Olson, Cheryl B; Stander, Valerie A; Merril, Lex L
...% of the participants self-defined themselves as abused. Despite these differences in abuse rates, data from the SHIP survey, from SRB operational definitions, and from SRB self-definitions all independently accounted for variability in participants...
Agyapong, Vincent I O; Juhás, Michal; Ritchie, Amanda; Ogunsina, Olurotimi; Ambrosano, Lorella; Corbett, Sandra
The prevalence rate for child sexual abuse among new psychiatric outpatients in Fort McMurray was 20.7%. With an odds ratio for sex of 3.30, female patients are about 3 times more likely to report a history of child sexual abuse compared with male patients when controlling for other factors. Similarly, patients with at most high school education and those with previous contact with psychiatric services were about 2 times more likely to report a history of child sexual abuse compared to the patients with college or university education or no previous contact with psychiatric services, respectively. Similarly, patients with histories of substance abuse and patients with family histories of mental illness had higher likelihoods of reporting histories of child sexual abuse compared to patients without histories of substance abuse or family histories of mental illness, respectively. Our findings suggest that victims of child sexual abuse are an at-risk population in need of ongoing mental health and educational support.
This is an investigation into the prevalence of child psychological, physical, emotional, and ritualistic abuse among a sample of university students. A retrospective self-rating questionnaire was completed by 722 University of the North undergraduate students (South Africa) in a classroom setting. The questionnaire ...
The prevalence of HIV infection among cannabis-abused psychiatric patients: the case of federal psychiatric hospital, Calabar. ... called “Prevalence of HIV infection and Cannabis-Abused Questionnaire” (P.H.I.C.Q.), while data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using contingency chi-square (X2) technique.
Nguyen, Tuyen D
The present study investigated the prevalence of both current and lifetime physical partner abuse among Vietnamese males who reside in Vietnam. Participants (N = 315) were randomly selected to participate in the study. Participants completed the Vietnamese version of the Conflict Tactics Scale-2. A total of 47% (n = 148) of the sampled participants were identified as current physical abusers and 68% (n = 214) as past abusers. Four of the most common abusive tactics abusers exhibited toward their partner were (a) throwing something at their wife (80%), (b) pushing or shoving their partner (78%), (c) beating up their partner (54%), and (d) twisting their partner's arm or hair (60%).
Koola, Maju Mathew; Qualls, Clifford; Kelly, Deanna L; Skelton, Kelly; Bradley, Bekh; Amar, Richard; Duncan, Erica J
We examined the prevalence of childhood (≤ 18 years) physical and sexual abuse reported among patients admitted to the psychiatric inpatient service and the differential rates of this abuse associated with psychiatric diagnoses. This study consisted of a retrospective chart review of 603 patients admitted to a psychiatric ward during a period of 1 year at Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center who had data on childhood physical and sexual abuse. The prevalence of reported childhood physical or sexual abuse in this inpatient clinical population was 19.4% (117/603). The prevalence of reported physical abuse was 22.6% (19/84) in the women and 12.0% (62/519) in the men (p = 0.008); the prevalence of sexual abuse was 33.3% (28/84) in the women and 7.7% (40/519) in the men (p abuse than did those without these disorders. More patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reported physical and sexual abuse than did those without these disorders. Stratifying by race, sex, and diagnoses, multivariate analyses showed that the women with PTSD had a greater likelihood to report physical abuse (p = 0.03) and sexual abuse histories (p = 0.008) than did the women without PTSD. The men with substance-induced mood disorder (p = 0.01) were more likely to report physical abuse compared with the men without substance-induced mood disorder. Screening for abuse in patients with depressive disorders and PTSD is warranted to tailor individualized treatments for these patients. More research is needed to better understand the potential implications of childhood abuse on psychiatric diagnoses.
Pineda-Lucatero, A G; Trujillo-Hernández, B; Millán-Guerrero, R O; Vásquez, C
To determine the characteristics and prevalence of previous child sexual abuse among a group of Mexican junior high school students. A total of 1067 adolescents of both genders were selected to fill out a survey about child sexual abuse. The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 18.7% (n = 200). It was more frequent in girls (58%) than in boys (42%). Sexual abuse involved physical contact in 75% of those cases reporting abuse. The aggressors were neighbours (50.3%), relatives (36.8%) and strangers (13.9%). Abuse was committed through deception in 90% of the cases and involved physical mistreatment in 10% of the cases. Of the victims, 14.4% had spoken about the problem and 3.7% had taken legal action. And 9.6% of those surveyed stated that they required psychological counselling. In the population studied, the prevalency of child sexual abuse was greater than that reported in Mexico City (4.3-8.4%), although it was similar to that found in the Spanish child population (15-23%). The risk of sexual abuse is greater for girls and the principal aggressors are male neighbours, family friends and relatives; the abuse is committed in the home of the aggressor or the victim and very few cases are reported to the authorities.
Davis, Norris; And Others
Examines the relationship between paternal drug abuse status and neighborhood crime rates. Although paternal drug abusing families resided in neighborhoods with higher crime rates than parental non-drug abusing families, when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and domicile, drug abuse status was not associated with neighborhood crime…
The motivation for this study was to find out the prevalence of drug use and abuse among youths in Calabar. The study also focused on the type of drugs that are mostly used and abused. Two research questions were posed one hypothesis formulated to guide the study. The subjects (2500 in all) were drawn from 15 post ...
Pérez-Rojo, Gema; Izal, María; Montorio, Ignacio; Regato, Pilar; Espinosa, Juan Manuel
Although elder abuse is not a new phenomenon, it remains hidden. There have been carried out various preliminary studies about the prevalence of elder abuse in different countries. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of suspicion of elder abuse in old persons without cognitive impairment, dwelling in community, who were attended in Primary Health Care or Social Services Centres. We carried out a transverse study in which 340 elders participated. We found a 12.1% prevalence of suspicion of elder abuse. Psychological abuse suspicion was the most frequent type and it was very common the simultaneous presence of different types of abuse (psychological and physical and sexual). The suspicion of elder abuse was more frequent in women and spouses were responsible in a high great frequency. The information obtained allows advancing in the knowledge of elder abuse in Spain, where the research about this issue is poor. However, the prevalence found neither has to be considered as a social alarm nor as a social slackness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
This study examined the prevalence of alcohol abuse in Calabar South, Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Unlike earlier studies of alcohol use in Nigeria, the study focused on a segment of the population that is difficult to reach and probably at high risk of alcohol and drug abuse. In addition, the focus of ...
Kutin, Jozica; Russell, Roslyn; Reid, Mike
Economic abuse is a form of domestic violence that has a significant impact on the health and financial wellbeing of victims, but is understudied. This study determined the lifetime prevalence of economic abuse in Australia by age and gender, and the associated risk factors. The 2012 ABS Personal Safety Survey was used, involving a cross-sectional population survey of 17,050 randomly selected adults using face-to-face interviews. The survey-weighted prevalence of economic abuse was calculated and analysed by age and gender. Logistic regression was used to adjust odds ratios for possible confounding between variables. The lifetime prevalence of economic abuse in the whole sample was 11.5%. Women in all age groups were more likely to experience economic abuse (15.7%) compared to men (7.1%). Disability, health and financial stress status were significant markers of economic abuse. For women, financial stress and disability were important markers of economic abuse. However, prevalence rates were influenced by the measures used and victims' awareness of the abuse, which presents a challenge for screening and monitoring. Implications for public health: Social, health and financial services need to be aware of and screen for the warning signs of this largely hidden form of domestic violence. © 2017 The Authors.
Many clinicians and researchers have speculated that child sexual abuse and conduct disorder co-occur frequently, yet no systematic reviews of literature have specifically addressed both these conditions. To estimate the prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder, the pertinent literature was systematically reviewed. Ten databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Twenty-three studies meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to insure objectivity and not to invalidate results and including 7,256 participants with either conduct disorder or child sexual abuse were examined. The prevalence of child sexual abuse among participants with conduct disorder was 27 %; however, such figure might be underestimated due to selection, sampling, and recall biases; poor assessment methods; and narrow definitions of abuse in included studies. Participants with conduct disorder, compared with healthy individuals, reported higher rates of child sexual abuse. However, compared with other psychiatric populations, they reported similar or lower rates. There was also some evidence suggesting that children with conduct disorder might be more likely to report child physical abuse. Female participants with conduct disorder, compared with males, were significantly more likely to report child sexual abuse. Youths with conduct disorder are at risk of being (or having been) sexually abused, although such risk seems to be neither more specific to nor stronger for these individuals, compared with people with other psychiatric disorders.
Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Nawyn, S J; Flaherty, J A; Fendrich, M; Drum, M L; Johnson, T P
This study hypothesized that interpersonal workplace stressors involving sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse are highly prevalent and significantly linked with mental health outcomes including symptomatic distress, the use and abuse of alcohol, and other drug use. Employees in 4 university occupational groups (faculty, student, clerical, and service workers; n = 2492) were surveyed by means of a mailed self-report instrument. Cross-tabular and ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses examined the prevalence of harassment and abuse and their association with mental health status. The data show high rates of harassment and abuse. Among faculty, females were subjected to higher rates; among clerical and service workers, males were subjected to higher rates. Male and female clerical and service workers experienced higher levels of particularly severe mistreatment. Generalized abuse was more prevalent than harassment for all groups. Both harassment and abuse were significantly linked to most mental health outcomes for men and women. Interpersonally abusive workplace dynamics constitute a significant public health problem that merits increased intervention and prevention strategies.
Hawke, Josephine M.; Jainchill, Nancy; De Leon, George
Describes the prevalence of sexual abuse among adolescents (N=938) admitted to residential therapeutic communities for treatment of substance abuse and related disorders. Results indicate that approximately one-third of the sample reported histories of sexual abuse. Prevalence rates were significantly higher for girls than for boys. History of…
SORIN M. RĂDULESCU
The article analyzes the evolution of incidence and prevalence rates of child sexual abuse recorded in the statistics of different states and regions of the world, including the United States of America, Canada, Australia, Central America and South America, Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The paper also discusses the conclusions of the main international reports and assessments on the extent of the child sexual abuse phenomenon and it emphasizes certain distinct characteristics of ...
Giraldo-Rodríguez, Liliana; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar; Mino-León, Dolores
To determine the prevalence of self-reported abuse in elderly Mexican adults with long-term disabilities and to identify associated risk factors. Secondary analysis of the Perception of Disability in Mexican Population 2010 survey. Mexico. Individuals aged 60 and older with long-term disabilities without cognitive decline (N = 1,089). The elder abuse variable was constructed from the 21 questions included in the survey that assessed the presence of physical, psychological, sexual, and financial exploitation. Independent variables included demographic characteristics, self-rated health, disability (number of functional domains or basic activities), multimorbidity, emotional symptoms, health resources used, and informal help. The prevalence of elder abuse was 32.1%. The most frequent type of abuse was psychological (28.1%). Nearly 58% of respondents reported one type of abuse, 34% reported two types, and 8% reported more than three types. The most common combination of two types of abuse was psychological with financial exploitation. Variables associated with the presence of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse (conflict abuse) were age 80 and older, 9 or more years of education, unemployment, negative self-rated health, three or more disabilities, emotional symptoms, and history of hospitalization. Financial exploitation was associated with age 80 and older, being married or living with a partner, 9 or more years of education, unemployment, living in an urban area, negative self-rated health, three or more disabilities, emotional symptoms, and history of hospitalization. The prevalence of abuse in elderly Mexican adults with long-term disabilities is high. Associated factors were level of education, number of disabilities, and health status. Further studies should explore the applicability of these results to other populations. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.
Prevalence patterns and predictors of alcohol use and abuse among secondary school students in southern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: demographic factors and the influence of parents and peers. ... predictors and influence of peers and parents on students' alcohol use and binge drinking. Results: About 54% of students ...
Objectives. To describe the prevalence of physical, sexual, financial, and emotional abuse of women. Methods. A cross-sectional study conducted in the Eastern. Cape (EC), Mpurnalanga (MP) and the orthern Province. (NP). The sample included one randomly selected wOmarJ aged 18 - 49 years living in each of 2 232 ...
Before, the use of illicit drugs was blamed on family background and peer influence. This research aimed at finding if there is a relationship between depression and drug abuse. The researchers also assessed the prevalence of these variables among senior secondary schools students in Calabar, Cross River State.
This study is the first large-scale, communitybased prevalence study to be undertaken in South Africa The main findings are that emotional, financial and physical abuse are common features of relationships and that many women have been raped. Physical violence often continues during pregnancy and constitutes an ...
Comijs, H C; Pot, A M; Smit, J H; Bouter, L M; Jonker, C
OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess the prevalence and the consequences of chronic verbal aggression, physical aggression, financial mistreatment, and neglect in a community-based sample; (2) to investigate the circumstances that led to the abuse and the ways in which the victims handled the problem. DESIGN:
Sundin, Eva C; Baguley, Thom
This article systematically reviews studies of prevalence of childhood experience of physical and sexual abuse in adult people who are homeless in Western countries. Medline, PsychInfo, and the Cochrane Library were searched using the keywords: homeless*, child* abuse, child* trauma, and child* adversity and the bibliographies of identified articles were reviewed. Sources of heterogeneity in the prevalence rates were explored by meta-regression analysis. Twenty-four reports published between January 1990 and August 2013 in three countries provided estimates obtained from up to 9,730 adult individuals who were homeless. Prevalence of reported childhood physical abuse ranged from 6 to 94% with average prevalence of 37%, 95% CI [25, 51]. Reported sexual abuse ranged from 4 to 62%, with average prevalence estimated as 32%, 95% CI [23, 44] for female and 10% for male, 95% CI [6, 17]. Substantial heterogeneity was observed among the studies (I2 ≥ 98%). Including moderators greatly reduced but did not eliminate this heterogeneity. Moderator analyses suggested that reported physical abuse tended to be higher for predominately white samples and tended to be lower for younger samples. Sexual abuse was far more prevalent in predominately female samples and slightly higher in non-US samples and convenience samples. The findings of this study suggest that childhood physical and sexual abuse is more prevalent among the homeless in Western countries than in the global population. Physical abuse appears to be particularly prevalent in younger samples and sexual abuse rates are higher in predominately female samples. Further investigation is needed to advance our understanding of how trauma informed treatment and care for the homeless effectively can take into account the service user's experiences of childhood abuse.
Full Text Available Although many epidemiological studies defining child sexual abuse prevalence rates in many countries of the world are now available, Italy presents a lack of data regarding this specific issue. Only recently some attempts to define the epidemiology of this public health problem have been tried. Between 2003 and 2010, the Department of Public Health at University of Milan was in charge of one of the more important study of this kind in Italy, involving almost 3000 students aged 18 attending secondary schools in the City of Milan who filled out an anonymous questionnaire aiming at detecting their previous experiences of sexual victimization during childhood and adolescence. After this first edition, the study was replicated among students attending secondary schools in the city of Varese, in the area of Piedmont and in Basilicata (area of Lauria, using the same investigational model and questionnaire. This paper presents the main data collected through four different epidemiological studies using the same methodology and survey tool. Considering at least one of the five different forms of child sexual abuse surveyed (being exposed to pornography, being touched on private parts, being forced to masturbate an older person, being forced to perform oral sex, or being penetrated, the prevalence rate among our samples ranges between a minimum of 12.5% (Varese and a maximum of 34.1% (Lauria. In Lauria the research reveals a higher prevalence rate of child sexual abuse, especially among the male population, for all typologies of abuse but being touched in their private parts. In all other geographical areas and for all typologies of abuse, there is always a higher prevalence among girls, with the only exception of abuse such as being exposed to pornographic materials.
Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse refers to a maladaptive pattern of use of a substance. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of substance abuse in hostel boys in Hamadan medical university, 2008. Materials and Method: This research was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The method of sample was census report study and sample number was 430. The research objective data was gathered thorough questionnaire. Data processing and statistical analysis were performed using SPSS software, version 15.0.Results: Outcome showed that the majority of samples were 20 years old (21.9%, non married (92.8%, the number of family member were six members (21.9%, and they are the first children (85.4%.Also outcome showed that 27% of students did not consume any drug, and majority of light material drug abuse was narcotic (44.77%, cigarette (28.4%, alcohol (20.19% and heavy material was opium (5.25%, hashish (4.1%, ecstasy (1.64% and others (1.13%. Narcotic was in the first rank and cigarette was in the last. Conclusion: The screening of drug abuse and promoting primary prevention programs at the university were recommended
Chiandetti, Antonella; Hernandez, Gimena; Mercadal-Hally, María; Alvarez, Airam; Andreu-Fernandez, Vicente; Navarro-Tapia, Elisabet; Bastons-Compta, Adriana; Garcia-Algar, Oscar
Alcohol and drugs of abuse consumption in young adults, including women of childbearing age, has experienced significant increase over the past two decades. The use of questionnaires as the only measure to investigate prenatal alcohol and drugs of abuse exposure underestimates the real prevalence of exposure and could mislead to wrong conclusions. Therefore, the aim of this article was to compare reported rates of prenatal alcohol and drugs of abuse consumption with biomarkers of exposure by a comprehensive review of the available literature. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles catalogued between 1992 and 2015. We identified relevant published studies that assessed the comparison between prenatal exposure to alcohol and drugs of abuse assessed by self-reported questionnaire of consumption versus biomarkers of exposure. Thirteen studies were included regarding alcohol consumption, and seven of them about drugs of abuse. Women who admitted consumption during pregnancy by questionnaire varied from 0 to 37% for alcohol, from 0 to 4.3% for cocaine, and 2.9% for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Positive biomarkers results ranged from 16 to 44% for alcohol, 15.4% for cocaine, and from 4 to 12.4% for THC. Biomarkers should always complement questionnaires, as it has been shown that self-report may underestimate prenatal exposure to substances of abuse.
Adrian P Mundt
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. METHOD: A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1 for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0 for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8 for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1 for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2 for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3 for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05 and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001. Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05, simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001 and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05 were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05 and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001 were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders.
Mundt, Adrian P.; Alvarado, Rubén; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Poblete, Catalina; Villagra, Carolina; Kastner, Sinja; Priebe, Stefan
Objective High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. Method A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. Results Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1) for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0) for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8) for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1) for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2) for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3) for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, pprison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; pprison population than in the general population. Conclusions Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders. PMID:23894415
Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung
This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the…
Anku Moni Saikia
Full Text Available Background: In spite of tremendous impact on health, elder abuse is still an underreported and unrecognized issue. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of abuse among community dwelling elderly and to identify the various risk factors. Materials and Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 randomly selected wards of Guwahati city. A total of 331 elderly (60 years and above were interviewed. Abuse was screened by Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S EAST. Results: The study revealed 9.31% prevalence. Neglect was the most common type of abuse reported. Age, sex, socioeconomic status, living status, and functional status were found to be significantly associated with abuse. Conclusion: Abuse is prevalent among elderly population.
Breyer, Rebekah J; MacPhee, David
Authoritarian ideology, including religious conservativism, endorses obedience to authority and physical punishment of children. Although this association has been studied at the level of the family, little research has been conducted on whether conservativism in the broader community context correlates with the mistreatment of children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this relation between conservativism and physical punishment of children extends to child abuse rates at the community level. Predictors included county-level religious and political conservativism and demographic variables. Political and religious conservativism covaried, and both were inversely related to child abuse rates. Population density was strongly related to rates of maltreatment and with demographic factors controlled, religious conservativism but not political conservativism continued to predict rates of child abuse. The results suggest that community factors related to social disorganization may be more important than religious or political affiliation in putting children at risk for maltreatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Su, Pu-yu; Hao, Jia-hu; Xiong, Li-ming; Yu, Dan-dan; Cao, Yue-ting; Fang, Yun; Jiang, Xiu-ling; Qian, Qiao-xia; Tao, Fang-biao
To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors related to abuse and negligence against the elderly in the rural areas. 975 elderly over 60 years from 41 counties in Anhui province were included. All participants completed an anonymous questionnaire including items as: educational background, marital condition, income, child-discipline, rude action to parents, daily activities, physical functions, having chronic illness, abuse and negligence against the elderly, etc. In the last year, rates of common physical abuse, serious physical abuse, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, negligence, overall abuse and negligence against the elderly were 4.5%, 1.5%, 26.9%, 4.9%, 7.2%, 29.9% respectively. Among the 281 victims, 80.4% reported that they were suffered more than 3 times of abuse and neglect episodes, and 34.9% reported that they were suffered more than 2 forms of abuse and negligence. The primary sadism was carried out by the daughter-in-law or son-in-law (43.2%) of the elderly. Low activity on daily life and having chronic illness were the risk factors causing common physical abuse while better education was the protective factor to it. Low ability in managing daily activity of living was the risk factor causing serious physical abuse. Less active on daily life and having rude action to parents were the risk factors to emotional abuse, but being strict with their children was the protective factor to emotional abuse. Less active on daily life, often beating their children and having rude action to parents were the risk factors related to financial exploitation. Less active on daily life, having rude action to parents and having bad physical functions were the risk factors causing negligence. Less active on daily life and having rude manner to parents were the risk factors of overall elderly abuse and negligence, but being strict with their children was protective factor to the abuse and negligence against the elderly. High prevalence on abuse and
Okur, P.; van der Knaap, L.M.; Bogaerts, S.
In most epidemiological prevalence studies of child sexual abuse, the role of ethnicity remains unclear. This study examined the prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in four non-Western ethnic minority groups and compared them with a native Dutch group. A sample of 3,426 young adults (aged
Mattoo, Khurshid A.; Garg, Rishabh; Kumar, Shalabh
Context: This study is a continuation of the earlier studies and has been extended to investigate the potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Aims: To determine the prevalence of elder abuse in various outpatient departments (OPDs). To study the associated parameters related to the abuser and the abused. To determine the existence of potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Settings and Design: The subjects were randomly selected from the medical and the dental OPDs of the university. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and thirty two elderly subjects in the age range 40-60 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine the existence of elder abuse. The subjects were investigated and examined for weight, nutrition and hydration, vital signs, habits, existing visual and auditory capabilities, medications, disclosure of wills/deeds, signs of depression, and documented cleanliness. The mini-mental state examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Clock drawing test, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were used to determine the potential forensic markers. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values in percentage were determined by dividing the number of determined subjects by the total number of subjects for that parameter. Results: About 37% in medical and 41% in dental OPDs were found to have suffered from abuse, mostly in the age group 60-70 years. Females received more abuse and a combination of son and daughter-in-law constituted most abusers. Various potential markers of elder abuse and neglect investigated among the elder abuse victims included depression (89%), signs of improper feeding (83%), changes in personal hygiene (69%), need for medical/dental treatment (78%), medication misuse (67%), changes in wills/deeds (26%), decubiti (10%), bruises (17%), skin tears (27%), and confusion (23%). Conclusions: Elder abuse exists in one or more forms in both medical and dental OPDs among both males and females in all age groups. PMID:26816460
Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Karro, Helle
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and current suffering of experienced abuse in healthcare, to present the socio-demographic background for women with a history of abuse in healthcare and to assess the association between abuse in healthcare and selected obstetric characteristics. DESIGN: Cross......-sectional study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care in six European countries. POPULATION: In total 6923 pregnant women. METHODS: Cross-tabulation and Pearson's chi-square was used to study prevalence and characteristics for women reporting abuse in healthcare. Associations with selected obstetric factors were...... estimated using multiple logistic regression analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Abuse in healthcare, fear of childbirth and preference for birth by cesarean section. RESULTS: One in five pregnant women attending routine antenatal care reported some lifetime abuse in healthcare. Prevalence varied significantly...
Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E
Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.
Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Karro, Helle; Schei, Berit; Steingrimsdottir, Thora; Van Parys, An-Sofie; Ryding, Elsa Lena; Tabor, Ann
To assess the prevalence and current suffering of experienced abuse in healthcare, to present the socio-demographic background for women with a history of abuse in healthcare and to assess the association between abuse in healthcare and selected obstetric characteristics. Cross-sectional study. Routine antenatal care in six European countries. In total 6923 pregnant women. Cross-tabulation and Pearson's chi-square was used to study prevalence and characteristics for women reporting abuse in healthcare. Associations with selected obstetric factors were estimated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Abuse in healthcare, fear of childbirth and preference for birth by cesarean section. One in five pregnant women attending routine antenatal care reported some lifetime abuse in healthcare. Prevalence varied significantly between the countries. Characteristics for women reporting abuse in healthcare included a significantly higher prevalence of other forms of abuse, economic hardship and negative life events as well as a lack of social support, symptoms of post-traumatic stress and depression. Among nulliparous women, abuse in healthcare was associated with fear of childbirth, adjusted odds ratio 2.25 (95% CI 1.23-4.12) for severe abuse in healthcare. For multiparous women only severe current suffering from abuse in healthcare was significantly associated with fear of childbirth, adjusted odds ratio 4.04 (95% CI 2.08-7.83). Current severe suffering from abuse in healthcare was significantly associated with the wish for cesarean section, and counselling for fear of childbirth for both nulli- and multiparous women. Abuse in healthcare among women attending routine antenatal care is common and for women with severe current suffering from abuse in healthcare, this is associated with fear of childbirth and a wish for cesarean section. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Tharner, Anne; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J
We investigated the 2010 year prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in residential and foster care and compared it with prevalence rates in the general population. We used two approaches to estimate the prevalence of CSA. First, 264 professionals working in residential or foster care (sentinels) reported CSA for the children they worked with (N = 6,281). Second, 329 adolescents staying in residential or foster care reported on their own experiences with CSA. Sentinels and adolescents were randomly selected from 82 Dutch out-of-home care facilities. We found that 3.5 per 1,000 children had been victims of CSA based on sentinel reports. In addition, 58 per 1,000 adolescents reported having experienced CSA. Results based on both sentinel report and self-report revealed higher prevalence rates in out-of-home care than in the general population, with the highest prevalence in residential care. Prevalence rates in foster care did not differ from the general population. According to our findings, children and adolescents in residential care are at increased risk of CSA compared to children in foster care. Unfortunately, foster care does not fully protect children against sexual abuse either, and thus its quality needs to be further improved.
The objective of the current study was to explore the estimated prevalence of childhood sexual abuse in China. We conducted a meta-analysis that used the data from 36 articles. A total of 125 independent samples and 131,734 participants were included. The results revealed no significant difference in the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse between Chinese men (9.1%) and women (8.9%). The prevalence of childhood sexual abuse in studies from mainland areas was significantly higher than that from Hong Kong/Taiwan. The estimated prevalence of childhood sexual abuse in China also differed according to the definition of child sexual abuse, data collection method, year of data collection, and the mean age of participants at the time of assessment.
Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Ryding, Elsa Lena
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of a history of abuse among women attending routine antenatal care in six northern European countries. Second, we explored current suffering from reported abuse. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care.......5% for emotional abuse. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of pregnant women attending routine antenatal care report a history of abuse. About one in ten of them experiences severe current suffering from the reported abuse. In particular, these women might benefit from being identified in the antenatal care setting...... and being offered specialized care....
Nadew, Gelaye T
Generations of Aboriginal people have been exposed to strings of traumatic events with devastating psychosocial health consequences, including psychiatric morbidities and mortalities, and medical complications. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric morbidity directly linked to traumatic events. Despite research findings indicating traumatic exposure and resultant PTSD in Indigenous communities, little attention has been given to this condition in mental healthcare delivery. Consequently, clinical and psychosocial interventions are misguided and failed to deliver positive outcomes. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between exposure to traumatic events, prevalence of PTSD and alcohol abuse in remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia. A combination of structured clinical interview and multiple survey questionnaires - Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), and Impact of Events Scale (IES), Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and Indigenous Trauma Profile (ITP) - were administered to 221 Indigenous participants aged 18 to 65 years. The overwhelming majority, 97.3% (n=215) of participants were exposed to traumatic events. Analysis of CIDI results using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria shows a life time prevalence of 55.2% (n=122) for PTSD, 20% (n=44) for major depression (recurrent) and 2.3% (n=5) for a single episode. A total of 96% (n=212) participants reported consuming a drink containing alcohol and 73.8% (n=163) met diagnostic criteria for alcohol use related disorders, abuse and dependence. Of participants who met the PTSD diagnostic criteria, 91% (n=111) met diagnostic criteria for alcohol use related disorders. Other impacts of trauma such as other anxiety disorders, dysthymic disorder and substances abuses were also identified. The rate of exposure to traumatic events and prevalence of PTSD are disproportionately higher in the communities studied than the national average and one of the
Langeland, Willemien; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; Mager, Daniel; Smit, Jan H; Draijer, Nel
Estimates of the extent of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) within in the Roman Catholic Church (RCC) in the general population are difficult to find. The independent Commission of Inquiry into sexual abuse of minors in the RCC in the Netherlands collected population-based data to estimate its prevalence. A large random online population sample was surveyed using a two-phase stratified sampling procedure. In Phase 1, 34,267 subjects aged 40 years and older were screened for childhood exposure to sexual abuse by non-family members, a history of institutionalization and a Roman Catholic upbringing. In Phase 2, a stratified subset of 2,462 subjects was assessed to obtain more detailed target information about sexual abuse reports within the RCC. We employed multiple imputation for the estimation of RCC CSA in the original Phase 1 sample. The prevalence of non-familial CSA in general (14.0%) was higher among women (17.2%) than among men (10.6%). The prevalence of CSA within the Dutch RCC (1.7%) was higher among men (2.7%) than among women (0.7%). As expected, older subjects reported more often CSA in the RCC than their younger counterparts. Respondents who stayed for some time in RCC run institutions for education or child protection had a higher risk to report sexual abuse. Although sexual abuse of minors by representatives of the RCC was a structural problem during a period that the Church was highly influential in the Netherlands, the estimated prevalence of the phenomenon is only a fraction of the prevalence rate of non-familial CSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Ryding, Elsa Lena
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of a history of abuse among women attending routine antenatal care in six northern European countries. Second, we explored current suffering from reported abuse. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care...
Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Ozkanli, Caglar
The main objective of this article is to obtain the prevalence of childhood physical abuse experiences in college students. This cross-sectional study was performed on a gender-stratified random sample of 988 participants studying at Ondokuz Mayis University, with self-reported anonymous questionnaires. It included questions on physical abuse in…
Pirard, Sandrine; Sharon, Estee; Kang, Shimi K; Angarita, Gustavo A; Gastfriend, David R
More than half of substance abusers entering addiction treatment report a history of physical or sexual abuse. It is unclear if such a history impacts treatment outcomes. This one-year follow-up study of 700 substance abusers sought to clarify the relationship between lifetime physical and/or sexual abuse and addiction treatment outcome to help address the specific needs of this population. To achieve this goal, baseline characteristics, no-show for treatment status, post-treatment clinical outcomes, and treatment history were studied for subjects with lifetime history of abuse (47.3%) versus without. Abused subjects, predominantly women, were significantly more impaired at baseline on clinical dimensions including family/social severity and psychiatric severity as measured by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), and general level of functioning. The two groups endorsed different drugs as primary, with the abused group less frequently endorsing heroin and cocaine in favor of alcohol and polydrug use. Abused subjects reported more prior medical and psychiatric treatments. Abuse history was not a predictor of no-show for treatment. Over the 1-year follow-up, lifetime physical and/or sexual abuse was significantly associated with worse psychiatric status and more psychiatric hospitalizations and outpatient treatment despite receiving similar intensive addiction treatment.
Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew
This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493
Slep, Amy M. Smith; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.
Objective: Research on and intervention for child emotional abuse and emotional aggression toward children have been severely hampered because there have been no agreed-upon, clinically usable definitions. Methods: We have (a) proposed and field-tested a set of criteria to operationally define child emotional abuse for clinical settings and (b)…
Witt, Andreas; Rassenhofer, Miriam; Allroggen, Marc; Brähler, Elmar; Plener, Paul L; Fegert, Jörg M
The lifetime prevalence of sexual abuse in institutional settings in Germany was examined in a sample representative of the general adult population ( N = 2,437). Participants completed a survey on whether they had ever experienced such abuse, its nature (contact, noncontact, forced sexual, intercourse), the type of institution (e.g. school, club), and the relationship of perpetrator to victim (peer, caregiver, staff member). Overall, 3.1% of adult respondents (women: 4.8%, men: 0.8%) reported having experienced some type of sexual abuse in institutions. Adult women reported higher rates of all types than did men, with rates of 3.9% versus 0.8% for contact sexual abuse, 1.2% versus 0.3% for noncontact sexual abuse, and 1.7% versus 0.2% for forced sexual intercourse. We conclude that a remarkable proportion of the general population experiences sexual abuse in institutions, underscoring the need for development of protective strategies. Especially, schools seem to represent good starting points for primary prevention strategies.
Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a global problem and occurs in a variety of forms and is deeply rooted in cultural, economic and social practices. Child abuse is a behaviour which causes physical, psychological, emotional or sexual abuses, consequentlylead to damage of children,s health, peace of mind and education. Based on these considerations, the present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of child abuse among junior high school students of Khoramabad in 2012. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 907 junior high school students randomly selected .Data collection tool was a multiple questionnaire incloding child and parents’ demographic information, and a physical emotional abuse and neglect questionnaire. It,s validity and reliability was done by content validity and Test re test. Data were analysed using SPSS v. 19. Results: The findings of this study showed that average age of the cases was 13.36±1.04 and 5.4% of them were always under physical abuse and the most physical abuse was slap on the face , 7.3% emotional abuse and 5.5% neglect. Statistical test showed a significant relation between abuses and parents, educational level, job, addiction and divorce. Conclusion: Results showed that child abuse is common among families, therefore, monitoring of children, ratification of rules supporting children, planing and administration of preventive educational programs can be effective to reduce child abuse.
Thurstone, Chris; Lajoie, Travis
Strategies are needed to improve adolescent substance abuse treatment outcomes. For example, during outpatient substance abuse treatment, up to 80% of adolescents continue to use. 1 , 2 Following residential substance abuse treatment, 88% of adolescents relapse within 6 months. 3
Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to UNDCP World Drug Report, the problem of substance abuse in adolescence is fast assuming alarming proportions in both developed and developing nations. Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh has regularly been in media headlines for extensive cannabis cultivation and abuse of other substances. The study was conducted to provide an essential source of information about substance abuse and its correlates in this Himalayan region. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive school-based cross-sectional study conducted among students (13-19 years studying in classes 7th to 12th. Multi-stage cluster random design and PPS sampling methodology was adopted. A sample of 3000 students both from rural and urban areas studying in 20 government and private senior secondary schools was selected. An anonymous, pretested, self-administered questionnaire adapted from WHO and ESPAD questionnaires was used to collect relevant information. Statistical analysis was done by entering the data in SPSS. RESULTS The ultimate response rate was 98.5%. Out of the total of 2864 participants, 785 (27.4%; 95%, CI 25.8% to 29.1% had indulged in substance abuse at least once in their lifetime. Prevalence of current and regular users was 13.8% (95%, CI 12.5% to 15.1% and 4.1% (95%, CI 3.4% to 4.9%, respectively. Alcohol was the most commonly abused substance among ever users at 18.1% followed by tobacco (17.6% and cannabis (6.2%. Around 85% of the students perceived indulgence in substance abuse to be harmful for health. The logistic regression model revealed that substance abuse among friends (AOR 5.32, family members (AOR 2.04, inability to spend quality time with parents (AOR 2.44, gender (AOR 1.68 and older age group of 16-19 years (AOR 1.51 were the factors found to be positively associated with substance abuse. CONCLUSION The study has brought out a high prevalence of substance abuse among the students. The participants’ high knowledge about
Wood, Joanne N; French, Benjamin; Fromkin, Janet; Fakeye, Oludolapo; Scribano, Philip V; Letson, Megan M; Makoroff, Kathi L; Feldman, Kenneth W; Fabio, Anthony; Berger, Rachel
We aimed to examine abusive head trauma (AHT) incidence before, during and after the recession of 2007-2009 in 3 US regions and assess the association of economic measures with AHT incidence. Data for children <5 years old diagnosed with AHT between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2012, in 3 regions were linked to county-level economic data using an ecologic time series analysis. Associations between county-level AHT rates and recession period as well as employment growth, mortgage delinquency, and foreclosure rates were examined using zero-inflated Poisson regression models. During the 9-year period, 712 children were diagnosed with AHT. The mean rate of AHT per 100,000 child-years increased from 9.8 before the recession to 15.6 during the recession before decreasing to 12.8 after the recession. The AHT rates after the recession were higher than the rates before the recession (incidence rate ratio 1.31, P = .004) but lower than rates during the recession (incidence rate ratio 0.78, P = .005). There was no association between the AHT rate and employment growth, mortgage delinquency rates, or foreclosure rates. In the period after the recession, AHT rate was lower than during the recession period yet higher than the level before the recession, suggesting a lingering effect of the economic stress of the recession on maltreatment risk. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Seyyed Gholamreza Nourazar
Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of child abuse in a child and adolescent psychiatric clinical population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a clinical population of children and adolescents aged 8-18 years. 80 out-patients and 94 in-patients were selected according to probability proportional to size sampling. Kiddie schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia questionnaire, a demographic questionnaire, and child abuse self-report scale were filled for each subject. Data were analyzed by using Stata software. Results: Among the out-patient subjects, 50 were male (62.5% and 30 were female (37.5%; for in-patient these subjects numbers were 76 (80.9% and 18 (19.1%, respectively. The mean age of subjects was 15.2 years in the in-patient group and 11.7 years in the out-patient group. In 66.1% of abuse cases the perpetrators were parents, 5.2% siblings, and 28.7% someone else. Among in-patient subjects, summed up prevalence rates of severe and very severe psychological abuse, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse were 11.7, 33.0, 2.1, and 0.0%, respectively; for out-patient subjects these values were 3.8, 11.2, 3.8, and 0.0%, respectively. Moreover, among in-patient subjects, prevalence rates of moderate psychological abuse, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse were 27.7, 27.7, 24.5, and 4.3%, respectively; and for out-patient subjects these values were 30.0, 27.5, 11.2, and 0.0%, respectively. Subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD suffered a higher rate of physical abuse, whereas, subjects with bipolar mood disorder (BMD suffered a higher rate of sexual abuse. Conclusion: The prevalence of child abuse is highly prevalent in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. It is recommended that this population be screened routinely for child abuse.
Bi-Mohammed, Zanib; Wright, Nat M; Hearty, Philippa; King, Nigel; Gavin, Helen
To systematically review the quantitative and qualitative evidence base pertaining to the prevalence, practice of, and treatment response to the diversion of prescribed opiates in the prison setting. Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, ASSIA and Science Direct databases were searched for papers from 1995 to the present relevant to the abuse of prescribed opiate medication. Identified journals and their reference lists were hand searched for other relevant articles. Of the abstracts identified as relevant, full text papers were retrieved and critiqued against the inclusion criteria for the review. Three hundred and fifty-five abstracts were identified, leading to 42 full-text articles being retrieved. Of those, 10 papers were included in the review. Significant differences in abuse behaviours between different countries were reported. However, a key theme emerged from the data regarding a culture of nasal administration of prescribed sublingual buprenorphine within some prisons due to both reduced prevalence of injection within prison and reduced supplies of illicit drugs within prison. The buprenorphine/naloxone preparation appears to be less amenable to abuse. The review highlighted a paucity of empirical research pertaining to both prevalence of the phenomenon and treatment responses. Healthcare providers within prisons need to prescribe opioids in the least abuseable preparation since the risk of abuse is significant, despite widespread processes of supervised dispensing. Prescription medication abuse is not limited to opioids and the predominant drug of abuse in an individual prison can rapidly change according to availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Child abuse includes abuse of the body, mental and sexual abuse or misbehavior against children that leads to damage to the child's heath and comfort. Therefore, the present study was done in order to determine the prevalence of child abuse in opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers. Methods: The cross sectional study included 300 participations (150 addicts and 150 non-addicts The addicted group comprised of opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers of Yazd. The non addicted group was selected randomly from healthy people. Data collection was performed via a standard questionnaire. Data assessment was done via statistical analysis (K S Results: Collected data in the addicted group showed the following results about 56 percent were child tormentors, 1- 45.3% males, 10.7% females, 2-18.7% uneducated, 3-46% with divorce history in their family and 4-38% child body abuse. The most prevalent type of the body abuse was slapping (24%, mostly because of bad training (26%. Collected data in the no addicted group showed the following results 42% were child tormentors (26% male and 15.3% female 23.4% with family divorce history, 30.4% were child body abuse and the most prevalent type of body abuse was slapping (22.79%, mostly because of bad training (33.3% Conclusion: A direct relationship was observed between child abuse and persons addicted to opiates. Factors playing an important role include illiteracy, divorce history in the family and history of child abuse in childhood period. Therefore, compilation of rules supporting children, establishment of support and parent education centers can be effective to reduce child persecution.
Barthels, Friederike; Pietrowsky, Reinhard
Orthorectic eating behaviour is characterised by a fixation on a healthy diet and rigidity regarding self-imposed nutrition standards. Besides malnutrition, subjective distress and social isolation might be consequences of clinical relevance. So far there are few reliable data about nosology and prevalence rates, so that it is not yet possible to evaluate the clinical significance of orthorectic eating behaviour. This article discusses nosological classifications of orthorexia and presents prevalence rates of extremely healthy eating behaviour in general population as well as in several specific subgroups. To summarise, orthorectic eating behaviour seems to be most likely an eating disorder with healthy dieting as an overvalued idea. Data on prevelance of orthorectic eating behaviour, assessed with the recently developed Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala, suggest a rate of 1 to 2% in general population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
The home is supposed to provide support and safety for children but can also be the place where children suffer abuse and other adverse treatment by their parents. Violence against children in homes has been banned in Sweden for more than 30 years but it is still a considerable problem in the society and a threat to public health. The overall aim of this thesis was to create comprehensive knowledge of the phenomenon Child Physical Abuse (CPA) in Sweden after the ban on corporal punishment. Th...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impairment of the individual is reflected in economic trauma follow-up costs borne by society as a whole in Germany and to compare the results with other countries’ costs. Methods From a societal perspective trauma follow-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach. The literature-based prevalence rate includes emotional, physical and sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in Germany. Costs are derived from individual case scenarios of child endangerment presented in a German cost-benefit-analysis. A comparison with trauma follow-up costs in Australia, Canada and the USA is based on purchasing power parity. Results The annual trauma follow-up costs total to a margin of EUR 11.1 billion for the lower bound and to EUR 29.8 billion for the upper bound. This equals EUR 134.84 and EUR 363.58, respectively, per capita for the German population. These results conform to the ones obtained from cost studies conducted in Australia (lower bound and Canada (upper bound, whereas the result for the United States is much lower. Conclusion Child abuse and neglect result in trauma follow-up costs of economically relevant magnitude for the German society. Although the result is well in line with other countries’ costs, the general lack of data should be fought in order to enable more detailed future studies. Creating a reliable cost data basis in the first place can pave the way for long-term cost savings.
Veldwijk, Jorien; Proper, Karin I; Hoeven-Mulder, Henriëtte B; Bemelmans, Wanda J E
Studies among adults show an association between abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI) status. When an aberrant BMI status as a consequence of abuse is already prevalent in adolescence, early detection and treatment of abuse might prevent these adolescents from developing serious weight problems and other long-term social, emotional and physical problems in adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and examined the association of these abuse subtypes with BMI status. In total, data of 51,856 secondary school students aged 13-16 who had completed a questionnaire on health, well-being and lifestyle were used. BMI was classified into four categories, underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Adolescents reported if they had ever been physically, sexually or mentally abused. Crude and adjusted General Estimation Equation (GEE) analyses were performed to investigate the association between abuse subtypes and BMI status. Analyses were adjusted for ethnicity and parental communication, and stratified for gender and educational level. Eighteen percent of the adolescents reported mental abuse, 7% reported sexual abuse, and 6% reported physical abuse. For underweight, overweight and obese adolescents these percentages were 17%, 25%, and 44%; 7%, 8%, and 16%; and 6%, 8%, 18% respectively. For the entire population, all these subtypes of abuse were associated with being overweight and obese (OR=3.67, 1.79 and 1.50) and all but sexual abuse were associated with underweight (OR=1.21 and 1.12). Stratified analyses showed that physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with obesity among boys (OR=1.77 and 2.49) and among vocational school students (OR=1.60 and 1.69), and with underweight among girls (OR=1.26 and 0.83). Mental abuse was reported by almost half of the obese adolescents and associated with underweight, overweight and obesity. Longitudinal analyses are recommended to explore the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies among adults show an association between abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI status. When an aberrant BMI status as a consequence of abuse is already prevalent in adolescence, early detection and treatment of abuse might prevent these adolescents from developing serious weight problems and other long-term social, emotional and physical problems in adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence of physical, sexual and mental abuse among adolescents and examined the association of these abuse subtypes with BMI status. Methods In total, data of 51,856 secondary school students aged 13–16 who had completed a questionnaire on health, well-being and lifestyle were used. BMI was classified into four categories, underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Adolescents reported if they had ever been physically, sexually or mentally abused. Crude and adjusted General Estimation Equation (GEE analyses were performed to investigate the association between abuse subtypes and BMI status. Analyses were adjusted for ethnicity and parental communication, and stratified for gender and educational level. Results Eighteen percent of the adolescents reported mental abuse, 7% reported sexual abuse, and 6% reported physical abuse. For underweight, overweight and obese adolescents these percentages were 17%, 25%, and 44%; 7%, 8%, and 16%; and 6%, 8%, 18% respectively. For the entire population, all these subtypes of abuse were associated with being overweight and obese (OR=3.67, 1.79 and 1.50 and all but sexual abuse were associated with underweight (OR=1.21 and 1.12. Stratified analyses showed that physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with obesity among boys (OR=1.77 and 2.49 and among vocational school students (OR=1.60 and 1.69, and with underweight among girls (OR=1.26 and 0.83. Conclusion Mental abuse was reported by almost half of the obese adolescents and associated with underweight, overweight and
increase. Before, the use of illicit drugs was blamed on family background and peer influence. This ... their parents, those experiencing academic problems .... Table 5: Types of Drugs abused by senior secondary school students. Types of drug. N. %. Cough syrups. 23. 56. Marijuana. 4. 10. Pethidine. 4. 10. Codeine. 1. 2.
Drug abuse is a global public health problem that impacts negatively on health, family, society, educational and professional life. Majority of youths ignorantly depend on one form of substance or the other for various daily activities such as social, educational, political and moral. The objective of this study was to assess the ...
recommended that homes and school environment should be made more friendly to enable the students .... are conscious of the effect of illicit drug use on .... Table 5: Types of Drugs abused by senior secondary school students. Types of drug. N. %. Cough syrups. 23. 56. Marijuana. 4. 10. Pethidine. 4. 10. Codeine. 1. 2.
Marsh, Jaimee; Patel, Sonya; Gelaye, Bizu; Goshu, Miruts; Worku, Alemayehu; Williams, Michelle A; Berhane, Yemane
To determine the one year prevalence of workplace abuse and sexual harassment and to determine the extent of their associations with symptoms of depression. A total of 387 female faculty and staff from colleges in Awassa, Ethiopia completed a self-administered questionnaire which collected information about relationships, mood and feelings, thoughts and satisfaction concerning the workplace, and experiences with sexual harassment. Symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Logistic regression procedures were employed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The 12 mo prevalence of either workplace abuse or sexual harassment was 86.3%; with 39.5% reporting workplace abuse only, 4.1% of them reporting sexual harassment only, and 42.6% reporting experiences of both sexual harassment and workplace abuse. Overall, the mean depression score for this cohort was 3.7 (standard deviation 4.2, range 0-19), and 9.3% of the cohort were identified as having moderate or moderately severe depression. The proportion of participants with depression were statistically significantly elevated in relation to reported experience of workplace abuse and sexual harassment (p=0.001). Compared with women reporting no experience with workplace abuse or sexual harassment, those who reported experiencing both workplace abuse and sexual harassment had an 8.00 fold increased risk of depression (OR=8.00, 95% CI:1.05-60.85). Inferences from this analysis are limited by our relatively small sample size as reflected by the wide 95% CI. Workplace abuse and sexual harassment are highly prevalent, and are positively correlated with symptoms of depression among college female faculty and staff in Awassa, Ethiopia. Future policies should include a combination of education, health, and public policy initiatives that clearly outline the problem and consequences of workplace abuse and sexual harassment in educational settings.
Blay, Sergio L; Laks, Jerson; Marinho, Valeska; Figueira, Ivan; Maia, Deborah; Coutinho, Evandro S F; Quintana, Ines M; Mello, Marcelo F; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Mari, Jair J; Andreoli, Sergio B
To assess the prevalence of elder abuse and to investigate potential sociodemographic, health behavior, and medical correlates. Cross-sectional data were collected in face-to-face assessments. São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Individuals aged 60 to 75. Information on elder abuse was obtained using the Brazil-adapted, nine-item Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test. Sampling design-adjusted descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used in analyses. The overall prevalence of abuse was 14.4% (n = 46/259, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 9.82-20.61) in São Paulo and 13.3% (n = 27/197, 95% CI = 8.76-19.74) in Rio de Janeiro. Unadjusted analyses indicated that poor education, low physical activity, unemployment, heart disease, and psychiatric problems were associated with abuse, but in adjusted analyses, self-reported elder abuse was significantly associated only with psychiatric problems (São Paulo: OR = 4.48, 95% CI = 1.75-11.45; Rio de Janeiro: OR = 21.61, 95% CI = 6.39-73.14). Elder abuse is prevalent in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, but whether concomitants of abuse are cause, effect, or both is unclear because this was a cross-sectional study. These findings highlight the importance of the problem, as well as the need to develop measures to increase awareness, facilitate prevention, and fight against abuse of elderly adults. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Chun, JongSerl; Guydish, Joseph; Chan, Ya-Fen
The study was designed to: (1) identify smoking policies and interventions in adolescent residential treatment settings; (2) examine the prevalence of smoking among adolescents in these settings; and (3) assess relationships between program-level smoking policies and client-level smoking. The Center for Substance Abuse Treatment funded 17 sites to evaluate the effectiveness of Adolescent Residential Treatment (ART) programs for substance abuse. To describe program smoking policies and interve...
Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew
This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Winstock, Adam R; Kaar, Stephen; Borschmann, Rohan
This paper presents original research on prevalence, user characteristics and effect profile of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a potent hallucinogenic which acts primarily through the serotonergic system. Data were obtained from the Global Drug Survey (an anonymous online survey of people, many of whom have used drugs) conducted between November and December 2012 with 22,289 responses. Lifetime prevalence of DMT use was 8.9% (n=1980) and past year prevalence use was 5.0% (n=1123). We explored the effect profile of DMT in 472 participants who identified DMT as the last new drug they had tried for the first time and compared it with ratings provided by other respondents on psilocybin (magic mushrooms), LSD and ketamine. DMT was most often smoked and offered a strong, intense, short-lived psychedelic high with relatively few negative effects or "come down". It had a larger proportion of new users compared with the other substances (24%), suggesting its popularity may increase. Overall, DMT seems to have a very desirable effect profile indicating a high abuse liability that maybe offset by a low urge to use more.
Peña-Salas, Gabriel Felipe; Bareño, José; Berbesi Fernández, Dedsy Yajaira; Gaviria, Silvia L
Having a social phobia may lead to consuming alcohol for greater social assertiveness, running the risk of leading to an abuse disorder or alcohol dependence. The aim of the study was to estimate prevalence of pathological comorbidity between social phobia and alcohol consumption in adults of the city of Medellin, and the behavior of comorbidity by gender, age, presence of a father figure in childhood, and education. Secondary analysis of the database of the first Mental Health Population Survey conducted in the city of Medellin in 2011 and 2012 based on the methodology of the World Mental Health Survey guidelines and coordinated by WHO-HARVARD. The lifetime prevalence of abuse and dependence in people with social phobia was 24.1% and 11.2%, respectively. For people with social phobia the prevalence was 13% for abuse and 4.4% for dependence (OR=2.11 for abuse, OR=2.46 for dependence). Annual prevalence of people with social phobia who abused or were dependent on alcohol was 7.8% and 5.9%, respectively, compared to those who do not suffer from this disorder, with a prevalence of 3.4% and 1.7%, respectively (OR=2.39 for abuse and OR=3.57 for dependence). There was significant correlation in the annual and lifetime prevalence between social phobia and the pathological consumption of alcohol. Statistically significant relationships were found for the variables associated with social phobia, however, more work is needed to confirm or refute these associations. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Dec 2, 2012 ... ety and its effect on children, teens, and families.1,2. Many professionals define child sexual abuse broadly to include both direct genital ..... Future of Chil- dren. 2009;19:169-19. 4 Felson, R. and P. Paré. 2005. “The reporting of domestic violence and sexual assault by Non strangers to the police.” Journal of ...
Camila Mello dos Santos
Full Text Available Abuse of the elderly is a form of violence to come to the public's attention. Dental professionals are in an ideal position to identify physical abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of elderly abuse and analyze the database of injury reports that can be identified by dental teams. A documentary analysis study developed by the Elderly Protection Police Station of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, was carried out. The information used came from 2,304 complaints filed at the aforementioned institution between the years of 2004 and 2006. The records of abuse are categorized as injury, neglect, mistreatment, theft, financial abuse, threat, disturbing the peace, atypical fact, and others. The injuries that could be identified by the dental team were classified according to the injury's location in the area of the head, face, mouth and neck. Descriptive analysis was performed, and chi-square tests were used to evaluate the distributions of the types of elder abuse in relation to sex and age. The most frequent of the different types of abuse was theft, with a prevalence of 17.8%, followed by disturbing the peace at 11.8%. Disturbing the peace, threat, and bodily injury were significantly associated with women. Elder abuse among women and men declines with age. The prevalence of head injury was 25% of the total injuries, most often in females, and in those aged < 70 years. Based on these results, it is necessary that the dental team observe the elderly person's appearance for suspicious physical signs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is recognised as an important public health and social problem, with far reaching consequences for women’s physical and emotional health and social well-being. Furthermore, controlling behaviour by a partner has a similar impact on women’s well-being, yet little is known about the prevalence of this type of behaviour and other related abuses in Tanzania and in other sub-Saharan African countries. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the lifetime and past 12-month prevalence of physical and sexual IPV, economic abuse, emotional abuse and controlling behaviour among ever-partnered women in Mwanza, Tanzania. Women (N = 1049 were enrolled in an ongoing trial (Maisha study to assess the impact of microfinance combined with gender training on participants’ experience IPV, and other related outcomes. Interviews were conducted by same sex interviewers to collect information about socio-demographic characteristics, experiences of specific acts of IPV and abuse, and symptoms of poor mental health status. Results Overall, about 61% of women reported ever experiencing physical and/or sexual IPV (95% CI: 58–64% and 27% (95% CI: 24–29% experienced it in the past 12 months. Partner controlling behaviour was the most prevalent type of abuse with 82% experiencing it in their lifetime and 63% during the past 12 months. Other types of abuses were also common, with 34% of women reporting economic abuse and 39% reporting emotional abuse during the past 12 months. The prevalence of IPV and abuses varied by socio-demographic characteristics, showing much higher prevalence rates among younger women, women with young partners and less educated women. After we adjusted for age and socio-economic status, physical violence (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3–2.7 and sexual violence (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.9–4.1 were associated with increased reporting of symptoms of poor mental health
Einarsdottir, Jonina; Gunnlaugsson, Geir
Parenting styles that include abuse can harm the development of the child's brain with a long or short-term impact on his/her health and behaviour. The scope and diversity of abuse are important determinants, and neglect is one of its most serious manifestations. The aim of the study is to examine the prevalence and diversity of emotional abuse and neglect reported by adult Icelanders in their childhood, and how such experience had influenced their evaluation of their upbringing. Icelanders 18 years and older were randomly selected from the national population register. They were invited to express their perception of their upbringing, and answer questions regarding their experience of 8 specific forms of emotional abuse in childhood, and neglect. Of 966 interviewees, 663 (69%) had experienced one or more of the 8 forms of emotional abuse. Those younger than 30 years were 2.9 times more likely to have such an experience compared to those who were older (95% CI 1.9 to 4.3). The perception of upbringing as bad or acceptable compared to good was significantly related to the number of forms of emotional abuse applied (pdifferent forms of emotional abuse and 1/10 report neglect. Parenting styles can be changed, e.g. with education, social support, and legislation.
Lopez, Felix; And Others
The prevalence and effects of child sexual abuse in Spain were studied, using interview and survey responses from 1,821 individuals. Results indicated a high prevalence of sexual abuse prior to age 17 (15 percent of males and 22 percent of females) and a number of short-term and long-term effects, including a tendency toward mental health…
Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew
This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized...
... make friends. Abuse is a significant cause of depression in young people. Some teens can only feel better by doing things that could hurt them like cutting or abusing drugs or alcohol. They might even attempt suicide. It's common for those who have been abused ...
Martin, Michael S; Dykxhoorn, Jennifer; Afifi, Tracie O; Colman, Ian
Victims of child abuse may be at increased risk of acting on suicide ideation, although this has not been empirically tested. We estimated the risk of suicide attempts associated with child abuse among individuals who reported suicide ideation. Secondary analysis of data from the population-based Canadian Community Health Survey Mental Health (n = 828). This population-based survey included various structured questionnaires, including the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess mental illness and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Approximately 80 % of those who attempted suicide had a history of child abuse. Poor mental health, financial difficulties, poor coping skills, and reporting a suicide plan were also associated with an increased prevalence of attempting suicide; adjusted for these factors, child abuse was associated with a 1.77-fold increased prevalence (95 % CI 0.93, 3.36) of suicide attempts. Most individuals who attempt suicide experience child abuse, and worse health and social functioning. Adopting a life-course perspective to understand trajectories of suicide risk factors may inform prevention and treatment.
Yon, Yongjie; Mikton, Christopher; Gassoumis, Zachary D; Wilber, Kathleen H
Elder abuse is an important public health and human rights issue, yet its true extent is not well understood. To address this, we will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of elder abuse prevalence studies from around the world. This protocol describes the methodological approach to be adopted for conducting this systematic review and meta-analysis. In particular, the protocol describes the search strategies and eligibility criteria to be used to identify and select studies and how data from the selected studies will be extracted for analysis. The protocol also describes the analytical approach that will be used to calculate pooled prevalence estimates and discusses the use of meta-regression to assess how studies' characteristics influence the prevalence estimates. This protocol conforms to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis - or PRISMA - guidelines and has been registered with the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of systematic reviews.
... someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or any sexual activity when the person is unable to understand, unwilling to consent, threatened or physically forced Willful deprivation: willfully denying ...
Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Shegog, Ross; Temple, Jeff R; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Hernandez, Belinda; Cuccaro, Paula; Gabay, Efrat K; Thiel, Melanie; Emery, Susan Tortolero
Much is known about the prevalence and correlates of dating violence, especially the perpetration of physical dating violence, among older adolescents. However, relatively little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse, particularly among early adolescents. In this study, using a predominantly ethnic-minority sample of sixth graders who reported ever having had a boyfriend/girlfriend (n = 424, 44.2 % female), almost 15 % reported perpetrating cyber dating abuse at least once during their lifetime. Furthermore, using a cross-sectional design, across multiple levels of the socio-ecological model, the individual-level factors of (a) norms for violence for boys against girls, (b) having a current boyfriend/girlfriend, and (c) participation in bullying perpetration were correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse. Collectively, the findings suggest that dating violence interventions targeting these particular correlates in early adolescents are warranted. Future studies are needed to establish causation and to further investigate the relative importance of correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse among early adolescents that have been reported among older adolescents.
Mandell, David S; Walrath, Christine M; Manteuffel, Brigitte; Sgro, Gina; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A
To determine the demographic and psychosocial correlates of physical and sexual abuse among children with autism. Data collected from 1997 to 2000 through the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and their Families Program on 156 children with autism were used. Data included a baseline assessment of child and family psychosocial experiences and presenting problems associated with referral into system-of-care service, demographic information, and a clinical record review to obtain psychiatric diagnosis. Binary and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the association of different characteristics of children who were abused compared with those who were not abused. Caregivers reported that 18.5% of children with autism had been physically abused and 16.6% had been sexually abused. Physically abused children more likely had engaged in sexual acting out or abusive behavior, had made a suicide attempt, or had conduct-related or academic problems. Sexually abused children more likely had engaged in sexual acting out or abusive behavior, suicidal or other self-injurious behavior, had run away from home, or had a psychiatric hospitalization. In adjusted multivariate models, the relationship between sexual abuse and sexual acting out, running away from home and suicidal attempts persisted. Based on the prevalence of abuse and its association with various behaviors, clinicians should be as attuned to the psychosocial histories of children with autism as they are for other children, and consider the potential of abuse when these behaviors are observed.
Baukje (Bo Miedema
Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to examine the monthly incidence rates of abusive encounters for family physicians in Canada. Methods. A 7-page cross-sectional survey. Results. Of the entire study sample (N=720, 29% of the physicians reported having experienced an abusive event in the last month by a patient or patient family member. Abusive incidents were classified as minor, major, or severe. Of the physician participants who reported having been abused, all reported having experienced a minor event, 26% a major, and 8% a severe event. Of the physicians who experienced an abusive event, 55% were not aware of any policies to protect them, 76% did not seek help, and 64% did not report the abusive event. Conclusion. Family physicians are subjected to significant amounts of abuse in their day-to-day practices. Few physicians are aware of workplace policies that could protect them, and fewer report abusive encounters. Physicians would benefit from increased awareness of institutional policies that can protect them against abusive patients and their families and from the development of a national policy.
Bailey, Cate; Powell, Martine; Brubacher, Sonja
Child sexual abuse is a significant problem in many Indigenous communities; there is also evidence of chronic under-reporting of this crime. This study aimed to compare reporting rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous cases of child sexual abuse across two Australian jurisdictions. Datasets comprising child sexual abuse reports from the Police Information Management Systems of the two jurisdictions were used to calculate reporting rates, and to compare case characteristics and case progression. Results indicated that the reporting rate for child sexual abuse of Indigenous children was between two and four times that of non-Indigenous children. In the Indigenous cases, the second jurisdiction had lower reporting rates than the first jurisdiction. Further analysis of the Indigenous cases only found that cases in the second jurisdiction were more severe, more likely to have a forensic interview, and more likely for the suspect to be charged, than in the first jurisdiction. However, there were no significant differences in conviction rates between the two jurisdictions. Differences observed in severity and case progression suggest that the lower reporting rates observed in the second jurisdiction may be due to comparatively high levels of under-reporting, rather than lower actual levels of child sexual abuse. In conclusion, reporting rates of child sexual abuse can be better understood when further information, such as case characteristics and case progression rates, is available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ilgen, Mark A.; Schulenberg, John; Kloska, Deborah D.; Czyz, Ewa; Johnston, Lloyd; O'Malley, Patrick
Objective Although many adolescents use and abuse illicit drugs, few of those who could benefit from substance abuse treatment ever receive these services. The present study examines the prevalence of utilization of substance abuse treatment in national samples of adolescents over the past 22 years and identifies characteristics associated with receipt of these services. Method Monitoring the Future data on lifetime utilization of substance abuse treatment was available for 12th grade students who reported any lifetime illicit drug use from 1987 to 2008 (N = 25,537). After describing the prevalence of treatment utilization over this time period, logistic regression was used to examine potential predictors of treatment utilization. Results The overall prevalence of treatment utilization has remained relatively unchanged over the past 22 years. In multivariable models, adolescents reporting a greater frequency of lifetime use of marijuana or cocaine were more likely to receive substance abuse treatment. Additionally, substance abuse treatment utilization was more likely in those who received other mental health services. Conclusion Despite increased evidence for the effectiveness of substance abuse treatment, utilization of these services by adolescents has remained low and relatively stable over the past 22 years. Attempts to increase utilization of substance abuse treatment services would likely benefit from building on existing connections with mental health treatment. PMID:21885197
Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad
Conclusion: Despite overall low rate of domestic elder abuse, its high prevalence indicates that some interventions are necessary to decrease domestic elder abuse. Emotional neglect of elders should be addressed more than other abuse types.
Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L
History of abuse has been associated with greater HIV risk among women. This study examined client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Among 924 FSWs, prevalence of client-perpetrated abuse was 31%. In multivariate logistic regression models, intimate partner violence (IPV), psychological distress, and having drug-using clients were associated with experiencing client-perpetrated abuse. FSWs along the Mexico-U.S. border report frequently experiencing abuse from both clients and intimate partners, which may have serious mental health consequences. Our findings suggest the need for screening and gender-based violence prevention services for Mexican FSWs.
Othman, Basem M; Monem, Fawza S
In studies of risk factors among patients presenting with acute and chronic hepatitis C, a history of intravenous drug use is the most common finding, accounting for 40% or more of subjects. The prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies among intravenous drug users is considered one of the highest numbers among high risk groups. Whether hepatitis C virus is transmitted efficiently or at all via sexual contact remains controversial. Therefore, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies among a group of Syrian intravenous drug users, prostitutes, and blood donors was studied. The prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus in a population of 38 Syrian intravenous drug abusers, 102 Syrian prostitutes, and 2100 blood donors, was carried out in the laboratory of Al-Assad University Hospital, Damascus, Syria. Antibodies of hepatitis C virus were studied by 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay. Hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to hepatitis B core were carried out using enzyme immunoassays. Liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase) and total bilirubin were measured using reagents on chemistry autoanalyzer (Hitachi 911). Intravenous drug users group (38) was aged 31 5.6 years, 33 males and 5 females. Prostitutes group (102) were aged 25.1 7 years. Blood donors group (2100) aged were 26.3 10.3 years, 1960 males and 140 females. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies was 60.5% among intravenous drug abusers, 1.96% among the prostitutes group, and 0.95% among blood donors group. Whereas, the positivity of hepatitis B surface antigen was 5.3% among the intravenous drug abusers, 10.8% among the prostitutes group, and 3.8% among blood donors group. Biochemical parameter results were compared to the results of these parameters that were determined in a group of healthy members (blood donors) during our study. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies among intravenous drug abusers is considered the highest number among high risk
Nov 1, 2017 ... January 2018. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v28i1.8. 64. INTRODUCTION. Soil contamination with parasite eggs, infective larvae, cysts and oocysts constitutes the most important risk factor for some human parasitic .... 0.05 since no report was recorded for infection prevalence of intestinal parasitic ...
Gouse, Hetta; Joska, John A; Lion, Ryan R; Watt, Melissa H; Burnhams, Warren; Carrico, Adam W; Meade, Christina S
Methamphetamine use is highly prevalent in parts of South Africa, and there is concern this will contribute to the country's substantial HIV epidemic. We examined the feasibility of implementing routine HIV testing at a community-based substance abuse treatment centre in Cape Town and determined the HIV sero-prevalence among methamphetamine users seeking treatment at this site. In this cross-sectional study, 293 participants completed measures of demographics, substance use and HIV treatment. HIV sero-prevalence was determined by a rapid finger-prick HIV test, and prior HIV diagnosis was confirmed via clinic records. The majority of participants were male and self-identified as 'Coloured', with a mean age of 28 years. The HIV sero-prevalence was 3.8%. Of the 11 participants who tested HIV positive, four were newly diagnosed. HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants were comparable on demographic and substance use factors. Uptake of HIV testing among all clients at the drug treatment centre increased from treatment is feasible in a community-based health centre. The low HIV prevalence among this sample of treatment-seeking methamphetamine users highlights the potential benefits of supporting expanded efforts to optimise HIV prevention with this young adult population. [Gouse H, Joska JA, Lion RR, Watt MH, Burnhams W, Carrico AW, Meade CS. HIV testing and sero-prevalence among methamphetamine users seeking substance abuse treatment in Cape Town. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:580-583]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Keikha, Fatemeh; Vahdani, Fahimeh Ghotbizadeh; Latifi, Sahar
Opium is one of the most commonly abused opiates in developing countries including Iran. Considering the importance of maternal health on the newborn, we aimed to assess the effect of opium abuse on fetal heart rate (FHR) characteristics in a sample of pregnant women in Zahedan, Southeast Iran. This cross-sectional study was done on 100 pregnant women referring to Ali-Ibn-Abi Talib Hospital in Zahedan, during 2011-2013. The participants were divided into two groups comprising of opium abusers and healthy individuals. The participants received 500cc intravenous fluid containing dextrose and then non-stress test results were recorded for 20 minutes. We found no significant difference between the two groups with respect to their demographic characteristics. Fetal movements, variability, acceleration, and reactivity were significantly higher among addicted women (Popium abusers compared with the healthy women. Abnormal variability or oscillations of opium abuser group, mothers addicted to opium need specific prenatal care.
George N. Ani
Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. Use of drugs among adolescents is a global phenomenon eating deep into the fabrics of our society. Students are most vulnerable at this transformative stage in their life. Available report indicates that Nigeria is currently the highest consumer of cannabis and amphetamine in Africa. What is the prevalence of this abuse by students? Methodology: This research was a cross sectional descriptive design to identify the prevalence of substance abuse among students in public senior secondary schools in Mainland Local Government, Lagos. A sample size of two hundred and sixty two was determined and used from randomly selected five out of the nine public schools identified. Multi stage sampling (including simple random and systematic sampling and probability proportional to size methods were usefully employed in scientific selection of 262 samples and subsequent data collection in a total sample frame of 1,938 students. Self-administered questionnaire consisting of open and close-ended questions generated using research objectives was used in data collection. Result: It identified that 19.5% had smoked cigarette once or more in their lifetime. 77.2% had used alcohol once or more in a life time while 7.7% used marijuana, 8.4% tranquilizers and 1.9% cocaine all in a life time respectively. Conclusion: It recommended strict regulation of alcohol and tobacco products import and use in public places as well as aggressive dissemination of information on the dangers of substance use and abuse.
Kim, Jean H; Lee, Sing; Chow, Julie; Lau, Joseph; Tsang, Adley; Choi, Jacqueline; Griffiths, Sian M
To examine the patterns of drinking, the relationship between binge drinking, alcohol abuse, and dependence, and the sociodemographic factors associated with problem drinking among Hong Kong Chinese. An anonymous, random telephone survey was conducted on 9860 Hong Kong Chinese adults from April to June, 2006. The age-adjusted prevalence amongst men for binge drinking was 14.4% with 5.3% of males being alcohol abusers and 2.3% dependent on alcohol. The corresponding figures for women were all lower at 3.6%, 1.4%, and 0.7%, respectively. Younger age groups showed the highest prevalence of these drinking problems. Among male binge drinkers, 18.7% were also alcohol abusers and 12.3% were alcohol dependent. Among female binge drinkers, 16% reported alcohol abuse and 9.9% reported dependence. Male binge drinkers were less likely to be older, less likely to be students but more likely to be employed in the service industry. Female binge drinkers were less likely to be over 60 years of age or married but more likely to be smokers. In both genders, smoking was significantly associated with the likelihood of binge drinking (OR = 3.6-12.3), alcohol abuse (OR = 3.0-12.1), and dependence (OR = 5.2-20.6). Although binge drinking has been well tolerated in Chinese culture, it is strongly associated with alcohol abuse and dependence in both genders in Hong Kong. Our findings suggest that prevalence of problematic alcohol consumption warrants greater promotion of alcohol harms awareness. Higher rates of heavy drinking in younger-aged individuals may reflect changing lifestyle behaviors and herald higher future levels of alcohol-related health and social problems.
Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a stress disorder, whose prevalence was 2-15%. PTSD is associated with mood, anxiety, personality and substance use disorders (SUD. The substance user patients with PTSD have more problems, and severity of symptoms is more than non-substance users with PTSD patients. These patients may be nervous, aggressive, and restless and their function will be affected in many aspects. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between aggression levels and substances use among PTSD patients. Methods: Among patients with PTSD referred to Kermanshah Farabi Hospital in 2011,182 cases were selected and their aggression levels were assessed by Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The aggression levels in PTSD patients with and without SUD were compared. Result: The highest frequencies were in middle-aged (81.1%, males (91.8%, married (77.5% and poor economic status (63.2% patients. Substances using was higher among married patients and the most abused substances was opium. Substances consumption was higher among patients with lower socioeconomic status and opium and amphetamines were the most abused substance. Most PTSD types were related to after-war events (70.3%. Mean of total aggression was higher in SUD. Rate of total aggression was higher in patients using opium. Conclusion: Compared to those without PTSD, individuals with this disorder are more likely to have aggression. Patients with concurrent PTSD and SUD suffer from more severe complaints and show worse treatment outcomes compared with patients with either disorder alone.
Majideh Heravi Karimoei
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine elderly abuse rates, subtypes and related factors in the members of senior social clubs in the city of Tehran. Methods & Materials: This was a cross-sectional survey including 379 elders 65 years and older (125 men and 254 women presenting to the senior social clubs in Tehran. A face-to-face interview was carried out with every participant either at home or in clubs. Initially, individuals' cognitive states were evaluated using the Iranian version of the Abbreviated Mental Test Score and if scores of 6 and over were obtained, they were included in the study after taking informed consent. Subsequently, the Domestic Elderly Abuse Questionnaire, the Activities of Daily Living Scale for elderly people and a questionnaire designed by the authors for collecting demographic and personal data were completed. The gathered data were analyzed using the Chi square and T tests. Results: The total frequency of elderly abuse was 25.9%. The most frequent subtypes were emotional neglect (17.4% and psychological abuse (17.2% and the least were related to abandonment (3.7% and physical abuse (4.7%. Some factors including sex (P<0.0001, health insurance (P<0.04, occupation (P<0.0001, sufficient financial resources (P<0.0001, drug abuse (P<0.017, mean age (P<0.026, number of children (P<0.03, functional status (P<0.0001 and re-hospitalization (P<0.0001 were significantly different between the abused and non-abused people. Conclusion: Given the high rates of elderly abuse, serious measures must be taken to prevent its long-term consequences.
Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesias, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Morant, Consuelo; Ochoa, Enriqueta; Poyo, Félix; Babin, Francisco
Cannabis use has been associated to a wide variety of mental disorders, the possible causal role of this use in the etiology of severe mental disorders as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder standing out. Moreover, the cannabinoid system is involved in emotional regulation, so cannabis use could disturb this process and provoke anxiety and mood disorders. The main objective of this study was to analyze the cannabis addict subgroup from Madrid study of prevalence of dual disorders in community mental health and substance misuse services. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients under treatment in the mental health network or drug network of the Community of Madrid (Spain). Of these, 353 subjects had a lifetime diagnosis of cannabis abuse or dependence and 357 subjects did not have cannabis substance use disorder. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to evaluate axis I mental disorders, and Personality Disorder Questionnaire to evaluate personality disorders. It was considered that 76.5% of the cannabis addicts had a current dual disorder. The most prevalent ones were mood and anxiety disorders. Of those addicted to cannabis, 51% had a personality disorder. Most of them had several substance use disorders. Cannabis abuse or dependence subjects had an earlier onset in consumption of other drugs such as alcohol, cocaine, and tobacco than addicts without cannabis abuse or dependence. The cannabis addicts also differed from the other addicts because of an association to antisocial personality disorder, bipolar disorder, psychosis and agoraphobia. The presence of these mental disorders was significantly associated to a lower age at initiation of cannabis use. Dual pathology is very high in cannabis addicts under treatment. Said consumption of cannabis, probably within a polysubstance use pattern, is associated to severe mental disorders as psychosis and bipolar disorder. An earlier age of onset in cannabis use is associated to a greater risk of
Danielle L. Gabert
Full Text Available Background. Sexual abuse may be associated with poorer weight loss outcomes following bariatric treatment. Identifying predictors of abuse would enable focused screening and may increase weight management success. Methods. We analyzed data from 500 consecutively recruited obese subjects from a population-based, regional bariatric program. The prevalence of self-reported sexual abuse was ascertained using a single interview question. Health status was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify sexual abuse predictors. Results. The mean age was 43.7 y (SD 9.6, 441 (88.2% were females, 458 (91.8% were white, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 47.9 kg/m2 (SD 8.1. The self-reported prevalence of past abuse was 21.8% (95% CI 18.4–25.4%. Abused subjects had worse health status (VAS score 53.1 (SD 21.2 versus 58.0 (SD 20.1, P=0.03. BMI was not associated with abuse (P>0.5. Age, sex, BMI, and covariate-adjusted independent predictors of abuse included alcohol addiction (adjusted odds ratio 15.8; 95% CI 4.0–62.8, posttraumatic stress disorder (4.9; 2.5–9.5, borderline personality (3.8; 1.0–13.8, depression (2.4; 1.3–4.3, and lower household income (3.4; 1.6–7.0. Conclusions. Abuse was common amongst obese patients managed in a population-based bariatric program; alcohol addiction, psychiatric comorbidities, and low-income status were highly associated with sexual abuse.
Ingram, Isabella; Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P; Baker, Amanda L; Lyons, Geoff; Blackman, Russell
Smoking continues to be a major health concern for people with a history of alcohol or other substance use problems. The current research is aimed to (1) describe the prevalence of smoking in residential addictions treatment services and (2) compare characteristics of people who had or had not quit smoking. Participants were attending residential substance abuse treatment provided by the Australian Salvation Army. These programs are up to 10 months in length and offer a range of low-intensity smoking cessation supports. Measures of smoking, substance use, and clinical characteristics were collected from 2008 to 2015 at baseline and three months post-discharge from treatment (N = 702). At baseline, 86% of people were smokers (n = 606). At follow-up, only 48 participants who were smokers at baseline (7%) had quit smoking. Participants who had quit smoking at follow-up also reported higher rates of abstinence from alcohol or other substances at follow-up (72%) than people who had not quit smoking (46%; OR = 2.95, 95% CI [1.52, 5.74]). There is potential for smoking cessation to be better addressed as part of routine care in substance abuse treatment settings. Future research should evaluate the provision of more systematic smoking cessation interventions within these settings.
Pereda, Noemi; Guilera, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Gomez-Benito, Juana
Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). "The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse." "Child Abuse & Neglect," 18 (5), 409-417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods:…
Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran
The purpose of this study was to investigate lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual abuse and associations between child sexual abuse, gender, sociodemographic data, and consensual sexual experiences. A questionnaire was completed by 4,339 Swedish high school seniors. Three categories of child sexual abuse were…
Keeshin, Brooks R.; Campbell, Kristine
Objectives: To identify the incidence of self-reported physical and sexual child abuse among homeless youth, the self-perceived effects of past abuse, and current interest in treatment for past abuse among homeless youth with histories of abuse. Methods: Homeless and street-involved persons aged 18-23 filled out a questionnaire and participated in…
Ghoreishi, Seyed Mohammad Sadegh; Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Mirtorabi, Seyed Davood; Ghadirzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hashemi Nazari, Seyed Saeed
The estimate of mortality associated with illicit opiate use provides useful information to those directing and monitoring local, national and international policies and programs. This study investigated the epidemiology of mortality due to the illegal consumption of narcotics and psychotropic substances in the Iran to provide evidence-based public health data for useful programs and actions aimed at preventing drug-related mortality. A cross-sectional study. The information regarding all cases of psychotropic positive was collected from Legal Medicine Organization, occurred on Mar 2015 to Feb 2016. Demographic and epidemiological data were extracted from recorded documents. Data were then analyzed in Stata software. Overall, 2306 died cases from opioid or psychotropic abuse were evaluated. The mean age of the subjects was 36.07±12.61 yr, they were mostly single male, and 88.64% of them had Iranian nationality. The mortality rate from opiate and psychotropic abuse in the whole country was 38.22 per 1000000 population. The most common location of death was at home or in another private residence. History of overdose, suicide, hospitalization in psychiatric hospital, staying in prison and substance abuse in the family observed in some people who died from drug abuse. Mortality rate from substance abuse is more among unmarried young men aged 30-39 yr with low education level also in self-employed. We suggest policies to prevent this person accessing and using drug.
Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Slep, Amy M Smith; Heyman, Richard E; Garrido, Edward
This article addresses the following questions: (a) How common is child abuse among domestically violent families? (b) Are there specific patterns of child abuse among domestically violent families? (c) What may explain occurrences of child abuse in domestically violent families? (d) How might domestic violence affect treatment for child abuse? We review research on child abuse in the context of domestic violence. We discuss implications of this research for service-delivery programs for domestically violent families.
Farc, Maria-Magdalena; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.
Objective: Two studies examined whether accessibility of hostility-related schema influenced ratings of ambiguous child pictures. Based on the social information processing model of child physical abuse (CPA), it was expected that CPA risk status would serve as a proxy for chronic accessibility of hostile schema, while priming procedures were used…
Surprenant, J.; Snuggerud, D.
A compact, disc shaped lithium/thionyl chloride cell has been developed by Altus Corporation. The cell has a 6 Amphr capacity and is capable of high rate discharge at high voltage. Discharge data is presented over the range of 0.07 to 1.1 Amperes. The cell is operable over the temperature range of -40/sup 0/C to +70/sup 0/C, and has a 10 year shelf life at 20/sup 0/C. Safety features allow the cells to withstand fire, puncture, shock, spin, forced discharge or forced charge without dangerous reactions.
Surprenant, J.; Snuggerud, D.
A compact, disk shaped lithium/thionyl chloride cell has been developed. The cell has a 6 Amphr capacity and is capable of high rate discharge at high voltage. Discharge data are presented over the range of 0.07 to 1.1 amperes. The cell is operable over the temperature range of -40 C to +70 C, and has a 10 year shelf life at 20 C. Safety features allow the cells to withstand fire, puncture, shock, spin, forced discharge or forced charge without dangerous reactions.
Conrad, Selby M.; Placella, Nicole; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Rizzo, Christie J.; Brown, Larry K.
Young female offenders represent a growing number of young offenders. Studies have shown that youth in the juvenile justice system, particularly young females, report higher rates of lifetime sexual abuse than their nonoffending peers. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in risk factors for recidivism, including a history of sexual abuse, among a juvenile court clinic sample. Findings suggest that, even after accounting for previously identified risk factors for recidivism such as prior legal involvement and conduct problems, a history of sexual abuse is the most salient predictor of recidivism for young female offenders, but not for males. The development of gender-responsive interventions to reduce juvenile recidivism and continued legal involvement into adulthood may be warranted. PMID:24127890
Full Text Available Background: Opium is one of the most commonly abused opiates in developing countries including Iran. Considering the importance of maternal health on the newborn, we aimed to assess the effect of opium abuse on fetal heart rate (FHR characteristics in a sample of pregnant women in Zahedan, Southeast Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 100 pregnant women referring to Ali-Ibn-Abi Talib Hospital in Zahedan, during 2011-2013. The participants were divided into two groups comprising of opium abusers and healthy individuals. The participants received 500cc intravenous fluid containing dextrose and then non-stress test results were recorded for 20 minutes. Results: We found no significant difference between the two groups with respect to their demographic characteristics. Fetal movements, variability, acceleration, and reactivity were significantly higher among addicted women (P<0.0001 for all. Periodic change was 9.8 times higher among opium abusers compared with the healthy women. Abnormal variability or oscillations of <15 beats/min, which indicates lack of beat-to-beat variability, was significantly higher in the fetuses of addicted mothers (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Considering significant abnormal patterns in FHR characteristics among the opium abuser group, mothers addicted to opium need specific prenatal care.
Conclusion: Because of the high level of elder abuse by family, providing awareness programs for seniors, caregivers and health care providers seems to be essential to prevent and reduce the neglect and abuse of older people.
Chinawa, Josephat M; Aronu, A E; Chukwu, B F; Obu, H A
In our society, child abuse is most often not recognized. In addition, little attention is focused on child abuse due to the menace of severe acute malnutrition and infections, which are the major pediatric problems in our setting. There is need therefore for public awareness of the existence of the various forms of child abuse in the society. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence, pattern, socioeconomic implication, and factors associated with child abuse among secondary school students attending four secondary schools in Enugu. This is a prospective study where cases of child abuse were investigated using a convenience sampling of students attending four secondary schools in Enugu. A total of 372 subjects participated in the study comprising 192 (51.6 %) females and 180 (48.4 %) males (χ (2) = 7.74, p = 0.38). Their median age was 15.0 (12-18) years. One hundred and sixty-six of 370 (44.8 %) made up of 85 (51.2 %) females and 81 (48.8 %) males reported that they had been hit repeatedly with an implement, showing no significant difference in the gender of respondents physically abused. Thirty-eight (10.2 %) respondents admitted that they have been forced or persuaded to have sexual experience against their wish as teenagers. A total of 58/346 (16.8 %) respondents admitted that they have been abused emotionally in one way or the other by either birth parents or other relatives who brought them up. Child abuse is a notable problem among secondary school students and adolescents, though this is highly underreported as seen in this study.
The study recorded the prevalence rates of cyberbullying and investigated its psychological outcomes among 324 secondary school learners in the Kgakotlou school circuit, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Learners completed an instrument consisting of objective questionnaires on cyberbullying, psychological distress and ...
Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.
Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms
Background: Understanding and monitoring the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among premarital clients and determining discordant rate and applying specific interventions targeted at this group could bring dual benefits as it prevents both heterosexual and vertical transmission of the disease.
Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.
Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…
Background: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infections remain an important public health problem in the tropics. This study aimed to evaluate the soil contamination rate and prevalence of infestations of geohelminth among residents in Bazou. Methods: Four hundred (400) soil samples and 182 stool specimens were ...
Smink, Frédérique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.
Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms relating to eating disorders and epidemiology. Anorexia nervosa is relatively common among young women. While the overall incidence rate remained stable over the past decades, there has been an increas...
Ulibarri, Monica D.; Hiller, Sarah P.; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K.; Silverman, Jay G.; Ojeda, Victoria D.
This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors—ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work—were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico. PMID:23737808
Monica D. Ulibarri
Full Text Available This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors—ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work—were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.
Chen, Jing-Qi; Han, Ping; Lian, Guang-Li; Dunne, Michael P
To assess the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in college students and to explore the association of CSA with youth mental health problem. A retrospective survey was conducted among 2508 students (females 1360, males 1148) in Nov. 2003 to Mar. 2004. The students were from 6 colleges/universities in Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi, Jiangsu, Shaanxi and Anhui provinces of China. Of the 2508 students, 24.8% of females and 17.6% of males reported one or more types of nonphysical contact CSA (females 20.0% vs. males 14.6%) or/and physical contact CSA (females 14.1% vs. males 7.8%) before the age of 16 years. Risk of any CSA was not associated with the existence of siblings (one-child vs. two-or more child families), rural/non-rural residence during childhood, or parental education. Compared with their peers who had no CSA, the students with CSA showed significantly higher mean scores of psychological symptoms of somatization, obsessiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism. The problem of CSA was not uncommon and there was a significant correlation between CSA experience and students mental health problems. More attention should be paid on CSA prevention and provision of health services for the victims.
Hazarika, N.C.; Biswas, D.; Phukan, R.K.; Hazarika, D.; Mahanta, J.
A total of 312 persons aged 10 years and above were interviewed to collect information about their habits of taking tobacco, alcohol and other substances. The study reveals that 40.4% of the respondents used tobacco irrespective of their using pattern, with significant difference between sexes (p< 0.001). Among tobacco users 58.2% were only tobacco chewers. 26.3% were smokers and 15% of them were practicing both the modes. 61.4% among housewives were tobacco users. Prevalence of alcohol use was 36.5% among the respondents. Alcohol use among males (39.5%) was slightly higher than females (32.6%). A significant association of alcohol users (p< 0.01) was observed with level of educational status. 3.4% of the study population were found to be habituated with substance abuse other than tobacco and alcohol. Percentage of injecting drug users was found to be 1.28%. A very small number (0.64%) was also found to be addicted to petrol inhalation. PMID:21407954
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic overuse pain (COP) and to identify possible risk factors of COP in sport poomsae taekwondo. This is a cross-sectional survey. A total of 263 sport-poomsae competitors (112 females; 151 males; aged between 12-44 years), who competed at the 2014 sport poomsae taekwondo competition, participated in this study. The prevalence rate of COP and possible risk factors associated with COP were analyzed by using Chi-square tests and independent t-tests. A total of 173 athletes reported that they experienced COP (65.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 60.5-71.5). Female athletes showed a higher prevalence rate than their male counterparts (75.9% vs. 58.3%). Lower body (61.5%) and knee joints (26.4%) were the two primarily injured body part. A total of 101 athletes reported that they injured in the previous year. Among those, 81.2% were suffered from COP. The technique that caused pain most frequently was side-kick among females and front-kick among males. Prevalence rates of COP were significantly different by sex, education level, training hour, and a history of injury. The prevalence of COP is high among sport poomsae taekwondo athletes. Competitors who are female, have a history of injury, and train for extended hours were more likely to experience COP. To identify other potential risk factors of COP in sport poomsae taekwondo, more research is needed to build upon the findings.
Sebre, Sandra; Sprugevica, Ieva; Novotni, Antoni; Bonevski, Dimitar; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante; Popescu, Daniela; Turchina, Tatiana; Friedrich, William; Lewis, Owen
This study was designed to assess the incidence of child emotional and physical abuse, associated risk factors and psychosocial symptoms in a cross-cultural comparison between post-communist bloc countries. One-thousand one-hundred forty-five children ages 10-14 from Latvia (N = 297), Lithuania ( N = 300), Macedonia (N = 302), and Moldova (N = 246) participated in the study. They completed questionnaires assessing their experience of emotional or physical abuse, and provided information about family risk-factors and psychosocial symptoms, including PTSD-related symptoms. Incidence rates of maltreatment differed by country, as did levels of reported psychosocial symptoms. Incidence of emotional and physical abuse differed by region, with higher levels of abuse reported in the rural regions. In all four countries, a similar association between emotional/physical abuse and psychosocial symptoms was found, with the uniformly largest correlation between emotional abuse and anger. When examining the combined scores of emotional and physcial abuse, even higher correlation's were found, particularly in relation to anger and depression. In all four countries, parental overuse of alcohol was associated with emotional and/or physical abuse. Findings show differences by country in child-reported levels of emotional and physical abuse, but similar patterns of correlation with psychosocial symptoms and the risk factors of parental alcohol overuse and living in a rural area.
Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather A; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry L
It is important to estimate the burden of and trends for violence, crime, and abuse in the lives of children. To provide health care professionals, policy makers, and parents with current estimates of exposure to violence, crime, and abuse across childhood and at different developmental stages. The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV) includes a representative sample of US telephone numbers from August 28, 2013, to April 30, 2014. Via telephone interviews, information was obtained on 4000 children 0 to 17 years old, with information about exposure to violence, crime, and abuse provided by youth 10 to 17 years old and by caregivers for children 0 to 9 years old. Exposure to violence, crime, and abuse using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire. In total, 37.3% of youth experienced a physical assault in the study year, and 9.3% of youth experienced an assault-related injury. Two percent of girls experienced sexual assault or sexual abuse in the study year, while the rate was 4.6% for girls 14 to 17 years old. Overall, 15.2% of children and youth experienced maltreatment by a caregiver, including 5.0% who experienced physical abuse. In total, 5.8% witnessed an assault between parents. Only 2 significant rate changes could be detected compared with the last survey in 2011, namely, declines in past-year exposure to dating violence and lifetime exposure to household theft. Children and youth are exposed to violence, abuse, and crime in varied and extensive ways, which justifies continued monitoring and prevention efforts.
Boitt, Richard Kimuge
The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…
Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska
CONCLUSIONS: Defining the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect in the context of our country can facilitate support of abused older people and, most importantly, may help develop policy and programmes based on evidence-based practices, targeting prevention and response.
Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe
Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Substance abuse is a common problem and a major public health dilemma with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, due to the increase of drug abuse in recent years, especially among young people and its complications, including loss of life, unwanted pregnancy, suicide commitment, as well as violence and given that our country has a young population, so the present study, aimed to investigate the substance abuse among the students in Yazd, a central city in Iran. Materials and methods: In this cross sectional study 1020 students studying in high school (the first period - the second period were investigated in the 2015-2016 academic year in the city of Yazd. Multi-stage sampling method using cluster and stratified sampling was used. Information were collected through a standardized questionnaire based on World Health Organization method known as Global school-based student health survey (GSHS which was translated to Persian. After completion of the questionnaire by students, the collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 and through statistical tests of significance. Results: The results showed 18.1% of students had at least one history of drug use. 9.5% of students had a history of cannabis use, 12.5% had a history of amphetamines use, 10.8% had a history of taking psychotropic pills, 12.2% had a history of heroin use, 12.9% had a history of opium use, and finally, 9.6% had a history of crack use. There was no significant association between parents education and drug abuse in students. Conclusion: According to high prevalence and diversity of substance abuse among students, recommend educational program in school and parents supervision. Promotion of parents and teachers knowledge about symptoms of abuse is needed. Family support of adolescents is effective for prevention.
Miskulin, Maja; Petrović, Goranka; Miskulin, Ivan; Puntarić, Dinko; Milas, Josip; Dahl, Danielle; Rudan, Stjepan
The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of alcohol abuse among university students in Osijek, Croatia and its possible interconnections with gender, year of study, repetition of year of study, faculty subject area, sources of financing and type of residence during study. A validated questionnaire was self-administered to cross-faculty representative student sample of "J. J. Strossmayer" University of Osiek in June 2006. General demographic data, as well as data on academic features and student socio-economical status were obtained. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used for assessing the extent of alcohol consumption, with cut off value of 8 indicating possible alcohol problems. The majority of study participants 90.9% (755/831) had tried alcohol at least once in their life. Among this group, 43.8% (331/755) had an AUDIT total score of 8 or more: 69.2% (229/331) were males and 30.8% (102/331) were females. Among the study participants who screened positive, 70.4% (233/331) responded positively to simple advice focused on the reduction of hazardous drinking (AUDIT 8-15), 14.5% (48/331) needed brief counseling and continued monitoring (AUDIT 16-19), and 15.1% (50/331) clearly warranted further diagnostic evaluation for alcohol dependence (AUDIT 20 and above). Significantly different statistical data was found within the following factors: gender, repetition of year of study, faculty subject area and type of residence (chi2 = 76.232, p = 0.0000; Fisher exact test = 31.828, p = 0.0000; chi2 = 11.667, p = 0.0086 and chi2 = 6.639, p = 0.0362 respectively). Alcohol consumption resulting in risk behaviors is common among university students from eastern Croatia. These findings emphasize the need for comprehensive and effective preventative strategies directed towards student population.
Maercker, Andreas; Hecker, Tobias; Augsburger, Mareike; Kliem, Sören
Prevalence rates are still lacking for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD) diagnoses based on the new ICD-11 criteria. In a nationwide representative German sample (N = 2524; 14-99 years), exposure to traumatic events and symptoms of PTSD or CPTSD were assessed with the International Trauma Questionnaire. A clinical variant of CPTSD with a lower threshold for core PTSD symptoms was also calculated, in addition to conditional prevalence rates dependent on trauma type and differential predictors. One-month prevalence rates were as follows: PTSD, 1.5%; CPTSD, 0.5%; and CPTSD variant, 0.7%. For PTSD, the highest conditional prevalence was associated with kidnapping or rape, and the highest CPTSD rates were associated with sexual childhood abuse or rape. PTSD and CPTSD were best differentiated by sexual violence. Combined PTSD and CPTSD (ICD-11) rates were in the range of previously reported prevalences for unified PTSD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition; ICD-10). Evidence on differential predictors of PTSD and CPTSD is still preliminary.
Sharpless, Brian A; Barber, Jacques P
To determine lifetime prevalence rates of sleep paralysis. Keyword term searches using "sleep paralysis", "isolated sleep paralysis", or "parasomnia not otherwise specified" were conducted using MEDLINE (1950-present) and PsychINFO (1872-present). English and Spanish language abstracts were reviewed, as were reference lists of identified articles. Thirty five studies that reported lifetime sleep paralysis rates and described both the assessment procedures and sample utilized were selected. Weighted percentages were calculated for each study and, when possible, for each reported subsample. Aggregating across studies (total N=36,533), 7.6% of the general population, 28.3% of students, and 31.9% of psychiatric patients experienced at least one episode of sleep paralysis. Of the psychiatric patients with panic disorder, 34.6% reported lifetime sleep paralysis. Results also suggested that minorities experience lifetime sleep paralysis at higher rates than Caucasians. Sleep paralysis is relatively common in the general population and more frequent in students and psychiatric patients. Given these prevalence rates, sleep paralysis should be assessed more regularly and uniformly in order to determine its impact on individual functioning and better articulate its relation to psychiatric and other medical conditions. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kozer, E; Bar-Hamburger, R; Rosenfeld, N; Dalal, I; Landu, O; Fainmesser, P; Ben-Yehuda, Y; Berkovitch, M
To determine whether implementation of criteria for performing a toxicology screen and increasing staff awareness improve detection of substance abuse among adolescents presenting to the emergency department. Patients 12 to 18 years of age presenting to one of three emergency departments in Israel were included in a prospective cohort study. In the 'study' hospital, a set of criteria for urine toxicology screen and measurements of ethanol serum level were implemented. No specific interventions were implemented in the two other hospitals. The main outcome measure was the rate of substance abuse detection. The number of adolescents seen in the participating centres was 3200 at the study hospital, and 3493 and 2792 at the two other hospitals. High blood ethanol concentrations were found in 49 patients at the study hospital compared with 30 and 19 patients at the two other hospitals (p < 0.001). Illicit drugs were detected in 13, 4 and 1 patients, respectively (p = 0.002). Introducing structured guidelines for ordering toxicological screening increases the detection of alcohol and drug of abuse among adolescents presenting to paediatric emergency departments.
Buser, Trevor J.; Buser, Juleen K.
Many school counselors experience difficulties in identifying and reporting suspected cases of emotional abuse. These difficulties are concerning, given the relatively high prevalence rates of emotional abuse. In this article, we discuss the definition of emotional abuse, review research on its prevalence and psychological correlates, and provide…
Warren, Cortney S; Lindsay, Anne R; White, Emily K; Claudat, Kim; Velasquez, Sara C
Women in substance abuse treatment increasingly report weight-related concerns as motivation for drug use. However, limited research has explored the nature of these concerns or examined whether women in substance abuse treatment with weight-related concerns related to drug use differ from those who do not on variables relevant to eating pathology. Using a sample of 297 women in substance abuse treatment, this study examined two intertwined issues: (1) the prevalence and nature of weight-related concerns related to drug use and (2) whether women who endorse weight-related concerns related to drug use differ from those without weight-related concerns on body dissatisfaction, eating pathology, perceived pressure and internalization of thin-ideal media, and appearance-related drug-use expectancies. Descriptive analyses indicated that the majority of participants were concerned about gaining weight during treatment and/or that weight gain could trigger drug relapse. Analyses of variance revealed that women who reported weight-based concerns (both with regards to weight gain during treatment and relapse potential) endorsed higher levels of body dissatisfaction, dieting, bulimic symptoms, and thin-ideal internalization than women who did not endorse weight-related concerns. Results suggest that substance abuse treatment programs should be aware of and address weight-related concerns around drug use for women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Valdez-Santiagob, Rosario; Barroso-Quiab, Abigail; Híjar, Martha; Rojas, Rosalba; Del Río-Zolezzi, Aurora
To analyze the evolution of the prevalence in intimate partner violence during the years 2003 and 2006 in Mexico, identifying factors associated with its severity, comparing our results with findings from 2003. Data from the Encuesta Nacional de Violencia contra las Mujeres (ENVIM 2006) was used; it has urban-rural national representation of female users of Mexican public health services. A total of 22,318 women above 14 years of age were interviewed. A multinomial logistic regression model was adjusted. The dependent variable was the Index of Intimate Partner Abuse. Intimate partner abuse increased 17% in comparison to the year 2003. Women's personal history of childhood abuse (ORA= 5.12, 95% CI4.15-6.30) and rape (ORA = 3.5, 95% CI = 2.66-4.62) were the most important women's factors that were found associated with severe violence. Male partner's daily alcohol consumption increased eleven fold the possibility of severe violence; higher disagreement with traditional female gender roles and higher education of both partners were protective factors. Factors associated with violence and their severities were consistent with findings reported in 2003. Intimate partner violence is a highly prevalent social problem which requires comprehensive strategies supporting empowerment of women through higher education, early detection and care of those battered, as well as structured interventions to prevent violence in future generations.
Esietu Gebregazabher Hagos
Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse (SA refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. The most common substances which are usually abused are alcohol and tobacco. Herein, we assessed the prevalence of SA among regular degree health science students of the Sheba University College (SUC. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1076 SUC students using self-administered structured questionnaire. The simple sampling technique was used to select students. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were done. Results: The overall prevalence of “ever used substance” for at least one was 45.5%. The most commonly used drugs in descending order were alcohol (25.1%, cigarette (11.4%, and khat (9.2%. Male participants, urban setting, peer pressure, personal pleasure, and academic dissatisfaction and pocket money were highly associated with SA. Conclusion: This study showed a lower magnitude (45.6% ever use and 21% still using of SA among students' compared to other studies. Even if a considerable decrease in SA among study subjects, the creation of awareness and health education should be continued to fully combat the problem of abuse.
Cybele Ribeiro Espíndola
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar estudos sobre prevalência de abuso na terceira idade e analisar a qualidade dos estudos. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática estudos de base populacional em bases de dados eletrônicos (PubMed, LILACS, Embase, ISI, PsycInfo, referente aos anos de 1988 a 2005. Foram incluídos os estudos de base populacional e excluídos os estudos sem definição metodológica delineada e estudos realizados em clientela de serviços especializados. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 440 artigos, mas apenas 11 artigos foram selecionados. A maioria dos artigos foi de corte transversal, apenas dois apresentaram desenho longitudinal. Os estudos foram conduzidos em diversas regiões do mundo, sobretudo dos Estados Unidos e da Europa. Observou-se variação nas definições de abuso. Os estudos de prevalência encontraram coeficientes de abuso físico entre 1,2% (Holanda e 18% (Finlândia. CONCLUSÕES: Existe substancial variação de prevalência entre os países, parecendo haver uma variável cultural importante. Como o número de idosos é crescente no mundo, são necessários mais estudos de base populacional representativos dessa faixa etária para melhor compreensão do fenômeno.OBJECTIVE: To identify prevalence studies of abuse among elderly and assess their quality. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed through PubMed, LILACS, Embase, ISI, and PsycInfo, for the period between 1988 and 2005. Population-based studies were included and studies without clear methodological definition and with clinical and service samples were excluded. RESULTS: There were found 440 articles, but only 11 of them were selected. Most were cross-sectional designs and only two were longitudinal studies. These studies were conducted in various countries worldwide, mostly in US and Europe. They varied widely in terms of abuse definition. Prevalence of physical abuse ranged from 1.2% (Holland to 18% (Finland. CONCLUSIONS: There is a considerable prevalence
Cone, Edward J; Clarke, Joe; Tsanaclis, Lolita
Testing oral fluid for drugs of abuse has been studied under many conditions but rarely has been evaluated in large population databases. We evaluated oral fluid tests in a database from a commercial laboratory in the United Kingdom composed of 8679 confirmed positive results. The results originated from 635,000 specimens collected over the period of May 2004 through September 2006. Oral fluid specimens were collected with the Intercept oral fluid collection device, screened by enzyme immunoassay, and confirmed by GC-MS or GC-MS-MS. The database was organized by collection settings (legal/treatment, N = 8198 specimens; and workplace, N = 481 specimens) and by drug groups (without consideration of collection setting). The drug groups were as follows (number of confirmed positives): amphetamines (468); benzodiazepines (892); buprenorphine (276); cannabinoids (725); cocaine (1443); methadone (998); and opiates (5739). The goal of the study was to provide drug/metabolite prevalence data, concentrations, and drugs/metabolite patterns encountered in oral fluid. Comparison of results by collection setting indicated differences in relative frequency, primarily for opiates and cannabinoids. Opiate positives were most frequently observed for specimens collected in legal/treatment settings, whereas cannabinoids were most frequently reported in the workplace. An array of information on drug and metabolite occurrences and concentration arose from evaluation of the data by drug groups. Amphetamine was the predominant drug reported for the Amphetamines Group; approximately 10% were also positive for MDA and/or MDMA; and methamphetamine was rarely reported. Multiple combinations of diazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and lorazepam were reported for the Benzodiazepine Group. Buprenorphine, an opioid treatment drug, was the predominant analyte reported, but low concentrations of norbuprenorphine were frequently reported. THC was the predominant analyte
Martin, Michael S.; Dykxhoorn, Jennifer; Afifi, Tracie O.; Colman, Ian
Objective Victims of child abuse may be at increased risk of acting on suicide ideation, although this has not been empirically tested. We estimated the risk of suicide attempts associated with child abuse among individuals who reported suicide ideation. Methods Secondary analysis of data from the population-based Canadian Community Health Survey Mental Health (n?=?828). This population-based survey included various structured questionnaires, including the Composite International Diagnostic I...
Arndt, Stephan; Acion, Laura; White, Kristin
This study was an exploratory investigation of state-level minority disparities in successfully completing outpatient treatment, a major objective for attending substance abuse treatment and a known process outcome measure. This was a retrospective analysis of state discharge and admission data from the 2006 to 2008 Treatment Episode Datasets-Discharge (TEDS-D). Data were included representing all discharges from outpatient substance abuse treatment centers across the United States. All first treatment episode clients with admission/discharge records meeting inclusion criteria who could be classified as White, Latino, or Black/African American were used (n=940,058). States demonstrated racial and ethnic disparities in their crude and adjusted completion rates, which also varied considerably among the states. Minorities typically showed a disadvantage. A few states showed significantly higher completion rates for Blacks or Latinos. Realistically, a variety of factors likely cause the state race/ethnic differences in successful completion rates. States should investigate their delivery systems to reduce completion disparities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W
Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms relating to eating disorders and epidemiology. Anorexia nervosa is relatively common among young women. While the overall incidence rate remained stable over the past decades, there has been an increase in the high risk-group of 15-19 year old girls. It is unclear whether this reflects earlier detection of anorexia nervosa cases or an earlier age at onset. The occurrence of bulimia nervosa might have decreased since the early nineties of the last century. All eating disorders have an elevated mortality risk; anorexia nervosa the most striking. Compared with the other eating disorders, binge eating disorder is more common among males and older individuals.
Figueiredo, Bárbara; Bifulco, Antonia; Paiva, Carla; Maia, Angela; Fernandes, Eugénia; Matos, Raquel
The study examines the self-reported prevalence of childhood physical and sexual abuse in a large sample of Portuguese parents. Nearly 1,000 parents (506 mothers and 426 fathers) were selected through public primary schools from the Northern area of Portugal. All completed the Portuguese version of the Childhood History Questionnaire (CHQ) [Journal of Family Violence 5 (1990) 15]. Results show that the prevalence of abuse was 73%, but more severe physical abuse involving sequelae/injury was reported by 9.5%. Most physical abuses began prior to age 13, with half continuing after age 13. No gender differences were found for rates of physical abuse. However, among the milder physical abuse without sequelae/injury, those women who experienced "whipping" or "slapping/kicking" were more likely to do so from their mothers than fathers. Among men who were "slapped/kicked" this was more likely to be from their fathers. Low rates of sexual abuse were found at 2.6% with no gender or age differences. Lack of a supportive adult in childhood related to the more severe abuses, but only in adolescence. Portuguese rates of abuse were consistently lower than those reported in USA and Spanish studies using the CHQ. This is the first retrospective, self-report study of childhood abuse in a large sample of Portuguese parents and, even with a participation rate of 69%, shows lower rates than in US and Spanish samples.
Full Text Available Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA is a common occurrence and a robust, yet non-specific, predictor of adult psychopathology. While many demographic and abuse factors have been shown to impact this relationship, their common and specific effects remain poorly understood. Objective: This study sought to assess the prevalence of Axis I disorders in a large sample of help-seeking victims of sexual trauma, and to examine the common and specific effects of demographic and abuse characteristics across these different diagnoses. Method: The participants were attendees at four treatment centres in Denmark that provide psychological therapy for victims of CSA (N=434. Axis I disorders were assessed using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between CSA characteristics (age of onset, duration, number of abusers, number of abusive acts and 10 adult clinical syndromes. Results: There was significant variation in the prevalence of disorders and the abuse characteristics were differentially associated with the outcome variables. Having experienced sexual abuse from more than one perpetrator was the strongest predictor of psychopathology. Conclusions: The relationship between CSA and adult psychopathology is complex. Abuse characteristics have both unique and shared effects across different diagnoses.
McElroy, Eoin; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask; Hyland, Philip; Murphy, Siobhan; Murphy, Jamie
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a common occurrence and a robust, yet non-specific, predictor of adult psychopathology. While many demographic and abuse factors have been shown to impact this relationship, their common and specific effects remain poorly understood. This study sought to assess the prevalence of Axis I disorders in a large sample of help-seeking victims of sexual trauma, and to examine the common and specific effects of demographic and abuse characteristics across these different diagnoses. The participants were attendees at four treatment centres in Denmark that provide psychological therapy for victims of CSA (N=434). Axis I disorders were assessed using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between CSA characteristics (age of onset, duration, number of abusers, number of abusive acts) and 10 adult clinical syndromes. There was significant variation in the prevalence of disorders and the abuse characteristics were differentially associated with the outcome variables. Having experienced sexual abuse from more than one perpetrator was the strongest predictor of psychopathology. The relationship between CSA and adult psychopathology is complex. Abuse characteristics have both unique and shared effects across different diagnoses.
Euser, S.; Alink, L.R.A.; Tharner, A.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.
Background: Children without disabilities in out-of-home care have a higher risk of child sexual abuse [CSA (Euser et al. 2013)]. In this study, we examined the year prevalence of CSA in out-of-home care for children with a mild intellectual disability, and compared it with the prevalence in
Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit
An excessive, problematic gambling pattern has been regarded as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) for more than 3 decades (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1980). In this study, its latest prevalence in Macao (one of very few cities with legalized gambling in China and the Far East) was estimated with 2 major changes in the diagnostic criteria, suggested by the 5th edition of DSM (APA, 2013): (a) removing the "Illegal Act" criterion, and (b) lowering the threshold for diagnosis. A random, representative sample of 1,018 Macao residents was surveyed with a phone poll design in January 2013. After the 2 changes were adopted, the present study showed that the estimated prevalence rate of gambling disorder was 2.1% of the Macao adult population. Moreover, the present findings also provided empirical support to the application of these 2 recommended changes when assessing symptoms of gambling disorder among Chinese community adults. Personal risk factors of gambling disorder, namely being male, having low education, a preference for casino gambling, as well as high materialism, were identified.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is described by the American Medical Association as "a pattern of coercive behaviors that may include repeated battering and injury, psychological abuse, sexual assault, progressive social isolation, deprivation, and intimidation." The long-term consequences of IPV include health risks, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and staggering economic costs for health care of victims. Intimate partner violence is often underreported among women who seek medical attention. The current study seeks to address the issue of possible underreporting of IPV in orthopaedic fracture clinics by establishing prevalence rates of IPV among women seeking treatment for musculoskeletal injuries. Methods/Design We propose a cross-sectional multicenter study wherein 3,600 women will complete a self-reported written questionnaire across clinical sites in North America, Europe, and Australia. Recruitment of participants will take place at orthopaedic fracture clinics at each clinical site. The questionnaire will contain a validated set of questions used to screen for IPV, as well as questions that pertain to the participant's demographic, injury characteristics, and experiences with health care utilization. Female patients presenting to the orthopaedic fracture clinics will complete two validated self-reported written questionnaires (Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS to determine the prevalence of IPV in the past 12 months and in their lifetime. The two questionnaires were designed for rapid assessment of IPV status in emergency departments, family practice, and women's health clinics that we believe are similar to our intended setting of an orthopaedic clinic. Discussion If the prevalence of IPV among women attending orthopaedic clinics is greater than the current perceptions of orthopaedic surgeons, this study will serve to advocate for the continued education of medical
The middle school years should be identified as the first period at risk concerning the use of these drugs. Prevention programs should begin in early adolescence, focusing on delaying the use or abuse of any of the “gateway drugs.”
AJRH Managing Editor
Mots-clés: viol, viol, privation de base, l'âge du consentement, adolescentes, sévices sexuels. Introduction. Nonconsensual sex and other forms of sexual abuse are found in nearly all studied cultures of the world1. A nationally representative survey shows that about 6.6% of girls (15 – 19 years) had experienced sexual ...
Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye
Objective To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. Methods This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. Results From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. Conclusions The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births. PMID:22688539
Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye
To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births.
Full Text Available Objective: It was aimed to investigate whether neglected and abused pediatric patients are properly recognized and reported by emergency physicians in the emergency department (ED. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on patients between 0 and 6 years of age presenting with trauma to ED. Patients were examined again by an emergency medicine specialist independent from the physician who did the first intervention during clinical follow-up phase after notification of patients presenting with trauma to emergency physician. Asked radiological examinations and clinical follow-up were performed. The suspected abuse evaluation form, consisting 12 items, which was formed by considering the forms used in previous studies was used to examine the awareness of physicians in cases of abuse suspicion. Results: A total of 126 patients were included in our study. 54% of cases (n = 68 were male and mean age was determined to be 31.3 ± 18.9 months. It was found that no judicial records were written to 35.7% (n = 45 of our patients and that 11.1% (n = 5 of these patients were hospitalized. In 51.1% (n = 23 of patients without judicial records, multiple suspected abuse findings were identified. According to evaluation of first physician, it was found that 75.9% (n = 41 of discharged patients had no judicial records and was not considered as neglect and abuse. Conclusion: We conclude that detection rates of abuse can be increased by developing child abuse screening forms and ensuring the continuity of the necessary training programs. Keywords: Neglect, Abuse, Pediatric
intervention programs for the prevention of sexual assault revictimization , the perpetration of sexual assault, and the misuse of alcohol. A longitudinal... revictimization as adults characterize the third area. The last domain may be related to the first and consists of health problems that are of a...symptomatology, revictimization proneness, low self-esteem, and suicidal ideation and behaviors. Still other assessments of the sexual abuse literature
Augustine Vincent Umoh
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Spousal physical violence in pregnancy is a major public health and human rights concern. Identifying its prevalence and understanding the women’s attitude towards this phenomenon in our environment is key to developing strategies for effective intervention. Methods: This was a cross sectional study of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH, Uyo in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Information was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire instrument. Results: The mean age of respondents was 28.72 ± 4.47 years with a range of 16 – 48 years. The prevalence of spousal physical violence in the current pregnancy was 10.3%. 45.2% of those who experienced violence in the current pregnancy also experienced violence in other pregnancies while 73.7% of those who reported spousal violence in previous pregnancies also experienced violence in the current pregnancy. There was a significant relationship between spousal physical violence and the woman’s number of deliveries/parity (x2 = 16.145, p=0.025, marital status (x2=11.105, p=0.025 and husband’s occupation (x2=12.786, p=0.047. About half of the respondents expressed the view that spousal violence was not excusable under any circumstance while 22.7% believed that it could be excused under certain circumstances. Also 50.0% of those who experienced physical violence in the current pregnancy expressed the view that physical violence can be excusable. Most of the women (65.8% either kept the incidence of abuse secret or just did nothing. None reported to the police. Conclusion: Spousal physical abuse is still prevalent in our society. There is need to enlighten the women on this phenomenon in order to get their cooperation towards its eradication. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 731-736
Ruelas-Gonz?lez, Maria Guadalupe; Duarte-G?mez, Mar?a Beatriz; Flores-Hern?ndez, Sergio; Ortega-Altamirano, Doris Veronica; Cort?s-Gil, Jesus David; Taboada, Arianna; Ruano, Ana Lorena
Background Factors associated with violence and the abuse of older adults are understudied and its prevalence in Mexico has not been reported. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with violence and abuse of older adults in Mexico. Methods We used Mexico?s 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, which included a sample of 8,894 individuals who are 60?years or older and who self-reported a negative health event related to robbery, aggression or violence...
Ruelas-González, Maria Guadalupe; Duarte-Gómez, María Beatriz; Flores-Hernández, Sergio; Ortega-Altamirano, Doris Veronica; Cortés-Gil, Jesus David; Taboada, Arianna; Ruano, Ana Lorena
Factors associated with violence and the abuse of older adults are understudied and its prevalence in Mexico has not been reported. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with violence and abuse of older adults in Mexico. We used Mexico's 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, which included a sample of 8,894 individuals who are 60 years or older and who self-reported a negative health event related to robbery, aggression or violence in the previous 12 months. We used chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test to analyze the variables related to violence. Adjusted estimates were completed with multiple logistic regression models for complex surveys. The prevalence of violence was 1.7 % for both men and women. In 95 % of the cases, the aggression was from an unknown party. Verbal aggressions were the most prevalent (60 %). Among men, physical aggression was more common. Violence frequently occurred in the home (37.6 %); however, men were primarily assaulted in public places (42.4 %), in comparison to women (30.7 %). There were also differences in the risk factors for violence. Among men, risk was associated with younger age (60-64 years), higher education (secondary school or above) and higher socioeconomic status. Among women, risk was associated with depression, not being the head of the family, and region of the country. Violence against older adults presents differently for men and women, which means it is necessary to increase knowledge about the dynamics of the social determinants of violence, particularly in regards to the role of education among men. The relatively low prevalence found in this study may reflect the difficulty and fear of discussing the topic of violence. This may occur because of cultural factors, as well as by the perception of helplessness perpetuated by the scarce access to social programs that ensure protection and problem solving with regards to the complex social determinants of individual and
M. Schaub (Michael); C.E. Henderson (Craig); I. Pelc (Isidore); P. Tossmann (Peter); O. Phan (Olivier); V. Hendriks (Vincent); C. Rowe (Cindy); H. Rigter (Henk)
textabstractBackground: US-based trials have shown that Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) not only reduces substance abuse among adolescents, but also decreases mental and behavioural disorder symptoms, most notably externalising symptoms. In the INCANT trial, MDFT decreased the rate of
Tomori, Cecilia; McFall, Allison M; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Mehta, Shruti H; Nimmagadda, Nymisha; Anand, Santhanam; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Solomon, Suniti; Solomon, Sunil S; Celentano, David D
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a significant global public health problem, which is associated with negative psychosocial outcomes and high-risk sexual behaviors in adults. Men who have sex with men (MSM) often report higher prevalence of CSA history than the general population, and CSA may play a key role in MSM's greater vulnerability to HIV. This study examined the prevalence of CSA history and its impact on the number of recent HIV-related risk behaviors (unprotected anal intercourse, high number of male and female sexual partners, alcohol use, drug use, and sex work in prior 6 months) and lifetime risk behaviors and experiences (high number of lifetime male and female sexual partners, early sexual debut, injection drug use, sex work, and intimate partner violence) among 11,788 adult MSM recruited via respondent driven sampling across 12 sites in India, with additional insights from thematic analysis of qualitative research with 363 MSM from 15 sites. Nearly a quarter (22.4 %) of participants experienced CSA, with substantially higher prevalence of CSA in the South and among kothis (feminine sexual identity). Qualitative findings revealed that older, trusted men may target young and, especially, gender nonconforming boys, and perpetrators' social position facilitates nondisclosure. CSA may also initiate further same-sex encounters, including sex work. In multivariable analysis, MSM who experienced CSA had 21 % higher rate of recent (adjusted rate ratio [aRR = 1.21], 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-1.28), and 2.0 times higher lifetime (aRR = 2.04, 95 % CI: 1.75-2.38) HIV-related behaviors/experiences compared with those who did not. This large, mixed-methods study found high overall prevalence of CSA among MSM (22.4 %), with substantially higher prevalence among MSM residing in the South and among more feminine sexual identities. Qualitative findings highlighted boys' vulnerabilities to CSA, especially gender nonconformity, and CSA's role in
Full Text Available This study aimed to psychometrically test a Thai Stressful Life Events Rating Scale (TSLERS. Factor analysis was done on data collected from 313 patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse in Thailand from April to May, 2015. Results identified the following problems impacting physical and mental health: social relationship and social concerns, money, family life, life security, and career. Evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. TSLERS provided scientific and empirical data about stressful life events of patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse, and was suitable for stress detection and suggesting further innovations.
Abrams, Murray P; Mulligan, Ashlee D; Carleton, R Nicholas; Asmundson, Gordon J G
Sleep paralysis (SP) occurs when rapid eye movement (REM) activity and concomitant paralysis of the skeletal muscles persist as an individual awakens and becomes conscious of his/her surroundings. SP is often accompanied by frightening hallucinations that some researchers suggest may be confounded with memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA; [McNally, R. J., & Clancy, S. A. (2005). Sleep paralysis in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 595-602]). The purpose of this study was to evaluate relationships between CSA and SP. Based on self-report, participants (n=263) were categorized into three CSA groups: confirmed, unconfirmed, or no history of CSA. Relative to participants reporting no CSA history, those reporting CSA reported more frequent and more distressing episodes of SP. Post hoc analyses revealed that participants with clinically significant post-traumatic symptoms (irrespective of CSA history) also reported more frequent and more distressing episodes of SP. Significant correlations were found among SP indices and measures of post-traumatic symptoms, depression, dissociation, and absorption. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Boyle, Michael; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender
Background: Nationally representative Canadian data on the prevalence of child abuse and its relation with mental disorders are lacking. We used contemporary, nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of 3 types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence) and their association with 14 mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Methods: We obtained data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health, collected from the 10 provinces. Respondents aged 18 years and older were asked about child abuse and were selected for the study sample (n = 23 395). The survey had a multistage stratified cluster design (household response rate 79.8%). Results: The prevalence of any child abuse was 32% (individual types ranged from 8% to 26%). All types of child abuse were associated with all mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 7.9). We found a dose–response relation, with increasing number of abuse types experienced corresponding with greater odds of mental conditions. Associations between child abuse and attention deficit disorder, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts showed stronger effects for women than men. Interpretation: We found robust associations between child abuse and mental conditions. Health care providers, especially those assessing patients with mental health problems, need to be aware of the relation between specific types of child abuse and certain mental conditions. Success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:24756625
Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Boyle, Michael; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender
Nationally representative Canadian data on the prevalence of child abuse and its relation with mental disorders are lacking. We used contemporary, nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of 3 types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence) and their association with 14 mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We obtained data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health, collected from the 10 provinces. Respondents aged 18 years and older were asked about child abuse and were selected for the study sample (n = 23,395). The survey had a multistage stratified cluster design (household response rate 79.8%). The prevalence of any child abuse was 32% (individual types ranged from 8% to 26%). All types of child abuse were associated with all mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 7.9). We found a dose-response relation, with increasing number of abuse types experienced corresponding with greater odds of mental conditions. Associations between child abuse and attention deficit disorder, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts showed stronger effects for women than men. We found robust associations between child abuse and mental conditions. Health care providers, especially those assessing patients with mental health problems, need to be aware of the relation between specific types of child abuse and certain mental conditions. Success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. © 2014 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.
Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Tharner, Anne; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.
Background: Children without disabilities in out-of-home care have a higher risk of child sexual abuse [CSA (Euser et al. 2013)]. In this study, we examined the year prevalence of CSA in out-of-home care for children with a mild intellectual disability, and compared it with the prevalence in out-of-home care for non-disabled children and children…
Jain, Ram B
Prevalence of smoking is needed to estimate the need for future public health resources. To compute and compare smoking prevalence rates by using self-reported smoking statuses, two serum cotinine (SCOT) based biomarker methods, and one urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) based biomarker method. These estimates were then used to develop correction factors to be applicable to self-reported prevalences to arrive at corrected smoking prevalence rates. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2007-2012 for those aged ≥20 years (N = 16826) were used. Self-reported prevalence rate for the total population computed as the weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by weighted number of all participants was 21.6% and 24% when computed by weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by the weighted number of self-reported smokers and nonsmokers. The corrected prevalence rate was found to be 25.8%. A 1% underestimate in smoking prevalence is equivalent to not being able to identify 2.2 million smokers in US in a given year. This underestimation, if not corrected, could lead to serious gap in the public health services available and needed to provide adequate preventive and corrective treatment to smokers.
Bogstrand, Stig Tore; Normann, Per Trygve; Rossow, Ingeborg; Larsen, Margrete; Mørland, Jørg; Ekeberg, Øivind
Studies have found a high prevalence of both alcohol and other impairing psychoactive drugs in injured patient populations. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potentially impairing psychoactive substances in all patients admitted to a hospital emergency department with injuries from accidents, assault or deliberate self harm. A total of 1272 patients over 18 years of age, admitted to the hospital within 12h of injury, were included. Presence of alcohol was determined by an enzymatic method and other drugs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), both highly specific analytical methods for determining recent intake. There were 510 (40%) women in the sample. Of the patients, 38% of the women and 48% of the men had a positive blood sample for psychoactive substances on admission. The most prevalent psychoactive substance was alcohol (27%) with an average concentration of 1.5 g/kg. A further 21% of patients tested showed use of medicinal drugs, and 9% showed use of illicit substances. Cannabis was the most prevalent illicit drug (6.2%). Diazepam (7.4%) and zopiclone (5.3%) were the most prevalent medicinal drugs. In road traffic accidents, 25% of the car drivers had positive findings, about half of them for alcohol. Psychoactive substances were found in nearly half the patients admitted with injuries. The most common substance was alcohol. Alcohol was particularly related to violence, whereas medicinal drugs were most prevalent in accidents at home. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
McEachern, Adriana G.
Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities occurs in alarming proportions, although the prevalence and incidence of such abuse is difficult to determine. Although all states maintain statistics on child sexual abuse, the rate of victimization for individuals with disabilities is not specific. This paper reviews several studies conducted on…
This study set out to document the prevalence and predictors of sexual intercourse with persons below the age of consent (statutory rape) and outright sex without consent (rape) among out-of-school adolescents in an urban slum in Lagos, Nigeria. Data gathered from a survey of 480 participants were employed. About 14% ...
Robertson, Angela A.; Dill, Patricia L.; Husain, Jonelle; Undesser, Cynthia
The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among incarcerated juveniles in Mississippi was examined. A total of 482 adolescents completed a diagnostic questionnaire and a subset (N = 317) was assessed with face-to-face semistructured interview. Most of the study participants met criteria for one mental disorder, 71?85% depending on assessment method,…
van der Kooij, Inger W.; Nieuwendam, Josta; Bipat, Shandra; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.; Graafsma, Tobi L. G.
The prevalence of child maltreatment in Suriname has never been subjected to a reliable assessment. The only data available include rough estimates of a range of internationally comparable indicators extrapolated from child protection and police corps statistics for offenses against children. This
Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)
Thanh, D. H.; Sy, D. N.; Linh, N. D.; Hoan, T. M.; Dien, H. T.; Thuy, T. B.; Hoa, N. P.; Tung, L. B.; Cobelens, F.
Vietnam has an emerging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic (estimated population prevalence 0.5%), but valid data on HIV prevalence among tuberculosis (TB) patients are limited. Recent increases in TB notification rates among young adults may be related to HIV. To assess the prevalence of
Oct 8, 2013 ... persistent LSVC (6). There was a similar high prevalence, in the current study, of persistent LSVC in patients with tetralogy of. Fallot and coarctation of the aorta when compared to other studies (6, 8). This can be explained by the fact that the patient sample in the current study with these lesions was small.
Background: Persistent left superior vena cava (LSVC) is one of the common anomalies of the systemic veins. Its prevalence is 0.10.3% in the general population and is more common with congenital heart disease (CHD). The importance of detecting persistent LSVC prior to cardiac surgery is paramount for systemic veins ...
DEFINITIONS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE, SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT Substance abuse, the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances , is a psychological...continued drinking despite recognition that an ulcer was made worse by alcohol consumption ). 12 An important component of the epidemiology of substance ...DEPLOYMENT ON THE RATE OF MAJOR DEPRESSION AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY FROM 2001–2006 by Melissa K. Burke March 2011 Thesis
Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p abused in childhood (8...
Staiger, Petra K; Kyrios, Michael; Williams, James S; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Howard, Alexandra; Gruenert, Stefan
Residential drug rehabilitation is often seen as a treatment of last resort for people with severe substance abuse issues. These clients present with more severe symptoms, and frequent psychiatric comorbidities relative to outpatients. Given the complex nature of this client group, a high proportion of clients seeking treatment often do not enter treatment, and of those who do, many exit prematurely. Given the highly social nature of residential drug rehabilitation services, it has been argued that social anxieties might decrease the likelihood of an individual entering treatment, or increase the likelihood of them prematurely exiting treatment. The current paper reports on the protocol of a Randomised Control Trial which examined whether treatment of social anxiety prior to entry to treatment improves entry rates and retention in residential drug rehabilitation. A Randomised Control Trial comparing a social skills treatment with a treatment as usual control group was employed. The social skills training program was based on the principles of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, and was adapted from Ron Rapee's social skills training program. A permutated block randomisation procedure was utilised. Participants are followed up at the completion of the program (or baseline plus six weeks for controls) and at three months following entry into residential rehabilitation (or six months post-baseline for participants who do not enter treatment). The current study could potentially have implications for addressing social anxiety within residential drug treatment services in order to improve entry and retention in treatment. The results might suggest that the use of additional screening tools in intake assessments, a focus on coping with social anxieties in support groups for clients waiting to enter treatment, and greater awareness of social anxiety issues is warranted. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN) registration number: ACTRN12611000579998.
Delforterie, M.J.; Creemers, Hanneke E.; Agrawal, A.; Lynskey, M.T.; Jak, Suzanne; Huizink, A.
Introduction Higher prevalence rates of cannabis abuse/dependence and abuse/dependence criteria in 18–24 year old versus older cannabis users and in males versus females might reflect true differences in the prevalence of these disorders across age and gender or, alternatively, they could arise from
Narrow definitions of CSA which focus on repeated penetrative abuse yield prevalence rates of 2% and 4% for males and females respectively. Most abusers are male. About two thirds of all victims develop psychological symptoms and for a fifth these problems remain into adulthood. Children who have been sexually abused show a range of conduct and emotional problems coupled with oversexualized behaviour. Traumatic sexualization, stigmatization, betrayal and powerlessness are four ...
Full Text Available Introduction Teachers are one of the groups that in addition to teaching the students can have a role in control and identification of child abuse and violence in schools. Certainly, before doing any action and choose an approach to reduce misbehavior, we should be aware of situation, how and prevalence of child abuse in schools. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence and types of child abuse among teachers and its relationship with demographic characteristics and general health in teachers whom teaching in primary schools. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 350 female and male students and 82 teachers that performed with a multi-stage sampling method. The tools for data gathering included: questionnaire of teachers' personal and job characteristics (12 questions, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ (28 questions, and standard questionnaire of Conflict Tactics Scale. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of independent t-test, Mann–Whitney, chi-square, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, with SPSS version 16. Results Results of statistical analysis revealed that there wasn’t a significant association between general health and physical abuse. But there was a significant association between general health, emotional abuse and neglect. So that their general health score was higher (more score was not associated with better general health, the emotional abuse and neglect were also higher. Conclusions According to the results, it is suggested to design and implement some programs for prevention and reduction of violence in schools of our country and education of violence prevention methods should be part of school curriculum.
Mahiané, Severin Guy; Laeyendecker, Oliver
The study considers the problem of estimating incidence of a non remissible infection (or disease) with possibly differential mortality using data from a(several) cross-sectional prevalence survey(s). Fitting segmented polynomial models is proposed to estimate the incidence as a function of age, using the maximum likelihood method. The approach allows automatic search for optimal position of knots, and model selection is performed using the Akaike information criterion. The method is applied to simulated data and to estimate HIV incidence among men in Zimbabwe using data from both the NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043) and Zimbabwe Demographic Health Surveys (2005-2006). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lacey, Krim K; Mouzon, Dawne M; Govia, Ishtar O; Matusko, Niki; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Abelson, Jamie M; Jackson, James S
Lower rates of substance abuse are found among Black Americans compared to Whites, but little is known about differences in substance abuse across ethnic groups within the black population. We examined prevalence rates of substance abuse among Blacks across three geographic regions (US, Jamaica, Guyana). The study also sought to ascertain whether length of time, national context and major depressive episodes (MDE) were associated with substance abuse. We utilized three different data sources based upon probability samples collected in three different countries. The samples included 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 US Caribbean Black adults from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL). An additional 1,142 Guyanese Blacks and 1,176 Jamaican Blacks living in the Caribbean region were included from the 2005 NSAL replication extension study, Family Connections Across Generations and Nations (FCGN). Mental disorders were based upon DSM-IV criteria. For the analysis, we used descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression analytic procedures. Prevalence of substance abuse varied by national context, with higher rates among Blacks within the United States compared to the Caribbean region. Rates of substance abuse were lower overall for women, but differ across cohorts by nativity and length of time in the United States, and in association with major depressive episode. The study highlights the need for further examination of how substance abuse disparities between US-based and Caribbean-based populations may become manifested.
Maker, Azmaira H; Shah, Priti V; Agha, Zia
The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian,n = 72; Latina,n = 86) completed a self-report survey on childhood experiences and beliefs regarding physical abuse. Seventy-three percent of the South Asian and Middle Eastern sample, 65% of the East Asian sample, and 78% of the Latina sample reported experiencing at least one type of physical abuse. Significant differences in characteristics and perpetrators of abuse were found across groups. Demographic factors did not predict physical abuse. Experiencing physical abuse was the only predictor for acceptance of physical discipline and as a parental privilege or right across groups. Implications of alternate cultural models of family violence based on beliefs and exposure to violence are discussed.
Partridge, Bradley; Affleck, Julia
Emergency Department (ED) workers are prone to occupational violence, however the extent and impact of this may not be evenly felt across all roles in the ED. Explore: 1) the rate of verbal abuse and physical assaults experienced by ED staff, 2) perceptions of safety, 3) attitudes towards security officers, and 4) formal reporting of incidents. 330 ED workers were surveyed at four public hospitals in one metropolitan health service district in Queensland, Australia, including 179 nurses, 83 medical staff, 44 administration staff, 14 allied health, and 9 operational. Nurses were more likely to have been physically assaulted in the last six months and were less likely to feel safe. Most ED staff across all roles experienced verbal abuse. Nurses were better than medical staff at reporting instances of occupational violence although overall reporting across all roles was low. Staff who thought that security officers respond to incidents quickly and are a visible presence in the ED were more likely to feel safe in the ED. Workers in the ED, particularly nurses, experience high rates of verbal abuse and physical aggression and there may be a case for having designated security guards in the ED. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Nietert, Paul J; Rheingold, Alyssa A
Child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs often include a focus on increased reporting of suspected abuse, in addition to other prevention components such as helping trainees recognize suspected abusive situations. This study aimed to determine whether the Stewards of Children prevention program is associated with increased CSA reporting. Analyses examined whether rates of CSA allegations increased over time in three counties in South Carolina (SC) targeted with program dissemination efforts and whether CSA reporting trends differed between the three targeted counties and three comparison counties that did not experience substantial program dissemination. CSA allegation data were obtained by county and year for predissemination and postdissemination periods from the SC Department of Social Services. Results indicated that, for the targeted counties but not the nontargeted counties, estimated allegation rates increased significantly over time, corresponding with the onset of significant program dissemination efforts. Results also indicated significant between-groups differences in allegation trends for targeted versus nontargeted counties. These findings suggest that the Stewards prevention intervention may be associated with increased CSA allegations. However, results require replication with randomization of counties. Moreover, whether increased reporting is associated with decreased CSA incidence remains unknown. © The Author(s) 2015.
Meade, Christina S; Kershaw, Trace S; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J
The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population.
To investigate the relationship between smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence in Sweden. National smoking rates were found from Swedish National Statistics on smoking habits. Based on smoking rates for the years 1970-2010, periodontal disease prevalence estimates were calculated for the age bracket 40-70 years and smoking-associated relative risks between 2.0 and 20.0. The impact of smoking on the population was estimated according to the concept of population attributable fraction. The age-standardized smoking rate in Sweden declined from 44% in 1970 to 15% in 2010. In parallel with the smoking decline the calculated prevalence estimate of periodontal disease dropped from 26% to 12% assuming a 10-fold smoking-associated relative risk. Even at more moderate magnitudes of the relative risk, e.g. 2-fold or 5-fold, the prevalence decrease was quite tangible, suggesting that the current prevalence in Sweden is about 20-50% of the level 40 years ago. The population attributable fraction, estimating the portion of the disease that would have been avoided in the absence of smoking, was 80% in 1970 and 58% in 2010 at a ten-fold relative risk. Calculated estimates of periodontal disease prevalence are closely related to real changes in smoking rate. As smoking rate drops periodontal disease prevalence will drop. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn
Abuse of alcohol and drugs is an important and clinically challenging aspect of first-episode psychosis. Only a few studies have been carried out on large-sized and reliably characterized samples. These are reviewed, and the results are compared with a sample of 300 first-episode psychosis patients...... recruited for the TIPS (Early Treatment and Identification of Psychosis) study from Norway and Denmark. Prevalence rates from the literature vary from 6% to 44% for drugs and 3% to 35% for alcohol. In our sample, 23% abused drugs and 15% abused alcohol during the last 6 months. When compared to non...... of patients abusing both drugs and alcohol had poor premorbid academic functioning from early childhood. Overall, drug and alcohol abuse are highly prevalent in contemporary first-episode psychosis samples. In our study, substance abuse comorbidity did not generate differences on diagnosis, duration...
Dong, Jian; Yang, Lingfei; Zhang, Wenbao; Li, Haitao; Jiang, Tao; Qi, Xinwei; Song, Tao
To investigate the prevalence rate of ovine hepatic cystic echinococcosis (HCE) in sheep in Quaker Wusu area of Bayinbuluke of Xinjiang by ultrasonography and provide evidence for the prevention and control of HCE in sheep. The prevalence screening of HCE in sheep was conducted based on ultrasound images in this area in July 2014. The sheep were divided into different groups by dental age to calculate the age specific prevalence rate of HCE and analyzed the correlation between the dental age and the prevalence rate. The total prevalence rate of HCE in sheep in this area was 36.9%. The prevalence rates of none-calcified HCE and calcified HCE were 7.3% and 29.6%, respectively. The prevalence rates of none-calcified HCE in different age groups were 1.2% (1-2 years old), 1.4% (2-3 years old), 14.0% (3-4 years old), 10.0% (4-5 years old), 15.6% (5-6 years old) and 4.2% (>6 years old) respectively. The prevalence rate of calcified HCE in different age groups were 9.9% (1-2 years old), 16.2% (2-3 years old), 31.6% (3-4 years old), 47.8% (4-5 years old), 42.2% (5-6 years old) and 41.7% (>6 years old) respectively. The prevalence rate of HCE in 1-2 years old group was lower than those in other groups, the prevalence rate of HCE in age groups >3 years increased significantly. There was positive correlation between the prevalence rate of HCE and dental age (r = 0.372, R(2) = 0.107, F = 44.176, P = 0.000). HCE is highly endemic in Quaker Wusu area. The prevalence rate of HCE is low in sheep with young age and high in sheep aged 3-4 years. It is necessary to conduct early prevention of HCE in sheep in this area.
Dommelen, P. van; Kroon, M.L.A. de; Cameron, N.; Schonbeck, Y.; Buuren, S. van
Background It is known that height and body mass index (BMI) are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of) national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence
Langeland, W.; Hoogendoorn, A.W.; Mager, D.; Smit, J.H.; Draijer, N.
Estimates of the extent of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) within in the Roman Catholic Church (RCC) in the general population are difficult to find. The independent Commission of Inquiry into sexual abuse of minors in the RCC in the Netherlands collected population-based data to estimate its
López, Sílvia; Faro, Concepció; Lopetegui, Lourdes; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Monteagudo, Mònica; Avecilla-Palau, Àngels; Martínez, Cristina; Cobo, Jesús; Fernández, María-Isabel
This is a multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study of child and adolescent sexual abuse in women over 18 years in 24 primary care sexual and reproductive health centers in Catalonia. A total of 1,013 women were recruited; 345 (37.6%, 95% CI: 34.6-40.9) reported exposure to child sexual abuse: 32.4% disclosed being touched in a sexual way, and 9.6% reported completed sexual intercourse. Abuse occured before the age of 13 in 63.4% of respondents. The perpetrator was a relative or an acquaintance in almost 80% of cases. The risk was higher among women of Central or South American origin (OR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.33-6.12). Only 31.9% of women disclosed the abuse and 17.3% were blamed. Abuse that involved attempted or completed sexual intercourse was significantly associated with recurrence, physical violence, and revictimization in adulthood.
Full Text Available This cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study performed a structured questionnaire survey of a Taiwan population of male prison inmates to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs, intravenous drug users (IDUs, and drug abuse and to assess their knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The objective was to obtain data needed to control the spread of HIV. Out of 1000 questionnaires distributed, 908 valid questionnaires were returned. Inmates were classified into three groups: IDUs with HIV (13.5%, IDUs without HIV (49.3%, and non-IDUs without HIV (37.2%. A total of 115 (12.7% inmates had contracted STIs other than HIV. Compared with inmates without HIV, those with HIV were more likely to have a junior high school education level or lower and a history of the following: employment as a blue-collar laborer, STI, unprotected sexual activity, and needle sharing during intravenous drug use. The longer they have used intravenous drugs, the higher the probability that they shared needles, and the more likely they contracted with HIV. Taiwanese male inmates had a low level of knowledge about safe sex and HIV transmission routes, except for sharing needles. The three groups did not significantly differ in HIV-related knowledge. Given the high percentage of IDU and HIV infection in male prison inmates in Taiwan, interventions are needed to educate this population in the increased risk of contracting HIV/AIDS associated with unsafe sex and needle sharing during illicit drug use. Such interventions are crucial for limiting the spread of HIV as this population reintegrates with the community.
Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa
Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…
Daniel, Dennis; Wolbrink, Traci; Logvinenko, Tanya; Harper, Marvin; Burns, Jeffrey
Background Usage of online resources by clinicians in training and practice can provide insight into knowledge gaps and inform development of decision support tools. Although online information seeking is often driven by encountered patient problems, the relationship between disease prevalence and search rate has not been previously characterized. Objective This article aimed to (1) identify topics frequently searched by pediatric clinicians using UpToDate (http://www.uptodate.com) and (2) explore the association between disease prevalence rate and search rate using data from the Pediatric Health Information System. Methods We identified the most common search queries and resources most frequently accessed on UpToDate for a cohort of 18 children's hospitals during calendar year 2012. We selected 64 of the most frequently searched diseases and matched ICD-9 data from the PHIS database during the same time period. Using linear regression, we explored the relationship between clinician query rate and disease prevalence rate. Results The hospital cohort submitted 1,228,138 search queries across 592,454 sessions. The majority of search sessions focused on a single search topic. We identified no consistent overall association between disease prevalence and search rates. Diseases where search rate was substantially higher than prevalence rate were often infectious or immune/rheumatologic conditions, involved potentially complex diagnosis or management, and carried risk of significant morbidity or mortality. None of the examined diseases showed a decrease in search rate associated with increased disease prevalence rates. Conclusion This is one of the first medical learning needs assessments to use large-scale, multisite data to identify topics of interest to pediatric clinicians, and to examine the relationship between disease prevalence and search rate for a set of pediatric diseases. Overall, disease search rate did not appear to be associated with hospital
Brooks, Audrey J; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Meade, Christina S; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Calsyn, Donald A; Greenfield, Shelly F
HIV infection disproportionately impacts minorities; yet research on racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence and correlates of HIV risk behaviors is limited. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in the rates of HIV risk behaviors and whether the relationship between HIV risk factors and HIV risk behaviors varies by race/ethnicity in clients participating in NIDA Clinical Trials Network trials. The sample was 41% non-Hispanic White, 32% non-Hispanic Black, and 27% Hispanic (N = 2,063). HIV risk behaviors and measures of substance and psychosocial HIV risk factors in the past month were obtained. Non-Hispanic Blacks engaged in less HIV sexual risk behaviors overall than non-Hispanic Whites. While non-Hispanic Whites were the most likely to report any injection drug use, Hispanics engaged in the most HIV drug risk behaviors. Specific risk factors were differentially predictive of HIV risk behavior by race/ethnicity. Alcohol use severity was related to engaging in higher sex risk behaviors for non-Hispanic Blacks and Whites. Greater psychiatric severity was related to engaging in higher sex risk behaviors for non-Hispanic Whites. Drug use severity was associated with engaging in higher risk drug behaviors for non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics with the magnitude of the relationship stronger for Hispanics. These findings highlight the need for further research testing HIV risk prevention interventions within racial/ethnic groups to identify target behaviors or risk factors that are salient to inform HIV interventions. The present study provides a systematic examination of race/ethnicity differences in the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and HIV risk behaviors. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
David Cantón-Cortés (España
Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue delimitar las tasas de prevalencia de los abusos sexuales infantiles, así como, especialmente, clarificar las características más frecuentes de los abusos, las víctimas y los agresores. Los resultados demuestran la gravedad del problema de los abusos sexuales a menores, así como las circunstancias en que se producen y el perfil de los agresores y de las víctimas. Estos resultados serán relevantes para la planificación de programas de detección y prevención de los abusos. The aim of the present work was to delimit the prevalence of child sexual abuse, as well as, especially, to clarify the most frequent characteristics of abuse, survivors and perpetrators. Results show the problematic of sexual abuse to minors, as well as the circumstances under they take place and the profile of perpetrator and survivors. These results are relevant in order to design abuse detection and prevention programs
Larochelle, Marc R; Zhang, Fang; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Wharam, J Frank
In the second half of 2010, abuse-deterrent extended-release oxycodone hydrochloride (OxyContin; Purdue Pharma) was introduced and propoxyphene was withdrawn from the US market. The effect of these pharmaceutical market changes on opioid dispensing and overdose rates is unknown. To evaluate the association between 2 temporally proximate changes in the opioid market and opioid dispensing and overdose rates. Claims from a large national US health insurer were analyzed, using an interrupted time series study design. Participants included an open cohort of 31.3 million commercially insured members aged 18 to 64 years between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2012, with median follow-up of 20 months (last follow-up, December 31, 2012). Introduction of abuse-deterrent OxyContin (resistant to crushing or dissolving) on August 9, 2010, and market withdrawal of propoxyphene on November 19, 2010. Standardized opioid dispensing rates and prescription opioid and heroin overdose rates were the primary outcomes. We used segmented regression to analyze changes in outcomes from 30 quarters before to 8 quarters after the 2 interventions. Two years after the opioid market changes, total opioid dispensing decreased by 19% from the expected rate (absolute change, -32.2 mg morphine-equivalent dose per member per quarter [95% CI, -38.1 to -26.3]). By opioid subtype, the absolute change in dispensing by milligrams of morphine-equivalent dose per member per quarter at 2 years was -11.3 (95% CI, -12.4 to -10.1) for extended-release oxycodone, 3.26 (95% CI, 1.40 to 5.12) for other long-acting opioids, -8.19 (95% CI, -9.30 to -7.08) for propoxyphene, and -16.2 (95% CI, -18.8 to -13.5) for other immediate-release opioids. Two years after the market changes, the estimated overdose rate attributed to prescription opioids decreased by 20% (absolute change, -1.10 per 100,000 members per quarter [95% CI, -1.47 to -0.74]), but heroin overdose increased by 23% (absolute change, 0.26 per 100
Holsen, D S; Harthug, S; Myrmel, H
A study was performed in order to determine the prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies, the risk factors for HCV infection and the markers of hepatic disease in a population of prisoners. Of 101 new prisoners admitted to a Norwegian national prison over a three month period, 70 were included in the study, of whom 32 (46%) were anti-HCV positive. Intravenous drug abuse was the predominant risk factor for HCV infection, although a history of tattooing was found by logistic regression analysis to be a significant risk factor independent of intravenous drug abuse. Most anti-HCV positive prisoners had a history of previous incarcerations. Among the anti-HCV positive subjects, increased alanine aminotransferase (> 50 U/l) was found in 23 (72%). HCV infection was the major cause of hepatic abnormalities in the study population. Only 15 (47%) of the anti-HCV positive prisoners reported knowledge of previous hepatic disease.
Biagi, Federico; Raiteri, Alberto; Schiepatti, Annalisa; Klersy, Catherine; Corazza, Gino R
Some evidence suggests that prevalence of celiac disease in the general population is increasing over time. Because the prognosis of celiac disease was a dismal one before discovering the role of gluten, our aim was to investigate a possible relationship between children under-5 mortality rates and prevalence rates of celiac disease. Thanks to a literature review, we found 27 studies performed in 17 different countries describing the prevalence of celiac disease in schoolchildren; between 1995 and 2011, 4 studies were performed in Italy. A meta-analysis of prevalence rates was performed. Prevalence was compared between specific country under-5 mortality groups, publication year, and age. In the last decades, under-5 mortality rates have been decreasing all over the world. This reduction is paralleled by an increase of the prevalence of celiac disease. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -63%, 95% confidence interval -82% to -33% (P celiac disease in the general population. In the near future, the number of patients with celiac disease will increase, thanks to the better environmental conditions that nowadays allow a better survival of children with celiac disease.
Sun, Yanming; Guo, Wei; Li, Guiying; He, Shufang; Lu, Hongyan
The objective of this study was to monitor the trend of addiction drug use and its relationship with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female drug users (FDUs). Serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted during 2010-2014 among FDUs in Beijing to collect information on addiction drug usage, sexual behaviors, and STI prevalence. Characteristics were analyzed and compared between traditional and synthetic drug users among FDUs by logistic regression method. A total of 3859 FDUs were surveyed during 2010-2014, with the median age being 32.7 years old. The proportion of synthetic drug users among FDUs increased from 43.7% in 2010 to 70.7% in 2014. Compared with traditional drug users, synthetic drug users were younger (P drug FDUs. However, the engagement of commercial sexual activities (P drug users were significantly higher than traditional drug users. Synthetic drug abuse appears to be correlated with commercial sex behavior and higher syphilis prevalence among FDUs. Tailored strategies on health education to curb the prevalence of synthetic drug abuse are urgently needed in Beijing.
Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Tharner, Anne; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J
Children without disabilities in out-of-home care have a higher risk of child sexual abuse [CSA (Euser et al. 2013)]. In this study, we examined the year prevalence of CSA in out-of-home care for children with a mild intellectual disability, and compared it with the prevalence in out-of-home care for non-disabled children and children in the general population. Professionals (N = 104) from out-of-home care facilities reported cases of CSA that occurred in 2010 for the children they worked with (N = 1650). In out-of-home care for children with a mild intellectual disability, 9.8 per 1000 children were victims of CSA. This prevalence was significantly higher than in regular out-of-home care and in the general population. Children with a mild intellectual disability in out-of-home care have an increased risk of CSA. Adequate education and support for both children and caregivers is necessary to recognize and prevent further sexual abuse. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available People across the world are running on a daily basis to improvetheir health status. However, running can predispose an individual to injuryto the back and lower limb. Baseline data on prevalence, incidence rate ofinjury and aetiological factors associated with running injuries are neededby physiotherapists to develop and implement effective prevention programmesto allow optimal performance in runners. Thus, the purpose of this study wasto determine the prevalence and incidence of injuries in runners at a localathletic club.Methods: A prospective, non-experimental cohort study was conductedover a 16 week period. A sample of 50 runners completed a self-administeredquestionnaire and an injury report form recording injuries sustained during the 16 week study period. Injury prevalence andcumulative incidence was calculated as a proportion rate along with 95% confidence interval.Results: The prevalence rate of injuries was 32%. The incidence rate of injuries was 0.67 per 1000km run (95% CI: 0.41- 1.08.The most common anatomical sites for new injuries were the calf (20% and the knee (18%.Conclusions: The study found a moderate prevalence and incidence rate of injury in runners, thus the need for physiotherapyledinjury surveillance and prevention programmes have been highlighted.
Sandra Jobke; Erich Kasten; Christian Vorwerk
Sandra Jobke1, Erich Kasten2, Christian Vorwerk31Institute of Medical Psychology, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Otto-von Guericke-University of Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; 2Institute of Medical Psychology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck, GermanyPurpose: The prevalence rates of myopia vary between 5% in Australian Aborigines to 84% in Hong Kong and Taiwan, 30% in Norwegian adults, and 49.5% in Swedish schoolchildren. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ...
Canfield, Martha; Radcliffe, Polly; D'Oliveira, Ana Flavia Pires Lucas
Abstract Introduction and Aims Controlling behaviours are highly prevalent forms of non‐physical intimate partner violence (IPV). The prevalence of perpetrating controlling behaviours and technology‐facilitated abuse (TFA) was compared by men receiving substance use treatment in England (n = 223) and Brazil (n = 280). Factors associated with perpetrating these behaviours towards their current/most recent partner and their association with other types of IPV were explored. Design and Methods Secondary analysis from two cross‐sectional studies was performed. Data on socio‐demographic characteristics, infidelity, IPV perpetration and victimisation, adverse childhood experiences (ACE), attitudes towards gender relations and roles, substance use, depressive symptoms and anger expression were collected. Results Sixty‐four percent (143/223) and 33% (73/223) of participants in England and 65% (184/280) and 20% (57/280) in Brazil reported controlling behaviours and TFA, respectively, during their current/most recent relationship. Excluding IPV victimisation from the multivariate models; perpetrating controlling behaviours was associated with a higher number of ACE, higher anger expression (England) and severe physical IPV perpetration (Brazil), and perpetrating TFA was associated with younger age. Including both IPV victimisation and perpetration in the multivariate models; perpetrating controlling behaviour was associated with experiencing a higher number of ACE, higher anger expression (England), emotional IPV victimisation (England) and experiencing controlling behaviour from a partner (England). The perpetration of TFA was associated with younger age and experiencing TFA from a partner. Conclusions Technological progress provides opportunities for perpetrators to control and abuse their partners. Controlling behaviours and TFA should be addressed to reduce IPV perpetration by males in substance use treatment. [Gilchrist G, Canfield M,Radcliffe P, d
Zweig, Janine M.; Dank, Meredith; Yahner, Jennifer; Lachman, Pamela
To date, little research has documented how teens might misuse technology to harass, control, and abuse their dating partners. This study examined the extent of cyber dating abuse--abuse via technology and new media--in youth relationships and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. A total of 5,647 youth from ten schools in three…
Faezeh Tatari; Sayyed Ali Mousavi; Mansour Rezaei; Elahe Khoshbakht
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress disorder, whose prevalence was 2-15%. PTSD is associated with mood, anxiety, personality and substance use disorders (SUD). The substance user patients with PTSD have more problems, and severity of symptoms is more than non-substance users with PTSD patients. These patients may be nervous, aggressive, and restless and their function will be affected in many aspects. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between agg...
Full Text Available Objective: There are many traumatic events (including natural disasters, physical, psychological and sexual abuse that may befall children and there is clear evidence that such experiences can produce a plethora of negative psychological effects. Children’s exposure to such traumas has been associated with a wide variety of negative mental health outcomes, including anxiety and depression, post-traumatic stress and dissociation and anger and aggression. It seems that the impacts of traumatic events are significantly related to type and intensity of trauma. Materials & Method: Through a systematized clustral sampling 3042 male and female students from junior high school who were participated in a survey study for investigating point prevalence of child abuse, completed Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A and Child Abuse Self-report Scale (CASRS. After recognition of abused children, they were compared based on trauma symptoms. TSCC-A is a self-report measure of post-traumatic distress and related psychological symptomatology in male and female children aged 8-16 years. It is useful in the evaluation of children who have experienced traumatic events, including physical and sexual assault, victimization by peers, major losses, the witnessing of violence done to others and natural disasters. TSCC-A makes no reference to sexual issues. CASRS is a self-report scale to assess child abuse and neglect with 38 items and four subscales (psychological abuse, neglect, physical and sexual abuse. Results: Considering the type of traumatic experiences, the results showed that abused children significantly received higher scores in scales and subscales of TSCC-A than nonabused group. They specially reported more symptoms (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, anger and dissociation comparing normal children. Conclusion: It is concluded that the type and rate of traumatic event is related to intensity of symptomatology.
Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina; Gomez, Rashika Miranjani
This study examined the prevalence rate of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Malaysian primary school children. In all 934 Malaysian parents and teachers completed ratings of their children using a scale comprising DSM-IV-TR ODD symptoms. Results showed rates of 3.10%, 3.85%, 7.49% and 0.64% for parent, teacher, parent or teacher ("or-rule"), and parent and teacher ("and-rule") ratings, respectively. When the functional impairment criterion was not considered, the rate reported by parents was higher at 13.28%. The theoretical, diagnostic and cultural implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Park, Soo Heon
Helicobacter pylori can cause variety of upper gastrointestinal disorders such as peptic ulcer, mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-lymphoma, and gastric cancer. The prevalence of H. pylori infection has significantly decreased in Korea since 1998 owing to active eradication of H. pylori. Along with its decrease, the prevalence of peptic ulcer has also decreased. However, the mean age of gastric ulcer increased and this is considered to be due to increase in NSAID prescription. Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Korea and Japan, and IARC/WHO has classified H. pylori as class one carcinogen of gastric cancer. Despite the decreasing prevalence of H. pylori infection, the total number of gastric cancer in Korea has continuously increased from 2006 to 2011. Nevertheless, the 5 year survival rate of gastric cancer patients significantly increased from 42.8% in 1993 to 67% in 2010. This increase in survival rate seems to be mainly due to early detection of gastric cancer and endoscopic mucosal dissection treatment. Based on these findings, the prevalence of peptic ulcer is expected to decrease even more with H. pylori eradication therapy and NSAID will become the main cause of peptic ulcer. Although the prevalence of gastric cancer has not changed along with decreased the prevalence of H. pylori, gastric cancer is expected to decrease in the long run with the help of eradication therapy and endoscopic treatment of precancerous lesions.
Milne, Catherine T; Trigilia, Donna; Houle, Tracy L; Delong, Sandra; Rosenblum, David
Information about pressure ulcer prevalence, prevention, and optimal management strategies in the long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) setting is sparse. Although care processes in other patient care settings have been reported to affect pressure ulcer prevalence rates, the effect of such programs in the LTACH is unknown. To reduce perceived above-average pressure ulcer prevalence rates and improve care processes, a 108-bed LTACH used a failure mode and effects analysis to identify and address high-priority areas for improvement. Areas in need of improvement included a lack of 1) wound care professionals, 2) methods to consistently document prevention and wound data, and 3) an interdisciplinary wound care team approach, as well as a faulty electronic medical record. While prevalence data were collected, policies and procedures based on several published guidelines were developed and incorporated into the pressure ulcer plan of care by the newly established wound care team. Improved assessment and documentation methods, enhanced staff education, revised electronic records, wound care product reviews, and a facility-wide commitment to improved care resulted in a reduction of facility-acquired pressure ulcer prevalence from 41% at baseline to an average of 4.2% during the following 12 months as well as fewer missing electronic record data (improves care practices and reduces pressure ulcer prevalence in the LTACH. Studies to increase knowledge about the LTACH patient population and their unique needs and risk profiles are needed.
Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause
Frerker, Rick; Zhang, Wenlin; Jeevarajan, Judith; Bragg, Bobby J.
Most cells survived the 3 amp (A) over-discharge at room temperature for 2 hours. The cell that failed was the LTC-114 after high rate discharge of 500 mA similar to the results of the 1 A over-discharge test. Most cells opened during 0.05 Ohm short circuit test without incident but three LTC-111 cells exploded apparently due to a lack of a thermal cutoff switch. The LTC-114 cells exposed to a hard short of 0.05 Ohms recovered but the LTC-114 cells exposed to a soft short of 1 Ohm did not. This is probably due to the activation of a resetable fuse during a hard short. Fresh cells tend to survive exposure to higher temperatures than cells previously discharged at high rate (1 Amp). LTC-111 cells tend to vent at lower temperatures than the all LTC-114 cells and the LTC-115 cells that were previously discharged at rates exceeding 1 Amp.
Full Text Available Background One of the groups predisposed to viral coinfection of hepatitis B and C (HCV and HBV is injecting drug prisoners. The crimes, they were sentenced to prison for, are often the same high risk behavior, which predispose individuals to high risk diseases like AIDS and hepatitis. Because coinfection of hepatitis B and C complicates the clinical course, management, and therapy, the literature on the prevalence of HBV/HCV coinfection among intravenous drug abuse inmates in Iran is sparse. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C coinfection in drug abuse prisoners and its association with demographic characteristics and high risk behaviors. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on drug abuse prisoners during 2009 in Isfahan. Data were collected by questionnaire, including high risk behaviors, medical and surgery record, and demographic characteristics. Blood samples were tested for HBsAg and HCV Ab. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson test. Results The results showed that 20 inmates (2.1% had coinfection of HBV and HCV. Also a significant correlation exists between coinfection of HBV and HCV and dental care (P = 0.02, using a shared needle (P = 0.01, and history of imprisonment (P = 0.01. Conclusions With regard to the results of the present research, in order to lower the risk of these diseases transmission in prison, some interventions are recommended as follows: informing the prisoners and enhancing their awareness about high risk behaviors, screening them prior to entry and during their stay, giving them sterile syringes, and supervising more carefully over entrance of drugs into the prison.
Meza, Rafael; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio
Mexico diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. However, no national incidence estimates exist, hampering the assessment of diabetes trends and precluding the development of burden of disease analyses to inform public health policy decision-making. Here we provide evidence regarding current magnitude of diabetes in Mexico and its future trends. We used data from the Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey, and age-period-cohort models to estimate prevalence and incidence of self-reported diagnosed diabetes by age, sex, calendar-year (1960-2012), and birth-cohort (1920-1980). We project future rates under three alternative incidence scenarios using demographic projections of the Mexican population from 2010-2050 and a Multi-cohort Diabetes Markov Model. Adult (ages 20+) diagnosed diabetes prevalence in Mexico increased from 7% to 8.9% from 2006 to 2012. Diabetes prevalence increases with age, peaking around ages 65-68 to then decrease. Age-specific incidence follows similar patterns, but peaks around ages 57-59. We estimate that diagnosed diabetes incidence increased exponentially during 1960-2012, roughly doubling every 10 years. Projected rates under three age-specific incidence scenarios suggest diabetes prevalence among adults (ages 20+) may reach 13.7-22.5% by 2050, affecting 15-25 million individuals, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 3 to 1 in 2. Diabetes prevalence in Mexico will continue to increase even if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Continued implementation of policies to reduce obesity rates, increase physical activity, and improve population diet, in tandem with diabetes surveillance and other risk control measures is paramount to substantially reduce the burden of diabetes in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meza, Rafael; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio
Introduction Mexico diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. However, no national incidence estimates exist, hampering the assessment of diabetes trends and precluding the development of burden of disease analyses to inform public health policy decision-making. Here we provide evidence regarding current magnitude of diabetes in Mexico and its future trends. Methods We used data from the Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey, and age-period-cohort models to estimate prevalence and incidence of self-reported diagnosed diabetes by age, sex, calendar-year (1960–2012), and birth-cohort (1920–1980). We project future rates under three alternative incidence scenarios using demographic projections of the Mexican population from 2010–2050 and a Multi-cohort Diabetes Markov Model. Results Adult (ages 20+) diagnosed diabetes prevalence in Mexico increased from 7% to 8.9% from 2006 to 2012. Diabetes prevalence increases with age, peaking around ages 65–68 to then decrease. Age-specific incidence follows similar patterns, but peaks around ages 57–59. We estimate that diagnosed diabetes incidence increased exponentially during 1960–2012, roughly doubling every 10 years. Projected rates under three age-specific incidence scenarios suggest diabetes prevalence among adults (ages 20+) may reach 13.7–22.5% by 2050, affecting 15–25 million individuals, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 3 to 1 in 2. Conclusions Diabetes prevalence in Mexico will continue to increase even if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Continued implementation of policies to reduce obesity rates, increase physical activity, and improve population diet, in tandem with diabetes surveillance and other risk control measures is paramount to substantially reduce the burden of diabetes in Mexico. PMID:26546108
An analysis of three health surveys in the Dutch working population is described, aimed at the identification of Dutch trades and professions with relative high and low prevalence rates of back pain. The sample was representative of the working population in the Netherlands and consisted of 5840 men
Cao Yanxia; Su Jian; Wang Bingsheng; Wu Songhong; Dai Ruiting; Cao Caixia
Objective: To analyse the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with dyspnea and to explore the predisposing causes and its early clinical manifestations. Methods: Retrospective analysis was done in 461 patients with dyspnea performed 99 Tc m -macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion imaging and 99 Tc m -DTPA ventilation imaging or 99 Tc m -MAA perfusion imaging and chest X-ray examination. Among them, 48 cases without apparent disease were considered as control group, whereas the remaining patients with other underlying illnesses as patients group. PEMS statistics software package was used for estimation of prevalence rate, χ 2 test and PE risk factor analysis. Results: There were 251 PE patients among 461 patients, the prevalence rate [ (π)=95% confidence interval (CI) ] was: lower extremity thrombosis and varicosity (80.79-95.47 ), post cesarean section (55.64-87.12), lower extremity bone surgery or fracture (52.76-87.27 ), cancer operation (52.19-78.19), atrial fibrillation or heart failure (53.30-74.88), obesity (23.14-50.20), post abdominal surgery (20.23-59.43), diabetes (19.12-63.95), chronic bronchitis (1.80-23.06), normal control group (3.47-22.66). Except chronic bronchitis, PE prevalence rate between patients group and control group had significant difference (P 99 Tc m -MAA and DTPA lung imaging should be done as early as possible. (authors)
Prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a nationwide sample of Arab high school students: association with family characteristics, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and quality of life.
Al-Fayez, Ghenaim A; Ohaeri, Jude U; Gado, Osama M
The objectives were first, to assess the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a stratified random sample of Kuwaiti high school students and second, to explore the association of child abuse with parental characteristics, subjective quality of life (QOL), self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. We assessed the students for experience of abuse by their mothers, fathers, and others, using standard scales on psychological, physical and sexual abuse. They also completed the short version of the World Health Organization's QOL Instrument; the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and a scale for anxiety and depression. We obtained responses from 4,467 students (49% boys), mean age 16.9 years. About 18, 15, and 18%, indicated that for at least six times in the past 12 months, they experienced psychological abuse by their mothers, fathers and others, respectively. The corresponding figures for lifetime experience were similar. The respective figures for experience of physical abuse during the past 12 months were 4.3, 5.8, and 6.4%. For lifetime experience, the corresponding figures were 3.4, 5.3, and 5.8%. The girls had significantly higher physical/psychological abuse scores. There were no significant gender differences in the prevalence of sexual attacks (8.6%) and someone threatening the subjects with sex (5.9%). The prevalence of someone sexually exposing themselves to the students (15.3%) and unwanted touching of sexual parts (17.4%) was significantly higher among the boys. Over one-third of those abused had experienced multiple abuses. Child abuse was significantly associated with parental divorce, diminished QOL and self-esteem, high scores on anxiety/depression, and difficulty with studies, and social relationships. In the regression analysis involving only the abuse indices, psychological abuse by mothers was the most important predictor of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem (11.5-19.7% of variance). Good quality of
Raissian, Kerri M
This article used child maltreatment reports from New York State from 2000 to 2010 to investigate the relationship between county level unemployment and county level child maltreatment rates. Models showed that a 1 percentage point increase in unemployment rates reduced the child report rate by approximately 4.25%. Report rates for young children (children under the age of 6) and older children (children ages 6 and over) responded similarly to changes in local unemployment, but the relationship between unemployment rates and child maltreatment reports did vary by a county's metropolitan designation. The negative relationship between unemployment and child maltreatment reports was largely contained to metropolitan counties. The relationship between unemployment and child maltreatment reports in non-metropolitan counties was often positive but not statistically significant. These findings were robust to a number of specifications. In alternate models, the county's mandated reporter employment rate was added as a control; the inclusion of this variable did not alter the results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marc L. Molendijk
Full Text Available BackgroundThe incubus phenomenon is a paroxysmal sleep-related disorder characterized by compound hallucinations experienced during brief phases of (apparent wakefulness. The condition has an almost stereotypical presentation, characterized by a hallucinated being that exerts pressure on the thorax, meanwhile carrying out aggressive and/or sexual acts. It tends to be accompanied by sleep paralysis, anxiety, vegetative symptoms, and feelings of suffocation. Its prevalence rate is unknown since, in prior analyses, cases of recurrent isolated sleep paralysis with/without an incubus phenomenon have been pooled together. This is unfortunate, since the incubus phenomenon has a much greater clinical relevance than isolated sleep paralysis.MethodsPubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched for prevalence studies of the incubus phenomenon, and a meta-analysis was performed.ResultsOf the 1,437 unique records, 13 met the inclusion criteria, reporting on 14 (k independent prevalence estimates (total N = 6,079. The pooled lifetime prevalence rate of the incubus phenomenon was 0.19 [95% confidence interval (CI = 0.14–0.25, k = 14, N = 6,079] with heterogeneous estimates over different samples. In selected samples (e.g., patients with a psychiatric disorder, refugees, and students, prevalence rates were nearly four times higher (0.41, 95% CI = 0.25–0.56, k = 4, n = 1,275 than in the random samples (0.11, 95% CI = 0.08–0.14, k = 10, n = 4,804. This difference was significant (P < 0.001.ConclusionThis review and meta-analysis yielded a lifetime prevalence of the incubus phenomenon in the general population of 0.11 and, in selected samples, of 0.41. This is slightly higher than the prevalence rates in previous analyses that included cases of recurrent isolated sleep paralysis without an incubus phenomenon. Based on the condition’s robust clinical presentation and the relatively high prevalence rates, we advocate
Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane
Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion. © The Author(s) 2016.
Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth
Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…
Rogers, Ralph; Baird, Janette; He, Jun Kit; Adams, Charles; Mello, Michael
Level I trauma centers are required to provide screening and brief interventions for alcohol abuse. The World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) is a validated screening measure for all substances of abuse. This study is the first to use the ASSIST to screen a trauma population. A cross-sectional screening study using the ASSIST was conducted which included all patients admitted to the trauma service at Rhode Island Hospital during July and August 2012 who met inclusion criteria. The ASSIST categorized 25% of participants as needing a brief intervention for alcohol and an additional 6.3% as needing more intensive treatment. At least a brief intervention was indicated for at least one other substance besides alcohol in 37% of participants. The ability of the ASSIST to identify misuse of multiple substances makes it a good candidate for the screening measure used by trauma centers.
Mucedero, Manuela; Ricchiuti, Maria Rosaria; Cozza, Paola; Baccetti, Tiziano
The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and distribution of buccally displaced canines (BDCs) in subjects scheduled for orthodontic treatment and to investigate the association between BDC and sagittal, vertical, and transverse dentoskeletal relationships. A study sample of 1852 subjects was examined, and it was divided randomly into two groups. A first group of 252 subjects served as control group: the 'reference' prevalence rates for the examined parameters were calculated in this group. The remaining 1600 subjects comprised the sample from which the experimental BDC group was derived. Presence of unilateral or bilateral maxillary BDC, ANB, and SN GOGn angles for sagittal and vertical skeletal relationships, intercanine and intermolar distances, and tooth crowding at the maxillary arch were recorded for each subject. The statistical significance of differences between the BDC and the control groups in transverse relations and tooth crowding at the upper arch was tested by means of independent sample t-tests. Chi-square tests were performed to compare the prevalence rates of BDC and also sagittal and vertical skeletal features in the two groups. The prevalence rate of BDC was 3.06 per cent with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. BDC subjects exhibited a significant association with hyperdivergent skeletal relationships (38.8%), reduced maxillary intercanine width, and crowding in the upper arch. The presence of specific dentoskeletal characteristics can be considered as a risk indicator for developing a buccal displacement of upper permanent canines.
Parvaresh, Nooshin; Mazhari, Shahrzad; Mohamadi, Neda; Mohamadi, Najmeh
Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 5% of children. In addition to pharmacotherapy, non-drug treatments such as appropriate parenting are also very important in the treatment of these children. Diagnosis and treatment of parents with psychiatric disorders and substance abuse and evaluation of the frequency of these disorders in parents is critical. Methods In this case-control study, 200 parents were studied. The target population included parents of 7 to 12 yea...
Melgarejo, Jesus D.; Maestre, Gladys E; Thijs, Lutgarde
Hypertension is a major global health problem, but prevalence rates vary widely among regions. To determine prevalence, treatment, and control rates of hypertension, we measured conventional blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP in 6546 subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, recruited from 10...... community-dwelling cohorts on 3 continents. We determined how between-cohort differences in risk factors and socioeconomic factors influence hypertension rates. The overall prevalence was 49.3% (range between cohorts, 40.0%-86.8%) for conventional hypertension (conventional BP ≥140/90 mm Hg) and 48.7% (35.......2%-66.5%) for ambulatory hypertension (ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg). Treatment and control rates for conventional hypertension were 48.0% (33.5%-74.1%) and 38.6% (10.1%-55.3%) respectively. The corresponding rates for ambulatory hypertension were 48.6% (30.5%-71.9%) and 45.6% (18.6%-64.2%). Among 1677 untreated subjects...
Plonis, Juris; Bokums, Kristaps; Cauce, Vinita; Miklasevics, Edvins; Vaganovs, Peteris; Irmejs, Arvids; Gardovskis, Janis; Vjaters, Egils
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common form of cancer in males worldwide. One of the highest PCa-related mortality rates in the world is observed in Latvia. Our study included male patients diagnosed with PCa between 1990 and 2012. We analyzed incidence, prevalence and mortality trends using joinpoint analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed for 5-, 10-, 15- and 20-year overall survival and cancer-specific survival rates. A total of 14,083PCa patients with a mean age of initial PCa diagnosis being 70.1 (SD 8.6) was registered. The standardized incidence rates (per 100,000) increased from 18.9 in 1990 to 74.7 in 2012, while the standardized prevalence rates (per 100,000) increased from 69.9 in 1990 to 437.6 in 2012. Standardized PCa mortality rates (per 100,000) also rose from 13.2 in 1990 to 27.2 in 2006 followed by statistically insignificant decrease continuing up to 2012. The mean 5-year cancer-specific survival rates increased from 43.6% in 1990 to 70.7% in 2007, and the mean 10-year cancer-specific survival rates from 32.9% in 1990 to 40.5% in 2001. This study revealed that the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates increased between 1990 and 2012, and although the 5- and 10-year overall and cancer-specific survival rates improved over the reviewed period they still needed to get better. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Johnson-Davis, Kamisha L; Sadler, Aaron J; Genzen, Jonathan R
Urine drug screens are commonly performed to identify drug use or monitor adherence to drug therapy. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the true positive and false positive rates of one of our in-house urine drug screen panels. The urine drugs of abuse panel studied consists of screening by immunoassay then positive immunoassay results were confirmed by mass spectrometry. Reagents from Syva and Microgenics were used for the immunoassay screen. The screen was performed on a Beckman AU5810 random access automated clinical analyzer. The percent of true positives for each immunoassay was determined. Agreement with previously validated GC-MS or LC-MS-MS confirmatory methods was also evaluated. There were 8,825 de-identified screening results for each of the drugs in the panel, except for alcohol (N = 2,296). The percent of samples that screened positive were: 10.0% for amphetamine/methamphetamine/3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), 12.8% for benzodiazepines, 43.7% for opiates (including oxycodone) and 20.3% for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The false positive rate for amphetamine/methamphetamine was ∼14%, ∼34% for opiates (excluding oxycodone), 25% for propoxyphene and 100% for phencyclidine and MDMA immunoassays. Based on the results from this retrospective study, the true positive rate for THC drug use among adults were similar to the rate of illicit drug use in young adults from the 2013 National Survey; however, our positivity rate for cocaine was higher than the National Survey. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn
Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…
Melgarejo, Jesus D; Maestre, Gladys E; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Boggia, José; Casiglia, Edoardo; Hansen, Tine W; Imai, Yutaka; Jacobs, Lotte; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Li, Yan; Malyutina, Sofia; Nikitin, Yuri; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A
Hypertension is a major global health problem, but prevalence rates vary widely among regions. To determine prevalence, treatment, and control rates of hypertension, we measured conventional blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP in 6546 subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, recruited from 10 community-dwelling cohorts on 3 continents. We determined how between-cohort differences in risk factors and socioeconomic factors influence hypertension rates. The overall prevalence was 49.3% (range between cohorts, 40.0%-86.8%) for conventional hypertension (conventional BP ≥140/90 mm Hg) and 48.7% (35.2%-66.5%) for ambulatory hypertension (ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg). Treatment and control rates for conventional hypertension were 48.0% (33.5%-74.1%) and 38.6% (10.1%-55.3%) respectively. The corresponding rates for ambulatory hypertension were 48.6% (30.5%-71.9%) and 45.6% (18.6%-64.2%). Among 1677 untreated subjects with conventional hypertension, 35.7% had white coat hypertension (23.5%-56.2%). Masked hypertension (conventional BP hypertension rates. Higher social and economic development, measured by the Human Development Index, was associated with lower rates of conventional and ambulatory hypertension. In conclusion, high rates of hypertension in all cohorts examined demonstrate the need for improvements in prevention, treatment, and control. Strategies for the management of hypertension should continue to not only focus on preventable and modifiable risk factors but also consider societal issues. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Gilchrist, Gail; Canfield, Martha; Radcliffe, Polly; D'Oliveira, Ana Flavia Pires Lucas
Controlling behaviours are highly prevalent forms of non-physical intimate partner violence (IPV). The prevalence of perpetrating controlling behaviours and technology-facilitated abuse (TFA) was compared by men receiving substance use treatment in England (n = 223) and Brazil (n = 280). Factors associated with perpetrating these behaviours towards their current/most recent partner and their association with other types of IPV were explored. Secondary analysis from two cross-sectional studies was performed. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, infidelity, IPV perpetration and victimisation, adverse childhood experiences (ACE), attitudes towards gender relations and roles, substance use, depressive symptoms and anger expression were collected. Sixty-four percent (143/223) and 33% (73/223) of participants in England and 65% (184/280) and 20% (57/280) in Brazil reported controlling behaviours and TFA, respectively, during their current/most recent relationship. Excluding IPV victimisation from the multivariate models; perpetrating controlling behaviours was associated with a higher number of ACE, higher anger expression (England) and severe physical IPV perpetration (Brazil), and perpetrating TFA was associated with younger age. Including both IPV victimisation and perpetration in the multivariate models; perpetrating controlling behaviour was associated with experiencing a higher number of ACE, higher anger expression (England), emotional IPV victimisation (England) and experiencing controlling behaviour from a partner (England). The perpetration of TFA was associated with younger age and experiencing TFA from a partner. Technological progress provides opportunities for perpetrators to control and abuse their partners. Controlling behaviours and TFA should be addressed to reduce IPV perpetration by males in substance use treatment. [Gilchrist G, Canfield M,Radcliffe P, d'Oliveira AFPL. Controlling behaviours and technology-facilitated abuse perpetrated by
Tong, Louis; Saw, Seang-Mei; Carkeet, Andrew; Chan, Wai-Ying; Wu, Hui-Min; Tan, Donald
This study examined the prevalence rate of astigmatism and its epidemiological risk factors in Singapore school children. In a study of school children aged 7 to 9 years old in two schools in Singapore in 1999, a detailed questionnaire was administered to parents regarding reading or close-work habits, past history of close-work, family history, and socioeconomic factors. Cycloplegic refraction was performed five times in each eye. Defining astigmatism as worse than or equal to 0.5, 0.75, and 1 D cylinder in the right eye, the prevalence of astigmatism was calculated. The study population consisted of 1028 children. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (worse than or equal to 1 D cylinder) was 19.2% (95% confidence interval, 16.8 to 21.6). This was not different between genders, ethnic groups, or age (p > 0.05). With-the-rule astigmatism was more common than against-the-rule astigmatism. The prevalence of astigmatism and myopia was 9.8% (95% confidence interval, 8.0 to 11.6). A high AC/A ratio was associated (p = 0.003) with astigmatism, even after exclusion of myopic children. On vectorial analysis, J0 and J45 were associated with the number of hours of playing video games, whereas J45 was also associated with computer use. Only J45 was associated to male gender, a high AC/A ratio, and a family history of myopia. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was 19%. Playing video games and computer use may be associated with astigmatism severity, although the presence of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was not associated with any nearwork factors. A family history of myopia was associated with oblique astigmatism severity. A high AC/A ratio is associated with astigmatism, and this requires further investigation.
Full Text Available Sandra Jobke1, Erich Kasten2, Christian Vorwerk31Institute of Medical Psychology, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Otto-von Guericke-University of Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; 2Institute of Medical Psychology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck, GermanyPurpose: The prevalence rates of myopia vary between 5% in Australian Aborigines to 84% in Hong Kong and Taiwan, 30% in Norwegian adults, and 49.5% in Swedish schoolchildren. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of refractive errors in German children, adolescents, and adults.Methods: The parents (aged 24–65 years and their children (516 subjects aged 2–35 years were asked to fill out a questionnaire about their refractive error and spectacle use. Emmetropia was defined as refractive status between +0.25D and –0.25D. Myopia was characterized as ≤−0.5D and hyperopia as ≥+0.5D. All information concerning refractive error were controlled by asking their opticians.Results: The prevalence rates of myopia differed significantly between all investigated age groups: it was 0% in children aged 2–6 years, 5.5% in children aged 7–11 years, 21.0% in adolescents (aged 12–17 years and 41.3% in adults aged 18–35 years (Pearson’s Chi-square, p = 0.000. Furthermore, 9.8% of children aged 2–6 years were hyperopic, 6.4% of children aged 7–11 years, 3.7% of adolescents, and 2.9% of adults (p = 0.380. The prevalence of myopia in females (23.6% was significantly higher than in males (14.6%, p = 0.018. The difference between the self-reported and the refractive error reported by their opticians was very small and was not significant (p = 0.850.Conclusion: In Germany, the prevalence of myopia seems to be somewhat lower than in Asia and Europe. There are few comparable studies concerning the prevalence rates of hyperopia.Keywords: Germany, hyperopia, incidence, myopia, prevalence
Prevalence of sexual and physical abuse in patients with obstructed defecation: impact on biofeedback treatment Prevalencia de abusos sexuales y físicos en pacientes con defecación obstruida: impacto del tratamiento con biofeedback
L. I. Solé
Full Text Available Background: obstructed defecation is one of the most common subtypes of constipation, and it is frequently responsive to biofeedback treatment. Aims: since a history of sexual and physical abuse may be present in patients with obstructed defecation, we assessed the incidence of abuse history in patients with obstructed defecation referred to a general gastroenterology practice, and whether such a history may lead to a different outcome of biofeedback training in these patients. Patients and methods: one hundred and twenty-one patients (17 men, 104 women, age 53 ± 15 years with obstructed defecation were studied by retrospective chart review. Their history of sexual, physical and psychological abuse was obtained by a standard interview, and biofeedback training was carried out by means of a three-balloon technique. Results: a history of sexual/physical or psychological abuse was present in 12.4% patients. Biofeedback training yielded a successful improvement of obstructed defecation in 93% patients without abuse and in 100% of patients with abuse; this difference was not statistically different (p = 0.53. Conclusions: the prevalence of sexual/physical or psychological abuse in a population of patients with obstructed defecation referred to a general gastroenterology practice is relatively low; such a history seems not to affect the outcome of biofeedback training in these patients.
Belk, A D; Arnold, A N; Sawyer, J E; Griffin, D B; Taylor, T M; Savell, J W; Gehring, K B
Peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) located in the fatty tissues of beef carcasses have been shown to harbor Salmonella and, thus, potentially contaminate ground beef. Salmonella prevalence within LNs is known to differ among feedlots. Two South Texas feeding operations (identified as locations A and B) known to harbor salmonellae in the feedlot environment, while historically producing cattle with opposing rates (one "high" and one "low") of Salmonella prevalence in LNs, were used in this study. To determine whether this difference was due to cattle source or factors associated with different stages of feeding, weanling steers of common and known origin were followed through normal feeding stages at both operations. Eighty Angus-sired beef steers were harvested at each of four feeding stages: 1, postweaning; 2, background or stocker; 3, 60 days on feed; and 4, 120 days on feed. Left and right subiliac and superficial cervical LNs ( n = 304) were collected from each carcass, and similar node types were pooled by animal ( n = 152). Results showed a difference ( P < 0.05) in prevalence of Salmonella in bovine lymph nodes between location A and location B and among feeding stages in location B. Salmonella was not isolated from any feeding stage 1 (postweaning) or location A LN samples. Within location B, there was an increase in Salmonella prevalence as cattle moved into later stages of feeding: at 22.2% (4 of 18), 77.8% (14 of 18), and 94.4% (17 of 18) for feeding stages 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Although the reasons for the differences seen between feeding operations and for increased Salmonella prevalence in LNs at later feeding stages remain unexplained, these results indicate that factors other than cattle source are likely influencing Salmonella prevalence in LNs.
Tarescavage, Anthony M; Marek, Ryan J; Finn, Jacob A; Hicks, Adam; Rapier, Jessica L; Ben-Porath, Yossef S
Odland, Berthelson, Sharma, Martin, and Mittenberg ( 2013 ) caution that clinically elevated scale scores produced by members of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 /2011) normative sample raise concerns about the potential for false positive findings of psychopathology. However, the MMPI-2-RF normative sample is intended to represent the general population of the United States, 26.2% of which met criteria for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (APA, 1994 ) disorder in a 12-month period (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005 ). In the current study we compare scale elevation rates in the MMPI-2-RF normative sample to prevalence rates of mental disorders primarily drawn from the National Comorbidity Study Replication (Kessler et al., 2005 ). Our objective was to evaluate MMPI-2-RF elevation rates in an epidemiological context. Results indicate that MMPI-2-RF scale elevation rates were generally consistent with epidemiological data when examined in the context of standard interpretation guidelines for the inventory. We also reiterate Ben-Porath and Tellegen's (2008/2011) caution that MMPI-2-RF scale elevations alone are not sufficient to indicate the presence of psychiatric disorder. Rather they are best viewed as indications of the need to evaluate the individual for possible disorder(s). Implications of these results, limitations of this study, and future directions in research are discussed.
Stöckl, Heidi; Hertlein, Linda; Friese, Klaus; Stöckl, Doris
To investigate the prevalence, perpetrators, sociodemographic correlates, and health impacts of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse during pregnancy among women attending a maternity ward in Germany. A written questionnaire was given to pregnant women in a maternity ward of a university hospital in Munich. Abuse during pregnancy was assessed using the Abuse Assessment Screen. Of 552 women, 401 completed the questionnaire for a response rate of 72.6%. The prevalence of psychological, physical, or sexual abuse during pregnancy by any perpetrator was 6.7% (n = 27); the main perpetrators were women's partners and work colleagues. After controlling for the effect of age, psychological, physical, or sexual abuse during pregnancy was significantly associated with a history of abuse, low education level of the woman and the father of her child, short relationship duration, unintended pregnancy, financial problems caused by the pregnancy, having more than 3 children, and insufficient social support. Women who reported abuse during pregnancy were significantly more likely to smoke and to have adverse maternal health outcomes. Psychological, physical, or sexual abuse during pregnancy was experienced by 1 in 15 women who attended a maternity ward in Munich and adversely affected maternal health outcomes. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Swets, Marije; Dekker, Jack; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Smid, Geert E.; Smit, Filip; de Haan, Lieuwe; Schoevers, Robert A.
The aims of this study were to conduct a meta-analysis and meta-regression to estimate the prevalence rates for obsessive compulsive symptoms (OCS) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in schizophrenia, and to investigate what influences these prevalence rates. Studies were identified via an
Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of alcohol abuse/dependence and identify associated factors among demographic, family, socioeconomic and mental health variables. METHODS: A household survey was carried out in the urban area of Campinas, southeastern Brazil, in 2003. A total of 515 subjects, aged 14 years or more were randomly selected using a stratified cluster sample. The Self-Report Questionnaire and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test were used in the interview. Prevalences were calculated, and univariate and multivariate logistic analyses performed by estimating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse/dependence was 13.1% (95% CI: 8.4;19.9 in men and 4.1% (95% CI: 1.9;8.6 in women. In the final multiple logistic regression model, alcohol abuse/dependence was significantly associated with age, income, schooling, religion and illicit drug use. The adjusted odds ratios were significantly higher in following variables: income between 2,501 and 10,000 dollars (OR=10.29; income above 10,000 dollars (OR=10.20; less than 12 years of schooling (OR=13.42; no religion (OR=9.16 or religion other than Evangelical (OR=4.77; and illicit drug use during lifetime (OR=4.47. Alcohol abuse and dependence patterns were different according to age group. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significantly high prevalence of alcohol abuse/dependence in this population. The knowledge of factors associated with alcohol abuse, and differences in consumption patterns should be taken into account in the development of harm reduction strategies.OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência do abuso/dependência de álcool e identificar fatores associados entre variáveis demográficas, familiares, socioeconômicas e relativas à saúde mental. MÉTODOS: Inquérito domiciliar na área urbana de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo, realizado em 2003. Indivíduos de 14 anos ou mais de idade (N=515 foram selecionados aleatoriamente
Since the 1980s Child Protective Services has increasingly relied on family reunification for abused/neglected children rather than long term foster care or adoption. While family reunification practices are controversial, little research is available to inform the debate. This research explores the efficacy of these practices. This study utilizes two CPS data sources and both quantitative and qualitative methodologies to identify reentry rates and correlates of reentry for abused and neglected children returned to their families by CPS. System reentry due to additional maltreatment is considerable. Thirty-seven percent of the children reunited with their families reenter the system within 3 1/2 years. Correlates of reentry are identified as; abuse type, CPS history, parental competency, race, criminal history, substance abuse, and social support. Notably, assessments of risk made by caseworkers are found to be unrelated to reentry. The high reentry rate and the limitations of current risk assessment procedures suggest that CPS family reunification practices have not been entirely successful. The identification of specific risks of reentry, such as those revealed in this study, will be helpful in assessing risk on cases. In addition, future studies should explore the systemic deficiencies that contribute to the additional maltreatment that occurs for a sizable proportion of the children served by the system.
Reker, Celeste; Islam, K M
Egypt has the highest reported prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) globally. Until now, no systematic review has been conducted to understand risk factors associated with these high prevalence rates of HCV. This study attempted to identify the various HCV risk factors in Egypt responsible for the high incidence and prevalence rates. Using systematic literature review methods, we searched databases for eligible manuscripts, selecting cohort and case-control studies published in English. Peer-reviewed papers published between 2008 and February 2013 were included. A total of 11 articles met the study selection criteria. The most examined risk factors found during our review analysis were surgery, transfusion, and age (64-82% of total articles; n = 11). Multiple risk factors held significant association with HCV infection in the included research. Based on this review, the main HCV risk factor categories are unsafe medical practices and familial risk factors. Improving medical safety and encouraging familial education on HCV may help reduce the incidence of the disease. Most risk factors for HCV transmission in Egypt are healthcare-associated. Primary prevention of HCV infection remains important to reduce HCV transmission. Further research should also focus on risk factor dynamics of HCV in Egypt to reduce transmission and HCV disease burden. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Jaul, E; Rosenzweig, J P; Meiron, O
This retrospective study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pressure ulcers (PUs) in older patients with advanced dementia versus older patients without dementia but with other comorbidities, such as diabetes, ischaemic heart disease and chronic renal failure. PUs were thought to be more prevalent and to present a higher risk of mortality in patients with dementia. PUs were assessed on admission using the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) staging system. Patients were classified as either with or without dementia according to Reisberg's functional assessment staging test (FAST). The prevalence of PUs and the survival rates were analysed and compared in both groups. The combined effect of PUs and dementia on survival was assessed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The median survival rate of patients with PUs and dementia was 63 days, significantly lower than in patients with PUs without dementia 117 days. Both groups had similar other comorbidities. These findings underscore the requirement for geriatricians and health professionals to be more vigilant in examining PUs as dementia progresses.
Ahmed E. Mansour
Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.
Full Text Available In recent decades the overall smoking prevalence in the US has fallen steadily. This study examines whether the same trend is seen in the Medicaid population.National Health Interview Survey (NHIS data from 17 consecutive annual surveys from 1997 to 2013 (combined N = 514,043 were used to compare smoking trends for 4 insurance groups: Medicaid, the Uninsured, Private Insurance, and Other Coverage. Rates of chronic disease and psychological distress were also compared.Adjusted smoking prevalence showed no detectable decline in the Medicaid population (from 33.8% in 1997 to 31.8% in 2013, trend test P = 0.13, while prevalence in the other insurance groups showed significant declines (38.6%-34.7% for the Uninsured, 21.3%-15.8% for Private Insurance, and 22.6%-16.8% for Other Coverage; all P's<0.005. Among individuals who have ever smoked, Medicaid recipients were less likely to have quit (38.8% than those in Private Insurance (62.3% or Other Coverage (69.8%; both P's<0.001. Smokers in Medicaid were more likely than those in Private Insurance and the Uninsured to have chronic disease (55.0% vs 37.3% and 32.4%, respectively; both P's<0.01. Smokers in Medicaid were also more likely to experience severe psychological distress (16.2% for Medicaid vs 3.2% for Private Insurance and 7.6% for the Uninsured; both P's<0.001.The high and relatively unchanging smoking prevalence in the Medicaid population, low quit ratio, and high rates of chronic disease and severe psychological distress highlight the need to focus on this population. A targeted and sustained campaign to help Medicaid recipients quit smoking is urgently needed.
Abu Freha, Naim; Schwartz, Doron; Elkrinawi, Jaber; Ben Yakov, Gil; Abu Tailakh, Muhammad; Munteanu, Daniela; Abu Ganim, Abdelrhman; Fich, Alexander
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been associated with genetic and environmental factors, including urban living. IBD was rare in the Israeli Bedouin community 30 years ago. Over recent decades, a large proportion of this community has undergone a transition from a nomadic to a western lifestyle. Our aim was to carry out an updated evaluation of the clinical and epidemiological features of IBD in the Bedouin sector of southern Israel. All Bedouin patients with a known diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) were included in the retrospective study. The cohort included 31 CD patients and 31 UC patients. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 29±10.9 and 35±17.5 years for CD and UC, respectively. The prevalence rate for CD was 15.5/100,000 and the incidence rate was 0.8-3.55/100,000. Fourteen of the CD patients (45%) had ileal disease and 64.5% had inflammatory disease behavior according to the Montreal classification. Eleven of the CD patients (35%) were treated with anti-TNF-α and 26% had undergone surgery. Over the previous decade, the prevalence of UC was 14/100,000 and the incidence was 0.5-2.39/100,000. Eighteen UC patients (58%) had left-sided colitis. Three (9.7%) had undergone total colectomy for severe disease. We found an increased prevalence of IBD in the Bedouin population, associated with their change in lifestyle over previous decades. However, the prevalence is still markedly lower than that in other population groups. A high percentage of patients were treated with anti-TNF-α and/or surgery.
Stevens, Jennifer P.
Background Dyspnea (breathing discomfort) can be as powerfully aversive as pain, yet is not routinely assessed and documented in the clinical environment. Routine identification and documentation of dyspnea is the first step to improved symptom management and it may also identify patients at risk of negative clinical outcomes. Objective To estimate the prevalence of dyspnea and of dyspnea-associated risk among hospitalized patients. Design Two pilot prospective cohort studies. Setting Single academic medical center. Patients Consecutive patients admitted to four inpatient units: cardiology, hematology/oncology, medicine, and bariatric surgery. Measurements In Study 1, nurses documented current and recent patient-reported dyspnea at the time of the Initial Patient Assessment in 581 inpatients. In Study 2, nurses documented current dyspnea at least once every nursing shift in 367 patients. We describe the prevalence of burdensome dyspnea, and compare it to pain. We also compared dyspnea ratings with a composite of adverse outcomes: 1) receipt of care from the hospital’s rapid response system, 2) transfer to the intensive care unit, or 3) death in hospital. We defined burdensome dyspnea as a rating of 4 or more on a 10-point scale. Results Prevalence of burdensome current dyspnea upon admission (Study 1) was 13% (77 of 581, 95% CI 11%-16%). Prevalence of burdensome dyspnea at some time during the hospitalization (Study 2) was 16% (57 of 367, 95% CI 12%-20%). Dyspnea was associated with higher odds of a negative outcome. Conclusions In two pilot studies, we identified a significant symptom burden of dyspnea in hospitalized patients. Patients reporting dyspnea may benefit from a more careful focus on symptom management and may represent a population at greater risk for negative outcomes. PMID:27070144
Toufen Junior Carlos
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence rates of infections among intensive care unit patients, the predominant infecting organisms, and their resistance patterns. To identify the related factors for intensive care unit-acquired infection and mortality rates. DESIGN: A 1-day point-prevalence study. SETTING:A total of 19 intensive care units at the Hospital das Clínicas - University of São Paulo, School of Medicine (HC-FMUSP, a teaching and tertiary hospital, were eligible to participate in the study. PATIENTS: All patients over 16 years old occupying an intensive care unit bed over a 24-hour period. The 19 intensive care unit s provided 126 patient case reports. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of infection, antimicrobial use, microbiological isolates resistance patterns, potential related factors for intensive care unit-acquired infection, and death rates. RESULTS: A total of 126 patients were studied. Eighty-seven patients (69% received antimicrobials on the day of study, 72 (57% for treatment, and 15 (12% for prophylaxis. Community-acquired infection occurred in 15 patients (20.8%, non- intensive care unit nosocomial infection in 24 (33.3%, and intensive care unit-acquired infection in 22 patients (30.6%. Eleven patients (15.3% had no defined type. The most frequently reported infections were respiratory (58.5%. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Enterobacteriaceae (33.8%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.4%, and Staphylococcus aureus (16.9%; [100% resistant to methicillin]. Multivariate regression analysis revealed 3 risk factors for intensive care unit-acquired infection: age > 60 years (p = 0.007, use of a nasogastric tube (p = 0.017, and postoperative status (p = 0.017. At the end of 4 weeks, overall mortality was 28.8%. Patients with infection had a mortality rate of 34.7%. There was no difference between mortality rates for infected and noninfected patients (p=0.088. CONCLUSION: The rate of nosocomial infection is high in intensive care
Larsen, Martin Vinæs; Olsen, Asmus Leth
Citizens are on average too pessimistic when assessing the trajectory of current crime trends. In this study, we examine whether we can correct this perceptual bias with respect to burglaries. Using a field experiment coupled with a large panel survey (n=4,895), we explore whether a public...... information campaign can reduce misperceptions about the prevalence of burglaries. Embedding the correct information about burglary rates in a direct mail campaign, we find that it is possible to substantially reduce citizens’ misperceptions. The effects are not short lived – they are detectable several weeks...... after the mailer was sent, but they are temporary. Eventually the perceptual bias re-emerges. Our results suggest that if citizens were continually supplied with correct information about crime rates they would be less pessimistic. Reducing bias in citizens’ perception of crime rates might therefore...
Wee Hong Woo
Full Text Available Human endogenous retrovirus-H (HERV-H is implicated in leukaemias and lymphomas, but the precise molecular mechanism underlying HERV-mediated carcinogenesis remains unknown. We determined the prevalence of HERV-H in a cross-section of the Singapore population and explored the relationship between HERV-H positivity and incidence rates for Hodgkin's lymphoma in three major ethnic groups of Singapore. We observed that Malays were 1.11 times likely (95% CI=1.05–1.17; P<0.01, and Indians 1.12 times likely (95% CI=1.07–1.18; P<0.01 to be HERV-H positive when compared to Chinese. Interestingly, the incidence rates of Hodgkin's lymphoma for the three races positively correlated to the respective prevalence rate for HERV-H positivity (r=0.9921 for male; r=0.9801 for female, suggesting that viral inheritance in human may predispose certain racial origin unfavourably to malignancy.
Maimaiti, Rena; Zhang, Yuexin; Pan, Kejun; Mijiti, Peierdun; Wubili, Maimaitiali; Musa, Maimaitijiang; Andersson, Rune
Tuberculosis and HIV co-epidemics are problems in many parts of the world. Xinjiang is a high tuberculosis and HIV prevalence area in China. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and cure rate of tuberculosis among HIV positive patients in Xinjiang. In a retrospective study between 2006 and 2011, clinical and laboratory data on 333 patients with HIV and tuberculosis were compared to 2668 patients with HIV only. There were 31 HIV positive patients with no data on tuberculosis. The prevalence of tuberculosis co-infection among the HIV positive patients was 11% (95% CI 10-12%), significantly higher than the national figure in China of 2%. In most cases HIV was diagnosed late, with advanced immunodeficiency. The use of isoniazid preventive therapy was only 57.9% in patients without tuberculosis who fulfilled the criteria for receiving this prevention. The cure rate one year after diagnosis was 69.2%, which was lower than the officially reported 91.4% in all tuberculosis cases in Xinjiang in 2011. The hazard of not surviving over the five years was significantly higher in patients with HIV + tuberculosis compared to HIV only after adjusting for sex and Intravenous drug use with HR = 1.84 (95% CI 1.43-2.35; p HIV positive patients in Xinjiang was higher than in China taken as a whole, and HIV was diagnosed late, with underuse of isoniazid preventive therapy. The low cure rate and reduced survival can be due to late diagnosis of HIV and no testing for antibiotic resistance, together with insufficient control of adherence to the treatment regimens for tuberculosis and HIV.
Mahabob, M Nazargi; Anbuselvan, G J; Kumar, B Senthil; Raja, S; Kothari, Sucitha
Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stage. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth in the patients who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and to study the associated clinical complications. A longitudinal observational study was conducted of 2216 patients for a period of 4 months with the documentation of demographic data, the presence of supernumerary teeth, their location, and associated complications such as mechanical trauma, dental caries, and associated pathology. The study recorded 27 supernumerary teeth from the examined 2216 patients. This yields a prevalence of 1.2%, with greater frequency in males which was 1.49% and in females the frequency was 0.85%. The greatest proportion of supernumerary teeth was found in the maxillary anterior region (77.8%). Out of this, 85.7% were classified as mesiodens based on their location. The displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding, followed by dental caries. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in this study was 1.2% which is in agreement with that reported in similar studies and the maxillary mesiodens was the most common location. Displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding.
M Nazargi Mahabob
Full Text Available Aim: Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stage. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth in the patients who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and to study the associated clinical complications. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal observational study was conducted of 2216 patients for a period of 4 months with the documentation of demographic data, the presence of supernumerary teeth, their location, and associated complications such as mechanical trauma, dental caries, and associated pathology. Results: The study recorded 27 supernumerary teeth from the examined 2216 patients. This yields a prevalence of 1.2%, with greater frequency in males which was 1.49% and in females the frequency was 0.85%. The greatest proportion of supernumerary teeth was found in the maxillary anterior region (77.8%. Out of this, 85.7% were classified as mesiodens based on their location. The displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding, followed by dental caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in this study was 1.2% which is in agreement with that reported in similar studies and the maxillary mesiodens was the most common location. Displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding.
Valente, Sharon M
Sexual abuse in childhood can disable self-esteem, self-concept, relationships, and ability to trust. It can also leave psychological trauma that compromises a boy's confidence in adults. While some boys who willingly participate may adjust to sexual abuse, many others face complications, such as reduced quality of life, impaired social relationships, less than optimal daily functioning, and self-destructive behavior. These problems can respond to treatment if detected. In this paper, we examine the prevalence, characteristics, psychological consequences, treatment, and coping patterns of boys who have been sexually abused and their failure to disclose abuse unless asked during a therapeutic encounter. Nurses have a responsibility to detect the clues to sexual abuse, diagnose the psychological consequences, and advocate for protection and treatment. Computerized literature search of the Medline and PsychInfo literature and books on sexual abuse of boys. Psychological responses to abuse such as anxiety, denial, self-hypnosis, dissociation, and self-mutilation are common. Coping strategies may include being the angry avenger, the passive victim, rescuer, daredevil, or conformist. Sexual abuse may precipitate runaway behavior, chronic use of sick days, poor school or job performance, costly medical, emergency and or mental health visits. In worst cases, the boy may decide that life is not worth living and plan suicide. The nurse has a key role to play in screening, assessing, and treating sexual abuse children.
Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.
Momtazi, Saeed; Rawson, Richard
In this study, we reviewed data on drug use among high school students in Iran. Published epidemiological studies in international and domestic journals show that drug use/abuse is a serious mental health problem in Iran. There is cultural support for opium in Iran and also there is cultural tolerance for tobacco smoking, especially as water pipe smoking in Iranian families. Alcohol, opium and cannabis are the most frequently used illicit drugs, but there are new emerging problems with anabolic steroids, ecstasy and stimulant substances, such as crystal methamphetamine. There is a serious drug abuse problem among Iranian high school students. It could be due to role modeling by parents - mainly fathers - and also cultural tolerance of some substances. Early onset of tobacco smoking, with a daily use rate between 4.4 and 12.8% in high school students, is an important risk factor for other drug abuse problems. Use of all types of drugs, except prescription drugs, is more prevalent among boys. Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance, with a lifetime rate of at least 9.9%. Lifetime rates of opiate use - mostly opium - was between 1.2 and 8.6% in different parts of the country. As drug abuse is a frequent problem among Iranian high school students, it is necessary to design and implement drug prevention programs to protect them. Such programs, including life skills training and drug education, have been operating in recent years for Iranian students from kindergarten to the university level.
Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Recupero, Patricia R; Stuart, Gregory L
Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV), perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence were examined. Forty-one percent (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 1.5% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend toward a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures . However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75–11.87%, much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5 which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to
Batis, Jeffery C
Since peaking in the 1990s, inhalant abuse has steadily decreased over the past two decades. Concurrently, nearly every state has passed legislation aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse. While males have historically been more likely to abuse inhalants than females, there is no longer a sex effect in self-reported rates of inhalant abuse. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of anti-inhalant abuse legislation on self-reported rates of inhalant abuse, in high school age males and females. Beginning in 1993, the CDC's biannual Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey asked respondents if they have ever used inhalants to get high. Data from these surveys were collected, along with the date of passage of anti-inhalant abuse legislation in 46 of 50 states. ANOVAs were conducted to assess the effect of legislation on self-reported inhalant abuse rates. There were no significant main effects or interactions that demonstrated that inhalant abuse rates decreased in males or females following passage of legislation aimed at decreasing inhalant abuse. Conclusion/Importance: To date, 46 of 50 states have passed laws aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse, and while inhalant abuse rates have been decreasing for the past two decades, there is no evidence that this decline is related to enactment of these laws. Further research is needed to determine the cause of the decrease in inhalant abuse. The laws may benefit from amendments to include options for treatment.
Boye Joyce Irene
Full Text Available Abstract Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc., soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat, and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities.
Alotaibi, Abdulellah; Perry, Lin; Gholizadeh, Leila; Al-Ganmi, Ali
This study aimed to report on the trends in incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia over the last 25 years (1990-2015). A descriptive review. A systematic search was conducted for English-language, peer reviewed publications of any research design via Medline, EBSCO, PubMed and Scopus from 1990 to 2015. Of 106 articles retrieved, after removal of duplicates and quality appraisal, 8 studies were included in the review and synthesised based on study characteristics, design and findings. Studies originated from Saudi Arabia and applied a variety of research designs and tools to diagnosis diabetes. Of the 8 included studies; three reported type 1 diabetes and five on type 2 diabetes. Overall, findings indicated that the incidence and prevalence rate of diabetes is rising particularly among females, older children/adolescent and in urban areas. Further development are required to assess the health intervention, polices, guidelines, self-management programs in Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Albertson, Timothy E
The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.
de Graaf, G.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.; Haveman, M.
Background The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down
de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.
Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch…
Kaloyanides, Kristy B; McCabe, Sean E; Cranford, James A; Teter, Christian J
To examine associations between age at initiation of prescription stimulants and illicit use and abuse of prescription stimulants, alcohol, and other drugs among college students in the United States. Web-based survey of college students. A large (full-time undergraduate population > 20,000) university. A Web-based survey was sent to a random sample of 5389 undergraduate college students plus an additional 1530 undergraduate college students of various ethnic backgrounds over a 2-month period. Alcohol abuse was assessed by including a modified version of the Cut Down, Annoyance, Guilt, Eye-opener (CAGE) instrument. Drug use-related problems were assessed with a slightly modified version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test, short form (DAST-10). The final sample consisted of 4580 undergraduate students (66% response rate). For the analyses, five subgroups were created based on age at initiation of prescription stimulant use: no prescription stimulant use, grades kindergarten (K)-4, grades 5-8, grades 9-12, and college. Undergraduate students to whom stimulants were prescribed in grades K-4 reported similar rates of alcohol and other drug use compared with that of the group that had no prescription stimulant use. For example, students who started prescription stimulants in grades K-4 were no more likely to report coingestion of alcohol and illicit prescription stimulants (odds ratio [OR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2-11.5, NS] than the group that had no prescription stimulant use. However, undergraduate students whose prescription stimulant use began in college had significantly higher rates of alcohol and other drug use. For example, students who started a prescription stimulant in college were almost 4 times as likely (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.9-7.1, pabuse on the DAST-10 compared with the group that had no prescription stimulant use. In concordance with results of previous research, these results indicate that initiation of prescription stimulants during childhood is
Sugrue, M; Seger, M; Dredge, G; Davies, D J; Ieraci, S; Bauman, A; Deane, S A; Sloane, D
This study estimated prospectively the prevalence of high drug and alcohol levels in road trauma cases who met the criteria for activation of the Liverpool Hospital's trauma team. Urine analysis of road trauma victims between October 1992 and October 1993 was undertaken for drug and alcohol estimation. A total of 164 drivers were studied. A urine alcohol concentration (UAC) exceeding 0.08 g/dL was detected in 27 drivers (16.5%). Cannabinoids were detected in the urine of 25 drivers (15.2%), in 17 the concentrations exceeded 400 ng/mL. In one instance amphetamine, cocaine and heroin were detected in the same injured driver. Combined use of alcohol with some other drugs was detected in only four drivers. Alcohol and cannabinoid levels were prevalent in the urine of injured drivers in this study, particularly in young males who remain over-represented in the group of injured drivers. In the population surveyed other drugs were rarely detected. The role of cannabinoids in road trauma and the use of cannabinoids in young male drivers will however need to be monitored more extensively.
Moore, Dennis; McAweeney, Mary
A lack of demographic information and data related to the achievement of short-term goals during substance abuse treatment among persons who are deaf or hard of hearing dictated the need for the study. New York State maintains a database on all individuals who participate in treatment. Within this database, 1.8% of persons in treatment for…
This study assessed sexual abuse/attack histories in 537 bariatric surgery patients using the PsyBari. The prevalence rates found were lower (15.5%, 19.3% of women, 5.2% of men) than other studies that used bariatric surgery patients but consistent with studies that used nonbariatric obese subjects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery patients who…
Janine D. Flory
Full Text Available Objective. Childhood maltreatment and familial psychopathology both lead to an increased risk of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in adulthood. While family history of psychopathology has traditionally been viewed as a proxy for genetic predisposition, such pathology can also contribute to a stress-laden environment for the child. Method. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the joint effect of childhood abuse and a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD on diagnoses of PTSD and MDD in a sample of 225 adults with DSM-IV Axis II disorders. Results. Results showed that the rate of PTSD in the presence of both childhood abuse and MDD family history was almost six-fold (OR=5.89, P=.001 higher relative to the absence of both factors. In contrast, the rate of MDD in the presence of both factors was associated with a nearly three-fold risk relative to the reference group (OR=2.75, P=.01. Conclusions. The results from this observational study contribute to a growing understanding of predisposing factors for the development of PTSD and suggest that joint effects of family history of MDD and childhood abuse on PTSD are greater than either factor alone.
Full Text Available Background: Firefighters have a high probability of being exposed to a variety of traumatic events. Potentially traumatic events can occur during a single rescue such as: providing aid to seriously injured or helpless victims. Moreover, firefighters who are injured in the line of duty may have to retire as a consequence of their injury. The psychological cost of this exposure may increase the risk of long-term problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and assess related variables such as coping strategies and social support among Saudi firefighters. Method: Two hundred firefighters completed the Fire-fighter Trauma History Screen (FTHS to measure the number of traumatic events, Screen for Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS scale to assess the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS to assess depression and anxiety, Brief Cope (BC scale to measure coping strategies used, and Social Support scale was used to evaluate the firefighter's support received. Results: The results showed that 84% (169/200 of firefighters were exposed to at least one traumatic event. The result presented that 57% (96/169 of exposure firefighters fully met the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD with high levels of depression and anxiety; 39% (66/169 partially met the PTSD criteria. However, only 4% participants have not met the PTSD criteria. The results also revealed that adaptive coping strategies and higher perceived social support was associated with lower levels of PTSD. Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of PTSD related to the type and severity of the traumatic events and years of experience in the job. Accordingly, many firefighters were severely affected by their experiences, and we should be developing methods to help them.
... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become depressed. He or she may withdraw, ...
Shoghi, Mahnaz; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Shirazi, Fateme; Heidari, Shiva; Salemi, Sedighe; Mirzabeigi, Ghazanfar
The rising rate of violence and abuse in health care centers has become a major problem for nurses. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore the prevalence of assaults during nurses' careers in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Self-report questionnaires were filled out by 1,317 nurses. Verbal abuse was experienced by 87.4% of the population during a 6-month period, and physical violence by 27.6% during the same period of time. No physical harm was reported in 66.4% of cases. Only 35.9% cases of verbal abuse and 49.9% cases of physical violence were actually reported. The majority of cases reported that abuse was followed by either inaction or by actions which failed to satisfy the victim. According to the findings, men were exposed to more abuse than women, and the risk of experiencing abuse was higher in nurses with more job experience or who worked more hours. Also, nurses who are responsible for first aid were subjected to more abuse than those in other positions. The findings showed a noticeable trend of a rising number of assaults against nurses. The findings of this study may help hospital staff and nurses to avoid, reduce and control violence and abuse.
Leung, See-Wai; Leung, Freedom
The construct of borderline personality disorder (BPD) among adolescents is a controversial topic. No research has examined the BPD construct among Chinese adolescents because the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders-III rejects BPD as a valid diagnostic category. The present study explored the construct validity and prevalence of BPD among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. A total of 4,110 high school students completed the McLean Screening Instrument for borderline personality disorder (MSI-BPD) and other measures assessing various BPD traits twice over a one-year period. DSM-IV-TR BPD criteria set as measured by the MSI-BPD demonstrated good internal consistency, concurrent validity and test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis of the MSI-BPD revealed four theoretically meaningful factors, namely affect dysregulation, impulsivity, interpersonal disturbances, and self/cognitive disturbances. Prevalence rate of BPD, according to a stringent simulated diagnostic procedure used in this study, was estimated to be 2% among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. Findings support that BPD is a valid clinical construct among Chinese adolescents. More research on BPD among the Chinese population is warranted.
Koukoulis, George N; Sakka, Christina; Katsaros, Fotis; Goutou, Maria; Tsirona, Sofia; Tsiapali, Efthimia; Piterou, Aristea; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Stathakis, Nikolaos
To investigate the prevalence of obesity in adults of a large region of Central Greece. The target group was adults aged 18 to 79 years who were residents of the region of Thessaly for at least one year. A sample of 852 individuals stratified for sex and age were included. Each subject underwent a thorough physical examination and body mass index (BMI) was calculated from body weight and height. Waist and hip circumferences as well as body fat content were additionally measured. Mean (SD) BMI for the total population was 27.5+/-5.5 and was significantly higher in males than in females (28.2+/-4.4 vs. 26.9+/-6.2, p102cm for men, >88cm for women), was comparable in males (40.4%) and females (35.3%). There was a positive association between obesity, central obesity, and age. The prevalence of overweight (19.5%) and obesity (9.4%) in the age-range of 18-29 years almost doubled in the next decade of age and attained the highest value, respectively, in the age-range of 50 to 59 (48.2%), and of 60 to 70 years group (38.9%). The rates of overweight and obesity in the population of Thessaly are relatively high with overweight being more prominent in males than in females, whereas MO was higher in females compared to males.
Ongsri, Punyawee; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas; Leeyaphan, Charussri; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Ongmahutmongkol, Pattachee; Komoltri, Chulaluk; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai
Superficial fungal foot infection is one of the most important dermatological diseases currently affecting military personnel. Many Thai naval rating cadets are found to suffer from superficial fungal foot infections and their sequels. To investigate prevalence, potent risk factors, responding pathogens and clinical correlation of superficial fungal foot infection in Thai naval rating cadets training in Naval rating school, Sattahip, Thailand. This cross-sectional study was performed in August 2015. Validated structured questionnaire was used regarding information about behaviors and clinical symptoms. Quality of life was assessed by Dermatology Quality of Life Index (DLQI) questionnaire and clinical presentation demonstrated by Athlete's foot severity score (AFSS). Laboratory investigations including direct microscopic examination and fungal culture were performed and recorded. All of the participants were informed and asked for their consent. A total of 788 Thai naval rating cadets with a mean age of 19 yr were enrolled. There were 406 (51.5%) participants suspected of fungal skin infection from questionnaire screening. After clinical examination, 303 participants (38.5%) were found to have foot lesions (AFSS ≥1). Superficial fungal foot infection was diagnosed with microscopic examination and fungal culture in 57 participants, giving a point prevalence of 7.2%. Tinea pedis was diagnosed in 54 participants with the leading causative organism being Trichophyton mentagrophytes (52.8%). Other 3 participants were diagnosed as cutaneous candidiasis. Wearing combat shoes more than 8 h was found to be a predisposing factor (p = 0.029), taking a shower less than two times a day (p = 0.008), and wearing sandals during shower (p = 0.055) was found to be protective against infection. Most fungal feet infection cases noticed their feet abnormalities (p < 0.001) including scales (p < 0.001), vesicles (p = 0.003) and maceration at interdigital web spaces (p < 0.001). Mean
Davies-Netzley, S; Hurlburt, M S; Hough, R L
Previous studies of childhood abuse levels among homeless women have typically focused either on single homeless women or female heads of families; almost none have focused specifically on homeless women with severe mental illness. This study explores rates of childhood physical and sexual abuse among 120 homeless women with severe mental illness. Correlates of experiencing childhood abuse are considered, including mental health outcomes and when women first become homeless. The prevalence of childhood abuse in this sample of women was substantially higher than among homeless women in general. The experience of childhood abuse was related to increased suicidality, and resulted in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder for some women. Women who had suffered abuse were also much more likely to become homeless during childhood and it is suggested that this is an important precursor to homelessness for many homeless women with chronic and severe mental illness.
Fowler, Patrick J; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael; Landsverk, John; Chavira, Dina; Taylor, Jeremy J
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of inadequate housing that threaten out-of-home placement among families under investigation by child welfare. Data came from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of child welfare-involved families. Child protective services caseworkers as well as caregivers provided information on families whose child remained in the home after initial investigation (N = 3,867). Multilevel latent class analyses tested the presence of inadequately housed subgroups using 4 housing problem indicators at baseline. Logistic regressions assessed convergent and predictive validity. A two class latent solution best fit the data. Findings indicated that inadequate housing contributed to risk for out-of-home placement in approximately 16 % of intact families under investigation by child protective services. These families were 4 times more likely to need housing services 12 months later. Federal legislation emphasizes integration of social services as necessary to end homelessness. This study demonstrates overlap across public agencies. Enhanced coordination of child welfare and housing services facilitates interventions to prevent and mitigate homelessness.
Meza, Benjamin P.L.; Lohrke, Britta; Wilkinson, Robert; Pitman, John P.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Bock, Naomi; Lowrance, David W.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.
Background Acute transfusion reactions are probably common in sub-Saharan Africa, but transfusion reaction surveillance systems have not been widely established. In 2008, the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia implemented a national acute transfusion reaction surveillance system, but substantial under-reporting was suspected. We estimated the actual prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia. Methods The percentage of transfusion events resulting in a reported acute transfusion reaction was calculated. Actual percentage and rates of acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units were estimated by reviewing patients’ records from six hospitals, which transfuse >99% of all blood in Windhoek. Patients’ records for 1,162 transfusion events occurring between 1st January – 31st December 2011 were randomly selected. Clinical and demographic information were abstracted and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network criteria were applied to categorize acute transfusion reactions1. Results From January 1 – December 31, 2011, there were 3,697 transfusion events (involving 10,338 blood units) in the selected hospitals. Eight (0.2%) acute transfusion reactions were reported to the surveillance system. Of the 1,162 transfusion events selected, medical records for 785 transfusion events were analysed, and 28 acute transfusion reactions were detected, of which only one had also been reported to the surveillance system. An estimated 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3–4.4) of transfusion events in Windhoek resulted in an acute transfusion reaction, with an estimated rate of 11.5 (95% CI: 7.6–14.5) acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units. Conclusion The estimated actual rate of acute transfusion reactions is higher than the rate reported to the national haemovigilance system. Improved surveillance and interventions to reduce transfusion-related morbidity and mortality
Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Lindenberg, Jolanda
elder abuse greatly impacts the quality of life of older individuals. Prevalence rates range from 3 to 30% depending on the definition used. Only about a dozen studies have explored how older victims themselves experience and explain abuse. It is essential that healthcare professionals understand the perceptions of older victims as they are among the most important groups to handle and report abuse. a qualitative study on the perceptions and experiences of victims of elder abuse was conducted using in-depth semi-structured interviews. abused individuals living independently, in residential care facilities and nursing homes. six males and 11 females aged 63-90 years. the main causes of abuse identified by older victims themselves were mutual dependency between victim and perpetrator, power and control imbalances, loneliness and a marginalised social position of older persons. Effects of abuse included negative feelings, physical and psychological distress, a change of personal norms and values, changed perspectives on money and low self-efficacy. These differential effects depended upon the types of abuse experienced and the relationship with the perpetrator. Coping strategies mentioned by victims were seeking informal or professional help and using self-help strategies. older victims perceive abuse differently depending on the expected acceptability of the type(s) of abuse experienced and the anticipated stigma associated with the perpetrator involved. The effects and chosen coping strategies are influenced by these considerations and therewith also influence their help-seeking behaviour. Healthcare professionals are encouraged to use these findings in practice to prevent, detect and intervene in elder abuse. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Kottner, Jan; Wilborn, Doris; Dassen, Theo; Lahmann, Nils
Pressure ulcer prevalence rates provide useful information about the magnitude of this health problem. Only limited information on pressure ulcers in Germany was available before 2001. The purpose of this study was to compare results of seven pressure ulcer prevalence surveys which were conducted annually between 2001 and 2007 and to explore whether pressure ulcer prevalence rates decreased. The second aim was to evaluate if the measured prevalence rates of our sample could be generalised for all German hospitals. Results of seven point pressure ulcer prevalence studies conducted in 225 German hospitals were analysed. Chi-square tests, chi-square trend tests and one-way ANOVA to assess differences and trends across the years were applied. The sample was stratified according to pressure ulcer risk and speciality. Finally, study samples were compared with the potential population. In total data of 40,247 hospital patients were analysed. The overall pressure ulcer prevalence rate in German hospitals was 10.2%. Patient samples of each year were comparable regarding gender, age and pressure ulcer risk. Pressure ulcer prevalence rates decreased from 13.9% (year 2001) to 7.3% (year 2007) (pcare units remained stable. With some limitations our study results are representative for all hospitals within Germany. It is highly probable that the decrease of prevalence rates was due to an increased awareness of the pressure ulcer problem in Germany and subsequent efforts to improve pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. The quality of clinical practice regarding pressure ulcer prevention and treatment has improved. However, pressure ulcers are still relevant and require attention. In 2007, one out of 10 hospital patients who were at pressure ulcer risk had at least one pressure related skin damage.
Full Text Available The prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA is high among Western men who have sex with men (MSM, and CSA is associated with certain socio-demographic variables and with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status. Little is known about CSA among Chinese MSM; therefore, we explored the prevalence and frequency of non-contact (e.g., sexual invitations, exhibitionism and contact (e.g., intercourse, genital contact forms of CSA in an Internet-based sample of MSM in China. We also examined the associations between the participants' socio-demographic characteristics and HIV status, and their histories of CSA.We surveyed MSM from 30 Chinese provinces in 2014-2015; 1,030 (mean age = 25.15 years, SD = 6.32 and 1,020 (mean age = 25.05 years, SD = 5.95 respondents were eligible for inclusion in the non-contact and contact CSA groups, respectively.Prevalence of non-contact and contact CSA was 36.2% and 29.8%, respectively; 20.4% and 15.0% had experienced non-contact and contact CSA ≥ 3 times, respectively. Most respondents were young adults, well educated, single, had never "come out," and self-identified as gay or bisexual men. Univariate analyses showed that respondents who had experienced contact CSA were more likely to be HIV-positive than those who had never experienced contact CSA. Multivariate analyses showed that non-contact CSA was associated with less education, being in a relationship with a woman or a man, and having "come out." Contact CSA was associated with less education, higher income, and being in a relationship with a man. Respondents who had experienced non-contact CSA ≥ 3 times were more likely to be less educated, "out," and to be in a relationship with a woman or a man. Respondents who had experienced contact CSA ≥ 3 times were more likely to be less educated and to be in a relationship with a man.It is necessary to pay closer attention to CSA among MSM and other sexual minorities in China.
Bargaoui, R; Lecollinet, S; Lancelot, R
West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral disease of wild birds transmitted by mosquitoes. Humans and equids can also be affected and suffer from meningoencephalitis. In Tunisia, two outbreaks of WNF occurred in humans in 1997 and 2003; sporadic cases were reported on several other years. Small-scale serological surveys revealed the presence of antibodies against WN virus (WNV) in equid sera. However, clinical cases were never reported in equids, although their population is abundant in Tunisia. This study was achieved to characterize the nationwide serological status of WNV in Tunisian equids. In total, 1189 sera were collected in 2009 during a cross-sectional survey. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies, using ELISA and microneutralization tests. The estimated overall seroprevalence rate was 28%, 95% confidence interval [22; 34]. The highest rates were observed (i) in the north-eastern governorates (Jendouba, 74%), (ii) on the eastern coast (Monastir, 64%) and (iii) in the lowlands of Chott El Jerid and Chott el Gharsa (Kebili, 58%; Tozeur, 52%). Environmental risk factors were assessed, including various indicators of wetlands, wild avifauna, night temperature and chlorophyllous activity (normalized difference vegetation index: NDVI). Multimodel inference showed that lower distance to ornithological sites and wetlands, lower night-time temperature, and higher NDVI in late spring and late fall were associated with higher serological prevalence rate. The model-predicted nationwide map of WNF seroprevalence rate in Tunisian equids highlighted different areas with high seroprevalence probability. These findings are discussed in the perspective of implementing a better WNF surveillance system in Tunisia. This system might rely on (i) a longitudinal survey of sentinel birds in high-risk areas and time periods for WNV transmission, (ii) investigations of bird die-offs and (iii) syndromic surveillance of equine meningoencephalitis. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Kazanga, Isabel; Tameni, Silvia; Piccinotti, Alberto; Floris, Ivan; Zanchetti, Gabriele; Polettini, Aldo
In 2008 a Workplace Drug Testing (WDT) law became effective in Italy for workers involved in public/private transportation, oil/gas companies, and explosives/fireworks industry with the aim to ensure public safety for the community. To examine and elaborate WDT data collected on a large group of workers (over 43,500) during March 2009-February 2010 in order to highlight pros and cons and to draw suggestions for policies in the field. Northern Italy. After ≤ 24 h notification, workers provided a urine sample screened for opiates, methadone, buprenorphine, cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy, and cannabinoids (THC) by immunoassay. Positives were confirmed by GC-MS. The positive rate was 2.0%, THC being most frequent drug (1.3%; cocaine, 0.4%; opioids, 0.3%). 6.9% of the positive workers tested positive for ≥ 2 classes (most often THC+cocaine). Gender ratio and mean age were significantly lower in positives (F/M=0.007; 35.5 ± 8.3 years) than negatives (0.016 and 40.7 ± 9.5, respectively). No decline in rates of positives and an increase of diluted samples over time were observed. The highest rates of positives were detected when sampling was performed just before/after week-end and during morning hours. Possible correlation between job type and drugs used were observed (e.g. more cocaine positives among road vehicle-drivers than among lift truck-drivers). Declared use of medicine/illicit drugs during the preceding week showed that illicit drug use was likely not always detected in urine and that almost 4% workers declared use of medicine drugs possibly affecting performance. This survey enabled to evidence relevant pitfalls of the law and to define strategies to improve the outcomes of WDT policies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
P. A. Korotkov
Full Text Available It is known that overworking as well as deficiency of work (plenty of free time are major factors of a suicide on an individual level which allows when passing to the level of a real social group (employees to suppose of existence of a certain optimum of working time or a parabolic (U-shaped connection between the suicide rate and an average duration of working time. From the theoretical point of view the supposed parabolic dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average duration of working time of employees is described from the point of view of suicidology: excessive increase of working time is an external tendency which prevents satisfaction of actual needs of an employee and limits physically the space (off-work time for their realization. Multidirectional tendencies form a life conflict which has crucial significance when transferring to a suicidal phase. The objective of this article consists in a qualitative assessment of an influence of “an average duration of working time” on the level of prevalence of suicides when other things are fixed (economic, social, religious and others in a relatively stable social situation. For the econometric analysis, reliable and comparable data of the European database of detailed mortality data of the World Health Organization and Eurostat are used for 22 European countries for the period from 1998 till 2012. Based on analysis of a dynamics of the studied variables different hypothesis have been made: 1 about existence of statistically significant linear or logarithmic dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average factual duration of working time inside a country 2 about existence of a parabolic (U-shaped dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average factual duration of working time between countries. A set of panel unit root tests and stationarity testify that the examined variables are unsteady variables with integratedness order I(1. The
Burn, Charlotte C; Weir, Alex A S
Veterinary clinical and epidemiological investigations demand observer reliability. Kappa (κ) statistics are often used to adjust the observed percentage agreement according to that expected by chance. In highly homogenous populations, κ ratings can be poor, despite percentage agreements being high, because the probability of chance agreement is also high. Veterinary researchers are often unsure how to interpret these ambiguous results. It is suggested that prevalence indices (PIs), reflecting the homogeneity of the sample, should be reported alongside percentage agreements and κ values. Here, a published PI calculation is extended, permitting extrapolation to situations involving three or more observers. A process is proposed for classifying results into those that do and do not attain clinically useful ratings, and those tested on excessively homogenous populations and which are therefore inconclusive. Pre-selection of balanced populations, or adjustment of scoring thresholds, can help reduce population homogeneity. Reporting PIs in observer reliability studies in veterinary science and other disciplines enables reliability to be interpreted usefully and allows results to be compared between studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Dommelen, Paula; Schönbeck, Yvonne; HiraSing, Remy A; van Buuren, Stef
Monitoring overweight in risk groups is necessary. Our aim is to assess the trend in overweight and obesity in Turkish and Moroccan children in the Netherlands since 1997 and to monitor the levels of lifestyle-related behaviours in 2009. We selected cross-sectional data of Turkish and Moroccan children aged 2-18 years from two national Growth Studies performed in 1997 and 2009 in the Netherlands. Lifestyle-related behaviours were obtained in the 2009 study by questionnaire. In 2009, 31.9% of Turkish and 26.6% of Moroccan children had overweight, whereas this was, respectively, 26.7% and 19.6% in 1997. Already at 2 years, 21.1% in Turkish and 22.7% in Moroccan children had overweight in 2009. The prevalence of obesity was above 4% from 3 years onwards. High (i.e. ≥ 25%) prevalence rates of unhealthy lifestyle-related behaviours were found for not having breakfast (26-49%) among Turkish and Moroccan adolescent (i.e. 15-18 years) girls, consuming no fruit (29-45%) and watching TV/PC ≥ 2 h (35-72%) among all Turkish and Moroccan adolescents, no walking/cycling to school/day care among preschool children (2-4 years) (28-56%) and adolescents (34-94%), drinking ≥ 2 glasses of sweet beverages (44-74%) and being children. An upward trend of overweight and obesity occurred in Turkish and Moroccan children. Already at 2 years of age, one out of five Turkish and Moroccan children had overweight, which calls for early prevention with attention to specific lifestyle-related behaviours. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Ali, Nurshad; Mahmood, Shakil; Manirujjaman, M; Perveen, Rasheda; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Ahmed, Shamim; Khanum, Farida Adib; Rahman, Mustafizur
Hypertension is a global health issue and is currently increasing at rapid pace in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. Although, some studies on hypertension have been conducted in Bangladesh, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the adult student population that was missing from the previous and recent national cross-sectional studies. Moreover, the specific risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults still need to be investigated. This study was conducted to estimate hypertension prevalence among adult students in Bangladesh and to test the hypothesis of Luke et al. (Hypertension 43:555-560, 2004) that basal metabolic rate (BMR) and blood pressure are positively associated independent of body size. The data was collected on 184 adult university students (118 female and 66 male) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Anthropometric, BMR details and an average of at least two blood pressure measurements were obtained. Hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg. Overall, 6.5% of participants had hypertension with significantly (p BMR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP (p BMR is associated with SBP and DBP; this is opposite the well documented inverse relationship between physical activity and blood pressure. If the influence of BMR on blood pressure is confirmed, the systematically elevated BMR might be an important predictor that can explain relatively high blood pressure and hypertension in humans. This study reports the prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adult students. The study also showed a positive association between BMR and blood pressure among the participants. A large scale longitudinal study across the country is needed to find out the underlying causes of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults. In addition, comprehensive and integrated intervention programs focusing on modifiable risk factors are recommended to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension is a global health issue and is currently increasing at rapid pace in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. Although, some studies on hypertension have been conducted in Bangladesh, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the adult student population that was missing from the previous and recent national cross-sectional studies. Moreover, the specific risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults still need to be investigated. This study was conducted to estimate hypertension prevalence among adult students in Bangladesh and to test the hypothesis of Luke et al. (Hypertension 43:555–560, 2004 that basal metabolic rate (BMR and blood pressure are positively associated independent of body size. Method The data was collected on 184 adult university students (118 female and 66 male in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Anthropometric, BMR details and an average of at least two blood pressure measurements were obtained. Hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or, diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Results Overall, 6.5% of participants had hypertension with significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence in male (12.1% than in the female (3.4% students. Age and BMI showed positive and significant correlation with hypertension among the students. When adjusted for body mass index (BMI, as well as other potentially confounding variables such as age, sex, smoking status and degree of urbanization, BMR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP (p < 0.001. Thus, higher BMR is associated with SBP and DBP; this is opposite the well documented inverse relationship between physical activity and blood pressure. If the influence of BMR on blood pressure is confirmed, the systematically elevated BMR might be an important predictor that can explain relatively high blood pressure and hypertension in humans. Conclusion This study reports the prevalence and associated risk factors
Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A; Greenlees, Ruth; Haeusler, Martin; Nelen, Vera; Garne, Ester; Khoshnood, Babak; Doray, Berenice; Rissmann, Anke; Mullaney, Carmel; Calzolari, Elisa; Bakker, Marian; Salvador, Joaquin; Addor, Marie-Claude; Draper, Elizabeth; Rankin, Judith; Tucker, David
The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the cases from 16 population-based registries in 11 European countries diagnosed prenatally or before 1 year of age, and delivered between 2000 and 2006. Cases were all unbalanced chromosome abnormalities and included live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. There were 10,323 cases with a chromosome abnormality, giving a total birth prevalence rate of 43.8/10,000 births. Of these, 7335 cases had trisomy 21,18 or 13, giving individual prevalence rates of 23.0, 5.9 and 2.3/10,000 births, respectively (53, 13 and 5% of all reported chromosome errors, respectively). In all, 473 cases (5%) had a sex chromosome trisomy, and 778 (8%) had 45,X, giving prevalence rates of 2.0 and 3.3/10,000 births, respectively. There were 1,737 RCA cases (17%), giving a prevalence of 7.4/10,000 births. These included triploidy, other trisomies, marker chromosomes, unbalanced translocations, deletions and duplications. There was a wide variation between the registers in both the overall prenatal diagnosis rate of RCA, an average of 65% (range 5-92%) and the prevalence of RCA (range 2.4-12.9/10,000 births). In all, 49% were liveborn. The data provide the prevalence of families currently requiring specialised genetic counselling services in the perinatal period for these conditions and, for some, long-term care.
Marcos Henrique Fernandes
Full Text Available Introduction: Epidemiologic researches about psychoactive substance use have shown an up-and-coming situation to abusive consumption of alcohol in adolescent and young-adult groups. This consumption over come the knowledge about damage caused by abusive of these substances, especially for the population part who is in the “top of life experiences”; the university students. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA, and to verify the association between the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse with the gender, race, smoking and graduation area. Methods: Prevalence study with probabilistic randomized sample (n = 129 of a population of 3,644 university students, registered in three universities. It was used a Questionnaire contends socio-demographic data, asking for the alcoholic ingestion and test CAGE to abuse. Results: It has been found prevalence of 63.6% to alcohol ingestion, 21.7% of high risk in abuse, and 8.5% of alcohol abuse. Although they have not been gotten association statistics between these variable and gender, race, graduation area and smoking; the data had demonstrated highest rates of alcohol abuse, and high risk in developing in students of masculine gender, medium brown race, who attend a graduation course in the health area. Those who have used of the tobacco had presented percentile greater of high risk in becoming alcohol consumer abusive. Conclusions: Intent for data found, as much alcohol ingestion as abuse, since they reflect the necessity of prevention politics to the alcoholic abusive ingestion in this population
Steinig, J; Wagner, B; Shang, E; Dölemeyer, R; Kersting, A
Bariatric surgery is becoming more and more influential as efficient weight loss therapy for the morbidly obese. As many studies propose a relationship between sexual abuse and obesity in general, but especially with regard to weight regain after successful weight loss, sexual abuse might also have a crucial impact on the outcome of the surgical procedures. This review examines the literature comparing weight loss after bariatric surgery in sexually abused and non-abused individuals. We conducted a systematic electronic literature search covering PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, PsychInfo and Web of Science. While 13 studies examined prevalence rates of sexual abuse among bariatric patients, eight studies explicitly investigated the effect of sexual abuse on surgery outcome. We hypothesized that individuals with a history of sexual abuse lose less weight compared to individuals with no such abuse history. At first glance, only three out of eight studies demonstrated significantly reduced weight loss in the sexually abused patients. However, a closer investigation of all studies revealed that patients with abuse experiences may indeed tend to lose less weight initially. Still, this sub-population apparently benefits from the surgical procedure, as revealed by increased weight loss over time. Reasons for these mixed results are discussed, as well as the clinical implications that can be drawn from these studies. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...
... and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug ...
particularidades de cada género.Objective. To determine the prevalence of sexual abuse among high school (secondary and preparatory students, male and female, throughout Mexico, and its relationship with drug abuse. Material and methods. Data were obtained from the National Survey of Drug Use in Schools applied in November and December, 1991. A total of 61 779 students, 51.8% men and 47.1% women, with a mean age of 14.4 years completed the self-applied questionnaire. Sexual abuse was explored from the perspective of the abusers and of the victims. Results. The prevalence of sexual abuse in adolescent victims was 4.3% and no statistically significant differences were found between sexes. The prevalence of sexual aggressors was 2.5%. Men coerced someone else in a higher proportion than women. Adolescent women experienced sexual abuse at a younger age than men and they also reported a higher percentage of intrafamily abuse. Men reported friends as the most frequent aggressors. Victims and aggressors of both sexes reported a significantly higher drug consumption than students without these antecedents. Conclusions. The differences in the experience of sexual abuse between men and women are described. In particular, the fact that sexual abuse in men mainly occurs outside the family sphere, while in women it is mainly within the family and at a younger age than in men. Additionally, the need for further research focusing on the consequences on mental health of infantile and adolescent sexual abuse and drug consumption is emphasized, considering the characteristics of each gender.
Matin, Behzad Karami; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Nouri, Bijan; Rezaeian, Shahab; Mohammadi, Masoud; Rezaei, Satar
To estimate the 1-year period prevalence of medication errors and the reporting rate to nurse managers among nurses working in hospitals in Iran. Medication errors are one of the main factors affecting the quality of hospital services and reducing patient safety in health care systems. A literature search from Iranian and international scientific databases was developed to find relevant studies. Meta-regression was used to identify which characteristics may have a confounding effect on the pooled prevalence estimates. Based on the final 22 studies with 3556 samples, the overall estimated 1-year period prevalence of medication errors and its reporting rate to nurse managers among nurses were 53% (95% confidence interval, 41%-60%) and 36% (95% confidence interval, 23%-50%), respectively. The meta-regression analyses indicated that the sex (female/male) ratio was a statistically significant predictor of the prevalence of medication errors (p medication errors to nurse managers. The period prevalence of medication errors among nurses working in hospitals was high in Iran, whereas its reporting rate to nurse managers was low. Continuous training programmes are required to reduce and prevent medication errors among nursing staff and to improve the reporting rate to nurse managers in in Iran. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Agréus, Lars; Talley, Nicholas J; Jones, Michael
In populations with a low prevalence rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection from Western countries, guidelines for the management of uninvestigated dyspepsia generally recommend that the "test and treat" strategy should be avoided in favor of empiric proton-pump inhibitor therapy in younger patients (on average pylori infection has fallen from about 30% to about 10% in Sweden and other countries. We aimed to explore whether the rationale for test and treat is relevant in contemporary clinical practice. In settings with an infection rate in the adult population of 30% and 10%, we modeled the positive and negative predictive values for indirect (nonendoscopy) tests on current H. pylori infection with a presumed sensitivity and specificity of 95%. We then calculated the difference in false-negative and false-positive test outcome, and eradication prescription rates in the two scenarios. While the positive predictive value for the test decreased from 0.89 to 0.68 when the prevalence of H. pylori fell from 30% to 10%, there were only 1% more false-negative tests and 1% less false-positive tests. The eradication prescription rate would decrease by 18% with a 10% prevalence rate. The recommendation to stop applying "test and treat" at lower prevalence rates of H. pylori should be reconsidered. The test and treat strategy is the preferred approach for most patients who present with dyspepsia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Antai, Diddy; Braithwaite, Patrick; Clerk, George
Child abuse or maltreatment is a significant global public health problem of unknown global prevalence. About 40 million children aged 0-14 years require health and social care globally. The prevalence, determinants, and trends of national or global rates of child abuse and maltreatment are largely unknown. Data for this retrospective cross-sectional study were derived from the 2005 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (2005 EDHS), and included 19474 women aged 15-49 years. Multivariate logistic regression analyses by stepwise regression, backward method were used to determine the independent contribution of the possible social determinants of child abuse, with the direction and magnitude of associations expressed as odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confident interval levels (95% CI). Identified determinants of child abuse included exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), justifying wife beating, exposure to generational IPV, and such factors as younger age of the women, male sex, partners' lower education, poverty, residence in urban areas, younger children, and residence in households with 3-5 children. Experience of IPV, mothers' justification of wife beating, and generational IPV were associated with elevated odds of child abuse. Findings indicate possible high levels of unmet child protection needs, and stress the need for professionals working with children to employ culturally-sensitive methods in investigating social determinants of child abuse. © 2016 KUMS, All rights reserved.
Tuncel, Sedat Alpaslan; Cagli, Bekir; Tekatas, Aslan; Kirici, Yadigar Mehmet; Unlu, Ercument; Genchellac, Haken [Trakya University Faculty of Medicine, Balkan Campus, Edirne (Turkmenistan)
The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and reporting rate of incidental findings (IF) in adult outpatients undergoing lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Re-evaluation of a total of 1278 lumbar MRI images (collected from patients with a mean age of 50.5 years, range 16-91 years) captured between August 2010-August 2011 was done by a neuroradiologist and a musculoskeletal radiologist. IFs were classified according to organ or system (liver, gallbladder, kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, lymph node, intestine and aorta). The rate of reporting of a range of IF was examined. The outcome of each patient's treatment was evaluated based on review of hospital records and by telephone interviews. A total of 253 IFs were found in 241 patients (18.8% of 1278). Among these, clinically significant IFs (n = 34) included: 2 renal masses (0.15%), 2 aortic aneurysms (0.15%), 2 cases of hydronephrosis (0.15%), 11 adrenal masses (0.86%), 7 lymphadenopathies (0.55%), 6 cases of endometrial or cervical thickening (0.47%), 1 liver hemangioma (0.08%), 1 pelvic fluid (0.08%) and 2 ovarian dermoid cysts (0.15%). Overall, 28% (71/253) of IFs were included in the clinical reports, while clinically significant findings were reported in 41% (14/34) of cases. Extraspinal IFs are commonly detected during a routine lumbar MRI, and many of these findings are not clinically significant. However, IFs including clinically important findings are occasionally omitted from formal radiological reports.
Pedrick-Cornell, Claire; Gelles, Richard J.
Discusses problems of definition of elderly abuse. Examines data and research on the rates of elderly abuse and factors found related to elderly abuse. Critiques theories developed to explain the abuse of the elderly. Presents recommendations for research and practice. (RC)
Ou, Qianting; Zhou, Junli; Lin, Dongxin; Bai, Chan; Zhang, Ting; Lin, Jialing; Zheng, Haoqu; Wang, Xiaojie; Ye, Jiaping; Ye, Xiaohua; Yao, Zhenjiang
Past reports have indicated a high prevalence of milk contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), but the pooled prevalence rates of S. aureus and MRSA in pasteurized and boiled cow's milk, raw cow's milk, and raw Caprinae milk (raw sheep's milk and raw goat's milk) and across different periods, continents, economic conditions and purchase locations remain inconsistent. We searched relevant articles published in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science before July 2016. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement was used to evaluate the quality of 93 included studies. We observed that the pooled prevalence rates of S. aureus contamination in pasteurized and boiled cow's milk, raw cow's milk, and raw Caprinae milk were 15.4% (95% CI, 6.1-27.5%), 33.5% (95% CI, 29.5-37.7%) and 25.8% (95% CI, 17.5-35.0%), respectively. The pooled prevalence rates of MRSA contamination were 4.9% (95% CI, 0.0-15.7%), 2.3% (95% CI, 1.3-3.6%), and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.5-1.8%), respectively. The prevalence of S. aureus contamination in raw cow's milk increased over time. However, the pooled prevalence of raw cow's milk contaminated with S. aureus was lowest in European studies. These findings give an indication of the consequence of better milk regulation in Europe. High S. aureus prevalence rates in raw milk collected from farms and processing companies pose a potential threat to consumers. The implementation of good hygiene practices, appropriate health knowledge, and food safety principles at the farm level, as well as the prudent use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine and heat treatment before drinking, are necessary to reduce the potential risk of S. aureus and MRSA contamination.
Rajan, Gita; Ljunggren, Gunnar; Wändell, Per; Wahlström, Lars; Svedin, Carl-Göran; Carlsson, Axel C
Prior research based on self-reports has proven sexual abuse to be a risk factor for pain and psychiatric disorders. However, less is known about how this is reflected within the healthcare system. The aim of this study was to study the 2-year prevalence of diagnosis of sexual abuse and concomitant conditions. Using data from VAL, the study population included all living persons in Stockholm County, Sweden, between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2014 (N=2 549 496). Diagnoses of sexual abuse were identified during 2013-2014, with information on the concomitant conditions somatic pain, depression, anxiety, psychotic disorders and bipolar disorders, stress disorders and alcohol and substance abuse. All diagnoses were prospectively registered. Age and neighbourhood socioeconomic status-adjusted ORs with 95% CIs for individuals with a diagnosis of sexual abuse, using individuals without sexual abuse as referents, were calculated. Girls at the ages 13-17 years had the highest 2-year prevalence (0.69%) of sexual abuse followed by girls 5-12 years (0.11%), and girls 0-4 years (0.04%). For women 45 years and older the 2-year prevalence rates were substantially lower (0.008-0.004%). The highest 2-year prevalence of sexual abuse in men was seen in boys 5-12 (0.03%) years. The total 2-year prevalence of diagnoses of sexual abuse among the population in the material was 0.04%. The highest ORs of comorbidities for girls (ages 0-17 years) with sexual abuse versus those without sexual abuse were: Stress disorder; 15.7 (13.1 to 18.9), drug abuse; 10.0 (7.7 to 13.0), and alcohol abuse; 9.7(7.8 to 12.0). For boys (ages 0-17 years), the highest ORs of comorbidities were: Stress disorder 12.4 (6.0 to 25.7), anxiety disorders; 5.5 (2.6 to 11.5), and alcohol abuse; 3.9 (1.4 to 11.3). The highest ORs of comorbidities for women (18-) with sexual abuse versus those without sexual abuse were: alcohol abuse; 19.3 (12.6 to 29.6), drug abuse; 16.7 (10.7 to 26.1) and psychotic
Igwe Wilson C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Association between psychiatric morbidity and substance abuse among adolescent has been reported. However prevalence and pattern of such dysfunctions are unknown in our environment. Aims To determine the prevalence of psychosocial dysfunction and depressive symptoms among adolescents who abuse substance and also note the influence of socio-demographic factors and type of substance on the pattern of dysfuction. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out among 900 adolescents selected from 29 secondary schools in Enugu metropolis. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select the students. The student drug use questionnaire was used to screen respondents for substance abuse. Those who were abusing substance and matched controls (non substance abusers were assessed for psychiatric symptoms using the 35-item Paediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS. Social classification was done using the parental educational attainment and occupation. Result A total of 290 students were current substance abusers. The substances most commonly abused were alcohol (31.6%, cola nitida (kola nut (20.7% and coffee (15.7%. Using the PSC scale, 70 (24.1% subjects compared to 29 (10.7% of the controls had scores in the morbidity range of ≥ 28 for psychosocial dysfuction. This was statistically significant (χ2 = 17.57 p = 0.001. Fifty-four subjects (18.6% had scores in the morbidity range of ≥ 50 for depressive symptoms using the Zung SDS compared to 21 (7.7% of controls. This was statistically significant (χ2 = 14.43, p = 0.001. Prevalence of dysfunction was not significantly related to age in both subjects and controls (χ2 = 4.62, p = 0.010, χ2 = 4.8, p = 0.10 respectively. Also using both scales, there was no significant relationship between psychosocial dysfunction and gender or social class in both subjects and control. The prevalence of dysfuction using both scales was significantly higher
Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.
Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD
Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)
Habibi, Rahim; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Shabany Hamedan, Maryam; Saleh Moqadam, Amirreza
The success of drug abuse treatment and relapse prevention methods depends widely on not only pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical therapies but also self efficacy and self esteem promotion. The current study attempted to clarify the effects of Problem Solving Education (PSE) on relapse rate, self efficacy and self esteem among drug abusers. This non-controlled clinical trial (quasi-experimental) assessed 60 opium and heroin abusers who were willing to quit and were referred to the Mehr Center of Addiction Treatment and Rehabilitation Facility. The patients were allocated to two groups of 30 (intervention and control groups). While both groups received the routine care of the clinic, the intervention group also attended eight 45-minute family-centered PSE sessions. The Coopersmith Self esteem Inventory and Quit Addiction Self efficacy Questionnaire were filled out for all subjects before and after the intervention. Drug relapse was investigated four times with two-week intervals. The two groups were compared using chi-square and Student's-t tests. Logistic regression analysis was applied to determine factors affecting drug relapse. A total of 45 individuals (21 and 24 in the intervention and control groups, respectively) completed the study. At baseline, the two groups had no significant difference regarding their mean scores of self esteem and self efficacy (P = 0.692 and 0.329, respectively). After the intervention, however, the mean changes of self esteem scores were 20.10 ± 3.75 for the intervention group and 4.50 for the control group (P self efficacy scores in the mentioned groups were 34 34.17 ± 5.19 and 9.03± 2.04, respectively (P self efficacy and self esteem among patients.
Bhandari, Mohit; Sprague, Sheila; Dosanjh, Sonia; Wu, Victor; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Della Rocca, Gregory J.; Jeray, Kyle; Matthews, David; Petrisor, Bradley; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Freeman, Clare; Tikasz, Diana; Badwall, Harjeet; Resendes, Sarah; Cameron, Alicia; Ramnath, Ivanna; Madden, Kim; Rajaratnam, Krishan; Williams, Dale; Drew, Brian; Wong, Ivan; Kwok, Desmond; Denkers, Matthew; Avram, Victoria; Ayeni, Femi; Hall, Jeremy; McKee, Michael; Waddell, James; Whelan, Daniel; Daniels, Timothy; Vicente, Milena; Wild, Lisa; Puskas, David; LeFrancois, Tina; Coles, Chad; Trask, Kelly; Dobbin, Gwendolyn; Duffy, Paul; Buckley, Richard; Korley, Robert; Puloski, Shannon; Johnston, Kelly; Carcary, Kimberly; Anderson, Linda; Briggs, Leah; Sullivan, Kelly; Broderick, J. Scott; Tanner, Stephanie L.; Snider, Rebecca G.; Brink, Ole; Scholtes, Vanessa; Goslings, J. Carel; Beerekamp, Suzan; Liew, Susan; Dowrick, Adam; Murdoch, Zoe
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is described by the American Medical Association as "a pattern of coercive behaviors that may include repeated battering and injury, psychological abuse, sexual assault, progressive social isolation, deprivation, and intimidation." The long-term
Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M
The validated hypoallergenic (vh) rating system was initiated in 1988 to try to objectively validate the "hypoallergenic" claim in cosmetics. To show how the system rates cosmetic hypoallergenicity and to compare the prevalence of cosmetic contact dermatitis (CCD) among users of regular cosmetics versus cosmetics with high VH numbers. (1) Made a VH list based on top allergens from patch-test results published by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) and the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA); (2) reviewed global regulatory, cosmetic, drug, packaging, and manufacturing practices to show how allergens may contaminate products; (3) compared cosmetic ingredients lists against the VH list to obtain the VH rating (the more allergens absent, the higher the VH rating); and (4) obtained CCD prevalence among users of regular cosmetics versus users of cosmetics with high VH ratings. (1) Two VH lists (1988, 2003) included only cosmetic allergens in the NACDG surveys, the third (2007) included cosmetic and potential contaminant noncosmetic allergens, and the fourth (2010) adds ESSCA patch-test surveys. (2) CCD prevalence is 0.05 to 0.12% (average, 0.08%) among users of cosmetics with high VH ratings versus 2.4 to 36.3% among users of regular cosmetics. The VH rating system is shown to objectively validate the hypoallergenic cosmetics claim.
Peles, Einat; Schreiber, Shaul; Adelson, Miriam
The objective was to study substance abuse, infectious disease, and patient outcomes (retention and substance abuse abstinence) over 2 decades in a large methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) facility within a tertiary-referral medical center. Prevalence of substance abuse was determined monthly between 1993 (35 patients) and 2013 (350 patients) based on observed random urine tests. On entry, patients were tested for hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies. One-year retention and substance abuse abstinence were calculated. At admission, mean age and rate of cocaine and benzodiazepines abuse increased over the years, with no change in the prevalence of hepatitis C (50%) and HIV (treatment but also to changes in patient characteristics over the past 2 decades.
Rozkiewicz, D; Daniluk, T; Sciepuk, M; Zaremba, M L; Cylwik-Rokicka, D; Luczaj-Cepowicz, E; Milewska, R; Marczuk-Kolada, G; Stokowska, W
The aim of this study was to evaluated the prevalence rate of oral viridans group streptococci (VGS) and their susceptibilities to some antibiotics in healthy children. Samples of pharyngeal swabs and supragingival dental plaques for microbiological studies were collected from 206 healthy children, aged 4-18 years. Additionally, 75 samples of carious lesions from children with dental caries were included. The streptococci were isolated and identified using standard methods and commercial identification kits. For performance of antibacterial susceptibility testing of VGS strains disk diffusion and/or breakpoints procedures were used according to NCCLS standards and criteria. A total of 425 VGS strains were tested against penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. A total of 239 VGS strains belonging to 8 species from pharyngeal swabs of 192 (93.2%) children were isolated. VGS strains from supragingival plaques were isolated in 149 (72.3%) healthy children (p mitis species were isolated most frequently from 4-5 year old as compared to 12 and 18 year old children (p or = 2.0 mg/L) was shown in 71 (16.7%) strains, 33 (46.5%) of them belonged to S. mitis species. VGS strains were also resistant to erythromycin (23.5%), clindamycin (23.1%), tetracyclines (T-52%, DOX-16%), gentamycin (25.9%) and ciprofloxacin (55.2%). All VGS strains were vancomycin - susceptible. 1. In the oral cavities of healthy children, approximately 98% of streptococci belonged to two VGS groups, i.e. mitis and salivarius groups. Streptococci of mutans and anginosus groups were isolated sporadically (2%). 2. We observed difference in susceptibility to penicillin and other antibiotics between the various species of viridans groups streptococci. Mitis group strains (except S. pneumoniae) were more frequently penicillin-resistant (23%) in comparison to salivarius group of VGS strains (9%) (p = 0.0001).
Bourekas, E C; Newton, H B; Figg, G M; Slone, H W
During the administration of intra-arterial (IA) chemotherapy for the treatment of brain tumors (BTs), angiography may demonstrate asymptomatic, incidental cerebral aneurysms. The prevalence and complication rate of incidental aneurysms in patients undergoing IA chemotherapy remains unknown. It remains unclear whether the presence of an aneurysm represents an increased risk or a contraindication to this form of treatment. We performed a chart and angiography review of BT patients receiving IA chemotherapy over the previous 16 months. Seventy-eight patients were identified with primary (39) and metastatic (39) BTs. The cohort consisted of 40 men and 38 women, with a mean age of 47.8 years (range, 22-80 years). During initial angiography, 8 patients (10.3%) were identified with incidental cerebral aneurysms. The aneurysms were saccular and varied in size from 2-4 mm (mean, 3 mm). Seven of the 8 patients continued IA chemotherapy after detection of the aneurysm, for a total of 35 IA procedures. Of these 7 patients, 5 expired from nonaneurysmal complications (mean survival, 5.4 months; range, 2-10 months); 4 from the primary tumor, and one from an infected craniotomy site. Two patients continue to survive; one remains in treatment, and the other has completed 12 months of IA therapy. There were no aneurysmal complications during or after IA treatment in any of the BT patients. Incidental aneurysms may be more common in patients with BTs than the general population. In our patient population, there was no indication that an incidental aneurysm was reason to preclude or delay the use of IA chemotherapy.
Ueda, Ken, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Honda, Osamu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Satoh, Yukihisa [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases (Japan); Kawai, Misa; Gyobu, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Toru; Hidaka, Shojiro; Yanagawa, Masahiro [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Sumikawa, Hiromitsu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan); Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)
Highlights: • Various thoracic CT findings, including cysts, mediastinal masses, etc. were found. • Cysts show upper and peripheral dominant distribution. • The number, size, and distribution of the pulmonary cysts in NF-1 revealed significant correlation. • It is suspected that thoracic CT findings in NF-1 occur independently. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence rates and the correlations of thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) in 88 patients. Materials and methods: Chest CT images of 88 NF1 patients were independently reviewed by three observers, and the CT findings were evaluated. If abnormal findings were present, their number, size, and distribution were recorded. The prevalence rate of each CT finding was calculated, and the correlations between CT findings were analyzed. Results: Of the 88 cases, 13 were positive for cysts, 16 for emphysema, 8 for nodules, 8 for GGNs (ground glass nodules), 13 for mediastinal masses, 20 for scoliosis, 44 for subcutaneous nodules, and 34 for skin nodules. Cysts showed upper and peripheral dominant distributions. Regarding 13 mediastinal masses, 2 were diagnosed as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), 1 was diagnosed as primary lung cancer, 2 were diagnosed as lateral meningocele, 3 were diagnosed as neurofibromas, and the remaining 7 were considered neurofibromas. There was a significant correlation between the prevalence of subcutaneous nodules and that of skin nodules. Significant positive correlations were also seen between size and number, size and rate of central distribution, and number and rate of central distribution of cysts. Conclusion: Various CT findings were found in NF-1 patients, and the prevalence rates of subcutaneous and skin nodules were higher than other findings. Though the prevalence rates of subcutaneous nodules and skin nodules were significantly correlated, the other CT findings in NF-1 occurred independently. The number, size, and
Smalbrugge, M.; Pot, A.M.; Jongenelis, L.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Eefsting, J.A.
The validity of diagnostic psychiatric instruments for depression and anxiety disorders may be compromised among patients with complex physical illness and disability. The objective of this study was to determine the effect on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety in a nursing home
Thoestesen, Lisbeth M; Rasmussen, Kjeld L; Lauszus, Finn F
To determine transfusion rates, risk factors for transfusion and the prevalence of unexpected red blood cell alloantibodies in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease. In addition, we aimed to evaluate the necessity of the pretransfusion testing for red blood cell alloantibodies....
Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A.; Greenlees, Ruth; Haeusler, Martin; Nelen, Vera; Garne, Ester; Khoshnood, Babak; Doray, Berenice; Rissmann, Anke; Mullaney, Carmel; Calzolari, Elisa; Bakker, Marian; Salvador, Joaquin; Addor, Marie-Claude; Draper, Elizabeth; Rankin, Judith; Tucker, David
The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the
Loke, Paxton; Koplin, Jennifer; Beck, Cara; Field, Michael; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J
The prevalence of school students at risk of anaphylaxis in Victoria is unknown and has not been previously studied. Similarly, rates of adrenaline autoinjector usage in the school environment have yet to be determined given increasing prescription rates. We sought to determine time trends in prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis across all year levels and the annual usage rate of adrenaline autoinjectors in the school setting relative to the number of students at risk of anaphylaxis. Statewide surveys from more than 1,500 government schools including more than 550,000 students were used and prevalence rates (%) with 95% CIs were calculated. The overall prevalence of students at risk of anaphylaxis has increased 41% from 0.98% (95% CI, 0.95-1.01) in 2009 to 1.38% (95% CI, 1.35-1.41) in 2014. There was a significant drop in reporting of anaphylaxis risk with transition from the final year of primary school to the first year of secondary school, suggesting a change in parental reporting of anaphylaxis risk among secondary school students. The number of adrenaline autoinjectors activated per 1000 students at risk of anaphylaxis ranged from 6 to 8 per year, with consistently higher activation use in secondary school students than in primary school students. Statewide prevalence of anaphylaxis risk has increased in children attending Victorian government schools. However, adrenaline autoinjector activation has remained fairly stable despite known increase in the rates of prescription. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cummings, Marissa; Berkowitz, Steven J; Scribano, Philip V
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) involves multiple complex factors that make the evaluation of therapeutic interventions especially complicated. PTSD prevalence rates of CSA are approximately 37 % -53 %. Several other psychiatric sequelae of CSA exist. CSA appears to disrupt brain and body physiology. One co-located service delivery model reported a 52 % linkage rate of CSA survivors with mental health treatment. This article reviews current literature on the treatment of CSA, including psychosocial interventions, pharmacotherapy, and early preventative interventions. It also provides an update on the short- and long-term sequelae of CSA and implications for future research directions. A literature search of papers published in the last 3 years was conducted using the keywords treatment, sexual abuse, childhood, epigenetics, resilience and review, and searching the following databases: PsycInfo, PubMed, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and Centers for Disease Control.
Cashmore, Aaron W; Indig, Devon; Hampton, Stephen E; Hegney, Desley G; Jalaludin, Bin
Studies have found that health workers are at elevated risk of being abused while at work. Little is known, however, about workplace abuse among correctional health professionals. We implemented a cross-sectional study to investigate the prevalence, sources and consequences of workplace abuse among correctional health professionals in New South Wales, Australia. METHODS All employees of Justice Health (a statutory health corporation) were invited to complete a self-administered survey, which was delivered via the internet. Among nurses, medical doctors and allied health professionals, 299 usable surveys were returned; a response rate of 42%. In the preceding 3 months, 76% of participants had personally experienced some form of abuse in their workplace, all but one of whom recalled verbal abuse. Only 16% reported physical abuse. Seventy per cent reported feeling safe in their workplace. Patients were identified as the main perpetrators of abuse, followed by fellow health staff. Participants felt that incidents of workplace abuse increased their potential to make errors while providing care to patients and reduced their productivity while at work. Compared with health workers who practise in a community setting, the risk of physical abuse among correctional health professionals appears to be low.
Full Text Available Background: As the congenital hypothyroidism is preventable only by the timely diagnosis of the disease, the aim of present study is to evaluate the results of the screening program carried out during 2006-2014. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eleven out of the 54,468 newborn screened for this cross sectional study during 2006 to 2014 were identified as the cases. Fisher's exact test at a significance level of 5% was used for the analysis. Result: Considering the prevalence rate of 2 per 1000 births, the rate for girls and boys were 1.9 and 2.2 per 1000 births, respectively. The difference between the rates was not statistically significant. The recall rate was 46.65 per 1000 births. Twenty seven percent of the patients had a positive history of disease and 27.9% the familial relationship. The highest prevalence of the disease (33.4% was in the summer. Conclusion: The findings disclosed that the inaccuracy of the initial sampling from the heel of the cases. So for the reduction of sampling errors and not wasting the golden time of treatment, it is mandatory to employ the trained personnel for initial sampling. Although above the international standard level, the overall prevalence of the disease during these years was the same rate in the country.
Soudbakhsh AR, Nami MA, Hadjiabdolbaghi M, Kazemi B
Full Text Available "nBackground: Transfusion-Transmitted Virus (TTV is a nonenveloped, single-stranded and circular DNA virus belongs to circuviridae family genus Anellovirus, discovered by Nishizawa in 1997. As the usage of common syringes is the known and most common route of the virus transmission, and because of increasing population of Injection drug users (IDU we decided to study infection rate in IDU population of our Society. "nMethods: In a cross-sectional study at Infectious ward of Imam Khomeini hospital, 60 IDU patients were studied. Blood samples were dispatched to lab in citrated test tube for Genome Virus isolation operation, using boiling method, then PCR assay performed based on their available primers. Patient's information gathered by interview and questionnaire methods."n "nResults: All of our 60 patients were men and their age average was 35.30(SD±9.68 years old. 26(43.3% patients had positive TTV PCR and 24(92.30% of them had prison history. 23(88.50% of these 26 patients had positive HCV Ab, 17(65.40% had positive HIV Ab and 8(30.80% had positive HBS Ag. Of 60 study patients 48(80% had HCV Ab+, 43(71.70% HIV Ab+, 26(43% TTV PCR and 43(26.70% had HBS Ag+ Of 26 patients who had TTV, 34.60% of them had no contemporary sickness and 11.50% of them displayed clear sign of hepatitis (fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, RUQ tenderness and Icter. 34.60% of them had LFT more than Upper limit normal (45u/l. Time average of injection in 26 TTV patient was 9 years (SD±7.16 and the patient's age average was 36.35%(SD±9.2. "nConclusions: One of the most important route of TTV infection is use of common syringes, TTV infection transmission chance is less than HIV and HCV infection and is more than HBV. In regard to high prevalence of TTV infection in IDU population and because there is no comprehensive information about pathogenesis of this virus in addition to another way of transmission of the virus, the fecal-oral way, we must make
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse among adolescents is a major public health and social problem. However, studies rarely investigate the relationships between substance abuse, educational achievement and sport factors. Substance abuse is an even more significant problem in societies that have experienced trauma, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, which have had recent wars. The aims of this study were to investigate substance abuse among adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to study the potential gender-specific relationships between a sport factors (physical activity/exercise/athletic participation and substance abuse and b scholastic achievement and substance abuse. Methods Our sample consisted of 1,032 adolescents who were 17 to 18 years old (435 boys and 597 girls and who were in the final grade of high school. These subjects were randomly selected from the territory of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrospective testing was performed using an extensive self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions involving topics such as sociodemographic variables, scholastic variables, sport factors, and substance abuse data (smoking habits, drugs consumption and alcohol consumption using the AUDIT questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, frequencies, analyses of the differences and correlational analyses were performed. Results Our results found that greater than one-third of the boys and one-fourth of the girls were daily smokers, and almost half of the boys and one-fifth of the girls practiced harmful drinking; other drugs (i.e. heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, etc. were rarely consumed. Boys dominated in sport factors, whereas girls were more successful in scholastic achievement. Approximately 23% of the boys and 6% of the girls reported that they practiced harmful drinking and smoked simultaneously. Educational failure, which was defined as having one or more negative grades at the end of the last two
Background Substance abuse among adolescents is a major public health and social problem. However, studies rarely investigate the relationships between substance abuse, educational achievement and sport factors. Substance abuse is an even more significant problem in societies that have experienced trauma, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, which have had recent wars. The aims of this study were to investigate substance abuse among adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to study the potential gender-specific relationships between a) sport factors (physical activity/exercise/athletic participation) and substance abuse and b) scholastic achievement and substance abuse. Methods Our sample consisted of 1,032 adolescents who were 17 to 18 years old (435 boys and 597 girls) and who were in the final grade of high school. These subjects were randomly selected from the territory of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrospective testing was performed using an extensive self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions involving topics such as sociodemographic variables, scholastic variables, sport factors, and substance abuse data (smoking habits, drugs consumption and alcohol consumption using the AUDIT questionnaire). Descriptive statistics, frequencies, analyses of the differences and correlational analyses were performed. Results Our results found that greater than one-third of the boys and one-fourth of the girls were daily smokers, and almost half of the boys and one-fifth of the girls practiced harmful drinking; other drugs (i.e. heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, etc.) were rarely consumed. Boys dominated in sport factors, whereas girls were more successful in scholastic achievement. Approximately 23% of the boys and 6% of the girls reported that they practiced harmful drinking and smoked simultaneously. Educational failure, which was defined as having one or more negative grades at the end of the last two school years, was
Sekulic, Damir; Ostojic, Marko; Ostojic, Zdenko; Hajdarevic, Braco; Ostojic, Ljerka
Substance abuse among adolescents is a major public health and social problem. However, studies rarely investigate the relationships between substance abuse, educational achievement and sport factors. Substance abuse is an even more significant problem in societies that have experienced trauma, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, which have had recent wars. The aims of this study were to investigate substance abuse among adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to study the potential gender-specific relationships between a) sport factors (physical activity/exercise/athletic participation) and substance abuse and b) scholastic achievement and substance abuse. Our sample consisted of 1,032 adolescents who were 17 to 18 years old (435 boys and 597 girls) and who were in the final grade of high school. These subjects were randomly selected from the territory of Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrospective testing was performed using an extensive self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions involving topics such as sociodemographic variables, scholastic variables, sport factors, and substance abuse data (smoking habits, drugs consumption and alcohol consumption using the AUDIT questionnaire). Descriptive statistics, frequencies, analyses of the differences and correlational analyses were performed. Our results found that greater than one-third of the boys and one-fourth of the girls were daily smokers, and almost half of the boys and one-fifth of the girls practiced harmful drinking; other drugs (i.e. heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, etc.) were rarely consumed. Boys dominated in sport factors, whereas girls were more successful in scholastic achievement. Approximately 23% of the boys and 6% of the girls reported that they practiced harmful drinking and smoked simultaneously. Educational failure, which was defined as having one or more negative grades at the end of the last two school years, was identified in 20% of the boys
Effectiveness of Child Advocacy Centers and the multidisciplinary team approach on prosecution rates of alleged sex offenders and satisfaction of non-offending caregivers with allegations of child sexual abuse: a systematic review.
Nwogu, Ngozi N; Agrawal, Lynet; Chambers, Stephanie; Buagas, Archiel B; Daniele, Rose Mary; Singleton, Joanne K
Child sexual abuse is a multifaceted issue that negatively affects the lives of millions of children worldwide. These children suffer numerous medical and psychological long-term adverse effects both in childhood and adulthood. It is imperative to implement evidence- based interventions for the investigation of this crime. The use of Child Advocacy Centers and the multidisciplinary team approach may improve the investigation of child sexual abuse. To evaluate the effectiveness of Child Advocacy Centers and the multidisciplinary team approach on prosecution rates of alleged sex offenders and satisfaction of non-offending caregivers of children less than 18 years of age, with allegations of child sexual abuse. Children under 18 years, of any race, ethnicity or gender with allegations of child sexual abuse. Other participants included in this review are non-offending caregivers of children with allegations of child sexual abuse, and alleged sex offenders. Type of intervention : The use of Child Advocacy Centers and the multidisciplinary team approach on child sexual abuse investigations. Types of outcomes : Prosecution rates of alleged sex offenders and the satisfaction of non-offending caregivers of children with allegations of child sexual abuse. Types of studies: This review includes quasi-experimental and descriptive studies. The search strategy aimed to find published and unpublished articles in the English language published from 1985 through April 2015 for inclusion. The databases searched include: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Criminal Justice Periodicals, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses and Criminal Justice Collections. An additional grey literature search was conducted. Two reviewers evaluated the included studies for methodological quality using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted using
Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jensen, Henrik Kjærulf; Eschen, Ole
Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited channelopathy that predisposes to malignant ventricular arrhythmias and thereby syncope and sudden cardiac death. Prior studies characterizing BrS patients have used highly selected referral populations from tertiary centres and prevalence estimates have been...
Background: Vertical or mother-to-child transmission of HIV which accounts for over 90% of paediatric HIV infection is increasingly becoming a major mode of transmission in developing countries. Aim: To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women that deliver at the University of Uyo Teaching ...
Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello
: Many HIV prevalence surveys are plagued by the problem that a sizeable number of surveyed individuals do not consent to contribute blood samples for testing. One can ignore this problem, as is often done, but the resultant bias can be of sufficient magnitude to invalidate the results of the survey, especially if the number of non-responders is high and the reason for refusing to participate is related to the individual's HIV status. One reason for refusing to participate may be for reasons of privacy. For those individuals, we suggest offering the option of being tested in a pool. This form of testing is less certain than individual testing, but, if it convinces more people to submit to testing, it should reduce the potential for bias and give a cleaner answer to the question of prevalence. This paper explores the logistics of implementing a combined individual and pooled testing approach and evaluates the analytical advantages to such a combined testing strategy. We quantify improvements in a prevalence estimator based on this combined testing strategy, relative to an individual testing only approach and a pooled testing only approach. Minimizing non-response is key for reducing bias, and, if pooled testing assuages privacy concerns, offering a pooled testing strategy has the potential to substantially improve HIV prevalence estimates.
Schellevis, F.G.; Fleming, D.M.; Linden, M.W. van der; Westert, G.P.
Background: Information about the European population’s health origins from different sources. For some chronic diseases general practice is the most useful source for prevalence data. On the European level comparability of data from general practice is complicated by differences in the position of
Al-Eissa, M A; Saleheen, H N; AlMadani, S; AlBuhairan, F S; Weber, A; Fluke, J D; Almuneef, M; Casillas, K L
The aim of this study is to find out the overall prevalence rates for the major forms of abuse among adolescents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the differences in prevalence by age, gender and living arrangement. The cross-sectional study was conducted in secondary high schools in five of the 13 main regions of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 2012. Through a multistage stratified sampling technique, a sample (n = 16 939) of adolescents (15-19 years) were identified and invited to participate. The ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool - Child was used for data collection. The previous year's occurrence of violence exposure, psychological, physical and sexual abuse, and neglect were assessed. Nearly 90% of the adolescents were between 16 and 18 years of age, and over 80% were cared for by both of their biological parents. Annual prevalence of various forms of abuse in the year before the 2012 assessment ranged between 0.10 and 0.65, with the lowest rate for sexual abuse and the highest for psychological abuse. Significantly, greater rates of all forms of abuse/exposure were found when participants lived with their mother or father only (versus with both), and even greater rates for all when they lived with their biological parent and a step-parent. Rates for violence exposure, psychological abuse and neglect were significantly greater for girls, and rate of sexual abuse was greater for boys. More attention should be given to the effect of adolescent maltreatment particularly among girls. In addition, sexual abuse prevention programme should be targeted among boys. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Context: Bombay blood group although rare is found to be more prevalent in the Western and Southern states of India, believed to be associated with consanguineous marriage. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of the Bombay blood group (Oh in the urban population of Puducherry. To find the effect of urbanization on consanguineous marriage and to establish whether consanguinity plays a part in the prevalence of Oh group. To compare Oh group prevalence with that of other neighboring states, where population is not predominantly urban. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive study in a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry, over a period of 6 years. Materials and Methods: All blood samples showing ′O′ group were tested with anti-H lectin. Specialized tests like Adsorption Elution Technique, inhibition assay for determination of secretor status were performed on Oh positive cases. Any history of consanguineous marriage was recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: All variables were categorical variable and percentage and proportions were calculated manually. Results: Analysis of the results of 35,497 study subjects showed that the most common group was ′O′ group constituting 14,164 (39.90% of subjects. Only three "Oh" that is, Bombay phenotype (0.008% were detected. Consanguinity was observed in two cases (66.66%. Conclusions: This study shows the prevalence of Bombay blood group representing the urban population of Puducherry, to be high (0.008% and associated with consanguineous marriage (66.66%. Thus, consanguinity is still an important risk factor present, even in an urban population in Southern India.
Sameed Ahmed M Khatana
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality among patients with serious mental illness (SMI and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome--a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors--is significantly higher in these patients than in the general population. Metabolic monitoring among patients using second generation antipsychotics (SGAs--a risk factor for metabolic syndrome--has been shown to be inadequate despite the release of several guidelines. However, patients with SMI have several factors independent of medication use that predispose them to a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Our study therefore examines monitoring and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI, including those not using SGAs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We retrospectively identified all patients treated at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder during 2005-2006 and obtained demographic and clinical data. Incomplete monitoring of metabolic syndrome was defined as being unable to determine the status of at least one of the syndrome components. Of the 1,401 patients included (bipolar disorder: 822; schizophrenia: 222; and schizoaffective disorder: 357, 21.4% were incompletely monitored. Only 54.8% of patients who were not prescribed SGAs and did not have previous diagnoses of hypertension or hypercholesterolemia were monitored for all metabolic syndrome components compared to 92.4% of patients who had all three of these characteristics. Among patients monitored for metabolic syndrome completely, age-adjusted prevalence of the syndrome was 48.4%, with no significant difference between the three psychiatric groups. CONCLUSIONS: Only one half of patients with SMI not using SGAs or previously diagnosed with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were completely monitored for metabolic syndrome components compared to greater than 90% of those with these characteristics
Full Text Available To quantify the HIV epidemic, the classical population-based prevalence and incidence rates (P rates are the two most commonly used measures used for policy interventions. However, these P rates ignore the heterogeneity of the size of geographic region where the population resides. It is intuitive that with the same P rates, the likelihood for HIV can be much greater to spread in a population residing in a crowed small urban area than the same number of population residing in a large rural area. With this limitation, Chen and Wang (2017 proposed the geographic area-based rates (G rates to complement the classical P rates. They analyzed the 2000–2012 US data on new HIV infections and persons living with HIV and found, as compared with other methods, using G rates enables researchers to more quickly detect increases in HIV rates. This capacity to reveal increasing rates in a more efficient and timely manner is a crucial methodological contribution to HIV research. To enhance this newly proposed concept of G rates, this article presents a discussion of 3 areas for further development of this important concept: (1 analysis of global HIV epidemic data using the newly proposed G rates to capture the changes globally; (2 development of the associated population density-based rates (D rates to incorporate the heterogeneities from both geographical area and total population-at-risk; and (3 development of methods to calculate variances and confidence intervals for the P rates, G rates, and D rates to capture the variability of these indices.
... Drinking to Excess U.S. National Library of Medicine, Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Last Updated: June 27, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: alcohol, alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction ...
Kent, Lindsey; And Others
Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…
Callaghan, Russell C.; Rush, Brian; Tavares, Joey; Taylor, Lawren; Victor, J. Charles
Adolescent methamphetamine use is a prominent concern for Canadian media and government. Few empirical studies, however, have established the scope of adolescent methamphetamine use or associated outpatient substance abuse treatment utilization. The current study aimed to answer the following questions: (1) What was the overall proportion of…
Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.
Stoltenborgh, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Alink, L.R.A.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.
In this review, we combine and compare the results of a series of meta-analyses on the prevalence of child sexual, physical and emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect, including 244 publications and 551 prevalence rates for the various types of maltreatment. Child maltreatment research
In this thesis we describe, combine and compare results of a series of meta-analyses on the prevalence of child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and of physical and emotional neglect, including 244 publications and 577 prevalence rates for the various types of maltreatment. Child maltreatment
Burgos, Maria Goretti Pessoa de Araujo; Cabral, Poliana Coelho; Maio, Regiane; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Dias, Margarida Sarmento Oliveira; Melim, Diva Bizarro de Figueiredo; Correia, Maria Flora
It has been hypothesized that the metabolism of alcohol is altered following bariatric surgery. However, few studies have evaluated preoperative and postoperative alcohol use. The aims of the study were to characterize alcohol use in the preoperative period and 2 years postoperatively as well as to identify factors associated. A study was conducted using data from the electronic charts of patients submitted to laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in the city of Porto, Portugal. Associations with the following variables were analyzed: age, marital status, schooling, alcohol use, body mass index, binge eating disorder, and lifestyle habits. Among the 659 patients, 42.0 % completed the 2 years of follow-up. A total of 90.2 % were women; 67.4 % underwent LAGB, and 32.6 % underwent RYGB. The frequency of alcohol use was 24.2 % in the preoperative period and 9.4 % in the postoperative period (p = 0.000). Daily alcohol intake was two drinks in the preoperative period and 1.8 drinks in the postoperative period. Significant associations were found between postoperative alcohol use and the male gender (p = 0.001), age ≥ 45 years (p = 0.018), and preoperative BMI technique. No previous nondrinkers became drinkers, and no patients increased the quantity or frequency of alcohol intake in the postoperative period. The prevalence of alcohol use in the sample was low. Moreover, a lower prevalence rate was found in the postoperative period, independently of surgical technique, clinical factors, and percentage of weight loss.
Milner, Joel S.; Gold, Ruth G.
Investigated the ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory to screen for child abuse in a group of spouse abusers. The completed, valid protocols revealed that 36.5 percent of the spouse abusers had elevated child abuse scores, while only 9.1 percent of the nonabusers had elevated abuse scores. (Author/BL)
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Schroeder, Steven A
Despite their huge health toll, substance abuse disorders remain underappreciated and underfunded. Reasons include stigma, tolerance of personal choices, acceptance of youthful experimentation, pessimism about treatment efficacy, fragmented and weak leadership, powerful tobacco and alcohol industries, underinvestment in research, and difficult patients. Positive signs include declining prevalence rates, successful counter-marketing campaigns, changing public attitudes, new scientific discoveries that could yield new treatments, and effective new organizations. Further progress will require better treatment, more research, better education of health professionals, more nongovernmental support, and stronger leadership. Policy changes regarding each of the three substance groups are indicated, as are reforms in the criminal justice and educational systems.
Worku, Dereje; Gebremariam, Abebe; Jayalakshmi, S
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a major contributing factor to the burden of disease among children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of CSA and its outcomes among female high school students in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Jirren high school female students in April 2005. A total of 323 female students from grade 9 were selected by systematic random sampling and they completed a self-administered questionnaire on experiences of sexual abuse. Data were cleaned and analysed by SPSS/PC statistical package. The results revealed that the prevalence of CSA was 68.7%. Among the different forms of sexual abuses, verbal harassment was the most common (51.4%) followed by sexual intercourse, 18.0% and unwelcome kissing, 17.1%. The commonly indicated abusers in this study were unknown persons (36%) followed by school-mates (31.5%). Among victims of sexual abuse, 7.2% had an unwanted pregnancy and 5.9% had sexually transmitted diseases. The rate of other psychological effects of CSA, such as suicide ideation, suicide attempt, and sexual dysfunction, was high. The overwhelming majority (86.4%) considered sexual abuse to be a major social problem. The study revealed that the prevalence of CSA is high. Reproductive health education should be provided to students. Parents, police, and the public in general should be made aware of the problem before it endangers the lives of children and adolescents.
Frielink, N.; Schuengel, C.; Kroon, A.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.
Background Despite a lack of consensus regarding prevalence rates of substance abuse, people with intellectual disabilities (ID) on average use substances slightly less often than their non-disabled peers. However, their use of substances is more often problematic. Avoidance of treatment is a
Winstanley, Erin L.; Steinwachs, Donald M.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Fishman, Marc J.
The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with adolescent alcohol or drug (AOD) abuse/dependence, mental health and co-occurring problems, as well as factors associated with access to treatment. This is a secondary analysis of data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2000. The 12-month prevalence rate of…
Slater, James J. R. Huddleston; Lobbezoo, Frank; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Naeije, Machiel
Aims: To assess the prevalence rates and risk factors of anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR) and symptomatic hypermobility in a large sample of children and teenagers. Prevalence rates were also established in samples of young adults and adults. Methods: Children from 7 Dutch primary
Full Text Available The production and use of addictive stimulants has been a major problem in South Africa. Although research has shown increased demand for drug abuse treatment, the actual size of the drug-abusing population remains unknown. Thus the prevalence of drug abuse requires estimation through available tools. Many questions remain unanswered with regard to interventions, new cases of substance abuse and relapse in recovering persons. A six-state compartmental model including a core and non-core group, with fast and slow progression to addiction, was formulated with the aim of qualitatively investigating the dynamics of substance abuse and predicting drug abuse trends. The analysis of the model was presented in terms of the substance abuse epidemic threshold R0. Numerical simulations were performed to fit the model to available data for methamphetamine use in the Western Cape and to determine the role played by some key parameters. The model was also fitted to data on methamphetamine users who enter rehabilitation using the least squares curve fitting method. It was shown that the model exhibits a backward bifurcation where a stable drug-free equilibrium coexists with a stable drug-persistent equilibrium for a certain defined range of values of R0. The stabilities of the model equilibria were ascertained and persistence conditions established. It was found that it is not sufficient to reduce R0 below unit to control the substance abuse epidemic. The reproduction number should be brought below a determined threshold, R0c. The results also suggested that the substance abuse epidemic can be reduced by intervention programmes targeted at light drug users and by increasing the uptake rate into treatment for those addicted. Projected trends showed a steady decline in the prevalence of methamphetamine abuse until 2015.
Safren, Steven A; Gershuny, Beth S; Marzol, Patricia; Otto, Michael W; Pollack, Mark H
The authors examined the prevalence of self-reported childhood physical or sexual abuse in a sample of adult patients presenting for treatment of panic disorder, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder. Regardless of the presence of comorbid anxiety disorders or comorbid depression, patients with panic disorder had significantly higher rates of past childhood physical or sexual abuse than patients with social phobia. Patients with generalized anxiety disorder had intermediate rates of past physical or sexual abuse that were not significantly different from the other two diagnostic groups. Anxiety disorder patients with a history of childhood abuse were also more likely to have comorbid major depression than those without. These findings are discussed in terms of biological and behavioral factors that may influence the development of anxiety disorders after the experience of a traumatic event.
Ruiz-Ramos, Miguel; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio; Mayoral-Sánchez, Eduardo; Corral-San Laureano, Florentino; Fernández-Fernández, Isabel
Describing the situation of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Spain from a public health perspective. manual review of books and other documents on diabetes mellitus in Spain was conducted. In addition, a specific research of articles published using MeSH terms diabetes mortality, prevalence, incidence, cost, inequalities and Spain was conducted in Medline through Internet (PubMed). Minimun Basic Data Set was utilized as source for complication description by Communities Autonomus. DM is one of the leading cause of mortality and the third one in women. With regard to Autonomous Communities, Canary Islands, Ceuta y Melilla and Andalusia show the greatest mortality with a downward trend. Diabetics present greater mortality than non diabetic patients, being complications the main cause of the over-mortality, especially ischemic heart disease. Estimations of prevalence for DM2 range from 4.8% to 18.7% and for DM1, from .08% to .2%. In pregnancy, it has been noted a prevalence ranging from 4.5% to 16.1%. With respect to incidence per year, it is estimated a range from 146 to 820 per 100,000 inhabitants for DM2 and a range from 10 to 17 new cases annually per 100,000 inhabitants for DM1. Costs for DM1 show very different results, averaging between 1,262 and 3,311 euro per people and year. There are differences for DM2 costs as well, averaging between 381 and 2,560 euro per patient and year. Total costs estimated range from 758 to 4,348 euro per person and year. Relationship between a low socioeconomic level (LSL) and DM2 risk has been proved. Moreover, it has been noted that the less LSL the worse is the disease control, coupled with a greater frequency and more frequent factors of DM2 risk. The knowledge about the situation of the DM as a Public Health problem in Spain is limited. Mortality data available does not gather its real magnitude, and prevalence, incidence, costs and inequalities research are very poor and hardly comparable. In spite of this degree of incertitude, we
Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J
This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder.
Full Text Available According to the traditional belief, which is still often held to be true, girls and women are thought to be the victims in the majority of sexual abuses, whereas men are the offenders. However several recent researches have shown that also many men find themselves among the victims (3–34%, also from the part of women as offenders. The paper throws light upon, evaluates critically and reviews existing studies on boys as victims of this traumatic experience. It examines closely and describes characteristics of victims (boys and offenders. Victims of a female offender and a male offender are compared. Further, the family circumstances in which sexually abused boys mostly grow up are analysed.
Xu, Le; Pan, Qiong; Lin, Renqin
To investigate the prevalence rate and influencing factors of preoperative anxiety and depression in patients with gastric cancer, in China. Patients with gastric cancer who were diagnosed by gastroscopy and would accept laparoscopic surgery were eligible for the study. Each participant completed self-administered questionnaires, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ), Social Support Rating Scale, and Type D personality scale before surgery. Routine blood tests were undertaken within 7 days before surgery, to calculate the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). Based on HADS, patients were divided into an anxiety/depression group and a nonanxiety/depression group. Fifty-three patients with gastric cancer were included in the study. The prevalence of preoperative anxiety and/or depression was 20.75% (11/53). Factors influencing preoperative anxiety and depression were a resigned dimension of coping style, type D personality and NLR. Logistic regression analysis showed that a higher score for the resigned dimension of coping style on the MCMQ and a higher NLR were significantly associated with preoperative anxiety and depression. The prevalence of preoperative anxiety and depression in Chinese patients with gastric cancer may be influenced by both the coping mode and NLR. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the dynamics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM prevalence and management rates based on a rural cohort study in Henan Province of China. The rural prospective study was conducted for 20194 Chinese population ≥18 years in 2007-2008 and followed during 2013-2014. A total of 14009 individuals were recruited for the prospective analysis ultimately. Over 5.74 years of follow-up, the age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM increased from 6.18%, 44.41%, 34.39%, and 19.08% at baseline to 7.87%, 59.64%, 52.17%, and 26.52% at follow-up in total population, respectively. Similar changes were found in men and women except the age-standardized control in men. The four parameters of T2DM were higher among various factors at follow-up than those at baseline. There was no statistical difference in awareness (P=0.089 and treatment (P=0.257 in the newly diagnosed T2DM compared with the rates at baseline. The current study indicated that the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM displayed chronological increasing trends while the awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM were still disproportionally low in central China. More works are needed urgently to popularize public health education and improve the quality of medical care in T2DM.
Sh. Miri Ghaffarzadeh
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The present study aims to achieve a comprehensive depiction of ecstasy consumption among the students of Urmia University of medical sciences in 2007.Materials & Methods: Totally 950 students were surveyed in this cross-sectional descriptive study. A census was used as a sampling method. A self-report questionnaire regarding demographic details and ecstasy consumption was completed by students. Data was stored in a database and then was analyzed through descriptive tests by SPSS software. Chi square test was used to determine the correlation coefficient.Results: There were 798 subjects of all target population who had never used this drug. However, 132 subjects (18 regularly, 56 occasionally for fun and 58 at least once consumed ecstasy pills. Thus the point prevalence of ecstasy consumption among the students was 14.19 percent. There were 232 subjects who had never heard of the term “ecstasy". Instead, the knowledge source of the rest about ecstasy was books (116 subject, internet (56 subjects, mass media (489 subjects, friends (28 subjects, and family (2 subjects. A significant relation was observed between ecstasy consumption and other variables (parents' education, residence in student campus, attending parties, smoking, canabis and opium consumption. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that the point prevalence of ecstasy pills consumption among university students was 14.19% that raises the need for purposive intervention and the necessity of planning to prevent and decrease this phenomenon.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:67-72
Matson, Johnny L; Hattier, Megan A; Williams, Lindsey W
Although it is still unclear what causes autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), over time researchers and clinicians have become more precise with detecting and diagnosing ASD. Many diagnoses, however, are based on the criteria established within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM); thus, any change in these diagnostic criteria can have a great effect upon children with ASD and their families. It is predicted that the prevalence of ASD diagnoses will dramatically decrease with the adoption of the proposed DSM-5 criteria in 2013. The aim of this current study was to inspect the changes in prevalence first using a diagnostic criteria set which was modified slightly from the DSM-5 criteria (Modified-1 criteria) and again using a set of criteria which was relaxed even a bit more (Modified-2 criteria). Modified-1 resulted in 33.77 % fewer toddlers being diagnosed with ASD compared to the DSM-IV, while Modified-2 resulted in only a 17.98 % decrease in ASD diagnoses. Children diagnosed with the DSM-5 criteria exhibited the greatest levels of autism symptomatology, but the Mod-1, Mod-2, and DSM-IV groups still demonstrated significant impairments. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Phillips, Andrew W; Friedman, Benjamin T; Utrankar, Amol; Ta, Andrew Q; Reddy, Shalini T; Durning, Steven J
To establish a baseline overall response rate for surveys of health professions trainees, determine strategies associated with improved response rates, and evaluate for the presence of nonresponse bias. The authors performed a comprehensive analysis of all articles published in Academic Medicine, Medical Education, and Advances in Health Sciences Education in 2013, recording response rates. Additionally, they reviewed nonresponse bias analyses and factors suggested in other fields to affect response rate including survey delivery method, prenotification, and incentives. The search yielded 732 total articles; of these, 356 were research articles, and of these, 185 (52.0%) used at least one survey. Of these, 66 articles (35.6%) met inclusion criteria and yielded 73 unique surveys. Of the 73 surveys used, investigators reported a response rate for 63.0% of them; response rates ranged from 26.6% to 100%, mean (standard deviation) 71.3% (19.5%). Investigators reported using incentives for only 16.4% of the 73 surveys. The only survey methodology factor significantly associated with response rate was single- vs. multi-institutional surveys (respectively, 74.6% [21.2%] vs. 62.0% [12.8%], P = .022). Notably, statistical power for all analyses was limited. No articles evaluated for nonresponse bias. Approximately half of the articles evaluated used a survey as part of their methods. Limited data are available to establish a baseline response rate among health professions trainees and inform researchers which strategies are associated with higher response rates. Journals publishing survey-based health professions education research should improve reporting of response rate, nonresponse bias, and other survey factors.
Tucker, Jalie A; Foushee, H Russell; Simpson, Cathy A
Increasing utilization and appeal of substance abuse services requires understanding public perceptions of substance abuse and problem resolution. A statewide survey (N = 439) assessed public views of the prevalence of problems, service utilization, and outcomes using random digit dialing sampling. Compared with population data, the sample overestimated the prevalence of alcohol and drug problems, accurately gauged rates of help-seeking for substance-related problems, and underestimated rates of recovery, particularly natural resolutions without treatment. Perceived influences on help-seeking included extrinsic pressures like legal problems and wanting help with problems of living related to substance misuse. Substance abuse is less prevalent and less intractable than the public perceives, and natural resolutions are common, but appear to be largely hidden from the public view. Implications for reducing barriers and expanding services in healthcare and public health settings are discussed.
Jeffrey, T B; Jeffrey, L K
This paper reviews psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in female adolescents. It documents that sexual abuse is widespread, occurring at an alarming rate at all socioeconomic levels of society. It is perpetrated principally by adult men in the victim's family. Often its effects are tragic. Adolescent female sexual abuse victims are at high risk for subsequent acting out behavior, sexual promiscuity, physical and sexual abuse, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, alcohol and drug abuse or dependence, chronic sleep disturbance, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, emotional numbing, dissociation, guilt, shame, hyperalertness, suicidal ideation, and multiple associated psychiatric disorders. Although it may appear at a surface level that sexual abuse victims recover from such abuse, follow-up studies suggest that many remain disabled long after the abuse has ended. Health care professionals should be especially cognizant of the magnitude of the impact of sexual abuse on adolescent girls and recognize the need of these patients for psychologic and medical services.
Hye Won Lee
Full Text Available BackgroundNonalbuminuric renal insufficiency is a unique category of diabetic kidney diseases. The objectives of the study were to evaluate prevalent rate of nonalbuminuric renal insufficiency and to investigate its relationship with previous cardiovascular disease (CVD event in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.MethodsLaboratory and clinical data of 1,067 subjects with T2DM were obtained and reviewed. Study subjects were allocated into four subgroups according to the CKD classification. Major CVD events were included with coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular events.ResultsNonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group, when compared with albuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group, had shorter diabetic duration, lower concentrations of glycated hemoglobin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lower prevalent rates of retinopathy and previous CVD, and higher rate of treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers. Nonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group showed a greater association with prior CVD events than no CKD group; however, albuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group made addition to increase prevalence of prior CVD events significantly when CKD categories were applied as covariates. Association of prior CVD events, when compared with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and nonalbuminuria categories, became significant for declined eGFR, which was higher for eGFR of <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, and albuminuria.ConclusionThe results show that subjects with nonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD is significantly interrelated with occurrence of prior CVD events than those with normal eGFR with or without albuminuria. Comparing with normal eGFR and nonalbuminuria categories, the combination of increased degree of albuminuria and declined eGFR is becoming significant for the association of prior CVD events.
... Paper) paint thinner cleaning fluids nail polish remover rubber cement gasoline. Teenagers are the most common abusers ... severe cases, it can cause sudden death. Inhalants block oxygen flow to your brain and other organs. ...
Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.
This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way
... a big part of moving from childhood into adolescence and adulthood. Unfortunately, some people may find themselves in a relationship that involves abuse or violence. It can be especially hard for guys to ...
Sittig, J S; Uiterwaal, C S P M; Moons, K G M; Russel, I M B; Nievelstein, R A J; Nieuwenhuis, E E S; van de Putte, E M
The aim of our diagnostic accuracy study Child Abuse Inventory at Emergency Rooms (CHAIN-ER) was to establish whether a widely used checklist accurately detects or excludes physical abuse among children presenting to ERs with physical injury. A large multicentre study with a 6-month follow-up in 4 ERs in The Netherlands. Participants were 4290 children aged 0-7 years, attending the ER because of physical injury. All children were systematically tested with an easy-to-use child abuse checklist (index test). A national expert panel (reference standard) retrospectively assessed all children with positive screens and a 15% random sample of the children with negative screens for physical abuse, using additional information, namely, an injury history taken by a paediatrician, information provided by the general practitioner, youth doctor and social services by structured questionnaires, and 6-month follow-up information. Our main outcome measure was physical child abuse; secondary outcome measure was injury due to neglect and need for help. 4253/4290 (99%) parents agreed to follow-up. At a prevalence of 0.07% (3/4253) for inflicted injury by expert panel decision, the positive predictive value of the checklist was 0.03 (95% CI 0.006 to 0.085), and the negative predictive value 1.0 (0.994 to 1.0). There was 100% (93 to 100) agreement about inflicted injury in children, with positive screens between the expert panel and child abuse experts. Rare cases of inflicted injury among preschool children presenting at ERs for injury are very likely captured by easy-to-use checklists, but at very high false-positive rates. Subsequent assessment by child abuse experts can be safely restricted to children with positive screens at very low risk of missing cases of inflicted injury. Because of the high false positive rate, we do advise careful prior consideration of cost-effectiveness and clinical and societal implications before de novo implementation.
Christoffersen, Mogens N; Armour, Cherie; Lasgaard, Mathias; Andersen, Tonny E; Elklit, Ask
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of four types of childhood maltreatment in Denmark while taking into considerations how each of the types of maltreatment vary as a function of gender or child-protection status. Methods: Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. The study used a stratified random probability sample of young people aged 24 years. A sample of 4718 young adults were randomly selected by Statistics Denmark using the total birth cohort of all children born in 1984. The response rate was 63% leaving a total effective sample size of 2980. A structured residential or telephone interview enquired about a range of respondents maltreatment experiences. Results: Maltreatment is experienced by a significant proportion of Danish children. The reported prevalence rates were; physical neglect (3.0%), emotional abuse (5.2%), physical abuse (5.4%) and sexual abuse (3.4%). All trauma types were experienced by a greater percentage of females compared to males with the exception of physical abuse and all trauma types were experienced by a greater percentage of children given child-protection status. Conclusions: Female children and children who are given child protection status are those most at risk for experiencing maltreatment in Denmark. However, variability in prevalence rates of maltreatment across studies is problematic. Methodological variations and variation in abuse definitions may be partly attributable. PMID:24155769
Boyanova, Lyudmila; Mitev, Angel; Gergova, Galina; Mateev, Grisha; Mitov, Ivan
Aim of the study was to assess both prevalence and antibiotic resistance in anaerobic bacteria from glans penis skin of 70 adults. Strain susceptibility was determined by breakpoint susceptibility test or E test. In 9 asymptomatic, 48 untreated and 13 treated symptomatic patients, anaerobes were found in 22.2%, 70.8% and 53.3%, respectively. Gram-positive strains (GPAs) were 2.2-fold more common than Gram-negative ones. Prevalent Gram-negative (GNAs) and GPAs were Prevotella spp. and anaerobic cocci, respectively. Clostridium difficile strain was found in an untreated patient. In GNAs, resistance rates to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin/clavulanate were 42.1, 0, 52.6, 53.3, 86.7 and 5.2%, respectively. In GPAs, the resistance rates to metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline, levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate were 18.2, 34.1, 52.6, 36.8 and 0%, respectively. In conclusion, anaerobes were 1.6-fold more frequent in untreated symptomatic patients compared with other patients, suggesting their participation in development of chronic balanitis. GPAs were more common than GNAs. The resistance rates to amoxicillin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin were high. Most active agents were metronidazole and amoxicillin/clavulanate. Resistance in anaerobes varies according to sites of specimens and years of study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carabali, Mabel; Lim, Jacqueline Kyungah; Velez, Diana Carolina; Trujillo, Andrea; Egurrola, Jorge; Lee, Kang Sung; Kaufman, Jay S; DaSilva, Luiz Jacinto; Velez, Ivan Dario; Osorio, Jorge E
Dengue is an important public health problem worldwide. A vaccine has recently been licensed in some countries of Latin America and Asia. Recommendations for dengue vaccine introduction include endemicity and a high serological prevalence of dengue in the territories considering its introduction. A community-based survey was conducted to estimate dengue seroprevalence and age-specific seroconversion rates in a community in Medellin, Colombia, using a dengue serological test (IgG indirect ELISA). Residents were selected at random and were first screened for dengue infection; they were then followed over 2.5 years. A total of 3684 individuals aged between 1 and 65 years participated in at least one survey. The overall dengue seroprevalence was 61%, and only 3.3% of seropositive subjects self-reported a past history of dengue. Among dengue virus (DENV)-naïve subjects with more than two visits (n=1002), the overall seroconversion rate was 8.7% (95% confidence interval 7.3-10.4) per 1000 person-months, over the study period. Overall, the mean age of DENV prevalent subjects was significantly higher than the mean age of seroconverted subjects. Specifically, DENV seropositivity over 70% was observed in participants over 21 years old. Serotype-specific plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) revealed that all four dengue serotypes were circulating, with DENV4 being most prevalent. These laboratory-based findings could inform dengue vaccine decisions, as they provide age-specific seroprevalence and seroconversion data, evidencing permanent and ongoing dengue transmission in the study area. This study provides evidence for the existing rates of secondary and heterotypic responses, presenting a challenge that must be addressed adequately by the new vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A
The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the...... currently requiring specialised genetic counselling services in the perinatal period for these conditions and, for some, long-term care.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 11 January 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.246....
Nyala, Joseph; Assuah, Charles; Ayebo, Abraham; Tse, Newel
Stakeholders of mathematics education decry the rate at which students' performance are falling below expectation; they call for a shift to practical methods of teaching the subject in Ghanaian basic schools. The study explores the extent to which Ghanaian basic school mathematics teachers use problem-solving approach in their lessons. The…
sexually abused children are anxiety disorders, depression, increased aggression and disturbance in sexual behaviour and gender roles. An American study found significantly higher rates .... counterparts with post-admission disclosure, this difference was not ... sense of psychic loneliness and internal crisis which follows.
The aim of this study is review the theorical approches of child abuse and its prevalency, ethiology, prevention, assessment and treatment. Also, we try to difine the relationship between child abuse and parents addiction and their side effects in different areas of childs life .
Full Text Available Background Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common gynecological finding among the women worldwide. Objectives In this study determine of prevalence rate of vulvovaginal candidiasis and identification of Candida species was investigated. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study study, 350 females selected and examined by wet mount and culture procedure. Results The prevalence rate, by means of culture procedure was 26%. Candida albicans was responsible for 81.3% episodes of volvovaginal candidiasis. Conclusions In order to decrease the prevalence rate of vulvovaginitis, more epidemiological surveillance and accurate informative programs about public health care, symptoms and signs and transmission ways should be performed in the future.
Breurec, Sebastien; Bouchiat, Coralie; Sire, Jean-Marie; Moquet, Olivier; Bercion, Raymond; Cisse, Moussa Fafa; Glaser, Philippe; Ndiaye, Ousmane; Ka, Sidy; Salord, Helene; Seck, Abdoulaye; Sy, Haby Signate; Michel, Remy; Garin, Benoit
International audience; Background: Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal’s most important public health problems, with amortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births.Methods: Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at threeneonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections wereconfirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiologi...
physical harm or promised rewards, or 4) failure to obtain affirmative consent. The study also collected data on sexual harassment , stalking, and...nonconforming,” or as something not listed on the survey. This group had high rates of being victims of nonconsensual sexual contact and harassment . However...Military Service Academies and U.S. Colleges 13 13 Other Gender-Related Behaviors The AAU study provides results on sexual harassment since the
Kabaria, Caroline W; Gilbert, Marius; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Linard, Catherine
Although malaria has been traditionally regarded as less of a problem in urban areas compared to neighbouring rural areas, the risk of malaria infection continues to exist in densely populated, urban areas of Africa. Despite the recognition that urbanization influences the epidemiology of malaria, there is little consensus on urbanization relevant for malaria parasite mapping. Previous studies examining the relationship between urbanization and malaria transmission have used products defining urbanization at global/continental scales developed in the early 2000s, that overestimate actual urban extents while the population estimates are over 15 years old and estimated at administrative unit level. This study sought to discriminate an urbanization definition that is most relevant for malaria parasite mapping using individual level malaria infection data obtained from nationally representative household-based surveys. Boosted regression tree (BRT) modelling was used to determine the effect of urbanization on malaria transmission and if this effect varied with urbanization definition. In addition, the most recent high resolution population distribution data was used to determine whether population density had significant effect on malaria parasite prevalence and if so, could population density replace urban classifications in modelling malaria transmission patterns. The risk of malaria infection was shown to decline from rural areas through peri-urban settlements to urban central areas. Population density was found to be an important predictor of malaria risk. The final boosted regression trees (BRT) model with urbanization and population density gave the best model fit (Tukey test p value <0.05) compared to the models with urbanization only. Given the challenges in uniformly classifying urban areas across different countries, population density provides a reliable metric to adjust for the patterns of malaria risk in densely populated urban areas. Future malaria risk
Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L
We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
... children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be family friends, neighbors or babysitters. ...
Kanuri, N; Cassell, B; Bruce, S E; White, K S; Gott, B M; Gyawali, C P; Sayuk, G S
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common abdominal pain disorder without an organic explanation. Abuse histories (physical, sexual, emotional) are prevalent in IBS. While abuse relates to mood disorders (depression and anxiety) also common in IBS, the influence of abuse on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its independence from psychological symptom comorbidity has not been studied. Consecutive GI outpatients completed the ROME III Research Diagnostic Questionnaire and questionnaires on trauma (Life-Stress Questionnaire), mood (Beck Depression/Anxiety Inventories), somatic symptoms (PHQ-12), and HRQOL (SF-36). Current GI symptom severity and bother were assessed using 10-cm Visual Analog Scales. 272 ROME-defined IBS (47.6 ± 0.9 years, 81% female) and 246 non-FGID (51.6 ± 1.0 years, 65% female) subjects participated. IBS patients reported greater rates of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse (p IBS with abuse. Abuse effects were additive, with greater IBS symptom severity and poorer HRQOL noted in cases with multiple forms of abuse. Mediation analyses suggested that abuse effects on GI symptoms and HRQOL were partially mediated by mood. Abuse experiences common among IBS sufferers are associated with reports of greater GI symptoms and poorer HRQOL, particularly in those with multiple forms of abuse; this relationship may be partially mediated by concomitant mood disturbances. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner
Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…
Hinney, Barbara; Gottwald, Michaela; Moser, Jasmine; Reicher, Bianca; Schäfer, Bhavapriya Jasmin; Schaper, Roland; Joachim, Anja; Künzel, Frank
Several endoparasites of dogs cannot only be detrimental to their primary host but might also represent a threat to human health because of their zoonotic potential. Due to their high dog population densities, metropolitan areas can be highly endemic for such parasites. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of endoparasites in dogs in the Austrian capital of Vienna by examining a representative number of canine faecal samples and to compare the prevalences with two neighbouring peri-urban and rural regions. In addition we analysed whether the density of dog populations and cleanliness of dog zones correlated with parasite occurrence. We collected 1001 anonymous faecal samples from 55 dog zones from all 23 districts of the federal state of Vienna, as well as 480 faecal samples from the Mödling district and Wolkersdorf with a peri-urban and rural character, respectively. Faeces were examined by flotation and by Baermann technique. Additionally we evaluated 292 Viennese, 102 peri-urban and 50 rural samples for Giardia and Cryptosporidium by GiardiaFASTest ® and CryptoFASTest ® . Samples from "clean" dog zones were compared to samples from "dirty" zones. The infection rate of Toxocara was surprisingly low, ranging from 0.6% to 1.9%. Trichuris was the most frequent helminth (1.8-7.5%) and Giardia the most frequent protozoan (4.0-10.8%). Ancylostomatidae, Crenosoma, Capillaria, Taeniidae, Cystoisospora and Sarcocystis were found in 1.8-2.2%, 0-0.9%, 0-0.9%, 0-0.6%, 0.3-3.1% and 0-0.6% of the samples, respectively. Samples from "dirty" dog zones in Vienna showed a significantly higher rate of parasites overall (p=0.003) and of Trichuris (p=0.048) compared to samples from "clean" dog zones. There were no statistically significant differences in densely vs. less densely populated areas of Vienna. Samples from the rural region of Wolkersdorf had significantly higher overall parasite, Trichuris and Cystoisospora prevalences than the peri-urban Mödling district and Vienna (p
This research tracked women's and men's drunk driving rates and the DUI sex ratio in the United States from 1982-2004 using three diverse sources of evidence. Sex-specific prevalence estimates and the sex ratio are derived from official arrest statistics from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, self-reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and traffic fatality data from the National Highway and Transportation Safety Administration. Drunk driving trends were analyzed using Augmented Dickey Fuller time series techniques. Female DUI arrest rates increased whereas male rates declined then stabilized, producing a significantly narrower sex ratio. According to self-report and traffic data, women's and men's drunk driving rates declined and the gender gap was unchanged. Women's overrepresentation in arrests relative to their share of offending began in the 1990s and accelerated in 2000. Women's arrest gains, contrasted with no systematic change in DUI behavior, and the timing of this shift suggest an increased vulnerability to arrest. More stringent laws and enforcement directed at less intoxicated offenders may inadvertently target female offending patterns.
Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; Vivian, Dina; O'Leary, K Daniel
This study sought to examine (a) a mediational model of childhood abuse, adult interpersonal abuse, and depressive symptoms and (b) the impact of weight-related teasing on rates and correlates of childhood abuse. Charts of 187 extremely obese individuals seeking psychological clearance for bariatric (weight-loss) surgery were retrospectively examined. Among the participants, 61% reported a history of childhood abuse, 30.5% reported adult interpersonal abuse, and 15% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Initially, the relationship between childhood abuse and current depressive symptoms was significant (pdepressive symptoms were significant (pdepression), and higher than those in community samples and other medical populations. The relationship between child abuse and depressive symptomatology may be partially explained by the presence of adult interpersonal abuse; additionally, the relationship between childhood and adult interpersonal abuse was stronger for those who did not endure weight-related teasing than for those who did. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kamimura, Akiko; Ganta, Vikas; Myers, Kyl; Thomas, Tomi
Previous studies in India suggest high prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV), childhood abuse, and abuse from in-laws. Yet few studies examined IPV, childhood abuse, and abuse from in-laws together. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between IPV, childhood abuse, and abuse from in-laws, and types of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse) among women utilizing community health services for the economically disadvantaged in India. This study contributes to expanding the literature on abuse experience and providing knowledge for developing intervention programs and research projects to improve health and safety of economically disadvantaged women. The data were collected from women aged 18 years old or older at 18 community health centers that are primarily for the economically disadvantaged in Gujarat, India, in October and November 2013. Of the 219 women who completed a self-administered survey, 167 participants, who had ever been married and indicated whether they had been abused by their spouse or not, were included in analysis. More than 60% of the participants experienced IPV, childhood abuse, and/or abuse from in-laws, often with multiple types of abuse. Physical abuse is a major issue for IPV, childhood abuse, and in-law abuse. Emotional abuse potentially happens along with physical and/or sexual abuse. Abuse from in-laws requires greater attention because all types of abuse from in-laws were associated with IPV. Community health centers should provide abuse prevention and intervention programs that have involvement of family members as well as women who are at risk of being abused. © The Author(s) 2015.
Jardim, T; Neiva, T; Rodrigues, R; Arantes, A; Barros, C; Chinem, B; Rocha, R; Euzébio, M; Souza, W; Araújo, Y; Sousa, A; Ressurreição, L; Carneiro, S; Moreira, H; Mendonça, K; Sousa, A; Jardim, P
To compare differences in prevalence rates, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension between male and female workers of a public university in the Midwest region of Brazil. Cross-sectional study with a representative sample of employers from the Federal University of Goias - Brazil. Data were collected in the workplace with individual questionnaire and measurement of casual blood pressure using semi-automatic devices (OMRON HEM model 711). Individuals using anti-hypertensive drugs and/or with blood pressure (BP) greater than or equal to 140/90mmHg (or 130/80mmHg, in the case of diabetics) were considered hypertensive. The knowledge about the disease was identified among those who claimed to be aware of the diagnosis before the measurements, and the treatment rate was calculated with those who reported using antihypertensive drugs. Controlled blood pressure was considered in individuals with values lower than 140/90mmHg (or 130/80mmHg, in the case of diabetics). The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the institution. The study included 1000 individuals with a mean age of 42.3 years (± 12.1); 393 (39.3%) patients were male. The prevalence of hypertension was 30.1% (n = 301), being higher among men (34.6%) than women (27.2%) (p < 0.05), aged over 50 years (p < = 0.001) and among those who have also referred hypertensive parents (p < 0.05). Among the hypertensive men 62.5% knew the diagnosis, 82.4% of those were under treatment, and 60.0% of those had BP under control. Among the hypertensive women 83,6% knew the diagnosis, 90,6% were under treatment and 79,4% were with controlled BP (p < 0,05 for the three variables). Despite the higher prevalence of hypertension in men, women had a greater knowledge of the diagnosis, higher rates of treatment and control of the disease in a population of workers from a Brazilian public university.
Alemany, S; Ayesa-Arriola, R; Arias, B; Fatjó-Vilas, M; Ibáñez, M I; Ortet, G; Crespo-Facorro, B; Fañanás, L
The present study aimed to examine the prevalence of child abuse across the continuum of psychosis. The sample consisted of 198 individuals divided in three groups: (1) 48 FEP patients, (2) 77 individuals scoring high in Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), classified as "High CAPE" group and (3) 73 individuals scoring low, classified as "Low CAPE" group. Childhood abuse was assessed using self-report instruments. Chi(2) tests and logistic regression models controlling by sex, age and cannabis were used to perform three comparisons: (i) FEP vs. Low CAPE; (ii) FEP vs. High CAPE and (iii) High CAPE vs. Low CAPE. The frequency of individuals exposed to childhood abuse for FEP, High CAPE and Low CAPE groups were 52.1%, 41.6% and 11%, respectively. FEP and High CAPE group presented significantly higher rates of childhood abuse compared to Low CAPE group, however, no significant differences were found between FEP and High CAPE groups regarding the frequency of childhood abuse. There is an increasing frequency of childhood abuse from low subclinical psychosis to FEP patients. However, childhood abuse is equally common in FEP and at risk individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Maker, Azmaira H.; Shah, Priti V.; Agha, Zia
The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian, n = 72;…
Full Text Available Reduced T3 and free T4, elevated thyroid stimulating hormone, and hyporesponsiveness to thyrotropin releasing hormone raise questions about the presence of hypothyroidism in chronic kidney disease (CKD and raise the possibility of benefit from thyroxine supplementation. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 73 nondiabetic CKD cases. Hypothyroid patients were started on levothyroxine and were reviewed after 3 and 6 months. The mean age of study population was 42.3 ± 16.8 years. Of the total population, 32 (43.8% cases had hypothyroidism, among whom 2 (2.7% had overt hypothyroidism and 30 (41.1% had subclinical hypothyroidism. Prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with increasing severity of CKD. There were 1 (3.1% case with hypothyroidism in stage 3b, 8 (25% cases in stage 4, and 23 (71.9% cases in stage 5. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2 at baseline was 13.7 ± 8.9 which increased to 17.5 ± 6.8 and 22.4 ± 9.3 after 3 and 6 months of thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT, respectively (P < 0.001. Hypothyroidism is commonly associated with nondiabetic CKD and its prevalence increases with declining renal function. THRT significantly improves renal function in nondiabetic CKD with hypothyroidism.
Horton, Gail; Diaz, Naelys; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Mullaney, Donald
The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence rates of co-occurring mental health problems among 70 flight attendants in substance abuse treatment. Results indicated that flight attendants in treatment were more likely to experience alcohol dependency than drug dependency. A high proportion of participants reported clinical levels of…
Vlahovicova, K.; Melendez-Torres, G.J.; Leijten, P.; Knerr, W.; Gardner, F.
Child physical abuse is an issue of global concern. Conservative estimates set global prevalence of this type of maltreatment at 25%, its consequences and cost to society escalating with increasing frequency and severity of episodes. Syntheses of the evidence on parenting programs for reducing rates
Bindawas, Saad M; Vennu, Vishal
The prevalence of disability varies between countries ranging from less than 1% to up to 30% in some countries, thus, the estimated global disability prevalence is about 15%. However, it is unknown what the current estimate of disability and its types and severity are in Saudi Arabia. Thus, the objective of this study is to estimate national and regional prevalence rates of any disability, types of disability, and their severity among Saudi populations. Data on disability status were extracted from the national demographic survey conducted in 2016 as reported by the General Authority for Statistics, Saudi Arabia (N = 20,064,970). Prevalence rates per a population of 100,000 of any disability, type of disability, and its severity were calculated at the national level and in all 13 regions. Out of 20,064,970 Saudi citizens surveyed, 667,280 citizens reported disabilities, accounting for a prevalence rate of 3326 per a population of 100,000 (3.3%). Individuals aged 60 years and above (11,014) and males (3818) had a higher prevalence rate of disability compared with females (2813). The Tabuk region has the highest rate of reported disability, at 4.3%. The prevalence rates of extreme disabilities in mobility and sight were higher in Madinah (57,343) and Northern border (41,236) regions, respectively. In Saudi Arabia, more than half a million Saudi citizens (1 out of every 30 individuals) reported the presence of disability during the year 2016. A higher prevalence rate of disability was seen among those aged 60 years and above, and males. Targeted efforts are required at the national and regional levels to expand and improve rehabilitation and social services for all people with disabilities.
Chekol Luelseged T
Full Text Available Abstract Background A complex interaction exists between tuberculosis (TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection at an individual and community level. Limited knowledge about the rate of HIV infection in TB patients and the general population compromises the planning, resource allocation and prevention and control activities. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of HIV infection in TB patients and its correlation with the rate HIV infection in pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC in Southern Ethiopia. Methods All TB patients and pregnant women attending health institutions for TB diagnosis and treatment and ANC were consecutively enrolled in 2004 – 2005. TB diagnosis, treatment and HIV testing were done according to the national guidelines. Blood samples were collected for anonymous HIV testing. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine the risk factors for HIV infection and linear regression analysis to determine the correlation between HIV infection in TB patients and pregnant women. Results Of the 1308 TB patients enrolled, 226 (18% (95%CI: 15.8 – 20.0 were HIV positive. The rate of HIV infection was higher in TB patients from urban 25% (73/298 than rural areas 16% (149/945 [AOR = 1.78, 95%CI: 1.27–2.48]. Of the 4199 pregnant women attending ANC, 155 (3.8% [95%CI: 3.2–4.4] were HIV positive. The rate of HIV infection was higher in pregnant women from urban (7.5% (80/1066 than rural areas (2.5% (75/3025 [OR = 3.19, 95% CI: 2.31–4.41]. In the study participants attending the same health institutions, the rate of HIV infection in pregnant women correlated with the rate of HIV infection in TB patients (R2 = 0.732. Conclusion The rate of HIV infection in TB patients and pregnant women was higher in study participants from urban areas. The rate of HIV infection in TB patients was associated with the prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women attending ANC.
McHugh, R. Kathryn; Nielsen, Suzanne; Weiss, Roger D.
Prescription drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. The prevalence of prescription drug abuse escalated rapidly beginning in the late 1990s, requiring a significant increase in research to better understand the nature and treatment of this problem. Since this time, a research literature has begun to develop and has provided important information about how prescription drug abuse is similar to, and different from the abuse of other substances. This introduction to a spe...
Egu, Chizoma Linda; Weiss, David J.
In the United States, reported child abuse rates vary dramatically with race. We employed a scenario methodology to examine whether teachers, whose professional obligations include reporting suspected instances of abuse, exhibit bias in evaluating a possibly abused child. Each teacher (180 White, 180 Black, and 180 Hispanic) read one of six…
Moreno-Artero, Ester; Querol-Cisneros, Elena; Rodríguez-Garijo, Nuria; Tomás-Velázquez, Alejandra; Antoñanzas, Javier; Fernández, Secundino; Gil-Sánchez, María Pilar; España, Agustín
Cocaine is an alkaloid extracted from the leaves of the Erythroxylum coca plant that emerged in the 1970s as a fashionable drug among members of certain social backgrounds. Cocaine abuse is a problem of current interest, which is mostly hidden and under-diagnosed, but dramatically widespread among all socioeconomic strata, and with an incidence which is increasing at an alarming rate. There are 1.5 million cocaine consumers in the USA. In Spain, the prevalence of consumption among the population between 15 and 65 years-old is higher, reaching 3.1%. Because of this, it seems important to understand and recognize all the mucocutaneous manifestations of cocaine abuse which have been reported in the literature in order to clarify and help dermatologists in their daily practice. In this article, we describe the principal mucocutaneous manifestations of cocaine abuse and we review isolated case reports which have been published in the literature. Because the dermatologist may deal with an unknown problem as well as with an already well-known history of cocaine abuse, it seems logical to separate the mucocutaneous manifestations into those which are frequent and highly suggestive, such as those caused by vascular injury, damage to mucosal membranes, infectious diseases or neutrophilic dermatosis, especially when suffered by young people and in consonance with other systemic manifestations and, those which have been reported in the literature as isolated case reports. We also summarize the main aspects of its pathogeny, principal pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics, and diagnostic tools. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
the prevalence and describe the patterns of sexual abuse of male pediatric patients at Tikur Anbessa Specialized. Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out to describe causes of male pediatric sexual abuse .... the prevalence of rape and sexual harassment among.
Daniela Viganó Zanoti-Jeronymo
Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a prevalência de abuso físico e exposição à violência parental na infância, segundo características sócio-demográficas. Um procedimento de amostragem de múltiplos estágios foi usado para selecionar 3.007 indivíduos de 14 anos de idade ou mais, entre 2005/2006, incluindo sujeitos de todas as regiões do país, assim, os resultados são nacionalmente representativos. Foram acessadas experiências de abuso físico (bater, bater com alguma coisa, queimar/escaldar, ameaçar/usar faca ou arma e exposição à violência parental (testemunhou ameaça e/ou agressão física parental na infância. Realizaram-se as análises através do teste qui-quadrado de Pearson. A prevalência de história de abuso físico na infância foi de 44,1%, sendo que 33,8% relataram história de abuso físico moderado e 10,3% abuso físico severo. A prevalência de exposição à violência parental foi de 26,1%, sendo que 7,5% testemunharam violência parental moderada e 18,6% testemunharam violência parental severa na infância. Análises combinadas entre estes dois tipos de violência demonstraram significativas associações entre elas. Estes resultados podem ajudar na implementação de estratégias de intervenção alertando profissionais de saúde para alta prevalência deste tipo de violência na população.The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of physical abuse and exposure to parental violence during childhood, in relation to socio-demographic characteristics. Multi-stage sampling was used to select 3,007 individuals 14 years or older in 2005-2006, from all regions of the country. The study detected cases of physical abuse (beating, striking with objects, burning or scalding, threatening and/or using knives or firearms and exposure to parental violence (witnessing parental threats and/or actual physical aggression during childhood. Analyses were performed with the Pearson chi-square test. Prevalence of
a “Trauma Coding Manual” developed for this study, trauma types were identified in interview transcripts. In both men and women with Iraqi and Palestinian-Lebanese backgrounds, high levels of trauma complexity and high rates of childhood maltreatment were found (63%, n = 27). A number of concepts...... and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information...
El Rasheed, Amany Haroun
Alexithymia is thought of as a trait that predisposes to drug abuse. Moreover, it is suggested to be related to type of the substance abused, with the worst-case scenario including a worse prognosis as well as tendency to relapse or even not to seek treatment at all. To address this important subject in Egyptian patients, a sample of 200 Egyptian substance abusers was randomly selected from inpatients in the Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Egypt. The study also included 200 group-matched controls. DSM-IV criteria were used for assessment of substance use disorders, and toxicologic urine analysis was used to confirm the substances of abuse. Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS)-Arabic version was used for assessment of alexithymia. It was found that alexithymia was significantly more prevalent in the substance use disorders group as compared to healthy controls. It was also found that among the substance use disorders group, alexithymics reported more polysubstance abuse, more opiate use (other than heroin IV), lower numbers of hospitalizations, lower numbers of reported relapses, and a lower tendency to relapse as a result of internal cues compared to patients without alexithymia. Statistically significant associations were also found between alexithymia and more benzodiazepine abuse and nonpersistence in treatment. The results suggest that alexithymia should be targeted in a treatment setting for substance use disorders.
Tuch Brian B
Full Text Available Abstract Background The patterns of mutation vary both within and across genomes. It has been shown for a few mammals that mutation rates vary within the genome, while for unknown reasons, the sensu stricto yeasts have uniform rates instead. The generality of these observations has been unknown. Here we examine silent site substitutions in a more expansive set (20 mammals, 27 fungi, 4 insects to determine why some genomes demonstrate this mosaic distribution and why others are uniform. Results We applied several intragene and intergene correlation tests to measure regional substitution patterns. Assuming that silent sites are a reasonable approximation to neutrally mutating sequence, our results show that all multicellular eukaryotes exhibit mutational heterogeneity. In striking contrast, all fungi are mutationally uniform – with the exception of three Candida species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis. We speculate that aspects of replication timing may be responsible for distinguishing these species. Our analysis also reveals classes of genes whose silent sites behave anomalously with respect to the mutational background in many species, indicating prevalent selective pressures. Genes associated with nucleotide binding or gene regulation have consistently low silent substitution rates in every mammalian species, as well as multiple fungi. On the other hand, receptor genes repeatedly exhibit high silent substitution rates, suggesting they have been influenced by diversifying selection. Conclusion Our findings provide a framework for understanding the regional mutational properties of eukaryotes, revealing a sharp difference between fungi and multicellular species. They also elucidate common selective pressures acting on eukaryotic silent sites, with frequent evidence for both purifying and diversifying selection.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.
Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne
The validity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in children and adolescents has not been studied in a rigorous manner reflecting the criteria of Robins and Guze first detailed in 1970. This paper and the others in this series address some aspects of this multifaceted validation paradigm, which requires that a disorder has a known clinical presentation, can be delimited from other disorders, 'runs' in families, and something of its aetiology, treatment response and course is known. Three groups of subjects were studied: 104 adolescent inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-IV criteria for BPD, 60 psychiatrically healthy adolescents and 290 adult inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD. Adolescents with BPD had significantly higher prevalence rates of 22 of the 24 symptoms studied than psychiatrically healthy adolescents. Only rates of serious treatment regressions and countertransference problems failed to reach the Bonferroni-corrected level of 0.002. Adolescents and adults with BPD had only four symptomatic differences that reached this level of significance, with adolescents with BPD reporting significantly lower levels of quasi-psychotic thought, dependency/masochism, devaluation/manipulation/sadism and countertransference problems than adults with BPD. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that adolescents report BPD as severe as that reported by adults. They also suggest that BPD in adolescents is not a tumultuous phase of normal adolescence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Linguatla serrata is a zoonotic parasite which causes different forms of liguatulosis in humans, carnivores and ruminants. The most important way of human infection is injection of vegetables, fruits and water contaminated by parasite eggs and through nasal and oral secretions and feces of carnivorous especially stray dogs. Also, consumption of raw and under cook meat of sheep, goats, cattle and other herbivores is another risk factor in human infection by Linguatla serrata. This study was conducted in order to determine the infection rate of dogs by Linguatla serrata in the city of Urmia. In the present study, 37 dogs including 22 male and 15 female animals from different parts of the city were studied. The frontal sinuses, nasal turbinates, brain cavity, nasopharynx and eustachian tubes were examined for adult Linguatla serrata. The recovered parasites were fixed in 10% formalin solution, cleared by lactophenol and stained with azocarmin. Thirty of the studied dogs (81.01% were infected by Linguatla serrata. The results indicated that body weight, age, sex and geographical locations had no significant effect in the prevalence rate of the parasite. The number of parasites recovered from each dog ranged from 1 to 7 with an average of 2.93 in each dog. The length of the mature linguatula varied from 35-50 mm in females and 2-18 mm in males. The greatest number of parasites was found in the cranial part of the frontal sinus with 7 parasites.
Cea-Calvo, Luis; Redón, Josep; Martí-Canales, Juan C; Lozano, José V; Llisterri, José L; Fernández-Pérez, Cristina; Aznar, José; González-Esteban, Jorge
To assess the prevalence of low glomerular filtration rate (GFR ICTUS, a population-based study carried out in a sample of subjects aged 60 years or more, randomly selected and stratified by Autonomic Communities according to the census of inhabitants and the habitat in each Community. Demographic data, cardiovascular risk factors and diseases were collected. GFR was calculated using the MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) equation. In 6,799 subjects (age 71.9 years-old; 53.6% women; 72.9% with arterial hypertension [HT]; 27.0% with diabetes mellitus [DM]; 24.3% with cardiovascular disease), 25.9% had low GFR (95% confidence interval, 24.8-26.9). The prevalence increased linearly, from 16.5% in subjects aged 60-64 years to 46.5% in those aged 85 or more (p < 0.001), and was higher in women (36.1% vs 14.1% in men, p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, low GFR was independently related to advanced age (odds ratio [OR] between 1.30 y 4.20), female gender (OR = 5.82), HT older than 7 years (OR = 1.23), uric acid (OR = 1.52 for each increment of 1 mg/dl) and cardiovascular disease (OR = 1.68). The association with DM did not reach statistical significance. In a model without cardiovascular disease, related factors remained the same, increasing the significance of HT older than 7 years (OR = 1.31) and of DM (OR = 1.19). One out or 4 subjects of this sample showed low GFR. The variables directly associated with low GFR were advanced age, female gender, HT of longer evolution, cardiovascular disease, increased uric acid, and, in one model, DM.
Mueller-Johnson, Katrin; Eisner, Manuel P; Obsuth, Ingrid
Children with disabilities have been shown to be at greater risk of victimization than those without. Although much of the research combines disability of any type into a single disability category, recent evidence suggests that not all types of disabilities are equally associated with victimization. To date, little knowledge exists about the victimization of youth with physical disabilities. This study used data from a national school-based survey of adolescents (n = 6,749, mean age = 15.41, SD = .66) in Switzerland to investigate sexual victimization (SV) among physically disabled youth. Two subtypes of SV were differentiated: contact SV, including penetration or touching/kissing, and non-contact SV, such as exhibitionism, verbal harassment, exposure to sexual acts, or cyber SV. A total of 360 (5.1%) youth self-identified as having a physical disability. Lifetime prevalence rates for contact SV were 25.95% for girls with a physical disability (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29 compared with able-bodied girls), 18.50% for boys with physical disability (OR = 2.78 compared with able-bodied boys), and 22.35% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.74 compared with able-bodied youth). For non-contact SV, the lifetime prevalence was 48.11% for girls with a physical disability (OR = 1.44 compared with able-bodied girls), 31.76% for boys with physical disability (OR = 1.95 compared with able-bodied boys), and 40.28% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.67 compared with able-bodied youth). After controlling for other risk factors, physical disability was a significant predictor of contact and non-contact SV for boys, but not for girls. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ruth A. Afunwa
Full Text Available Owing to the increasing epidemiological and therapeutic challenges associated with infections due to ESBL producers, ESBL prevalence rate among some bacteria isolates from healthy and non-healthy human population in a metropolitan Nigerian setting was evaluated.A total of one hundred and forty-five (145 bacteria strains were isolated from a total of four hundred and sixty (460 samples collected from urine, wound, throat and anal swabs of 220 healthy volunteers in the community and from 240 patients in 2 secondary and 2 tertiary hospitals (altogether, 4 in Enugu metropolis. The presumptive confirmatory test used for ESBL detection was the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST method. Conjugation and plasmid curing studies were also done for resistance factor determination.Of the 145 isolates, 20 were ESBL producers with 35% of these ESBL producers being of community origin and 65% from hospitals. This translates to 4.8% and 9% incidences (comparably higher than established prevalence of 4.4% and 7.5 respectively for community and hospital infections respectively. The ESBL isolates showed high resistance to tetracycline, gentamicin, pefloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin and Augmentin® (Amoxicilin and clavulanic acid combination. Conjugation studies for Resistance plasmid transfer showed non-transference of resistance determinants between the ESBL transconjugants and recipient strains. Correspondingly, the plasmid curing studies revealed that the acridine orange could not effect a cure on the isolates as they still retained high resistance to the antibiotics after the treatment.This study confirms the growing incidences/pool of ESBL strains in Nigeria and call for widespread and continuous monitoring towards an effective management of the potential therapeutic hurdle posed by this trend.
Banks, Kathleen P; Karim, Ali M; Ratcliffe, Hannah L; Betemariam, Wuleta; Langer, Ana
Disrespect and abuse (D&A) experienced by women during facility-based childbirth has gained global recognition as a threat to eliminating preventable maternal mortality and morbidity. This study explored the frequency and associated factors of D&A in four rural health centres in Ethiopia. Experiences of women who delivered in these facilities were captured by direct observation of client-provider interaction (N = 193) and exit interview at time of discharge (N = 204). Incidence of D&A was observed in each facility, with failure to ask woman for preferred birth position most commonly observed [n = 162, 83.9%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 78.0-88.5%]. During exit interviews, 21.1% (n = 43, 95% CI 15.4-26.7%) of respondents reported at least one occurrence of D&A. Bivariate models using client characteristics and index birth experience showed that women's reporting of D&A was significantly associated with childbirth complications [odds ratio (OR) = 7.98, 95% CI 3.70, 17.22], weekend delivery (OR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.05, 0.63) and no previous delivery at the facility (OR = 3.20, 95% CI 1.27, 8.05). Facility-level fixed-effect models found that experience of complications (OR = 15.51, 95% CI 4.38, 54.94) and weekend delivery (OR = 0.05, 95% CI 0.01-0.32) remained significantly and most strongly associated with self-reported D&A. These data suggest that addressing D&A in health centres in Ethiopia will require a sustained effort to improve infrastructure, support the health workforce in rural settings, enforce professional standards and target interventions to improve women's experiences as part of quality of care initiatives.
Verheul, R.; Hartgers, C.; van den Brink, W.; Koeter, M. W.
OBJECTIVE. In a recent review of empirical studies on the prevalence of DSM-III-R personality disorders among substance abusers, wide ranges of prevalence rates for overall Axis II, antisocial personality disorder (APD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) were shown. Utilizing subsamples from
Gottesman Irving I
Full Text Available Abstract Background Two large independent studies funded by the US government have assessed the impact of the Vietnam War on the prevalence of PTSD in US veterans. The National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS estimated the current PTSD prevalence to be 15.2% while the Vietnam Experience Study (VES estimated the prevalence to be 2.2%. We compared alternative criteria for estimating the prevalence of PTSD using the NVVRS and VES public use data sets collected more than 10 years after the United States withdrew troops from Vietnam. Methods We applied uniform diagnostic procedures to the male veterans from the NVVRS and VES to estimate PTSD prevalences based on varying criteria including one-month and lifetime prevalence estimates, combat and non-combat prevalence estimates, and prevalence estimates using both single and multiple indicator models. Results Using a narrow and specific set of criteria, we derived current prevalence estimates for combat-related PTSD of 2.5% and 2.9% for the VES and the NVVRS, respectively. Using a more broad and sensitive set of criteria, we derived current prevalence estimates for combat-related PTSD of 12.2% and 15.8% for the VES and NVVRS, respectively. Conclusion When comparable methods were applied to available data we reconciled disparate results and estimated similar current prevalences for both narrow and broad definitions of combat-related diagnoses of PTSD.
Lindvall Dahlgren, Camilla; Wisting, Line; Rø, Øyvind
The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) during the DSM-5 era, and to report rates of point- and lifetime prevalence. A PubMed search was conducted targeting articles on the epidemiology of EDs, in particular, reported rates of prevalence. The review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines, and was limited to DSM-5 based eating disorder diagnoses published between 2012 and 2017. A total of 19 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Following the transition to DSM-5, it is evident that the prevalence of eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS)/other specified feeding and eating disorders (OSFED) has decreased as intended, and there is preliminary evidence suggesting that rates of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) have increased. Further, we observed higher rates of BED prevalence among females compared to males, with rates increasing with age. A limitation to the study was the search date, and that none of the included studies investigated the "new" DSM-5 feeding disorders avoidant restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), pica or rumination disorder warranting attention in future studies investigating the epidemiology of feeding and eating disorders.
Prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis (leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose) in a population of 3645 adult subjects--consequence for measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate
Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K
OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose in the general population and measure the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in subjects with or without a positive dipstick analysis. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...... of 3645 subjects. SETTING: An unselected urban population study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence data of positive dipstick analyses and UAER values. RESULTS: Prevalence data of a positive dipstick analysis were 12%, 4%, 3% and 6%, respectively, for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, and glucose...
Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony
Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Buccelli, C; Della Casa, E; Paternoster, M; Niola, M; Pieri, M
Gender differences in substance use/abuse have been the focus of research in the last 15 years. Initiation, use patterns, acceleration of disease course, and help-seeking patterns are known to be influenced by gender differences with regard to biological, psychological, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This paper presents a systematic review of published data on gender differences in the use/abuse of psychoactive and psychotic drugs, focusing on the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. The basis for this paper was obtained by Medline searches using the search terms "human" and "gender", combined with individual drug names or "drugs of abuse". The reference lists of these papers were further checked for other relevant studies. The gender difference in drug abuse is more evident in adults than in adolescents (13-19 years): adult men are 2-3 times more likely than women to develop drug abuse/dependence disorders and approximately 4 times as likely to have an alcohol use disorder. Such prevalence rates have not been observed in adolescents. Differences between men and women involve: (i) the biological response to the drug, (ii) the progression to drug dependence, and (iii) the comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, which may be due to both sociocultural factors and innate biological differences. A crucial role played by ovarian hormones (oestrogens and progesterone) has been documented in both human and animal model studies. Epidemiological data on how particular psychobiological and physiological characteristics in females influence vulnerability to both drug addiction and toxicological consequences of drugs are still in their infancy. Significant gaps remain in our knowledge, which are primarily attributable to the lack of empirical data that only a systematic and multidisciplinary approach to the topic can generate. The introduction of gender into forensic toxicological evaluations may help elucidate the relationship between the body's absorption of abused drugs
Woulfe, Julie M; Goodman, Lisa A
Intimate partner violence (IPV; i.e., physical, sexual, or psychological abuse by a current or former partner) remains a public health concern with devastating personal and societal costs. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals are also vulnerable to a dimension of IPV called identity abuse (IA); that is, abuse tactics that leverage systemic oppression to harm an individual. Yet, we know little about its relative prevalence in subgroups of the LGBTQ community. This study developed and evaluated a measure of IA, and explored its prevalence in a sample of 734 sexual minority adults. The sample included women (53.1%), men (27.4%), and transgender or gender nonconforming "TGNC" (19.3%) participants. The majority of participants identified as queer or pansexual (38.7%), then gay (23.6%), lesbian (22.8%), and bisexual (13.6%). Participants completed an online survey that included measures of IA and physical, sexual, and psychological abuse. The IA items formed a unidimensional factor structure with strong internal consistency and construct validity. Nearly one fifth of the sample (16.8%) experienced past year IA and 40.1% reported adult IA. Women experienced greater exposure to IA in adulthood than men, and TGNC participants reported higher rates of IA in adulthood and in the last year compared to their cisgender counterparts. The odds of queer or bisexual participants reporting IA in adulthood were almost three times higher than gay participants, and two times higher than lesbian participants. Findings have implications for advancing assessment of partner abuse in the LGBTQ community, LGBTQ-competent clinical care, and training of practitioners.
Charakteristika ratingu. Dělení a druhy ratingu (rating emise × rating emitenta; dlouhodobý rating × krátkodobý rating; mezinárodní rating × lokální rating). Obecné požadavky kladené na rating. Proces tvorby ratingu. Vyžádaný rating. Nevyžádaný rating. Ratingový proces na bázi volně přístupných informací. Uplatňované ratingové systémy. Ratingová kriteria. Využití a interpretace ratingové známky. Funkce ratingu. Rating v souvislosti s BASEL II. Rating v souvislosti s hospodářskými krizemi....
Flory, Janine D.; Yehuda, Rachel; Passarelli, Vincent; Siever, Larry J.
Objective. Childhood maltreatment and familial psychopathology both lead to an increased risk of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. While family history of psychopathology has traditionally been viewed as a proxy for genetic predisposition, such pathology can also contribute to a stress-laden environment for the child. Method. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the joint effect of childhood abuse and a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD) on di...
Boulis, Sherif; Khanduja, P Kristina; Downey, Kristi; Friedman, Zeev
The abuse of substances available to anesthesiologists in their workspace is a potentially lethal occupational hazard. Our primary objective was to define the prevalence of substance abuse cases among Canadian anesthesiologists at university-affiliated hospitals. Our secondary aim was to describe the current management of confirmed cases, rehabilitation procedures being offered, and preventative strategies being employed. We conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of all Canadian anesthesia residency program directors and site chiefs at university-affiliated hospitals. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. The survey response rate was 54% (53/98). Substance abuse was reported as 1.6% for residents and 0.3% for clinical fellows over a ten-year period ending in June 2014. Fentanyl was abused in nine of 24 reported cases. At present, one of 22 respondents (4.5%) reported a formal education program on substance abuse for faculty members, and 72% described mandatory education for residents. The majority of participants did not perceive substance abuse as a growing problem. Seventy-one percent of respondents indicated that methods for controlled-drug handling had changed in the previous ten years; however, 66% did not think that the incidence of controlled substance abuse could be decreased further by more stringent measures. Only 21% of respondents supported the introduction of random urine drug testing. The prevalence of substance abuse among Canadian anesthesiologists and the substances abused appear comparable with data from the United States, with residents being the group most often affected. Early recognition and treatment of chemically dependent anesthesiologists remain imperfect.
Pugliese, Davide B; Bruzzesi, Giacomo; Montaldo, Caterina; Porcu, Luca; Landi, Marco; Mastinu, Andrea; Torri, Valter; Licitra, Lisa; Locati, Laura D
Human papilloma virus oral infection can be related to several factors including HIV infection, cigarette smoking, marijuana consumption and number of sexual partners. We conducted a study on oral HPV prevalence and clearance among the hosts of the San Patrignano community, a population considered at "high-risk" for HPV due to their previous habits. From March 2007 to September 2010 all subjects were submitted to oropharyngeal brushing and saliva collection at baseline, after 6, 12 and 48 months (for subjects HPV positive at baseline). Samples were analyzed to detect HPV DNA and virus genotypes. The correlation between HPV prevalence and demographic, behavioral or immunological characteristics was assessed. Among 194 subjects, 30 (15%) were HPV positive with 25 (13%) high-risk (HR)-HPV at baseline brushing. At 12 months HPV infection was cleared in all cases. However at 48 months HPV was newly detected in 33% of subjects. A correlation between time spent in the community and increase in the ratio of "low-risk" (LR) HPV and HR-HPV was observed. HPV infection was not associated with age, gender, HIV status, HCV, alcohol and/or drug exposure, number of years spent in community, sex with drug-addicts and condom use. Only AIDS under antiretroviral treatment was inversely correlated with the risk of infection. At 1 year a complete HPV clearance was observed which could be related to adoption of healthier lifestyles of participants. New HPV infections were detected even in the absence of the recognized and declared risky behavioral factors, suggesting a re-expression from a latent infection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Reynolds, Anna R; Bolin, B Levi; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R
The discriminative and subjective effects of drugs in humans are related, but the full extent of this relationship remains to be determined. To further explore this relationship, a retrospective analysis was conducted on data from six studies completed in our laboratory that used identical procedures. The relationship between the discriminative and subjective effects of a range of doses of D-amphetamine (i.e. 2.5-15 mg) was examined using correlational analyses. Significant correlations with discrimination performance were observed on 15 of 20 items from the Drug-Effect Questionnaire across a range of qualities [e.g. Pay For (a positive effect indicative of abuse potential) and Active (a stimulant-like effect)], but the magnitude of these relationships was modest (reffects contribute to the discriminative effects of D-amphetamine and indicate that the former are a more practical means to assess the abuse potential of drugs. Although these procedures are fundamentally related in that they rely on the presence of an interoceptive drug state, they differ in the dimension(s) of the interoceptive effects that participants must quantify. The simultaneous use of drug discrimination and subjective effects may, therefore, reveal complimentary aspects of drug effects that underlie their potential for abuse.
Cicinelli, Ettore; Matteo, Maria; Tinelli, Raffaele; Lepera, Achiropita; Alfonso, Raffaello; Indraccolo, Ugo; Marrocchella, Sonia; Greco, Pantaleo; Resta, Leonardo
What is the prevalence of chronic endometritis (CE) in women with repeated unexplained implantation failure (RIF) at IVF, and how does antibiotic treatment affect the reproductive outcome? Chronic endometritis, associated with infection with common bacteria or mycoplasma, is common in women complaining of RIF and antibiotic treatment significantly improves the reproductive outcome at a subsequent IVF cycle. We have reported that CE is a frequent finding in women with repeated pregnancy loss and a significantly higher rate of successful pregnancies was achieved after adequate antibiotic treatment. Moreover, CE was identified in 30.3% of patients with repeated implantation failure at IVF and women diagnosed with CE had lower implantation rates (11.5%) after IVF cycles. In contrast, other authors reported that the clinical implication of CE should be considered minimal and that the reproductive outcome at IVF/ICSI cycles was not negatively affected by CE. A retrospective study was performed from January 2009 through June 2012 on 106 women with unexplained infertility and a history of RIF. All patients underwent hysteroscopy and endometrial sampling for histology and microbiological investigations. Women diagnosed with CE underwent antibiotic treatment and the effect of treatment was confirmed by hysteroscopy with biopsy. Within 6 months after treatment all women had a further IVF attempt. The IVF outcomes were compared in women without signs of CE (Group 1) and persistent CE (Group 2) after antibiotic treatment. Clinical pregnancy rate (PR), and live birth rate (LBR) were compared at post-treatment IVF attempt. Seventy (66.0%) women were diagnosed with CE at hysteroscopy. In 61 (57.5%) CE was confirmed by histology and 48 (45.0%) by cultures. Common bacteria and mycoplasma were the most prevalent agents. In 46 (75.4%) out of 61 women, with diagnosis of CE at hysteroscopy and histology, examinations were normal after appropriate antibiotic treatment control (Group 1
Becci, A Akin; Brook, Jody; Lloyd, Margaret H
This study is a mixed-methods examination of the prevalence and impact of parental substance abuse among families involved in foster care who have a child with a serious emotional disturbance. Data utilized for this study were both administrative and assessment data collected by case managers and parents as part of a federally funded demonstration project in a Midwestern state. At baseline, parent self-report and case manager ratings of family functioning found that parents affected by substance abuse fared worse in domains related to socioeconomics, parental trauma, parental mental health, and social supports when compared to families without parental substance abuse. Case managers and independent raters scored parents affected by substance abuse higher on effective parenting than parents not affected by substance abuse. While all children in the sample have a serious emotional disturbance, parents and case managers rated children's functioning higher among children whose families were characterized by parental substance abuse. These results suggest that, among families who have children with a serious emotional disturbance and are in foster care, those with and without substance abuse may represent two distinct service groups, each with a unique set of needs and contextual factors. For families with parental substance abuse, findings suggest that an appropriate child welfare response should attend to both children's and parent's behavioral health needs and include strategies that are well matched to the families' socioeconomic and social support needs.
Full Text Available Abstract Study design and aim This was a longitudinal chart review of a diverse group (cohort of patients undergoing HGH (Human Growth Hormone treatment. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed with the aim to identify the presence and progression of scoliosis. Methods and cohort 185 patients were recruited and a database incorporating the age at commencement, dose and frequency of growth hormone treatment and growth charts was compiled from their Medical Records. The presence of any known syndrome and the clinical presence of scoliosis were included for analysis. Subsequently, skeletally immature patients identified with scoliosis were followed up over a period of a minimum four years and the radiologic type, progression and severity (Cobb angle of scoliosis were recorded. Results Four (3.6% of the 109 with idiopathic short stature or hormone deficiency had idiopathic scoliosis (within normal limits for a control population and scoliosis progression was not prospectively observed. 13 (28.8% of 45 with Turner syndrome had scoliosis radiologically similar to idiopathic scoliosis. 11 (48% of 23 with varying syndromes, had scoliosis. In the entire cohort, the growth rates of those with and without scoliosis were not statistically different and HGH treatment was not ceased because of progression of scoliosis. Conclusion In this study, there was no evidence of HGH treatment being responsible for progression of scoliosis in a small number of non-syndromic patients (four. An incidental finding was that scoliosis, similar to the idiopathic type, appears to be more prevalent in Turner syndrome than previously believed.
... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...
Opium has been produced and consumed since the nineteenth century in the areas of Asia currently referred to as the Golden Crescent and the Golden Triangle. In the 1970s and 1980s, most countries from Afghanistan to Japan experienced a heroin epidemic of varying degrees of severity. Opium and heroin abuse appeared to be more severe in countries and areas where those drugs were produced, an exception being Hong Kong, which has had a large population of heroin abusers for more than two decades. Drug injecting was far more common in countries of the Golden Triangle than in those of the Golden Crescent. In Myanmar and Thailand, for example, up to 90 per cent of chronic heroin abusers practised intravenous injection, which appeared to spread to heroin abusers in nearby territories such as the State of Manipur in India. Yunnan province in China, as well as Malaysia and Viet Nam. Amphetamine abuse was more frequent in Japan and the Republic of Korea for a number of years, while illicit production and consumption in the Philippines have recently shown significant increases. The injection of amphetamines was common only in the Republic of Korea. The prevalence of injecting among institutionalized methamphetamine abusers was reported at about 90 per cent. Most countries in Asia first reported cases of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the mid-1980s. An extremely rapid spead of the epidemic and high prevalence, at rates of from 30 to 90 per cent, of HIV infection among the sample of intravenous heroin abusers were observed in a few countries with a high prevalence of intravenous injecting, such as India (in the State of Manipur), Myanmar and Thailand. The rest had either few reported cases or none at all, even though needle-sharing was found to be common. Great caution should be exercised in interpreting prevalence because of vast differences in methods of assessment. Given the vulnerability of intravenous drug abusers to rapid transmission of HIV
Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; James, Christine
Child abuse has profound immediate and long-term effects on a child's development. The long-term impact of abuse of a child can be seen in higher rates of psychiatric disorders, increased rates of substance abuse and relationship difficulties [Springer, K. W., Sheridan, J., Kuo, D., & Carnes, M. (2003). "The long-term health outcomes of…
Bulik, C M
The author studied patterns of drug and alcohol abuse in 35 bulimic women, 35 healthy control subjects, and their first- and second-degree relatives. The bulimic women and their families had significantly higher rates of substance abuse disorders.
Himelhoch, Seth; Goldberg, Richard; Calmes, Christine; Medoff, Deborah; Slade, Eric; Dixon, Lisa; Gallucci, Gerard; Rosenberg, Stanley
Background: To assess rates of screening and testing of HIV and HCV among those with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Methods: One hundred fifty-three people with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders completed measures and were screened for HIV and HCV. Results: Six percent were HIV…
Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Bullis, Michael; Anderson, Cindy Wheeler; Griller-Clark, Heather M.
This monograph, one of a series on youth with disabilities and the juvenile justice system, reviews current data on disabilities requiring special education and related supports. Statistics on the prevalence of juvenile crime are followed by statistics on the prevalence of special education disabilities in the system, specifically specific…
Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Abnormality of maternal weight has an important role in reproductive health. High and low BMI play importaxt roles in the development of some pregnancy complications, high birth weight, and cesarean rate increas. Thus, the complications such as sever infection, bleeding, thromboembolism attacks, respiratory pneumonia in pregnant women undergoing cesarean occur more often. The aim of prenatal care is safety in infant birth and one of the conditions in pregnancy health care is normal weight. The present study sought to determine the role of mother BMI on cesarean prevalence rate in women referring to Bam Mahdieh Maternity Hospital in Bam, Iran, in 2005.Methods: This attempt was a comparative cross-sectional study done on 294 pregnant women who were divided into three groups: underweight n=111 (BMI26. All pregnant women in our study wanted normal vaginal deliveries, and none was willing to undergo cesarean without indication. Data were collected by questionnaire that included three parts. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, ANOVA and . A Pvalue of less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: The cesarean rate in over weight cases was 28/9%, while in normal weight women it was 15/2%, and in under weight ones, it was 4/5%, showing statistically significant differences. The overweight group had the highest age mean value in comparison with underweight and normal groups. The mean of babies’ weights in over weight group was more than that of the under-and normal-weight groups, but the mean of APGAR Scores at first and fifth minutes in over weight group was low.Conclusion: Concerning the findings, it is recommended that obese women be consulted before the pregnancy and during the pregnancy in order to attain normal weight with a suitable diet and the level of necessary activity, so that correct planning and education are performed to reach successful pregnancy outcomes.Keywords: Obesity
Full Text Available
Background and Objectives: Abnormality of maternal weight has an important role in reproductive health. High and low BMI play importaxt roles in the development of some pregnancy complications, high birth weight, and cesarean rate increas. Thus, the complications such as sever infection, bleeding, thromboembolism attacks, respiratory pneumonia in pregnant women undergoing cesarean occur more often. The aim of prenatal care is safety in infant birth and one of the conditions in pregnancy health care is normal weight. The present study sought to determine the role of mother BMI on cesarean prevalence rate in women referring to Bam Mahdieh Maternity Hospital in Bam, Iran, in 2005.
Methods: This attempt was a comparative cross-sectional study done on 294 pregnant women who were divided into three groups: underweight n=111 (BMI<19.8 normal n=145 (19.8
Results: The cesarean rate in over weight cases was 28/9%, while in normal weight women it was 15/2%, and in under weight ones, it was 4/5%, showing statistically significant differences. The overweight group had the highest age mean value in comparison with underweight and normal groups. The mean of babies’ weights in over weight group was more than that of the under-and normal-weight groups, but the mean of APGAR Scores at first and fifth minutes in over weight group was low.
Conclusion: Concerning the findings, it is recommended that obese women be consulted before the pregnancy and during the pregnancy in order to attain
Ou, Qianting; Peng, Yang; Lin, Dongxin; Bai, Chan; Zhang, Ting; Lin, Jialing; Ye, Xiaohua; Yao, Zhenjiang
Previous research has indicated that raw meats are frequently contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus , but data regarding the pooled prevalence rates of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) contamination in different types of raw meat products (beef, chicken, and pork) and across different periods, regions, and purchase locations remain inconsistent. We systematically searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, Web of Science, and HighWire databases to identify studies published up to June 2016. The STROBE guidelines were used to assess the quality of the 39 studies included in this meta-analysis. We observed no significant differences in the pooled prevalence rates of S. aureus and MRSA contamination identified in various raw meat products, with overall pooled prevalence rates of 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.8 to 35.9%) and 3.2% (95% CI, 1.8 to 4.9%) identified for the two contaminants, respectively. In the subgroup analyses, the prevalence of S. aureus contamination in chicken products was highest in Asian studies and significantly decreased over time worldwide. In European studies, the prevalence rates of S. aureus contamination in chicken and pork products were lower than those reported on other continents. The pooled prevalence rates of S. aureus contamination in chicken and pork products and MRSA contamination in beef and pork products were significantly higher in samples collected from retail sources than in samples collected from slaughterhouses and processing plants. These results highlight the need for good hygiene during transportation to and manipulation at retail outlets to reduce the risk of transmission of S. aureus and MRSA from meat products to humans.
Full Text Available Background: Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis can occur in different ways. Furthermore, drug resistant in M. tuberculosis family is a major problem that creates obstacles in treatment and control of tuberculosis (TB in the world. One of the most prevalent families of M. tuberculosis is Haarlem, and it is associated with drug resistant. Our objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and occurrence rate of M. tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant (MDR in the worldwide using meta-analysis based on a systematic review that performed on published articles. Materials and Methods: Data sources of this study were 78 original articles (2002-2012 that were published in the literatures in several databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Biological abstracts, ISI web of knowledge and IranMedex. The articles were systematically reviewed for prevalence and rate of MDR. Data were analyzed using meta-analysis and random effects models with the software package Meta R, Version 2.13 (P < 0.10. Results: Final analysis included 28601 persons in 78 articles. The highest and lowest occurrence rate of Haarlem family in M. tuberculosis was in Hungary in 2006 (66.20% with negative MDR-TB and in China in 2010 (0.8%, respectively. From 2002 to 2012, the lowest rate of prevalence was in 2010, and the highest prevalence rate was in 2012. Also 1.076% were positive for MDR and 9.22% were negative (confidence interval: 95%.0020. Conclusion: Many articles and studies are performed in this field globally, and we only chose some of them. Further studies are needed to be done in this field. Our study showed that M. tuberculosis Haarlem family is prevalent in European countries. According to the presence of MDR that was seen in our results, effective control programs are needed to control the spread of drug-resistant strains, especially Haarlem family.
Aboul-Ata, Mohammad A; Amin, Fatma A
In the present study, we created a new valid rating scale to estimate the prevalence of ADHD among school-age children in Fayoum City. We conducted two consequential studies (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 1, the sample comprised 106 children. The ages of the sample participants ranged between 6 and 14 years. The purpose of that study was to validate a new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5)-based ADHD rating scale. In Study 2, the sample consisted of 420 children with ages ranging from 6 to 14 years. We used the new rating scale to estimate the prevalence of ADHD. The first study showed that the new rating scale for ADHD was valid. The second study revealed that the prevalence of ADHD in Fayoum City was 20.5%, with 33.8% among boys and 6.8% among girls. We validated a new ADHD rating scale and estimated the prevalence of ADHD in Fayoum City for the first time in Egypt.
Rinaldi, Maria Francesca [Radiologia III - Azienda Ospedaliera Pol. S.Orsola-Malpighi, via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Bartalena, Tommaso, E-mail: email@example.com [Radiologia III - Azienda Ospedaliera Pol. S.Orsola-Malpighi, via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Giannelli, Giovanni; Rinaldi, Giovanni [Radiologia III - Azienda Ospedaliera Pol. S.Orsola-Malpighi, via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Sverzellati, Nicola [Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche, sezione di Radiologia - Universita di Parma, via Gramsci 14 - 43100 Parma (Italy); Canini, Romeo [Dipartimento Clinico di Scienze Radiologiche ed Istocitopatologiche, divisione di Diagnostica per Immagini - Universita di Bologna, via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Gavelli, Giampaolo [Servizio di Diagnostica per Immagini, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (I.R.S.T.), via Piero Maroncelli, 40 - 47014 Meldola (Italy)
Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate prevalence, reporting rates and clinical implications of incidental pulmonary nodules detected in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) abdominal studies. Materials and methods: Abdominal MDCT studies of 243 consecutive patients, 94 of whom had a history of cancer, were evaluated. Lung bases included in the scan were reviewed on a PACS workstation with different window settings and post-processing techniques. Nodules were classified according to their density (calcified, solid noncalcified, non-solid, part-solid) and size (<4 mm; 4-6 mm; 6-8 mm; >8 mm). The study findings were compared with the corresponding radiologic reports. Previous of following CT studies, when available from the PACS, were also reviewed to evaluate changes in number and size of the detected nodules. Results: An average of 8.2 cm of lung parenchyma was imaged in each patient. 213 noncalcified nodules (NCNs) were identified in 95 patients (39.1%) but only 8 patients (8.4%) had it mentioned in the final report. Comparison CT studies were available for 44 out of the 95 positive patients showing disappearance of the nodules in 2 cases, no interval change in 26 and progression in size and/or number in 16 patients, in whom a final diagnosis of metastasis or primary lung cancers was achieved. Conclusion: Radiologists tend to overlook lung portions on abdominal CT studies. Underreporting may affect patient care and have medico-legal implications since images are permanently stored in digital format on PACS and CD-ROMs. Management of the discovered nodules should be tailored to the clinical situation of the patient, and particular care should be reserved to patients with oncologic history.
Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel
This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...
Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lingling; Tian, Danping; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Deng, Jing; Ning, Peishan; Hu, Guoqing
Undergoing a routine medical examination may be associated with the prevalence rate of chronic diseases from a population-based household interview survey. However, this important issue has not been examined so far. Data came from the first health service household interview of Hunan province, China, in 2013. A Rao-Scott chi-square test was performed to examine the difference in prevalence rates between subgroups. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated using the PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure of SAS9.1 statistical software. In total, 24,282 residents of 8400 households were surveyed. A higher proportion of elderly adults had undergone a medical examination within the prior 12 months compared with young adults (≥65 years, 60%; 45-64 years, 46%; 18-44 years, 37%). After controlling for location, sex, and household income per capita, undergoing a medical examination was significantly associated with high prevalence rates of hypertension (adjusted OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.5) and of diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.7-6.5) for young adults aged 18-44 years. The associations were not statistically significant for age groups 45-64 years and 65 years or older. The prevalence rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus may be seriously underestimated for young adults not undergoing a routine medical examination in a health household interview survey.
Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Benbenishty, Rami; Golan, Miriam
Peer violence, peer sexual harassment and abuse, and staff abuse experienced by boys and girls in juvenile correctional facilities are compared with those experienced by peers in schools in the community. Responses of 360 youths in 20 gender-separated correctional facilities in Israel to a questionnaire tapping these forms of mistreatment were compared with those of 7,012 students in a representative sample of Israeli junior high and high schools. Victimization was reported more frequently by those in correctional facilities than by those in schools. However, some of the more prevalent forms of violence and abuse were reported with equal frequency in both settings, and some more frequently in schools. Despite being victimized more frequently, those in the correctional facilities tended to view their victimization as a significantly less serious problem than those in the schools and to rate the staff as doing a better job of dealing with the problem.
Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Dévieux, Jessy; Malow, Robert; Tammara, Hayley; Carney, Kimberly
US immigrants of Caribbean origin are overrepresented in the HIV/AIDS prevalence statistics. Bidirectional travel between the United States and the Caribbean region by providing opportunities for sexual mixing may contribute to these high HIV rates. Caribbean immigrants face further risk because of limited health care access, social isolation, and stigma. Additionally, although substance abuse may not represent a major health issue in their countries of origin, Caribbean immigrants are composed disproportionately of adolescents who are at greatest risk of substance abuse. There is little information on the health care characteristics of these migrants, especially regarding HIV care. This article describes how the social and economic circumstances that surround the lives of people from the Caribbean and the challenges of the acculturation process have placed these individuals at risk of substance abuse and HIV infection. The article draws on findings from the literature and analysis of data from several sources.
Sofuoğlu, Zeynep; Sariyer, Görkem; Aydin, Fulya; Cankardas, Sinem; Kandemirci, Birsu
Child abuse and neglect (CAN), and dropping out of school have long been recognized as pervasive social problems globally, and Turkey is no exception. This study aims to explore the prevalence and incidence of CAN in children who drop out of school of Turkey, using the ISPCAN Child abuse Screening Tool, Children's Version, which is an appropriate tool for multinational comparisons. Data from a convenience sample of children who drop out of school age 11, 13, and 16 from Izmir were collected either by interviews or by self-completion. The results show that, compared to children who do not drop out of school, children who drop out of school have higher rates of psychological and physical abuse and neglect within the family. This study not only highlights the need for preventive laws for CAN and dropping out of school, but also points to direction for future research.
Leung, T W; Leung, W C; Chan, P L; Ho, P C
(1) To determine and compare the prevalence of domestic violence among abortion-seeking patients with other general gynecology patients; (2) to see if a follow-up interview 6 weeks after abortion can improve the abuse disclosure rate; (3) to see if the abused victims accept direct referral to their gynecologists/social workers for help. This is a prospective questionnaire survey in a university teaching hospital on patients seeking abortion and an approximately equal number of other general gynecology patients. Participants were interviewed by a designated project nurse in a private setting, using a structured questionnaire (Modified Abuse Assessment Screen Questionnaire) to assess the past and recent history of abuse. The interview was repeated 6 weeks after the abortion for the abortion-seeking group. Five hundred and one participants were interviewed, including 245 seeking abortion (TOP group) and 256 other general gynecology patients (non-TOP group). The lifetime prevalence of abuse in the TOP group (27.3%) was significantly higher than the non-TOP group (8.2%) (Pabortion did not increase the disclosure rate. Most abused victims were unwilling to disclose their information of abuse to their gynecologists or social workers at the time of interview. Domestic violence is a significant problem among the gynecology patients, particularly those seeking abortion. A single interview prior to abortion is adequately effective for screening. However, the most effective and acceptable way of helping these victims needs to be explored further.
Elnashar, A M; El-Dien Ibrahim, M; Eldesoky, M M; Aly, O M; El-Sayd Mohamed Hassan, M
To assess the prevalence of sexual abuse (SA) and associated factors among married women in Lower Egypt. A cross-sectional clinic- and hospital-based survey was designed for married women aged between 16 and 49 years. The study was conducted with 936 women from the Dakahlia Governorate, which is considered representative of Lower Egypt. Data were collected by personal interview using a questionnaire. The response rate was 93.6%. The most commonly reported frequency of sexual intercourse was 2 to 4 times per week. More than one-third of the women (36.2%) thought this was too frequent, and 11.5% reported being sexually abused in addition to other sexual problems. The educational level of the women; the presence of genital mutilation; parity, especially for those who had more than 5 deliveries; number of gynecologic visits; and history of gynecologic interventions were significantly or highly significantly associated with SA. The husbands' educational level and age were highly significantly correlated with their wives reporting SA, particularly when the men were illiterate or were smokers or drug users. The study's findings demonstrate an immediate need for the prevention of SA in Lower Egypt.
McFadden, Emily Jean
This guide on counseling abused children was written to help counselors meet the needs of children and adolescents and to provide ways of working with the child's family. Chapter 1 presents an overview of child maltreatment by identifying types of maltreatment (neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse and exploitation, and emotional abuse or neglect)…
Substance Abuse . The use -)i illegal drugs or the abuse of prescribed drugs and/or alcohol must be proscribed from the workplace . Also, substance abuse ...resolving their own personal problems. Their problems include money, family, drug or alcohol addiction , gambling, or work-related difficulties perhaps...Moonlighting * Organizational Property * Nonuse/nondisclosure * Substance Abuse * Gambling Employee Assistance Program "Whistle
Michael P Dillon
Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial foot amputation (PFA is a common consequence of advanced peripheral vascular disease. Given the different ways incidence rate and prevalence data have been measured and reported, it is difficult to synthesize data and reconcile variation between studies. As such, there is uncertainty in whether the incidence rates and prevalence of PFA have increased over time compared to the decline in transtibial amputation (TTA. The aims of this systematic review were to describe the incidence rate and prevalence of dysvascular PFA over time, and how these compare to TTA. Method Databases (i.e., MEDLINE, EMBASE, psychINFO, AMED, CINAHL, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health were searched using MeSH terms and keywords related to amputation level and incidence rate or prevalence. Original research published in English from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2015 were independently appraised, and data extracted, by two reviewers. The McMaster Critical Review Forms were used to assess methodological quality and bias. Results were reported as narrative summaries given heterogeneity of the literature and included the weighted mean annual incidence rate and 95% confidence interval. Results Twenty two cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty one reported incidence rate data for some level of PFA; four also included a TTA cohort. One study reported prevalence data for a cohort with toe(s amputation. Samples were typically older, male and included people with diabetes among other comorbidities. Incidence rates were reported using a myriad of denominators and strata such as diabetes type or initial/recurrent amputation. Conclusion When appropriately grouped by denominator and strata, incidence rates were more homogenous than might be expected. Variation between studies did not necessarily reduce confidence in the conclusion; for example, incidence rate of PFA were many times larger in cohorts with diabetes (94.24 per 100,000 people with
vanIneveld, C H; Cook, D J; Kane, S L; King, D
To survey the extent to which internal medicine housestaff experience abuse and discrimination in their training. Through a literature review and resident focus groups, we developed a self-administered questionnaire. In this cross-sectional survey, respondents were asked to record the frequency with which they experienced and witnessed different types of abuse and discrimination during residency training, using a 7-point Likert scale. Internal medicine housestaff in Canada. Of 543 residents in 13 programs participating (84% response rate), 35% were female. Psychological abuse, as reported by attending physicians (68%), patients (79%), and nurses or other health workers (77%), was widespread. Female residents experienced gender discrimination by attending physicians (70%), patients (88%), and nurses (71%); rates for males were 23%, 38%, and 35%, respectively. Females reported being sexually harassed more often than males, by attending physicians (35% vs 4%, p discrimination and homophobic remarks in the workplace, perpetrated by all groups of health professionals. Psychological abuse, gender discrimination, sexual harassment, physical abuse, homophobia, and racial discrimination are prevalent problems during residency training. Housestaff, medical educators, allied health workers, and the public need to work together to address these problems in the training environment.
Flores, Renee J; Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Stimpson, Jim P; Chalela, Claudia M; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A
To explore the association between past sexual abuse and depression in elders living in Bogotá, Colombia, we used data from the SABE (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento [Health, Well-being, and Aging]) Bogotá Study. Participants were 2000 community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and older in 2012. Sexual abuse was assessed by self-report. Depression was measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale. The weighted prevalence estimate was 2.6% for past sexual abuse and 23.4% for depression. Multivariate data analyses showed significantly higher odds of depression for past sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] = 3.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.13-7.16). Other characteristics associated with depression were history of being displaced by violence (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.30-2.40), low socioeconomic status, low education, poor self-rated health status, and poor self-rated memory. Thus, past sexual abuse and history of being displaced by violence were strongly associated with depression among Colombian elderly individuals.
Adolescent sexual abuse with its adverse outcomes such as high risky sexual behavior, unintended pregnancies, early marriage, truancy and high school drop out rates threaten the maximum development of the potentialities of its victims. In relation to Akwa Ibom and Cross River States of Nigeria, adolescent sexual abuse ...
Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data.MethodsUsing data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM], 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM, and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM, we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg.ResultsThe prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively compared with non-DM adults (26.2%. Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001 and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020 rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%, compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001 and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004. Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%, compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001 and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001.ConclusionHigher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.
Medina-Mora, M E; Tapia, C R; Rascón, M L; Solache, G; Otero, B R; Lazcano, F; Mariño, M C
As a country that produces marijuana and opium, and as a route for cocaine traffic to the United States of America, Mexico is experiencing serious social and health problems related to the trafficking, use, and abuse of these drugs and other dependency-producing substances. In 1988 a national survey of addiction was undertaken in which information was collected on the prevalence of the use of alcohol, tobacco, inhalants, marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, opium, heroin, narcotic analgesics, sedatives, and tranquilizers. A sample was identified in the population between the ages of 12 and 65 living in urban areas of more than 2,500 inhabitants, which account for approximately 65% of the country's total population. This sample consisted of 12,557 persons. According to the results of the survey, 51% of the population between 18 and 65 years of age use alcoholic beverages and 24.7% of the entire study population are active smokers. In addition, 43% had used one or more drugs other than tobacco or alcohol at some time. Prevalence of marijuana use was 2.6%, while the rates for tranquilizers, inhalants, and amphetamines were identical (0.7%). For cocaine the rate was 0.3%, and for heroin, 0.1%.
Sharma, Bhuwan; Arora, Anjali; Singh, Kanwaljit; Singh, Harinder; Kaur, Prabhjot
Drug abuse is a global phenomenon, affecting almost every country, but its extent and characteristics differ from region to region. India too is caught in this vicious circle of drug abuse, and the numbers of drug addicts are increasing day by day. The bane of drug abuse in Punjab has acquired the proportions of a pestilence that has shaken the entire society in the state. It is observed that in Punjab "drug abuse" is a raging epidemic, especially among the young. The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 adolescents and young adults (11-35 years) from 15 villages of Jalandhar District. Systematic sampling (probability proportionate to size) was used for the selection of study subjects. A preformed, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on type and frequency of drugs abused and other sociodemographic variables. The statistical evaluation of the data was performed using SPSS software, version 21.0. The prevalence of substance abuse among study group was 65.5% and most common substance abused was alcohol (41.8%), followed by tobacco (21.3%). A high prevalence of heroin abusers was noted among study subjects (20.8%). The prevalence of nonalcohol and nontobacco substance abuse was 34.8%. A significant association of drug abuse was observed with male gender, illiteracy, and age above 30 years. The problem of drug abuse in youth of Punjab is a matter of serious concern as every third person is hooked to drugs other than alcohol and tobacco. The other striking observations were the high prevalence of heroin and intravenous drug abuse.
Huang, Jianjun; Yang, Yunping; Wu, Jiang; Napolitano, Lisa A; Xi, Yingjun; Cui, Yonghua
This study examined (1) the relative prevalence of childhood abuse and other pathological childhood experiences in China reported by outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), with other personality disorders, and without personality disorders; and, (2) whether the primary predictors of BPD in North America are associated with the development of BPD in China. The childhood experiences of 203 outpatients with BPD, 109 outpatients with other personality disorders, and 70 outpatients without Axis II diagnoses were assessed with the Chinese version of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q). Patients with BPD reported significantly more physical, emotional, and sexual abuse than either comparison group. Four types of childhood experiences were significant predictors of BPD: maternal neglect, paternal antipathy, sexual abuse, and maternal physical abuse. The findings suggest that maternal physical abuse is as strong a predictor of BPD in China as sexual abuse, a finding not replicated in North America.
Kouis, Panayiotis; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K; Middleton, Nicos; Evans, John S; Kyriacou, Kyriacos; Papatheodorou, Stefania I
Diagnostic testing for primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) usually includes transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nasal nitric oxide, high-speed video microscopy, and genetics. Diagnostic performance of each test should be assessed toward the development of PCD diagnostic algorithms. We systematically reviewed the literature and quantified PCD prevalence among referrals and TEM detection rate in confirmed PCD patients. Major electronic databases were searched until December 2015 using appropriate terms. Included studies described cohorts of consecutive PCD referrals in which PCD was confirmed by at least TEM and one additional test, in order to compare the index test performance with other test(s). Meta-analyses of pooled PCD prevalence and TEM detection rate across studies were performed. PCD prevalence among referrals was 32% (95% CI: 25-39%, I 2 = 92%). TEM detection rate among PCD patients was 83% (95% CI: 75-90%, I 2 = 90%). Exclusion of studies reporting isolated inner dynein arm defects as PCD, reduced TEM detection rate and explained an important fraction of observed heterogeneity (74%, 95% CI: 66-83%, I 2 = 66%). Approximately, one third of referrals, are diagnosed with PCD. Among PCD patients, a significant percentage, at least as high as 26%, is missed by TEM, a limitation that should be accounted toward the development of an efficacious PCD diagnostic algorithm.
Mur Martí, Teresa; Villaró Gabarrós, Mercè; Porta Martínez, Nuria; Jaén Manzanera, Angels
The aim of this study was: to estimate the prevalence of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) in diabetic type 2 (DM2) patients treated in Primary Care based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFe); to determine associated factors with CRI, and to evaluate the relationship of GF rate and risk of cardiovascular disease. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. We included 500 medical histories randomly selected in a total of 2,950 DM2 patients. We registered sociodemographic data, comorbidities, cardiovascular risk factors and laboratory data. CRI definition was based on GFe rate and classified according to the K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease. The prevalence of CRI was 23.2%. There were 51.6% females and the mean age was 66.2 years; 70,4% had hypertension and 67% dyslipidemia. The presence of CRI was related with older age, females, smoking habit, plasma creatinine value, microalbuminuria, and history of hypertension, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. After analysing the data according to the category of GF rate, only the significant relationship with smoking habit disappeared. Multivariate statistic analysis supports a relation with older age, female gender, dyslipidemia and heart disease. We confirm a high prevalence of CRI in DM2 patients and their relationship with the presence of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.
The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail beef, beef livers, and pork meats purchased from the Tulsa (OK, USA) area and to further characterize the isolates obtained through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 97 chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 47 other cuts), and 100 pork samples were collected. The prevalence of Campylobacter in beef livers was 39/50 (78%), while no Campylobacter was isolated from the other beef cuts. The prevalence in pork samples was 2/100 (2%). A total of 108 Campylobacter isolates (102 beef livers isolates and six pork isolates) were subjected to antimicrobial resistance profiling against sixteen different antimicrobials that belong to eight different antibiotic classes. Of the six pork Campylobacter coli isolates, four showed resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Among the beef liver isolates, the highest antibiotic resistances were to tetracyclines and β-lactams, while the lowest resistances were to macrolides, aminoglycosides, lincosamides, and phenicols. Resistances to the fluoroquinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, β-lactam, lincosamide, and phenicol antibiotic classes were significantly higher in Campylobacter coli than Campylobacter jejuni isolates. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) among the 102 Campylobacter (33 Campylobacter jejuni and 69 Campylobacter coli) beef liver isolates was significantly higher in Campylobacter coli (62%) than Campylobacter jejuni (39%). The high prevalence of Campylobacter in retail beef livers and their antimicrobial resistance raise concern about the safety of these retail products. PMID:23698698
Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.
Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…
Full Text Available Background & Objective: Campylobacter can be transmitted through the raw milk. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni species in raw milk samples. Materials & Methods: In this study, 72 samples of raw milk were collected of the platforms milk in the Amol city in summer. Phenotypic identification of Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species using microbiology laboratory methods and molecular identification of this bacterium using Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction (M-PCR were performed. The data was calculated using the SPSS 16.0 software and the Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05. Results: Among the 72 samples, 13.88% of samples were contaminated with C. jejuni and 2.77% were contaminated with Campylobacter genus. The highest prevalence rate for this bacterium was in July (20.83% and the lowest prevalence rate was in September (12.5%. The significant difference between the prevalence of the Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species in raw milk samples in various months of summer was not observed (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This study showed the raw milk contamination with Campylobacter, and thereby the sanitation in the dairy food production places and the use of fast and accurate method to identify this bacterium is important.
Arlette Suzy Puspa Pertiwi
Full Text Available Child abuse is defined as those acts or omissions of care that deprive a child from the opportunity to fully develop his or her unique potentials as a person either physically, socially or emotionally. The overall incidence of child abuse is not really clear. Statistical data do not show the actual rate because of the unreported cases. Dentists are in a strategic position to recognize and report the children being abused because they often see the child and parents interacting during multiple visits and over a long period of time. The orofacial region is commonly traumatized during episodes of child abuse. The characteristics and diagnostic finding of child abuse, and the protocol of reporting such cases, should be familiar to the dentist so that appropriate notification, treatment and prevention of further injury can be instituted. Dentists with experience or expertise in child abuse and neglect will strengthen their ability to prevent and detect child abuse and neglect and enhance the ability to care for and protect children. This paper discusses the oral and dental aspects of child abuse and the dentist role in evaluating this situation including prevention of child abuse.
the prevalence and describe the patterns of sexual abuse of male pediatric patients at Tikur Anbessa Specialized. Hospital in Addis ... Affairs, and child advocacy organizations should be called up on to work together and design mechanisms of checking the ..... Effects of Systematic Screening and Detection of. Child Abuse ...
Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.
Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…
... respond to the gaps that exist in after-care and community-based or decentralised substance abuse services that are essential in such areas, which are under-resourced despite the high prevalence of substance users. Keywords: community occupational therapy, rural, service delivery, service providers, substance abuse ...
Background: Sexual abuse of boys is a neglected problem in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. As a result, its prevalence and the circumstances under which it often occurs tend to remain unnoticed. Child sexual abuse is frequently reported to emergency departments at hospitals. However, the symptoms can ...
Objective: South Africa has a high prevalence of sexual abuse of children and adolescents. Among the numerous adverse consequences of sexual abuse is the difficulty survivors may experience in developing positive self-esteem and maintaining positive relationships. In a low resource setting, an expressive art group ...
Background: Child sexual abuse occurs worldwide including in Zambia. Despite Government efforts to minimize the scourge, the prevalence of defilement is still very high. Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore and describe convicted prisoners' perceptions of child sexual abuse. Methods: This was a qualitative ...
Green, Harold D., Jr.; Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Zhou, Annie J.
Objective: Childhood abuse has been linked to negative sequelae for women later in life including drug and alcohol use and violence as victim or perpetrator and may also affect the development of women's social networks. Childhood abuse is prevalent among at-risk populations of women (such as the homeless) and thus may have a stronger impact on…
Conclusions: High prevalence of substance abuse among these respondents depicts weakness on the part of regulatory authorities. The commonly abused drugs were coffee and alcohol while the common initiator was peer pressure. Parents should strive to be role models rather than being drunken menace. Keywords: ...
Sadler, Michelle; Mario, Santos; Ruiz Buron, Dolores
During recent decades, a growing and preoccupying excess of medical interventions during childbirth, even in physiological and uncomplicated births, together with a concerning spread of abusive and disrespectful practices towards women during childbirth across the world, have been reported. Despite...... of obstetric violence, as it is being used in Latin American childbirth activism and legal documents, might prove to be a useful tool for addressing structural violence in maternity care such as high intervention rates, non-consented care, disrespect and other abusive practices...
Kurti, Allison N; Keith, Diana R; Noble, Alyssa; Priest, Jeff S; Sprague, Brian; Higgins, Stephen T
Few studies have attempted to characterize how co-occurring risk factors for substance use disorders intersect. A recent study examined this question regarding cigarette smoking and demonstrated that co-occurring risk factors generally act independently. The present study examines whether that same pattern of independent intersection of risk factors extends to illicit drug abuse/dependence using a U.S. nationally representative sample (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2011-2013). Logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) modeling were used to examine risk of past-year drug abuse/dependence associated with a well-established set of risk factors for substance use (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, poverty, smoking status, alcohol abuse/dependence, mental illness). Each of these risk factors was associated with significant increases in the odds of drug abuse/dependence in univariate logistic regressions. Each remained significant in a multivariate model examining all eight risk factors simultaneously. CART modeling of these 8 risk factors identified subpopulation risk profiles wherein drug abuse/dependence prevalence varied from 80% corresponding to differing combinations of risk factors present. Alcohol abuse/dependence and cigarette smoking had the strongest associations with drug abuse/dependence risk. These results demonstrate that co-occurring risk factors for illicit drug/abuse dependence generally intersect in the same independent manner as risk factors for cigarette smoking, underscoring further fundamental commonalities across these different types of substance use disorders. These results also underscore the fundamental importance of differences in the presence of co-occurring risk factors when considering the often strikingly different prevalence rates of illicit drug abuse/dependence in U.S. population subgroups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Helen Mary Haines
Full Text Available Objective: To classify a rural community sample by their modifiable health behaviours and identify the prevalence of chronic conditions, poor self-rated health, obesity and hospital use. Method: Secondary analysis of a cross- sectional self-report questionnaire in the Hume region of Victoria, Australia. Cluster analysis using the two-step method was applied to responses to health behaviour items. Results: 1,259 questionnaires were completed. Overall 63% were overweight or obese. Three groups were identified: ‘Healthy Lifestyle’ (63%, ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ (25% and ‘Smokers’ (12%. ‘Healthy lifestyle’ were older and more highly educated than the other two groups while ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ were more likely to be obese. ‘Smokers’ had the highest rate of poor self-rated health. Prevalence of chronic conditions was similar in each group (>20%. ‘Smokers’ were twice as likely to have had two or more visits to hospital in the preceding year even after adjustment for age, gender and education. Conclusion: High rates of overweight and obesity were identified but ‘Smokers’ were at the greatest risk for poor self-rated health and hospitalisation. Implications for Public Health: Within an environment of high rates of chronic ill health and obesity, primary care clinicians and public health policy makers must maintain their vigilance in encouraging people to quit smoking.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...
Sabbath, Erika L; Hurtado, David A; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Tamers, Sara L; Nelson, Candace; Kim, Seung-Sup; Wagner, Gregory; Sorenson, Glorian
To test the association between workplace abuse exposure and injury risk among hospital workers. We hypothesized that exposed workers would have higher injury rates than unexposed workers. Survey of direct-care workers (n = 1,497) in two hospitals. Exposure to workplace abuse was assessed through self-report; occupational injury reports were extracted from employee records. We tested associations between non-physical workplace violence and injury using log-binomial regression and multilevel modeling. Adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for injury associated with being yelled at was 1.52 (95% CI 1.19, 1.95); for experiencing hostile/offensive gestures 1.43 (1.11, 1.82); and for being sworn at 1.41 (1.09, 1.81). In analyses by injury subtypes, musculoskeletal injuries were more strongly associated with abuse than were acute traumatic injuries. Associations operated on group and individual levels and were most consistently associated with abuse perpetrated by patients. Exposure to workplace abuse may be a risk factor for injuries among hospital workers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Okur, Pinar; van der Knaap, Leontien M; Bogaerts, Stefan
In Western societies, groups from a minority ethnic background are under-represented in formal mental health care. However, it is unknown if the minority ethnic victims of child sexual abuse differ from majority ethnic victims regarding their help-seeking behaviours. This study used a multi-method design to investigate the prevalence of (in) formal help-seeking after child sexual abuse and the influence of attitudes towards gender roles and sexuality on help-seeking among the Dutch minority ethnic and majority ethnic victims. We also examined differences in reasons not to seek help. Quantitative survey data on help-seeking patterns among 1496 child sexual abuse victims were collected. Four qualitative focus groups were conducted with professionals working in the field of child sexual abuse and minority ethnic groups to explore help-seeking behaviour. No significant differences between ethnicity emerged in help-seeking rates. However, respondents with more liberal gender attitudes were more likely to disclose than conservative respondents. Additionally, an interaction effect was observed between ethnicity and gender attitudes, indicating that, contrary to the main effect, young people of Moroccan and Turkish heritage with more liberal gender attitudes were less likely to disclose abuse. Reasons for not seeking help differed among groups. Focus group members emphasised mistrust towards counsellors and perceptions that inhibit minority ethnic youth from seeking help.
Prigerson, Holly G; Desai, Rani A; Liu-Mares, Wen; Rosenheck, Robert A
Despite reports of high rates of suicidal behavior among mentally ill homeless persons, it remains unknown whether the well-established suicide risks of increased age and comorbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders ("dual diagnosis") documented in the general population are also markers for increased suicide risk among homeless persons. Data from a multi-site outreach program (ACCESS) (N = 7,224) were used to investigate whether rates of serious suicidal ideation and recent suicide attempts varied with the age and substance abuse diagnosis(es) (drug abuse and/or alcohol abuse disorders) among homeless mentally ill clients. The prevalence of 30-day suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (37.5 % and 7.9 %, respectively) was extremely high. Although the risk of serious suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was greater among the younger compared with the older homeless mentally ill clients, risks were not significantly increased by co-morbid alcohol and/or drug abuse. However, a significant interaction between age and co-morbid substance abuse was observed showing that among older clients but not younger clients, those with drug and alcohol abuse were at significantly greater risk of suicidal ideation than those without substance use problems, controlling for confounding factors. Efforts to prevent suicide should recognize that among homeless people with mental illness, young-middle-aged (30- to 39-year-old) clients are at greatest risk of suicidal behavior. Among older clients the presence of both drug and alcohol abuse significantly increases suicide risk. These patterns are of special importance because they are quite different from those that are well documented in non-homeless populations.
Ivana S Varella
Full Text Available Untreated acute toxoplasmosis among pregnant women can lead to serious sequelae among newborns, including neurological impairment and blindness. In Brazil, the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CTox has not been fully evaluated. Our aim was to evaluate trends in acute toxoplasmosis prevalence from 1998-2005, the incidence of CTox and the rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to dentify patients who fit the criteria for acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Exposed newborns were included in a historical cohort, with a median follow-up time of 11 months, to establish definite diagnosis of CTox. Diagnoses for acute infection in pregnancy and CTox were based on European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis criteria. In 41,112 pregnant women, the prevalence of acute toxoplasmosis was 4.8/1,000 women. The birth prevalence of CTox was 0.6/1,000 newborns [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.4-0.9]. During the follow-up study, 12 additional cases were detected, increasing the CTox rate to 0.9/1,000 newborns (95% CI: 0.6-1.3. Among the 200 newborns exposed to Toxoplasma gondii,there were 37 babies presenting diagnostic criteria of CTox, leading to an MTCT rate of 18.5% (95% CI: 13.4-24.6%. The additional cases identified during follow-up reinforce the need for serological monitoring during the first year of life, even in the absence of evidence of congenital infection at birth.
Hauser, Marta; Galling, Britta; Correll, Christoph U
Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with poor outcomes, including suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA). However, frequencies and risk factors of SI/SA and targeted intervention trials for SI/SA in PBD have not been reviewed systematically. We conducted a systematic PubMed review, searching for articles reporting on prevalences/incidences, correlates and intervention studies targeting SI/SA in PBD. Weighted means were calculated, followed by an exploratory meta-regression of SI and SA correlates. Fourteen studies (n = 1595), in which 52.1% of patients were male and the mean age was 14.4 years, reported data on SI/SA prevalence (N = 13, n = 1508) and/or correlates (N = 10, n = 1348) in PBD. Weighted mean prevalences were: past SI = 57.4%, past SA = 21.3%, current SI = 50.4%, and current SA = 25.5%; incidences (mean 42 months of follow-up) were: SI = 14.6% and SA = 14.7%. Regarding significant correlates, SI (N = 3) was associated with a higher percentage of Caucasian race, narrow (as opposed to broad) PBD phenotype, younger age, and higher quality of life than SA. Significant correlates of SA (N = 10) included female sex, older age, earlier illness onset, more severe/episodic PBD, mixed episodes, comorbid disorders, past self-injurious behavior/SI/SA, physical/sexual abuse, parental depression, family history of suicidality, and poor family functioning. Race, socioeconomic status, living situation, and life events were not clearly associated with SA. In a meta-regression analysis, bipolar I disorder and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were significantly associated with SA. Only one open label study targeting the reduction of SI/SA in PBD was identified. SI and SA are very common but under-investigated in PBD. Exploration of predictors and protective factors is imperative for the establishment of effective preventive and intervention strategies, which are urgently needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley
Kang, Yang Ho; Jeong, Dong Wook; Son, Seok Man
It is known that metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with chronic kidney disease. We evaluated and compared the prevalence of reduced kidney function in MetS and its components by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using an equation based on creatinine (eGFRcr), cystatin C (eGFRcys), and combined creatinine-cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys) in Korean adults. We analyzed data from 3,649 adults who participated in a comprehensive health examination. Mean values of eGFRcys were higher compared with mean values of eGFRcr (96.1±18.2 mL/min/1.73 m² vs. 91.2±13.6 mL/min/1.73 m²) in total subjects. The prevalence of reduced kidney function increased with age (9.6% for eGFRcys vs. 5.8% for eGFRcr-cys vs. 4.9% for eGFRcr, in subjects aged ≥60 years), and significantly increased with MetS, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein (HDL), and high insulin resistance. The prevalence of MetS, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high insulin resistance, low HDL, and hepatic steatosis was significantly increased in subjects with reduced kidney function. This increased prevalence and the odds ratio of reduced kidney function for prevalence of MetS was highest for eGFRcys, followed by those of eGFRcr-cys, and eGFRcr. The prevalence of reduced kidney function by eGFR was significantly increased in subjects with MetS and its related components. eGFRcys and eGFRcr-cys were superior to eGFRcr in detecting reduced kidney function.
Yang Ho Kang
Full Text Available BackgroundIt is known that metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with chronic kidney disease. We evaluated and compared the prevalence of reduced kidney function in MetS and its components by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using an equation based on creatinine (eGFRcr, cystatin C (eGFRcys, and combined creatinine-cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys in Korean adults.MethodsWe analyzed data from 3,649 adults who participated in a comprehensive health examination.ResultsMean values of eGFRcys were higher compared with mean values of eGFRcr (96.1±18.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs. 91.2±13.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 in total subjects. The prevalence of reduced kidney function increased with age (9.6% for eGFRcys vs. 5.8% for eGFRcr-cys vs. 4.9% for eGFRcr, in subjects aged ≥60 years, and significantly increased with MetS, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein (HDL, and high insulin resistance. The prevalence of MetS, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high insulin resistance, low HDL, and hepatic steatosis was significantly increased in subjects with reduced kidney function. This increased prevalence and the odds ratio of reduced kidney function for prevalence of MetS was highest for eGFRcys, followed by those of eGFRcr-cys, and eGFRcr.ConclusionThe prevalence of reduced kidney function by eGFR was significantly increased in subjects with MetS and its related components. eGFRcys and eGFRcr-cys were superior to eGFRcr in detecting reduced kidney function.
Full Text Available Introduction: Drug abuse is a global phenomenon, affecting almost every country, but its extent and characteristics differ from region to region. India too is caught in this vicious circle of drug abuse, and the numbers of drug addicts are increasing day by day. The bane of drug abuse in Punjab has acquired the proportions of a pestilence that has shaken the entire society in the state. It is observed that in Punjab “drug abuse” is a raging epidemic, especially among the young. Methodology: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 adolescents and young adults (11–35 years from 15 villages of Jalandhar District. Systematic sampling (probability proportionate to size was used for the selection of study subjects. A preformed, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on type and frequency of drugs abused and other sociodemographic variables. The statistical evaluation of the data was performed using SPSS software, version 21.0. Results: The prevalence of substance abuse among study group was 65.5% and most common substance abused was alcohol (41.8%, followed by tobacco (21.3%. A high prevalence of heroin abusers was noted among study subjects (20.8%. The prevalence of nonalcohol and nontobacco substance abuse was 34.8%. A significant association of drug abuse was observed with male gender, illiteracy, and age above 30 years. Conclusions: The problem of drug abuse in youth of Punjab is a matter of serious concern as every third person is hooked to drugs other than alcohol and tobacco. The other striking observations were the high prevalence of heroin and intravenous drug abuse.
In this study we examine the prevalence of HIV among drug abusers in Malawi. A purposive sample of 200 drug abusers was invited to provide urine and blood samples. The subjects were selected from self-presenting drug abusers who visited a district hospital in Malawi. The urine samples from both men and women were ...
In this study we examine the prevalence of HIV among drug abusers in Malawi. A purposive sample of 200 drug abusers was invited to provide urine and blood samples. The subjects were selected from self-presenting drug abusers who visited a district hospital in Malawi. The urine samples from both men and women were ...
Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch
AIMS: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers. METHODS...
... and its impact on the educational development of the child. Based on the prevalence of abuses in the school, the author recommends that there should be public enlightenment programme and education to combat the mass ignorance on the acts that constitute abuse and to protect the Nigerian child against these abuses ...
The overall topic of this annotated bibliography, directed to users of the Auburn University libraries, is child abuse. It contains 63 federal government publications in 4 major areas: (1) definitions and prevalence of child abuse, including child pornography and pedophilia, family violence, abductions, and emotional abuse; (2) recent legislation,…
Hesse, Morten; Stefánsson, Ragnar
Abstract A large body of literature has shown a high prevalence of personality disorders in substance abusers. We compared a sample of substance abusers treated in a prison setting with substance abusers treated in a non-prison inpatient setting rated with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory......-III. Baserate scores indicated a prevalence of 95% of personality disorders. A logistic regression analysis correctly identified 95% of the sample, and showed that antisocial personality disorder traits were characteristic of the prison sample, and masochistic personality disorder traits were characteristic...... of the inpatient sample. The findings indicate that treatment models used in prison settings should be adjusted to meet the needs of antisocial patients....
... respect, and even their freedom. Guarding Against Child Sexual Abuse March 15, 2018 @ 9:58 AM | 9 Min ... Views You can help protect your children from sexual abuse by providing careful supervision, establishing open communication and ...
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...
... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...
... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... referrals. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...
... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...
Michna, Edward; Kirson, Noam Y; Shei, Amie; Birnbaum, Howard G; Ben-Joseph, Rami
The development of new formulations of extended-release (ER) opioids with abuse-deterrent technology attempts to deter prescription opioid abuse while maintaining appropriate access to care for pain patients. This study examined the degree to which some patients may avoid switching to reformulated ER opioids with abuse-deterrent technology and the extent to which those patients are more likely to be abusers. We analyzed Truven MarketScan pharmacy and medical claims data following the introduction of two reformulated ER opioids with abuse-deterrent technology. Adults aged 18-64 who were continuous users of extended-release oxycodone HCl (ER oxycodone) or extended-release oxymorphone HCl (ER oxymorphone) in a 6 month period prior to the introduction of the respective reformulations of those products were identified and categorized based on whether they switched to the reformulation, switched to other ER/long-acting (LA) opioids (without abuse-deterrent technology), or discontinued ER/LA opioid treatment in a 6 month post-reformulation period. Abusers were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes for opioid abuse/dependence. Pearson's chi-squared tests and Fisher's exact tests were then used to compare rates of abuse between patients who avoided switching to a reformulated ER opioid. Sensitivity analyses examined several definitions used in this analysis. ER/LA opioid utilization; rates of diagnosed opioid abuse. A total of 31%-50% of patients avoided switching to reformulated ER opioids. Rates of diagnosed opioid abuse were higher among these patients compared to patients who transitioned to the reformulated ER opioids. Due to the observational research design, caution is warranted in causal interpretation of the findings. The study was conducted among commercially insured continuous ER oxycodone or ER oxymorphone users; future research should consider additional patient populations, such as non-continuous users and those without commercial insurance (i.e., Medicare
Cook, D J; Griffith, L E; Cohen, M; Guyatt, G H; O'Brien, B
To identify the frequency of psychological and emotional abuse, gender discrimination, verbal sexual harassment, physical sexual harassment, physical assault, and homophobia experienced by general internists. Cross-sectional survey. Canadian general internal medicine practices. The overall response rate was 70.6% (984/1,393); the 501 respondents who classified themselves as general internists were studied. Three-fourths of the internists experienced psychological and emotional abuse at the hands of patients, and 38% of the women and 26% of the men experienced physical assault by patients. The majority of the female internists experienced gender discrimination by patients (67%) and by physician peers (56%). Forty-five percent of the women experienced verbal sexual harassment by patients, and 22% experienced physical sexual harassment by patients. The male internists experienced verbal sexual harassment from nurses slightly more often than the female internists did (19% vs 13%, p > 0.05). Verbal sexual harassment by male colleagues was reported by 35% of the female internists, and physical sexual harassment was reported by 11%. Approximately 40% of general internists reported homophobic remarks by both health care team members and patients. Abuse, discrimination, and homophobia are prevalent in the internal medicine workplace. A direct, progressive, multidisciplinary approach is necessary to label and address these problems.
Curran, T A
We determined the prevalence and correlates of depression, alcohol abuse and suicidal ideation among medical and business students in Trinity College, Dublin and University College, Dublin. We rated depression and suicidal ideation in the past month with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and alcohol abuse with the CAGE. Of 539 students registered, 338 (62.7%) responded. 47 (13.9%) students were depressed, scoring > or = 10 on the BDI. 83 (24.6%) students had an alcohol use disorder (CAGE > or = 2). Alcohol abuse was more common among business students than medical students (AOR = 2.9; 95% C.I. = 1.7-5.1); there were no other inter-faculty differences. 20 (5.9%) students reported suicidal ideation in the last month. Suicidal ideation correlated positively with stressful life events (AOR = 1.4; 95% C.I.= 1.1-1.7), and negatively with social support (AOR = 0.6; 95\\/ C.I. =0.5-0.7). These findings suggest that students are a vulnerable group, and underscore the need for mental health education and psychosocial support services in universities.
Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin
Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan and Asia, few studies have been done of physical and sexual abuse. This study was aimed to determine whether a history of childhood physical abuse is associated with anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. Methods We divided 564 consecutive new outpatients at the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine of Kyushu University Hospital into two groups: a physically abused group and a non-abused group. Psychological test scores and the prevalence of self-injurious behavior were compared between the two groups. Results A history of childhood physical abuse was reported by patients with depressive disorders(12.7%, anxiety disorders(16.7%, eating disorders (16.3%, pain disorders (10.8%, irritable bowel syndrome (12.5%, and functional dyspepsia(7.5%. In both the patients with depressive disorders and those with anxiety disorders, STAI-I (state anxiety and STAI-II (trait anxiety were higher in the abused group than in the non-abused group (p In the patients with depressive disorders, the abused group was younger than the non-abused group (p Conclusion A history of childhood physical abuse is associated with psychological distress such as anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. It is important for physicians to consider the history of abuse in the primary care of these patients.
Guydish, Joseph; Le, Thao; Campbell, Barbara; Yip, Deborah; Ji, Suzhe; Delucchi, Kevin
Smoking is endemic in drug abuse treatment populations, and smoking prevalence in this population appears unresponsive to existing tobacco control strategies. Clinical and policy guidelines encourage programs to address smoking among clients, and research has identified key barriers to doing so. This report explores the practice of staff and clients smoking together in drug treatment programs, and how this practice is associated with other tobacco-related measures. Clients (N=1113) were surveyed and program directors were interviewed in a national sample of 24 drug abuse treatment programs affiliated with the NIDA Clinical Trials Network. Clients were asked whether they observed staff and clients smoking together in their program and, using program as the unit of analysis, this measure was tested for its association with client-level and program-level tobacco-related outcomes. Higher rates of staff and client smoking together were associated with higher staff smoking prevalence (p=0.006), lower rates of client thoughts about quitting in the next 30days (p=0.027), more negative client attitudes toward quitting smoking (p=0.004), and with clients receiving fewer tobacco-related services (p=0.024). These findings illuminate an actionable, low cost policy intervention to address smoking in drug abuse treatment, which is to prohibit the practice of staff smoking together with clients. In the interest of the health of clients whom they serve, counselors, program directors, state regulatory agencies, and federal funding agencies should act to end this practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wilford, B B
An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...
Yuen, Noelle; And Others
Surveyed native Hawaiian high school students (n=1,779) for symptoms of psychopathology and suicide attempts in the previous 6 months. Seventy-seven students reported making a suicide attempt. There were no significant differences in prevalence rates for males and females. Depression, anxiety, aggression, substance abuse symptoms, and low family…
Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Latzman, Natasha E; Valle, Linda Anne; Kuoh, Henrietta; Burton, Tessa; Taylor, Bruce G; Tharp, Andra T
This study describes the lifetime prevalence of teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration in a sample of middle school students from high-risk urban communities and examines the relation between TDV and related cognitive and behavioral risk factors. Surveys were administered to 2,895 middle school students in four U.S. cities; 1,673 students (58%) reported having dated and were included in analyses. The sample was 52.3% female, 48.2% non-Hispanic black/African-American, 38.2% Hispanic, 4.8% non-Hispanic white, and 7.6% other race. Six types of TDV perpetration were assessed: threatening behaviors, verbal/emotional abuse, relational abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and stalking. Of the students who had dated, 77% reported perpetrating verbal/emotional abuse, 32% reported perpetrating physical abuse, 20% reported threatening a partner, 15% reported perpetrating sexual abuse, 13% reported perpetrating relational abuse, and 6% reported stalking. Girls were more likely than boys to report perpetrating threatening behaviors, verbal/emotional abuse, and physical abuse, and boys were more likely to report perpetrating sexual abuse. Involvement in bullying positively predicted perpetration of TDV, albeit, in different ways for boys and girls. Other risk factors differed by sex. For instance, alcohol use and sex initiation predicted multiple forms of TDV perpetration for boys, whereas weapon carrying and emotional symptoms predicted several forms of TDV perpetration for girls. The prevalence of TDV was high in our sample. Important sex differences in rates of perpetration and risk factors emerged. Comprehensive prevention programs that target TDV and related risk factors, such as bullying and other risk factors, seem warranted. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lindberg, Daniel Martin; Lindsell, Christopher John; Shapiro, Robert Allan
In the absence of a gold standard, clinicians and researchers often categorize their opinions of the likelihood of inflicted injury using several ordinal scales. The objective of this protocol was to determine the reliability of expert ratings using several of these scales. Participants were pediatricians with substantial academic and clinical activity in the evaluation of children with concerns for physical abuse. The facts from several cases that were referred to 1 hospital's child abuse team were abstracted and recorded as in a multidisciplinary team conference. Participants viewed the recording and rated each case using several scales of child abuse likelihood. Participants (n = 22) showed broad variability for most cases on all scales. Variability was lowest for cases with the highest aggregate concern for abuse. One scale that included examples of cases fitting each category and standard reporting language to summarize results showed a modest (18%-23%) decrease in variability among participants. The interpretation of the categories used by the scales was more consistent. Cases were rarely rated as "definite abuse" when likelihood was estimated at abuse." Only 9 of 858 cases rated > or = 35% likelihood were rated as "reasonable concern for abuse." Assessments of child abuse likelihood often show broad variability between experts. Although a rating scale with patient examples and standard reporting language may decrease variability, clinicians and researchers should be cautious when interpreting abuse likelihood assessments from a single expert. These data support the peer-review or multidisciplinary team approach to child abuse assessments.
Matsuo, Toshihiko; Matsuo, Chie
We previously revealed the prevalence of strabismus and amblyopia in elementary school children between 6 and 12 years of age in Japan in the year 2003. Questionnaires asking the number of children with different types of strabismus and amblyopia were sent to all elementary schools in Okayama Prefecture in the year 2005, and the results in the year 2005 were compared with those obtained in the year 2003. The number of children covered by the return of questionnaires was 84,619 (74%) of 113,763 total pupils, including grades 1 to 6, in Okayama Prefecture in the year 2005. The total numbers of children with strabismus and amblyopia, including grades 1 to 6, were 844 (0.99%, 95% confidence interval: 0.94-1.06%) and 173 (0.20%, 95% confidence interval: 0.17-0.23%), respectively. The numbers of children with any type of exotropia and any type of esotropia were 524 (0.62%) and 187(0.22%), respectively. In the previous survey conducted in 2003, the number of children covered by the return of questionnaires was 86,531 (76%) of 113,254 total pupils. The total numbers of children with strabismus and amblyopia were 1,112 (1.28%, 95% confidence interval: 1.24-1.36%) and 125 (0.14%, 95% confidence interval: 0.12-0.17%), respectively. The numbers of children with any types of exotropia and esotropia were 602 (0.69) and 245 (0.28%), respectively. The prevalence of strabismus in this large population of Japanese elementary school children was significantly different between the years 2003 and 2005, while the prevalence of amblyopia was similar between the years.
Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie
Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…
Klein, K.; Boersma, A. A.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.; de Bruijn, J.
Objective: To assess the prevalence of child abuse among high school students in Curacao. Methods: A questionnaire survey among high school students up to 17 years of age was conducted. The questionnaire was based on existing literature and validated questionnaires. The questionnaire used was
Beck, Jacobus Johannes Hendrikus
The primary aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of sexual abuse in a urological outpatient clinic. Can differences been made in urological population, i.e. general urological clinic, a university urological clinic and a tertiary university pelvic floor clinic? Do urologists inquire