to advance a theory of motivation for human action and he explains ...

  20. Financial Fraud and Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Allison Dare

    2014-01-01

    A modern form of abuse of children by parents and foster parents is to use the identity of children in their care for their own financial benefit, such as accessing their unused social security numbers to secure credit. This article reviews examples and implications of this identity theft.

  1. Crime, Abuse, and Hacker Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Deborah G.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses computer ethics and the use of computer networks. Topics addressed include computer hackers; software piracy; computer viruses and worms; intentional and unintentional abuse; intellectual property rights versus freedom of thought; the role of information in a democratic society; individual privacy; legislation; social attitudes; and the…

  2. Sharpened legislation on market abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsson, Christian; Andersen, Per Conradi

    2005-01-01

    The article deals with Norway's relationship with the EU directive on market abuse, the dir 2003/6/EC, which instructs the member countries to implement common rules against insider trading and market manipulation in markets for financial instruments. This is very important for the electric power market since regulation of trade with power derivatives will be much more comprehensive than before

  3. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  4. The Association Between Childhood Abuse and Elder Abuse Among Chinese Adult Children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Li, Ge; Simon, Melissa A

    2017-07-01

    The previous researchers have postulated that an abused child may abuse his or her abuser parent when the parent is getting old, also known as the intergenerational transmission of violence. However, few studies use data to support this model, and it has yet to be examined in the U.S. Chinese community. This study aims to examine the association between childhood abuse and elder abuse reported by Chinese adult children in the United States. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, 548 Chinese adult children aged 21 years and older participated in this study. Childhood abuse was assessed by four-item Hurt-Insult-Threaten-Scream (HITS) scale. Elder abuse was assessed by a 10-item instrument derived from the Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE). Logistic regression analysis was performed. Childhood abuse was associated with caregiver abuse screen results (odds ratio = 1.92, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.95). Being physically hurt (r = .13, p abuse screen results. This study suggests that childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of elder abuse among Chinese adult children in the United States. Longitudinal research should be conducted to explore the mechanisms through which childhood abuse and its subtypes links with elder abuse. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effective Dissemination - Building an 'Evidence to Impact' Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan O'Neill

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available When a piece of ‘evidence’ is generated in the research environment and almost nobody hears about it, then can we really still call it a piece of ‘evidence’? Does evidence only become evidence once it is used; and until then, is it just a piece of insignificant information? As we inexorably travel through the EBVM era, we must increasingly prioritise effective dissemination of evidence. This paper will use the VetCompass Programme at the Royal Veterinary College as a case study to explore a strategic dissemination plan and examine routes for effective dissemination.Although EBVM traditionally assumes an audience of academics or practicing veterinarians, the authors contend that substantial welfare gains can be additionally achieved by targeting current and future pet owners, the non-owner general public, industry, welfare bodies, scientific groups, breeders and kennel clubs. Effective dissemination should be strategic and give a priori consideration to identifying target audiences, appropriate formatting of the messages and open access routes for dissemination. Scientists who generate EBVM may not always be best placed to also disseminate these messages and therefore research teams should consider widening their combined skill-base to also incorporate marketing and media savvy.The VetCompass Programme is a new and hugely exciting project that shares de-identified primary-practice clinical data for research to support effective evidence based veterinary medicine and welfare reforms. VetCompass data collection commenced in 2009 and the current 470 collaborating primary-care practices have shared data on 4 million small animals and 45 million unique episodes of care. VetCompass has 15 peer-reviewed publications to date.In order to maximise the welfare gains from an array of evidence silos generated within VetCompass, a dissemination strategy was designed based on a Systems Thinking approach. The outcomes from a range of dissemination trials

  6. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  7. Clerical Child Abuse – The Irish Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Murphy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ireland has been overwhelmed in the past two decades by what the Catholic Church itself has called ‘a tsunami’ of revelations of clerical child abuse – physical as well as sexual – of the meticulous concealment of abuse and abusers and of a long-established, and almost universal policy of protecting the assets and reputation of the Church, in preference to exposing the abusers.Between 2006 and 2009 Judge Yvonne Murphy chaired a Commission of Inquiry into the child sex abuse scandal in the Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin.

  8. Child Abuse: Abused all the way but determined not to abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of a 14-year old girl who was abused right from infancy through childhood, pregnancy labour and immediate post-partum period, and management of both the child mother and her baby is presented. Information was obtained both retrospectively and prospectively. Tender loving care to the child mother and her ...

  9. Elder abuse telephone screen reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Hilary M; Daly, Jeanette M; Jogerst, Gerald J

    2009-01-01

    (a) To identify reliable and valid questions that identify elder abuse, (b) to assess the reliability and validity of extant self-reported elder abuse screens in a high-risk elderly population, and (c) to describe difficulties of completing and interpreting screens in a high-need elderly population. All elders referred to research-trained social workers in a community service agency were asked to participate. Of the 70 elders asked, 49 participated, 44 completed the first questionnaire, and 32 completed the duplicate second questionnaire. A research assistant administered the telephone questionnaires. Twenty-nine (42%) persons were judged abused, 12 (17%) had abuse reported, and 4 (6%) had abuse substantiated. The elder abuse screen instruments were not found to be predictive of assessed abuse or as predictors of reported abuse; the measures tended toward being inversely predictive. Two questions regarding harm and taking of belongings were significantly different for the assessed abused group. In this small group of high-need community-dwelling elders, the screens were not effective in discriminating between abused and nonabused groups. Better instruments are needed to assess for elder abuse.

  10. Social-Driven Information Dissemination for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim MAHMOOD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As we move into the so-called Internet of Things (IoT, the boundary between sensor networks and social networks is likely to disappear. Moreover, previous works argue that mobility in sensor networks may become a consequence of human movement making the understanding of human mobility crucial to the design of sensor networks. When people carry sensors, they become able to use concepts from social networks in the design of sensor network infrastructures. However, to this date, the utilization of social networks in designing protocols for wireless sensor networks has not received much attention. In this paper, we focus on the concept of information dissemination in a framework where sensors are carried by people who, like most of us, are part of a social network. We propose two social-based forwarding approaches for what has been called Social Network of Sensors (SNoS. To this end, we exploit two important characteristics of ties in social networks, namely strong ties and weak ties. The former is used to achieve rapid dissemination to nearby sensors while the latter aims at dissemination to faraway sensors. We compared our results against two well-known approaches in the literature: Epidemic and PRoPHET protocols. We evaluate our approaches according to four criteria: information-dissemination distance, information-dissemination coverage area, the number of messages exchanged, and information delivery time. We believe this is the first work that investigates the issues of information-dissemination distance and information-dissemination coverage area using an approach inspired on social network concepts.

  11. Acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarana, M; Nucci, M

    2018-03-01

    Neutropenic patients developing acute disseminated candidiasis may present with skin lesions. To evaluate the epidemiology of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions in neutropenic patients, taking into consideration changes caused by different prophylactic strategies. A systematic review of English-language articles found via PubMed (1963-2016) was performed. We asked the following questions: (a) What Candida species are more frequently involved in this syndrome? (b) Has antifungal prophylaxis changed the species causing skin lesions? (c) What are the typical patterns of skin lesions? (d) What is the frequency of skin lesions in neutropenic patients with candidaemia or acute disseminated candidiasis? (e) Has antifungal prophylaxis decreased the incidence of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions? Among 183 studies, 33 were selected, reporting 100 cases of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions in neutropenic patients. It occurred more frequently in the setting of induction therapy for de novo or relapsed acute leukaemia, and the most frequent Candida species were C. tropicalis (68%) and C. krusei (15%). Diffuse maculopapular lesions predominated in cases caused by C. tropicalis and nodular and papular lesions in cases caused by C. krusei. Prophylaxis with fluconazole was reported in six cases, C. krusei in five and C. ciferrii in one. The death rate was 45.4%. Two patterns were recognized: disseminated maculopapular lesions caused by C. tropicalis in patients not receiving fluconazole prophylaxis, occurring in 39% to 44% of neutropenic patients with acute disseminated candidiasis, and nodular lesions caused by C. krusei in patients receiving fluconazole prophylaxis, occurring less frequently. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Abused women: dispelling myths and encouraging intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M C; Ryan, J

    1989-05-01

    Our society abounds with myths and misperceptions in relation to the battering of women. These myths impede the identification of women who are experiencing violence and abuse, and inhibit appropriate intervention. Abuse is not too private a matter to assess for, nor does abuse affect only poor black or Hispanic women. No woman deserves to be beaten. Women do not like or seek out abuse. Abused women are courageous, competent women; what abused women have in common is that they are threatened and controlled by a male partner and live under the constant fear of violence and abuse. Raising one's consciousness about the victimization and oppression of women in our society, and uncovering the myths which leave practitioners powerless and ineffective agents of change for women are important tasks for health care providers. By focusing attention on this enormous health problem, clinicians can provide a leadership role in using health care responses that actually empower women to take control of their own lives.

  13. Drugs of abuse and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mursaleen, Leah R; Stamford, Jonathan A

    2016-01-04

    The term "drug of abuse" is highly contextual. What constitutes a drug of abuse for one population of patients does not for another. It is therefore important to examine the needs of the patient population to properly assess the status of drugs of abuse. The focus of this article is on the bidirectional relationship between patients and drug abuse. In this paper we will introduce the dopaminergic systems of the brain in Parkinson's and the influence of antiparkinsonian drugs upon them before discussing this synergy of condition and medication as fertile ground for drug abuse. We will then examine the relationship between drugs of abuse and Parkinson's, both beneficial and deleterious. In summary we will draw the different strands together and speculate on the future merit of current drugs of abuse as treatments for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A History of Abuse and Operative Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam; Ryding, Elsa Lena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess whether a history of abuse, reported during pregnancy, was associated with an operative delivery. Secondly, we assessed if the association varied according to the type of abuse and if the reported abuse had been experienced as a child or an adult...... and multinomial regression analysis were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: Among 3308 primiparous women, sexual abuse as an adult (≥ 18 years) increased the risk of an elective CS, Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.12 (1.28-3.49), and the likelihood for a non-obstetrically indicated CS, OR 3.74 (1.24-11.24). Women...... expressing current suffering from the reported adult sexual abuse had the highest risk for an elective CS, AOR 4.07 (1.46-11.3). Neither physical abuse (in adulthood or childhood sexual abuse in childhood increased the risk of any operative delivery among primiparous women. Among 3416...

  15. Client Abuse to Public Welfare Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Korczynski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    We analyse a case study of workers’ experience of client abuse in a Danish public welfare organisation. We make an original contribution by putting forward two different theoretical expectations of the case. One expectation is that the case follows a pattern of customer abuse processes in a social...... patterns of customer abuse associated with a liberal market economy – in which the customer is treated as sovereign against the relatively powerless worker, and in which workers bear heavy emotional costs of abuse. Our findings show a greater match to the social processes of abuse within a social market...... market economy – in which workers are accorded power and resources, in which workers tend to frame the abuse as the outcome of a co-citizen caught in system failure and in which workers demonstrate some resilience to abuse. Another expectation is that New Public Management reforms push the case to follow...

  16. Adoption of Evidence-Based Practices Among Substance Abuse Treatment Providers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Nancy A.; Shopshire, Michael; Tajima, Barbara; Gruber, Valerie; Guydish, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted at a Substance Abuse Forum designed to address local community needs by focusing on Evidence-Based Practices (EBPs) in addiction treatment. The purpose of the study was to assess substance abuse treatment professionals’ readiness to adopt EBPs, experience with EBPs, and attitudes toward EBPs, as well as agency support for EBPs. A total of 119 addiction treatment providers completed pre-test measures, and 82% completed a post-test. Eighty-three percent of participants reported using some EBPs in the past year, and 75% reported currently using EBPs. Participants who were currently licensed or certified in addictions had less negative attitudes toward EBPs than those without credentials. While respondents reported agency support for EBPs, most expressed interest in further training. This study underscores the movement toward EBPs in addiction treatment and the need for effective dissemination and training in this area. PMID:18724657

  17. Innovations: Alcohol & drug abuse: Narcotics on the net: the availability of Web sites selling controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Robert F

    2006-01-01

    The Internet is not only a vital medium for communication, entertainment, and commerce, but it is also an outlet for illicit drug sales. Although the U.S. Controlled Substances Act regulates access to certain drugs by requiring prescriptions, unique characteristics of the Internet create significant challenges for the enforcement of U.S. drug policies. In the late 1990s "no prescription Web sites" (NPWs) began to emerge, which allow persons to purchase drugs, such as opiates, without a prescription. Given the likely role of NPWs in increasing prescription drug abuse, health care professionals must develop and disseminate strategies for helping patients who are affected by these Web sites.

  18. Predicting a dissociative disorder from type of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Christa; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the types of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational ties that best predict a dissociative disorder (DD). Psychiatric inpatients (n = 116; mean age = 35; F:M = 1.28:1) completed measures of dissociation and trauma. Abuse type and abuser-abused relational ties were recorded in the Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire. Multidisciplinary team clinical diagnosis or administration of the SCID-D-R to high dissociators confirmed DD diagnoses. Logit models described the relationships between abuser-abused relational tie and the diagnostic grouping of patients, DD present (n = 16) or DD absent (n = 100). Fisher's exact tests measured the relative contribution of specific abuse types. There was a positive relationship between abuse frequency and the presence of DD. DD patients experienced more abuse than patients without DDs. Two combinations of abuse type and relational tie predicted a DD: childhood emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings and later emotional abuse by intimate partners. These findings support the early childhood etiology of DDs and subsequent maladaptive cycles of adult abuse. Enquiries about childhood maltreatment should include a history of emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings. Adult emotional abuse by intimate partners should assist in screening for DDs.

  19. Substance Abuse in Aging Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available substance abuse' specially opiates and prescribed drugs are spreading among the older adults. Most of the time it begins as an attempt to medicate chronic pains, medical conditions and loneliness. In other instances, it simply is the continuation of a problem that begun in young adulthood. But scholars and specialists in both fields of Addiction and Gerontology, rather neglected this fast growing problem, to the extent that we almost have no data on the epidemiology, prevention and treatment modalities among the substance abusing old adults in Iran. This paper reflects the necessity of designing age specific programs to identify and treat this group. Besides, some of the most effictive methods of treatment in other countries are reviewed.

  20. [Child abuse: a disturbing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, E; Reyes-Rodrguez, R

    1993-08-01

    This current information on "battered child syndrome" (BCS) was obtained during 1990 from nine institutions in Tijuana, Baja California; 549 cases of BCS were studied, of which 338 were female, 203 male, eight of indeterminate sex due to loss documentation. Child abuse was manifested in all its forms: beatings, sexual abuse, neglect, and affective indifference. The victim's and perpetrator's characters were analyzed together with other factors which had to be taken into consideration in order to detect results which were similarly described in the literature. It is of utmost importance to alert all medical staff to this terrible social problem for the complete treatment of the affected child and the family environment. Community support, and legislation to adequately cover rights of minors and their protection are imperative to elimination of the battered child syndrome.

  1. 21 CFR 99.401 - Corrective actions and cessation of dissemination of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION ON UNAPPROVED/NEW USES FOR MARKETED DRUGS... cessation of dissemination of information. (a) FDA actions based on post dissemination data. If FDA receives... requirements; or (2) Order the manufacturer to cease dissemination of information and to take corrective action...

  2. Radiation abuse and its effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halm, A

    1976-06-01

    This paper delves into overuse practiced in diagnostic radiography. The conventional attitudes to low-dose irradiation are critically examined, as is the MPD related to individual radiosensitivity. Concern is expressed that a sizeable proportion of radiologists ignore important aspects of the Code of Practice and this attitude is readily emulated in the hospital setting. The author advocates education within the medical profession and the community on the risks involved in radiation abuse and the benefits derived from justified exposures to x rays.

  3. Imaging spectrum in disseminated histoplasmosis: case report and brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, S.B.; Midha, N.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, U.; Talib, V.H.

    2005-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of chronic disseminated histoplasmosis are non-specific and resemble those of other chronic infections and malignancies. We report the radiographic, sonographic and contrast-enhanced CT appearances of histoplasmosis in an adult male with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, who was HIV negative and presented with weight loss and pyrexia. Imaging studies simulated tuberculosis with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, bilateral fibrotic lung lesions, hepatomegaly and bilateral hypoattenuating adrenal enlargement, without clinical or laboratory evidence of hypoadrenalism. Computed tomography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of adrenal glands revealed Histoplasma capsulatum. We report our experience to increase awareness of the imaging spectrum of disseminated histoplasmosis and its similarity to tuberculosis as, with increasing incidence of AIDS, the chances of these infections are likely to increase. Moreover, awareness of this entity is important because it is known that untreated disseminated histoplasmosis is fatal Copyright (2005) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  4. Disseminating online tools for building capacity among community practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Christina M; Fawcett, Stephen B; Schultz, Jerry A; Jones, Jami A; Berkowitz, Bill; Wolff, Thomas J; Francisco, Vincent T; Rabinowitz, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    To prepare the workforce for building healthier communities, we need to assure capabilities of a diverse and geographically distributed community of practitioners. Although the Internet is used extensively to disseminate practice information, less is known about the relative impact of various strategies for promoting its use. This empirical case study examines implementation of dissemination strategies and their association with increased user sessions in the online Community Tool Box (CTB), a widely used resource for community building. Dissemination activities included social media efforts, eNewsletters, search engine optimization efforts, partnering with other Web sites, and implementing a global Out of the Box Prize. Results suggest that increased user sessions were associated with search optimization and "mashups" delivering CTB content through partners' Web sites. The report concludes with a discussion of challenges and opportunities in promoting widespread use of capacity-building tools among those working to improve their communities.

  5. Information dissemination model for social media with constant updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Wu, Heng; Cao, Jin; Fu, Gang; Li, Hui

    2018-07-01

    With the development of social media tools and the pervasiveness of smart terminals, social media has become a significant source of information for many individuals. However, false information can spread rapidly, which may result in negative social impacts and serious economic losses. Thus, reducing the unfavorable effects of false information has become an urgent challenge. In this paper, a new competitive model called DMCU is proposed to describe the dissemination of information with constant updates in social media. In the model, we focus on the competitive relationship between the original false information and updated information, and then propose the priority of related information. To more effectively evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed model, data sets containing actual social media activity are utilized in experiments. Simulation results demonstrate that the DMCU model can precisely describe the process of information dissemination with constant updates, and that it can be used to forecast information dissemination trends on social media.

  6. Online dissemination of news in Nicolae Titulescu University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Ciucu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional” websites are a very good method of disseminating information for students in online environment. We might thing that with this new trend, people pref er to get information on a social network website, but actually for complex information the “traditional” websites are better. Facebook social network is very used in Romania, mostly by young people. It is a common saying around here: if you do not have a Facebook account, then you do not exist. The Facebook account of the University was created in may, 2012. Since then it has been a powerful tool for disseminating information, but mostly for photos, short messages, links and videos. YouTube and Twitter are not that used by students for finding information about their University, but during one year, I’ve recorded growth in number of followers. In this paper I compare these four online methods of disseminating information for students (may 2012 - may 2013 period of time.

  7. Early Prevention Toward Sexual Abuse on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Paramastri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a worldwide problem. Although most studies on the longterm consequences of child sexual abuse have focused on women, sexual abuse of both boys and girls is common. Peer sexual abuse in schools was an often overlooked problem that contributes to a hostile school environment: one major study found that 85% of girls and 76% of boys reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse in school. 85% of child sexual abuse is committed by relatives, close family friend or an adult that the child knows and trusts. The childhood sexual abuse variables taken into account are commonly age of onset, duration, abuse forms and relationship between the child and the perpetrator. The objective of this study was to gather information or opinion about sexual abuse concept, methods and media of the elementary students, parents, teachers and experts. A qualitative study, involving one to one interviews, was conducted with 7 experts, focus group discussion with 40 elementary students, and with 40 parents in Yogyakarta district about child sexual abuse issues. Data were analysed according to Miles and Huberman’s data reduction, data display and conclusion verification process. These findings strongly indicate that boys and girls are vulnerable to this form of childhood sexual abuse ; the similarity in the likelihood for multiple behavioral, mental and social outcomes among men and women suggest the need to identify and treat all adults affected by child sexual abuse. Themes related to the child sexual abuse were: paperwork design, good facilitator, guidelines for students, parents and teachers. Students prefer media that can help them understand concept with komik paperwork as media for early prevention. Parents, teachers and experts prefer that this prevention program can run as soon. With careful paperwork design and evaluation of prevention program, the success of program implementation can be enhanced.

  8. Cranial imaging in child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels, I. [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2002-04-01

    Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

  9. Cranial imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G.; Casteels, I.

    2002-01-01

    Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

  10. The abuse of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reproduces an address by Sir John Hill, Chairman of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, at a conference in London organised by the Financial Times in July 1976. Actions that, in the author's view, could be regarded as constituting abuse of nuclear power are first summarised, and the various aspects of the use and abuse of nuclear power are discussed. The author considers that achieving the maximum degree of acceptance of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is the most important political objective in nuclear power, but considers that nuclear terrorism would be abortive and that, so far as the UK is concerned, the present precautions are adequate and will remain so. It is considered that much abuse of nuclear power arises from the prevalence of its critics, particularly with reference to Pu hazards, the health of nuclear employees, and possible damage to the health of the public. The Pu problem is considered to be far more emotive than rational. The possibility of lung cancer and leukaemia is discussed. It is concluded that atomic energy is one of the best of industries in which to work, both from the health and interest points of view. (U.K.)

  11. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar; Ellabaan, Mostafa; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Sommer, Morten O A

    2015-09-30

    Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to the evolution of bacterial genomes and can facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental reservoirs and potential pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are believed to play a central role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the contribution of the dominant members of the WWTP resistome to resistance in human pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we use a combination of metagenomic functional selections and comprehensive metagenomic sequencing to uncover the dominant genes of the WWTP resistome. We find that this core resistome is unique to the WWTP environment, with resistome is comparable to that of the soil resistome.

  12. Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermelho, Marli Batista Fernandes; Correia, Ademir Silva; Michailowsky, Tania Cibele de Almeida; Suzart, Elizete Kazumi Kuniyoshi; Ibanes, Aline Santos; Almeida, Lanamar Aparecida; Khoury, Zarifa; Barba, Mario Flores, E-mail: marlivermelho@globo.com [Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas (IIER), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Objective: to evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results: abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion: computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  13. Substance abuse: medical and slang terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Humera; El-Mallakh, Rif S; Vandeveir, Keith

    2005-03-01

    Substance abuse is among one of the major problems plaguing our society. It has come to the attention of several healthcare professionals that a communication gap exists between themselves and substance abusers. Most of the time the substance abusers are only familiar with the slang terms of abused substances, a terminology that medical professionals are usually unaware of. This paper is an attempt to close that communication gap, allowing health care professionals to understand the slang terminology that their patients use, thus enabling them to make appropriate treatment decisions. In addition, the article presents some key features (including active ingredient, pharmacological classification, medical use, abuse form, usage method, combinations used, effects sought, long-term possible effects, and detectability in urine) of the most commonly abused substances.

  14. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  15. A Profile of Elder Abuse and Neglect in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas, Paul

    A survey of 35 cases of reported abuse to individuals aged 60 and older in the state of Tennessee sought to determine demographic characteristics of the abused, perpetrators of elder abuse and neglect, types of abuse that occur, and any existence of relationships in elder abuse and neglect between urban and rural counties and eastern and western…

  16. A Survey of Abuse of the Elderly in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeff; And Others

    Many elderly persons suffer abuse and neglect from which they cannot escape. Questions concerning the extent of elder abuse, the kinds of abuse, and underlying factors associated with elder abuse in Texas were explored in a survey of professionals most likely to encounter elder abuse in their work. Questionnaires (1,508) were mailed to agencies…

  17. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1) Inform...

  18. Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Frank R.

    The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

  19. Abusive Supervision and Subordinate Performance : Instrumentality Considerations in the Emergence and Consequences of Abusive Supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Frank; Lam, Catherine K.; van der Vegt, Geert; Huang, X.; Miao, Q.

    Drawing from moral exclusion theory, this article examines outcome dependence and interpersonal liking as key boundary conditions for the linkage between perceived subordinate performance and abusive supervision. Moreover, it investigates the role of abusive supervision for subordinates' subsequent,

  20. Parent education: an evaluation of STEP on abusive parents' perceptions and abuse potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, D C; Fishel, A H

    1998-01-01

    To examine the effects of a structured, time-limited parent training group on abusive or potentially abusive parents. A pretest-posttest control group design was used with consenting parents (N = 18) to examine the effects of Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) on abusive parents' perceptions of their children's behaviors and on the parents' potential to physically abuse. The Adlerian Parental Assessment of Child Behavior Scale and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory were used to measure treatment effects. After participating in STEP, abusive parents had significantly more positive perceptions of their children and were significantly less potentially abusive. Using volunteers, the project cost an average of $100 for each parent. The research lends empirical support to individual psychology and family systems theory. Future research is indicated using larger samples to examine lay vs. professional leadership of the groups, as well as comparisons of different parenting programs with abusive parents.

  1. Abusive Supervision Scale Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wulani, Fenika; Purwanto, Bernadinus M; Handoko, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a scale of abusive supervision in Indonesia. The study was conducted with a different context and scale development method from Tepper’s (2000) abusive supervision scale. The abusive supervision scale from Tepper (2000) was developed in the U.S., which has a cultural orientation of low power distance. The current study was conducted in Indonesia, which has a high power distance. This study used interview procedures to obtain information about superviso...

  2. Abuse and maltreatment in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Martins

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: We found that the abuse and mistreatment are present in the everyday life of many seniors and are a difficult subject to approach. The evidence, invite us to reflect on the development of intervention strategies, particularly at the levels of emotional abuse, neglect, promotion of health and family functioning in order to contribute to the reduction or extinction of abuse and ill-treatment in the elderly.

  3. National profiling of elder abuse referrals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clancy, Marguerite

    2011-05-01

    there is little consistent data on patterns of reporting of elder abuse in Europe. Between 2002 and 2007, the Irish Health Service Executive developed dedicated structures and staff to support the prevention, detection and management of elder abuse without mandatory reporting. Public awareness campaigns, staff training and management briefings heightened awareness regarding this new service. Central to this process is the development of a national database which could provide useful insights for developing coordinated responses to elder abuse in Europe.

  4. A BIG SHAME OF MANKIND: CHILD ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat TOPBAS

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse has for a long time been recorded in literature of science in many parts of the world. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(4.000: 76-80

  5. Metastasis 'systems' biology: how are macro-environmental signals transmitted into microenvironmental cues for disseminated tumor cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelak, Candice Alexandra; Ghajar, Cyrus Michael

    2017-10-01

    Disseminated breast tumor cells reside on or near stable microvascular endothelium. Currently, the cues that disrupt DTC dormancy and facilitate outgrowth are largely unknown. This article explores the hypothesis that specific patient lifestyle exposures (e.g., alcohol abuse) may disrupt the microenvironments that maintain disseminated tumor cell (DTC) dormancy in a tissue-specific fashion. We suggest that such exposures are 'transmitted' to the dormant niche in the form of injury. Thus, we discuss the relationship between wound healing and metastasis using liver as an example to illustrate how injury steers the phenotype of liver endothelium and perivascular hepatic stellate cells to a potentially pro-metastatic one. We posit further that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) - recently shown to prevent metastatic relapse - may act by preserving the dormant niche. We conclude by suggesting that maintenance of the dormant niche - either through patient lifestyle or via development of therapeutics that mimic local molecular cues/responses that coincide with a healthy lifestyle - is a means to prevent metastatic relapse, and should be the subject of far greater research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cultures of Abuse: ‘Sex Grooming’, Organised Abuse and Race in Rochdale, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Salter; Selda Dagistanli

    2015-01-01

    Revelations of organised abuse by men of Asian heritage in the United Kingdom have become a recurrent feature of international media coverage of sexual abuse in recent years. This paper reflects on the similarities between the highly publicised ‘sex grooming’ prosecutions in Rochdale in 2012 and the allegations of organised abuse in Rochdale that emerged in 1990, when twenty children were taken into care after describing sadistic abuse by their parents and others. While these two cases differ...

  7. Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian E

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child′s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

  8. Prevention and early identification of elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jason; Achenbaum, W Andrew; Murphy, Kathleen Pace

    2014-11-01

    Elder abuse is a public health problem growing more pervasive despite being grossly underreported and underdetected. Annually, many vulnerable older adults suffer various forms of abuse threatening their overall health, quality of life, and survival. To better protect our aging population, we must overcome obstacles such as ageism, lack of geriatric health professional training, and low screening practices in clinical settings. Addressing these challenges is not sufficient for eliminating the abuse of older adults, but it is necessary for diminishing the potential for abuse and the associated negative health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Oral and dental aspects of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Suzy Puspa Pertiwi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is defined as those acts or omissions of care that deprive a child from the opportunity to fully develop his or her unique potentials as a person either physically, socially or emotionally. The overall incidence of child abuse is not really clear. Statistical data do not show the actual rate because of the unreported cases. Dentists are in a strategic position to recognize and report the children being abused because they often see the child and parents interacting during multiple visits and over a long period of time. The orofacial region is commonly traumatized during episodes of child abuse. The characteristics and diagnostic finding of child abuse, and the protocol of reporting such cases, should be familiar to the dentist so that appropriate notification, treatment and prevention of further injury can be instituted. Dentists with experience or expertise in child abuse and neglect will strengthen their ability to prevent and detect child abuse and neglect and enhance the ability to care for and protect children. This paper discusses the oral and dental aspects of child abuse and the dentist role in evaluating this situation including prevention of child abuse.

  10. Imaging and Diagnosis of Physical Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marlene M

    2017-09-01

    Child abuse involves grave and disturbing acts of violence that can have lasting physical and emotional consequences for children and their families. The diagnosis of child abuse is emotionally difficult for those involved, and an error in judgment either way can have a detrimental effect on the health and safety of the child. Physicians rely on the skills of the imaging team to produce high-quality images that assist in differentiating inflicted injuries from accidental trauma. This article explores the significance of imaging in child abuse by discussing the types of injuries that occur and the imaging studies that aid in diagnosing physical child abuse. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  11. Economic abuse in Lebanon: experiences and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Jinan; Makarem, Nisrine N; Habib, Rima R

    2013-03-01

    This article explores the experiences and perceptions of Lebanese women and men with economic abuse. Data were drawn from focus group discussions and face-to-face interviews with men, women and social workers. The findings reveal that Lebanese women experience many forms of economic abuse, including the withholding of earnings, restricted involvement in the labor force, and limited purchasing decisions. Inheritance laws and practices still favor men over women. Women tolerate economic abuse to avoid more serious forms of abuse and ensure family stability. Practical implications of the findings are presented.

  12. Documentation and dissemination of agricultural Research results in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to find out the volume of documented vis a vis generated agricultural research information over a 10-year period and to identify existing avenues for disseminating generated research information to the target population. A questionnaire survey was conducted between December 1996 and February ...

  13. 10 CFR 1009.6 - Dissemination of prices and charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of prices and charges. 1009.6 Section 1009.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) GENERAL POLICY FOR PRICING AND CHARGING FOR MATERIALS... Accounting and Pricing Branch, Mail Station 4A-139, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585. ...

  14. Consultation and Dissemination Research Strategy: 1974. Technical Report #22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Roland G.; Gallimore, Ronald

    This brief report outlines several of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) dissemination formats completed, underway, or planned. One of these, the workshop format, was tested in a training program of several days conducted at KEEP. The workshop was designed to teach teachers to use social reinforcement techniques to increase student…

  15. Lessons learned about art-based approaches for disseminating knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Anne; Makaroff, Kara L Schick; Sheilds, Laurene; Beuthin, Rosanne; Molzahn, Anita; Shermak, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    To present a case example of using an arts-based approach and the development of an art exhibit to disseminate research findings from a narrative research study. Once a study has been completed, the final step of dissemination of findings is crucial. In this paper, we explore the benefits of bringing nursing research into public spaces using an arts-based approach. Findings from a qualitative narrative study exploring experiences of living with life-threatening illnesses. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 32 participants living with cancer, chronic renal disease, or HIV/AIDS. Participants were invited to share a symbol representing their experience of living with life-threatening illness and the meaning it held for them. The exhibit conveyed experiences of how people story and re-story their lives when living with chronic kidney disease, cancer or HIV. Photographic images of symbolic representations of study participants' experiences and poetic narratives from their stories were exhibited in a public art gallery. The theoretical underpinning of arts-based approaches and the lessons learned in creating an art exhibit from research findings are explored. Creative art forms for research and disseminating knowledge offer new ways of understanding and knowing that are under-used in nursing. Arts-based approaches make visible patients' experiences that are often left unarticulated or hidden. Creative dissemination approaches such as art exhibits can promote insight and new ways of knowing that communicate nursing research to both public and professional audiences.

  16. Disseminated primary cutaneous histoplasmosis successfully treated with itraconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhi M

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old immunocompetent lady with disseminated primary cutaneous histoplasmosis is reported. Histology showed a granulomatous skin infiltrate with numerous intracellular PAS positive rounded yeast cells within macrophages. Culture on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar yielded a typical cottony white colony characteristic of Histoplasma capsulatum. Treatment with itraconazole showed an excellent response.

  17. The Role of Communication in Dissemination of Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the respondents do not understand the major language of instruction in Nigerian institutions due to absence of multilingualism in dissemination of techniques. Employment of more female extension agents, extension agents who can speak the farmers own language as well encouraging multilingualism will lead to ...

  18. 41 CFR 101-4.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 101-4.140... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Dissemination of policy. 101-4.140 Section 101-4.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  19. Palliative nephrectomy until targeted therapy of disseminated kidney cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Klimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the role of palliative nephrectomy in disseminated kidney cancer patients planned to undergo targeted antiangiogenic treatment.Subjects and methods. The investigation included data on 83 patients with T1-4N0 / +M1 disseminated renal cell carcinoma (RCC who had received at least 2 targeted therapy cycles in 2009 to 2011. In 48 (57.8 % patients, the treatment was preceded by palliative nephrectomy that was not carried out in 35 (42.2 %. Before starting targeted therapy, all the cases were confirmed to be diagnosed with clear cell RCC, with a sarcomatoid component being in 7 (8.4 % patients. The median follow-up of all the patients was 21 (12–36 months.Results. The unremoved affected kidney in disseminated kidney cancer patients receiving targeted antiangiogenic therapy is an independent factor for the poor prognosis of progression-free (odds ratio (OR, 2.4; 95 % confidence interval (CI, 1.2–4.7 and overall (OR, 2.8; 95 % CI, 1.3–6.3 survival. Palliative nephrectomy does not improve the prognosis in patients with a low somatic status, the N+ category, and metastases into the bones and nonregional lymph nodes.Conclusion. Palliative nephrectomy in the selected patients with disseminated kidney cancer on targeted antiangiogenic therapy increases progression-free and overall survival.

  20. Disseminated tuberculosis with rare involvements; Tuberculose floride avec localisations rares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goasdoue, P.; Dubayle, P.; Boyer, B.; Le Clainche, P.; Pharaboz, C.; Debord, T. [Hopital d`Instruction des Armees Begin, 94 - Saint-Mande (France)

    1997-09-01

    We report a case of disseminated tuberculosis involving the middle ear, the central nervous system, the spine and the lung. The tuberculous epidural abscess and otomastoiditis don`t have any specific imaging features. But their coexistence with an other tuberculous involvement might suggest their tuberculous nature. The epidural abscess may result from direct extension from otomastoiditis. (authors).

  1. Proceedings: panel on information dissemination for wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, P. [ed.

    1980-04-01

    This meeting was called as part of a multi-year planning effort. Groups involved in the production and/or dissemination of information on wind energy were invited to describe their current activities and their perceptions of the needs of the 80's in this area. Participants exchanged copies of materials they distribute regularly and discussed frequently asked questions.

  2. Disseminating Knowledge Through Publication: Magnet® Nurses Changing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graystone, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Clinical nurses and nurse leaders are inspiring and fostering amazing outcomes. In this column, the new Magnet Recognition Program® director discusses the expectation for dissemination of outcomes from Magnet®-designated organizations building on work presented at the 2017 National Magnet Conference™.

  3. Marketing: Exploring Applications for Educational Dissemination. Literature Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Linda

    This synthesis of information about marketing and information dissemination of education-related products is divided into three parts: an overview of major writings, specific marketing strategies, and resources for further study. The first part opens with a definition of marketing as it relates to education. A review of the literature provides…

  4. Assessing approaches for dissemination of research information to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Assessing approaches for dissemination of research information to farmers within their ... to soil improvement, NAADS had a wide scope that included animal husbandry. Farmers .... the Problem Solving Approach that involves defining the approach ..... Assessing the Quality of Participation in Farmers' Research Groups.

  5. The language factor in the media and information disseminating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and knowledge that could be useful in achieving the MDGs do not reach the minority language speakers through the media and information dissemination organisations, because minority languages are excluded. Documentary analysis of language policy documents which enshrine language broadcasting and ...

  6. 31 CFR 28.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 28.140 Section 28.140 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury NONDISCRIMINATION ON... elementary and secondary school students, employees, sources of referral of applicants for admission and...

  7. Effects of environmental information dissemination and use on food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effects of Environmental Information Dissemination and use on Food Security in Gwagwalada Area Council. The objective of the study is to determine the type of environmental information available in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT.A total number of fifty questionnaires were issued and forty five ...

  8. Deliverable 9.7 - GALA Dissemination Report 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim; Berta, Riccardo; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Bellotti, Francesco; Nadolski, Rob; Padrón-Nápoles, Carmen; Boyle, Elizabeth; Beligan, Daniel; Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke

    2014-01-01

    We have created and executed a separate plan for the transition of GALA to the Serious Games Society for securing the conditions in the post-project phase. For assessing the effectiveness of the dissemination efforts we have devised 5 outward- looking KPIs. All KPI requirements were met. Also,

  9. Social network and innovation dissemination among farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural innovation has tremendous potentials to improve the welfare of the rural poor. Yet, many new technologies that seem profitable in demonstration plots are not widely adopted due to inadequate social groups linking the farmers to the researchers which result to non-effective information dissemination. There is no ...

  10. Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis presenting with cachexia and hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasawneh FA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Faisal A Khasawneh,1 Subhan Ahmed,2 Ruba A Halloush31Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, 2Section of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK, 3Amarillo Pathology Group, Amarillo, TX, USAAbstract: Histoplasmosis is a common endemic mycosis. The majority of infections involving this dimorphic fungus are asymptomatic. Manifestations in symptomatic patients are diverse, ranging from flu-like illness to a more serious disseminated disease. We present here a case of chronic disseminated histoplasmosis mimicking a metastatic cancer. We reviewed the literature for cases of disseminated histoplasmosis presenting with hypercalcemia, focusing particularly on clinical presentation, risk factors predisposing for fungal infection, and outcome. We report a case of a 65-year-old diabetic male who presented with unexplained weight loss and hypercalcemia. Multiple brain space-occupying lesions and bilateral adrenal enlargement were evident on imaging studies. Biopsies showed caseating granulomas with budding yeast, consistent with histoplasmosis. The patient's symptoms resolved after liposomal amphotericin B and itraconazole therapy. Granulomatous diseases, including fungal infections, should be considered alongside malignancies, in patients with similar presentation.Keywords: disseminated histoplasmosis, hypercalcemia

  11. Opportunistic Beacon Networks: Information Dissemination via Wireless Network Identifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents OBN, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model particularly intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the utilization of universally-available wireless network identifiers. As a ubiquitous

  12. Integrity and dissemination control in administrative applications through information designators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, W.G.

    When more and more information sources are being linked, it seems that it becomes ever more easy to track individuals in ways that are not deemed appropriate. However, increased linking of information does not need to imply increased dissemination of privacy-sensitive information. We present a new

  13. Evidence-based surgery: Dissemination, communication, decision aids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Surgeons are expected to make treatment decisions that are based on the best available evidence. Moreover, they are called to recognise that important decisions should also be shared with patients. While dissemination of evidence-based surgery and communication of evidence to patients have been

  14. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex in an immunocompetent host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Yabes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (DMAC has historically been described in the immunocompromised. The current epidemiologic research suggests that the incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections is increasing. We present a case of DMAC infection manifesting as hepatic granulomas in a 35-year-old immunocompetent female. This case suggests DMAC infection in a patient without traditional epidemiological risk factors.

  15. Dissemination of watershed management information through the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchus B. Baker; Deborah J. Young

    2000-01-01

    Information and related literature on watershed management practices is sometimes not widely known nor readily accessible. New electronic technologies provide unique tools for disseminating research findings to scientists, educators, land management professionals, and the public. This paper illustrates how the usefulness and accessibility of research information from...

  16. Access to the internet for knowledge dissemination: agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to agricultural information is a prerequisite for agricultural development. However, information on how agricultural scientists make use of the Internet to access agricultural information is limited. This study therefore investigated access to the Internet for knowledge dissemination by agricultural researchers in ...

  17. Achieving Data Utility Fairness in Periodic Dissemination for VANETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza Schwartz, Ramon; Ohazulike, Anthony; Scholten, Johan; IEEE,

    In addition to safety, Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) enable the development of new information-rich applications that disseminate relevant data to vehicles. One key challenge in such networks is to use the available bandwidth efficiently when there is: (i) a short connectivity time due to the

  18. Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis with malignant change, in a male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausen, I; Jensen, O J; Andersen, E

    1990-01-01

    Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis (DPL) is a rare disorder, characterized by the occurrence of multiple leiomyomas scattered throughout the peritoneal cavity. Until this report DPL had been observed only in women and there is only one previous case with malignant change. A case of DPL...

  19. Capacity of Community-Based Organisations to disseminate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the capacity of established community based organisations (CBOs) to disseminate information on sleeping sickness control. Design: Participatory interview process administered to randomly selected CBOs in a tsetse and trypanosomosis endemic area. Setting: Busia district, Western, Kenya. Results: ...

  20. Macrophage Function in Early Dissemination and Dormancy of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf...insight into the understanding of the natural history of metastatic disease by discovering that MTMs propel early dissemination and that combined

  1. An unusual cystic appearance of disseminated low-grade gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Perilongo, G.; Kaufman, B.A.; Holden, K.R.; Carollo, C.; Kling Chong, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    We report five cases of pediatric disseminated low-grade gliomas of the brainstem or spinal cord that exhibited an unusual, cystic pattern. Leptomeningeal disease was present in three of these at diagnosis, and was detected shortly afterwards in the other two. Four patients are alive up to 5 years later, following minimal to no intervention, while one is dead. (orig.)

  2. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in meningococcal sepsis. Case 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeerleder, S.; Zürcher Zenklusen, R.; Hack, C. E.; Wuillemin, W. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a man (age: 49 years), who died from severe meningococcal sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and extended skin necrosis. We discuss in detail the pathophysiology of the activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis during sepsis.

  3. Holding Abusers Accountable: An Elder Abuse Forensic Center Increases Criminal Prosecution of Financial Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Adria E.; Gassoumis, Zachary D.; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing awareness of elder abuse, cases are rarely prosecuted. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an elder abuse forensic center compared with usual care to increase prosecution of elder financial abuse. Design and Methods: Using one-to-one propensity score matching, cases referred to the Los Angeles County…

  4. Estimating attractiveness for abuse of a not-yet-marketed "abuse-deterrent" prescription opioid formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen F; Black, Ryan; Grimes Serrano, Jill M; Folensbee, Lesley; Chang, Alan; Katz, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    The present study builds on research to model abusers' perceptions of particular analgesics' attractiveness for abuse and extends these methods to derive an estimate of attractiveness for abuse of a not-yet-marketed abuse-deterrent formulation (ADF) of a prescription opioid (Remoxy), Pain Therapeutics, Inc., San Mateo, CA, and King Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Bristol, TN). In a previous study, the Opioid Attractiveness Technology Scaling (OATS) method identified, from a drug abuser's point of view, the particular features of a prescription opioid relevant to its attractiveness for recreational use. A second online sample rated the extent to which these features applied to particular products they had actually used/abused. These data were used to model the abusers' overall preference for prescription opioids they had used/abused. In the present study, this method was applied to a not-yet-marketed ADF using substance abuse counselors as proxies for prescription opioid abusers. Thirty-eight counselors were given materials describing the new ADF along with four known products. Thirty-two counselors demonstrated sufficient agreement with abusers' ratings of the overall attractiveness of these drugs. The overall model yielded a significant pseudo R(2) of 0.15 (P marketing estimates of attractiveness for abuse of not-yet-marketed ADFs.

  5. Imaging of Neonatal Child Abuse with an Emphasis on Abusive Head Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Rick R.; Spevak, Melissa R.

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a serious clinical and socioeconomic problem that is sometimes underestimated. One of the most devastating forms is abusive head trauma. This review addresses the radiological workup in cases of suspected child abuse. The use of all modalities, and their advantages and

  6. The Relationship between Bullying and Animal Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents: The Importance of Witnessing Animal Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida

    2008-01-01

    Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…

  7. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Shigella flexneri Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaisse, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular pathogen Shigella flexneri is the causative agent of bacillary dysentery in humans. The disease is characterized by bacterial invasion of intestinal cells, dissemination within the colonic epithelium through direct spread from cell to cell, and massive inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. Here, we review the mechanisms supporting S. flexneri dissemination. The dissemination process primarily relies on actin assembly at the bacterial pole, which propels the pathogen throughout the cytosol of primary infected cells. Polar actin assembly is supported by polar expression of the bacterial autotransporter family member IcsA, which recruits the N-WASP/ARP2/3 actin assembly machinery. As motile bacteria encounter cell-cell contacts, they form plasma membrane protrusions that project into adjacent cells. In addition to the ARP2/3-dependent actin assembly machinery, protrusion formation relies on formins and myosins. The resolution of protrusions into vacuoles occurs through the collapse of the protrusion neck, leading to the formation of an intermediate membrane-bound compartment termed vacuole-like protrusions (VLPs). VLP formation requires tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide signaling in protrusions, which relies on the integrity of the bacterial type 3 secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is also required for escaping double membrane vacuoles through the activity of the T3SS translocases IpaB and IpaC, and the effector proteins VirA and IcsB. Numerous factors supporting envelope biogenesis contribute to IcsA exposure and maintenance at the bacterial pole, including LPS synthesis, membrane proteases, and periplasmic chaperones. Although less characterized, the assembly and function of the T3SS in the context of bacterial dissemination also relies on factors supporting envelope biogenesis. Finally, the dissemination process requires the adaptation of the pathogen to various cellular compartments through transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms.

  8. Peritoneal dissemination complicating morcellation of uterine mesenchymal neoplasms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Seidman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Power morcellation has become a common technique for the minimally invasive resection of uterine leiomyomas. This technique is associated with dissemination of cellular material throughout the peritoneum. When morcellated uterine tumors are unexpectedly found to be leiomyosarcomas or tumors with atypical features (atypical leiomyoma, smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential, there may be significant clinical consequences. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency and clinical consequence of intraperitoneal dissemination of these neoplasms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 2005-2010, 1091 instances of uterine morcellation were identified at BWH. Unexpected diagnoses of leiomyoma variants or atypical and malignant smooth muscle tumors occurred in 1.2% of cases using power morcellation for uterine masses clinically presumed to be "fibroids" over this period, including one endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS, one cellular leiomyoma (CL, six atypical leiomyomas (AL, three smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMPs, and one leiomyosarcoma (LMS. The rate of unexpected sarcoma after the laparoscopic morcellation procedure was 0.09%, 9-fold higher than the rate currently quoted to patients during pre-procedure briefing, and this rate may increase over time as diagnostically challenging or under-sampled tumors manifest their biological potential. Furthermore, when examining follow-up laparoscopies, both from in-house and consultation cases, disseminated disease occurred in 64.3% of all tumors (zero of one ESS, one of one CL, zero of one AL, four of four STUMPs, and four of seven LMS. Only disseminated leiomyosarcoma, however, was associated with mortality. Procedures are proposed for pathologic evaluation of morcellation specimens and associated follow-up specimens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While additional study is warranted, these data suggest uterine morcellation carries a risk of disseminating

  9. Molecular and Cellular mechanisms of Shigella flexneri dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herve eAgaisse

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular pathogen Shigella flexneri is the causative agent of bacillary dysentery in humans. The disease is characterized by bacterial invasion of intestinal cells, dissemination within the colonic epithelium through direct spread from cell to cell, and massive inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. Here, we review the mechanisms supporting S. flexneri dissemination. The dissemination process primarily relies on actin assembly at the bacterial pole, which propels the pathogen throughout the cytosol of primary infected cells. Polar actin assembly is supported by polar expression of the bacterial autotransporter family member IcsA, which recruits the N-WASP/ARP2/3 actin assembly machinery. As motile bacteria encounter cell-cell contacts, they form plasma membrane protrusions that project into adjacent cells. In addition to the ARP2/3-dependent actin assembly machinery, protrusion formation relies on formins and myosins. The resolution of protrusions into vacuoles occurs through the collapse of the protrusion neck, leading to the formation of an intermediate membrane-bound compartment termed vacuole-like protrusions (VLPs. VLP formation requires tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide signaling in protrusions, which relies on the integrity of the bacterial type 3 secretion system (T3SS. The T3SS is also required for escaping double membrane vacuoles through the activity of the T3SS translocases IpaB and IpaC, and the effector proteins VirA and IcsB. Numerous factors supporting envelope biogenesis contribute to IcsA exposure and maintenance at the bacterial pole, including LPS synthesis, membrane proteases, and periplasmic chaperones. Although less characterized, the assembly and function of the T3SS in the context of bacterial dissemination also relies on factors supporting envelope biogenesis. Finally, the dissemination process requires the adaptation of the pathogen to various cellular compartments through transcriptional and post

  10. Radiation abuse and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halm, A.

    1976-01-01

    This paper delves into overuse practiced in diagnostic radiography. The conventional attitudes to low-dose irradiation are critically examined, as is the MPD related to individual radiosensitivity. Concern is expressed that a sizeable proportion of radiologists ignore important aspects of the Code of Practice and this attitude is readily emulated in the hospital setting. The author advocates education within the medical profession and the community on the risks involved in radiation abuse and the benefits derived from justified exposures to x rays. (author)

  11. Abuse Is Abuse: The Influence of Type of Abuse, Victim Age, and Defendant Age on Juror Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Chelsea L; Pica, Emily; Pozzulo, Joanna D

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of victim age, defendant age, and type of abuse on mock juror decision making. Mock jurors ( N = 556) read a trial transcript in which a soccer coach was accused of sexual abuse or physical abuse against a player. The victim's age (child, adolescent, or young adult), the defendant's age (young, middle age, or older adult), and the type of abuse (sexual or physical) were varied. Mock jurors provided a dichotomous and continuous verdict and rated their perceptions of the victim and the defendant. Although no differences on mock jurors' dichotomous verdict were found due to victim age, defendant age, or type of abuse, mock jurors provided higher guilt ratings when the abuse was sexual and both the victim and defendant were described as young adults. Similarly, mock jurors rated the victim more positively when the victim was described as a young adult (vs. child) for both sexual and physical abuse cases, and rated the defendant more positively when the victim was described as a child compared with young adult in sexual abuse cases. These findings suggest that mock jurors were largely influenced by victim age, particularly when the victim was described as an adult compared with a child.

  12. 'Unrecognized victims': Sexual abuse against male street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Conclusions- Sexual abuse against male children around Merkato area is rampant, but received less or no attention ..... abusers and started protecting myself from such abuse. Figure 1: .... Then I ran away fast with determination and without.

  13. Nonverbal Behavior of Young Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Michael; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated whether abused and neglected children differ from other children in their nonverbal attachment and communicative behavior. Found that in comparison (1) abused children avoided contact and interaction and (2) abused females exhibited more avoidance than males. (PD)

  14. SEXUAL ABUSE OF CHILDREN IN SCHOOLS: THE NEED FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY TERMS: Sexual abuse, social work, social exchange theory, Botswana. ... The problem of sexual abuse of children by teachers in the education system is not .... to leave an abusive relationship when the costs of the relationship outweigh ...

  15. College Students and Alcohol Abuse: New Resources Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. College Students and Alcohol Abuse: New Resources Can Help Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... to curb college alcohol abuse. NIAAA Tools You Can Use The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and ...

  16. Prevalence And Determinants Of Drug Abuse Among Youths In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug abuse is a global public health problem that impacts negatively on health, ... and Marijuana and farming occupation was a determinant of drug abuse. ... area, there is need for health education campaigns on harmful effects of drug abuse.

  17. Dilemmas for international mobilization around child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Lannen, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this commentary is to articulate some issues and dilemmas raised by various efforts to mobilize international action around child abuse and neglect (CAN). We will start by proposing a typology of international mobilization strategies, noting that initiatives to promote CAN programming in new settings have tended to emphasize one of three vectors: governments, professionals, or international NGOs. There are pros and cons to each emphasis, which we discuss. We also review the debates around some of the following dilemmas: Should low-income countries be a top priority for CAN mobilization? Are there cultural and institutional capacities that need to be present in a country in order for CAN programs to work or be ethical? Are some CAN programs more likely to be internationally transferable than others and why so? Has the field adequately considered whether non-CAN programming (e.g., family planning) might actually be more effective at preventing maltreatment than CAN programming? Does the field give adequate acknowledgment that policies and practices emanating from high-resourced and Western countries may not always be the best to disseminate? Are we relying too much on a model of program transplantation over a model of local cultivation? Should we aim for modest rather than ambitious accomplishments in international mobilization? How much emphasis should be placed on the priority dissemination of evidence-based programming? We conclude with some suggestions in the service of clarifying these dilemmas and making some of these decisions more evidence based. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Drug abuse in nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-González, Iria; Bugarín-González, Rosendo; Machín-Fernández, Antonio Javier

    2016-01-01

    To determine the patterns of substance abuse of students attending the Lugo School of Nursing. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study in the classroom carried out by survey research in April 2015. 61.5% of students participated (185), 83.2% of whom were females. The first addictive substance consumed by participants was tobacco (at 15 years old). In the last month cigarettes were consumed by 36.2% of students, while alcohol was consumed by 89.9% (58.4% of the total got drunk). 2.2% were consuming tranquilizers/hypnotics in the same time period. The most widely used illegal drug was cannabis (17.8%) and then cocaine (2.2%). There is a significant correlation between illegal drug consumption and being male, smoking cigarettes or drinking alcohol, living alone or with friends (not family), have poor academic performance and public drinking (botellón). There were no association between illegal drugs and sports or reading. Polydrug use was also studied: a 16.2% declared to have consumed alcohol and cannabis simultaneously, and a 4.9% alcohol and cocaine. Consumption patterns are similar compared to the general population in that age group, with some of them being higher. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures in order to prevent substance abuse at the university level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Tipping Points and the Accommodation of the Abuser: Ongoing Incestuous Abuse during Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick Middleton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the widespread reality of ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood had attracted no systematic research. The scientific literature was limited to the occasional case study and brief anecdotal references. This minimal literature was supplemented by biographical works written by or about victims of this form of abuse, and by press reports. With the advent of the Josef Fritzl case there was a very marked increase in the press reporting of such abuse, which in turn provided a reference point for more fine-grained data collection and scientific reporting. This paper introduces the subject of prolonged incest via the lens of organised abuse, summarises research on incestuous abuse and draws on multiple clinical examples to elucidate the mechanisms by which such abuse merges with, or develops into, variations of organised abuse, including that centred on the family, on prostitution, or on that involving abuse networks. The abuse practices, the net-working, and the ploys used to avoid prosecution practiced by the father perpetrating ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood have much in common with other variants of organised sexual abuse.

  20. Teaching Resiliency Theory to Substance Abuse Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Resiliency is the ability to cope in the face of adversity. One protective factor that promotes resiliency in substance-abusing dysfunctional families is family rituals and traditions. Social workers and substance abuse counselors can teach family members how to instill resiliency in their families and themselves through rituals and traditions. To…

  1. Substance Abuse and the American Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    The first comprehensive assessment of substance abuse and women, this report arose from an analysis of more than 1,700 scientific and technical articles, surveys, government reports and books. Results show that American women are closing the gap with men in that they are increasingly likely to abuse substances at the same rate as men. Findings…

  2. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen; Hall, Christine M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  3. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L

    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  4. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors influencing substance abuse amongundergraduate students in Osun State; Nigeria. A sample of 1, 200undergraduate students were randomly selected from three tertiaryinstitution in Osun State. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse Questionnaire (FISA) was developed by the researcher ...

  5. Psychosocial Dysfunction among Adolescents Who Abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... ... study was carried out among adolescents selected from five secondary schools in Abakaliki. ... and four students were abusers of one or more substances. ... Psychosocial dysfunction was however not related to age, gender, or social classes in the study population but was related to the abuse of multiple.

  6. Sexual Abuse Trauma Among Chinese Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tsun-yin Echo

    1998-01-01

    This study conducted interviews with 19 survivors of sexual abuse and three social workers in Taiwan. It found sexual stigmatization and feelings of disempowerment and betrayal as the most pervasive trauma complex among the abuse survivors. Effects of cultural attitudes toward sexual victimization of women and Chinese patriarchal familialism are…

  7. Play Therapy Behaviors of Sexually Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyer, Linda E.; Landreth, Garry L.

    The purpose of this study was to identify play therapy behaviors of sexually abused children. Surveys were sent to members of the Association for Play Therapy, of which 249 respondents, who worked with 16 or more sexually abused children, were used. Results indicate that there are identifiable and highly interrelated PTBs of sexually abused…

  8. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  9. Child Sexual Abuse: A School Leadership Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…

  10. School Nurses Avoid Addressing Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an…

  11. Child Abuse: The Crying Baby at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, John

    The author considers the relationship between uncontrollable infant crying and child abuse. An integrative scheme is offered from evidence of child abuse literature, experimentally induced infant crying effects, attribution theory, and learned helplessness. It is suggested that infant crying often has causes beyond caregiver control, such as birth…

  12. Perceptions of Elders' Substance Abuse and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…

  13. Jurors' Reactions to Satanic Ritual Abuse Allegations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L.; Diviak, Kathleen R.; Davis, Suzanne L.

    1997-01-01

    Mock jurors (N=243) rendered judgment about a case involving childhood sexual abuse allegations made with or without allegations of satanic ritual abuse. Although jurors, especially nonreligious jurors, were less likely to believe the satanic ritual allegations than other case details, they were as likely to vote guilty and believe the victim in…

  14. Review: Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse: Incidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual abuse in children and adolescents is a silent epidemic because despite the fact that close to 20% of children and adolescents (1 out 5) are affected, less than 10% of the cases get reported to law enforcement agents or medical practitioners. Sexual abuse is associated with physical injuries such as bruises and ...

  15. The Promotion of Drug Abuse- PO*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-02

    Mar 2, 1974 ... experience in modern marketing techniques could develop a promotional campaign to increase drug abuse. ... Drug abuse-identity ... conforms to the same social, intellectual and cultural ... The brand names should also be chosen carefu11y. ... In this market the mass media offer the greatest coverage.

  16. Educator Sexual Abuse: Two Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…

  17. Theories and measures of elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfathi Momtaz, Yadollah; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2013-09-01

    Elder abuse is a pervasive phenomenon around the world with devastating effects on the victims. Although it is not a new phenomenon, interest in examining elder abuse is relatively new. This paper aims to provide an overview of the aetiological theories and measures of elder abuse. The paper briefly reviews theories to explain causes of elder abuse and then discusses the most commonly used measures of elder abuse. Based on the reviewed theories, it can be concluded that elder abuse is a multifactorial problem that may affect elderly people from different backgrounds and involve a wide variety of potential perpetrators, including caregivers, adult children, and partners. The review of existing measurement instruments notes that many different screening and assessment instruments have been developed to identify elders who are at risk for or are victims of abuse. However, there is a real need for more measurements of elder abuse, as the current instruments are limited in scope. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  18. A Community Response to Elder Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foelker, George A., Jr.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how Dallas, Texas, Area Agency on Aging met requirement of 1987 amendments to Older Americans Act of 1965 that State Offices on Aging identify agencies involved in identifying and treating abused, neglected, and exploited elders and determine their need for services. Describes impact of Elder Abuse Task Force on state law, adult…

  19. Perspectives on elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores perceptions and views of different groups involved in elder abuse. First chapter provides a general introduction to the topic and current study. In the second chapter of this thesis, definitions of elder abuse and their developments are reviewed. Chapter three explores different

  20. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  1. [Prescription drug abuse in elderly psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, Tilman; Schneider, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Due to demographic changes there will be a fraction of elderly patients with substance use disorders. However, only a few data have been published about elderly abusers of prescription drugs. Since substance abuse is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders, treatment in a psychiatric hospital is often needed. In this explorative study elderly people with prescription drug abuse who required psychiatric inpatient treatment should be characterized. This study was part of the gerontopsychiatry study Berlin (Gepsy-B), an investigation of the data of all older inpatients (≥ 65 years) admitted to a psychiatric hospital within a period of 3 years. Among 1266 documented admissions in 110 cases (8.7 %) (mean age: 75.7 ± 7.1 years) prescription drug abuse, mostly of benzodiazepines was diagnosed. Females showed benzodiazepine abuse more often than males. In only a small proportion of the cases the reason for admission was withdrawal of prescribed drugs. 85.5 % suffered from psychiatric comorbidity, mostly depression. As risk factors for abuse depressive symptoms (OR: 3.32) as well as concurrent nicotine (OR: 2.69) or alcohol abuse (OR: 2.14) were calculated. Psychiatric inpatient treatment was primarily not necessary because of prescription drug abuse but because of other psychopathological symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Neurodevelopmental Biology Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…

  3. Bruising and Hemophilia: Accident or Child Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles F.; Coury, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Two case histories illustrate the difficulty in evaluating abuse/neglect in children with bleeding problems such as hemophilia. Discussed are guidelines for diagnosis and prevention of abuse, including: screening techniques, the need for protection from environmental trauma, parental stress, evaluation of parents' disciplinary methods, and the…

  4. Child sexual abuse and family outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Rinke; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between different characteristics of sexual abuse and adverse family outcomes in later life. Through archived court files, a large sample of Dutch men and women who have been sexually abused as a child could be identified. Outcome variables were assessed

  5. Parent’s Addiction and Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study is review the theorical approches of child abuse and its prevalency, ethiology, prevention, assessment and treatment. Also, we try to difine the relationship between child abuse and parents addiction and their side effects in different areas of childs life .

  6. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  7. [Intra and extra-familiar sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different

  8. Sexual abuse of children: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, K C

    1987-01-01

    An increasing number of studies in the past decade have shown that sexual abuse of children is disturbingly common. The author reviews some of the more recent knowledge about the problem, with particular reference to medical implications. The incidence and distribution of the problem and the relative importance of the medical examination are reviewed, and the diagnostic significance of clinical presentations such as vulvovaginitis, recurrent urinary tract infection and masturbation is evaluated. The agents responsible for sexually transmitted diseases in abused children are reviewed. Many crucial psychosocial issues are raised in the evaluation and management of sexual abuse. The author discusses some aspects of abuse that are hard to confront, such as the possible pleasure of the child and the nonoffending role of the mother in cases of incest. Information from sources other than the medical literature on the characteristics of abusers, therapy and prevention is reviewed. The medical implications of the Badgley Report are also discussed. PMID:3801988

  9. Violence, sexual abuse and health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2002-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p sexually abused in childhood (8...

  10. Violence, sexual abuse and health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2002-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p abused in childhood (8...

  11. Cranial MR imaging of abused children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.D.; Heier, L.A.; Johnson, C.E.; Weingarten, K.; Kelly, A.B.; Deck, M.D.F.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnosis of intracranial sequelae of child abuse has important clinical and legal implications. CT findings are often subtle or nonspecific. Acutely, a small interhemispheric subdural hematoma (IHSDH) is seen, which may be difficult to distinguish from the falx. In chronic or recurrent abuse, ventricular dilatation and extracerebral fluid collections are encountered that may be difficult to distinguish from atrophy. Four abused children underwent MR imaging and, in each case, MR demonstrated the nature and extent of abnormalities with greater accuracy than CT. In acute abuse (two cases), the IHSDH was diagnosed with greater confidence than on CT, and convexity subdural collections were identified which could not be detected on CT. In chronic abuse (two cases) the subdural location of extracerebral collections and the extent of parenchymal damage was better appreciated on MR than CT

  12. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G

    2016-04-01

    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Elder Abuse in the U.S.: Its Nature, Causes and Some Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageing International, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of elder abuse: characteristics of victims, common forms of abuse, categories of abuse, victim-abuser relationship, characteristics of abusers, practical responses to the problem, and policy implications and research needs. (CT)

  14. Topology for efficient information dissemination in ad-hoc networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, E.; Okino, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the information dissemination problem in ad-hoc wirless networks. First, we analyze the probability of successful broadcast, assuming: the nodes are uniformly distributed, the available area has a lower bould relative to the total number of nodes, and there is zero knowledge of the overall topology of the network. By showing that the probability of such events is small, we are motivated to extract good graph topologies to minimize the overall transmissions. Three algorithms are used to generate topologies of the network with guaranteed connectivity. These are the minimum radius graph, the relative neighborhood graph and the minimum spanning tree. Our simulation shows that the relative neighborhood graph has certain good graph properties, which makes it suitable for efficient information dissemination.

  15. Disseminated tuberculosis of the central nervous system responsive to rifabutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, M; Crippa, S; Di Palma, F; Gerini, A M; Soresi, E; Scoccia, S

    1990-04-01

    Multiple cerebral tuberculomas are now very rare. We report the case of a young man with an 8-month history of headache, febricula and abscess of the left tibiotarsal joint, which was found to contain mycobacterium tuberculosis. Chest X-rays revealed miliariform dissemination to both lungs while CT and MR brain scans revealed numerous small nodules, especially in the posterior cranial fossa. Despite anti-tuberculosis therapy the patient developed a right pyramidal hemisyndrome and intracranial hypertension. The inclusion of rifabutin in the treatment schedule was followed by rapid improvement and a year later the patient was in good health and free from cerebral and pulmonary lesions. The interest of the case lies in the multiplicity of sites of the TB process in a non immunodepressed patient, the dissemination to the CNS without meningeal involvement, the resistance to standard antimycobacterials and the swift response to rifabutin.

  16. Disseminated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in a paca (Cuniculus paca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, Susan B; Yau, Wilson; Rissi, Daniel R

    2015-03-01

    A 2-yr-old paca (Cuniculus paca) was presented for necropsy with a history of sudden death. GrosS examination revealed multifocal, transmural, well-demarcated, white, soft nodules scattered along the length of the small intestine. The liver also had similar nodules associated with the capsular and cut surface. Histologic evaluation of several organs, including the intestine, liver, lung, kidney, adrenal gland, and lymph nodes, was consistent with disseminated yersiniosis. In addition, aerobic bacterial culture of liver and lung tissue yielded heavy growth of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-negative, enteric pathogen that can cause disease in a variety of terrestrial species including humans. Although systemic infection has been observed in rodent species, to our knowledge this is the first report of disseminated Y pseudotuberculosis in a paca.

  17. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in an immunocompetent pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts, which is associated with abnormal cellular immunity. Case presentation A 26-year-old pregnant woman presented with fever and general weakness. Miliary lung nodules were noted on chest X-ray. Under the impression of miliary tuberculosis, anti-tuberculosis medication was administered. However, the patient was not improved. Further work-up demonstrated MAC in the sputum and placenta. The patient was treated successfully with clarithromycin-based combination regimen. Conclusion This appears to be the first case of disseminated MAC in an otherwise healthy pregnant woman. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of MAC infection in diverse clinical conditions.

  18. Overcoming Legal Limitations in Disseminating Slovene Web Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Web texts are becoming increasingly relevant sources of information, with web corpora useful for corpus linguistic studies and development of language technologies. Even though web texts are directly accessable, which substantially simplifies the collection procedure compilation of web corpora is still complex, time consuming and expensive. It is crucial that similar endeavours are not repeated, which is why it is necessary to make the created corpora easily and widely accessible both to researchers and a wider audience. While this is logistically and technically a straightforward procedure, legal constraints, such as copyright, privacy and terms of use severely hinder the dissemination of web corpora. This paper discusses legal conditions and actual practice in this area, gives an overview of current practices and proposes a range of mitigation measures on the example of the Janes corpus of Slovene user-generated content in order to ensure free and open dissemination of Slovene web corpora.

  19. Enforcing host cell polarity: an apicomplexan parasite strategy towards dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Martin

    2011-08-01

    The propagation of apicomplexan parasites through transmitting vectors is dependent on effective dissemination of parasites inside the mammalian host. Intracellular Toxoplasma and Theileria parasites face the challenge that their spread inside the host depends in part on the motile capacities of their host cells. In response, these parasites influence the efficiency of dissemination by altering adhesive and/or motile properties of their host cells. Theileria parasites do so by targeting signalling pathways that control host cell actin dynamics. The resulting enforced polar host cell morphology facilitates motility and invasiveness, by establishing focal adhesion and invasion structures at the leading edge of the infected cell. This parasite strategy highlights mechanisms of motility regulation that are also likely relevant for immune or cancer cell motility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: Typical Radiologic Findings: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulgarin R, Luis G; Posada A, Marcela; Sanchez M, Luisa C

    2011-01-01

    A 28-year-old female patient developed neurological symptoms after a classical episode of dengue. The physical examination reveled no fever, no neurological focalization, and an altered mental status (Glasgow 12/15). Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The patient showed clinical improvement following treatment with steroids. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is classically described as a uniphasic syndrome occurring in association with systemic viral infection (parainfectious encephalomyelitis) or immunization or vaccination (post vaccination encephalomyelitis). Pathologically, there is perivascular inflammation, edema, and demyelination within the CNS. Clinically, patients present with rapidly progressing focal or multifocal neurologic dysfunction. The treatment for ADEM is targeted at suppressing inflammation in the brain through the use of anti-inflammatory drugs such as intravenous corticosteroids.

  1. Withdrawal of immunosuppresive agents in the treatment of disseminated coccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J E; Zoschke, D; Kisch, A L

    1980-04-01

    Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal infection that causes high mortality in the renal transplatn patient. Cell-mediated immunity, which appears to be the relevant host defense mechanism, is impaired by the immunosupressive agents used to prevent allograft rejection. In the case presented, immunosuppressive therapy was stopped as an adjunct to treatment of this infection. The patient has shown evidence of improvement, and his allograft has continued to function nine months after the withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and 18 months after the diagnosis. In vitro lymphocyte function studies indicate that the impairment in cell-mediated immunity detected prior to withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy has persisted, probably accounting for allograft survival. Withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy may prolong survival in renal transplant patients with disseminated coccidioidomycosis. Additionally, depression in cell-mediated immunity associated with the fungal infection itself may be sufficient to prevent allograft rejection in these patients.

  2. Mexican journals of educational research towards mainstream dissemination of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera-Flores, Mayer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the Electronic Journal of Educational Research (REDIE on its path towards the common manner of scientific dissemination. This research presents the evolution of Mexican policy with regards to the journals, the situation of the Educational Research Mexican journals, and its profundity relating to REDIE. In its evolution, there were three moments that stood out the most: the standardization of quality criteria, the digitalization and open access of the scientific journals, those that came together with REDIE like REDALYC and LATINDEX , and the individual initiatives of those journals that motivated the development of the scientific dissemination in Mexico. The investigation concludes with the realization of the necessity of achieving agreement on the efforts of various principal actors: governmental bodies, institutions, and academic communities.

  3. Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia: Report of 27 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván D. Vélez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL is a poorly described disease that is frequently misdiagnosed as other clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL such as diffuse CL or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Twenty-seven cases of DL diagnosed between 1997 and 2015 are described. A higher prevalence was observed in men (mean age 32 years. The number of lesions per patient ranged from 12 to 294, distributed mainly in the upper extremities, face and trunk. The lesions were mostly plaques or nodules. Seven patients had nasal mucous damage, 74% of the patients were of mixed race, 92% lived in northwestern Colombia, and Leishmania (Viannia panamensis was identified as the causative agent in 58% of cases. Eighteen patients recovered with pentavalent antimonial. The importance of distinguishing DL from those other clinical presentations is based on the fact that disseminated, diffuse and post-kala-azar CL are very different in etiology, clinical manifestations and response to treatment and prognosis.

  4. Multiagent Based Information Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Manvi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs are a compelling application of ad hoc networks, because of the potential to access specific context information (e.g. traffic conditions, service updates, route planning and deliver multimedia services (Voice over IP, in-car entertainment, instant messaging, etc.. This paper proposes an agent based information dissemination model for VANETs. A two-tier agent architecture is employed comprising of the following: 1 'lightweight', network-facing, mobile agents; 2 'heavyweight', application-facing, norm-aware agents. The limitations of VANETs lead us to consider a hybrid wireless network architecture that includes Wireless LAN/Cellular and ad hoc networking for analyzing the proposed model. The proposed model provides flexibility, adaptability and maintainability for traffic information dissemination in VANETs as well as supports robust and agile network management. The proposed model has been simulated in various network scenarios to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach.

  5. Modelling information dissemination under privacy concerns in social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Huang, Cheng; Lu, Rongxing; Li, Hui

    2016-05-01

    Social media has recently become an important platform for users to share news, express views, and post messages. However, due to user privacy preservation in social media, many privacy setting tools are employed, which inevitably change the patterns and dynamics of information dissemination. In this study, a general stochastic model using dynamic evolution equations was introduced to illustrate how privacy concerns impact the process of information dissemination. Extensive simulations and analyzes involving the privacy settings of general users, privileged users, and pure observers were conducted on real-world networks, and the results demonstrated that user privacy settings affect information differently. Finally, we also studied the process of information diffusion analytically and numerically with different privacy settings using two classic networks.

  6. INTERACTIVE GLOBAL NETWORK FOR WEATHER DATA OBTAINING, EXCHANGE AND DISSEMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю.А. Авер’янова

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility to enhance the weather information provision of relevant customers is considered. It is based on the use of the complex global system for weather information obtaining, exchange and dissemination. The structural diagram of the system is proposed. The structural diagram is completed with addition connections that allow to pay strong attention on the most dangerous meteorological phenomena at the critical moment of flight. The proposed approach gives possibility to aircraft crew to select and use specified operative information and increase the probability for proper decision taking. The aircraft are used as the dynamic elements for data obtaining and exchange in the frame of the global system for weather information obtaining, exchange and dissemination.

  7. JPEG2000 and dissemination of cultural heritage over the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politou, Eugenia A; Pavlidis, George P; Chamzas, Christodoulos

    2004-03-01

    By applying the latest technologies in image compression for managing the storage of massive image data within cultural heritage databases and by exploiting the universality of the Internet we are now able not only to effectively digitize, record and preserve, but also to promote the dissemination of cultural heritage. In this work we present an application of the latest image compression standard JPEG2000 in managing and browsing image databases, focusing on the image transmission aspect rather than database management and indexing. We combine the technologies of JPEG2000 image compression with client-server socket connections and client browser plug-in, as to provide with an all-in-one package for remote browsing of JPEG2000 compressed image databases, suitable for the effective dissemination of cultural heritage.

  8. Disseminated lymphoma presenting as acute thigh pain and renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    A 66-year-old diabetic man presented with severe right thigh swelling and pain together with acute renal failure. At autopsy, this was found to be due to disseminated high grade B cell lymphoma invading the psoas muscle and multiple organs, including the kidneys. The unique presentation of this case emphasizes the need for increased awareness of the variety of ways in which lymphoma can manifest itself.

  9. Ultrasound, CT and MRI of ruptured and disseminated hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N. von (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Department of Radiology)

    Three cases of echinococcus granulosus with rupture of hydatid cysts and widespread abdominal, pelvic of pleural dissemination are described. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed recognition of ruptured hydatid cysts. This assisted to come to an appropriate therapy and exclusion or confirmation of hydatid cysts elsewhere in the body. Ultrasound, CT and MRI are also important for follow-up, evaluation of therapeutic response and/or early diagnosis of recurrence. (author). 22 refs.; 3 figs.

  10. Ultrasound, CT and MRI of ruptured and disseminated hydatid cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinner, W.N. von

    1990-01-01

    Three cases of echinococcus granulosus with rupture of hydatid cysts and widespread abdominal, pelvic of pleural dissemination are described. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed recognition of ruptured hydatid cysts. This assisted to come to an appropriate therapy and exclusion or confirmation of hydatid cysts elsewhere in the body. Ultrasound, CT and MRI are also important for follow-up, evaluation of therapeutic response and/or early diagnosis of recurrence. (author). 22 refs.; 3 figs

  11. Disseminated histoplasmosis simulating miliary tuberculosis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Madureira, Marcus Magalhaes; Andrade, Diego Correa de; Guimaraes, Silvana Mangeon Meireles; Queiroz, Leonardo Campos; Avila, Renata Eliane de; Lambertucci, Jose Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a disease caused by inhalation of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. In rare cases the disease affects immunocompetent individuals. Disseminated and severe disease is seen in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a 45 year old immunocompromised patient presenting with weight loss and abdominal pain. Chest x-ray and computerized tomography examinations showed interstitial infiltrate and diffuse micro nodules. The initial diagnosis was miliary tuberculosis. However, the definitive diagnosis of miliary histoplasmosis was made later on. (author)

  12. Dissemination of information to General Practitioners: a questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortnum Heather

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early identification of permanent hearing impairment in children enables appropriate intervention which reduces adverse developmental outcomes. The UK Government has introduced a universal hearing screening programme for neonates. All involved health professionals, including those in Primary Care, need to be aware of the service to enable them to offer appropriate support to their patients. A programme of information dissemination within Primary Care was therefore undertaken. The aim of the current study was to determine the extent to which the information had reached General Practitioners (GPs, the GPs' preferred mode of dissemination and the sources from which GPs accessed information Methods Postal questionnaire survey of a randomised sample of 1000 GPs in the Phase I pilot sites of the Neonatal Hearing Screening Programme (NHSP. Results Responses were received from 54.2% of the sample. Just under 50% of those responding had received information, 62.2% of respondents said they would like to receive more information and the preferred methods of dissemination were the written word and web-sites to allow access when needed. Few GPs perceive themselves to have a core role in the delivery of the NHSP and thence a need for knowledge in the subject. Many are keen to delegate detail to a third party, usually the health visitor, who has traditionally had responsibility for hearing screening. Conclusions Dissemination efforts for service developments of relevance to GPs should concentrate on advertising a website address via brief but memorable posted literature and/or articles in relevant journals and magazines. The website should be GP-friendly, and have a dedicated area for GPs including information of specific relevance and downloadable information sheets.

  13. Persistent pseudobulbar affect secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhendong; Luo, Shijian; Ou, Jianying; Huang, Rihe; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a common complication of central nervous system diseases such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, and other neurological diseases, but it remains under-recognized and under-treated in the clinic. PBA caused by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has rarely been reported. Here, we report a 30-year-old Chinese woman who has experienced PBA from ADEM for 7 years. The patient’s principal manifestations were extreme emotions or tears when she saw, heard, or spoke ab...

  14. An Efficient Patch Dissemination Strategy for Mobile Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Dawei; Peng, Haipeng; Li, Lixiang; Yang, Yixian; Li, Shudong

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phones and personal digital assistants are becoming increasingly important in our daily life since they enable us to access a large variety of ubiquitous services. Mobile networks, formed by the connection of mobile devices following some relationships among mobile users, provide good platforms for mobile virus spread. Quick and efficient security patch dissemination strategy is necessary for the update of antivirus software so that it can detect mobile virus, especially the new vir...

  15. Tailored radiotherapeutic strategies for disseminated uterine cervical cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jung Ho; Yoon, Hong In; Kim, Sunghoon; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sang Wun; Yim, Ga Won; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Gwi Eon; Kim, Yong Bae

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of radiotherapy (RT) in and to suggest radiotherapeutic strategies for patients presenting with disseminated cervical cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 50 patients diagnosed as the disseminated cervical cancer with distant lymph nodal or visceral organ metastasis between September 1980 and August 2012. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to visceral organ metastasis: 35 patients diagnosed with distant lymph node metastasis only (group A) and 15 patients with visceral organ metastasis (group B). All patients received external beam RT to the pelvis (median dose 45 Gy) and high-dose rate intracavitary RT (median dose 30 Gy). Thirty-nine patients (78%) received chemotherapy. Median follow-up time was 74 months. The 5-year pelvic control rate (PCR) was 85.8%, and the progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were 28.7%, and 36.2%, respectively. The major treatment failure was systemic progression (32 patients, 64%). The 5-year PCRs in groups A and B were 87.4% and 74.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Meanwhile, PFS and OS rates for group A were significantly better than those for group B (35.3% vs. 13.3%, p = 0.010; and 46.3% vs. 13.3%, p = 0.009, respectively). Our data revealed considerable prognostic heterogeneity in disseminated cervical cancer. Even though a high PCR was achieved in patients treated with definitive RT, survival outcomes were dependent on progression of visceral organ metastasis. Therefore, personalized RT and chemotherapy treatment strategies according to the presence of visceral organ metastasis in disseminated cervical cancer patients may help improve clinical outcomes

  16. Financing and disseminating small energy systems in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddle, D.B.; Perlack, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The viability of small energy systems, primarily photovoltaic systems, is discussed as an alternative for rural electrification via traditional grid extension. A dissemination model that incorporates financing to allow access to a much larger population of users and technology support (e.g. training for sales and service and small business development) is described. The experience of two successful programs is presented to illustrate the keys to effective program development and implementation. (author)

  17. Disseminated tuberculous myositis in a child with acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chieh; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Huang, Li-Tung; Wu, Kuan-Sheng; Hsiao, Chih-Cheng

    2009-04-01

    Tuberculous myositis is extremely rare, even in immunocompromised hosts. We present a case of disseminated tuberculous myositis in a girl with secondary acute myelogenous Leukemia following successful chemotherapy for undifferentiated sarcoma of the maxillary sinus. The diagnosis was established by direct visualization of acid-fast bacilli in the biopsied nodule and by typical pathologic findings. Three weeks after initiation of antituberculosis treatment, the patient experienced both clinical and radiologic improvement.

  18. Disseminated Tuberculous Myositis in a Child with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chieh Chen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous myositis is extremely rare, even in immunocompromised hosts. We present a case of disseminated tuberculous myositis in a girl with secondary acute myelogenous leukemia following successful chemotherapy for undifferentiated sarcoma of the maxillary sinus. The diagnosis was established by direct visualization of acid-fast bacilli in the biopsied nodule and by typical pathologic findings. Three weeks after initiation of antituberculosis treatment, the patient experienced both clinical and radiologic improvement.

  19. Disseminated Mycobacterium abscessus infection in a peritoneal dialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent H.J.F. Mooren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A disseminated peritoneal dialysis-related Mycobacterium abscessus infection is very rare. M. abscessus belongs to the rapidly growing mycobacteria and can be misidentified as a diphtheroid bacterium, which in our case delayed diagnosis and optimal treatment. Due to intrinsic resistance to most antimicrobials, therapeutic options in M. abscessus infections are limited. Infection often leads to catheter loss. A fatal outcome, like in our case, is not exceptional.

  20. Dissemination of Technology to Evaluate Healthy Food Incentive Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Darcy A; Hunt, Alan R; Merritt, Katie; Shon, En-Jung; Pike, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    Federal policy supports increased implementation of monetary incentive interventions for chronic disease prevention among low-income populations. This study describes how a Prevention Research Center, working with a dissemination partner, developed and distributed technology to support nationwide implementation and evaluation of healthy food incentive programming focused on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program recipients. FM Tracks, an iOS-based application and website, was developed to standardize evaluation methods for healthy food incentive program implementation at direct-to-consumer markets. This evaluation examined diffusion and adoption of the technology over 9 months (July 2015-March 2016). Data were analyzed in 2016. FM Tracks was disseminated to 273 markets affiliated with 37 regional networks in 18 states and Washington, DC. All markets adopted the sales transaction data collection feature, with nearly all recording at least one Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (99.3%) and healthy food incentive (97.1%) transaction. A total of 43,493 sales transactions were recorded. By the ninth month of technology dissemination, markets were entering individual sales transactions using the application (34.5%) and website (29.9%) and aggregated transactions via website (35.6%) at similar rates. Use of optional evaluation features like recording a customer ID with individual transactions increased successively with a low of 22.2% during the first month to a high of 69.2% in the ninth month. Systematic and widely used evaluation technology creates possibilities for pragmatic research embedded within ongoing, real-world implementation of food access interventions. Technology dissemination requires supportive technical assistance and continuous refinement that can be advanced through academic-practitioner partnerships. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DAIDS: a Distributed, Agent-based Information Dissemination System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Haglich

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Distributed Agent-Based Information Dissemination System (DAIDS concept was motivated by the need to share information among the members of a military tactical team in an atmosphere of extremely limited or intermittent bandwidth. The DAIDS approach recognizes that in many cases communications limitations will preclude the complete sharing of all tactical information between the members of the tactical team. Communications may be limited by obstructions to the line of sight between platforms; electronic warfare; or environmental conditions, or just contention from other users of that bandwidth. Since it may not be possible to achieve a complete information exchange, it is important to prioritize transmissions so the most critical information from the standpoint of the recipient is disseminated first. The challenge is to be able to determine which elements of information are the most important to each teammate. The key innovation of the DAIDS concept is the use of software proxy agents to represent the information needs of the recipient of the information. The DAIDS approach uses these proxy agents to evaluate the content of a message in accordance with the context and information needs of the recipient platform (the agent's principal and prioritize the message for dissemination. In our research we implemented this approach and demonstrated that it provides nearly a reduction in transmission times for critical tactical reports by up to a factor of 30 under severe bandwidth limitations.

  2. Lenticular disseminated dermatofibrosis and osteopoikilosis (Buschke-Ollendorf-syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippelt, C.; Petzel, H.

    1982-01-01

    Presented are 4 cases showing combined occurrence of lenticular disseminated dermatofibrosis and osteopoikilosis (Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome). Histological findings of the skin show localized increases in elastic and collageneous structures. Type I of the Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome which is characterized by disseminated small pepper-corn like changes in the skin must be differentiated from type II which is named 'dermatodibrosis nodularis xanthomatoides multilokularis' with osteopoikilosis, showing larger, single or plaque like connected changes of the skin. The Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome is a congenital autosomal dominant hereditary abnormality arising from the mutual mesodermal genesis of skin and bone changes. The Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome occasionally brings about impaired growth and mental retardation as well as rheumatoid complaints. Osteopoikilosis always appears symmetrically showing different changes in the bones usually without changes in the skin; in the contrary the lenticular disseminated dermatofibrosis is always occurring combined with findings of osteopoikilosis. During the growing years we observed patients with an increase in size and density of the bone changes and also new lesions, while the skin changes remained nearly the same. (orig.)

  3. Lenticular disseminated dermatofibrosis and osteopoikilosis (Buschke-Ollendorf-syndrome)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippelt, C; Petzel, H

    1982-12-01

    Presented are 4 cases showing combined occurrence of lenticular disseminated dermatofibrosis and osteopoikilosis (Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome). Histological findings of the skin show localized increases in elastic and collageneous structures. Type I of the Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome which is characterized by disseminated small pepper-corn like changes in the skin must be differentiated from type II which is named 'dermatofibrosis nodularis xanthomatoides multilokularis' with osteopoikilosis, showing larger, single or plaque like connected changes of the skin. The Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome is a congenital autosomal dominant hereditary abnormality arising from the mutual mesodermal genesis of skin and bone changes. The Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome occasionally brings about impaired growth and mental retardation as well as rheumatoid complaints. Osteopoikilosis always appears symmetrically showing different changes in the bones usually without changes in the skin; in the contrary the lenticular disseminated dermatofibrosis is always occurring combined with findings of osteopoikilosis. During the growing years we observed patients with an increase in size and density of the bone changes and also new lesions, while the skin changes remained nearly the same.

  4. Secure Certificateless Authentication and Road Message Dissemination Protocol in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haowen Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crucial component of Internet-of-Thing (IoT, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have attracted increasing attentions from both academia and industry fields in recent years. With the extensive VANETs deployment in transportation systems of more and more countries, drivers’ driving experience can be drastically improved. In this case, the real-time road information needs to be disseminated to the correlated vehicles. However, due to inherent wireless communicating characteristics of VANETs, authentication and group key management strategies are indispensable for security assurance. Furthermore, effective road message dissemination mechanism is of significance. In this paper, we address the above problems by developing a certificateless authentication and road message dissemination protocol. In our design, certificateless signature and the relevant feedback mechanism are adopted for authentication and group key distribution. Subsequently, message evaluating and ranking strategy is introduced. Security analysis shows that our protocol achieves desirable security properties. Additionally, performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is efficient compared with the state of the art.

  5. Dissemination and use of a participatory ergonomics guide for workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerd, Dwayne; King, Trevor; Keown, Kiera; Slack, Tesha; Cole, Donald C; Irvin, Emma; Amick, Benjamin C; Bigelow, Philip

    2016-06-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) result in lost-time injury claims and lost productivity worldwide, placing a substantial burden on workers and workplaces. Participatory ergonomics (PE) is a popular approach to reducing MSDs; however, there are challenges to implementing PE programmes. Using evidence to overcome challenges may be helpful but the impacts of doing so are unknown. We sought to disseminate an evidence-based PE tool and to describe its use. An easy-to-use, evidence-based PE Guide was disseminated to workplace parties, who were surveyed about using the tool. The greatest barrier to using the tool was a lack of time. Reported tool use included for training purposes, sharing and integrating the tool into existing programmes. New actions related to tool use included training, defining team responsibilities and suggesting programme implementation steps. Evidence-based tools could help ergonomists overcome some challenges involved in implementing injury reduction programmes such as PE. Practitioner Summary Practitioners experience challenges implementing programmes to reduce the burden of MSDs in workplaces. Implementing participatory interventions requires multiple workplace parties to be 'on-board'. Disseminating and using evidence-based guides may help to overcome these challenges. Using evidence-based tools may help ergonomics practitioners implement PE programmes.

  6. Education and dissemination strategies of photoactuation as a novel phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, E. M.; Wenn, D.; Ramos, I.; Esteve, J.; Mamojka, B.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2011-10-01

    In the current information age, scientists and educators are urged to disseminate scientific findings in a prompt manner for increased public acceptance, later on, in the market place. Customer acceptance of highly novel technologies is an education-driven effort that requires attention early-on during the stage of technology development. Prompt attention is particularly needed in technologies where nanoparticles are employed, such as those being developed within the Nano- Optical Mechanical Systems (NOMS) project. Another driving force to disseminate photoactuation is to generate interest and curiosity amongst the K-12 population that could eventually lead to increased enrollment of students in the physical sciences. In this paper, we present a work plan for the dissemination of photoactuation to society at large; from K-12 to the general public. The work plan will be designed in accordance with the logic model, following indications of the National Academy of Sciences, and will include a proposal for evaluating translational research following a process marker model.

  7. Dissemination research: the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Patrick L; Moberg, D Paul; Booske, Bridget C; Ceraso, Marion; Friedsam, Donna; Kindig, David A

    2009-08-01

    Despite significant accomplishments in basic, clinical, and population health research, a wide gap persists between research discoveries (ie, what we know) and actual practice (ie, what we do). The University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute (Institute) researchers study the process and outcomes of disseminating evidence-based public health programs and policies into practice. This paper briefly describes the approach and experience of the Institute's programs in population health assessment, health policy, program evaluation, and education and training. An essential component of this dissemination research program is the active engagement of the practitioners and policymakers. Each of the Institute's programs conducts data collection, analysis, education, and dialogue with practitioners that is closely tied to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of programs and policies. Our approach involves a reciprocal exchange of knowledge with non-academic partners, such that research informs practice and practice informs research. Dissemination research serves an important role along the continuum of research and is increasingly recognized as an important way to improve population health by accelerating the translation of research into practice.

  8. DISTINGUISHED CHARACTERISTICS OF INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS IN HIV/AIDS AMONG INTRAVENOUS DRUGS ABUSED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Ponomareva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim – definition of distinguished characteristics of the right-sided infective endocarditis (IE inintravenous drugs abused with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS.Materials and methods. The study included 10 patients with right-sided IE in conjunction with HIV/AIDS. All patients were male, age – from 28to 36 years.Results. Course of the IE in HIV/AIDS among intravenous drugs abused in general corresponds to features specific to IE in intravenous drug users without HIV infection. Distinctive features of IE in these patients are a large burden of lung disease, its disseminated character, more tissue oxygenation disorders and marked pulmonary hypertension and haematological disorders (lymphopenia, anemia, and late diagnosis of IE.Conclusion. Features of the current right-sided IE in intravenous drugs abused with HIV/AIDS are distinguished . Difficulties in diagnosis of IE inHIV infection are due to variety of causes of prolonged fever, which should guide doctors to more frequent use of transthoracic echocardiography during prolonged fever in HIV-infected patients.

  9. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  10. Being emotionally abused: a phenomenological study of adult women's experiences of emotionally abusive intimate partner relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Josie; Nurse, Army; Brackley, Margaret H; Williams, Gail B

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe individual perceptions, meanings, and definitions of emotional abuse through the lived experience of women who identified themselves as being emotionally abused by an intimate partner (IP). To answer the research question, "What is it like to live the life of a woman who is emotionally abused by her intimate partner?" A descriptive, phenomenological research design was undertaken. Unstructured individual interviews with 15 emotionally abused adult women resulted in the discovery of seven essential themes: captivity, defining moments, disassociation from self, fixing, mindful manipulation, relentless terror, and taking a stand. A combination of a hermeneutic approach and Diekelmann's approach to data analysis was used to explore differences in perceptions and develop essential themes that portrayed the essence of a woman's lived experience of being emotionally abused by her IP. The data also demonstrated that (1) IP emotional abuse has no prerequisite for partner rage or obvious emotional manipulation, (2) the absence of caring and respectful partner behaviors was just as powerful in creating an emotionally abusive experience as openly abusive behaviors, and (3) being emotionally abused was a life journey, encompassing multiple culminations, secondary physical and mental health symptoms, and quality of life issues that extended well beyond the immediate abuse experience.

  11. The correlation of childhood physical abuse history and later abuse in a group of Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caykoylu, Ali; Ibiloglu, Aslihan O; Taner, Yasemen; Potas, Nihan; Taner, Ender

    2011-11-01

    Domestic violence is passed from one generation to the next, and it affects not only the victim but also the psychological states of the witnesses, and especially the psychosocial development of children. Studies have reported that those who have been the victim of or witnessing violence during their childhood will use violence to a greater extent as adults in their own families. This research examines the relationships between a history of childhood physical abuse, likelihood of psychiatric diagnoses, and potential for being a perpetrator of childhood physical abuse in adulthood among women who received psychiatric treatment and in the healthy population from Turkey. Estimates of the prevalence of childhood physical abuse vary depending on definition and setting. The frequency of witnessing and undergoing physical abuse within the family during childhood is much higher in the psychiatrically disordered group than the healthy controls. Childhood physical abuse history is one of the major risk factors for being an abuser in adulthood. The best indicator of physically abusing one's own children was found to be as physical abuse during the childhood period rather than psychiatric diagnosis. There is a large body of research indicating that adults who have been abused as children are more likely to abuse their own children than adults without this history. This is an important study from the point of view that consequences of violence can span generations. Further studies with different risk factor and populations will help to identify different dimensions of the problem.

  12. Forensic and family psychiatry in abuse dwarfism: Munchausen's syndrome by proxy, atonement, and addiction to abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, J; Annecillo, C; Hutchison, J W

    1985-01-01

    The syndrome of abuse dwarfism is characterized by gross impairment of statural and intellectual growth and social maturation while the abused child remains in the domicile of abuse. The parents collude as child abusers, and are medical impostors regarding the symptoms of abuse. The syndrome as a whole is appropriately named Munchausen's syndrome by proxy. Though the mother typically initiates abuse, she cannot give a rational explanation for doing so. In her own history there is a sin that is expiated or atoned for symbolically by the sacrifice of the child--explainable in terms of the theory of opponent-process learning. In the two cases presented, the sin was the mother's own birth out of wedlock, in one case as a sequel to incest. The child's addiction to abuse is a challenge to the program of rehabilitation. With respect to parents at risk, the data of this paper are relevant to the prevention of a predisposition toward, or the actual implementation of child abuse, though a program of prevention needs still to be formulated. The sexological relevance of this paper is that the data demonstrate that the effects of sexual abuse may be transmitted to the next generation and manifested as child abuse which is not necessarily sexual in content.

  13. Reactive Periostitis from Inhalant Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Lauren E; Honkanen, Iiro; Fiordellisi, Wendy; Bettendorf, Brittany

    2018-04-16

    The patient, a 36-year-old woman, presented with a 6-week history of swollen hands and fingers and associated arthralgia. She had a history of polysubstance abuse. The arthralgia and swelling started one month after she began inhaling two cans of "Dust-Off" (1,1-difluoroethane) daily. Physical examination revealed tender proximal and middle phalanges of all fingers bilaterally with bulbous appearance (A). There was no clubbing. Radiography of the hands revealed diffuse reactive periostitis with discrete layering of periosteal bone formation without bony destruction (B). TSH was normal. Serum alkaline phosphatase was 854 U/L. Computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no evidence of malignancy or pulmonary disease This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnostic imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoever, B.

    2007-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in ''battered child syndrome'' and brain injuries in ''shaken baby syndrome''. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.) [de

  15. Medications Development for Opioid Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negus, S. Stevens; Banks, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe methods for preclinical evaluation of candidate medications to treat opioid abuse and dependence. Our perspective is founded on the propositions that (1) drug self-administration procedures provide the most direct method for assessment of medication effects, (2) procedures that assess choice between opioid and nondrug reinforcers are especially useful, and (3) the states of opioid dependence and withdrawal profoundly influence both opioid reinforcement and the effects of candidate medications. Effects of opioid medications on opioid choice in nondependent and opioid-dependent subjects are reviewed. Various nonopioid medications have also been examined, but none yet have been identified that safely and reliably reduce opioid choice. Future research will focus on (1) strategies for increasing safety and/or effectiveness of opioid medications, and (2) continued development of nonopioids such as inhibitors of endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes or inhibitors of opioid-induced glial activation. PMID:23125072

  16. Domestic abuse awareness and recognition among primary healthcare professionals and abused women: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie; Kroll, Thilo; Duncan, Fiona

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the dynamics of domestic abuse awareness and recognition among primary healthcare professionals and abused women. Domestic abuse is a serious, public health issue that crosses geographical and demographic boundaries. Health professionals are well placed to recognise and respond to domestic abuse, but empirical evidence suggests that they are reluctant to broach the issue. Moreover, research has shown that women are reluctant to disclose abuse. A two-phase, qualitative study was conducted in Scotland. Twenty-nine primary health professionals (midwives, health visitors and general practitioners) participated in the first phase of the study, and 14 abused women took part in phase two. Data were collected in 2011. Semi-structured, individual interviews were conducted with the health professionals, and three focus groups were facilitated with the abused women. Data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Differing levels of awareness of the nature and existence of abuse are held by abused women and primary healthcare professionals. Specifically, many women do not identify their experiences as abusive. A conceptual representation of domestic abuse - the "abused women, awareness, recognition and empowerment' framework - arising from the study - presents a new way of capturing the complexity of the disclosure process. Further research is necessary to test and empirically validate the framework, but it has potential pedagogical use for the training and education of health professionals and clinical use with abused women. The framework may be used in clinical practice by nurses and other health professionals to facilitate open discussion between professionals and women. In turn, this may empower women to make choices regarding disclosure and safety planning. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for childcare professionals: comparison of a web-based and in-person training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheingold, Alyssa A; Zajac, Kristyn; Patton, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Recent prevention research has established the efficacy of some child sexual abuse prevention programs targeting adults; however, less is known about the feasibility of implementing such programs. The current study examines the feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for child care professionals provided in two different formats: in person and Web based. The sample consisted of 188 child care professionals from a large-scale, multisite, randomized controlled trial. Findings indicate that both in-person and online training formats are feasible to implement and acceptable to professionals. When comparing formats, the in-person format was favored in terms of comfort level and likelihood of sharing information with others. These findings have significant implications for dissemination of child sexual abuse prevention programs for child care professionals.

  18. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, paddiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Information Dissemination Analysis of Different Media towards the Application for Disaster Pre-Warning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the information dissemination mechanisms of different media and having an efficient information dissemination plan for disaster pre-warning plays a very important role in reducing losses and ensuring the safety of human beings. In this paper we established models of information dissemination for six typical information media, including short message service (SMS), microblogs, news portals, cell phones, television, and oral communication. Then, the information dissemination capability ...

  20. Child Abuse in Northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiadas, M G; Mayoorathy, S; Varuni, K; Ranganathan, Shalini Sri

    2017-02-01

    To identify areas of deficiencies and gaps in child protection services in Northern Sri Lanka. Also, to help in recommending strategies, programmes of interventions for addressing issues of child abuse and advice the legal system. A retrospective study was done to determine the socio-demographic details, type of abuse, clinical profile, relationship of the perpetrator and nature of abuse among children admitted to a tertiary care centre from 2009 through 2014, a period after cessation of a 60-y conflict. Data were obtained from hospital based records and records maintained at the district probation office. Seven hundred twenty cases were referred to the tertiary care centre with abuse. Majority of the children were from the Jaffna district, the northern city of the war affected area and mean age of the children affected was 14.5 ± 2.6 y. Females were affected more than the males and 352 children were seen following sexual abuse. The clinical examination showed penetrative injury in 15 %. The perpetrator was known in 70 % of the situations and the victim was coerced into a relationship for abuse. Attempted suicide was seen in significant numbers during the immediate post war period and school dropout and delinquent behaviour was seen in later years. The problem of child abuse is considerable in this region and there is an urgent need to strengthen the services offered to the victims. Urgent steps are needed to safeguard these children, especially in the war affected areas.