WorldWideScience

Sample records for abuse misuse dependence

  1. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care.

  2. Misuse and abuse of quetiapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Piróg-Balcerzak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent, frequently used in psychiatry, often for symptomatic treatment against a number of mental disorders differing from the registration indications. One of the use is to soothe the clinical conditions caused by the use of various psychoactive substances. The paper presents and discusses the reports of quetiapine misuse, abuse, and even mental addiction, as well as symptoms similar to the so-called discontinuation syndrome, often mixed with withdrawal syndrome occurring in the course of addiction. Most reports concern males, and especially those with a history of other psychoactive substance abuse, and personality disorders, often in conflict with the law. Therefore, clinicians should be cautious when prescribing quetiapine to such patients. The article discusses potential mechanisms responsible for quetiapine abuse. This is probably related to its sedative and anxiolytic activity which results in the frequent use with stimulants. Also, high affinity for the H1 receptor, as antihistamines agents causes rewarding action.

  3. Loperamide dependence and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Ryan; Heiner, Jason; Villarreal, Joshua; Strote, Jared

    2015-05-02

    Loperamide is a common over-the-counter antidiarrheal considered safe in a broad range of dosages and thought devoid of abuse potential. We describe the first case of a patient with loperamide dependence due to misuse of its opiate-like effects achieved by chronic massive oral ingestions. A 26-year-old man who was taking 800 mg of loperamide per day presented requesting detoxification referral. Loperamide has potential for euphoric effects and information on how to facilitate such effects is easily available. It is important for physicians to be aware of the potential for misuse of and dependence on loperamide, with symptoms mimicking opiate use.

  4. Abuse-Deterrent Formulations, an Evolving Technology Against the Abuse and Misuse of Opioid Analgesics

    OpenAIRE

    Schaeffer, Tammi

    2012-01-01

    The increased use of opioid pain medication has been mirrored by the increased misuse and abuse of these drugs. As part of a multidisciplinary approach to this epidemic, pharmaceutical companies, with the encouragement of the Food and Drug Administration, have increased the development of abuse-deterrent formulations. While all have the goal of treating pain while mitigating misuse and abuse, there are different technologies utilized to impart the abuse-deterrent properties. The goal of this ...

  5. Combating Misuse and Abuse of Prescription Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prescription. According to SAMHSA, the majority of these teenagers are obtaining the drugs from friends or relatives for free. Most concerning, the perception of risk of prescription drug abuse declined 20 percent from 1992 to 2008, based ...

  6. Selected Materials on Drug Abuse and Misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo County Public Library, Terre Haute, IN.

    The Vigo County Public Library has a Center for Drug Information which contains pamphlets, leaflets, newsletters, realia kits, films, records, cassettes, slides, educational aids and other materials on drug use, abuse and education. The materials in this list were selected for their relevance to the needs of local groups and organizations in…

  7. Monitoring Technology Misuse & Abuse: A Five-Step Plan for Creating a Digital Citizenship Program in Your School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribble, Mike S.; Bailey, Gerald D.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last two years, it has become evident that a behavior pattern of misuse and abuse with respect to technology is beginning to emerge in society. This outbreak of technology misuse and abuse is documented in continual news coverage on TV, in newspapers and on the Internet--both inside and outside of schools. The endless list of misuse and…

  8. 14 CFR 120.223 - Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Alcohol Testing Program Requirements § 120.223...

  9. Abused, confused, and misused words a writer's guide to usage, spelling, grammar, and sentence structure

    CERN Document Server

    Embree, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Have you been putting bullion in your soup? Is incorrect spelling starting to have a negative affect on your term papers? Do you wonder what someone is inferring when they tell you to pick up a dictionary? These are just a few of the commonly misunderstood words discussed and explained in Abused, Confused, and Misused Words, an entertaining and informative look at the ever-changing nature of the English language. An alphabetical list of words that are frequently misspelled or misused is accompanied by a style guide to usage rules that tells you how and why

  10. Emergency Department Visits Involving Misuse and Abuse of the Antipsychotic Quetiapine: Results from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Margaret E; Albright, Victoria A; Yoon, Joanna; Council, Carol L

    2015-01-01

    Case reports in medical literature suggest that the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine, a medication not previously considered to have abuse potential, is now being subject to misuse and abuse (MUA; ie, taken when not prescribed for them or used in a way other than instructed by their health professional). Here we present systematic, nationally representative data from the 2005 to 2011 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) for prevalence of emergency department (ED) visits among the U.S. general population involving quetiapine and related to MUA, suicide attempts, and adverse reactions. Nationally, quetiapine-related ED visits increased 90% between 2005 and 2011, from 35,581 ED visits to 67,497. DAWN data indicate that when used without medical supervision for recreational/self-medication purposes, quetiapine poses health risks for its users, especially among polydrug users and women. These findings suggest that the medical and public health communities should increase vigilance concerning this drug and its potential for MUA. PMID:26056465

  11. Characterization of Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse and Misuse Using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R]) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13-19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R])) System. Method: Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all…

  12. Misuse and dependence on non-prescription codeine analgesics or sedative H1 antihistamines by adults: a cross-sectional investigation in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Roussin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the growing worldwide market of non-prescription drugs, monitoring their misuse in the context of self-medication represents a particular challenge in Public Health. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of misuse, abuse, and dependence on non-prescription psychoactive drugs. METHOD: During one month, in randomly solicited community pharmacies, an anonymous questionnaire was offered to adults requesting paracetamol (control group, codeine combined with paracetamol in analgesics, or sedative H1 antihistamines. Responses about misuse (drug use not in agreement with the Patient Information Leaflet abuse (excessive drug use having detrimental consequences, and dependence (established according to questions adapted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria on psychoactive drugs were compared to those of the paracetamol control group. RESULTS: 295 patients (mean age 48.5 years, 68.5% of women having used one of the studied drugs during the previous month were included. Misuse and dependence to codeine analgesics concerned 6.8% and 17.8% of the patients exposed to these drugs, respectively, (n = 118, which was significantly higher than for paracetamol. 19.5% had used codeine analgesics daily for more than six months. Headache was the most frequent reason for persistent daily use. A high prevalence of persistent daily users of sedative H1 antihistamines was also observed. Whereas these drugs are recommended only for short treatment courses of occasional insomnia, 72.2% of the participants having taken doxylamine (n = 36 were daily users, predominantly for more than six months. CONCLUSIONS: Results on misuse and dependence on non-prescription codeine analgesics suggest that chronic pain, in particular chronic cephalalgia, requires better medical care. In addition, as for hypnotics on prescription, persistent use of doxylamine for self-medication is not justified until

  13. Prescription Stimulant Misuse, Alcohol Abuse, and Disordered Eating among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rose Marie; Oswald, Barbara B.; Galante, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The misuse of prescription stimulants (MPS), risky drinking, and drunkorexia are current public health concerns. The present study assessed the prevalence of MPS and drunkorexia using an online survey. Specifically, we examined alcohol consumption, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index, Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol…

  14. Benzodiazepines misuse: The study community level Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puangkot Sukdepat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Benzodiazepines (BZD misuse, abuse, and dependence are becoming a new problem in medicine, in Thailand, and the pharmacoepidemiology knowledge is insufficient. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of benzodiazepine use, misuse, abuse, and dependence in the general population of the Ubon Rachathani province, in Thailand. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of benzodiazepine use, misuse, abuse, and dependence in the general population. Settings and Design: The cross-sectional household survey research was conducted from October 2008 to June 2009, with a target population age of 15 years and above. This took place in Ubon Ratchathani Province, in Thailand. Materials and Methods: A total sample size of 2280 were selected from three-stage stratified random sampling. BZD were identified with an accuracy of generic name, trade name, and drug characteristics. The DSM-IV questionnaire was used to define misuse, abuse, and dependence. The accuracy of dependence was interpreted with the help of the judgment of a psychiatric nurse. Statistical analysis: For the statistical analyses, prevalence was estimated with weight adjustment, variances estimated by the Teylor Series Linearization method, and interpreted with 95% confidence interval (CI. Results: There were 46,805 current users [3.9% (95% CI: 2.2-6.4], 26,404 misusers [2.2% (95% CI: 1.6-6.2], 7,203 abusers [0.6% (95% CI: 0.1 - 4.1], and 2,402 with dependence [0.2% (0.1-9.2]. When considering the group of current users in this study, 57.2% misusers, 16.6% abusers, and 5.9% with dependence were found, respectively. Conclusions: All prevalence of use was higher than previously reported, in Thailand, while more than half of the current users had a behavior of misuse. Surveillance of misuse should be undertaken in the current use. The medical professional should counsel the patient on the harm of misuse and limit the amount of medicine, with necessary dispensing.

  15. What’s in a word: the use, misuse and abuse of the word persistence in Chlamydia biology

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    Patrik M Bavoil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The word persistence was used by Chlamydia researchers almost as soon as Chlamydia research was born to reflect the propensity of chlamydiae to cause inapparent infection in their hosts, from birds to humans. More recently, the term persistence has been used, misused, and sometimes abused amidst in vitro and in vivo studies that aim to mimick the ability of chlamydiae to emerge from the presumed inapparent state into clinically detectable infection and disease. Here, I have attempted to provide a global perspective on the state of research on chlamydial persistence, revisiting old observations that may warrant a new look, critically evaluating more recent observations and their shortcomings, and including recent developments that may help redefine chlamydiae as pathogens - or not - of both animals and humans.

  16. Current concepts on drug abuse and dependence

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    Daniela Luiza Baconi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a complex disease characterized by compulsive and uncontrollable desire to seek and consume the drug. In time, drug-related terminology has undergone many changes, arising from the deepening of the mechanisms of action, but also about the need for a greater precision in the definition. Drug dependence can be assigned not only to pharmacological effects of the drugs of abuse, but also to their interaction with each particular neurological and psychological constitution. The research on the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction processes allows both a better understanding of current pharmacotherapy and the development of new treatment strategies in drug abuse and dependence. In this review we intend to present the current concepts related to drug abuse and dependence.

  17. Dependency Traits Among Parents of Drug Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Forest S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Studies question whether there is a significant association between parents' dependency traits and drug habits in their offspring. Reported here is a survey of 1,091 young males. The reported occurrence of parents' alcohol consumption, smoking, use of stimulants and sedatives, and overeating were compared among abusers and non-users of hashish,…

  18. Current concepts on drug abuse and dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Luiza Baconi; Anne-Marie Ciobanu; Ana Maria Vlăsceanu; Oana Denisa Cobani; Carolina Negrei; Cristian Bălălău

    2015-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex disease characterized by compulsive and uncontrollable desire to seek and consume the drug. In time, drug-related terminology has undergone many changes, arising from the deepening of the mechanisms of action, but also about the need for a greater precision in the definition. Drug dependence can be assigned not only to pharmacological effects of the drugs of abuse, but also to their interaction with each particular neurological and psychological constitution. T...

  19. Gender Differences in Substance Dependence and Abuse. The NSDUH Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Males are more likely to use, abuse, and be dependent on alcohol or illicit drugs than females. The 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asked questions of persons aged 12 or older to assess their use of alcohol and illicit drugs, as well as their symptoms of substance dependence or abuse during the past year. NSDUH defines "any…

  20. [On the relationship between emotional dependency and abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemans, C; Loas, S

    2016-01-01

    Abuse is a complex psychosocial issue with multiple implications. This paper takes a look at the physical and psychological manifestations of domestic violence, i.e. between adult (romantic) partners as well as abuse of the elderly. Past studies have looked at the relationship between emotional dependency, the occurence and sustainability of abuse and the likehood that a victimized person will terminate a relationship. Indeed, individuals with Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD) or with dependent characteristics present a higher risk of becoming abusive (both physically and mentally) as well as becoming a victim of abuse. Regarding the elderly, the concept of "reverse violence"--where the current abuser was the victim of the senior who is being abused-, also entails dependent relationships. We identified three concepts that are necessary in the understanding of how dependent relationships underpin abuse: Rusbult's model of commitment in intimate relationships, the notion of dependency-possessiveness and Murphy et al's notion of escalating affective dependency. Thus, it is imperative that future studies in the field of domestic violence look at the dynamics of dyads rather than the individuals alone. PMID:27487692

  1. Prescription Opioid Abuse and Dependence: Assessment Strategies for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Donovan, Kimberly A.; Krug, Kevin S.; Dixon, Wayne A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review the article "Prescription Drug Use and Abuse: Risk Factors, Red Flags, and Prevention Strategies" (J. H. Isaacson, J. A. Hopper, D. P. Alford, & T. Parran, 2005), which provides an overview of the recent increase in prescription opioid abuse and dependence from the physician's perspective. In the present article, the authors…

  2. Inhalant Abuse and Dependence among Adolescents in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Schlenger, William E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the patterns of inhalant use and correlates of the progression from inhalant use to abuse and dependence among adolescents aged 12 to 17. Method: Study data were drawn from the 2000 and 2001 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Multinominal logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with…

  3. A multicenter, primary care-based, open-label study to identify behaviors related to prescription opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion in opioid-experienced patients with chronic moderate-to-severe pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setnik B

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice Setnik,1 Carl L Roland,1 Kenneth W Sommerville,1,2 Glenn C Pixton,1 Robert Berke,3,4 Anne Calkins,5 Veeraindar Goli1,2 1Pfizer Inc, 2Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 3Family Health Medical Services PLLC, Mayville, NY, 4Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 5New York Spine & Wellness Center, Syracuse, NY, USA Objective: To compare the investigator assessment of patient risk for prescription opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion with patient self-reports of these activities in a population with chronic pain. Methods: As a secondary objective of an open-label, multicenter, primary care-based clinical study to evaluate the success of converting opioid-experienced patients with chronic pain to morphine sulfate with sequestered naltrexone hydrochloride, risk for misuse, abuse, and diversion was assessed using two nonvalidated questionnaires: one was completed by the investigator and another by the patient (Self-Reported Misuse, Abuse, and Diversion [SR-MAD]. In addition, the validated Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM test and urine drug test were used. Results: Of the 684 patients assessed by the investigators, 537 returned the self-assessment, SR-MAD. Most patients were assigned by the investigator as low risk for misuse (84.2%, abuse (89.3%, and diversion (94.3%. Of the patients who returned SR-MAD, 60% indicated having taken more opioids than prescribed and 10.9% reported chewing or crushing their opioids in the past. Of the patients who completed COMM, 40.6% were deemed as having aberrant behaviors. COMM results correlated with the risk levels from the investigator assessment. One-third of patients (33.8% had at least one abnormal urine drug test result. Conclusion: More research is needed to better understand the gap between the investigator assessment of potential risk for misuse, abuse, and diversion and the actual extent of these behaviors among patients with

  4. Drug Dependence and Abuse: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    This selected list of references is designed to provide an introduction to both scientific and popular drug abuse literature. Criteria for selection are presented and include: (1) 1969 or 1970 books by recognized and authoritative writers, (2) current and responsible research, (3) classic books, articles and studies, and (4) factual popular…

  5. Intranasal oxycodone self-administration in non-dependent opioid abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Middleton, L.S.; Lofwall, M.R.; Nuzzo, P.A.; Siegel, A.; Walsh, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Oxycodone, an opioid with known abuse liability, is misused by the intranasal route. Our objective was to develop a model of intranasal oxycodone self-administration useful for assessing the relative reinforcing effects of opioids and potential pharmacotherapies for opioid use disorders. Healthy, sporadic intranasal opioid abusers (n=8; 7 M, 1 F) completed this inpatient 2.5-week, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Each intranasal oxycodone dose (0, 14 & 28 mg) was...

  6. Long-term misuse of zopiclone in an alcohol dependent woman with a history of anorexia nervosa: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keaney Francis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Z-drugs, zaleplon, zopiclone and zolpidem, are short-acting hypnotics which act at the same receptor as the benzodiazepines, but seemingly without the potential for misuse and the development of dependence of the older benzodiazepines. However, with increased prescribing of Z-drugs, reports of misuse and possible dependence began to appear in the literature, particularly in people with a history of substance misuse and comorbid psychiatric illness. Here we report the case of a woman with a history of chronic zopiclone use and anorexia nervosa, admitted for alcohol detoxification. Case presentation A 31-year old Caucasian British woman with a history of long-term zopiclone use and anorexia nervosa was admitted as an inpatient for a ten-day alcohol detoxification. Her weekly (four days out of seven intake of alcohol was 180 units and her daily intake of zopiclone, 30 mg. Apart from a short period five years ago, she had been taking zopiclone for 13 years at daily doses of up to 90 mg. She admitted to using 'on top' of her prescribed medication, purchasing extra tablets from friends or receiving them gratis from her partner. After detoxification from alcohol and zopiclone, she was prescribed diazepam which she found ineffectual and voiced her intention of returning to zopiclone on leaving the hospital. Conclusion Zopiclone is generally regarded as safer than benzodiazepines, however, this particular individual, who was using high doses of zopiclone over many years, may provide further evidence of a risk of dependency when this drug is prescribed for substance users with a comorbid psychiatric illness.

  7. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adults with Past Stimulant Misuse: An Open-Label Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.; White, Kathleen; Carter, Rickey E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This 8-week, open-label trial assessed the efficacy of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) in 14 adult individuals diagnosed with ADHD and with a history of stimulant misuse, abuse, or dependence. Method: The primary efficacy endpoint was the Wender-Reimherr Adult ADHD Scale (WRAADS), and secondary efficacy endpoints included the…

  8. Considering the Problem of Insider IT Misuse

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    Steven Furnell

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the Internet connection has become a frequent point of attack for most organisations. However, the loss due to insider misuse is far greater than the loss due to external abuse. This paper focuses on the problem of insider misuse, the scale of it, and how it has effected the organisations. The paper also discusses why access controls alone cannot be used to address the problem, and proceeds to consider how techniques currently associated with Intrusion Detection Systems can potentially be applied for insider misuse detection. General guidelines for countermeasures against insider misuse are also provided to protect data and systems.

  9. Item Response Theory Analysis of DSM-IV Cannabis Abuse and Dependence Criteria in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christie A.; Gelhorn, Heather; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Stallings, Michael; Young, Susan E.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence among adolescents is conducted. Results conclude that abuse and dependence criteria were not found to affect the different levels of severity in cannabis use.

  10. County government resources associated with dependent-adult abuse investigations in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogerst, Gerald J; Daly, Jeanette M

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated on a county level the association of Iowa's domestic dependent-adult abuse investigations with the location of adult protective services (APS) offices, rurality, government resources, felony charges and prosecutions, child abuse reports, and census demographics. In 2003, the rate of dependent-adult abuse investigations for Iowa was 0.70 per 1,000 population age 18 and older. Higher rates of child abuse investigations, felony prosecutions, sheriff's annual salary, and lower rates of child abuse substantiations are associated with higher rates of dependent-adult abuse investigations and substantiations. PMID:18928053

  11. Prescription Pain Reliever Abuse and Dependence among Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of adolescents' abuse, sub-threshold dependence, and dependence on prescription pain relievers (PPRs) in a nationally representative sample. Results show dependence on PPRs can take place without abuse and that sub-threshold dependence could have implications for major diagnostic…

  12. Advances on functional neuroimaging in substance misuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, functional neuroimaging has contributed greatly to our knowledge about the neuropharmacology of substance misuse in man. In this review, discussed the application and the progress of the positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in the substance misuse. After reading some papers, found that the dopamine transporter was significantly decreased in the brain of subjects with heroin abuse. Also observed a significant decrease of regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral cerebral frontal lobes, temporal lobes, the insula and the ipsilateral basal nuclei in substance misuse subjects. Taken together, functional images will lead the direction in future research formedication development of addiction treatment. (authors)

  13. Women's alcohol dependence and abuse: the relation to social network and leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundal, K L; Granbom, S; Allebeck, P

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the occurrence of alcohol dependence and abuse in relation to variables reflecting social network and leisure time, social class, education, occupation and family conditions. The study was based on the second wave of interviews performed within the longitudinal study of Women and Alcohol in Göteborg. In this present study we analysed 416 face-to-face interviews performed in 1995 96. Women with only one or no friends for support had higher rates of alcohol dependence and abuse than did women with more friends. Women with high rates of alcohol dependence or abuse did not take part in cultural events as much as women with low rates of alcohol dependence and abuse. Women with homemaking skills and gardening as leisure time interests had lower prevalences of alcohol dependence and abuse. In general, women with diagnoses of alcohol dependence and abuse in this population-based sample were not alone and without a social network. However, their pattern of activity differed slightly from those without such diagnoses. The association between women with alcohol dependence and abuse and leisure time activities is probably circular: a poor social network and low participation in social activities increase the risk of alcohol dependence and abuse, and alcohol dependence and abuse lead to low participation in social activities.

  14. Teaching family medicine residents brief interventions for alcohol misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, J Chris; Samuel, Pearl

    2015-01-01

    Across the lifespan, alcohol misuse affects a large percentage of patients seen in primary care clinics. It can lead to alcohol use disorders, ranging from risky use to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use disorders frequently complicate acute and chronic illnesses of patients seen in FM clinics. Screening patients for alcohol and substance use has become a standard of practice in most primary care settings. This report describes how a family medicine residency program solidified a residency curriculum in substance abuse screening, assessment, and brief intervention by merging three presentation-style didactics into a blended approach. The curriculum combines didactic teaching, motivational interviewing, and behavioral rehearsal of clinical practice skills. Qualitative feedback suggests that the curriculum has been successful in exposing residents to a variety of practical assessment methods and, through rehearsal, has improved resident confidence in addressing alcohol use and misuse in a primary care population. PMID:26130770

  15. Benzodiazepine Use and Misuse Among Patients in a Methadone Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Adamo Christopher

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzodiazepines (BZD misuse is a serious public health problem, especially among opiate-dependent patients with anxiety enrolled in methadone program because it puts patients at higher risk of life-threatening multiple drug overdoses. Both elevated anxiety and BZD misuse increase the risk for ex-addicts to relapse. However, there is no recent study to assess how serious the problem is and what factors are associated with BZD misuse. This study estimates the prevalence of BZD misuse in a methadone program, and provides information on the characteristics of BZD users compared to non-users. Methods An anonymous survey was carried out at a methadone program in Baltimore, MD, and all patients were invited to participate through group meetings and fliers around the clinic on a voluntary basis. Of the 205 returned questionnaires, 194 were complete and entered into final data analysis. Those who completed the questionnaire were offered a $5 gift card as an appreciation. Results 47% of the respondents had a history of BZD use, and 39.8% used BZD without a prescription. Half of the BZD users (54% started using BZD after entering the methadone program, and 61% of previous BZD users reported increased or resumed use after entering methadone program. Compared to the non-users, BZD users were more likely to be White, have prescribed medication for mental problems, have preexistent anxiety problems before opiate use, and had anxiety problems before entering methadone program. They reported more mental health problems in the past month, and had higher scores in anxiety state, depression and perceived stress (p Conclusions Important information on epidemiology of BZD misuse among methadone-maintenance patients suggests that most methadone programs do not address co-occurring anxiety problems, and methadone treatment may trigger onset or worsening of BZD misuse. Further study is needed to explore how to curb misuse and abuse of BZD in the

  16. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  17. Filial Dependency and Recantation of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Controversy abounds regarding the process by which child sexual abuse victims disclose their experiences, particularly the extent to which and the reasons why some children, once having disclosed abuse, later recant their allegations. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of recantation among 2- to 17-year-old child sexual…

  18. Cardiac Fas-Dependent and Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptosis after Chronic Cocaine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cher-Ming Liou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether chronic cocaine abuse will increase cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways, thirty-two male Wistar rats at 3–4 months of age were randomly divided into a vehicle-treated group (phosphate-buffered saline, PBS, 0.5 mL, SQ per day and a cocaine-treated group (Cocaine, 10 mg/kg, SQ per day. After 3 months of treatment, the excised left ventricles were measured by H&E staining, Western blotting, DAPI staining and TUNEL assays. More cardiac TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were observed in the Cocaine group than the PBS group. Protein levels of TNF-alpha, Fas ligand, Fas death receptor, FADD, activated caspase-8, and activated caspase-3 (Fas-dependent apoptosis extracted from excised hearts in the Cocaine group were significantly increased, compared to the PBS group. Protein levels of cardiac Bax, cytosolic cytochrome c, t-Bid-to-Bid, Bak-to-Bcl-xL, Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, activated caspase-9, and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptosis were significantly increased in the Cocaine group, compared to the PBS group. Chronic cocaine exposure appeared to activate the cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, which may indicate a possible mechanism for the development of cardiac abnormalities in humans with chronic cocaine abuse.

  19. Cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis after chronic cocaine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Cher-Ming; Tsai, Shiow-Chwen; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Ting, Hua; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether chronic cocaine abuse will increase cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways, thirty-two male Wistar rats at 3-4 months of age were randomly divided into a vehicle-treated group (phosphate-buffered saline, PBS, 0.5 mL, SQ per day) and a cocaine-treated group (Cocaine, 10 mg/kg, SQ per day). After 3 months of treatment, the excised left ventricles were measured by H&E staining, Western blotting, DAPI staining and TUNEL assays. More cardiac TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were observed in the Cocaine group than the PBS group. Protein levels of TNF-alpha, Fas ligand, Fas death receptor, FADD, activated caspase-8, and activated caspase-3 (Fas-dependent apoptosis) extracted from excised hearts in the Cocaine group were significantly increased, compared to the PBS group. Protein levels of cardiac Bax, cytosolic cytochrome c, t-Bid-to-Bid, Bak-to-Bcl-xL, Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, activated caspase-9, and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptosis) were significantly increased in the Cocaine group, compared to the PBS group. Chronic cocaine exposure appeared to activate the cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, which may indicate a possible mechanism for the development of cardiac abnormalities in humans with chronic cocaine abuse. PMID:24722570

  20. Cardiac Fas-Dependent and Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptosis after Chronic Cocaine Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Cher-Ming Liou; Shiow-Chwen Tsai; Chia-Hua Kuo; Hua Ting; Shin-Da Lee

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether chronic cocaine abuse will increase cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways, thirty-two male Wistar rats at 3–4 months of age were randomly divided into a vehicle-treated group (phosphate-buffered saline, PBS, 0.5 mL, SQ per day) and a cocaine-treated group (Cocaine, 10 mg/kg, SQ per day). After 3 months of treatment, the excised left ventricles were measured by H&E staining, Western blotting, DAPI staining and TUNEL assays. More cardiac TU...

  1. Health promotion: Alcohol and drug misuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Currently, average apparent consumption of alcohol for all persons older than 14 is 10 percent higher than 10 years ago, and is equivalent to about 2.75 gallons of ethanol per person per year. Approximately 10 million adult Americans (i.e., 7 percent of those 18 or older) can be considered problem drinkers. Youthful problem drinkers, aged 14 to 17, are estimated to number more than 3 million and comprise 19 percent of this age group. In addition to the social costs, the economic costs to society as a result of alcohol misuse are substantial--an estimated +49.4 billion in 1977. Ten percent of all deaths in the United States are alcohol-related. Cirrhosis, which is largely attributable to alcohol consumption, ranks among the 10 leading causes of death. Alcohol use also is associated with cancer of the liver, pancreas, esophagus, and mouth. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is associated with a wide range of possible harmful effects to the fetus--among them decreased birth weight, spontaneous abortion, and physical and mental birth defects. Drug misuse is also an expanding problem. There are some 16 million current marijuana users. The popularity of cocaine continues to increase--over 10 million Americans have tried cocaine at least once and there are an estimated 1 to 2 million current users. Misuse of barbiturates remains a significant problem with at least 1 million persons believed to misuse these drugs and the 30,000 estimated to be addicted to them. In addition, heroin addiction is still considered by many to be the most serious drug problem in the United States. Drug misuse leads to a number of social and health problems. Excessive doses of depressants can result in both physical and psychological dependence. The toll from heroin includes premature death and severe disability, family disruption, and crime committed to maintain the habit. Misuse of hallucinogens often results in emergency room visits. A special problem is the relationship of marijuana to

  2. Classical and novel psychoactive substances: rethinking drug misuse from an evolutionary psychiatric perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John-Smith, Paul; McQueen, Daniel; Edwards, Lindsey; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2013-07-01

    In this article, ontogenetic and phylogenetic causes of drug abuse and links to human emotional development are considered. Some evolutionary perspectives (e.g. that under certain conditions, consumption of otherwise toxic alkaloids may confer both physical and cultural advantages) are reviewed. As described in the 'mismatch theory', the capacity of the human genome to evolve defences against toxins has been outstripped by the pace of cultural change and technological development, such as purposeful fermentation of alcohol and more recently distillation of alcohol; purification and chemical manipulation of plant alkaloids; and the engineering of entirely novel psychoactive substances (NPS). The functions of the neurobiological substrates that mediate substance misuse and dependence are reviewed. Reasons are given why NPSs present greater cause for concern than plant-derived substances of abuse. We argue that evolutionary biology provides an important orientation for the research agenda in substance misuse. PMID:23881888

  3. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and…

  4. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paying for Care Insurance Medicare Medicare Part D Benefits Medicaid Tax Deductions & Credits Legal Matters Planning Ahead Legal Documents alz.org » Caregiver Center » Safety » Abuse Text size: A A A Special Situations First Responders Traveling In a Disaster Abuse Find your local Chapter ...

  5. Diagnosing alcohol abuse in alcohol dependent individuals: diagnostic and clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Lara A.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Miranda, Robert; Francione, Caren; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; ZIMMERMAN, MARK

    2009-01-01

    In DMS-IV, the diagnosis of alcohol abuse is precluded by the diagnosis of alcohol dependence. The goal of this study was to examine the diagnostic and clinical implications of diagnosing alcohol abuse among alcohol dependent individuals. Treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients with a lifetime history of alcohol dependence (n = 544), some of whom (n = 45) did not meet lifetime criteria for alcohol abuse completed in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured clinical assessments of DSM-IV axis I ...

  6. Late Onset of Prescription Drug Abuse or Dependence Among Older Adults: Implications for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Lay

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Prescription drug abuse and dependence is an increasing concern for older adults. This article describes issues specific to older adults with late onset abuse or dependence on prescription sedatives and/or opiates.The older adult with late onset should not be viewed as having the same issues as individuals who have a life pat- tern of drug and alcohol abuse/dependence.A chart review of older adults in a treatment program contrasts late onset prescription dependence clients (n=12 and early onset addiction clients (n=104 and outlines differences and similarities between the two samples. Social workers need to understand the specific and changing needs of older adults as they relate to assessment and treatment of drug abuse and dependence.

  7. Substance abuse and pharmacy practice: what the community pharmacist needs to know about drug abuse and dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommasello Anthony C

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists, the most accessible of health care professionals, are well positioned to help prevent and treat substance use disorders and should prepare themselves to perform these functions. New research improves our knowledge about the pharmacological and behavioral risks of drug abuse, supports the clinical impression that drug dependence is associated with long-lasting neurochemical changes, and demonstrates effective pharmacological treatments for certain kinds of drug dependencies. The profession is evolving. Pharmacists are engaging in new practice behaviors such as helping patients manage their disease states. Collaborative practice agreements and new federal policies set the stage for pharmacists to assist in the clinical management of opioid and other drug dependencies. Pharmacists need to be well informed about issues related to addiction and prepared not only to screen, assess, and refer individual cases and to collaborate with physicians caring for chemically dependent patients, but also to be agents of change in their communities in the fight against drug abuse. At the end of this article the pharmacist will be better able to: 1. Explain the disease concept of chemical dependence 2. Gather the information necessary to conduct a screen for chemical dependence 3. Inform patients about the treatment options for chemical dependence 4. Locate resources needed to answer questions about the effects of common drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, "ecstasy", and cocaine 5. Develop a list of local resources for drug abuse treatment 6. Counsel parents who are concerned about drug use by their children 7. Counsel individuals who are concerned about drug use by a loved one. 8. Counsel individuals who are concerned about their own drug use

  8. Marijuana use, abuse, and dependence: evaluation of panic responsivity to biological challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    The present investigation examined marijuana use, abuse, and dependence in relation to anxious and fearful responding to panic-relevant bodily sensations elicited by a biological challenge procedure among a sample of young adult marijuana users (n = 64; 46.9% women; M(age) = 20.97, SD = 6.01). Results indicated that those who were dependent on marijuana had greater self-reported panic attack symptoms post-challenge than those who abused marijuana. No differences were found between those who did not meet criteria for either abuse or dependence (users), and those who abused or were dependent on marijuana. No group differences were found for heart rate reactivity. Results are discussed in relation to better understanding the role of marijuana use and its disorders in terms of panic responsivity. PMID:20235439

  9. Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Symptoms: A Multidimensional Model of Common and Specific Etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Carey, Kate B.; Wills, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model hypothesizing differential pathways from five predictors to alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms. The participants were college students (N= 2,270) surveyed on two occasions in a 6-month prospective design. Social norms, perceived utility of alcohol use, and family history of alcohol problems were indirectly associated with Time 2 (T2) abuse and dependence symptoms through influencing level of alcohol consumption. Poor behavioral control had a direct eff...

  10. Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Symptoms Among Hospital Employees Exposed to a SARS Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ping; Liu, Xinhua; Fang, Yunyun; Fan, Bin; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Guan, Zhiqiang; Yao, Zhongling; Kong, Junhui; Lu, Jin; Litvak, Iva J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms among hospital employees exposed to a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, and the relationship between types of exposure to the SARS outbreak and subsequent alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. Methods: A survey was conducted among 549 randomly selected hospital employees in Beijing, China, concerning the psychological impact of the 2003 SARS outbreak. Subjects were assessed on sociodemographic factors a...

  11. Hepatitis Infection in the Treatment of Opioid Dependence and Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain H. Litwin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many new and existing cases of viral hepatitis infections are related to injection drug use. Transmission of these infections can result directly from the use of injection equipment that is contaminated with blood containing the hepatitis B or C virus or through sexual contact with an infected individual. In the latter case, drug use can indirectly contribute to hepatitis transmission through the dis-inhibited at-risk behavior, that is, unprotected sex with an infected partner. Individuals who inject drugs are at-risk for infection from different hepatitis viruses, hepatitis A, B, or C. Those with chronic hepatitis B virus infection also face additional risk should they become co-infected with hepatitis D virus. Protection from the transmission of hepatitis viruses A and B is best achieved by vaccination. For those with a history of or who currently inject drugs, the medical management of viral hepatitis infection comprising screening, testing, counseling and providing care and treatment is evolving. Components of the medical management of hepatitis infection, for persons considering, initiating, or receiving pharmacologic therapy for opioid addiction include: testing for hepatitis B and C infections; education and counseling regarding at-risk behavior and hepatitis transmission, acute and chronic hepatitis infection, liver disease and its care and treatment; vaccination against hepatitis A and B infection; and integrative primary care as part of the comprehensive treatment approach for recovery from opioid abuse and dependence. In addition, participation in a peer support group as part of integrated medical care enhances treatment outcomes. Liver disease is highly prevalent in patient populations seeking recovery from opioid addiction or who are currently receiving pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction. Pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction is not a contraindication to evaluation, care, or treatment of liver disease due to hepatitis virus

  12. 幼儿园一日活动过渡环节中规训的误用与滥用%On Misuse and Abuse of Discipline during Transition in the Kindergarten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明; 吴航

    2012-01-01

    Like other educational institutions, kindergarten is a place of disciplines, where teachers exert physical and mental restraint upon children by various measures. Through observation of transition process in a kindergarten of Wuhan, it was found that disciplines were misused and abused. Teachers may improve the use of disciplines through changing their educational concepts, rationalizing the use of discipline and increase reflections in teaching.%与其他教育机构一样,幼儿园也是一个充满规训的场所,教师通过诸多手段对幼儿的身体和精神等进行着规训。通过对武汉市某幼儿园一日活动过渡环节的观察,发现教师此时在规训方面存在误用和滥用等问题。幼教工作者可以从转变教育观念、合理使用规训以及加强实践反思等三个方面寻求改变。

  13. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Comply with the requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR... by the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82...

  14. Do physical abuse, depression, and parental substance use influence patterns of substance use among child welfare involved youth? Substance use misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Susan M; Smith, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    To date studies have not explored patterns of substance use exclusively among youth in the child welfare system. Consequently, little is known about polysubstance use among child welfare-involved youth. This study aimed to explore whether physical abuse, parental substance use, depression, and demographic characteristics predict distinct patterns of substance use among child welfare-involved youth using latent class analysis (LCA). The sample included 822 11-17 year olds who participated in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW II) study between March 2008 and September 2009. We found the following three classes: (1) polysubstance use, (2) alcohol and marijuana use, and (3) low use. Older youth and youth who experienced physical abuse were at greater risk of being in the polysubstance use class, while living with a biological parent reduced the likelihood of polysubstance use class membership. Youth in the alcohol and marijuana use class were more likely to be older and depressed. Results from this study illuminate important targets for interventions.

  15. Homelessness and drug misuse in developing countries: A mathematical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunu, C. P.

    2014-06-01

    Homelessness and drug-misuse are known to exist like siamese twins. We present a model to capture the dynamics in the growth in the number of homeless (street kids and street adults) and drug misusers. The reproduction numbers of the model are determined and analyzed. Results from this study suggests that adult peer pressure plays a more significant role in the growth of drug-misuse and the number of street kids. This result suggests that in resource constrained settings intervention strategies should be tailor made to target adults whose behaviour influence others to misuse drugs and abuse children. Furthermore, numerical simulations show that homelessness and drug-misuse positively enhances, the growth of each other. Thus, to effectively control these two social problems require strategies targeting both of them.

  16. Alcohol misuse in Greece: a 15-year experience from a specialized outpatient service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomini, V; Mellos, L; Paparrigopoulos, T; Liappas, J

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use in Greece is traditionally diffused among its population. According to general population surveys, three out of four Greeks aged 12-64 referred to alcohol consumption during the last year and 10% reported at least one episode of alcohol abuse during the last month. Furthermore, the large majority of young people aged 13-18 reported lifetime use of alcohol and 14.8% of them reported more than three episodes of alcohol abuse during the last month. Apparently, cultural factors have influenced the pattern of alcohol consumption and the ensuing alcohol-related problems during the last two decades. The "Athena" Service is an outpatient therapeutic unit for the management of substance misusers and their families. It is a specialized abstinence-oriented service that does not administer substance substitutes; mental health professionals of the service work as a multidisciplinary team. Motivational approaches, individual cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy and family interventions of a systemic orientation are the principal therapeutic techniques applied. Adjunctive medication is prescribed whenever mild to moderate concomitant psychopathology is detected. Support measures such as provisional use of medication, use of antagonistic agents or brief hospitalization can be provided if deemed necessary. No strict time limits are applied regarding treatment duration and discharge from the program. During the period 1998-2013, a total of 1511 individuals with alcohol-related problems addressed the service. The changing pattern of substance misuse over the last fifteen years can be summarized as follows: (a) there is a gradually increasing number of women misusing substances; (b) there is an increasing proportion of young adults reporting multi-substance use with concurrent psychiatric disorders; (c) there is an increasing proportion of young adults regularly using/misusing substances; (d) there is a decreasing proportion of middle-aged individuals presenting with

  17. Workplace Inhalant Abuse in Adult Female: Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalant abuse is the purposeful inhalation of intoxicating gases and vapors for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. With its propensity for being yet an under-recognized form of substance use, being gateway to hard substances, cross-cultural penetration crossing socioeconomic boundaries, and causing significant morbidity and mortality in early ages, the prevention of inhalant misuse is a highly pertinent issue. This clinical report identifies a newer perspective in the emergence of inhalant abuse initiation. We report a case of an adult female with late onset of inhalant dependence developing at workplace and recommend for greater awareness, prevention, and management of this expanding substance abuse problem.

  18. Risk factor characteristics in carers who physically abuse or neglect their elderly dependants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, A M; Browne, K D

    2001-02-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of, and differences in, risk factor characteristics in a sample of two select populations of carers, one of which physically abused their elderly dependants and one of which neglected them. Nineteen carers (nine who had physically abused and 10 who had neglected their elderly relatives), who were referred to clinical psychology by either their general practitioner or their psychiatrist, were invited to take part in this study. A detailed history of risk factors was obtained, including history of alcohol dependency, type and history of mental ill health, history of maltreatment earlier in life, who they were caring for, how long they had been a carer and whether they felt isolated as a carer. Subjects were then given five assessments to determine whether there were any differences between the two groups. These were the Conflict Tactic Scale, Strain Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Cost of Care Index. An examination of the risk factors suggests that heavy alcohol consumption and past childhood abuse by fathers were likely to lead to physical abuse. Significantly higher conflict and depression scores were also present in the physical abuse group, while the neglect group had significantly higher anxiety scores. It is suggested that these findings should be incorporated into an assessment of future risk of abuse or neglect by the carer. PMID:11513015

  19. Drug misuse in sport: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, David

    2015-12-04

    This editorial draws comparisons between the recent revelations of drug misuse in Russian sport, and the State-sponsored programme of the former German Democratic Republic. While 50 years separates these two regimes, there are commonalities. The history of major incidents involving drug abuse by serious national players in sport suggests a 20-year cycle, with the GDR, China and now Russia employing similar strategies. These events underscore the value placed upon international sporting success by politicians.

  20. Associations between psychedelic use, abuse, and dependence and lifetime panic attack history in a representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Bernstein, Amit; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the associations between lifetime psychedelic use, abuse, and dependence and panic attacks. The study consisted of a representative epidemiological sample from a state wide survey of the Colorado general adult population (n=4745; 52% female). Consistent with prediction, after controlling for theoretically relevant variables, psychedelic abuse and dependence, but not use, were significantly related to an increased lifetime risk of panic attacks. The results are discussed in terms of better understanding the role of psychedelic use in relation to the occurrence of panic attacks. PMID:17067775

  1. Partner dependency and intimate partner abuse: A sociocultural grounding of spousal abuse in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-01-01

    While sociocultural scholarship has attempted an ecological explanation of intimate partner violence, it has largely been criticized for ignoring dispositional factors of both perpetrators and victims. Dependent personality and attachment-related emotional problems have been implicated in the ext......While sociocultural scholarship has attempted an ecological explanation of intimate partner violence, it has largely been criticized for ignoring dispositional factors of both perpetrators and victims. Dependent personality and attachment-related emotional problems have been implicated...... of dependency and attachment-related spousal violence as a form of a psychopathology. This article discusses partner dependency and jealousy-motivated spousal violence as socioculturally situated, dependent on contextual and relational conditions of meaning embedded in the communal society of Ghana....... It highlights Ghanaian communal personality, gendered socialization and meaning systems of marriage as salient sociocultural features for conceptualizing partner dependency and emotional-related spousal violence....

  2. OPPIDUM surveillance program: 20 years of information on drug abuse in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Moracchini, Christophe; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Braunstein, David; Thirion, Xavier; Micallef, Joëlle

    2013-12-01

    It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. Some are based on specific population surveys, such as individuals with drug abuse or dependence, or under opiate maintenance treatment, because this population is very familiar with drugs and is more likely to divert or abuse them. In France, an original surveillance system based on this specific population and called 'Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications (OPPIDUM) survey' was set up in 1990 as the first of its kind. The aim of this article is to describe this precursor of French drug abuse surveillance using different examples, to demonstrate its ability to effectively give health authorities and physicians interesting data on drug abuse. OPPIDUM is an annual, cross-sectional survey that anonymously collects information on abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50,734 patients were included with descriptions of 102,631 psychoactive substance consumptions. These data have outlined emergent behaviors such as the misuse of buprenorphine by intravenous or nasal administration. It has contributed to assess abuse liability of emergent drugs such as clonazepam or methylphenidate. This surveillance system was also able to detect the decrease of flunitrazepam abuse following implementation of regulatory measures. OPPIDUM's twenty years of experience clearly demonstrate that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible and can provide helpful information for physicians and health authorities.

  3. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  4. Epidemiological and neurobiological evidence for misuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Kindlundh, Anna MS

    2002-01-01

    Misuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), is attributed to elite athletes and body builders. The attentive involvement of AAS in acts of violence seen in society has raised interest to evaluate the importance of social, psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the psychiatric states associated with onset of controlled misuse, its maintenance, and via abuse its transition to addiction. The objective of this thesis is to examine whether misuse of AAS shares mechanisms with...

  5. Culture and Environment as Predictors of Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Symptoms In American Indian Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, ManSoo; Stiffman, Arlene Rubin

    2007-01-01

    This study utilizes Bronfenbrenner's ecological model (1979) to examine multiple and interactive environmental (familial, social, and cultural) predictors of adolescent alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. A stratified random sample of 401 American Indian youths was interviewed in 2001. The findings showed that family members' substance problems, peer misbehaviors, and participation in generic cultural activities positively predicted adolescent alcohol symptoms. Conversely, cultural pride/spiri...

  6. Stable genetic effects on symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence from adolescence into early adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van J.H.D.A.; Kendler, K.S.; Moor, de M.H.M.; Geels, L.M.; Bartels, M.; Vink, J.M.; Berg, van den S.M.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is known about how genetic influences on alcohol abuse and dependence (AAD) change with age. We examined the change in influence of genetic and environmental factors which explain symptoms of AAD from adolescence into early adulthood. Symptoms of AAD were assessed using the four AA

  7. Impact of Child Sexual Abuse Medical Examinations on the Dependency and Criminal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Allan R.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews previous research on the sociolegal impact of medical evaluations for child sexual abuse; offers a recommended menu of research questions, concerning process and outcomes of these evaluations, interviewing techniques, the use of medical evidence in prosecution, and knowledge level of professionals in the criminal and dependency systems.…

  8. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…

  9. Inhalant Use, Abuse, and Dependence among Adolescent Patients: Commonly Comorbid Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Joseph T.; Hall, Shannon K.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about adolescents with DSM-IV-defined inhalant abuse and dependence. The aim of this study was to compare comorbidity among (1) adolescents with inhalant use disorders, (2) adolescents who reported using inhalants without inhalant use disorder, and (3) other adolescent patients drawn from an adolescent drug and alcohol…

  10. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. The authority to enter into contracts shall be effective for any fiscal year only to such...

  11. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract....

  12. Functioning of cannabis abuse and dependence criteria across two different countries: the United States and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delforterie, M.J.; Creemers, H.E.; Agrawal, A.; Lynskey, M.T.; Jak, Suzanne; van der Ende, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-national differences could affect the likelihood of endorsement of DSM cannabis abuse and dependence criteria. The present study examines whether cannabis abuse and dependence criteria function differently across U.S. and Dutch cannabis users. METHOD: Data on lifetime endorsement o

  13. Predicting Vocational Rehabilitation Outcomes for People with Alcohol Abuse/Dependence: An Application of Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickham, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    People with alcohol abuse/dependence disabilities are often faced with a complex recovery process due to the exacerbating and chronic aspects of their condition. Vocational rehabilitation for people with alcohol abuse/dependence can help individuals access and maintain employment, and through employment can enhance physical and psychological…

  14. Substance abuse and dependence in the hospital workplace: detection and handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossi, J

    1991-01-01

    A hospital can take many avenues in dealing with an employee or professional who is impaired by substance abuse or dependence. The most difficult aspect of dealing with the problem is detection. Fortunately, increasing public awareness and concern regarding workplace substance abuse is forcing legislators to address the issue and expose the problem. The legislative response appears to be geared toward treatment and education rather than punishment, which in the opinion of this author is a desirable approach. The pharmacy department can be a valuable asset to the hospital risk manager in detecting diversion of controlled substances and educating employees as to the clinical signs and symptoms of impairment.

  15. [Clinical study of BRON-L syrup (cough suppressant) abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Ryosuke; Doi, Tomoko; Date, Kenji; Naitoh, Tomomichi; Suwaki, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    In 1980s, abuse and dependence of BRON-W syrup (cough suppressant), which contains methylephedrine, dihydrocodeine, chlorpheniramine and caffeine, were prevalent in Japan. Pharmacological and clinical studies suggest that methylephedrine and dihydrocodeine cause dependence. Although BRON-L syrup, newly modified cough suppressant contains only chlorpheniramine and caffeine, there still are abuse and dependence of this drug. In this report, three cases of BRON-L syrup abuse are demonstrated. All cases started using BRON-L syrup in the late teens in their peer groups, and dropped out from school. Case 1 misused only BRON-L syrup, but case 2 and 3 were multi-drug abusers (case 2: amphetamine, cocaine, and marijuana, case 3: solvent, alcohol, bromovalerylurea), and had kept in tough with the peer groups. Case 2 and 3 hospitalized more than 2 times. Withdrawal symptoms, such as headache, insomnia, and irritability were mild and improved in a few weeks after drug use was stopped. These findings suggest that 1) psychosocial backgrounds of these cases are in common with those of BRON-W syrup abusers, but 2) the clinical course and prognosis of multi-drug abusers are different from the BRON single abuser, 3) chlorpheniramine and caffeine possibly cause dependence, 4) abusers are likely to choose BRON brand although two main dependence-producing constituents are removed from it now. Therefore, prevention and care of BRON-L abusers requires both psychosocial and pharmacological aspects. PMID:11915306

  16. SOME PERSONALITY FEATURES AS PREDICTIVE FACTORS OF DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Butorac

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other behavioural disorders, models of drug and alcohol abuse stem from interaction of several factors such as social settings, biological and psychological configuration, individual’s personality dimensions as well as psychoactive effect of drug. To-date research predominantly targeted consequences of drug and alcohol abuse, treatment, rehabilitation and the explanation of dependent person’s behaviour. Much less effort and research addressed the issue of personality as a potent predisposition risk factor and its effect on this phenomenon. Although personality does not develop as a separate entity, drug abuse, amongst other factors, is initiated by different personality traits, cognitive processes, person’s expectancies and psychopathology. In the light of that, this article contains results of psychological research which indicate risk factors and their interactive relationships within general personality construct. These findings therefore relevantly contribute to the development of effective prevention programmes, risk groups identification and early treatment interventions.

  17. Measured Environmental Contributions to Cannabis Abuse/Dependence in an Offspring of Twins Design

    OpenAIRE

    Scherrer, Jeffrey F.; Grant, Julia D.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Pan, Hui; Waterman, Brian; Jacob, Theodore; Haber, Jon Randolph; True, William R.; Andrew C Heath; Bucholz, Kathleen Keenan

    2008-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are known to contribute to cannabis abuse/dependence (CAD). We sought to determine the magnitude of the contribution from measured environmental variables to offspring cannabis dependence in a design that controls for familial vulnerability. Data come from a study of 725 twin members of the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, 720 of their biological offspring (age 18–32 years) and 427 mothers. Data were obtained on offspring perception of family and peer support and s...

  18. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  19. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or guardians don't take care of the basic needs of the children who depend on them. Physical ... or a cell phone, but refers to more basic needs like food, shelter, and love. Family violence can ...

  20. Examining the Interface Between Substance Misuse and Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Monti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable theoretical and empirical support for a link between substance misuse and perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. This review briefly summarizes this literature and highlights current research that addresses the interface between treatment for substance abuse and intimate partner violence. Suggestions for future research and clinical implications are provided.

  1. Assessing Correlates of the Growth and Extent of Methamphetamine Abuse and Dependence in California

    OpenAIRE

    Gruenewald, Paul J.; Johnson, Fred W.; Ponicki, William R.; Remer, Lillian G.; LaScala, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Using aggregate-level data, this study performed cross-sectional analyses on all 1,628 populated California zip code areas and longitudinal analyses on 581 consistently defined zip codes over six years (1995– 2000), relating place and population characteristics of these areas to rates of hospital discharges for amphetamine dependence/abuse using linear spatial models. Analyzing the data in two ways, spatial time series cross-sections and spatial difference models, amphetamin...

  2. Drug Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Opioid-Dependent Fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Barbara C.; Easton, Caroline J.; McMahon, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Because very little is known about the coparenting relationships of drug-abusing men, this comparative study was designed to examine the lifetime prevalence and recent frequency of intimate partner violence in the coparenting relationships of 106 fathers enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment. When compared with 118 community controls, the opioid-dependent fathers reported greater prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological aggression directed at the mother of their youngest biolog...

  3. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano Rubeena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  4. Predictors of opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perhac J Stephen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioid misuse can complicate chronic pain management, and the non-medical use of opioids is a growing public health problem. The incidence and risk factors for opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain, however, have not been well characterized. We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine the one-year incidence and predictors of opioid misuse among patients enrolled in a chronic pain disease management program within an academic internal medicine practice. Methods One-hundred and ninety-six opioid-treated patients with chronic, non-cancer pain of at least three months duration were monitored for opioid misuse at pre-defined intervals. Opioid misuse was defined as: 1. Negative urine toxicological screen (UTS for prescribed opioids; 2. UTS positive for opioids or controlled substances not prescribed by our practice; 3. Evidence of procurement of opioids from multiple providers; 4. Diversion of opioids; 5. Prescription forgery; or 6. Stimulants (cocaine or amphetamines on UTS. Results The mean patient age was 52 years, 55% were male, and 75% were white. Sixty-two of 196 (32% patients committed opioid misuse. Detection of cocaine or amphetamines on UTS was the most common form of misuse (40.3% of misusers. In bivariate analysis, misusers were more likely than non-misusers to be younger (48 years vs 54 years, p Conclusion Opioid misuse occurred frequently in chronic pain patients in a pain management program within an academic primary care practice. Patients with a history of alcohol or cocaine abuse and alcohol or drug related convictions should be carefully evaluated and followed for signs of misuse if opioids are prescribed. Structured monitoring for opioid misuse can potentially ensure the appropriate use of opioids in chronic pain management and mitigate adverse public health effects of diversion.

  5. Stable genetic effects on symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence from adolescence into early adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    van Beek, Jenny H. D. A.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; De Moor, Marleen H.M.; Geels, Lot M.; Bartels, Meike; Vink, Jacqueline M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is known about how genetic influences on alcohol abuse and dependence (AAD) change with age. We examined the change in influence of genetic and environmental factors which explain symptoms of AAD from adolescence into early adulthood. Symptoms of AAD were assessed using the four AAD screening questions of the CAGE inventory. Data were obtained up to six times by self-report questionnaires for 8,398 twins from the Netherlands Twin Register aged between 15 and 32 years. Longit...

  6. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-01-01

    According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS) is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports and widespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem. Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, ...

  7. It’s the Algorithm! Why Differential Rates of Chronicity and Comorbidity are Not Evidence for the Validity of the Abuse-Dependence Distinction

    OpenAIRE

    Vergés, Alvaro; Steinley, Douglas; Trull, Timothy J.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the abuse/dependence distinction within alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has been increasingly questioned on psychometric and conceptual grounds. Two types of findings are often cited as support for the validity of this distinction: (1) dependence is more persistent than abuse, and (2) dependence is more highly comorbid with other Axis I and Axis II disorders than is abuse. Using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), we examine...

  8. Alcohol Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, PhD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We examine the association between self-reported alcohol misuse and alcohol usewithin 2 hours of having sex and the number of sexual partners among a sample of African-Americanand Latino emergency department (ED patients.Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected prospectively from a randomized sample of all EDpatients during a 5-week period. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to report their alcoholuse and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple variablenegative binomial regression models, and effect modification was assessed through inclusion ofinteraction terms.Results: The 395 study participants reported an average of 1.4 (standard error¼0.11 sexual partnersin the past 12 months, 23% reported misusing alcohol, and 28% reported consuming alcohol beforesex. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and the number ofsexual partners; however, alcohol before sex was associated with a larger number of sexual partners inthe past year. Moreover, among those who misused alcohol, participants who reported alcohol beforesex were 3 times more likely to report a higher number of sexual partners (risk ratio¼3.2; confidenceinterval [CI]¼1.9–5.6. The association between alcohol use before sex and number of sexual partnersis dependent upon whether a person has attributes of harmful drinking over the past 12 months.Overall, alcohol use before sex increases the number of sexual partners, but the magnitude of thiseffect is significantly increased among alcohol misusers.Conclusion: Alcohol misusers and those who reported having more than 1 sexual partner were morelikely to cluster in the same group, ie, those who used alcohol before sex. Efforts to reduce the burdenof sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and other consequences ofrisky sexual behavior in the ED population should be cognizant of the interplay of alcohol and

  9. Effects of dependency on compliance rates among elder abuse victims at the New York City Department for the aging, elderly crime victim's unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mebane E; Berman, Jacquelin

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted at the New York City Department for the Aging Elderly Crime Victim's Unit (ECVU) to examine the relationship between dependency and compliance rates. Dependency was defined by the total score for each case on the Victim Dependency Scale and Abuser Dependency Scale. Compliance was defined as the act of accepting a referral and compliance rates were determined by counting the total number of referrals the victim accepted. Findings indicated that the only factor associated with compliance rates was if the abuser had a mental illness/substance abuse problem. If the abuser did have this problem, the victim was significantly more likely to accept a referral for services as compared to victims whose abusers did not have a mental illness/substance abuse problem (t=-2.774, df=36.899, p<.01). The authors offer explanations as to why this research was important and the implications it has on future research. PMID:16803786

  10. Association between Experience of Child Abuse and Severity of Drug Addiction Measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese Drug-Dependent Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yasukazu Ogai; Eiichi Senoo; Fumiyuki Chin Gardner; Ayako Haraguchi; Tamaki Saito; Nobuaki Morita; Kazutaka Ikeda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. M...

  11. Alcohol abuse and dependence criteria as predictors of a chronic course of alcohol use disorders in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, C; Van den Brink, W; De Graaf, R; Vollebergh, WAM

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether DSM-IV abuse and dependence criteria and the ICD-10 criterion for craving differentially predict a chronic course of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the general population. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a large r

  12. Developmental Pathways to Adolescent Cannabis Abuse and Dependence: Child Maltreatment, Emerging Personality, and Internalizing versus Externalizing Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Burnette, Mandi; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence (Clark, Thatcher, & Martin, 2010; Ellis & Wolfe, 2009). However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study uses path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms...

  13. Phenomenology of the psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents, depending on various factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nutskova E.V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to psychological consequences of sexual abuse in children and adolescents. It presents review of domestic and foreign research of psychological injury in minors. The article gives results of complex psychological and psychiatric examination of 183 juvenile victims of sexual abuse. Psychological effects of sexual abuse in children and adolescents are identified and described on the basis of age, gender, clinical characteristics of the mental state of the victim, as well as...

  14. Cannabinoid receptor 1 gene polymorphisms and marijuana misuse interactions on white matter and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Beng-Choon; Wassink, Thomas H; Ziebell, Steven; Andreasen, Nancy C

    2011-05-01

    Marijuana exposure during the critical period of adolescent brain maturation may disrupt neuro-modulatory influences of endocannabinoids and increase schizophrenia susceptibility. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1/CNR1) is the principal brain receptor mediating marijuana effects. No study to-date has systematically investigated the impact of CNR1 on quantitative phenotypic features in schizophrenia and inter-relationships with marijuana misuse. We genotyped 235 schizophrenia patients using 12 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) that account for most of CB1 coding region genetic variability. Patients underwent a high-resolution anatomic brain magnetic resonance scan and cognitive assessment. Almost a quarter of the sample met DSM marijuana abuse (14%) or dependence (8%) criteria. Effects of CNR1 tSNPs and marijuana abuse/dependence on brain volumes and neurocognition were assessed using ANCOVA, including co-morbid alcohol/non-marijuana illicit drug misuse as covariates. Significant main effects of CNR1 tSNPs (rs7766029, rs12720071, and rs9450898) were found in white matter (WM) volumes. Patients with marijuana abuse/dependence had smaller fronto-temporal WM volumes than patients without heavy marijuana use. More interestingly, there were significant rs12720071 genotype-by-marijuana use interaction effects on WM volumes and neurocognitive impairment; suggestive of gene-environment interactions for conferring phenotypic abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this comprehensive evaluation of genetic variants distributed across the CB1 locus, CNR1 genetic polymorphisms were associated with WM brain volume variation among schizophrenia patients. Our findings suggest that heavy cannabis use in the context of specific CNR1 genotypes may contribute to greater WM volume deficits and cognitive impairment, which could in turn increase schizophrenia risk.

  15. Differences in onset and abuse/dependence episodes between prescription opioids and heroin: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannelli P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu1, George E Woody2, Chongming Yang3, Paolo Mannelli1, Dan G Blazer11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania and Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Social Science Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USAObjectives: To examine patterns of onset and abuse/dependence episodes of prescription opioid (PO and heroin use disorders in a national sample of adults, and to explore differences by gender and substance abuse treatment status.Methods: Analyses of data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 43,093.Results: Of all respondents, 5% (n = 1815 reported a history of nonmedical PO use (NMPOU and 0.3% (n = 150 a history of heroin use. Abuse was more prevalent than dependence among NMPOUs (PO abuse, 29%; dependence, 7% and heroin users (heroin abuse, 63%; dependence, 28%. Heroin users reported a short mean interval from first use to onset of abuse (1.5 years or dependence (2.0 years, and a lengthy mean duration for the longest episode of abuse (66 months or dependence (59 months; the corresponding mean estimates for PO abuse and dependence among NMPOUs were 2.6 and 2.9 years, respectively, and 31 and 49 months, respectively. The mean number of years from first use to remission from the most recent episode was 6.9 years for PO abuse and 8.1 years for dependence; the mean number of years from first heroin use to remission from the most recent episode was 8.5 years for heroin abuse and 9.7 years for dependence. Most individuals with PO or heroin use disorders were remitted from the most recent episode. Treated individuals, whether their problem was heroin or POs, tended to have a longer mean duration of an episode than untreated individuals.Conclusion: Periodic remissions

  16. Pie Graph Data: Number of Americans Dependent on or Abusing Alcohol and Illicit Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1,921 Sedatives / 162 Tranquilizers / 521 Stimulants / 357 Heroin / 359 Hallucinogens / 397 Cocaine / 1,003 Inhalants / 161 Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005 National Survey on Drug Use ...

  17. Reliability of Use, Abuse, and Dependence of Four Types of Inhalants in Adolescents and Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ridenour, Ty A.; Bray, Bethany C.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    Inhalants, as a class of drugs, consists of heterogeneous substances that include some of the most dangerous drugs on a per use basis. Research on inhalant abuse has lagged behind other drugs partly because of the need for a diagnostic instrument of different types of inhalants. This study was conducted to obtain reliability estimates for the new Substance Abuse Module DSM-IV inhalants diagnoses for four types of inhalants: aerosols, gases, nitrites, and solvents as well as different diagnost...

  18. The Investigation of Tramadol Dependence with No History of Substance Abuse: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Spontaneously Reported Cases in Guangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was to survey and assess the drug dependence and abuse potential of tramadol with no history of substance abuse. Subjects of tramadol dependence with no prior history of substance abuse were surveyed by interview. Physical dependence of tramadol was assessed using 10 items opiate withdrawal scale (OWS, and psychological dependence was assessed by Addiction Research Center Inventory—Chinese Version (ARCI-CV. Twenty-three male subjects (the median age was 23.4±4.1 years referred to the addiction unit in Medical Hospital of Guangzhou with tramadol abuse problems were included in this cross-sectional study. The control group included 87 heroin addicts, 60 methamphetamine (MA abusers, and 50 healthy men. The scores of OWS of tramadol were 0.83–2.30; the mean scores of identifying euphoric effects–MBG, sedative effects–PCAG, and psychotomimetic effects–LSD of ARCI were 8.96±3.08, 6.52±3.25, and 6.65±2.50, respectively, F = 4.927, P0.05 but were higher than those in healthy men (P<0.05. Tramadol with no history of substance abuse has a clear risk of producing high abuse potential under the long-term infrequent abuse and the high doses.

  19. Neurosteroid Binding Sites on the GABAA Receptor Complex as Novel Targets for Therapeutics to Reduce Alcohol Abuse and Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary W. Hulin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence in the US and Europe, there are only five approved pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence. Moreover, these pharmacotherapeutic options have limited clinical utility. The purpose of this paper is to present pertinent literature suggesting that both alcohol and the neurosteroids interact at the GABAA receptor complex and that the neurosteroid sites on this receptor complex could serve as new targets for the development of novel therapeutics for alcohol abuse. This paper will also present data collected by our laboratory showing that one neurosteroid in particular, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, decreases ethanol intake in rats under a variety of conditions. In the process, we will also mention relevant studies from the literature suggesting that both particular subtypes and subunits of the GABAA receptor play an important role in mediating the interaction of neurosteroids and ethanol.

  20. The Difference in Comorbidities and Behavioral Aspects between Internet Abuse and Internet Dependence in Korean Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, June-Young; Park, E-Jin; Kwon, Min; Choi, Ji-Hye; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Sam Wook; Lee, Chang-Uk; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects in accordance with the severity of Internet addiction in male adolescents. Methods One hundred and twenty-five adolescents from four middle and high schools in Seoul were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups according to a diagnostic interview by psychiatrists. The psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects of subjects were evaluate...

  1. Drug abuse among the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.

  2. Clonazepam as Agonist Substitution Treatment for Benzodiazepine Dependence: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani; Luca Rovai; Fabio Rugani; Silvia Bacciardi; Matteo Pacini; Liliana Dell'Osso; Icro Maremmani

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the misuse of benzodiazepines (BZDs) is a cause for a serious concern among pharmacologically inexperienced patients, whether treated or untreated, that could lead to significant complications, including tolerance, dependence, and addiction. We present a case report in which an Italian patient affected by anxiety disorder and treated with BZDs presented a severe case of dependence on BZDs. We treated him according to an agonist substitution approach, switching from the abused BZD to...

  3. Differences in the Association between Depression and Opioid Misuse in Chronic Low Back Pain versus Chronic Pain at Other Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Jaiswal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic pain and depression are more likely to develop opioid abuse compared to patients without depression. It is not known if this association differs by pain location. We compared the strength of association between depression and opioid misuse in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP vs. chronic pain of other location (CPOL. Chart abstracted data was obtained from 166 patients seeking care in a family medicine clinic. Depression was measured by the PHQ-9 and opioid misuse was measured using the Current Opioid Misuse Measure. Pain severity and interference questions came from the Brief Pain Inventory. Cross-tabulations were computed to measure the association between depression and opioid misuse stratified on pain location. Exploratory logistic regression modeled the association between depression and opioid misuse after adjusting for pain location and pain severity and interference. Depression was significantly associated with opioid misuse in CPOL but not in CLBP. Regression results indicate pain interference partly accounts for the depression–opioid misuse association. These preliminary results from a small patient sample suggest depression may co-occur with opioid misuse more often in CPOL than in CLBP. Further research is needed to compare this comorbidity in specific pain diagnoses such as arthritis, fibromyalgia and CLBP.

  4. Differences in the Association between Depression and Opioid Misuse in Chronic Low Back Pain versus Chronic Pain at Other Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Arpana; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Salas, Joanne; van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; Fernando, Sheran; Herndon, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain and depression are more likely to develop opioid abuse compared to patients without depression. It is not known if this association differs by pain location. We compared the strength of association between depression and opioid misuse in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) vs. chronic pain of other location (CPOL). Chart abstracted data was obtained from 166 patients seeking care in a family medicine clinic. Depression was measured by the PHQ-9 and opioid misuse was measured using the Current Opioid Misuse Measure. Pain severity and interference questions came from the Brief Pain Inventory. Cross-tabulations were computed to measure the association between depression and opioid misuse stratified on pain location. Exploratory logistic regression modeled the association between depression and opioid misuse after adjusting for pain location and pain severity and interference. Depression was significantly associated with opioid misuse in CPOL but not in CLBP. Regression results indicate pain interference partly accounts for the depression-opioid misuse association. These preliminary results from a small patient sample suggest depression may co-occur with opioid misuse more often in CPOL than in CLBP. Further research is needed to compare this comorbidity in specific pain diagnoses such as arthritis, fibromyalgia and CLBP. PMID:27417622

  5. Can abuse deterrent formulations make a difference? Expectation and speculation

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes Serrano Jill M; Budman Simon H; Butler Stephen F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract It is critical that issues surrounding the abuse and misuse of prescription opioids be balanced with the need for these medications for the treatment of pain. One way to decrease the abuse of prescription opioid medications is to develop abuse deterrent formulations (or ADFs) that in some way prevent drug abusers from extracting out the active ingredient in order to employ alternate routes of administration, such as injection, snorting, and smoking. Several factors including the phar...

  6. Examination of genetic variation in GABRA2 with conduct disorder and alcohol abuse and dependence in a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melroy, Whitney E.; Stephens, Sarah H.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Kamens, Helen M.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Corley, Robin P.; Stallings, Michael C.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Krauter, Kenneth S.; Brown, Sandra A.; Hewitt, John K.; Ehringer, Marissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown associations between SNPs in GABRA2 and adolescent conduct disorder (CD) and alcohol dependence in adulthood, but not adolescent alcohol dependence. The present study was intended as a replication and extension of this work, focusing on adolescent CD, adolescent alcohol abuse and dependence (AAD), and adult AAD. Family based association tests were run using Hispanics and non-Hispanic European American subjects from two independent longitudinal samples. Although the analysis provided nominal support for an association with rs9291283 and AAD in adulthood and CD in adolescence, the current study failed to replicate previous associations between two well replicated GABRA2 NPs and CD and alcohol dependence. Overall, these results emphasize the utility of including an independent replication sample in the study design, so that the results from an individual sample can be weighted in the context of its reproducibility. PMID:24687270

  7. Misuse of ICTs among Turkish children and youth: A study on newspaper reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Tanrıkulu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the misuse of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs among children and youth. The data source was newspaper reports obtained from three Turkish daily newspapers, between January 2006 and December 2012. In that seven years period, a total of 66 ICT misuse incidents were reported in the selected newspapers. Document analysis was performed on the newspaper reports. Themes and codes were entered as variables to manage the data quantitatively. Results revealed that ICT misuse was most commonly conducted through cell phones, social networking sites, instant messaging and web pages. Young people’s involvement of ICT misuse had three forms; from young perpetrator/s to the young victim/s, from young perpetrator/s to adult victim/s and from adult perpetrator/s to young victim/s. ICTs were commonly misused for sexual abuse, insulting or taking revenge. While perpetrators were mostly males whose ages ranged between 14 and 52, a great majority of ICT misuse victims were females, with an age range from 8 to 46. Negative psychological and physiological impacts were reported by the victims.

  8. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues The Role of Culture in Elder ... factor in all types of elder abuse, including physical mistreatment, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect. It is also a ...

  9. Attitudes of West African Immigrants in the United States toward Substance Misuse: Exploring Culturally Informed Prevention and Treatment Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senreich, Evan; Olusesi, Olatunde A

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of literature exploring substance misuse issues of the West African-born population in the United States. Thirty-four participants born in West Africa participated in one of three focus groups in a U.S. city to discuss their attitudes toward alcohol and drug use. Based on a qualitative analysis of the discussions, stigmatization of substance abusers and negative attitudes toward U.S. substance abuse treatment were identified as barriers to service utilization for West African immigrants. Community cohesion, importance of family, and a strong sense of spirituality were identified as essential resources to inform substance misuse prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:26954618

  10. Regarding the use and misuse of retinal protonated Schiff base photochemistry as a test case for time-dependent density-functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valsson, Omar [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich and Facoltà di Informatica, Instituto di Scienze Computationali, Università della Svizzera italiana, Via Giuseppe Buffi 13, CH-6900 Lugano (Switzerland); Filippi, Claudia, E-mail: c.filippi@utwente.nl [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Casida, Mark E., E-mail: mark.casida@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Département de Chimie Moléculaire (DCM), Institut de Chimie Moléculaire de Grenoble (ICMG), Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble I, F-3801 Grenoble (France)

    2015-04-14

    The excited-state relaxation of retinal protonated Schiff bases (PSBs) is an important test case for biological applications of time-dependent (TD) density-functional theory (DFT). While well-known shortcomings of approximate TD-DFT might seem discouraging for application to PSB relaxation, progress continues to be made in the development of new functionals and of criteria allowing problematic excitations to be identified within the framework of TD-DFT itself. Furthermore, experimental and theoretical ab initio advances have recently lead to a revised understanding of retinal PSB photochemistry, calling for a reappraisal of the performance of TD-DFT in describing this prototypical photoactive system. Here, we re-investigate the performance of functionals in (TD-)DFT calculations in light of these new benchmark results, which we extend to larger PSB models. We focus on the ability of the functionals to describe primarily the early skeletal relaxation of the chromophore and investigate how far along the out-of-plane pathways these functionals are able to describe the subsequent rotation around formal single and double bonds. Conventional global hybrid and range-separated hybrid functionals are investigated as the presence of Hartree-Fock exchange reduces problems with charge-transfer excitations as determined by the Peach-Benfield-Helgaker-Tozer Λ criterion and by comparison with multi-reference perturbation theory results. While we confirm that most functionals cannot render the complex photobehavior of the retinal PSB, do we also observe that LC-BLYP gives the best description of the initial part of the photoreaction.

  11. Childhood abuse and deprivation are associated with distinct sex-dependent differences in brain morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaerd, Daphne; Klumpers, Floris; Zwiers, Marcel; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; van Oostrom, Iris; Schene, Aart; Fernández, Guillén; Tendolkar, Indira

    2016-06-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) has been associated with long-term structural brain alterations and an increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Evidence is emerging that subtypes of CA, varying in the dimensions of threat and deprivation, lead to distinct neural and behavioral outcomes. However, these specific associations have yet to be established without potential confounders such as psychopathology. Moreover, differences in neural development and psychopathology necessitate the exploration of sexual dimorphism. Young healthy adult subjects were selected based on history of CA from a large database to assess gray matter (GM) differences associated with specific subtypes of adversity. We compared voxel-based morphometry data of subjects reporting specific childhood exposure to abuse (n=127) or deprivation (n=126) and a similar sized group of controls (n=129) without reported CA. Subjects were matched on age, gender, and educational level. Differences between CA subtypes were found in the fusiform gyrus and middle occipital gyrus, where subjects with a history of deprivation showed reduced GM compared with subjects with a history of abuse. An interaction between sex and CA subtype was found. Women showed less GM in the visual posterior precuneal region after both subtypes of CA than controls. Men had less GM in the postcentral gyrus after childhood deprivation compared with abuse. Our results suggest that even in a healthy population, CA subtypes are related to specific alterations in brain structure, which are modulated by sex. These findings may help understand neurodevelopmental consequences related to CA. PMID:26576924

  12. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not lead to physical dependence and withdrawal, the feelings these drugs give people can cause them to use the drugs more and more ...

  13. A Cotwin-Control Analysis of Drug Use and Abuse/Dependence Risk associated with Early-onset Cannabis Use

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Julia D.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Scherrer, Jeffrey F.; Agrawal, Arpana; Andrew C Heath; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed whether, after controlling for genetic and shared environmental influences, early cannabis use remains a significant predictor of other drug use, abuse, and dependence, and whether the risk for early users is greater than that for later cannabis users. Data from a 1992 telephone diagnostic interview of 8169 male twins (M = 42.0 years at interview) who served in the U.S. military during the Vietnam-era were used to identify a subsample of 293 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twi...

  14. The Factor Structure and Severity of DSM-IV Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Symptoms in Psychiatric Outpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Lara A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; ZIMMERMAN, MARK

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the factor structure and estimated severity of alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms in a sample of treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients. Participants (n = 1027, 51.2% women) met the screening criteria for the lifetime assessment of alcohol use disorders according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID-I/P; First et al., 1995) and as a result completed an assessment of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms. The average a...

  15. Association between experience of child abuse and severity of drug addiction measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese drug-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence. PMID:25741639

  16. Association between experience of child abuse and severity of drug addiction measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese drug-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-03-03

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence.

  17. Paraquat : in use and misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, J. Keir (James Keir)

    1982-01-01

    This thesis sets out to examine the problems that have been associated with paraquat, both in relation to its occupational use as a herbicide and its misuse in cases of accidental or deliberate human poisoning. In order to provide a frame of reference for the later discussion, the general properties of paraquat are reviewed, together with its general toxic effects and possible mode of action in mammalian systems. The degree of risk associated with paraquat use in normal agricultural practice ...

  18. Phenotype-dependent inhibition of glutamatergic transmission on nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons by the abused inhalant toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Jacob T; Randall, Patrick K; Smith, Rachel J; Hughes, Benjamin A; Kalivas, Peter W; Woodward, John J

    2016-05-01

    Abused inhalants are voluntarily inhaled at high concentrations to produce intoxicating effects. Results from animal studies show that the abused inhalant toluene triggers behaviors, such as self-administration and conditioned place preference, which are commonly associated with addictive drugs. However, little is known about how toluene affects neurons within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region within the basal ganglia that mediates goal-directed behaviors and is implicated in the development and maintenance of addictive behaviors. Here we report that toluene inhibits a component of the after-hyperpolarization potential, and dose-dependently inhibits N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated currents in rat NAc medium spiny neurons (MSN). Moreover, using the multivariate statistical technique, partial least squares discriminative analysis to analyze electrophysiological measures from rat NAc MSNs, we show that toluene induces a persistent depression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-mediated currents in one subtype of NAc MSNs, and that the electrophysiological features of MSN neurons predicts their sensitivity to toluene. The CB1 receptor antagonist AM281 blocked the toluene-induced long-term depression of AMPA currents, indicating that this process is dependent on endocannabinoid signaling. The neuronal identity of recorded cells was examined using dual histochemistry and shows that toluene-sensitive NAc neurons are dopamine D2 MSNs that express preproenkephalin mRNA. Overall, the results from these studies indicate that physiological characteristics obtained from NAc MSNs during whole-cell patch-clamp recordings reliably predict neuronal phenotype, and that the abused inhalant toluene differentially depresses excitatory neurotransmission in NAc neuronal subtypes. PMID:25752326

  19. Childhood trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity and oppositional behaviors and prediction of substance abuse/dependence: a 15-year longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingault, J-B; Côté, S M; Galéra, C; Genolini, C; Falissard, B; Vitaro, F; Tremblay, R E

    2013-07-01

    Numerous prospective studies have shown that children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of long-term substance abuse/dependence. However, there are three important limits to these studies: (a) most did not differentiate the role of hyperactivity and inattention; (b) most did not control for associated behavioral problems; and (c) most did not consider females. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of childhood inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to early adulthood substance abuse/dependence. Behavioral problems of 1803 participants (814 males) in a population-based longitudinal study were assessed yearly between 6 and 12 years by mothers and teachers. The prevalence of substance abuse/dependence at age 21 years was 30.7% for nicotine, 13.4% for alcohol, 9.1% for cannabis and 2.0% for cocaine. The significant predictors of nicotine dependence were inattention (odds ratio (OR): 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.63-3.11) and opposition (OR: 1.65; 95%: 1.20-2.28). Only opposition contributed to the prediction of cannabis dependence (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.40-3.87) and cocaine dependence (OR: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.06-8.57). The best behavioral predictor of alcohol abuse/dependence (opposition) was only marginally significant (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.98-1.95). Frequent oppositional behaviors during elementary school were clearly the most pervasive predictors of substance abuse/dependence in early adulthood. The association of childhood ADHD with substance abuse/dependence is largely attributable to its association with opposition problems during childhood. However, inattention remained an important predictor of nicotine dependence, in line with genetic and molecular commonalities between the two phenotypes suggested in the literature. PMID:22733124

  20. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  1. Illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and pharmaceutical sodium oxybate (Xyrem): differences in characteristics and misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lawrence P; Pardi, Daniel; Gorsline, Jane; Griffiths, Roland R

    2009-09-01

    There are distinct differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse associated with illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) compared to pharmaceutical sodium oxybate. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium and sodium oxybate are the chemical and drug names, respectively, for the pharmaceutical product Xyrem (sodium oxybate) oral solution. However, the acronym GHB is also used to refer to illicit formulations that are used for non-medical purposes. This review highlights important differences between illicit GHB and sodium oxybate with regard to their relative abuse liability, which includes the likelihood and consequences of abuse. Data are summarized from the scientific literature; from national surveillance systems in the U.S., Europe, and Australia (for illicit GHB); and from clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance with sodium oxybate (Xyrem). In the U.S., the prevalence of illicit GHB use, abuse, intoxication, and overdose has declined from 2000, the year that GHB was scheduled, to the present and is lower than that of most other licit and illicit drugs. Abuse and misuse of the pharmaceutical product, sodium oxybate, has been rare over the 5 years since its introduction to the market, which is likely due in part to the risk management program associated with this product. Differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse of illicit GHB and sodium oxybate suggest that risks associated with illicit GHB are greater than those associated with the pharmaceutical product sodium oxybate.

  2. Recognizing Signs of Prescription Drug Abuse and Addiction, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicilda-Reynaldo, Faye D

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse/misuse is increasing. Nonmedical use of prescription medications, especially opioid analgesics, now is considered an epidemic in the United States. Medical-surgical nurses are in a strategic position to help address substance abuse problems in patients.

  3. Assessment and Treatment of Abuse Risk in Opioid Prescribing for Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Serraillier; Jamison, Robert N.; Edward Michna

    2011-01-01

    Opioid analgesics provide effective treatment for noncancer pain, but many physicians have concerns about adverse effects, tolerance, and addiction. Misuse of opioids is prominent in patients with chronic back pain and early recognition of misuse risk could help physicians offer adequate patient care while implementing appropriate levels of monitoring to reduce aberrant drug-related behaviors. In this review, we discuss opioid abuse and misuse issues that often arise in the treatment of patie...

  4. State-dependent and environmental modulation of brain hyperthermic effects of psychoactive drugs of abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a known effect induced by psychomotor stimulants and pathological hyperthermia is a prominent symptom of acute intoxication with these drugs in humans. In this manuscript, I will review our recent work concerning the brain hyperthermic effects of several known and recently appeared psychostimulant drugs of abuse (cocaine, methamphetamine, MDMA, methylone, and MDPV). Specifically, I will consider the role of activity state and environmental conditions in modulating the brain temperature effects of these drugs and their acute toxicity. Although some of these drugs are structurally similar and interact with the same brain substrates, there are important differences in their temperature effects in quiet resting conditions and the type of modulation of these temperature effects under conditions that mimic basic aspects of human drug use (social interaction, moderately warm environments). These data could be important for understanding the potential dangers of each drug and ultimately preventing adverse health complications associated with acute drug-induced intoxication.

  5. Stimulant medication use in college students: comparison of appropriate users, misusers, and nonusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Cynthia M; Canu, Will H; Cleveland, Carolyn S; Lefler, Elizabeth K; Mignogna, Melissa J; Fedele, David A; Correia, Christopher J; Leffingwell, Thad R; Clapp, Joshua D

    2013-09-01

    While stimulant medication is commonly prescribed to treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in children and adolescents (Merikangas, He, Rapoport, Vitiello, & Olfson, 2013; Zuvekas & Vitiello, 2012) and is considered an empirically supported intervention for those groups (Barkley, Murphy, & Fischer, 2008; Pelham & Fabiano, 2008; Safren et al., 2005) surprisingly little is known about the efficacy of stimulants in the slightly older emerging adult population. A focus has emerged, however, on illicit stimulant use among undergraduates, with studies suggesting such behavior is not uncommon (e.g., Arria et al., 2013). Unfortunately, details are lacking regarding outcomes and personal characteristics associated with different patterns of stimulant misuse. The current study compares the characteristics of four groups of college students, including those with stimulant prescriptions who use them appropriately (i.e., appropriate users), those who misuse their prescription stimulants (i.e., medical misusers), those who obtain and use stimulants without a prescription (i.e., nonmedical misusers), and those who do not use stimulant medications at all (i.e., nonusers). Undergraduates (N = 1,153) from the Southeastern, Midwest, and Rocky Mountain regions completed online measures evaluating patterns of use, associated motives, side effects, ADHD symptomatology, and other substance use. Both types of misusers (i.e., students who abused their prescriptions and those who obtained stimulants illegally) reported concerning patterns of other and combined substance use, as well as higher prevalence of debilitating side effects such as insomnia and restlessness. Research and practical implications are discussed. PMID:24059834

  6. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  7. UNICORN: Misuse detection for UNICOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoph, G.G; Jackson, K.A.; Neuman, M.C.; Siciliano, C.L.B.; Simmonds, D.D.; Stallings, C.A.; Thompson, J.L.

    1995-03-29

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic auditing and analysis of on-line user activity. This activity is reflected in the system audit record, by changes in the vulnerability posture of the system configuration, and in other evidence found through active testing of the system. In 1989 we started developing an automatic misuse detection system for the Integrated Computing Network (ICN) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Since 1990 this system has been operational, monitoring a variety of network systems and services. We call it the Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter, or NADIR. During the last year and a half, we expanded NADIR to include processing of audit and activity records for the Cray UNICOS operating system. This new component is called the UNICOS Real-time NADIR, or UNICORN. UNICORN summarizes user activity and system configuration information in statistical profiles. In near real-time, it can compare current activity to historical profiles and test activity against expert rules that express our security policy and define improper or suspicious behavior. It reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations. UNICORN is currently operational on four Crays in Los Alamos` main computing network, the ICN.

  8. Impulsivity and risk for prescription opioid misuse in a chronic pain patient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Noel; Reynolds, Caleb J; Tragesser, Sarah L

    2016-09-01

    Misuse of, and addiction to, prescription opioid pain relievers is a growing concern, in both non-clinical samples and chronic pain patients receiving opioid analgesic therapy. Research is needed to identify which patients may be more prone to misuse or dependence on opioids in a chronic pain treatment setting. Based on literature showing the role of impulsivity in substance use disorders generally, we predicted that impulsivity may also be important to understanding which individuals may be at risk for opioid misuse when opioids are prescribed for pain. The present study examined associations between impulsivity facets and measures of prescription opioid misuse and symptoms. Four facets of impulsivity were examined: urgency, sensation seeking, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance. 143 patients receiving treatment for chronic pain at a regional pain clinic completed a series of questionnaires including the UPPS and measures of opioid risk and misuse. Consistent with predictions, urgency was associated with risk for future misuse (β=0.246, p<0.05), current misuse (β=0.253, p<0.01), and symptoms of current opioid use disorder (OUD; β=0.206, p<0.05). Sensation seeking was also associated with current misuse (β=0.279, p<0.01). These results suggest that identifying facets of impulsivity is important to understanding and assessing for risk of prescription opioid misuse in the context of chronic pain treatment. These data indicate that patients who react impulsively to negative mood states and cravings may be especially prone to developing aberrant use patterns when taking prescription opioids. This is the first known study to identify the role of urgency in predicting risk for OUDs in chronic pain patients. PMID:27156219

  9. Paracetamol use (and/or misuse) in children in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Obu Herbert A; Chinawa Josephat M; Ubesie Agozie C; Eke Christopher B; Ndu Ikenna K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen) is the commonest available analgesic and anti-pyretic. It is readily accessed from pharmacy, patent medicine and provision shops as over the counter drug making it a potential drug of abuse, especially in children. We sought to find its use and/or misuse in children seen at the paediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. Objective To determine the dosage, formulation, and ...

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  11. Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Physical Abuse Physical abuse is physical force or violence that results in ... may be acquaintances, sons, daughters, grandchildren, or others. Physical abuse that is perpetrated by spouses or intimate partners ...

  12. Does Childhood Use of Stimulant Medication as a Treatment for ADHD Affect the Likelihood of Future Drug Abuse and Dependence? A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shawn M.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the disparate research findings regarding the effects of stimulant medication in subsequent substance abuse and dependence. A minimum of 4 to 5% of children in the United States will be diagnosed with ADHD; thus it is important for parents to be informed when making decisions about the use of stimulant medication to treat…

  13. Daily Stressor Sensitivity, Abuse Effects, And Cocaine Use In Cocaine Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Waldrop, Angela E.; Back, Sudie E.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.; McRae, Aimee L.; Saladin, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    This study highlights respondent sensitivity to daily hassles as it relates to situational cocaine use and perceived long-term effects of adverse events in childhood. Data were drawn from a larger study on stress reactivity in cocaine dependent individuals. Participants (n=104) were cocaine dependent men and women without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They completed the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI), the Daily Hassles Scale (DHS), the Inventory of Drug-Taking Situations (IDTS)...

  14. Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role ... Abuse and Neglect Ramsey-Klawsnik, H. (1996). Assessing physical and sexual abuse in health care settings. In L.A. Baumhover & S. ...

  15. Use and Abuse of a Fractional Fokker-Planck Dynamics for Time-Dependent Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsalu, E.; Patriarca, M.; Goychuk, I.; Hänggi, P.

    2007-09-01

    We investigate a subdiffusive, fractional Fokker-Planck dynamics occurring in time-varying potential landscapes and thereby disclose the failure of the fractional Fokker-Planck equation (FFPE) in its commonly used form when generalized in an ad hoc manner to time-dependent forces. A modified FFPE (MFFPE) is rigorously derived, being valid for a family of dichotomously alternating force fields. This MFFPE is numerically validated for a rectangular time-dependent force with zero average bias. For this case, subdiffusion is shown to become enhanced as compared to the force free case. We question, however, the existence of any physically valid FFPE for arbitrary varying time-dependent fields that differ from this dichotomous varying family.

  16. Drug dependence and psychotic symptoms: a retrospective study of adolescents who abuse drugs at Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Alibrahim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse is reported to be on the increase among young persons using illicit substances but little is known about the frequency with which they occur, the symptoms on presentation to health institutions, and the different substances abused. To establish this, we reviewed patient data collected at Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on young persons who are refered to the hospital for problems related to drug abuse. Data on 69 adolescent drug users were reviewed and analyzed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview - Substance Abuse Model (CIDI-SAM to assess dependence on substances including amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opioids. Furthermore, we assessed the adolescents’ data on history of delusions and hallucinations in the context of use of, or withdrawal from, these specific substances. Our analysis shows that 10 to 79.6% of users of amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates met DSM-III-R dependence criteria for each specific substance. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms associated with each specific substance ranged from users with no diagnosis to users with severe dependence as follows: amphetamines (3-100%, cannabis (7- 60.0%, cocaine (5-70.7%, and opiates (4- 88%. The risk of psychotic symptoms increased for respondents who abused (OR=7.2 or had mild (OR=8.1, moderate (OR=20.0, or severe dependence (OR=14.0 on cocaine when compared to those who were users with no diagnosis. A similar pattern was evident in cannabis, opiate, and amphetamine users. In conclusion, most adolescent drug users in Saudi Arabia who are dependent on illicit substances experience psychotic symptoms in the context of use of, or withdrawal from, these substances. Psychotic symptoms increased with the severity of the disorders associated with use of all four substances. These findings underscore the importance of developing services to target this population; a population at risk of developing psychotic symptoms.

  17. Prescription pain reliever misuse and levels of pain impairment: 3-year course in a nationally representative outpatient sample of US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak SP

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scott P Novak,1 Cristie Glasheen,1 Carl L Roland,2 1Behavioral Health Epidemiology, RTI International, 2Clinical Sciences and Outcomes Evidence, Pfizer Inc., Durham, NC, USA Background: The primary aim of this work was to present the prevalence data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, a representative 3-year longitudinal survey (ages 18+ years that captured information on patterns of self-reported pain interference and prescription pain reliever misuse. A second aim was to assess the degree to which the risk of various types of opioid misuse (onset, desistance, and incidence of dependence was related to the longitudinal course of self-reported pain interference over the 3-year period. Methods: We used a two-wave, nationally representative sample of adults (aged 18+ years in which the baseline data were collected during 2001–2002 and a single follow-up was obtained ~3 years later (2004–2005 with 34,332 respondents with complete data on study variables for both waves. Results: Our findings indicated that ~10% reported high pain interference in the past month at each wave. There was tremendous stability in levels of pain, with ~5% reporting consistent levels of high impairment over the 3-year study, a proxy for chronic pain. Levels of pain were more strongly associated with prescription pain reliever misuse concurrently rather than prospectively, and the association was largely linear, with the likelihood of misuse increasing with levels of pain. Finally, health service factors were also prominent predictors of onset, but not the outcomes, of desistance or transitions to problem use. Conclusion: This study is the first to use a nationally representative sample with measures of pain and drug use history collected over an extended period. These results may help provide clinicians with an understanding that the risk of misuse is greatest when pain is active and may help guide the selection of

  18. The Rate of Cyber Dating Abuse among Teens and How It Relates to Other Forms of Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Janine M.; Dank, Meredith; Yahner, Jennifer; Lachman, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    To date, little research has documented how teens might misuse technology to harass, control, and abuse their dating partners. This study examined the extent of cyber dating abuse--abuse via technology and new media--in youth relationships and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. A total of 5,647 youth from ten schools in three…

  19. Ketamine dependence in an anesthesiologist: An occupational hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrigopal Goyal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance abuse among medical professionals is a cause for concern. Certain psychotropic substances such as ketamine are at easy dispense to anesthesiologists increasing the likelihood of misuse and dependence and raise several issues including safety of patients. We discuss a case demonstrating ketamine dependence in an anesthesiologist from India. The reported psychotropic effects of ketamine ranged from dissociation and depersonalization to psychotic experiences. There was also development of significant tolerance to ketamine without prominent physical withdrawal symptoms and cyclical use of very high doses was observed. Issues related to management of health professionals are also discussed.

  20. Childhood Religious Affiliation and Alcohol Use and Abuse Across the Lifespan in Alcohol-Dependent Men

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Laura B.; Haber, John Randolph; Jacob, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between childhood religious affiliation and alcohol use across the lifespan. A sample of 931 men (average age of 51) from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, which includes an over-representation of alcohol-dependent men, completed the Lifetime Drinking History interview, which assessed drinking across the lifespan. Childhood religious affiliation was obtained from the men’s spouse/partner. Affiliations were subdivided into four categories: non-religious...

  1. Detecting growth hormone misuse in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Richard I.G.

    2013-01-01

    Athletes have been misusing growth hormone (GH) for its anabolic and metabolic effects since the early 1980s, at least a decade before endocrinologists began to treat adults with GH deficiency. Although there is an ongoing debate about whether GH is performance enhancing, recent studies suggest that GH improves strength and sprint capacity, particularly when combined with anabolic steroids. The detection of GH misuse is challenging because it is an endogenous hormone. Two approaches have been...

  2. Daily stressor sensitivity, abuse effects, and cocaine use in cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Angela E; Back, Sudie E; Brady, Kathleen T; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P; McRae, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael E

    2007-12-01

    This study highlights respondent sensitivity to daily hassles as it relates to situational cocaine use and perceived long-term effects of adverse events in childhood. Data were drawn from a larger study on stress reactivity in cocaine dependent individuals. Participants (n=104) were cocaine dependent men and women without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They completed the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI), the Daily Hassles Scale (DHS), the Inventory of Drug-Taking Situations (IDTS), and the Time-Line Follow-Back (TLFB; for 90 days prior to interview). There were no gender differences in the amount or frequency of cocaine use, although the patterns of use differed between male and female users. Overall, there were some associations in the patterns of cocaine use and sensitivity to daily hassles, particularly the use in response to conflict with others. Early negative life events were positively related to response to daily hassles, but current triggers were more relevant. Reactivity to cocaine cues was related to daily hassle sensitivity among women only. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. [Sexual addiction in alcohol abuse and dependence. Clinical, nosologic and psychoanalytic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, K

    1992-03-01

    DSM-III-R names sexual addiction for the first time as a sexual disorder. In this study a group of alcoholics was examined who described their own sexual behavior as being addictive and self-destructive. In this nearly all male patient group sexual addiction manifested itself mostly in excessive masturbation and obsessional sexual fantasies often in combination with use of pornography. Promiscuity, prostitute contacts and excessive sexual demands on a steady partner and sexually deviant behavior, were less often reported in this population. The addictive sexual behavior was said to be usually provoked by emotional distress and unresolved conflicts. More than 80% of these patients were dependent upon at least one other substance beside alcohol. Two-thirds considered their sexual addictive behavior to be their primary and earliest dependency. The nosology of this disorder seems to be unspecific, since a number of forms of neurosis and personality disorder are diagnosed. A psychodynamic interpretation of sexual addiction points to defence mechanisms against inner psychic conflicts, as seen both in addiction and sexual perversion. Aspects of differential diagnosis and classification are also discussed. PMID:1579173

  4. ASSOCIATION OF GUTKA/CANNABIS MISUSE AND DEVELOPMENT OF MENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Babu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: History of drug abuse which included Gutka/cannabis and not alcohol intake has been found in psychiatric patients attending Psychiatry outpatients. AIMS: To find out prevalence of cannabis/Gutka misuse among psychiatric patients , to find out socio - demographic variables , and pattern of psychiatric disorders among cannabis/g utka misusers. METHOD: Out of 150 psychiatric patients 18 were identified for cannabis/gutka misuse. These patients were examined and categorized according to socio - demographic characteristics and types of mental disorders diagnosed by using DSM - IV. RESULT S: Most of the psychiatric patients who had history of cannabis/Gutka intake were male (96.4% and 76% were in age group of 15 - 35 years. 48.6% bipolar type - 1 , 23% schizophreniform psychosis , 14% had drug induced psychosis and 1.4% psychosis NOS patients we re found in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Young male patients were more commonly involved in drug misuse and most of them belong to rural area.

  5. The Risk of Suicide according to Drug Abuse and Nicotine Dependence in Patients with War Injuries and Chronic Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari Nejad, Alireza; Kheradmand, Ali; Mirzaiee, Mahdieh

    2011-01-01

    Background The incidence of suicide is higher in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than the general population. This prevalence rate is related to many factors including drug dependence. This study was conducted in people wounded during the Iran-Iraq war with PTSD, in order to compare the risk of suicide in those with and without drug and nicotine dependence. Methods This cross-sectional study, conducted in 2007-2008, comprised 104 male individuals who had participated in the Iran-Iraq war and had a current diagnosis of PTSD. They had been referred to a psychiatry hospital and the psychiatrists' offices in Kerman, Iran. Three questionnaires were used including Davidson Trauma Scale, California Risk Estimator for Suicide and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence to assess the severity of PTSD, the risk of suicide, and nicotine dependence, respectively. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using chi-square, regression, analysis of variance (ANOVA), student-t and correlation tests. Findings The severity of PTSD was significantly different in individuals with low to moderate dependence on cigarette smoking than in those with heavy dependence on smoking (P = 0.002). However, the corresponding figures were not significantly different in individuals with and without substance abuse. Although the risk of suicide had no significant difference among individuals with low to moderate dependence on cigarettes compared to those with high nicotine dependence, it was higher in subjects with substance abuse than in those without it (P = 0.0001). Conclusion Our findings suggest that dependence on cigarettes may not play a role in increasing the risk of suicide, whereas the dependence on opium and its derivatives may increase this risk. Therefore, prevention and treatment of drug abuse may be effective on the incidence of suicide in patients with war injuries and PTSD. PMID:24494115

  6. Abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics in the management of chronic noncancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Martin E; Moe, Derek; Bond, Mary; Gasior, Maciej; Malamut, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Misuse, abuse and diversion of prescription opioid analgesics represent a global public health concern. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) of prescription opioid analgesics is an important step toward reducing abuse and diversion of these medications, as well as potentially limiting medical consequences when misused or administered in error. ADFs aim to hinder extraction of the active ingredient, prevent administration through alternative routes and/or make abuse of the manipulated product less attractive, less rewarding or aversive. However, opioid ADFs may still be abused via the intended route of administration by increasing the dose and/or dosing frequency. The science of abuse deterrence and the regulatory landscape are still relatively new and evolving. This paper reviews the current status of opioid ADFs, with particular focus on different approaches that can be used to deter abuse, regulatory considerations and implications for clinical management.

  7. Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... facilities or nursing homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, ...

  8. Substance abuse treatment and psychiatric comorbidity: do benefits spill over? analysis of data from a prospective trial among cocaine-dependent homeless persons

    OpenAIRE

    Kertesz Stefan G; Madan Alok; Wallace Dennis; Schumacher Joseph E; Milby Jesse B

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Comorbid psychiatric illness can undermine outcomes among homeless persons undergoing addiction treatment, and psychiatric specialty care is not always readily available. The prognosis for nonsubstance abuse psychiatric diagnoses among homeless persons receiving behaviorally-based addiction treatment, however, is little studied. Results Data from an addiction treatment trial for 95 cocaine-dependent homeless persons (1996–1998) were used to profile psychiatric diagnoses at...

  9. Childhood Trajectories of Inattention, Hyperactivity and Oppositional Behaviors and Prediction of Substance Abuse/Dependence: A 15-Year Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Côté, Sylvana M.; Galéra, Cédric; Genolini, Christophe; Falissard, Bruno; Vitaro, Frank; Richard E Tremblay

    2012-01-01

    Numerous prospective studies have shown that children diagnosed with ADHD are at higher risk of long-term substance abuse/dependence. However, there are two important limits to these studies: a) most did not differentiate the role of hyperactivity and inattention; b) most did not control for associated behavioral problems; c) most did not consider females. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of childhood inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to early adulthood sub...

  10. Trait mindfulness, reasons for living and general symptom severity as predictors of suicide probability in males with substance abuse or dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate suicide probability in Iranian males with substance abuse or dependence disorder and to investigate the predictors of suicide probability based on trait mindfulness, reasons for living and severity of general psychiatric symptoms.Participants were 324 individuals with substance abuse or dependence in an outpatient setting and prison. Reasons for living questionnaire, Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale and Suicide probability Scale were used as instruments. Sample was selected based on convenience sampling method. Data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS.The life-time prevalence of suicide attempt in the outpatient setting was35% and it was 42% in the prison setting. Suicide probability in the prison setting was significantly higher than in the outpatient setting (p<0.001. The severity of general symptom strongly correlated with suicide probability. Trait mindfulness, not reasons for living beliefs, had a mediating effect in the relationship between the severity of general symptoms and suicide probability. Fear of social disapproval, survival and coping beliefs and child-related concerns significantly predicted suicide probability (p<0.001.It could be suggested that trait mindfulness was more effective in preventing suicide probability than beliefs about reasons for living in individuals with substance abuse or dependence disorders. The severity of general symptom should be regarded as an important risk factor of suicide probability.

  11. The Misuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Iranian Re-crea¬tional Male Body-Builders and Their Related Psycho-So¬cio-Demographic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Angoorani, Hooman; Halabchi, Farzin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence and potential side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse by athletes has made it a major public health concern. Epidemiological studies on the abuse of such drugs are mandatory for developing effective preventive drug control programs in sports community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AAS abuse and their association with some psycho-socio-demographic factors in Iranian male recreational body-builders.Methods: Between March and...

  12. Differences in abuse potential of ADHD drugs measured by contrasting poison centre and therapeutic use data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine; Dalhoff, Kim Peder

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Atomoxetine (ATX) is the treatment of choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorders with co-morbid risk of drug abuse, although its abuse potential needs to be qualified. The purpose of this study is to analyse ATX misuse in relation to therapeutic use and compare our results...

  13. ADHD Common Among College Students Who Misuse Stimulant Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160405.html ADHD Common Among College Students Who Misuse Stimulant Drugs ... misuse stimulant drugs are more likely to have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or other psychiatric problems, a new study ...

  14. Substance misuse prevention as corporate social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radacsi, Gergely; Hardi, Peter

    2014-03-01

    All sectors of society should be involved in reducing substance misuse, including businesses. However, the business sector is typically involved only to the extent that their products compel them to be (e.g., alcohol producers promoting responsible alcohol consumption). This article examines why business participation has been limited and how embedding prevention within a framework of health promotion could increase participation. It reviews both Hungarian and international cases, concluding that although corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers a framework to approach substance misuse reduction, a different perception of the role of the business sector is necessary to make it viable. PMID:24093521

  15. Substance misuse prevention as corporate social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radacsi, Gergely; Hardi, Peter

    2014-03-01

    All sectors of society should be involved in reducing substance misuse, including businesses. However, the business sector is typically involved only to the extent that their products compel them to be (e.g., alcohol producers promoting responsible alcohol consumption). This article examines why business participation has been limited and how embedding prevention within a framework of health promotion could increase participation. It reviews both Hungarian and international cases, concluding that although corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers a framework to approach substance misuse reduction, a different perception of the role of the business sector is necessary to make it viable.

  16. Alcohol misuse and associations with childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P; Duran, Bonnie M; Walters, Karina L; Pearson, Cynthia R; Evans-Campbell, Tessa A

    2014-10-14

    This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit) American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7%) and emotional abuse (71.8%) among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively). Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals.

  17. Alcohol misuse and associations with childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P; Duran, Bonnie M; Walters, Karina L; Pearson, Cynthia R; Evans-Campbell, Tessa A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit) American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7%) and emotional abuse (71.8%) among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively). Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals. PMID:25317980

  18. Alcohol Misuse and Associations with Childhood Maltreatment and Out-of-Home Placement among Urban Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole P. Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7% and emotional abuse (71.8% among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively. Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals.

  19. The Annual Societal Cost of Alcohol Misuse in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Susan J. Varney; Guest, Julian F

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the annual socioeconomic burden imposed by alcohol misuse on Scottish society. Design and setting: Resource use attributable to alcohol misuse was obtained from appropriate databases, published literature and a Working Party on Social Work Caseload and Alcohol Misuse. Unit resource costs at 2001/2002 prices were applied to the resource use estimates to determine the annual direct cost attributable to alcohol misuse. Indirect costs arising from excess unemployment, absen...

  20. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ayhan Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.

  1. Detecting and preventing financial abuse of older adults: Examining decision making by health, social care and banking professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Miranda Louise

    2011-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Financial elder abuse is gaining increasing attention from researchers and policy makers. Such abuse can include theft of money as well as misuse of assets such as property. This research applied judgement analysis methodology to explore professional decision making in the context of such abuse and to identify the nature of the cues used to detect and prevent abuse. Participants included soci...

  2. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become ...

  3. Pregabalin Abuse amongst Opioid Substitution Treatment Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, S; Stokes, S; Kilduff, R; Shine, A

    2015-01-01

    Pregabalin (Lyrica®) is used in treating epilepsy, nerve pain and anxiety. Pregabalin was initially thought to have a low misuse potential however there are emerging reports of Pregabalin being abused. A study was commenced at the National Drug Treatment Centre's (NDTC) Drug Analysis Laboratory to determine the level of usage of Pregabalin within the addiction services population in Ireland. A total of 498 urine samples representing samples from 440 individual opioid substitution patients, initially screened by immunoassay for drugs of abuse, were subjected to further analysis for Pregabalin by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS). Of 440 patients tested, 39 tested positive for Pregabalin (9.2%). Only 10 patients from this group were prescribed this drug to our knowledge thus giving an estimated rate of misuse of 7.0%. Other drugs detected in the Pregabalin positive patients were Opiates (31.8%), Cocaine (11.4%), Benzodiazepines (79.5%) and Cannabis (77.8%). Our study confirms that Pregabalin abuse is taking place amongst the addiction services population. We believe that misuse of this prescription drug is a serious emerging issue which should be monitored carefully.

  4. Do pharmaceutical representatives misuse their drug samples?

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, K. L.; Lien, C. Y.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which pharmaceutical representatives misuse their samples. DESIGN: Voluntary questionnaire survey. SETTING: A family practice office. PARTICIPANTS: Pharmaceutical representatives visiting the office during a 3-month period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of surveyed representatives who self-medicated, provided samples of prescription drugs to nonphysicians, or exchanged drugs with other representatives; classes of prescription drugs most commonly used; and...

  5. The Social Ecology of Adolescent Alcohol Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennett, Susan T.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauman, Karl E.; Hussong, Andrea; Cai, Li; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Faris, Robert; Hipp, John; DuRant, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual framework based on social ecology, social learning, and social control theories guided identification of social contexts, contextual attributes, and joint effects that contribute to development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Modeling of alcohol use, suggested by social learning theory, and indicators of the social bond, suggested by…

  6. Outreach for the Middle Class Drug Misuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauss, Fred F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Clients enrolled in drug programs tend to be young, counter-culture, or ethnic minority individuals. Describes efforts of a non-opiate drug treatment program to reach middle American drug misusers. Attempts included television public service messages and newspaper articles. This campaign was not cost-effective for attracting clients. (Author)

  7. Alpha2C-adrenoceptor Del322-325 polymorphism and risk of psychiatric disorders: significant association with opiate abuse and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Guadalupe; Martín-Guerrero, Idoia; de Prado, Elena; Gabilondo, Ane M; Callado, Luis F; García-Sevilla, Jesús A; García-Orad, África; Meana, J Javier

    2016-06-01

    Objectives α2C-adrenoceptors (α2C-AR) are involved in behavioural responses relevant to psychiatric disorders and suicide completion. The genetic polymorphism α2CDel322-325-AR confers a loss-of-function phenotype. Functional human studies have associated α2CDel322-325-AR polymorphism with major depression pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to analyse, for the first time, the association of α2CDel322-325-AR polymorphism with suicide completion and with related psychiatric disorders: major depression, schizophrenia, opiate and alcohol abuse and dependence. Methods Post-mortem brain DNA was extracted (n = 516) and genotyping performed by HaeIII restriction endonuclease digestion of PCR products and DNA fragment analysis on capillary sequencer. Amplified products were sequenced to confirm the presence of the polymorphism. Results The frequency of α2CDel322-325-AR in suicide (9%, n = 236) and non-suicide victims (11%, n = 280) was similar. Genotype frequencies for the α2CDel322-325-AR polymorphism in depressed (15%, n = 39) and schizophrenic subjects (18%, n = 39) were higher than in controls (7%, n = 187), but these differences did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.125 and P = 0.063, respectively). A selective and significant association of α2CDel322-325-AR polymorphism with opiate abuse and dependence was found (23%, n = 35, P = 0.011). Conclusions Our results indicate that α2CDel322-325-AR may play a role in the pathophysiology of opiate abuse and dependence and raise the interest for larger genetic associative studies.

  8. Effects of drugs of abuse on hippocampal plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning and memory: contributions to development and maintenance of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-10-01

    It has long been hypothesized that conditioning mechanisms play major roles in addiction. Specifically, the associations between rewarding properties of drugs of abuse and the drug context can contribute to future use and facilitate the transition from initial drug use into drug dependency. On the other hand, the self-medication hypothesis of drug abuse suggests that negative consequences of drug withdrawal result in relapse to drug use as an attempt to alleviate the negative symptoms. In this review, we explored these hypotheses and the involvement of the hippocampus in the development and maintenance of addiction to widely abused drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and cannabis. Studies suggest that initial exposure to stimulants (i.e., cocaine, nicotine, and amphetamine) and alcohol may enhance hippocampal function and, therefore, the formation of augmented drug-context associations that contribute to the development of addiction. In line with the self-medication hypothesis, withdrawal from stimulants, ethanol, and cannabis results in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits, which suggest that an attempt to alleviate these deficits may contribute to relapse to drug use and maintenance of addiction. Interestingly, opiate withdrawal leads to enhancement of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Given that a conditioned aversion to drug context develops during opiate withdrawal, the cognitive enhancement in this case may result in the formation of an augmented association between withdrawal-induced aversion and withdrawal context. Therefore, individuals with opiate addiction may return to opiate use to avoid aversive symptoms triggered by the withdrawal context. Overall, the systematic examination of the role of the hippocampus in drug addiction may help to formulate a better understanding of addiction and underlying neural substrates.

  9. Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  10. Elder abuse

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Elder abuse takes many forms and occurs in a variety of settings; it is both under-recognised and under-reported. Despite a lack of statutory guidelines or legislation, effective management is possible. More could be done to recognise abuse, and healthcare workers need to be vigilant, paying attention to both the circumstances in which abuse occurs and its warning signs.

  11. Transtornos mentais como fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de abuso/dependência de cocaína: estudo caso-controle Mental disorders as risk factors for the development of cocaine abuse/dependence: case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S Lopes

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel dos transtornos mentais e da dependência ao álcool como possíveis fatores de risco para o abuso/dependência de cocaína. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se o desenho caso-controle e a técnica de bola-de-neve (snowball technique para selecionar uma amostra de usuários de cocaína não tratados na comunidade (casos e parear casos e controles por sexo, idade e amizade. A coleta de dados foi feita através da utilização do questionário CIDI (Composite International Diagnostic Interview que gera diagnósticos de acordo com os critérios do Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-R. A análise dos dados foi feita através de regressão logística condicional. RESULTADOS: O estudo incluiu 208 indivíduos. Os principais resultados mostraram que história passada de dependência ao álcool era o principal fator associado a um aumento no risco de desenvolvimento de abuso de cocaína (OR=15,1; IC 95% 3,8-60,2; nenhum outro transtorno mental isolado manteve-se significativamente associado ao aumento deste risco após a análise multivariada. Aumento no risco de abuso de cocaína também foi encontrado entre os indivíduos que relataram pensamentos suicidas (OR=3,1; IC 95% 0,91-10,8, sugerindo associação entre quadros mais graves de depressão e abuso de cocaína. CONCLUSÕES: Esses achados sugerem que os programas voltados para a prevenção e tratamento do abuso de cocaína devem estar preparados para o manejo de questões relacionadas à co-morbidade do abuso de drogas com o álcool e outros distúrbios psiquiátricos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of psychiatric disorders and alcohol dependence as possible risk factors for cocaine abuse/dependence. METHODS: The case-control study used the "snowball" technique in order to select untreated cocaine users (cases and to match sex, age and friendship. Information was gathered using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, and computer diagnosis were

  12. Ethical dilemma: is this elder abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoski, Beatrice B

    2003-08-01

    Elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation are major problems today (Marshall, Benton, & Brazier, 2000). Most elder abuse occurs at home and is committed by spouses, children, or other family members. Abuse may go undetected until observant professionals intervene ( AOA, 1998). Sometimes the abuse is a continuation of existing dysfunctional family dynamics. More often, however, the abuse is a result of changes brought about by an older person's growing dependency and need for increased care. PMID:12917522

  13. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  14. Drugs of abuse and addiction: A slippery slope toward liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Dijendra Nath; Goswami, Ritobrata

    2016-08-01

    Substances of abuse induce alteration in neurobehavioral symptoms, which can lead to simultaneous exacerbation of liver injury. The biochemical changes of liver are significantly observed in the abused group of people using illicit drugs or drugs that are abused. A huge amount of work has been carried out by scientists for validation experiments using animal models to assess hepatotoxicity in cases of drugs of abuse. The risk of hepatotoxicity from these psychostimulants has been determined by different research groups. Hepatotoxicity of these drugs has been recently highlighted and isolated case reports always have been documented in relation to misuse of the drugs. These drugs induce liver toxicity on acute or chronic dose dependent process, which ultimately lead to liver damage, acute fatty infiltration, cholestatic jaundice, liver granulomas, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis etc. Considering the importance of drug-induced hepatotoxicity as a major cause of liver damage, this review emphasizes on various drugs of abuse and addiction which induce hepatotoxicity along with their mechanism of liver damage in clinical aspect as well as in vitro and in vivo approach. However, the mechanisms of drug-induced hepatotoxicity is dependent on reactive metabolite formation via metabolism, modification of covalent bonding between cellular components with drug and its metabolites, reactive oxygen species generation inside and outside of hepatocytes, activation of signal transduction pathways that alter cell death or survival mechanism, and cellular mitochondrial damage, which leads to alteration in ATP generation have been notified here. Moreover, how the cytokines are modulated by these drugs has been mentioned here. PMID:26409324

  15. 氨酚羟考酮依赖性及滥用风险分析%Oxycodone and Acetaminophen Dependence and Abuse Risk Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马军丽; 逄立艳; 周立新; 张黎明

    2012-01-01

    Oxycodone hydrochloride is a derivative of morphine. The pharmacological effects of the oxycodone hy— drochloride is similar to morphine. There has been animal experiments show that oxycodone and morphine are similar in strengthening effect, and they have the same potential for psychological dependence. In the United States and Australia, oxycodone products are one of the most common drugs being diverted and abused. Although the single and compound preparations of oxycodone hydrochloride are both likely to cause abuse, In China, oxycodone acetaminophen(oxycodone hydrochloride compound) is managed in accordance with prescription drug, so it is more likely to be lossed and abused compared to the single preparation of oxycodone hydrochloride which is managed in accordance with narcotic drugs. Medical institutions and drug regulatory departments shall strengthen the management and monitoring of oxycodone acetaminophen to prevent loss and abuse.%盐酸羟考酮是盐酸吗啡的衍生物,药理作用与吗啡相似,已有动物实验表明羟考酮与吗啡的强化效应相似,具有相同的精神依赖性潜力.在美国和澳大利亚等国,羟考酮类产品是最常被遭到转移和滥用的药品之一.虽然盐酸羟考酮的单方和复方制剂都有可能引发滥用,但在我国盐酸羟考酮的复方制剂即氨酚羟考酮是按照处方药管理,相对于按照麻醉药品管理的单方制剂流失和滥用的可能性更大.医疗机构和药品监管部门应当加强对氨酚羟考酮的管理和监测,积极避免流失和滥用的发生.

  16. Chemical dependence - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... The following organizations are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd.org National Institute on Drug Abuse -- www.drugabuse.gov ...

  17. Correlates and Consequences of Opioid Misuse among High-Risk Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Schrager, Sheree M.; Aleksandar Kecojevic; Karol Silva; Jennifer Jackson Bloom; Ellen Iverson; Lankenau, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Prescription opioids are the most frequently misused class of prescription drug among young adults aged 18–25, yet trajectories of opioid misuse and escalation are understudied. We sought to model opioid misuse patterns and relationships between opioid misuse, sociodemographic factors, and other substance uses. Methods. Participants were 575 young adults age 16–25 who had misused opioids in the last 90 days. Latent class analysis was performed with models based on years of misuse,...

  18. 100 words almost everyone confuses and misuses

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The 100 Words series continues to set the standard for measuring and improving vocabulary, with a new title focusing on words that are best known for getting people into linguistic trouble. 100 Words Almost Everyone Confuses and Misuses is the perfect book for anyone seeking clear and sensible guidance on avoiding the recognized pitfalls of the English language. Each word on the list is accompanied by a concise and authoritative usage note based on the renowned usage program of the American Heritage® Dictionaries. These notes discuss why a particular usage has been criticized and explain the r

  19. Processo de desenvolvimento de um questionário para avaliação de abuso e dependência de açúcar Development of a questionnaire to evaluate sugar abuse and dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Camargo da Rosa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve o processo de desenvolvimento de um questionário para avaliação de possível abuso e dependência de açúcares extrínsecos não lácticos. Pesquisas recentes mostram que o consumo excessivo de açúcares extrínsecos não lácticos pode levar a alterações no sistema nervoso central a partir da influência destas substâncias no sistema neuroquímico de recompensa. O desenvolvimento desse instrumento ocorreu com base na adaptação do módulo "L" do questionário MINI-Plus por quatro grupos focais, e pela avaliação feita por uma comissão de especialistas na área de dependência química. O questionário apresenta algumas modificações de conteúdo em relação ao instrumento original, como substituições de palavras que estariam de melhor acordo com a substância em estudo; entretanto, manteve a estrutura original com vinte questões sobre abuso e dependência. Um instrumento de avaliação de dependência e abuso de açúcares extrínsecos não lácticos poderá no futuro ajudar os profissionais da saúde a prevenir e tratar problemas relacionados ao consumo de açúcar. É importante salientar que o diagnóstico de abuso e dependência de açúcar ainda deverá ser melhor avaliado pela comunidade científica, assim como as propriedades psicométricas desse instrumento.This study describes the development of a questionnaire to evaluate the potential abuse of (and dependence on non-milk extrinsic sugar (NMES. Recent studies have shown that excessive NMES consumption can cause alterations in the central nervous system due to the influence of these substances in the neurochemical reward system. The questionnaire was originally developed from a summary of reports from four focus groups utilizing the "L" module of the MINI-Plus questionnaire. Addiction specialists subsequently evaluated the draft of the questionnaire and altered the original instrument's content, substituting terms in order to better fit the

  20. Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Adults: Looking Across Youth Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian C; Wells, Brooke E; LeClair, Amy; Tracy, Daniel; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A

    2012-01-01

    Aims Youth cultures play a key role in the social organisation of drug trends among young people; the current prescription drug misuse trend is no different. The authors evaluated whether patterns of prescription drug misuse differed across several youth cultures. Methods Using field survey methods and time-space sampling during 2011, the authors assessed the patterns and prevalence of prescription drug misuse among young adults who are socially active in various urban youth cultures (n = 1781). Findings The prevalence of lifetime prescription drug misuse is highest within indie rock scenes (52.5%), electronic dance music scenes (52.1%), lesbian parties (53.8%) and alt scenes (50.9%). Prescription drug misuse was lowest among young adults in hip-hop scenes (25.0%). These findings were upheld in logistic regression analyses that accounted for demographic differences across youth cultures: indie rock scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.11), electronic dance music scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.20), lesbian parties (adjusted odds ratio = 2.30) and alt scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.65) all reported statistically significant (P drug misuse mirrored patterns for lifetime misuse. Conclusions: The differing prevalence of prescription drug misuse across distinct youth cultures suggests that the trend has not diffused equally among young people. The differing prevalence across youth cultures indicates that the most efficacious strategies for youth intervention may be targeted approaches that account for the subculturally rooted differences in attitudes and social norms. PMID:23190213

  1. 14 CFR 120.19 - Misuse of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of alcohol. 120.19 Section 120.19... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.19 Misuse of alcohol. (a) This section applies to covered employees...

  2. 14 CFR 120.37 - Misuse of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of alcohol. 120.37 Section 120.37... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.37 Misuse of alcohol. (a)...

  3. How to Handle Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abuse: physical, sexual, verbal or emotional, and neglect. Physical abuse: Physical abuse is hitting hard with a hand or an ... choking, painful grabbing, and kicking also can be physical abuse. Sexual abuse: Your body has private parts. These ...

  4. Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... she is likely to try other kinds of drugs, especially alcohol and marijuana. Symptoms How can I tell if my child is abusing inhalants? It can be hard to recognize the signs of inhalant abuse. Teenagers who use inhalants may have some of the ...

  5. Routes of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics: a review and assessment of the potential impact of abuse-deterrent formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Maciej; Bond, Mary; Malamut, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Prescription opioid analgesics are an important treatment option for patients with chronic pain; however, misuse, abuse and diversion of these medications are a major global public health concern. Prescription opioid analgesics can be abused via intended and non-intended routes of administration, both intact or after manipulation of the original formulation to alter the drug-delivery characteristics. Available data indicate that ingestion (with or without manipulation of the prescribed formulation) is the most prevalent route of abuse, followed by inhalation (snorting, smoking and vaping) and injection. However, reported routes of abuse vary considerably between different formulations. A number of factors have been identified that appear to be associated with non-oral routes of abuse, including a longer duration of abuse, younger age, male sex and a rural or socially deprived location. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics is an important step toward reducing abuse of these medications. Available abuse-deterrent formulations aim to hinder extraction of the active ingredient, prevent administration through alternative routes and/or make abuse of the manipulated product less attractive, less rewarding or even aversive. There are currently five opioid analgesics with a Food and Drug Administration abuse-deterrent label, and a number of other products are under review. A growing body of evidence suggests that introduction of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics in the USA has been associated with decreased rates of abuse of these formulations. The availability of abuse-deterrent formulations therefore appears to represent an important step toward curbing the epidemic of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics, while ensuring the availability of effective pain medications for patients with legitimate medical need.

  6. Breaking the cycle of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, B; Jacobvitz, D; Sroufe, L A

    1988-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify variables that distinguish mothers who broke the cycle of abuse from mothers who were abused as children and who also abused their own children. Based on maternal interviews and questionnaires completed over a 64-month period, measures of mothers' past and current relationship experiences, stressful life events, and personality characteristics were obtained. Abused mothers who were able to break the abusive cycle were significantly more likely to have received emotional support from a nonabusive adult during childhood, participated in therapy during any period of their lives, and to have had a nonabusive and more stable, emotionally supportive, and satisfying relationship with a mate. Abused mothers who reenacted their maltreatment with their own children experienced significantly more life stress and were more anxious, dependent, immature, and depressed. PMID:3168615

  7. Victimization Experiences, Substance Misuse and Mental Health Problems in Relation to Risk for Lethality among African-American and African-Caribbean Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sabri, Bushra; Stockman, Jamila K.; Betrand, Desiree; Campbell, Doris W.; Callwood, Gloria B.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of intimate partner victimization experiences, mental health, and substance misuse problems with the risk for lethality among women of African descent. Data for this cross-sectional study were derived from a large case-control study examining the relationship between abuse status and health consequences. Women were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore and the US Virgin Islands. Logistic regre...

  8. Drinking Motives As Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e., to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e., fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative s...

  9. Drinking Motives as Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph eStuder; Stéphanie eBaggio; Marc eDupuis; Meichun eMohler-Kuo; Jean-Bernard eDaeppen; Gerhard eGmel

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e. to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e. fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sam...

  10. ABUSE OF INTERNET SERVICES IN THE WORKPLACE AND THE EMERGENCE OF ADDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gorenc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Employees who abuse Internet privileges have become a major concern among today's employers. Employees misuse Internet at the workplace due to the overcrowded schedule, pressures at work, etc. Internet for private purposes is also used as a release or escape from work, escape from the reality of the workplace or due to poor organizational climate; it can be used as an efficient use of time at work but it can also be excessively used when the employees are not monitored. The survey results show that there is a correlation between Internet addiction and misuse of the Internet in the workplace. Electronic monitoring has a strong impact on the abuse of the Internet. More electronic monitoring will decrease the abuse of the internet services in the workplace and vice versa. Organizational climate, relations in the working organization, the Internet policy and demographic factors do not affect the abuse of Internet services in the workplace.

  11. Child Abuse and Domestic Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Stress Disorder Reporting Domestic Abuse Reporting Suspected Child Abuse or Neglect Traumatic Brain Injury Family & Relationships There’s more to a military family than moving and deployments — take us along through each phase of your military ... Care and Youth Programs Parenting Military Youth on ...

  12. Identifying and assessing the risk of opioid abuse in patients with cancer: an integrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael AN; Morgan L; Del Fabbro E

    2016-01-01

    Ashley-Nicole Carmichael,1 Laura Morgan,1 Egidio Del Fabbro2 1School of Pharmacy, 2Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Palliative Care, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Background: The misuse and abuse of opioid medications in many developed nations is a health crisis, leading to increased health-system utilization, emergency department visits, and overdose deaths. There are also increasing concerns about opioid abuse and diversion in patients with cancer, even at the en...

  13. Lomotil (diphenoxylate dependence in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem Mehra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lomotil (diphenoxylate atropine combination has been in use as an antidiarrhoeal agent. Due to presence of opioid (diphenoxylate, there are chances of abuse. The reports of abuse of lomotil have been few in published literature. This chart review aimed to evaluate the characteristics of patients with dependence on lomotil coming to our centre. Materials and Methods: This retrospective chart review was conducted at the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh, India. The records of patients who had presented to the centre with dependence on Lomotil in the last five years were identified, and clinical details were extracted from the records. Results: We identified 41 patients who had presented to our centre with dependence upon lomotil as the primary substance of abuse. The cases were typically married and employed males, educated up to 10 th grade, belonging to a rural Sikh extended or joint family. Most of the patients had taken other opioids too. The number of tablets taken in a day varied from 3- to 250 (median 25. The reasons of initiation were to relieve withdrawals, as a cheap substitute opioid, curiosity, and on suggestion of friends. Conclusion: Lomotil is a medication with a potential of abuse and regulatory controls are required to prevent escalation of misuse of this easily available prescription drug. Lomotil (diphenoxylate and atropine combination has been used since a long time as an anti-diarrheal agent. Reports of abuse of diphenoxylate had surfaced. We present a series of 41 cases of opioid dependence presenting with the use of the diphenoxylate as the primary substance. The cases were typically married and employed males, educated up to 10 th grade, belonging to a rural Sikh extended or joint family. Most of the patients had taken other opioids too. The number of tablets taken in a day varied from 3 to 250 (median 25. The reasons of initiation of diphenoxylate were to relieve withdrawals, as a

  14. Use & Abuse of Socrates in Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony G. Rud

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The Greek philosopher Socrates is used as an example of a master teacher in in many contexts, from elementary school discussions, to college philosophy classes, to law school. I examine a number of current uses of Socratic teaching, and expose inconsistencies among them. I analyze critically recent practitioners of Socratic teaching, such as Mortimer Adler, and I consider how the celebrated primary teacher Vivian Gussin Paley enacts the Socratic legacy in a novel way. I argue that the misuse, or abuse, of the Socratic legacy occurs chiefly when his teaching is interpreted narrowly as a pedagogical technique devoid of context and irony.

  15. Peer abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Alikaşifoğlu, Müjgan

    2011-01-01

    Peer abuse is commonly seen as bullying behaviors The most common definition of bullying used in the literature was formulated by Dan nbsp;Olweus According to Olweus bullying is an aggressive behavior that: a is intended to cause harm or distress b occurs repeatedly over nbsp;time and c occurs in a relationship in which there is an imbalance of power Peer abuse shares many characteristics with other types of nbsp;abuse namely child maltreatment and domestic violence Bullying behaviors may be ...

  16. Pharmacological and genetic interventions in serotonin (5-HT)(2C) receptors to alter drug abuse and dependence processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filip, Malgorzata; Spampinato, Umberto; McCreary, Andrew C.; Przegalinski, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    The present review provides an overview on serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)(2C) receptors and their relationship to drug dependence. We have focused our discussion on the impact of 5-HT2C receptors on the effects of different classes of addictive drugs, illustrated by reference to data using ph

  17. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya Ayhan Acar; Mustafa Kalkan; Rıdvan Çetin; Erdem Çevik; Orhan Çınar

    2014-01-01

    Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psycho...

  18. Three common misuses of P values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeehyoung; Bang, Heejung

    2016-01-01

    “Significance” has a specific meaning in science, especially in statistics. The p-value as a measure of statistical significance (evidence against a null hypothesis) has long been used in statistical inference and has served as a key player in science and research. Despite its clear mathematical definition and original purpose, and being just one of the many statistical measures/criteria, its role has been over-emphasized along with hypothesis testing. Observing and reflecting on this practice, some journals have attempted to ban reporting of p-values, and the American Statistical Association (for the first time in its 177 year old history) released a statement on p-values in 2016. In this article, we intend to review the correct definition of the p-value as well as its common misuses, in the hope that our article is useful to clinicians and researchers.

  19. Three common misuses of P values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeehyoung; Bang, Heejung

    2016-01-01

    “Significance” has a specific meaning in science, especially in statistics. The p-value as a measure of statistical significance (evidence against a null hypothesis) has long been used in statistical inference and has served as a key player in science and research. Despite its clear mathematical definition and original purpose, and being just one of the many statistical measures/criteria, its role has been over-emphasized along with hypothesis testing. Observing and reflecting on this practice, some journals have attempted to ban reporting of p-values, and the American Statistical Association (for the first time in its 177 year old history) released a statement on p-values in 2016. In this article, we intend to review the correct definition of the p-value as well as its common misuses, in the hope that our article is useful to clinicians and researchers. PMID:27695640

  20. Cereulide formation by Bacillus weihenstephanensis and mesophilic emetic Bacillus cereus at temperature abuse depends on pre-incubation conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn; Henrichsen, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    at temperature abuse has not been investigated previously. Results of the present study indicate that storage at 5 and 8 °C will not lead to emetic intoxications, however the time at, and choice of chill temperature will determine the amount of cereulide produced in a temperature abuse situation. These results...... are of relevance for the safety of chilled foods of extended durability....

  1. Can abuse deterrent formulations make a difference? Expectation and speculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimes Serrano Jill M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is critical that issues surrounding the abuse and misuse of prescription opioids be balanced with the need for these medications for the treatment of pain. One way to decrease the abuse of prescription opioid medications is to develop abuse deterrent formulations (or ADFs that in some way prevent drug abusers from extracting out the active ingredient in order to employ alternate routes of administration, such as injection, snorting, and smoking. Several factors including the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug, the features of the drug formulation that make it attractive or unattractive for abuse, the type of drug abuser, the progression of one's addiction pathway, and one's social environment may all play a role in the abuse of prescription opioids and what methods are used to abuse these drugs. This paper will examine these factors in order to understand how they affect the abuse of prescription opioids and routes of administration, and how the development of ADFs may alter these patterns.

  2. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  3. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...

  4. Effect of preoperative abstinence on poor postoperative outcome in alcohol misusers: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Rosenberg, J; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen;

    1999-01-01

    liver disease admitted for elective colorectal surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Withdrawal from alcohol consumption for 1 month before operation (disulfiram controlled) compared with continuous drinking. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postoperative complications requiring treatment within the first month after surgery......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of preoperative abstinence on postoperative outcome in alcohol misusers with no symptoms who were drinking the equivalent of at least 60 g ethanol/day. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 42 alcoholic patients without...... often in the intervention group. Surgical stress responses were lower in the intervention group (P LT / =0.05). CONCLUSIONS: One month of preoperative abstinence reduces postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers. The mechanism is probably reduced preclinical organ dysfunction and reduction...

  5. Effect of preoperative abstinence on poor postoperative outcome in alcohol misusers: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Rosenberg, J; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen;

    1999-01-01

    often in the intervention group. Surgical stress responses were lower in the intervention group (P LT / =0.05). CONCLUSIONS: One month of preoperative abstinence reduces postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers. The mechanism is probably reduced preclinical organ dysfunction and reduction......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of preoperative abstinence on postoperative outcome in alcohol misusers with no symptoms who were drinking the equivalent of at least 60 g ethanol/day. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 42 alcoholic patients without...... liver disease admitted for elective colorectal surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Withdrawal from alcohol consumption for 1 month before operation (disulfiram controlled) compared with continuous drinking. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postoperative complications requiring treatment within the first month after surgery...

  6. Fifteen Questions and Answers about Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of domestic violence or abuse • Mental illness, dependency, family dysfunction • Economic pressures, personal stress • Longstanding personality traits (bad temper, hypercritical, tendency to blame others ...

  7. Impulsivity and voucher versus money preference in polydrug-dependent participants enrolled in a contingency-management-based substance abuse treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, M P; Roll, J M; Downey, K K

    2000-10-01

    Thirty-four polydrug-dependent participants enrolled in a voucher-based substance abuse treatment program were given choices between hypothetical amounts of money and hypothetical amounts of vouchers, which are traded for goods and services, to determine their preferences for the two payment modalities. It was hypothesized that the majority of participants would prefer money to voucher because under the circumstances of the treatment program, the delay associated with money exchange is shorter than the delay associated with voucher exchange. It was further hypothesized that those participants who selected money over voucher also would have greater levels of impulsivity as assessed by the Barratt Impulsiveness Rating Scale (BIS) (Barratt, 1965). The results show large individual differences in money/voucher preference with approximately half of the participants preferring money to voucher when the two amounts are equivalent. In addition, as the magnitude of the money/voucher comparisons increased from 0.50 dollars to 32.00 dollars, the percentage of participants that preferred money increased. No correlations were found between money/voucher preference and impulsivity scores.

  8. Terapias Cognitiva e Cognitivo-Comportamental em dependência química Cognitive and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for substance abuse disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Jerônimo da Silva

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve o estado atual da Terapia Cognitiva, Comportamental, Prevenção de Recaída e Treinamento de Habilidades no tratamento de usuários de drogas. O objetivo é apresentar uma revisão sobre teorias e técnicas da Terapia Cognitiva e outras abordagens que dela derivam. Terapias Cognitiva e Comportamental, bem como Prevenção da Recaída e Treinamento de Habilidades, são tratamentos limitados no tempo, orientados em uma meta, e que utilizam sessões estruturadas, assumindo, assim, uma postura diretiva e ativa. Nós salientamos algumas diferenças entre Terapia Cognitiva, Prevenção de Recaída e Treinamento de Habilidades. A Terapia Cognitiva tem seu foco prioritariamente nos pensamentos, crenças, sentimentos e circunstâncias, como base do comportamento disfuncional. A Prevenção de Recaída e o Treinamento de Habilidades baseiam-se nas teorias comportamentais, além da teoria Cognitiva. Esperamos apresentar os últimos achados científicos para ajudar o psiquiatra geral a melhorar o tratamento da dependência química.This article describes the current status of Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy as well Relapse Prevention and Coping Skill approaches applied in drug abuse treatments. The objective is show a review about theories and technique used by Cognitive Therapy and others approaches derived that, specifically Relapse Prevention and Coping Skill Treatments. Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy, Coping Skill, and Relapse Prevention are a short-time, goal-oriented and structured treatments. Thus, they assume a posture directive and active. We pointed out some difference between the theories about Cognitive Therapy, Relapse Prevention and Coping Skill. The Cognitive Therapy accentuated the focus in patient’s thought, feeling and circumstances that get in a dysfunctional behavioral. Relapse Prevention and Coping Skill are based in behavioral theories besides of the Cognitive. We, finally, look forward to introduce the

  9. RELIGIOUS MORAL BELIEFS AS MENTAL HEALTH PROTECTIVE FACTOR OF WAR VETERANS SUFFERING FROM PTSD, DEPRESSIVENESS, ANXIETY, TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL ABUSE IN COMORBIDITY

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanović, Mevludin; Pajević, Izet

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to investigate is there association between level of religious moral beliefs and severity of PTSD symptoms, depresiion symptoms, anxiety and severity of alcohol abuse we tested 152 war veterans on presence of PTSD, depression symptoms, anxiety, alcohol misuse and level of religious moral belifes. Subject and Methods: we used Harvard trauma questionnarie (HTQ), Hopkins Check Scale SBCL 25, check list for alcohol misuse MAST. Subjects were assessed with regard to t...

  10. Epidemiological methods for research with drug misusers: review of methods for studying prevalence and morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn John

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of drug misusers have until recently relied on two main forms of sampling: probability and convenience. The former has been used when the aim was simply to estimate the prevalence of the condition and the latter when in depth studies of the characteristics, profiles and behaviour of drug users were required, but each method has its limitations. Probability samples become impracticable when the prevalence of the condition is very low, less than 0.5% for example, or when the condition being studied is a clandestine activity such as illicit drug use. When stratified random samples are used, it may be difficult to obtain a truly representative sample, depending on the quality of the information used to develop the stratification strategy. The main limitation of studies using convenience samples is that the results cannot be generalised to the whole population of drug users due to selection bias and a lack of information concerning the sampling frame. New methods have been developed which aim to overcome some of these difficulties, for example, social network analysis, snowball sampling, capture-recapture techniques, privileged access interviewer method and contact tracing. All these methods have been applied to the study of drug misuse. The various methods are described and examples of their use given, drawn from both the Brazilian and international drug misuse literature.

  11. Who Benefits from Chronic Opioid Therapy? Rethinking the Question of Opioid Misuse Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Huber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Beginning in the late 1990s, a movement began within the pain management field focused upon the underutilization of opioids, thought to be a potentially safe and effective class of pain medication. Concern for addiction and misuse were present at the start of this shift within pain medicine, and an emphasis was placed on developing reliable and valid methods and measures of identifying those at risk for opioid misuse. Since that time, the evidence for the safety and effectiveness of chronic opioid therapy (COT has not been established. Rather, the harmful, dose-dependent deleterious effects have become clearer, including addiction, increased risk of injuries, respiratory depression, opioid induced hyperalgesia, and death. Still, many individuals on low doses of opioids for long periods of time appear to have good pain control and retain social and occupational functioning. Therefore, we propose that the question, “Who is at risk of opioid misuse?” should evolve to, “Who may benefit from COT?” in light of the current evidence.

  12. Who Benefits from Chronic Opioid Therapy? Rethinking the Question of Opioid Misuse Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Elizabeth; Robinson, Richard C; Noe, Carl E; Van Ness, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in the late 1990s, a movement began within the pain management field focused upon the underutilization of opioids, thought to be a potentially safe and effective class of pain medication. Concern for addiction and misuse were present at the start of this shift within pain medicine, and an emphasis was placed on developing reliable and valid methods and measures of identifying those at risk for opioid misuse. Since that time, the evidence for the safety and effectiveness of chronic opioid therapy (COT) has not been established. Rather, the harmful, dose-dependent deleterious effects have become clearer, including addiction, increased risk of injuries, respiratory depression, opioid induced hyperalgesia, and death. Still, many individuals on low doses of opioids for long periods of time appear to have good pain control and retain social and occupational functioning. Therefore, we propose that the question, "Who is at risk of opioid misuse?" should evolve to, "Who may benefit from COT?" in light of the current evidence. PMID:27417617

  13. Benzodiazepine Misuse in the Elderly: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airagnes, Guillaume; Pelissolo, Antoine; Lavallée, Mélanie; Flament, Martine; Limosin, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    Benzodiazepine (BZD) inappropriate use (i.e., misuse and overuse) is a worldwide public health problem. Despite current knowledge about increased sensitivity to side effects in the elderly, that should lead to more caution, only a third of BZD prescriptions in this age group are considered appropriate. The most frequent inadequate situations are excessive duration and/or dosage of a medical prescription or self-medication, especially in a context where it would be contraindicated, e.g., long-acting BZD in the elderly. Polypharmacy and comorbidities are major risk factors. Consequences of BZD inappropriate use are falls, delirium and other cognitive dysfunction, acute respiratory failure, car accidents, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms. An emerging concern is a potentially increased risk of dementia. Contrary to most clinicians' belief, discontinuation of chronic BZD use in elderly patients is feasible, with adequate psychotherapeutic or pharmacological strategies, and can lead to long-term abstinence. Brief cognitive therapy mostly relies on psychoeducation and motivational enhancement and is particularly useful in this context. Further research is needed, notably in three areas: (1) assessing the impact of public health programs to prevent BZD inappropriate use in the elderly, (2) developing alternative strategies to treat anxiety and insomnia in elderly patients, and (3) exploring the association between chronic BZD use and dementia. PMID:27549604

  14. The Fentanyl Patch Boil-Up - A Novel Method of Opioid Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Cameron K M W; Shand, James A D; Reynolds, Thomas M

    2015-11-01

    Fentanyl is a potent opioid analgesic used in the treatment of pain. Transdermal fentanyl patches are now widely utilized as an acceptable and efficacious method of medication delivery. Unfortunately, the potential for their abuse is well recognized. Previous case reports have documented deaths after intravenous (IV) misuse of fentanyl which had been extracted from Duragesic (liquid reservoir type) patches. We present a case of IV fentanyl abuse after the extraction from a Mylan (matrix type) patch. This method of abuse has not previously been described in the literature.

  15. The impact of the Good Behavior Game, a universal classroom-based preventive intervention in first and second grades, on high-risk sexual behaviors and drug abuse and dependence disorders into young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellam, Sheppard G; Wang, Wei; Mackenzie, Amelia C L; Brown, C Hendricks; Ompad, Danielle C; Or, Flora; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Poduska, Jeanne M; Windham, Amy

    2014-02-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a method of teacher classroom behavior management, was tested in first- and second-grade classrooms in 19 Baltimore City Public Schools beginning in the 1985-1986 school year. The intervention was directed at the classroom as a whole to socialize children to the student role and reduce aggressive, disruptive behaviors, confirmed antecedents of a profile of externalizing problem outcomes. This article reports on the GBG impact on the courses and interrelationships among aggressive, disruptive behavior through middle school, risky sexual behaviors, and drug abuse and dependence disorders through ages 19-21. In five poor to lower-middle class, mainly African American urban areas, classrooms within matched schools were assigned randomly to either the GBG intervention or the control condition. Balanced assignment of children to classrooms was made, and teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control. Analyses involved multilevel growth mixture modeling. By young adulthood, significant GBG impact was found in terms of reduced high-risk sexual behaviors and drug abuse and dependence disorders among males who in first grade and through middle school were more aggressive, disruptive. A replication with the next cohort of first-grade children with the same teachers occurred during the following school year, but with minimal teacher mentoring and monitoring. Findings were not significant but generally in the predicted direction. A universal classroom-based prevention intervention in first- and second-grade classrooms can reduce drug abuse and dependence disorders and risky sexual behaviors.

  16. The impact of the Good Behavior Game, a universal classroom-based preventive intervention in first and second grades, on high-risk sexual behaviors and drug abuse and dependence disorders into young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellam, Sheppard G; Wang, Wei; Mackenzie, Amelia C L; Brown, C Hendricks; Ompad, Danielle C; Or, Flora; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Poduska, Jeanne M; Windham, Amy

    2014-02-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a method of teacher classroom behavior management, was tested in first- and second-grade classrooms in 19 Baltimore City Public Schools beginning in the 1985-1986 school year. The intervention was directed at the classroom as a whole to socialize children to the student role and reduce aggressive, disruptive behaviors, confirmed antecedents of a profile of externalizing problem outcomes. This article reports on the GBG impact on the courses and interrelationships among aggressive, disruptive behavior through middle school, risky sexual behaviors, and drug abuse and dependence disorders through ages 19-21. In five poor to lower-middle class, mainly African American urban areas, classrooms within matched schools were assigned randomly to either the GBG intervention or the control condition. Balanced assignment of children to classrooms was made, and teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control. Analyses involved multilevel growth mixture modeling. By young adulthood, significant GBG impact was found in terms of reduced high-risk sexual behaviors and drug abuse and dependence disorders among males who in first grade and through middle school were more aggressive, disruptive. A replication with the next cohort of first-grade children with the same teachers occurred during the following school year, but with minimal teacher mentoring and monitoring. Findings were not significant but generally in the predicted direction. A universal classroom-based prevention intervention in first- and second-grade classrooms can reduce drug abuse and dependence disorders and risky sexual behaviors. PMID:23070695

  17. Exploring the Etiologic Factors and Dynamics of Prescription Drug Abuse in Southwest Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry J Redican

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia is a serious problem affecting indi-viduals, families, and communities. The aim of this study was to characterize and understand the extent of the prescription drug abuse problem in Southwest, Virginia as well as the dynamics that surround that abuse. More specifically, the study focused on learning the extent of the problem along with which prescription drugs are typically used prior to entering treatment, reasons for prescription drug and methadone abuse, and the sources for prescription drug use, misuse and abuse.Methods: Mixed methodology was employed which included surveying methadone clinic con-sumers at two treatment clinics in Southwest, Virginia and seven focus field interviews of key community stakeholders.Results: The extent of prescription drug abuse is high and that the demographics of prescription drug users are getting younger and now involve more males than females. Oxycodone, hydroco-done, methadone, and morphine were the most commonly used drugs prior to enrollment in the clinics with over one-half of methadone-maintained consumers reporting that they had abused benzodiazepines along with opioids. Focus groups and clinic consumer data highlighted the key etiological factors in prescription drug abuse: use (due to workforce related injuries turning to abuse, wanting to get high, overprescribing and physician issues, lack of information, and cultural acceptance of drug taking as problem solving behavior. The two most common sources for the abused prescription drugs were physicians and street dealers.Conclusions: A constellation of conditions have led to the epidemic of prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia, including poverty, unemployment and work-related injuries, besides, public health education programs on the dangers of prescription opiate misuse and abuse are urgently needed.

  18. Deconstructing the architecture of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms in a community sample of late adolescent and emerging adult women: an item response approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Alexis E; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the underlying factorial architecture of lifetime DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria in a population-based sample of adolescent and emerging adult female twins who had ever used alcohol (n=2832; aged 18-25 years), and to determine whether thresholds and factor loadings differed by age. Item response modeling was applied to DSM-IV AUD criteria. Compound criteria (e.g., persistent desire or unsuccessful attempts to quit or cut down) were included as separate items. Of the remaining 16 items, tolerance and use despite physical problems were the most and least commonly endorsed items, respectively. Underlying the items was a single factor representing liability to AUDs. Factor loadings ranged from 0.67 for blackouts to 0.90 for time spent using/recovering from effects. Some items assessing different DSM-IV criteria had very similar measurement characteristics, while others assessing the same criterion showed markedly different thresholds and factor loadings. Compared to that of women aged 21-25 years, the threshold for hazardous use was higher in women aged 18-20 years, but lower for used longer than intended and persistent desire to cut down. After accounting for threshold differences, no variations in discrimination across age groups were observed. In agreement with the extant literature, our findings indicate that the factorial structure of AUD is unidimensional, with no support for the abuse/dependence distinction. Individual components of compound criteria may differ in measurement properties; therefore pooling information from such divergent items will reduce information about the AUD construct. PMID:21306836

  19. Should psychosocial intervention be added to pharmacological treatment for opiate abuse/dependence? An overview of systematic reviews of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Amato

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Opioid abuse and dependence are major health and social issues in most societies. Different interventions are available, but the majority of heroin patients relapse and these relapses are a substantial problem to their rehabilitation. Psychosocial interventions for drug addicts have been suggested as possible instruments to overcome the difficulty of maintaining a drug-free state. The aim of this paper is to provide a summary of the available evidence of effectiveness.

    Methods: We summarised the results from two systematic reviews on psychosocial interventions combined with Methadone Maintenance Treatment and Methadone or Buprenorphine Detoxification Treatment.

    Results: For detoxification treatments, the results show that benefits can be gained from adding any psychosocial treatment to any substitution detoxification treatment in terms of completion of treatment: relative risk (RR 1.68 (95% CI 1.11-2.55, and compliance (proportion of clinical absences: RR 0.48 (95% CI 0.38-0.59; for the use of heroin during treatment, the differences were not statistically significant. For maintenance treatments, there is an additional benefit to be gained in adding any psychosocial treatment to methadone maintenance treatment in relation to the use of heroin during treatment: RR 0.69(95% CI 0.53-0.91; no statistically significant additional benefit was shown in terms of treatment retention and results at follow-up.

    Conclusions: Psychosocial treatments offered in addition to pharmacological detoxification treatments are effective in terms of completion of treatment and compliance, while adding any psychosocial support to methadone maintenance significantly improves the non-use of heroin during treatment but does not improve the other outcomes considered.

  20. Assessing Alcohol Dependence in Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Doering-Silveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol misuse is generally not detected in hospital settings. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence in hospitalized patients in a university hospital in Sao Paulo (Brazil. Patients were randomly selected from all hospital admissions. The final sample consisted of 169 adult inpatients. Two screening tools were used: the Short Alcohol Dependence Data (SADD and the CAGE questionnaires. In this sample, 25.4% of patients could be considered alcohol dependent according to the CAGE questionnaire, whereas 32.9% of patients fulfilled the criteria according to the SADD. The only predictor of alcohol dependence was gender; male inpatients were 3.2 times more prone to alcohol dependence with female inpatients. All inpatients should be systematically screened for alcohol use disorders. The choice of the screening tool will depend on whether the goal is to identify inpatients with hazardous drinking behaviors or with established alcohol-related problems. To maximize proper case identification, the CAGE questionnaire should be used as a first-step screening tool, and patients who screen positive on this scale should be subsequently administered the SADD questionnaire to assess the severity of the condition.

  1. Misuse of Prescription Opioid Medication among Women: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Lorraine; Poole, Nancy; Schmidt, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Background. National data from Canada and the United States identify women to be at greater risk than men for the misuse of prescription opioid medications. Various sex- and gender-based factors and patient and physician practices may affect women's use and misuse of prescription opioid drugs. Objectives. To explore the particular risks, issues, and treatment considerations for prescription opioid misuse among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Methods. A scoping review for articles published between January 1990 and May 2014 was conducted on sex- and gender-based risks and treatment considerations among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Results. A total of 57 articles were identified. The present narrative review summarizes the specific risks for the misuse of prescription opioid medication among women who have experienced violence and trauma, Aboriginal women, adolescents and young women, older women, pregnant women, women of a sexual minority, and transwomen. Discussion. The majority of the literature is descriptive, with few studies that evaluate approaches and interventions to respond to the issue of chronic pain, trauma, and misuse of prescription opioids among women, particularly vulnerable subgroups of women. Conclusions. Trauma-informed and women-centred approaches that address women's vulnerabilities and complex needs require further attention.

  2. Volatile substance misuse: an updated review of toxicity and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jonathan B; Sutter, Mark E; Owen, Kelly P; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Educational campaigns and legislative actions may have led to an overall decrease in the prevalence of volatile substance misuse (VSM) in many countries; however, it is still a common practice throughout the world. Studies currently suggest that girls are misusing volatile substances more than before and at a prevalence rate equal to or exceeding that of boys in several countries. Products that may be misused are ubiquitous and relatively easy to acquire. The most commonly misused substances in recent studies are fuels such as butane or petrol and compressed gas dusters and deodorants that may contain fluorocarbons and/or butane. Detection of VSM is challenging, therefore physicians must maintain a high level of suspicion based on history and clinical presentation. Clues to misuse are often subtle and may include the patient's proximity to a volatile substance or paraphernalia when found intoxicated, dermal burns, blisters, pigments, or rashes, and chemical odors. The primary targets of toxicity are the brain and the heart. The leading cause of death from VSM is from ventricular dysrhythmias. Treatment of toxicity begins with support of airway, breathing, and circulation. Exogenous catecholamines should be avoided if possible due to the theoretical "sensitized" and irritable myocardium. In the case of ventricular dysrhythmias, direct current defibrillation and/or beta-adrenergic receptor antagonism should be used. New evidence demonstrates the addictive potential of VSM yet effective therapy remains uncertain. Further research is needed in developing methods for preventing, detecting, and treating the harmful effects of VSM.

  3. Combining Motivational Interviewing with Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Substance Abuse: Lessons from the COMBINE Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Theresa B.; Houck, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing began as a treatment for substance misuse and has strong empirical support as an intervention for these disorders. It is very common for MI to be combined with other types of treatment when it is used for substance abuse, and this article focuses on one example of this: the COMBINE Research Project. We examine the…

  4. Physician's information about alcohol problems at hospitalisation of alcohol misusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1992-01-01

    Information was gathered on recognition and treatment of alcohol problems in the primary and secondary health sectors, the latter represented by a department of hepatology. The general practitioner finds in most cases (18/26, 69%) that it is relevant to advise about a patient's alcohol misuse...... significantly less often in female compared to male patients (75% vs. 94%; P alcohol misusers were under treatment with thiamine/B-vitamins and/or disulfiram before admission. There was a significant difference (P ... practitioner wrote alcohol misuse on the admission form and when he did not (37% vs. 10%). At admission, treatment was begun in 54%, and by the discharge 78% were under treatment. Further quality assurance in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with alcohol problems is needed....

  5. Antibiotic misuse in the community--a contributor to resistance?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, B

    2012-02-03

    The problem of antibiotic resistance is associated with the indiscriminate usage of antibiotics. Efforts have been directed at encouraging the rational use of these drugs to reduce the volume of antibiotic consumption and decrease resistance rates. There is evidence to suggest that the misuse of antibiotics by patients may also contribute to the problem. We describe a survey of a random selection of patients attending a General Practitioners\\' surgery over a six week period in an effort to estimate the level of non-compliance to antibiotic therapy in the community. The results suggest that there may be a significant level of antibiotic misuse prevalent in the local community. We discuss these results and present evidence in the literature suggesting how antibiotic misuse may affect resistance in the community. The factors affecting patient compliance to therapy are outlined along with suggested measures to improve compliance among patients.

  6. Dopamine transporter-dependent and -independent striatal binding of the benztropine analog JHW 007, a cocaine antagonist with low abuse liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benztropine analog JHW 007 displays high affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT), but unlike typical DAT ligands, has relatively low abuse liability and blocks effects of cocaine,including its self-administration. To determine sites responsible for the cocaine-antagonist effects of JHW 007, ...

  7. Domestic and institutional elder abuse legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Jeanette M

    2011-12-01

    Statutes pertinent to elder abuse vary widely. This article provides examples of organizational structure, dependency and age of the victim, definitions of abuse, classification of penalties, and investigation processes. Health care providers must learn their state's elder abuse laws and review any operating manuals produced from the statutes or regulations. All health care workers must know and implement the law to protect the welfare of older persons. PMID:22055906

  8. Domestic and institutional elder abuse legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Jeanette M

    2011-12-01

    Statutes pertinent to elder abuse vary widely. This article provides examples of organizational structure, dependency and age of the victim, definitions of abuse, classification of penalties, and investigation processes. Health care providers must learn their state's elder abuse laws and review any operating manuals produced from the statutes or regulations. All health care workers must know and implement the law to protect the welfare of older persons.

  9. Predicting Alcohol Misuse Among College Students in the US and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Yeon; Ahn, Seokhoon; Lim, Tae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    This study examines contributing factors of alcohol misuse among college students in South Korea and the U.S. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) on measurements of alcohol expectancy, alcohol efficacy, and accommodation resulted in social and personal causes for alcohol misuse. Social causes alone predicted alcohol misuse for both countries. Social factors constituted a much stronger predictor of alcohol misuse among South Korean students than among American students. Practical implications for effective deterrence of student binge drinking are discussed. PMID:26161809

  10. Paracetamol use (and/or misuse in children in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obu Herbert A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen is the commonest available analgesic and anti-pyretic. It is readily accessed from pharmacy, patent medicine and provision shops as over the counter drug making it a potential drug of abuse, especially in children. We sought to find its use and/or misuse in children seen at the paediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. Objective To determine the dosage, formulation, and frequency of paracetamol administration to children by caregivers and factors associated with its use and/or misuse. Method An observational prospective study involving 231 children and their caregivers seen at the paediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku - Ozalla, Enugu between June and November 2011 was undertaken. Data on paracetamol use before presentation to the clinic, in addition to demographic and other data were obtained from the caregivers using a structured questionnaire. Ethical consent for the study was obtained from the Hospital Ethics and Research Committee and informed consent was further obtained from the caregivers of the children. Results A total of 231 children aged six weeks to 16 years and their caregivers participated in this study. The mean ages of the children and their caregivers were 3.8 and 33.9 years, respectively. One hundred and thirty three of the children studied were males while 98 were females. Most of the children (75.6% received paracetamol at home before presenting. Paracetamol tablet alone or in combination with the syrup was mostly used (60% and this observation was made across all age groups. The commonest reason for using paracetamol tablet instead of the syrup was that it was more effective. Most caregivers relied on past experience (71.2% rather than on enclosed information leaflet to decide the appropriate dosage. Half of the children also received other medications

  11. 阿片类药物的防滥用综述%A review of abuse-deterrent opioids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁; 李军; 苏心怡; 韩军

    2015-01-01

    人们背离预防、医疗和保健目的,持续或间断地自行过度使用具有依赖性的药物,会对用药者的身心造成严重损害,同时严重危害社会。阿片类药物是最常见的滥用药物,滥用者通过处方药的过量口服或压碎药片,然后鼻吸,吸烟或注射新的改良剂型来获得欣快感。阿片类药物滥用风险的不断增加催生了能抵抗各种篡改和滥用的新型药物制剂的开发。本文讨论了已上市的阿片类药物以及正在开发的药物的防滥用机制。%People departure from the treatment, prevention and health care purposes, intermittently or continuously excessive use of drugs with dependence, will cause serious mental and physical damage, while serious social harm.Opioids are the most commonly abused drug, abusers by taking an excess number of pills orally or by crushing the pills, followed by smoking, snorting, or injecting the new altered formulation to get euphoric.The escalating abuse of opioids has recently spawned the development of novel drug formulations resistant to various methods of tampering and misuse.This article discusses available opioids that include abuse-deterrent mechanisms as well as such agents currently in development.

  12. Alcohol misuse among university staff: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Awoliyi

    Full Text Available To examine the prevalence of hazardous drinking among staff in a UK university and its association with key socio-demographic features.A cross-sectional study.A university in the UK.All employees on the university employee database were eligible to participate. Those who completed and returned the questionnaire were included in the sample. Respondents were 131 university employees.An AUDIT cut-off score of ≥8 was used as a measure of hazardous drinking. AUDIT total score as well as a score of ≥1 in each of the three conceptual domains of alcohol consumption (questions 1-3, dependence symptoms (questions 4-6 and alcohol-related problems (questions 7-10 were used as indicators of levels of drinking and alcohol-related consequences. Secondary outcomes were employees' demographics.Over one third (35% of respondents were classified as hazardous drinkers. Twenty three per cent reported having blackouts after drinking and 14% had injuries or had injured someone. The odds of being a hazardous drinker for an employee in central departments (Human Resources, Registry etc is only one third of that of an employee in science and health-related departments (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.91. The proportion of hazardous drinkers was higher in males compared to females (43% and 30% respectively, part-time compared to full-time (46% and 34% respectively, and academic compared to non-academic employees (39% and 32% respectively, although these were not statistically significant (p>0.05. Furthermore, age, religion and ethnic origin were not found to be significantly associated with hazardous drinking, although total scores were significantly lower for ethnic minorities compared to white employees (p = 0.019.In this study, hazardous drinking was highly prevalent among university employees. However, overt recruiting of staff to address sensitive issues such as alcohol misuse is problematic.

  13. 36 CFR 1200.16 - Will I be penalized for misusing the official seals and logos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... misusing the official seals and logos? 1200.16 Section 1200.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES OFFICIAL SEALS Penalties for Misuse of NARA Seals and Logos § 1200.16 Will I be penalized for misusing the official seals and logos? (a) Seals. (1) If...

  14. What is Elder Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to another, but broadly defined, abuse may be: Physical Abuse —inflicting physical pain or injury on a senior, ... abrasions, and burns may be an indication of physical abuse, neglect, or mistreatment. Unexplained withdrawal from normal activities, ...

  15. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  16. Clonazepam as Agonist Substitution Treatment for Benzodiazepine Dependence: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the misuse of benzodiazepines (BZDs is a cause for a serious concern among pharmacologically inexperienced patients, whether treated or untreated, that could lead to significant complications, including tolerance, dependence, and addiction. We present a case report in which an Italian patient affected by anxiety disorder and treated with BZDs presented a severe case of dependence on BZDs. We treated him according to an agonist substitution approach, switching from the abused BZD to a slow-onset, long-acting, high potency agonist (clonazepam, and looking at the methadone treatment model as paradigm. We decided to use clonazepam for its pharmacokinetic properties. The advantage of choosing a slow-onset, long-lasting BZD for the treatment of our patient was that it led us to a remarkable improvement in the clinical situation, including the cessation of craving, absence of withdrawal symptoms, reduced anxiety, improvements in social functioning, and a better cognition level.

  17. Identifying and assessing the risk of opioid abuse in patients with cancer: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmichael AN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ashley-Nicole Carmichael,1 Laura Morgan,1 Egidio Del Fabbro2 1School of Pharmacy, 2Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Palliative Care, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Background: The misuse and abuse of opioid medications in many developed nations is a health crisis, leading to increased health-system utilization, emergency department visits, and overdose deaths. There are also increasing concerns about opioid abuse and diversion in patients with cancer, even at the end of life. Aims: To evaluate the current literature on opioid misuse and abuse, and more specifically the identification and assessment of opioid-abuse risk in patients with cancer. Our secondary aim is to offer the most current evidence of best clinical practice and suggest future directions for research. Materials and methods: Our integrative review included a literature search using the key terms “identification and assessment of opioid abuse in cancer”, “advanced cancer and opioid abuse”, “hospice and opioid abuse”, and “palliative care and opioid abuse”. PubMed, PsycInfo, and Embase were supplemented by a manual search. Results: We found 691 articles and eliminated 657, because they were predominantly noncancer populations or specifically excluded cancer patients. A total of 34 articles met our criteria, including case studies, case series, retrospective observational studies, and narrative reviews. The studies were categorized into screening questionnaires for opioid abuse or alcohol, urine drug screens to identify opioid misuse or abuse, prescription drug-monitoring programs, and the use of universal precautions. Conclusion: Screening questionnaires and urine drug screens indicated at least one in five patients with cancer may be at risk of opioid-use disorder. Several studies demonstrated associations between high-risk patients and clinical outcomes, such as aberrant behavior, prolonged opioid use, higher morphine-equivalent daily dose

  18. Misuse of restraint systems for children in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, C.C. Huijskens, C.G. & Heijkamp, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Transport and Public Works commissioned the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research and TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute to carry out a research project. The aim is to establish the extent and type of misuse of both child seats and standard seat belts. This paper deals only

  19. Forgiveness and Cohesion in Familial Perceptions of Alcohol Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Michael; Worthington, Everett L.; Hook, Joshua N.; Campana, Kathryn L.; West, Steven L.; Gartner, Aubrey L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the relationships between forgiveness, family cohesion, and alcohol. In Study 1 (N = 190), participants reported lower levels of trust and forgiveness for family members who misuse alcohol. In Study 2 (N = 141), the authors present a model demonstrating family cohesion and trait forgiveness related to state forgiveness of an…

  20. Young People's Involvement in a Substance Misuse Communications Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mathew; Salmon, Debra; Orme, Judy

    2004-01-01

    There is growing emphasis in public policy on involving young people in the development of health promotion campaigns and information resources on substance misuse. To date there has been little literature that explores the level and nature young people's involvement in such initiatives. This paper reports on an evaluation of a substance misuse…

  1. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  2. Drug Abuse and Parenting: The Impact on Young Children in the Social Care System in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Cousins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years drug abuse has been recognised as a growing problem in Northern Ireland. The following article examines the family backgrounds of a group of young children (n=388 who were looked-after by social services and looks specifically at a group (n=162 whose family lives have involved adults who misuse drugs. Children from drug-abusing families did not show greater levels of recorded abuse or neglect than the other children in the "looked after" population nor were they more likely to stay within the care system. However, the prevalence of heroin and cocaine use in this population was extremely small. Drug abuse in this population was found to be significantly associated with alcohol abuse, mental health problems and offending behaviour within the family. There was evidence of a reduction in drug abuse within families over a two year period of social work involvement.

  3. DRUG ABUSE IN KASHMIR - EXPERIENCE FROM A PSYCHIATRIC DISEASES HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Margoob, Mushtaq A; Dutta, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY Socio-demographic variables of 189 out-patients with drug abuse who were registered at the Hospital for Psychiatric Diseases, Srinagar were studied. Most of the drug abusers were male, the majority (57.2%) being in the 26-35 age group. Cannabis was the commonest substance abused, followed by heroin. Cannabis abusers had the longest duration of drug use but the lowest rate of drug dependence (29.9%) and lowest rate of multiple drug abuse (6.1%), whereas heroin abusers had the highest r...

  4. A study of elder abuse in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jinjoo; Kim, Hesook Suzie; Martins, Diane; Kim, Heegul

    2006-02-01

    This study investigates the state of elder abuse in Korea, and its related factors in a population-based survey. A total of 15,230 persons were interviewed at their homes in 1999. The rate of old people who experienced any one category of abuse was 6.3%, and emotional abuse was the most frequent while physical abuse was least prevalent. The experience of abuse seemed to be associated with personal characteristics such as age, gender, educational level, and economic dependency as well as the physical and mental health status. In addition, family characteristics such as the type of household, the family's economic level, and the quality of family relations were found to be associated with the presence of abuse. PMID:15913631

  5. Cocaine abuse among heroin addicts in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, M; San, L; Peri, J M; Olle, J M

    1991-01-01

    Abuse of cocaine is becoming a major problem among heroin addicts in Spain. Between 1987 and 1988, 75% of patients admitted as inpatients for detoxification from opiate dependence had consumed cocaine during the 6 months prior to admission and 25% had abused cocaine daily or several times/week. These cocaine abusers showed more toxicologic and psychopathologic problems than opiate addicts who did not abuse cocaine. The opiate addicts who also abused cocaine had begun using illicit drugs earlier and showed a higher frequency of anti-HIV antibodies. They also had more antisocial personality disorders and persistence of depressive symptoms during opiate detoxification than heroin addicts who did not abuse cocaine. Based on these findings, we insist on the need to develop different treatments for detoxifying patients with this dual addiction. PMID:2029857

  6. Biomarkers of alcohol misuse: recent advances and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębska, Iwona; Zwolak, Agnieszka; Szczyrek, Michał; Wawryniuk, Agnieszka; Skrzydło-Radomańska, Barbara; Daniluk, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence are highly prevalent in many cultures and contribute considerably to the global burden of health and social issues. The current inability to accurately characterise long-term drinking behaviours is a major obstacle to alcoholism diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop objective diagnostic tools to discern subjects with excessive alcohol use and alcoholism or to confirm abstinence. Research over past years has revealed several biochemical compounds with considerable potential for accurate reflection of alcohol intake. This review will address the issue of alcohol biomarker definition, the types of molecules used as so-called traditional biomarkers, and the compounds that can serve as novel biomarker candidates or components of biomarker panels. PMID:27350834

  7. Topical corticosteroid abuse on the face: a prospective, study on outpatients of dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharasubramony Ambika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topical corticosteroids (TCS are widely misused. Uncontrolled use of steroids can cause undesirable adverse effects especially on face. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the skin manifestations of TCS misuse over the face in the patients attending dermatology outpatient and to analyze various factors contributing to such misuse. Material and Methods: A total of 200 patients with facial dermatoses using topical steroids over face for minimum period of 1 month, reported between June 2010 and May 2011 were enrolled in the study. Details about the usage of topical corticosteroids and their side effects were recorded. The patients were educated about the misuse. Results: Majority of the patients were females (71%. The most common reason for misuse was acne (61% followed by use as a fairness cream (23%. The average duration of usage was 6 months to 1 year, longest being 8 years. The drug most commonly misused was Betamethaone Valerate (71%. The commonest side effect noted was acne form eruptions (52% followed by steroid dependent face (SDF (36%. There were no cases of allergic contact dermatitis or perioral dermatitis. The exacerbation of the lesions on stoppage of steroid cream (90% fairness effect (10% were the reasons for continued use. (100% were unaware of side effects of topical steroids. Conclusions: Steroids have been misused by patients on their own or by doctors for various reasons. Hence the awareness about their correct usage is essential.

  8. Assessment and Treatment of Abuse Risk in Opioid Prescribing for Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N. Jamison

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioid analgesics provide effective treatment for noncancer pain, but many physicians have concerns about adverse effects, tolerance, and addiction. Misuse of opioids is prominent in patients with chronic back pain and early recognition of misuse risk could help physicians offer adequate patient care while implementing appropriate levels of monitoring to reduce aberrant drug-related behaviors. In this review, we discuss opioid abuse and misuse issues that often arise in the treatment of patients with chronic back pain and present an overview of assessment and treatment strategies that can be effective in improving compliance with the use of prescription opioids for pain. Many persons with chronic back pain have significant medical, psychiatric and substance use comorbidities that affect treatment decisions and a comprehensive evaluation that includes a detailed history, physical, and mental health evaluation is essential. Although there is no “gold standard” for opioid misuse risk assessment, several validated measures have been shown to be useful. Controlled substance agreements, regular urine drug screens, and interventions such as motivational counseling have been shown to help improve patient compliance with opioids and to minimize aberrant drug-related behavior. Finally, we discuss the future of abuse-deterrent opioids and other potential strategies for back pain management.

  9. Causes of elder abuse: caregiver stress versus problem relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillemer, K; Finkelhor, D

    1989-04-01

    Elderly abuse victims and a nonabused control group were compared to test the widely accepted proposition that such abuse results from the burden and stress placed on those caring for infirm and dependent elderly people. The study found substantially more support for the idea that abuse is associated with personality problems of the caregiver. PMID:2712152

  10. 76 FR 62293 - National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8728 of October 3, 2011 National Substance Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By... increase their chances of living long, healthy, and productive lives. During National Substance Abuse... diagnosable substance abuse or dependence problems--countless families and communities also live with the...

  11. Just say know: an examination of substance use disorders among older adults in gerontological and substance abuse journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Daniel; Engel, Rafael J; Hunsaker, Amanda E; Engel, Yael; Detlefsen, Ellen Gay; Reynolds, Charles F

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which studies of alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and prescription drug abuse among older adults appear in the leading gerontological and substance abuse journals. The authors reviewed articles published in the 10 social science gerontological journals and the 10 social science substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact factors in PubMed from 2000 to 2010. Articles were selected that presented original research on alcohol, substance, or prescription abuse with older adults aged 50 and older; and were identified through aging and substance abuse-related Medical Subject Headings and word searches of titles and abstracts (N = 634). Full text of each article was reviewed by the authors, and consensus determined inclusion in the final sample. Of the 19,953 articles published respectively in the top 10 gerontological and substance abuse journals, 181 articles met the inclusion criteria of reporting findings related to substance use disorders among older adults. Specifically, 0.9% (102 of 11,700) of articles from the top 10 gerontology journals and 1.0% (79 of 8,253) of articles from the top 10 substance abuse journals met the criteria. Most published articles addressed alcohol misuse/abuse or polysubstance abuse with few articles addressing illicit drug use or the misuse of prescription medications. Less than 1% of articles published in the 10 gerontology journals and the 10 substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact scores addressed substance abuse in older adults. Practitioners treating health and/or mental health problems are at a disadvantage in accurately identifying and treating these conditions in older adult populations without a proper understanding of the role of comorbid substance use disorders.

  12. Intimate partner violence as a factor associated with risky sexual behaviours and alcohol misuse amongst men in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthembu, J C; Khan, G; Mabaso, M L H; Simbayi, L C

    2016-09-01

    Globally intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem that can be perpetrated by both males and females, although males are more likely to inflict severe IPV-related injuries on their female partners. In low- and middle-income countries like South Africa, few studies have conducted research to determine whether IPV perpetration by men may be a risk factor for engaging in other risk behaviours. The aim of this study is to determine whether IPV perpetration by men is a risk factor for engaging in other risk behaviours with a particular focus on risky sexual behaviours and alcohol misuse. The data for this study were drawn from a multilevel intervention study, which addressed the nexus of alcohol abuse and HIV prevention among men in South Africa. Men were screened and recruited from informal drinking places within 12 communities situated in one of the oldest, predominantly Xhosa-speaking African townships in Cape Town. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyse the associations between IVP and potential explanatory variables. Of the 975 men included in the survey, 39.9% reported to have been involved in Intimate Partner Violence. IPV perpetration was significantly more likely among men who reported having a child [OR 1.51 (1.07-2.14) p = .019], having a casual sexual partner [OR 1.51 (1.11-2.05) p = .008], and those with possible alcohol dependence [OR 3.46 (1.17-10.20) p = .024]. IPV was significantly less likely among men with matric educational qualification than those with no education [OR 0.30 (95% CI: 0.09-1.02) p = .053] and among those who reported using a condom at last sex [OR 0.69 (0.50-0.97) p = .034]. We therefore recommend that interventions aimed at reducing IPV need to address risky sexual and drinking behaviours amongst men simultaneously, while also focusing on intimate relationship power dynamics and gendered norms amongst couples. PMID:26924767

  13. Dual diagnosis in psychoactive substance abusing or dependent persons [Podwójna diagnoza u osób uzależnionych lub szkodliwie używających substancji psychoaktywnych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badura-Brzoza, Karina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. There has been noticed a systematic growth of using psychoactive substance (SP in last years. The co-occurrence of mental and physical disorders related to substance abuse of treated patients is more often a serious problem to medical services. Dual diagnosis (DD is a clinical term referring to co-morbidity or the co-occurrence in the same individual of a psychoactive substance use disorder and another psychiatric disorder. The aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence of dual diagnosis in patients with diagnosis of substance use disorder hospitalized in years 1994-2005, to assess the kind of co-morbid mental disorders and the course of treatment in three groups: patients with DD, with diagnosis of mental disorder without substance use and with diagnosis related to substance use. Methods. The retrospective study of 4 349 case records of patients hospitalized in the department of psychiatry in years 1994–2005. Out of this number two groups of patients were separated: persons abusing or dependent on SP (n = 825 and patients with dual diagnosis (n = 362. The control group (n = 200 was created among patients with mental disorders and without SP abuse. Socio-demographic factors, number and the length of hospitalizations, aggressive behaviours, suicide attempts, discharges from hospital on demand were analyzed. In the DD group there was an attempt to evaluate the relation between substance use disorders and co-occuring mental disorders performed. Results. The frequency of DD among all patients hospitalized in the studied period of time was 8.3%, whereas among patients abusing SP was 30.5%. This study demonstrates that patients with the DD are statistically longer hospitalized, discharged from hospitals at their own request and more often need treatment in hospitals, statistically more often try to commit suicide and perform aggressive behavior. Mental disorders were substantially often secondary to substance related disorders in

  14. A Criminological Perspective on the Prenatal Abuse of Substances during Pregnancy and the Link to Child Abuse in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovens, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The increase in drug abuse in South Africa has had major social implications in the country. Problems associated with drug dependency are poverty, unemployment, a heavier burden on the health care system, the disintegration of family systems and drug-related crimes. Another area of concern is the link between drug abuse and child abuse. While…

  15. Descriptive Study on Parents’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Antibiotic Use and Misuse in Children with Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Hadjichristodoulou

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs are common in children and represent a significant cause of antibiotic abuse which contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance. A survey was conducted in Cyprus in 2006 to assess parents’ and pediatricians’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP concerning the role of antibiotics in children with URTIs. A school-based stratified geographic clustering sampling was used and a pre-tested KAP questionnaire was distributed. A different questionnaire was distributed to paediatricians. Demographic factors associated with antibiotic misuse were identified by backward logistic regression analysis. The parental overall response rate was 69.3%. Parents (N = 1,462 follow pediatricians advice and rarely administer antibiotics acquired over the counter. Although a third expects an antibiotic prescription for URTI symptoms, most deny pressuring their doctors. Low parental education was the most important independent risk factor positively related to antibiotic misuse (OR = 2.88, 95%CI 2.02 to 4.12, p < 0.001. Pediatricians (N = 33 denied prescribing antibiotics after parental pressure but admit that parents ask for antibiotics and believe they expect antibiotic prescriptions even when not needed. In conclusion, Cypriotic parents trust their primary care providers. Although it appears that antibiotic misuse is not driven by parental pressure, the pediatricians’ view differs.

  16. Teachers' Verbal Abuse: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2001-01-01

    In a case involving a somewhat sarcastic elementary teacher, a Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court reversed the state commissioner of education's affirmation of her dismissal based on persistent negligence. Results of teachers' alleged verbal abuse of students depends on the nature of the claim, not just specific evidence. (MLH)

  17. Postoperative morbidity among symptom-free alcohol misusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Petersen, K R; Højgaard, L;

    1992-01-01

    Retrospective studies suggest that there is an increased postoperative morbidity among alcohol misusers. We have prospectively studied the risk of alcohol intake among patients undergoing surgery. We investigated 15 symptom-free subjects who required colorectal surgery and who were drinking...... at least 60 g of alcohol per day. These patients were matched for sex, nutrition, age, weight, cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, diagnosis, anaesthesia, and surgery to 15 control subjects who were consuming below 25 g of alcohol daily. Those drinking at least 60 g of alcohol per day developed more...... postoperative complications than controls (67% vs 20%, p less than 0.05) and hospital stay was prolonged (20 vs 12 days, p less than 0.05). Preoperatively, alcohol misusers had reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (median, 54% vs 68%, p less than 0.01). Delayed hypersensitivity responses were smaller...

  18. Misuse and intrusion detection at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.A.; Neuman, M.C.; Simmonds, D.D.; Stallings, C.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Christoph, G.G.

    1995-04-01

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic auditing and analysis of on-line user activity. This activity is reflected in system audit records, in system vulnerability postures, and in other evidence found through active system testing. Since 1989 we have implemented a misuse and intrusion detection system at Los Alamos. This is the Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter, or NADIR. NADIR currently audits a Kerberos distributed authentication system, file activity on a mass, storage system, and four Cray supercomputers that run the UNICOS operating system. NADIR summarizes user activity and system configuration in statistical profiles. It compares these profiles to expert rules that define security policy and improper or suspicious behavior. It reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations, As NADIR is constantly evolving, this paper reports its development to date.

  19. An automated computer misuse detection system for UNICOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.A.; Neuman, M.C.; Simmonds, D.D.; Stallings, C.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Christoph, G.G.

    1994-09-27

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic monitoring and analysis of on-line user activity. This activity is reflected in the system audit record, in the system vulnerability posture, and in other evidence found through active testing of the system. During the last several years we have implemented an automatic misuse detection system at Los Alamos. This is the Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR). We are currently expanding NADIR to include processing of the Cray UNICOS operating system. This new component is called the UNICOS Realtime NADIR, or UNICORN. UNICORN summarizes user activity and system configuration in statistical profiles. It compares these profiles to expert rules that define security policy and improper or suspicious behavior. It reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations. The first phase of UNICORN development is nearing completion, and will be operational in late 1994.

  20. Avaliação neurocognitiva no abuso e dependência do álcool: implicações para o tratamento Neurocognitive assessment in alcohol abuse and dependence: implications for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo J Cunha

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A Neuropsicologia, aplicada ao abuso e dependência do álcool, busca a compreensão da relação entre danos cerebrais e seus efeitos na cognição e no comportamento do indivíduo. Estuda, ainda, os comprometimentos neurocognitivos dos pacientes, relacionando-os a achados estruturais e funcionais de neuroimagem (TC, RM, PET e SPECT. No uso agudo, o álcool tende a comprometer a atenção, memória, funções executivas e viso-espaciais, enquanto no uso crônico altera a memória, aprendizagem, análise e síntese viso-espacial, velocidade psicomotora, funções executivas e tomada de decisões, podendo chegar a transtornos persistentes de memória e demência alcoólica. Os déficits cognitivos encontrados nos dependentes de álcool, principalmente das funções executivas (frontais, têm implicação direta no tratamento, tanto para a escolha de estratégias a serem adotadas como para a análise do prognóstico. Ao final do artigo, é apresentado um instrumento útil e breve para rastreio de alterações cognitivas, a Bateria de Avaliação Frontal - FAB.15 Acredita-se que a Avaliação Neuropsicológica pode ser muito importante para a detecção e avaliação da progressão destas alterações e que a reabilitação cognitiva tem papel relevante na recuperação dos déficits e reinserção psicossocial destes pacientes.The aim of the Neuropsychology applied to the Alcohol Dependence field is the comprehension of the effects of brain dysfunction on cognition and human behavior. It investigates neurocognitive impairments and associates them to structural and functional neuroimaging findings (CT, MRI, PET and SPECT. Acute use of alcohol impairs attention, memory, executive functions and visuospatial skills, while chronic abuse causes neurocognitive deficits in memory, learning, visuospatial functions, psychomotor speed processing, executive functions and decision-making, and may lead to persistent amnesic disorder and alcoholic dementia

  1. A Portuguese version of the Christo Inventory for Substance-Misuse Services: a simple outcome evaluation tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Christo Inventory for Substance-Misuse Services (CISS is a single page outcome evaluation tool completed by drug alcohol service workers either on the basis of direct client interviews or of personal experience of their client supplemented by existing assessment notes. It was developed to assist substance misuse services to empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of their treatments to their respective funding bodies. Its 0 to 20 unidimensional scale consists of 10 items reflecting clients' problems with social functioning, general health, sexual/injecting risk behavior, psychological functioning, occupation, criminal involvement, drug/alcohol use, ongoing support, compliance, and working relationships. Good reliability and validity has already been demonstrated for the CISS [Christo et al., Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2000; 59: 189-197] but the original was written in English and a Portuguese version is presented here. The present review explores its applicability to a Brazilian setting, summarizes its characteristics and uses, and describes the process of translation to Portuguese. A pilot study conducted in a substance misuse service for adolescents indicated it is likely to be suitable for use among a Brazilian population. The simplicity, flexibility and brevity of the CISS make it a useful tool allowing comparison of clients within and between many different service settings.

  2. The Influence of Parental Emotional Neglect on Assault Victims Seeking Treatment for Depressed Mood and Alcohol Misuse: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A. Bailey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between reported parental emotional neglect when a child, assault type experienced, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS, depression, and alcohol consumption in treatment seekers for comorbid depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Participants (n = 220 with concurrent depression and alcohol misuse were recruited from the DAISI (Depression and Alcohol Integrated and Single-focussed Interventions project. Assault type and PTSS were retrospectively assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. The Measure of Parenting Style is a self-report measure that retrospectively assessed emotional neglect experienced as a child. An exploratory factor analysis using the tetrachoric correlation matrix (applying principal factor extraction with a varimax rotation identified the two assault factors of sexual assault (SA and physical assault (PA. A path analysis revealed that Maternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PTSS and depression. Paternal Emotional Neglect increased the impact of PA on PTSS and alcohol dependence symptoms. There appears to be differential effects of assault type and Maternal/Paternal emotional neglect on depression and alcohol misuse, suggesting that parenting roles serve distinct protective functions.

  3. Laxative abuse: epidemiology, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerig, James L; Steffen, Kristine J; Mitchell, James E; Zunker, Christie

    2010-08-20

    Laxatives have been used for health purposes for over 2000 years, and for much of that time abuse or misuse of laxatives has occurred. Individuals who abuse laxatives can generally be categorized as falling into one of four groups. By far the largest group is made up of individuals suffering from an eating disorder such as anorexia or bulimia nervosa. The prevalence of laxative abuse has been reported to range from approximately 10% to 60% of individuals in this group. The second group consists of individuals who are generally middle aged or older who begin using laxatives when constipated but continue to overuse them. This pattern may be promulgated on certain beliefs that daily bowel movements are necessary for good health. The third group includes individuals engaged in certain types of athletic training, including sports with set weight limits. The fourth group contains surreptitious laxative abusers who use the drugs to cause factitious diarrhoea and may have a factitious disorder. Normal bowel function consists of the absorption of nutrients, electrolytes and water from the gut. Most nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine, while the large bowel absorbs primarily water. There are several types of laxatives available, including stimulant agents, saline and osmotic products, bulking agents and surfactants. The most frequently abused group of laxatives are of the stimulant class. This may be related to the quick action of stimulants, particularly in individuals with eating disorders as they may erroneously believe that they can avoid the absorption of calories via the resulting diarrhoea. Medical problems associated with laxative abuse include electrolyte and acid/base changes that can involve the renal and cardiovascular systems and may become life threatening. The renin-aldosterone system becomes activated due to the loss of fluid, which leads to oedema and acute weight gain when the laxative is discontinued. This can result in reinforcing further

  4. Data Torturing and the Misuse of Statistical Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abate, Marcey L.

    1999-08-16

    Statistical concepts, methods, and tools are often used in the implementation of statistical thinking. Unfortunately, statistical tools are all too often misused by not applying them in the context of statistical thinking that focuses on processes, variation, and data. The consequences of this misuse may be ''data torturing'' or going beyond reasonable interpretation of the facts due to a misunderstanding of the processes creating the data or the misinterpretation of variability in the data. In the hope of averting future misuse and data torturing, examples are provided where the application of common statistical tools, in the absence of statistical thinking, provides deceptive results by not adequately representing the underlying process and variability. For each of the examples, a discussion is provided on how applying the concepts of statistical thinking may have prevented the data torturing. The lessons learned from these examples will provide an increased awareness of the potential for many statistical methods to mislead and a better understanding of how statistical thinking broadens and increases the effectiveness of statistical tools.

  5. Comorbidade entre transtorno de estresse pós-traumático e abuso e dependência de álcool e drogas: uma revisão da literatura Comorbidity of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with alcohol and drug abuse and dependency: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Heloisa de Souza Dantas; Arthur Guerra de Andrade

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXTO: Pesquisas revelam uma alta comorbidade entre o transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT) e o abuso e dependência de álcool e drogas (ADAD). OBJETIVOS: Descrever a natureza da associação entre TEPT e ADAD, as diferenças entre os gêneros feminino e masculino, bem como os principais tratamentos utilizados. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa bibliográfica entre os anos de 1995 e 2007 no PubMed, utilizando os termos "trauma" AND "alcohol", "trauma" AND "substance abuse", "trauma" AND "dependence", "tr...

  6. Elder abuse and neglect. Council on Scientific Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-20

    Estimates of elder abuse approximate 10% of Americans over 65 years of age; obtaining accurate incidence and prevalence figures is complicated by factors including denial by both the victim and perpetrator and minimization of complaints by health professionals. Broad agreement exists in categorizing elder abuse as physical, psychological, and financial and/or material, despite lack of uniformity in definitions. Systematic scientific investigation provides limited knowledge about the causes of elder abuse. Most experts, however, believe that family problems and conflict are a major precipitating factor. Preliminary hypotheses for elder abuse include dependency, lack of close family ties, family violence, lack of financial resources, psychopathology in the abuser, lack of community support, and certain factors that may precipitate abuse in institutional settings. This report presents potential indicators of physical and psychological abuse, along with classification of elderly individuals at high risk, to assist the health professional in identification and prevention of elder abuse. PMID:3806880

  7. Comorbidade entre transtorno de estresse pós-traumático e abuso e dependência de álcool e drogas: uma revisão da literatura Comorbidity of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD with alcohol and drug abuse and dependency: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa de Souza Dantas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Pesquisas revelam uma alta comorbidade entre o transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT e o abuso e dependência de álcool e drogas (ADAD. OBJETIVOS: Descrever a natureza da associação entre TEPT e ADAD, as diferenças entre os gêneros feminino e masculino, bem como os principais tratamentos utilizados. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa bibliográfica entre os anos de 1995 e 2007 no PubMed, utilizando os termos "trauma" AND "alcohol", "trauma" AND "substance abuse", "trauma" AND "dependence", "trauma" AND "drugs", "posttraumatic stress" AND "alcohol", posttraumatic stress" AND "substance abuse", "posttraumatic stress" AND "dependence", "posttraumatic stress" AND "drugs". RESULTADOS: As seguintes hipóteses foram identificadas: 1 o abuso de substâncias aumenta os riscos para a ocorrência de TEPT em virtude de estilos de vida que expõem mais o sujeito à ocorrência de traumas e pelo fato de as drogas potencializarem as seqüelas do trauma; 2 o TEPT levaria ao aumento do uso de álcool e drogas acompanhado de possível abuso com o objetivo de aliviar sintomas decorrentes do transtorno. Conclusões: A identificação precoce da comorbidade entre o TEPT e o ADAD é fundamental para o bom prognóstico do paciente, bem como o atendimento adequado às vítimas de situações traumáticas para que sejam minimizadas as chances da ocorrência do TEPT.BACKGROUND: The literature reveals high comorbidity rates between post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and substance abuse and dependence (SAD. OBJECTIVES: This paper seeks to describe the relationship between the two disorders; the gender differences; and the primary treatments used to reduce PTSD as well as SAD symptoms. METHODS: A review of the literature between 1995 and 2007. A PubMed search was used to find articles with the key words: "trauma" AND "alcohol", "trauma" AND "substance abuse", "trauma" AND "dependence", "trauma" AND "drugs", "post traumatic stress" AND "alcohol", post traumatic

  8. Prevalence of alcohol abuse and associated factors in a population-based study Prevalência da dependência de álcool e fatores associados em estudo de base populacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of alcohol abuse/dependence and identify associated factors among demographic, family, socioeconomic and mental health variables. METHODS: A household survey was carried out in the urban area of Campinas, southeastern Brazil, in 2003. A total of 515 subjects, aged 14 years or more were randomly selected using a stratified cluster sample. The Self-Report Questionnaire and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test were used in the interview. Prevalences were calculated, and univariate and multivariate logistic analyses performed by estimating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse/dependence was 13.1% (95% CI: 8.4;19.9 in men and 4.1% (95% CI: 1.9;8.6 in women. In the final multiple logistic regression model, alcohol abuse/dependence was significantly associated with age, income, schooling, religion and illicit drug use. The adjusted odds ratios were significantly higher in following variables: income between 2,501 and 10,000 dollars (OR=10.29; income above 10,000 dollars (OR=10.20; less than 12 years of schooling (OR=13.42; no religion (OR=9.16 or religion other than Evangelical (OR=4.77; and illicit drug use during lifetime (OR=4.47. Alcohol abuse and dependence patterns were different according to age group. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significantly high prevalence of alcohol abuse/dependence in this population. The knowledge of factors associated with alcohol abuse, and differences in consumption patterns should be taken into account in the development of harm reduction strategies.OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência do abuso/dependência de álcool e identificar fatores associados entre variáveis demográficas, familiares, socioeconômicas e relativas à saúde mental. MÉTODOS: Inquérito domiciliar na área urbana de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo, realizado em 2003. Indivíduos de 14 anos ou mais de idade (N=515 foram selecionados aleatoriamente

  9. Childhood sexual abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Aktepe

    1993-01-01

    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Aktepe, Evrim

    2009-01-01

    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  11. Prescription opiate misuse among rural stimulant users in a multi-state community-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Jennifer R.; Stoops, William W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Garrity, Thomas F.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the current analysis was to examine the factors associated with prescription opiate misuse among stimulant users from rural counties in Arkansas, Kentucky, and Ohio (N=714). Methods Multiple logistic regression was utilized to determine the independent correlates of recent (prior 6 months) prescription opiate misuse. Results More than half of participants (53.2%) reported prescription opiate misuse in the previous 6 months. Other drug use (heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine and marijuana) and anxiety (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 2.04, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.60, 2.59) were independently associated with prescription opiate misuse. Chronic pain and other health indicators were not associated with prescription opiate misuse after adjustment for covariates. Conclusions Results indicate that illicit drug involvement and psychiatric symptoms may be driving the high rates of prescription opiate misuse among rural stimulant users. These findings have implications for the provision of treatment in resource-deprived rural areas. PMID:19152201

  12. Propylhexedrine: a vintage drug of abuse, rediscovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Julia, Paige; Francis, Elie M

    2012-01-01

    In 1949, propylhexedrine replaced amphetamine sulfate as the active ingredient in over the counter Benzedrex due to reports of widespread abuse, psychosis and sudden death. Since its introduction, cases of psychosis, myocardial infarction, pulmonary vascular disease, pulmonary hypertension, and sudden death attributed to propylhexedrine abuse have been well documented, usually in the form of single case reports. Although growing concerns during the 1980's regarding its abuse potential and its use as a precursor in the manufacture of compounds of even higher abuse potential caused propylhexedrine to be reviewed by the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence, no formal studies of the dependence potential of propylhexedrine exists to date. The following is a case of propylhexedrine dependence, with some of its history, revisited.

  13. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  14. Skin manifestations of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

  15. Positive Alternatives to Computer Misuse: A Report of the Proceedings of an ACM Panel on Hacking

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, John A. N.; Steier, Roz; Segal, Gerald

    1986-01-01

    If one believes press reports, the misuse of computers is rampant. The same the many other misuses have gone unreported as a result of the embarrassment and loss of image/integrity of those affected (as victims) and the belief that to expose misuses will lead to further problems and expense, as well as encourage copy-cat crimes. Much of the press coverage of computer misuse has centered on the younger members of computing community using inexpensive personal computer systems. The placement o...

  16. Abuse during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... partner may try to hurt your body. This physical abuse can include hitting, slapping, kicking, choking, pushing or ... your unborn baby in grave danger. During pregnancy, physical abuse can lead to miscarriage and vaginal bleeding . It ...

  17. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  18. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

  19. Therapeutic Community Treatment of an Inmate Population with Substance Use Disorders: Post-Release Trends in Re-Arrest, Re-Incarceration, and Drug Misuse Relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, Alexandra; Mpofu, Elias; Athanasou, James

    2015-06-01

    This systematic literature review maps the evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic community interventions (TCI) in reducing re-arrest, re-incarceration or drug misuse following release from prison, including the extent to which these effects are retained over time. The databases searched for the review included PsychINFO, Medline and Scopus and reference lists from relevant articles published between 2007 and 2014. Only quantitative studies that examined the effectiveness of TCI for a prisoner population with drug dependence at the time of initial incarceration were considered. Fourteen studies were identified for inclusion in the review. Three-quarters of the studies reported TCI were effective in reducing rates of re-incarceration. About 70% of studies that examined follow-up rates of drug misuse relapse found TCI effective in reducing rates of drug misuse amongst participants. TCI participation reduced re-arrests events in 55% of the studies. Results suggest TCI effective in the short-term rather than longer term for reducing rates of re-incarceration among participants, and to a slightly lesser extent, drug misuse relapse. PMID:26103591

  20. Therapeutic Community Treatment of an Inmate Population with Substance Use Disorders: Post-Release Trends in Re-Arrest, Re-Incarceration, and Drug Misuse Relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Galassi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This systematic literature review maps the evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic community interventions (TCI in reducing re-arrest, re-incarceration or drug misuse following release from prison, including the extent to which these effects are retained over time. The databases searched for the review included PsychINFO, Medline and Scopus and reference lists from relevant articles published between 2007 and 2014. Only quantitative studies that examined the effectiveness of TCI for a prisoner population with drug dependence at the time of initial incarceration were considered. Fourteen studies were identified for inclusion in the review. Three-quarters of the studies reported TCI were effective in reducing rates of re-incarceration. About 70% of studies that examined follow-up rates of drug misuse relapse found TCI effective in reducing rates of drug misuse amongst participants. TCI participation reduced re-arrests events in 55% of the studies. Results suggest TCI effective in the short-term rather than longer term for reducing rates of re-incarceration among participants, and to a slightly lesser extent, drug misuse relapse.

  1. The pharmacology and toxicology of kratom: from traditional herb to drug of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Marcus L; Kaufman, Nellie C; Grundmann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae), commonly known as kratom, is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. In recent years, kratom has gained popularity for use as a recreational drug across the globe. Relatively new to the illicit market and used in a manner different from its traditional applications, preparations of kratom are touted by many as a safe and legal psychoactive product that improves mood, relieves pain, and may provide benefits in opiate addiction. Available literature was reviewed for M. speciosa via PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, and EBSCO to summarize its traditional uses, phytochemical composition, pharmacology and toxicology of proposed active constituents, and potential for misuse and abuse. Research has demonstrated that both stimulant and sedative dose-dependent effects do exist, but a growing concern for the drug's effects and safety of use has resulted in national and international attention primarily due to an increase in hospital visits and deaths in several countries that are said to have been caused by extracts of the plant. The main active alkaloid substances in kratom, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, present with a range of CNS stimulant and depressant effects mediated primarily through monoaminergic and opioid receptors. Recently, Palm Beach County, located in the southeastern corridor of Florida, has considered regulating kratom due to public safety concerns following the death of a young adult. At the local, state, and even federal levels, governments are now being confronted with the task of determining the safety and the possible regulation of kratom extracts. There are currently no standard analytical screening techniques for mitragynine and its metabolites following ingestion limiting its detection to more sophisticated techniques like liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine kratom use. The growing concern of the abuse potential of kratom requires careful

  2. The pharmacology and toxicology of kratom: from traditional herb to drug of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Marcus L; Kaufman, Nellie C; Grundmann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae), commonly known as kratom, is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. In recent years, kratom has gained popularity for use as a recreational drug across the globe. Relatively new to the illicit market and used in a manner different from its traditional applications, preparations of kratom are touted by many as a safe and legal psychoactive product that improves mood, relieves pain, and may provide benefits in opiate addiction. Available literature was reviewed for M. speciosa via PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, and EBSCO to summarize its traditional uses, phytochemical composition, pharmacology and toxicology of proposed active constituents, and potential for misuse and abuse. Research has demonstrated that both stimulant and sedative dose-dependent effects do exist, but a growing concern for the drug's effects and safety of use has resulted in national and international attention primarily due to an increase in hospital visits and deaths in several countries that are said to have been caused by extracts of the plant. The main active alkaloid substances in kratom, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, present with a range of CNS stimulant and depressant effects mediated primarily through monoaminergic and opioid receptors. Recently, Palm Beach County, located in the southeastern corridor of Florida, has considered regulating kratom due to public safety concerns following the death of a young adult. At the local, state, and even federal levels, governments are now being confronted with the task of determining the safety and the possible regulation of kratom extracts. There are currently no standard analytical screening techniques for mitragynine and its metabolites following ingestion limiting its detection to more sophisticated techniques like liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine kratom use. The growing concern of the abuse potential of kratom requires careful

  3. Alcohol misuse in the general hospital: some hard facts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bradshaw, P

    2012-02-03

    AIMS: To examine (1) the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in adult general hospital inpatients; (2) the accuracy of documentation in relation to alcohol use. METHODS: A total of 210 random patients were interviewed out of 1,448 consecutive new admissions to CUH over 7 days. Case notes were reviewed for 206 (98%). Alcohol consumption was assessed using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST) and weekly drinking diary. FAST-positive (and a random sample of FAST-negative) patients then had a standardized interview. RESULTS: A total of 82% admitted for drinking alcohol. Among them 22% were drinking in excess of guidelines, 9% had DSM-IV Alcohol Abuse and 7% dependence. The sensitivity and specificity of the FAST for detecting those drinking above guidelines were 89 and 94% and for detecting a DSM-IV diagnosis was 100 and 73%. The majority of case notes contained inadequate information about alcohol intake. CONCLUSION: Alcohol use disorders are common and often undetected in the general hospital setting.

  4. Preventing Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvy, Kerby T.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…

  5. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci, S. Erhan; Açık, Yasemin

    2003-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors.

  6. Drug and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are common in later life. The Most Common Types of Drug and Substance Abuse Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications Abuse Among ... older population than in younger people. But, other types of substance abuse, such as inappropriate use of prescription and over- ...

  7. Web Anomaly Misuse Intrusion Detection Framework for SQL Injection Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaimaa Ezzat Salama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Databases at the background of e-commerce applications are vulnerable to SQL injection attack which is considered as one of the most dangerous web attacks. In this paper we propose a framework based on misuse and anomaly detection techniques to detect SQL injection attack. The main idea of this framework is to create a profile for legitimate database behavior extracted from applying association rules on XML file containing queries submitted from application to the database. As a second step in the detection process, the structure of the query under observation will be compared against the legitimate queries stored in the XML file thus minimizing false positive alarms

  8. Antenatal substance misuse and smoking and newborn hypoxic challenge response

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Kamal; Rossor, Thomas; Bhat, Ravindra; Wolff, Kim; Hannam, Simon; Rafferty, Gerrard F.; Peacock, Janet L; Greenough, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:Infants of smoking (S) and substance misusing (SM) mothers have an increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that infants of SM or S mothers compared with infants of non-SM, non-smoking mothers (controls) would have a poorer ventilatory response to hypoxia, which was particularly marked in the SM infants. Design: Physiological study. Setting:Tertiary perinatal centre. Patients: 21 SM; 21 S and 19 control infants. Infants wer...

  9. Misuse of statistical test in three decades of psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, R; Serlin, R C; Omer, H

    1994-02-01

    This article reviews the misuse of statistical tests in psychotherapy research studies published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology in the years 1967-1968, 1977-1978, and 1987-1988. It focuses on 3 major problems in statistical practice: inappropriate uses of null hypothesis tests and p values, neglect of effect size, and inflation of Type I error rate. The impressive frequency of these problems is documented, and changes in statistical practices over the past 3 decades are interpreted in light of trends in psychotherapy research. The article concludes with practical suggestions for rational application of statistical tests.

  10. The Misuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Iranian Re-crea¬tional Male Body-Builders and Their Related Psycho-So¬cio-Demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman ANGOORANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence and potential side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS misuse by athletes has made it a major public health concern. Epidemiological studies on the abuse of such drugs are mandatory for developing effective preventive drug control programs in sports community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AAS abuse and their association with some psycho-socio-demographic factors in Iranian male recreational body-builders.Methods: Between March and October 2011; 906 recreational male body-builders from 103 randomly selected bodybuilding clubs in Tehran, Iran were participated in this study. Some psycho-socio- demographic factors including age, job, average family income, family size, sport experience (months, weekly duration of the sporting activity (h, purpose of participation in sporting activity, mental health as well as body image (via General Health Questionnaire and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, respectively, and history of AAS use were obtained by interviews using questionnaires.Results: Participants were all recreational male body-builders [mean age (SD: 25.7 (7.1, ranging 14-56 yr]. Self-report of AAS abuse was registered in 150 body-builders (16.6%. Among different psycho-socio-demographic factors, only family income and sport experience were inversely associated with AAS abuse.Conclusion: Lifetime prevalence of AAS abuse is relatively high among recreational body-builders based on their self-report. Some psycho-socio-demographic factors including family income and sport experience may influence the prevalence of AAS abuse. Keywords: Anabolic agents, Ergogenic, Doping, Iran, Body-building, Sports, Athlete

  11. Child Abuse in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area i...

  12. Forced Dependency and Legal Barriers: Implications of the UK’s Immigration and Social Security Policies for Minoritized Women Living in Abusive Intimate Relationships in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica McWilliams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the complexities of the help-seeking process of minoritized women (primarily asylum-seekers and immigrants experiencing domestic violence in Northern Ireland. The term ‘minoritized’ is used here to emphasize that “minority” status is not a static or innate trait of certain groups but instead is the outcome of a process of being positioned as a minority. The paper addresses the intersections of ethnicity, nationality, class and gender and shows how state policies in relation to immigration and social security reinforce inequalities in gendered power relations. Despite attempts to improve the social security and immigration systems, the findings from a Northern Ireland study show how recent policy changes have not addressed the systemic institutional racism and institutionalised patriarchy in these agencies. Where avenues for action are undermined by such practices, the policies raise concerns about the safety and protection of minoritized women living in abusive relationships. We argue that the UK is failing to meet its human rights responsibilities to provide adequate support and assistance to minoritized women in abusive relationships and conclude that delivering state accountability alongside a human rights framework based on security, autonomy, liberty and equality is what is needed. Este artículo analiza las complejidades del proceso de búsqueda de ayuda en Irlanda del Norte para mujeres pertenecientes a minorías (principalmente solicitantes de asilo e inmigrantes que sufren violencia doméstica. El término 'minoritarizadas' se utiliza aquí para hacer hincapié en que la situación de "minoría" no es un rasgo estático o innato de ciertos grupos, sino que es el resultado de un proceso de ser posicionado como una minoría. El artículo aborda las intersecciones de origen étnico, nacionalidad, clase y género y muestra cómo las políticas estatales en relación a la inmigración y la seguridad social

  13. Etiology of Drug Abuse: A Narrative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nadjme Jadidi; Nouzar Nakhaee

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centre...

  14. 16 CFR 23.5 - Misuse of the word “vermeil.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of the word âvermeil.â 23.5 Section 23.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.5 Misuse of the word “vermeil.” (a) It is unfair...

  15. 17 CFR 240.17g-4 - Prevention of misuse of material nonpublic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prevention of misuse of material nonpublic information. 240.17g-4 Section 240.17g-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Organizations § 240.17g-4 Prevention of misuse of material nonpublic information. (a) The written policies...

  16. Management of human resources associated with misuse of prescription drugs: analysis of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doohee; Ross, Michael W

    2011-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription drugs is increasingly prevalent in the United States, but limited research is available on prescription drugs misuse in the workforce. We investigated whether absenteeism and turnover are associated with having problems linked to prescription drug misuse among employees. We also further explored the moderating effects of employee drug policy and testing on the relation between having problems linked to misuse of prescription pain relievers (PPRs) and absenteeism and turnover. This is a cross-sectional study (n = 2,249) using the 2007 U.S. national survey data ("National Survey on Drug Use and Health"). The multivariate logistic analysis results illustrate, after controlling confounding factors (gender, age, tobacco use, and heroin use), absenteeism and turnover linked to having problems of PPRs misuse. Our findings suggest the moderating effects of employee drug policy on the association between absenteeism and turnover and having problems linked to misuse of PPRs. Also, drug testing was found to moderate the link between having negative outcomes of misuse of PPRs and absenteeism. Having problems associated with misuse of PPRs is linked to absenteeism and turnover. A drug policy program including drug testing may play a significant role in reducing absenteeism and turnover in relation to having problems linked to misuse of PPRs.

  17. 32 CFR 147.15 - Guideline M-Misuse of Information technology systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guideline M-Misuse of Information technology... CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Adjudication § 147.15 Guideline M—Misuse of Information technology systems. (a) The... ability to properly protect classified systems, networks, and information. Information Technology...

  18. Well-being of medical students and their awareness on substance misuse: a cross-sectional survey in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Saman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate psychological well-being and substance abuse among medical students in Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted in six medical colleges across Pakistan. Final-year medical students were interviewed by either a postgraduate trainee in psychiatry or a consultant psychiatrist. Results A total of 540 medical students were approached; 342 participated and the response rate was 64.5%. Mean age was 23.73 years (SD 2.45 years; 52.5% were male and 90% single. Two out of every five respondents reported that work/study at medical school affected their personal health and well-being. A considerable proportion of students were aware of alcohol and smoking as coping strategies for stress in medical students. The main factors causing stress were heavy workload (47.4%, relationship with colleagues (13.5% and staff (11.9%. A total of 30% reported a history of depression and 15% among them had used an antidepressant. More than half were aware of depression in colleagues. The majority of respondents said that teaching provided on substance misuse in the areas of alcohol and illegal drugs, management/treatment of addiction, and models of addiction was poor. There was significant association (p = 0.044 between stress and awareness about alcohol as a coping strategy for stress among medical students. A significant negative association was also found between medical colleges in public sector (p = 0.052, female gender (p = 0.003 and well-being. Conclusion The majority of the medical students reported a negative impact of heavy workload on their psychological well-being. Significant numbers of medical students think that substance misuse is a coping strategy for stress. Teaching on addiction/addictive substances is poor at undergraduate level in Pakistani medical colleges.

  19. A secured e-tendering modeling using misuse case approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Haslina; Robie, Muhammad Afdhal Muhammad; Baharom, Fauziah; Darus, Norida Muhd; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    Major risk factors relating to electronic transactions may lead to destructive impacts on trust and transparency in the process of tendering. Currently, electronic tendering (e-tendering) systems still remain uncertain in issues relating to legal and security compliance and most importantly it has an unclear security framework. Particularly, the available systems are lacking in addressing integrity, confidentiality, authentication, and non-repudiation in e-tendering requirements. Thus, one of the challenges in developing an e-tendering system is to ensure the system requirements include the function for secured and trusted environment. Therefore, this paper aims to model a secured e-tendering system using misuse case approach. The modeling process begins with identifying the e-tendering process, which is based on the Australian Standard Code of Tendering (AS 4120-1994). It is followed by identifying security threats and their countermeasure. Then, the e-tendering was modelled using misuse case approach. The model can contribute to e-tendering developers and also to other researchers or experts in the e-tendering domain.

  20. Drinking Motives As Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e., to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e., fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e., enhancement, social, coping, conformity) was also tested. Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness-alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness-risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS-alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the mediation analysis suggest

  1. Drinking Motives As Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e., to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e., fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e., enhancement, social, coping, conformity) was also tested. Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness-alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness-risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS-alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the mediation analysis suggest

  2. Drinking Motives as Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eStuder

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e. to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e. fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness and behavioral inhibition (BIS systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5,362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e. enhancement, social, coping, conformity was also tested.Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness –alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness –risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS–alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the

  3. How older persons explain why they became victims of abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Lindenberg, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    independently, in residential care facilities and nursing homes. SUBJECTS: six males and 11 females aged 63-90 years. RESULTS: the main causes of abuse identified by older victims themselves were mutual dependency between victim and perpetrator, power and control imbalances, loneliness and a marginalised social......BACKGROUND: elder abuse greatly impacts the quality of life of older individuals. Prevalence rates range from 3 to 30% depending on the definition used. Only about a dozen studies have explored how older victims themselves experience and explain abuse. It is essential that healthcare professionals...... understand the perceptions of older victims as they are among the most important groups to handle and report abuse. DESIGN: a qualitative study on the perceptions and experiences of victims of elder abuse was conducted using in-depth semi-structured interviews. SETTING: abused individuals living...

  4. Three cases of nalbuphine hydrochloride dependence associated with anabolic steroid use.

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, A. J.; Williamson, K.; Petersen, T.

    1996-01-01

    Three case reports are presented of nalbuphine hydrochloride dependence meeting DSM IIIR and ICD10 criteria for opioid dependence. Nalbuphine hydrochloride is being obtained from illicit sources and used by those using performance enhancing drugs. In some cases this leads to opioid dependence. There is a potential risks of crossover between the misuse of drugs of performance and the misuse of psychoactive drugs by injection. Further research into the dependence potential of nalbuphine and the...

  5. Perceived Reasons for Substance Misuse Among Persons With a Psychiatric Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Laudet, Alexandre B.; Magura, Stephen; Vogel, Howard S.; Knight, Edward L.

    2004-01-01

    The etiology of substance use among persons with severe mental illness remains unclear. This study investigates stated reasons for substance use among persons in recovery from co-occurring disorders of serious mental illness and substance abuse and dependence. The desire to fit in with peers played a key role in the initiation of substance use; boredom, loneliness, temptations to use, and stress were cited most as relapse triggers. The authors discuss the need for dually diagnosed persons to ...

  6. Polysubstance abuse: alcohol, opioids and benzodiazepines require coordinated engagement by society, patients, and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbu, Uzor C; Lotfipour, Shahram; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has published significant data trends related to substance abuse involving opioid pain relievers (OPR), benzodiazepines and alcohol in the United States. The CDC describes opioid misuse and abuse as an epidemic, with the use of OPR surpassing that of illicit drugs. Alcohol has also been a persistent problem and is associated with a number of emergency department visits and deaths independent of other substances. The use of these drugs in combination creates an additive effect with increased central nervous system suppression and a heightened risk of an overdose. We present a summary of the findings from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) with commentary on strategies to combat prescription drug and alcohol abuse.

  7. Exploring family and community involvement to protect Thai youths from alcohol and illegal drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold

    2015-01-01

    Youth substance abuse is widely recognized as a major public health issue in Thailand. This study explores family and community risk and protective factors relevant to alcohol and illegal drug misuse in 1,778 Thai teenagers. Strong family attachment and a family history of antisocial behaviors were strongly associated with nearly all forms of substance abuse, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 5.05 to 8.45. Community disorganization was strongly associated with self-reported substance use, although involvement in prosocial activities acted as a protective factor. The findings suggest that interventions that promote family cohesion and encourage community involvement may have considerable benefits in reducing substance abuse in Thai adolescents.

  8. Experience with an extended-release opioid formulation designed to reduce abuse liability in a community-based pain management clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubino D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Rubino Pain Center of Devon, Devon, PA, USA Context: With the growing public health concern over rising rates of opioid abuse, physicians have a responsibility to incorporate safeguards into their practice to minimize the potential for opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion. Patient-specific treatment regimens should include steps to monitor treatment success with regard to optimal pain management as well as inappropriate use of opioids and other substances. Opioid formulations designed to be less attractive for abuse are also being developed. While future studies are needed to determine the impact of such formulations in addressing the issue of opioid misuse in the community as a whole, the experience of practitioners who have utilized these formulations can highlight the practical steps to incorporate such formulations into the everyday patient-care setting. Purpose: The purpose of this report is to describe experience in managing patients with chronic, moderate-to-severe pain using morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride extended-release capsules (MS-sNT (EMBEDA®, King Pharmaceuticals® Inc, Bristol, TN, which was acquired by Pfizer Inc, New York, in March 2011, a formulation designed with features to deter abuse/misuse, in a community-based pain management clinic. Case presentations: Case reports demonstrating a clinical management plan for assessment, initial interview procedures, explanation/discussion of proposed therapies, patients' treatment goals, conversion to MS-sNT, and titration and treatment outcomes are provided. Results: The management approach yielded successful outcomes including pain relief, improved quality of life, treatment satisfaction, and patient acceptance of a formulation designed to deter abuse/misuse. Discussion: The cases presented demonstrate that the communication accompanying complete pretreatment assessment, goal-setting and expectations, and attention to individual patient needs can enable

  9. Estimating the health care burden of prescription opioid abuse in five European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shei A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amie Shei,1 Matthew Hirst,2 Noam Y Kirson,1 Caroline J Enloe,1 Howard G Birnbaum,1 William C N Dunlop21Analysis Group, Inc., Boston, MA, USA; 2Mundipharma International Limited, Cambridge, UK Background: Opioid abuse, including abuse of prescription opioids (“RxOs” and illicit substances like heroin, is a serious public health issue in Europe. Currently, there is limited data on the magnitude of RxO abuse in Europe, despite increasing public and scientific interest in the issue. The purpose of this study was to use the best-available data to derive comparable estimates of the health care burden of RxO abuse in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom (EU5. Methods: Published data on the prevalence of problem opioid use and the share of opioid abuse patients reporting misuse of non-heroin opioids were used to estimate the prevalence of RxO abuse in the EU5 countries. The costs of RxO abuse were calculated by applying published estimates of the incremental health care costs of opioid abuse to country-specific estimates of the costs of chronic pain conditions. These estimates were input into an economic model that quantified the health care burden of RxO abuse in each of the EU5 countries. Sensitivity analyses examined key assumptions. Results: Based on best-available current data, prevalence estimates of RxO abuse ranged from 0.7 to 13.7 per 10,000 individuals across the EU5 countries. Estimates of the incremental health care costs of RxO abuse ranged from €900 to €2,551 per patient per year. The annual health care cost burden of RxO abuse ranged from €6,264 to €279,927 per 100,000 individuals across the EU5 countries. Conclusion: This study suggests that RxO abuse imposes a cost burden on health systems in the five largest European countries. The extent of RxO abuse in Europe should be monitored given the potential for change over time. Continued efforts should be made to collect reliable data on the prevalence and costs

  10. Maltreated and abused children

    OpenAIRE

    HOUFOVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    According to the statistics there are forty thousand of battered and abused children in the Czech Republic. Maltreatment and abuse are not revealed in most cases and thus they accompany the children during their whole childhood. The reason is that children cannot defend themselves. The maltreatment or the abuse of a child is revealed only if somebody from the child?s neighbourhood observes anything suspicious and decides to report it, which is both a moral and a legal obligation. A person, wh...

  11. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    S. Erhan Deveci; Yasemin Acik

    2003-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000): 396-405

  12. Causes of Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Erhan Deveci

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 396-405

  13. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-01-01

    Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguis...

  14. Child Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    HROBAŘOVÁ, Petra

    2008-01-01

    My thesis deals with the problems of sexual abuse of children. It is divided into nine chapters, each of which has a subhead. In the first part, I focused on the term of child sexual abuse. In the second part, I focused on the problem of sexual abuse of children by family members. In the third part, I explained the term of commercial sexual violence committed against children. In the fourth part, I focused on the victims of sexual abuse and in the following part, I focused on the perpetrators...

  15. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  16. Advances on functional neuroimaging in substance misuse%人脑功能显像研究药物成瘾的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕荣彬; 韩梅; 刘兴党

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, functional neuroimaging has contributed greatly to our knowledge about the neuropharmacology of substance misuse in man. In this review, discussed the application and the progress of the positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in the substance misuse. After reading some papers, found that the dopamine transporter was significantly decreased in the brain of subjects with heroin abuse. Also observed a significant decrease of regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral cerebral frontal lobes, temporal lobes, the insula and the ipsilateral basal nuclei in substance misuse subjects. Taken together, functional images will lead the direction in future research formedication development of addiction treatment.%神经功能影像技术为认识人类药物成瘾的神经药理学机制提供了很大帮助.该文在阅读神经功能影像技术在药物成瘾研究中应用的及国内外相关文献的基础上,探讨药物成瘾者在依赖、戒断、复发等不同状态下脑内血流灌注、葡萄糖代谢、神经受体及转运体等发生的形态和功能活动的改变,以寻求与药物成瘾相关的神经核团、神经通路以及受体作用系统,从而了解药物成瘾的神经生物学基础,为寻找有效的治疗措施提供理论基础.

  17. Substance Abuse in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DrugFacts » Substance Abuse in the Military DrugFacts: Substance Abuse in the Military Email Facebook Twitter Revised March ... alcohol and tobacco use, and especially prescription drug abuse, are much more prevalent and are on the ...

  18. PowerPoint Use and Misuse in Digital Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciriello, Raffaele F; Richter, Alexander; Schwabe, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    PowerPoint continues to permeate the presentation genre in general and business communication in particular. Whereas PowerPoint’s role in organizational practices has caught increasing research interest, research on PowerPoint in digital innovation is still scarce. This study provides comprehensive...... insights into PowerPoint use and misuse through an ethnographically informed field study of employee-driven innovation inside a multinational European banking software provider. Drawing on primary data consisting of 62 interviews, 41 slide decks, and longitudinal series of observations and workshops, the...... of PowerPoint’s constitutive role in digital innovation, help specify the reasons of its extensive use, and point to areas of future research in digital innovation....

  19. A Neural Network Approach for Misuse and Anomaly Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yu; YU Ge; GAO Fu-xiang

    2005-01-01

    An MLP(Multi-Layer Perceptron)/Elman neural network is proposed in this paper, which realizes classification with memory of past events using the real-time classification of MLP and the memorial functionality of Elman. The system's sensitivity for the memory of past events can be easily reconfigured without retraining the whole network. This approach can be used for both misuse and anomaly detection system. The intrusion detection systems(IDSs) using the hybrid MLP/Elman neural network are evaluated by the intrusion detection evaluation data sponsored by U. S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The results of experiment are presented in Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. The capabilites of these IDSs to identify Deny of Service(DOS) and probing attacks are enhanced.

  20. A progress report on UNICOS misuse detection at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.L.; Jackson, K.A.; Stallings, C.A.; Simmonds, D.D.; Siciliano, C.L.B.; Pedicini, G.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computing, Information and Communications Div.

    1995-10-01

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic monitoring and analysis of on-line user activity. During the past year, Los Alamos enhanced its Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) to include analysis of user activity on Los Alamos` UNICOS Crays. In near real-time, NADIR compares user activity to historical profiles and tests activity against expert rules. The expert rules express Los Alamos` security policy and define improper or suspicious behavior. NADIR reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations. This paper describes the implementation to date of the UNICOS component of NADIR, along with the operational experiences and future plans for the system.

  1. Tramadol chronic abuse: an evidence from hair analysis by LC tandem MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verri, Patrizia; Rustichelli, Cecilia; Palazzoli, Federica; Vandelli, Daniele; Marchesi, Filippo; Ferrari, Anna; Licata, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Hair analysis, as complementary matrix, has expanded across the spectrum of toxicological investigations for misuse drug monitoring. Hair has become an important matrix for drug analysis, owing to the possibility to detect target analytes for long time periods, depending on hair length. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the quantitation of tramadol, a widely used centrally acting analgesic, and its main metabolites in hair (ODMT, NDMT, NOT). Hair samples were decontaminated and incubated overnight in diluted hydrochloric acid; the extracts were purified by mixed-mode solid phase cartridges and analyzed by LC-MS/MS in positive ionization mode monitoring two transitions per analyte. The procedure was fully validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection and lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effect and selectivity. The linear regression analysis was calibrated by deuterated internal standards; for all analytes, responses were linear over the range 0.04-40.00 ng/mg hair, with R(2) values of at least 0.995. The method offered satisfactory precision (RSD 90%) values. The found LLOQ values for tramadol and metabolites were in the range 0.010-0.030 ng/mg hair. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to quantify tramadol and metabolites in real hair samples submitted to our laboratory: three cases of tramadol assumption within the therapeutic dosage (3 × 2 segments) and one case of tramadol abuse in a binge pattern (8 segments). The ranges found for TRAM, ODMT, NDMT and NOT were markedly higher in the abuse case (63.42-107.30, 3.76-6.26, 24.88-45.66, 0.22-1.18 ng/mg hair, respectively) compared to the other case reports (3.29-20.12, 0.28-1.87, 0.45-4.32, 0.07-0.80 ng/mg, respectively); also the values of NMDT/ODMT ratio differed significantly. According to the obtained data, we hypothesized that the binge pattern may influence the metabolites' to parent drug

  2. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in alcohol misusers in Chennai, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooban T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of various oral mucosal lesions (OML among alcohol misusers attending a rehabilitation center in Chennai, south India. Materials and Methods: Qualified dental surgeons examined 500 consecutive alcohol misusers at Ragas Dental College and Hospital and TTK Hospital, India. Thorough history and oral findings were recorded in a pre-determined format. Data entry and statistical analysis were done using SPSS 10.0.5β. The variables for this study were OML, Oral Hygiene Index (OHI, age, smoking, and alcohol misuse (type and units consumed and duration of misuse. Results: Of the 500 patients, 77% were in the 25-44 years old age group and 84% were married. The mean age of initiation of alcohol misuse was 34 years. In addition to alcohol, 72% smoked tobacco and 96% used other psychoactive substances. The mean alcohol use duration was 12.6 years. A total of 25% of the study group had at least one OML. The common oral lesions were smoker′s melanosis (10.2%, oral submucous fibrosis (8%, and leukoplakia (7.4%. Those who misused spirits had a higher incidence of OML than those who misused beer or both. Patients with fair oral hygiene had an odds ratio (OR of 2.96 for OML compared with an OR of 2.08 for those who had OML with good oral hygiene. Conclusion : This study indicates that subjects who misuse alcohol have poor oral hygiene and are at risk for the development of periodontal disease and OML. This survey indicates that oral examination and treatment should be a part of the standard care for alcohol misusers at rehabilitation centers.

  3. Geriatric forensics - Part 2 "Prevalence of elder abuse and their potential forensic markers among medical and dental patients"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurshid A Mattoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This study is a continuation of the earlier studies and has been extended to investigate the potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Aims: To determine the prevalence of elder abuse in various outpatient departments (OPDs. To study the associated parameters related to the abuser and the abused. To determine the existence of potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Settings and Design: The subjects were randomly selected from the medical and the dental OPDs of the university. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and thirty two elderly subjects in the age range 40-60 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine the existence of elder abuse. The subjects were investigated and examined for weight, nutrition and hydration, vital signs, habits, existing visual and auditory capabilities, medications, disclosure of wills/deeds, signs of depression, and documented cleanliness. The mini-mental state examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Clock drawing test, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were used to determine the potential forensic markers. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values in percentage were determined by dividing the number of determined subjects by the total number of subjects for that parameter. Results: About 37% in medical and 41% in dental OPDs were found to have suffered from abuse, mostly in the age group 60-70 years. Females received more abuse and a combination of son and daughter-in-law constituted most abusers. Various potential markers of elder abuse and neglect investigated among the elder abuse victims included depression (89%, signs of improper feeding (83%, changes in personal hygiene (69%, need for medical/dental treatment (78%, medication misuse (67%, changes in wills/deeds (26%, decubiti (10%, bruises (17%, skin tears (27%, and confusion (23%. Conclusions: Elder abuse exists in one or more forms in both medical and dental OPDs among both males and females in all age groups.

  4. Mental health/psychiatric issues in elder abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

    2014-11-01

    Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated. PMID:25439645

  5. Cannabis expectancies in substance misusers: French validation of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillem, Eric; Notides, Christine; Vorspan, Florence; Debray, Marcel; Nieto, Isabel; Leroux, Mayliss; Lépine, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire (48 items) and study the cannabis expectancies according to the patterns of substance use and psychiatric disorders (DSM-IV). A sample of 263 subjects (average age 33.1 years [SD = 8.7], 56% men) consisting of cannabis users (n = 64), psychiatric inpatients (n = 175, most of whom were hospitalized for withdrawal), and a control group (n = 24) completed the questionnaire. Internal reliability was good (α= .87) and temporal reliability was satisfactory, with 24 of 48 items having a significant κ ≥ .41. Factor analysis showed four main factors that explained 42.1% of the total variance. The women feared Cognitive Impairment and Negative Effects, and Negative Behavioral Effects more than the men. The onset age of cannabis use, onset age of abuse, abuse and dependence were associated with fewer negative expectancies. Cannabis dependents differed from abusers by more Relaxation and Social Facilitation expectancies. Patients with major depressive episodes, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, or posttraumatic stress disorder feared negative effects the most. Schizophrenic patients expected more Perceptual Enhancement and Craving. The French version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire has good psychometric properties and is valid to assess cannabis expectancies in adolescents and adults with substance use disorders.

  6. Family Risk Factors for Adolescent Drug Misuse in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose Ramon; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to analyze the influence and the differential weight of certain family factors in Spanish adolescent substance abuse. A representative sample of 1,680 students of both sexes from all over Spain took part in the study. The results show that the variables associated with drug consumption are: male,…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... example, by a friend, neighbor, child care person, teacher, or stranger. When sexual abuse has occurred, a child can develop many distressing ... t tell children to 'always do everything the teacher or baby-sitter tells you to ... of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. ...

  8. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  9. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  10. Drug Abuse in the Military: An Adolescent Misbehavior Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beary, John F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes drug abuse in the military. Survey data of military personnel (N=15,268) revealed that single, enlisted males under age 25 were the population most at risk. Alcohol and cannabis were the most common substances of abuse. Some work impairment and dependence were reported but were not typical. (Author/JAC)

  11. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n = 17...

  12. Treatment of Drug Abuse: An Overview. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series 34, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    This report presents a brief review of the development of methods and programs for treatment of drug abusers in the United States. In order to limit the scope of the report, discussion of the treatment of alcohol abuse and alcoholism is excluded. The report focuses primarily on the treatment of opiate dependence, since most of the experience on…

  13. Selected Results from a Study of Personality Characteristics of Child Abusing Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alan L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate personality characteristics of child abusers, utilizing the results of the Melnick-Hurley (1969) study. Subjects were 40 mothers receiving Aid to Dependent Children in Ingham County, Michigan. Each of the 20 "abusive" mothers had abused at least one of her children within six months prior to testing. To…

  14. Triiodothyronine augmentation for the treatment of depression in substance misusers unresponsive to tricyclic antidepressants

    OpenAIRE

    Kan, CK; Ho, TP

    2001-01-01

    We report on two substance misusers with depression resistant to tricyclic antidepressant treatment who responded to triiodothyronine augmentation. The management of resistant depression, augmentation strategies with particular reference to triiodothyronine, and the possible mechanism of action of triiodothyronine are discussed.

  15. Elder abuse: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, P E; Harrington, D T; Barillo, D J; McSweeney, A; Shirani, K Z; Goodwin, C W

    1998-01-01

    An estimated 2 million people a year are victims of elder abuse, which ranges from neglect and mistreatment to physical abuse. By the year 2020, a full 22% of the population will be aged 65 or older. This demographic explosion demands that we identify and protect those at risk. To investigate the incidence of elder abuse or neglect (EAN) and to determine clinician awareness of associated risk factors, we conducted a 1-year retrospective review of thermally injured patients aged 60 or older. Data included age, total body surface area burned, mechanism of injury, length of hospital stay, mortality, abuse or neglect risk factors, and referral to the appropriate social agency. We found that our elderly patients (n = 28) were poorly screened for EAN. While 64% to 96% of patients were screened for cognitive impairment, overall health, and financial resources, none were screened for risk factors of emotional isolation. None of the patient's caregivers, including any spouses, roommates, or guardians, were screened for risk factors of substance abuse, familial violence, dependency needs, or external stresses. With the use of available data, we were able to place 11 patients on the following levels of abuse or neglect: 1) low risk for abuse; 2) self-neglect; 3) neglect; and 4) abuse. By this scale, 7 patients (64%) were victims of self-neglect, 3 patients (27%) were victims of neglect, and 1 patient (9%) was a victim of abuse. Adult Protective Services intervened in 2 cases. Recognizing that all cases of EAN should be preventable, we cannot accept the socioeconomic impact of this entity. The 11 patients identified as victims of neglect, self-neglect, or abuse accounted for 135 hospital days and 8 fatalities. Before we can address EAN, health care personnel must be made aware of the problem and routine screening for risk factors must be implemented. The true incidence of EAN is likely underestimated because health care providers have difficulty recognizing its features. A

  16. Brazilian study on substance misuse in adolescents: associated factors and adherence to treatment Estudo brasileiro sobre abuso de substâncias por adolescentes: fatores associados e adesão ao tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma A da Silva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate developmental and environmental factors associated to substance misuse in adolescents seen at a university day-hospital in Brazil and to verify the correlations between those factors and adherence to treatment. To compare factors associated to substance misuse in adolescents with the available scientific literature and to suggest specific preventive interventions for a national policy in Brazil. METHODS: Eighty-six adolescent's guardians were evaluated at admission to the service by using a semistructured interview including sociodemographic data, family relationship, perinatal and pregnancy histories, psychomotor and educational development, social relations, history of previous illnesses and family diseases, including drug abuse. RESULTS: The sample was predominantly male (90%. Adolescents referred from the criminal justice were older than those originating from other sources (16.4 x 15.4 years old p=.00. Forty-four percent of adolescents reported school failure, a level which is two times higher than Brazilian statistics. Forty percent of the sample had criminal involvement, mainly drug dealing. Cannabis was the most prevalent reported drug. Living with both parents was protective, delaying the age of initiation by one year. Domestic violence was more frequent among parents with illicit drugs abuse (38.1% x 12.5%, pOBJETIVOS: Investigar fatores relacionados ao desenvolvimento e ambiente associados ao abuso de substâncias por adolescentes atendidos em hospital universitário brasileiro. Comparar esses fatores com a literatura científica disponível e sugerir intervenções preventivas para uma política nacional no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 86 adolescentes na admissão ao serviço através de uma entrevista semiestruturada, aplicada ao guardião do adolescente e incluindo dados sociodemográficos, relacionamento familiar, história da gravidez e perinatal, desenvolvimento psicomotor, educacional

  17. Self-Perceived Weight and Anabolic Steroid Misuse Among US Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampel, Jonathan D.; Murray, Stuart B.; Griffiths, Scott; Blashill, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Anabolic steroid misuse is a growing concern among adolescent boys, and chronic misuse is associated with multisystemic health consequences. However, little is known about weight related predictors of anabolic steroid misuse. We examined the prediction of lifetime anabolic steroid misuse as a function of self-perceived weight status among US adolescent boys. Methods Analysis was undertaken using the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative data set sampling public and private high school students throughout the United States. Data from a total of 6,000 US adolescent boys were used in the present study. Results The prevalence of ever misusing anabolic androgenic steroids was 12.6% among boys who viewed themselves as very underweight, 11.9% for boys who viewed themselves as very overweight, compared with 3.8% for boys who viewed themselves as about the right weight. Compared to boys who viewed themselves as about the right weight, boys who self-perceived themselves as very underweight (adjusted odds ratio = 6.9, 95% confidence interval: 2.7–17.7, p < .001) and very overweight (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.8–7.7, p < .001) were significantly associated with increased risk of anabolic androgenic steroid misuse. Conclusions Large effect size estimates were revealed, suggesting that anabolic androgenic steroid misuse is not solely a function of boys desiring increased mass; boys who desire leanness are also likely to misuse anabolic androgenic steroids. Future prevention efforts should target not only boys who view themselves as underweight but also those who perceive themselves as overweight. PMID:26598061

  18. 16 CFR 23.19 - Misuse of the word “pearl.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of the word âpearl.â 23.19 Section 23... JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.19 Misuse of the word “pearl.” (a) It is unfair or deceptive to use the unqualified word “pearl” or any other word or phrase of like meaning to...

  19. 16 CFR 23.25 - Misuse of the word “gem.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of the word âgem.â 23.25 Section 23... JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.25 Misuse of the word “gem.” (a) It is unfair or deceptive to use the word “gem” to describe, identify, or refer to a ruby, sapphire, emerald, topaz,...

  20. Brazilian study on substance misuse in adolescents: associated factors and adherence to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Vilma A da; Aguiar Aline S de; Felix Felippe; Rebello Gabrielle P; Andrade Renata C; Mattos Helcio F

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate developmental and environmental factors associated to substance misuse in adolescents seen at a university day-hospital in Brazil and to verify the correlations between those factors and adherence to treatment. To compare factors associated to substance misuse in adolescents with the available scientific literature and to suggest specific preventive interventions for a national policy in Brazil. METHODS: Eighty-six adolescent's guardians were evaluated at admission ...

  1. Misuse of The Land for Industry and Urbanization Resulting Environmental Problems

    OpenAIRE

    KILINÇ, Mustafa Yılmaz

    2013-01-01

    Nature and natural resources should be used and utilized according to their properties, capacity and capability. Otherwise, nature will be destroyed, resources will be deteriorated, pollution, erosion, sedimentation and other problems will be occurred as a result of misuse of nature and natural resources. Especially land selection for industrial plants and urbanization (city planning) are not proper and does not use scientific basis Misuses of land, natural resources and forest area have crea...

  2. Erythropoietin use and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Joseph John

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO is arguably the most successful therapeutic application of recombinant DNA technology till date. It was isolated in 1977 and the gene decoded in 1985. Since then, it has found varied applications, especially in stimulating erythropoiesis in anemia due to chronic conditions like renal failure, myelodysplasia, infections like HIV, in prematurity, and in reducing peri-operative blood transfusions. The discovery of erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R and its presence in non-erythroid cells has led to several areas of research. Various types of rhEPO are commercially available today with different dosage schedules and modes of delivery. Their efficacy in stimulating erythropoiesis is dose dependent and differs according to the patient′s disease and nutritional status. EPO should be used carefully according to guidelines as unsolicited use can result in serious adverse effects. Because of its capacity to improve oxygenation, it has been abused by athletes participating in endurance sports and detecting this has proved to be a challenge.

  3. Immunotherapy for Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders continue to be major medical and social problems worldwide. Current medications for substance use disorders have many limitations such as cost, availability, medication compliance, dependence, diversion of some to illicit use and relapse to addiction after discontinuing their use. Immunotherapies using either passive monoclonal antibodies or active vaccines have distinctly different mechanisms and therapeutic utility from small molecule approaches to treatment. They have great potential to help the patient achieve and sustain abstinence and have fewer of the above limitations. This review covers the cocaine vaccine development in detail and provides an overview of directions for developing anti-addiction vaccines against the abuse of other substances. The notable success of the first placebo-controlled clinical trial of a cocaine vaccine, TA-CD, has led to an ongoing multi-site, Phase IIb clinical trial in 300 subjects. The results from these trials are encouarging further development of the cocaine vacine as one of the first anti-addiction vaccines to go forward to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for review and approval for human use. PMID:22229313

  4. Erythropoietin use and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, M Joseph; Jaison, Vineeth; Jain, Kunal; Kakkar, Naveen; Jacob, Jubbin J

    2012-03-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is arguably the most successful therapeutic application of recombinant DNA technology till date. It was isolated in 1977 and the gene decoded in 1985. Since then, it has found varied applications, especially in stimulating erythropoiesis in anemia due to chronic conditions like renal failure, myelodysplasia, infections like HIV, in prematurity, and in reducing peri-operative blood transfusions. The discovery of erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) and its presence in non-erythroid cells has led to several areas of research. Various types of rhEPO are commercially available today with different dosage schedules and modes of delivery. Their efficacy in stimulating erythropoiesis is dose dependent and differs according to the patient's disease and nutritional status. EPO should be used carefully according to guidelines as unsolicited use can result in serious adverse effects. Because of its capacity to improve oxygenation, it has been abused by athletes participating in endurance sports and detecting this has proved to be a challenge. PMID:22470858

  5. Invisible Abuse: Utah's Response to Emotional Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sirrine, Janae

    2010-01-01

    The very nature of emotional child abuse makes it difficult to detect and report. Nevertheless, scholars and professionals in the field of child welfare have identified emotional abuse as being equally detrimental to children as physical abuse and neglect. Many states, including Utah, have unclear definitions of emotional child abuse. The purpose of this study is to interpret how Utah has used its statute on emotional abuse in the court system and whether the current definition of emotional c...

  6. Educators, Schools, and Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Diane D.

    The booklet provides an overview on the school-related issues involved in child abuse and neglect. Definitions, causes, and effects of abuse and neglect are reviewed in the first chapter; guidelines for identifying physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment are offered in chapter 2. Aspects of reporting abuse are noted as are…

  7. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  8. When Caregivers Sexually Abuse Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Fred

    1998-01-01

    A veteran child therapist reflects on the distressing problem of adults who sexually violate children and youth in their care. Discusses changes in society that may be the cause of increased child sexual abuse. Offers three "truths" concerning child sexual abuse. Presents the account of an abuser and discusses what happens when an abuser is…

  9. Locus of control of behaviour: is high externality associated with substance misuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, P; Ayliffe, G

    1991-09-01

    Personal control and responsibility are key themes in the therapeutic use of 'motivational interviewing'. This popular method of counselling has suggested that clients need to believe they have a significant degree of control over their behaviour if they are to make progress. Using a well validated psychological test on locus of control of behaviour, our research sought to establish whether active misusers really believed they had less personal control than non-misusers. To establish this a sample of misusers was tested and compared with three diverse, comparable groups. Possible confounding factors such as age, sex and class were controlled for. T tests established a significant difference between the active misusers and the other sampled groups. Further, a regression analysis of variance, calculated to explain the differing external scores offered no reasonable explanation as far as age, sex and class were concerned. Alternatively, self diagnosed substance misuse accounted for 23% of the variation in scores. We concluded, therefore, that high externality scores are a good indicator of active misusing behaviour and that beliefs about personal control are important to address, if one is to increase the chances of a positive client outcome.

  10. Neglect, abuse and violence against older women: Definitions and research frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Brownell

    2015-12-01

    Disease Control. Each focuses on a different aspect of abuse of older women: active ageing, old age dependency, and domestic violence in later life. A fourth conceptual framework, the human rights perspective, shows promise for addressing abuse of older women in a more holistic manner than the other definitions, but Is not fully developed as a way of understanding neglect, abuse and violence against older women. This is the first of a four-part series on older women and abuse.

  11. Extensive burns caused by the abusive use of photosensitizing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braye, F; Latarjet, J; Foyatier, J L; Comparin, J P; Tranchand, P; Boucaud, C

    1997-01-01

    Psoralens are photosensitizing agents used in dermatology as reinforcements in psoralen ultraviolet A-range therapy. We report observations of 14 young women hospitalized for severe burns caused by abusive use of psoralens. The burns were of superficial and deep second-degree depth and covered more than 76% of the body surface on average. All patients needed fluid resuscitation. Hospital stay was 11 days on average. Healing was obtained without skin grafting in all cases. Among the six patients who responded to the mailed questionnaire, negative effects are now present in all patients as inflammatory peaks. Two patients have esthetic sequelae such as dyschromia and scars. The misuse of photosensitizing agents poses many problems. These accidents are very expensive. The largeness of the burned surface can involve a fatal prognosis. And finally, one can suspect that a much larger portion of the population regularly uses these products without any serious accident. In this case carcinogenesis can be expected.

  12. ABUSE OF INTERNET SERVICES IN THE WORKPLACE AND THE EMERGENCE OF ADDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Mateja Gorenc; Borka Jerman Blažič; Anita Goltnik Urnaut

    2016-01-01

    Employees who abuse Internet privileges have become a major concern among today's employers. Employees misuse Internet at the workplace due to the overcrowded schedule, pressures at work, etc. Internet for private purposes is also used as a release or escape from work, escape from the reality of the workplace or due to poor organizational climate; it can be used as an efficient use of time at work but it can also be excessively used when the employees are not monitored. The survey results sho...

  13. Abuse of religion and environmental pollution in Nigeria: An Islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiu Ibrahim Adebayo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of places of worship and the increase in the number of devotees of religions are considered by many to be a welcome development, but their adverse effects on environmental degradation have hardly been considered. This paper attempts to study the role or the abuse of religion on environmental pollution and its implications for sustainable development in Nigeria. Based upon primary and secondary information, this study found that religion has largely been misused by its practitioners resulting in environmental pollution, with a serious negative influence on sustainable development. The paper further suggests possible solutions to this problem on the basis of Islamic injunctions for sustainable environmental development.

  14. Infantile abuse: Radiological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Araujo Reyes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Infantile abuse is a frequent problem, that must be suspected to bediagnosed, the children victims of infantile abuse can present anytype of injury, nevertheless there are associated injuries common toan inferred trauma that constitute radiological patterns highly specific for abuse, among them are the metafisial injuries, posterior costal fractures and first costal arc fractures, fractures of the toracolumbar region, fractures without apparent explanation, fractures in different stage of evolution, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenquimatose contusion and diffuse axonal injury, which combined with the history of the trauma, the age, the development of mental abilities, as well as the mechanism guides the injury diagnose.

  15. Transtornos mentais como fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de abuso/dependência de cocaína: estudo caso-controle Mental disorders as risk factors for the development of cocaine abuse/dependence: case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia S Lopes; Coutinho, Evandro S.F.

    1999-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel dos transtornos mentais e da dependência ao álcool como possíveis fatores de risco para o abuso/dependência de cocaína. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se o desenho caso-controle e a técnica de bola-de-neve (snowball technique) para selecionar uma amostra de usuários de cocaína não tratados na comunidade (casos) e parear casos e controles por sexo, idade e amizade. A coleta de dados foi feita através da utilização do questionário CIDI (Composite International Diagnostic Interview)...

  16. 抑郁症患者依赖和自我批评人格特质与童年期虐待的相关性%Correlation of personality traits of dependency, self-criticism and childhood abuse in patients with major depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨祥英; 蒙华庆; 胡华; 雍那; 黄庆玲; 杜莲

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨抑郁症患者依赖、自我批评人格特质与童年期虐待经历及抑郁症状的关系.方法 采用病例对照研究,抑郁症组与正常对照各入组80例.采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、抑郁体验问卷(DEQ)及儿童虐待问卷(CTQ)对其进行分别评估.结果 抑郁患者人格特质中依赖[(90.77±14.54)分]和自我批评[(68.00±15.02)分]均高于对照组[分别为:(77.96±11.81)分,(50.02±10.38)分],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).依赖与躯体虐待、情感忽视、躯体忽视及虐待总分呈显著正相关(P<0.05).自我批评则与情感虐待、躯体虐待、情感忽视、躯体忽视及虐待总分均呈显著正相关(P<0.05).逐步多元线性回归分析显示,依赖、自我批评可直接预测抑郁症状[分别为(β=0.283,P<0.05)、(β=0.284,P<0.05)],情感虐待通过依赖、自我批评的中介作用影响抑郁症状.结论 情感虐待对抑郁的影响可以通过依赖和自我批评人格特质间接发生作用,依赖、自我批评人格特质在情感虐待和抑郁之间起中介作用.%Objective To explore the correlation of personality traits of dependence,self-criticism and childhood abuse in patients with major depression.Methods As a case-control study,80 patients with major depression and 80 normal controls took apart in this study.They were separately evaluated by Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD),depressive experiences questionnaire (DEQ) and child abuse questionnaire (CTQ).Results Each factor scores of dependency (90.77 ± 14.54) and self-criticism (68.00 ± 15.02) in patients with major depression were significantly higher than that in normal control group (77.96 ± 11.81,50.02 ± 10.38,P<0.05).Dependence was significantly positive correlated with physical abuse,emotional neglect and physical neglect (P <0.05); and self-criticism were significantly positive correlated with emotional abuse,physical abuse,emotional neglect and physical neglect (P< 0

  17. History of childhood abuse, sensation seeking, and intimate partner violence under/not under the influence of a substance: a cross-sectional study in Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihai Zhan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine correlates of perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence (IPV under and not under the influence of a substance, we conducted a study among women in Russia. METHODS: In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients receiving services at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis. RESULTS: Of 299 women, 104 (34.8% and 113 (37.8% reported a history of IPV perpetration and victimization, respectively. Nearly half (47.1% of perpetrators and 61.1% of victims reported that the latest IPV event (perpetration and victimization, respectively was experienced under the influence of a substance. Factors independently associated with IPV victimization under the influence of a substance were alcohol misuse and a higher number of lifetime sex partners, whereas only experience of childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse was independently associated with IPV victimization that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Childhood physical abuse, lower age of first sex, sensation seeking, and alcohol misuse were independently associated with IPV perpetration under the influence of a substance, while only childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse was independently associated with IPV perpetration that did not occur under the influence of a substance. CONCLUSIONS: IPV under and not under the influence of a substance had different correlates (e.g., alcohol misuse and sensation seeking. Despite the strong association between substance use and IPV, experience of childhood abuse is an important predictor of IPV perpetration and victimization in Russia, above and beyond substance use.

  18. Children, contact and domestic abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the issue of children’s contact with non-resident parents has been increasingly debated. The policy gaze has focused on contested contact when there are allegations of domestic abuse. Some commentators argue that in circumstances of domestic abuse, contact with an abusive father may not be in the ‘best interests’ of the child. To support these claims they point to evidence that domestic abuse adversely affects children, and domestic abuse often continues followi...

  19. Domestic Abuse and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlings, Samantha; Siddique, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of different kinds of domestic abuse (physical violence, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and physical violence while the victim is pregnant) on health outcomes of children born to victims. We use data on approximately 0.6 million children born between 1975 and 2013 across thirty different developing countries to investigate this relationship. Comparing children of abused mothers with otherwise similar children whose mothers were not victims of abuse, we find these childre...

  20. The "Why" of Youthful Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taintor, Zebulon

    1974-01-01

    Factors contributing to youthful drug abuse include the declining consensus about values in our society, the generation gap, changes in the family and peer group pressure. As drug dependency deepens, the influence of conditioning and individual psychodynamics is greater than social and group factors. Drug education is ineffectual because…

  1. Drug Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drogas Tagalog (Tagalog) Substance Abuse or Dependence Pag-abuso sa Paggamit ng Mga Bagay o Dependensya - Tagalog (Tagalog) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Drugs, Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: A Consumer Guide English Rượu & ...

  2. Youths and Alcohol Abuse: A Continuing Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Donald A.

    1982-01-01

    Defines problem drinking and alcoholism, and differentiates normal drinking escapes from alcohol abuse by teenagers and other youths. Suggests teenagers consume alcohol for a myriad of reasons and this behavior often leads to alcohol dependence which can cause interference in normal relationships with others. (Author)

  3. Entrevista motivacional e escalas de motivação para tratamento em dependência de drogas Motivational interview and scales used to assess the degree of motivation for treatment in drug abuse patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle M. Lobo Dinis Castro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e rever os instrumentos que explorem a motivação como fator capaz de predizer o resultado de tratamento da dependência de substâncias psicoativas e que vêm sendo utilizados na última década. MÉTODO: Revisão bibliográfica abrangente de literatura científica indexada sobre escalas que aferem o grau motivação. RESULTADO: Identificaram-se quatro instrumentos e suas propriedades psicométricas, os dois primeiros com versões validadas em português: Rhode Island Change Assessment Questionnaire (URICA, Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eargness Scale (SOCRATES, Treatment Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ, Readiness to Change Questionnaire (RCQ. CONCLUSÃO: A teoria motivacional vem sendo regularmente estudada na última década, permitindo avaliação pragmática de seus parâmetros por meio de escalas com validade e confiabilidades que variam de boa a excelente.OBJECTIVE: To identify and review tools used in specialized services to explore aspectos of motivation as a predictive factor of treatment outcome in drug-abusing patients. METHOD: Comprehensive literature review of scales used to assess the degree of motivation. RESULT: Four scales to evaluate stages of behavioural change related to motivation were identified and described, together with their associated psychometric properties - Rhode Island Change Assessment Questionnaire (URICA, Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eargness Scale (SOCRATES, Treatment Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ, Readiness to Change Questionnaire (RCQ; The first two have Portuguese validated versions. CONCLUSION: Motivacional theory has been regularly studied in the last decade, allowing the definition of pragmatic evaluation parameters in scales with validity and reliabilities that vary from good to excellent.

  4. Drug abuse in Nigeria: a review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pela, O A; Ebie, J C

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the available literature on the epidemiology of drug abuse in Nigeria. Depending on the definition used, substances which are abused include antibiotics, antidiarrhoeals, laxatives, pain-relieving drugs, sedatives, amphetamines and cannabis. This review is, however, limited to studies on substances which alter behaviour or mood. These drugs include cannabis, sedative-hypnotics, amphetamines and alcohol. For some classes of drugs there has been a noticeable shift in patterns of drug abuse, for example, from abuse of methaqualone to barbiturates. The abuse of volatile solvents and other substances has also been noted. The review shows that there is no age limit among drug abusers. Studies on the influence of social class have been contradictory. Factors which indicate a predisposition to initial drug use have been similar to those reported in other cultures. Although the studies agreed on the classes of drugs abused and the changing patterns of drug abuse, there has been no uniform reporting system. This situation is attributed to financial constraints. Large-scale surveys which should incorporate most of the core items in any epidemiological study on substance abuse have been suggested. PMID:6985029

  5. Substance-abusing urban homeless in the late 1990s: How do they differ from non-substance-abusing homeless persons?

    OpenAIRE

    O’Toole, Thomas P.; Conde-Martel, Alicia; Gibbon, Jeanette L; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Freyder, Paul J.; Fine, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Much of our understanding of substance abuse and homelessness comes from data from the 1980s and may not necessarily reflect issues or trends prevalent during the 1990s. We report data from a two-city, community-based, populations-proportionate sample of 531 randomly selected homeless adults; the study was conducted in 1997 and compared substance-abusing to non-substance-abusing respondents. Most (78.3%) met criteria for substance abuse/dependence and were abusing either cocaine or alcohol an...

  6. Effects of Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking ...

  7. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking ...

  8. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  9. Drug abuse in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Reardon CL; Creado S

    2014-01-01

    Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines t...

  10. Detecting Medicare Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    David Becker; Daniel Kessler; Mark McClellan

    2004-01-01

    This paper identifies which types of patients and hospitals have abusive Medicare billings that are responsive to law enforcement. For a 20 percent random sample of elderly Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized from 1994-98 with one or more of six illnesses that are prone to abuse, we obtain longitudinal claims data linked with Social Security death records, hospital characteristics, and state/year-level anti-fraud enforcement efforts. We show that increased enforcement leads certain types of t...

  11. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L. Kraanen; P.M.G. Emmelkamp

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex

  12. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate abuse and dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorden, M.S. van; Kamal, R.M.; Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Brunt, T.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a short-chain fatty acid that naturally occurs in the brain, where it acts as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. GHB is a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue that passes the blood–brain barrier. GHB exerts its actions by binding to the GHB receptor

  13. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate abuse and dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorden, M.S. van; Kamal, R.M.; Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Brunt, T.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a short-chain fatty acid that naturally occurs in the brain, where it acts as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. GHB is a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue that passes the blood–brain barrier. GHB exerts its actions by binding to the GHB receptor in the

  14. Child maltreatment and its victims. A comparison of physical and sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A H

    1988-12-01

    Although physical and sexual abuse are separate and distinct types of victimization, their impact on children is quite similar. Both of these forms of maltreatment involve the exploitation or misuse of a child by a parent or caretaker in the context of a pathologic family system. Physical and sexual abuse constitute an acute traumatic event for the child, generating phobic responses and anxiety-related symptoms including post-traumatic stress disorder. The long-term traumatic elements stemming from the chronic stigmatization and scapegoating contribute to problems of depression and low self-esteem and distortions in character formation. Betrayal by a primary caretaker leads to mistrust of others and difficulties with object relationships. Perhaps the most striking similarity between physical and sexual abuse of children is the tendency of the children to re-enact and recreate their victimization with others, leading to a transmission of violence in the next generation. Like their parents who were frequently victimized during childhood, they repeat and perpetuate an "aggressor-victim" interaction in their subsequent relationships. Both physical and sexual abuse are embedded in a deviant family structure, which adds to the psychopathology of the children. The contrast between physical and sexual abuse can be demonstrated by their specific impact on aggression and sexuality, respectively. The physically abused child has difficulty in experiencing and modulating aggressive impulses, whereas the victim of incest is often impaired in his ability to experience and integrate sexual feelings. The physically abused child is also at greater risk for cognitive and CNS impairment. Intervention with the abusing parents is the first step in protecting the children from further damage, but treatment of the child victims is necessary not only to diminish their psychopathology and emotional distress, but to prevent the cycle of violence in the next generation.

  15. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanal...

  16. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction toalcohol (alcohol abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Brian eJohnson

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThe DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (DSM5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary ...

  17. Delay Discounting Predicts Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R.; Fu, Hongyun; Landes, Reid D.; Jones, Bryan A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Budney, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify predictors of delay discounting among adolescents receiving treatment for marijuana abuse or dependence, and to test delay discounting as a predictor of treatment outcome. Participants for this study were 165 adolescents (88% male) between the ages of 12 and 18 (M =15.8; SD = 1.3) who enrolled in a clinical trial comparing three behavioral treatments for adolescent marijuana abuse or dependence. Participants completed a delay discounting task a...

  18. Medical implications of elder abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi

    2005-05-01

    Recognition of elder abuse and neglect among health care professionals has been a relatively recent phenomenon. Each year, millions of elderly persons suffer as the result of abuse and neglect. Their quality of life is severely jeopardized in the form of worsened functional status and progressive dependency, poorly rated self-health, feelings of helplessness, and from the vicious cycle of social isolation, stress and further psychologic decline. Other medical implications of abuse and neglect include higher health systems use in the form of frequent ER visits, higher hospitalization, and higher nursing home placement; most importantly, it is an independent predictor for higher mortality. Physicians are well situated in detecting and reporting suspected cases and taking care of the frail elders who are victims of abuse and neglect, but there are barriers on the individual level, and there is a broader need for system change. Through education, training, and reinforcement, there are strategies to get health care professionals more involved and provide effective management protocols and guidelines for us to advocate for our patients in the current epidemic of elder abuse and neglect. PMID:15804552

  19. Drugs of Abuse Can Entrain Circadian Rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E. K. Kosobud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms prepare organisms for predictable events during the Earth's 24-h day. These rhythms are entrained by a variety of stimuli. Light is the most ubiquitous and best known zeitgeber, but a number of others have been identified, including food, social cues, locomotor activity, and, most recently drugs of abuse. Given the diversity of zeitgebers, it is probably not surprising that genes capable of clock functions are located throughout almost all organs and tissues. Recent evidence suggests that drugs of abuse can directly entrain some circadian rhythms. We have report here that entrainment by drugs of abuse is independent of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the light/dark cycle, is not dependent on direct locomotor stimulation, and is shared by a variety of classes of drugs of abuse. We suggest that drug-entrained rhythms reflect variations in underlying neurophysiological states. This could be the basis for known daily variations in drug metabolism, tolerance, and sensitivity to drug reward. These rhythms could also take the form of daily periods of increased motivation to seek and take drugs, and thus contribute to abuse, addiction and relapse.

  20. Etiology of Drug Abuse: A Narrative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjme Jadidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centres for drug abuse were interviewed about the story of their addiction in Kerman, Iran. Interview questions were around the story of the participants. Results. All participants were male and in the age range of 18–40 years. Narrative analysis identified five themes as the main risk factors: family factors, peer pressure, the effect of gateway drugs (especially waterpipe, individual characteristics, and the community factors. More emphasis was placed upon the role of family factors, peer influence, and gateway effect. Discussion and Conclusion. This study elicited information from drug dependent subjects regarding the risk factors of drug abuse. According to drug dependent individuals’ views, more attention should be devoted to family and peer influences by policy makers, in developing culture-based preventive strategies.

  1. Etiology of drug abuse: a narrative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidi, Nadjme; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centres for drug abuse were interviewed about the story of their addiction in Kerman, Iran. Interview questions were around the story of the participants. Results. All participants were male and in the age range of 18-40 years. Narrative analysis identified five themes as the main risk factors: family factors, peer pressure, the effect of gateway drugs (especially waterpipe), individual characteristics, and the community factors. More emphasis was placed upon the role of family factors, peer influence, and gateway effect. Discussion and Conclusion. This study elicited information from drug dependent subjects regarding the risk factors of drug abuse. According to drug dependent individuals' views, more attention should be devoted to family and peer influences by policy makers, in developing culture-based preventive strategies. PMID:25247105

  2. Dental care of patients with substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, K

    1999-07-01

    Patients who abuse alcohol, crack, heroin or prescription drugs, are likely to interact with the dental professional. The dentist should therefore be able to identify problems of abuse and provide informed care and referral. Substance abuse should be a consideration in all patients who present with dental trauma and those who present with frequent vague complaints, multiple pain medication allergies, and regimens with multiple narcotic medications. Polydrug use, either prescription or illicit, is also a possibility, and effective treatment requires prompt recognition. Dentists should be alert to drug-seeking behavior within the context of pain management, and because pain severity is an objective experience, each patient must be treated carefully and sensitively. Unrelieved or unremitting pain can be a relapse trigger and therefore adequate pain control is a necessity in the recovering chemically dependent patient. New modalities, such as coanalgesia with low-dose ketamine in the opioid addicted have been shown to work effectively. In the post-dental surgical patient with chemical dependency, agents with less psychoactive activity than their drugs of abuse, such as extended-release morphine (MS Contin) have been tried with variable success. An informed treatment plan includes recognition of substance abuse, appropriate intervention, and referral. This plan may include universal screening, followed by brief interventional therapy for positive patients and in some cases, pharmacological pain control. On discharge from the office, instructions concerning referral to a substance abuse program or, in the case of the patient who may require more immediate treatment, to the emergency department are important. PMID:10516924

  3. Inhalant abuse by adolescents: A new challenge for Indian physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu Debasish

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhalant abuse has been commonly reported especially in the young during the last decades globally. The reason for the relative paucity of literature from India may be attributed to a lack of knowledge about this growing problem among health professionals. A series of five cases of inhalant abuse is described in order to understand this growing public health concern. Most of the cases started inhalant abuse during adolescence. All patients except one abused typewriter erasing fluid and thinner which contains toluene. All the patients reported using inhalants as addictive substance because of their easy accessibility, cheap price, their faster onset of action and the regular ′high′ that it provided. Whereas several features of inhalant dependence were fulfilled, no physical withdrawal signs were observed. The diagnosis of inhalant abuse can be difficult and relies almost entirely on clinical judgment. Treatment is generally supportive.

  4. Elder abuse and neglect: a relationship to health characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, L

    1992-01-01

    Elder abuse is a complex problem that has received increasing attention in the social science literature and the media during the past 10 years. This descriptive study addresses the relationship between the type of abuse experienced and the demographic and health characteristics of elderly, abused individuals living in the community. Demographic data from this retrospective case review identify the most common victim of abuse as an elderly, widowed woman with some degree of chronic illness. The results also indicate that dependency needs of the individuals, including such health problems as mental confusion, immobility, and need for assistance with hygiene, are most often associated with neglect, a common form of maltreatment of the elderly. The recognition of risk factors for elder abuse or neglect can assist nurse practitioners in developing appropriate interventions for this serious health problem. PMID:1605994

  5. Connection between classroom abuse and manifest aggressiveness, anxiety and altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić, Vesna

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to find out if the students exposed to abuse differ in their level of anxiety, aggressiveness, and altruism from other students, and to test if the pattern of these differences differs depending on whether the abuse they suffer is emotional or physical. The research was carried out on a sample of 127 senior elementary school students. The data was gathered at the end of the 2003/04 school year, and obtained through the respondents' self-statements in questionnaires about childhood abuse and by the scales of manifest aggressiveness, anxiety and altruism. The frequency analysis has shown that various forms of emotional abuse are more common in schools than physical abuse, and that they are reaching disturbing proportions. For example, more than half of the participants in the study reported facing intimidation and threats in school, and over a third of them have been yelled at. Although less commonplace, physical abuse in school can by no means be ignored. Those students who suffer from frequent physical abuse are more dissatisfied with school (r=0.174, pbullied students can be differentiated from their non-abused schoolmates as they are manifestly more anxious and aggressive, regardless of whether they suffer physical or emotional abuse. Instances of different forms of emotional and physical classroom abuse have increased alarmingly. Such traumatic experiences affect children's health and functioning in school, as well as in their private lives. The interdisciplinary studies of this phenomenon and the education of all those who work with young people emerge as the top priority in the prevention of this kind of abuse. PMID:17243540

  6. The complexities of elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Alienation and Domestic Abuse: How Abused Women Cope with Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokach, Ami

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…

  8. Elder neglect and abuse. A primer for primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jeffrey M

    2003-10-01

    Elder neglect and abuse represent a widespread, largely undiagnosed problem in the United States. Factors contributing to misdiagnosis and underreporting include denial by both the victim and the perpetrator, clinicians' reluctance to report victims, disbelief by medical providers, and clinicians' lack of awareness of warning signs. Physical abuse is most recognizable, yet neglect is most common. Psychological and financial abuse may be more easily missed. Elder neglect and abuse have many clinical presentations, ranging from the overt appearance of bruises and fractures, to the subtle appearance of dehydration, depression, and apathy. Risk factors are varied and may be categorized by victim or perpetrator. Dependency, on the part of the victim or perpetrator, and caregiver stress are frequent common denominators in abusive situations. Increasingly, Institutionalization is recognized as a risk factor for neglect and abuse. Most states require primary care providers to report suspected elder abuse. Awareness of the risk factors and clinical manifestations allows primary care physicians to provide early detection and intervention for elder neglect and abuse. PMID:14569641

  9. Exposure to violence among substance-dependent pregnant women and their children

    OpenAIRE

    Velez, Martha L.; Montoya, Ivan D.; Jansson, Lauren M.; Walters, Vickie; Svikis, Dace; Jones, Hendree E.; Chilcoat, Howard; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of exposure to violence among drug-dependent pregnant women attending a multidisciplinary perinatal substance abuse treatment program. Participants (N = 715) completed the Violence Exposure Questionnaire within 7 days after their admission to the program. Their rates of lifetime abuse ranged from 72.7% for physical abuse to 71.3% for emotional abuse to 44.5% for sexual abuse. Their rates of abuse remained high during their current pregnancy, ranging from 40....

  10. A case-control study on alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for drug abuse pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S. Lopes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for the pattern of drug abuse/dependence in a matched case-control study (370 adults. Cases (drug abusers and controls were selected in the community using the snowball technique and matched by sex, age, and friendship. Information was gathered using the "Composite International Diagnostic Interview" (CIDI. Three patterns of drug abuse/dependence were evaluated: any drug abuse/dependence, only cannabis, and cocaine and other drugs. Logistic conditional regression showed that alcohol dependence was strongly associated with pattern of drug abuse/dependence. Thus, compared to the "no drug abuse group", the odds ratio for association with diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs was 10.2 (95% CI: 4.9-21.2, whereas for abuse/dependence on cannabis only, the odds ratio was 1.0. For affective disorders, the odds ratio was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.10-3.64 for the group that received a diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs, whereas no association was found for those with abuse/dependence on cannabis only. In conclusion, there is not a homogeneous group of "drug users", and the role of risk factors depends on the drug use pattern.

  11. A case-control study on alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for drug abuse pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Claudia S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated alcohol and psychiatric disorders as risk factors for the pattern of drug abuse/dependence in a matched case-control study (370 adults. Cases (drug abusers and controls were selected in the community using the snowball technique and matched by sex, age, and friendship. Information was gathered using the "Composite International Diagnostic Interview" (CIDI. Three patterns of drug abuse/dependence were evaluated: any drug abuse/dependence, only cannabis, and cocaine and other drugs. Logistic conditional regression showed that alcohol dependence was strongly associated with pattern of drug abuse/dependence. Thus, compared to the "no drug abuse group", the odds ratio for association with diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs was 10.2 (95% CI: 4.9-21.2, whereas for abuse/dependence on cannabis only, the odds ratio was 1.0. For affective disorders, the odds ratio was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.10-3.64 for the group that received a diagnosis of abuse/dependence on cocaine and other drugs, whereas no association was found for those with abuse/dependence on cannabis only. In conclusion, there is not a homogeneous group of "drug users", and the role of risk factors depends on the drug use pattern.

  12. Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Related Topics » Medical Consequences Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Drug addiction is a brain ... and lung disease can all be affected by drug abuse. Some of these effects occur when drugs are ...

  13. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Update Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  14. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises Quick Links Facts For Families ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  15. Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit provides information and strategies on how to: incorporate abuse prevention into programming; conduct staff...

  16. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  17. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abused and controlling for other adversities. 1 o Victims of child sexual abuse were more likely to report having a psychiatric disorder in the last 12 months, which puts victims at a higher risk of a suicide attempt ...

  19. Substance Abuse and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Drugs and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Abuse and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you ... related topics from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Free Resources for parents and ...

  20. Substance abuse in later life.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Archangelo, E.

    1993-01-01

    Substance abuse affects an appreciable portion of the elderly population. Elderly people have characteristics that could hinder identification, diagnosis, intervention, and treatment of substance abuse. If physicians use strategies specific to the elderly, management is often successful.

  1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in a woman with heroin and methamphetamine misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, P S; Yuan, A; Yu, C J; Kuo, S H; Luh, K T; Yang, P C

    2001-08-01

    Methamphetamine, heroin, and cannabis are three of the most commonly misused drugs in Asia. In Taiwan, cases of misuse of methamphetamine have been increasing. In this paper, we report the case of a 23-year-old woman who had a 10-year history of smoking methamphetamine and intermittent use of heroin for 3 to 4 years. She developed pulmonary toxic effects associated with misuse of heroin and methamphetamine. She was brought to the emergency room because of consciousness disturbance and acute respiratory failure. Her symptoms of rapid progression of refractory hypoxemia, ill-defined densities over both lung fields, and normal pulmonary artery wedge pressure were consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Rapid resolution of infiltrations and improvement of oxygenation were observed after mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure support and oxygen therapy. She was discharged on the fifteenth hospital day without any sequela except for mild exertional dyspnea. PMID:11678007

  2. Differences in childhood physical abuse reporting and the association between CPA and alcohol use disorder in European American and African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kimberly B; Grant, Julia D; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine whether the magnitude of the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) varies by type of CPA assessment and race of the respondents. Data are from the Missouri adolescent female twins study and the Missouri family study (N = 4508) where 21.2% identified as African American (AA) and 78.8% as European American (EA); mean age = 23.8. Data were collected using a structured comprehensive interview which assessed CPA experiences using behavioral questions about specific abusive behaviors and trauma checklist items. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for additional risk factors associated with AUD, including co-occurring psychiatric disorders (defined as time-varying) and parental alcohol misuse. Overall, CPA reporting patterns were highly correlated (tetrachoric ρ = 0.73); although, only 25.8% of women who endorsed behaviorally defined CPA also endorsed checklist items whereas 72.2% of women who endorsed checklist items also endorsed behavioral questions. Racial disparities were evident, with behaviorally defined CPA increasing the hazard for AUD in EA but not AA women. Additional racial disparities in the risk for AUD were observed: increased hazard for AUD were associated with major depressive disorder in AA, and cannabis dependence and paternal alcohol problems in EA, women. Results demonstrate the relevance of the type of CPA measure in assessing CPA in studies of alcohol-related problems-behavioral items may be more inclusive of CPA exposure and more predictive of AUD- and highlight racial distinctions of AUD etiology in women. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322801

  3. Prevalence and correlates of elder abuse among older women in rural and urban communities in South Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmus, Eniola O; Owoaje, Eme T

    2012-01-01

    Elderly women face the same health, economic, and social issues that all elderly people face, but often encounter more challenges compared with men and are more prone to abuse. Elder abuse has hitherto been uncharacterized among women in South Western Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to describe the prevalence, patterns, and factors associated with elder abuse among elderly women in Nigeria. The abuse of elderly women is quite prevalent in the two communities studied, especially physical abuse. Positive predictors of elder abuse were urban dwelling, financial dependency, and a high level of educational attainment. Appropriate interventions should be targeted toward reducing the occurrence. PMID:22946597

  4. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capriola M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. Keywords: designer drugs/chemistry, street drugs/pharmacology, substance-related disorders/epidemiology, alkaloids/poisoning

  5. Contamination, misuse and abuse of the global oceans leading to ecosystem damage and destruction, health consequences and international conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Unregulated uses of the oceans may threaten the global ecological balance, alter plant and animal life and significantly impact the global climatic systems. Recent plans to locate large scale structures on the oceans and to exploit the mineral riches of the seas pose even greater risk to the ecological system. Finally, increasing use of the oceans for large scale transport greatly enhances the probability of collision, polluting spills and international conflict.

  6. The good practice of the police: an alternative approach in dealing with offenders who abuse/misuse alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, P

    1998-01-01

    The office of constable is taken by declaration and specifically says '... prevent all offences against the persons and properties ...'. The police service, like many hospitals and particularly casualty units, comes into initial contact with a high proportion of society's problems, including those related to people who cannot handle alcohol. This results directly or indirectly in a significant number of issues affecting social life detrimentally and at a tremendous cost to the public purse. These points at some time or another have been adequately illustrated by articles or television documentaries. The police service has a duty to prevent crime. The author maintains that, through the collaboration of the criminal justice agencies and health services, and using a simple approach, behaviour could be altered significantly enough to contribute towards a reduction in repeat offending and a consequent decline in the use of public funds. The author believes that a great number of people, too large to even contemplate quantifying, would have a better quality of life, a goal sought by many, and that the police service is well placed to participate constructively in the rehabilitation of offenders who have a 'drink' problem. PMID:9539180

  7. Substance abuse and criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Motayne, G G

    1992-09-01

    As forensic psychiatry develops as a clinical subspecialty, clinical skill in understanding, treating, and predicting violent behavior will become more important. This article addresses the importance of understanding the relationship between substance abuse and violent behavior. This article also discusses morbidity and mortality in substance abuse, the demographics of substance abuse and criminality, and the clinical aspects of the forensic psychiatric evaluation.

  8. Working with the Abused Camper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca Cowan

    1990-01-01

    Describes forms of and reasons behind child abuse. Describes camp staff's role as reporters of suspected abuse. Describes techniques for identifying and dealing with abuse victims. Recommends offering victims respect, support, advocacy, and unconditional love. Describes steps staff might take to maximize camp's effectiveness in helping abuse…

  9. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  10. Commentary: Gender, Disability, and Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldson, Edward J.

    1997-01-01

    This commentary discusses the research article "Gender Differences in Abused Children with and without Disabilities" (Sobsey and others) that follows, which found that children with disabilities are at greater risk for being maltreated, that boys are more frequently abused, and that boys with disabilities are sexually abused more frequently than…

  11. Credit Card Misuse, Money Attitudes, and Compulsive Buying Behaviors: A Comparison of Internal and External Locus of Control (LOC) Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stevie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined attitudinal and behavioral differences between internal and external locus of control (LOC) consumers on credit card misuse, the importance of money, and compulsive buying. Using multiple analysis of variance and separate analyses of variance, internal LOC consumers were found to have lower scores on credit card misuse and…

  12. Prevalence of alcohol misuse among men and women undergoing major noncardiac surgery in the Veterans Affairs health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Katharine A; Rubinsky, Anna D; Sun, Haili;

    2012-01-01

    Patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Consumption Questionnaire (AUDIT-C ≥5 points) have significantly increased postoperative complications. Severe alcohol misuse (AUDIT-C ≥9 points) is associated with increased postoperative health care ...

  13. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  14. The Effect of Neighborhood Context on the Relationship Between Substance Misuse and Weapons Aggression in Urban Adolescents Seeking ED Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstick, Jason Elliott; Lipton, Robert I.; Carter, Patrick; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Newton, Manya F.; Reischl, Thomas; Walton, Maureen; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Frameworks for studying the ecology of human behavior suggest that multiple levels of the environment influence behavior and that these levels interact. Applied to studies of weapons aggression, this suggests proximal risk factor (e.g., substance use) effects may differ across neighborhoods. Objectives To estimate how the association between weapons aggression and substance use varies as a function of several community-level variables. Methods Individual-level measures (demographics, behavioral measures) were obtained from a survey of youth aged 14–24 years old seeking care at a Level-1 ED in Flint, Michigan. Community-level variables were obtained from public sources. Logistic generalized additive models were used to test whether community-level variables (crime rates, alcohol outlets, demographics) modify the link between individual-level substance use variables and the primary outcome measure: self-reported past 6-month weapon (firearm/knife) related aggression. Results The effect of marijuana misuse on weapons aggression varied significantly as a function of five community-level variables: racial composition, vacant housing rates, female headed household rates, density of package alcohol outlets, and nearby drug crime rates. The effect of high-risk alcohol use did not depend on any of the eight community variables tested. Conclusions The relationship between marijuana misuse and weapons aggression differed across neighborhoods with generally less association in more disadvantaged neighborhoods, while high-risk alcohol use showed a consistently high association with weapons aggression that did not vary across neighborhoods. The results aid in understanding the contributions of alcohol and marijuana use to the etiology of weapon-related aggression among urban youth, but further study in the general population is required. PMID:25607807

  15. Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers: a comparison with drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J A; Mayr, S

    1990-07-01

    Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers were examined with Calsyn, Roszell, and Anderson's (1988) nine-type system for classifying FIRO-B profiles. The frequencies of the nine FIRO-B types among a sample of 135 male veteran alcohol abusers were compared with Calsyn et al.'s (1988) previously published data for a sample of male veteran drug abusers, a normative veteran sample, and a general population sample. The alcohol abusers, like Calsyn et al.'s sample of drug abusers, were more likely to be categorized as "loners," "rebels," and "pessimists" than was the general population sample. While exhibiting preferences for interpersonal types that emphasized social withdrawal, avoidance of responsibility, and mistrust of others, both the alcohol abusers and the drug abusers were heterogeneous groups whose members demonstrated a variety of interpersonal types.

  16. Men's experiences of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and abuse in health care : A cross-sectional study of a Swedish random male population sample

    OpenAIRE

    Swahnberg, Katarina; Davidsson-Simmons, Johanna; Hearn, Jeff; Wijma, Barbro

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This article addresses the under-researched area ofmen’s experiences of abuse. The aims were to estimate prevalence ofemotional, physical, and sexual abuse and abuse in health care in a random sample of Swedish adult men, to compare these estimates with previously collected prevalence rates in a male clinical sample to see if prevalence rates were dependant on response rate and sampling method. We also wanted to contribute to a more general analysis of men’s experiences ofvictimisation....

  17. Treatment for Child Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James J.; Clark, Elizabeth H.

    1974-01-01

    Staff of a child abuse program in a Philadelphia hospital worked with parents in their own homes to help them develop greater competence as adults and as parents. This article describes the use of social learning theory, with some techniques of behavior therapy, as the basis for treatment. (Author)

  18. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  19. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; van der Wal, M.F.; Brugman, E.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  20. Drug abuse in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanwela, C; Poshyachinda, V

    1986-01-01

    The article focuses on countries and areas of South-East Asia, which are seriously affected by drug abuse and the problems associated with it. Opium has traditionally been used for treating illnesses and alleviating physical and mental stress, as well as for recreational and social purposes. The prohibition of the sale and use of opium in Burma, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand forced many habitual opium users to switch to heroin. Over the past two decades there has been an increasing trend towards drug use, often involving experimentation with more than one substance, among youth in and out of school. For example, a survey of students at teachers' colleges in northern Thailand showed that at some time in their lives 30-40 per cent of the male respondents and 3-6 per cent of the female respondents had used cannabis, and that 18-20 per cent of the males and 12-27 per cent of the females had sniffed volatile solvents. The same survey showed that 5-10 per cent of both the males and females had used stimulants and nearly 2 per cent had used heroin. During the 1970s the abuse of heroin and other opiates emerged as a serious problem of epidemic nature, predominantly affecting young people in many countries of South-East Asia. While opiates, including heroin, have been abused by inhaling and by smoking, there has recently been an increasing trend towards injecting heroin of high purity (80-90 per cent pure heroin). Heroin addiction spread first to the populations of capital cities and then to other cities and towns and even to the hill tribes, as studies in Thailand have revealed. Most recent studies have shown that heroin abuse has spread further in Asia, both socially and geographically, involving such countries as India and Sri Lanka, which had no previous experience with the problem. Studies have also shown that the abuse of manufactured psychotropic substances has been increasing and that heroin addicts resort to these substances when heroin is difficult

  1. Indicators of Sexual Abuse in Children's Rorschach Responses: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Ralph C.

    1995-01-01

    Rorschach protocols of 18 sexually-abused children were compared to protocols of 18 clinical controls. Dependent variables included responses with overt sexual contents, sexual symbols, and near-sexual content. Results suggested that the dependent variables, in combination, could differentiate sexually abused children from other groups. Other…

  2. The association between shame and substance misuse in young people: A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim, M; Patton, R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Shame has been associated with a range of maladaptive behaviours, including substance abuse. Young people may be particularly vulnerable to heightened shame sensitivity, and substance abuse is a significant problem amongst UK adolescents. Although there appears to be a relationship between shame and substance abuse, the direction of the relationship remains unclear. AIM: We reviewed the literature relating to shame and substance abuse amongst young people. METHOD: Five electronic ...

  3. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  4. Impulsivity and sensation seeking in alcohol abusing patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Dervaux; Xavier Laqueille; Marie-Chantal Bourdel; Jean-Pierre Olié; Marie-Odile Krebs

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Some studies have found that high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking, particularly disinhibition are associated with substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia, as in the general population. However, no study has assessed impulsivity and sensation seeking specifically in schizophrenia patients with alcohol abuse or dependence. Materials and methods: We compared impulsivity and sensation seeking in a group of schizophrenia patients (DSM-III-R criteria) with lifetime alc...

  5. Substance abuse and the workplace : a networking programme for employers and out-patient treatment centres / Gerbregda Smook

    OpenAIRE

    Smook, Gerbregda

    2014-01-01

    Both employers and out-patient treatment centres are key role players in addressing workplace related substance abuse. On the one hand, employers are directly and indirectly affected by the huge problem of substance abuse. On the other hand, out-patient treatment centres provide, as their core goal, for the treatment of substance abuse and dependency. Due to the extent of the problem of substance abuse, collaborative intervention measures between employers and out-patient treatment centres ar...

  6. Over-, under- and misuse of pain treatment in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietl, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The HTA-report (Health Technology Assessment deals with over- and undertreatment of pain therapy. Especially in Germany chronic pain is a common reason for the loss of working hours and early retirement. In addition to a reduction in quality of life for the affected persons, chronic pain is therefore also an enormous economic burden for society. Objectives: Which diseases are in particular relevant regarding pain therapy? What is the social-medical care situation regarding pain facilities in Germany? What is the social-medical care situation in pain therapy when comparing on international level? Which effects, costs or cost-effects can be seen on the micro-, meso- and macro level with regard to pain therapy? Among which social-medical services in pain therapy is there is an over- or undertreatment with regard to the micro-, meso- and macro level? Which medical and organisational aspects that have an effect on the costs and/or cost-effectiveness have to be particularly taken into account with regard to pain treatment/chronic pain? What is the influence of the individual patient's needs (micro level in different situations of pain (e. g. palliative situation on the meso- and macro level? Which social-medical and ethical aspects for an adequate treatment of chronic pain on each level have to be specially taken into account? Is the consideration of these aspects appropriate to avoid over- or undertreatment? Are juridical questions included in every day care of chronic pain patients, mainly in palliative care? On which level can appropriate interventions prevent over- or undertreatment? Methods: A systematic literature research is done in 35 databases. In the HTA, reviews, epidemiological and clinical studies and economic evaluations are included which report about pain therapy and in particular palliative care in the years 2005 till 2010. Results: 47 studies meet the inclusion criteria. An undertreatment of acupuncture, over- and misuse

  7. Veterans' Painkiller Abuse Can Raise Odds for Heroin Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... veterans who had never misused painkillers or used heroin. Their health was followed for 10 years. During that time, 500 of them began using heroin. Of those, 77 percent misused opioid painkillers before ...

  8. Misuse of the Equals Sign: An Entrenched Practice from Early Primary Years to Tertiary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jill; Bardini, Caroline; Pierce, Robyn; Pearn, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors begin by considering symbolic literacy in mathematics. Next, they examine the origins of misuse of the equals sign by primary and junior secondary students, where "=" has taken on an operational meaning. They explain that in algebra, students need both the operational and relational meanings of the equals…

  9. 78 FR 8030 - Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications..., telephone: (800) 378-3160, fax: (202) 488-5563, or Internet: www.bcpiweb.com . Document FCC 13-13 can...

  10. 78 FR 14701 - Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... 78 FR 8032, February 5, 2013, is effective from March 7, 2013 through September 3, 2013. FOR FURTHER... collection requirements contained in the Commission's Order, FCC 13-13, published at 78 FR 8032, February 5... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service;...

  11. Characteristics of College Students with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Who Misuse Their Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca; Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the characteristics of college students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms who misuse their prescribed psychostimulant medications. Methods and Participants: Forty-three undergraduate students with a prescription for Ritalin or Adderall completed structured…

  12. CAPP: A Comprehensive Preventative Program Model Addressing Alcohol Misuse among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption by college students in the United States has increased in quantity and frequency over the past five years. With this increase, there has come evidence of a rise in negative consequences caused by alcohol misuse. To help reduce these problems, colleges and universities nationwide have begun implementing alcohol programs for…

  13. Adolescent Alcohol Consumption in Romania: A Blueprint for Measuring Alcohol (mis)Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris J.; Moll, Marit

    2012-01-01

    In order to address the issues of adolescent alcohol (mis)use in Romanian cities and to develop local alcohol prevention policies comprised of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems, information on the prevalence of alcohol use and relevant related topics is

  14. Dispositional, Ecological and Biological Influences on Adolescent Tranquilizer, Ritalin, and Narcotics Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleary, Sasha A.; Heffer, Robert W.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which two of the three sources of risk-taking--dispositional and ecological--in adolescence and demographic variables were related to Ritalin, tranquilizer and narcotics misuse. The secondary aim of this study was to distinguish subgroups of Ritalin, tranquilizer, and narcotics…

  15. 16 CFR 23.11 - Definition and misuse of the word “diamond.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.11 Definition and misuse of the word... to represent, directly or by implication, that industrial grade diamonds or other non-jewelry quality diamonds are of jewelry quality. (c) The following are examples of descriptions that are not...

  16. Recovery-Promoting Care as Experienced by Persons with Severe Mental Illness and Substance Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruce, Gunilla; Ojehagen, Agneta; Nordstrom, Monica

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores recovery-promoting care as experienced by persons with concomitant severe mental illness and substance misuse. Sixteen in-depth interviews, based on an interview guide concerning their experiences of health, life situation and care, were held with eight participants in an outpatient treatment programme. The analysis aimed to…

  17. The Life Skills Program IPSY: Positive Influences on School Bonding and Prevention of Substance Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Victoria; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a life skills program (LSP) for the prevention of adolescent substance misuse can have positive influences on a school context and on school bonding. The study also explored whether effects on alcohol use are mediated by positive effects on school bonding resulting from program participation. The LSP IPSY…

  18. Judging cheaters: is substance misuse viewed similarly in the athletic and academic domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Tonya; Williams, Kevin J; Marzell, Miesha; Turrisi, Rob

    2012-09-01

    The present study examines how individuals judge others who use performance-enhancing drugs in two different domains--the athletic domain and the academic domain. Approximately 1,200 males in their freshman year of college completed a questionnaire that included two scenarios. One scenario described an athlete who misused anabolic steroids to help him succeed at a sporting event. The other described a college student who misused Adderall to help him succeed on his midterm exams. Participants rated the extent to which they thought the target had cheated and the extent to which they felt the substances were necessary for success. Results showed participants believed the athlete was more of a cheater than the student, and this difference got larger as past prescription stimulant misuse increased. Results also demonstrated that participants felt Adderall was more necessary than anabolic steroids for bringing about success. Contributions to the literature on zero-sum and non-zero-sum domains are discussed. Implications for future research and efforts to prevent substance misuse are described. PMID:22545584

  19. Development of an Adolescent Alcohol Misuse Intervention Based on the Prototype Willingness Model: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emma; Martin, Jilly; Foxcroft, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of the Delphi method to gain expert feedback on the identification of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and development of a novel intervention to reduce adolescent alcohol misuse, based on the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) of health risk behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: Four…

  20. Near-death states reported in a sample of 50 misusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Ornella; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    Increase in recreational ketamine use may be a cause for concern. We aimed here at assessing, in a sample of ketamine misusers, concordance between the typical near-death experience (NDE) features and the on-drug psychoactive effects the subjects experienced. In 2003-2005, a sample of previous ketamine misusers recollecting a ketamine-related NDE were recruited through snowballing and screened with the means of the Greyson NDE Scale; 125 participants made an initial contact with the researcher and 50 reported a minimum score of seven at the "Greyson NDE Scale". Interviewees were in the range 21-66 years old; 27 participants (54%) were educated at BA level, 18 (36%) had an MSc, and 5 (10%) a PhD. Eight (16%) interviewees had a definite religious background. An average lifetime ketamine intake of 140 occasions was reported by the interviewees, who typically presented with a polydrug, including cannabis and MDMA/ecstasy, misuse history. In 45 (90%) cases, the NDE occurred during the first few occasions of intake. Most frequent features of reported NDE states included: altered perception of time (90%), strong sense of detaching from own physical body (88%), and a sense of peace/joy (76% of subjects). Although results here described were elicited from a self-selected, nonrandomized, limited size sample of misusers, we suggest that recreational ketamine intake may be associated with occurrence of near-death related states.

  1. Detection of erythropoietin misuse by the Athlete Biological Passport combined with reticulocyte percentage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Jacob; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob; Bonne, Thomas Christian;

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of the adaptive model of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and reticulocyte percentage (ret%) in detection of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) misuse was evaluated using both a long-term normal dose and a brief high dose treatment regime. Sixteen subjects received...

  2. Prevalence of topical steroid misuse among rural masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A lot of cosmetic and Ayurvedic products containing unlabeled depigmenting agent and steroids are available readily over the counter sale. The side effects of these products are not documented and can lead to adverse effects of continuous usage. Objective: By this study, we aimed to find out the true nature of the above problem and it′s implication in the Indian rural scenario. Methodology: All patients attending dermatology department during the period of 3 months from May to June 2013 for skin diseases were enquired about unsupervised use of any cosmetic product on their facial skin, duration of use, any side effect experienced through the prescribed questionnaire. Results: Total 50 patients were recruited for the study. Out of which, 48% were males and 52% were females. Seventy-four percent of people had applied topical products/steroids in an attempt of attainment of fair complexion, 14% for melasma, 8% for acne induced hyperpigmentation, and 4% for dark circles. About 80% people had obtained one or the other products over the counter sale, 8% had followed the attractive advertisements, 8% had started the application on the recommendation of friends/family while only 4% people had correctly gone through the proper channel to consult a dermatologist. Conclusion: The problem of topical products or steroids abuse is rampant and significant, and unless and until immediate steps are taken to root out this problem from our setup, the condition will become worse all the more.

  3. Prevalence of Topical Steroid Misuse Among Rural Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Amit; Kar, Sumit; Yadav, Nidhi; Madke, Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    Background: A lot of cosmetic and Ayurvedic products containing unlabeled depigmenting agent and steroids are available readily over the counter sale. The side effects of these products are not documented and can lead to adverse effects of continuous usage. Objective: By this study, we aimed to find out the true nature of the above problem and it's implication in the Indian rural scenario. Methodology: All patients attending dermatology department during the period of 3 months from May to June 2013 for skin diseases were enquired about unsupervised use of any cosmetic product on their facial skin, duration of use, any side effect experienced through the prescribed questionnaire. Results: Total 50 patients were recruited for the study. Out of which, 48% were males and 52% were females. Seventy-four percent of people had applied topical products/steroids in an attempt of attainment of fair complexion, 14% for melasma, 8% for acne induced hyperpigmentation, and 4% for dark circles. About 80% people had obtained one or the other products over the counter sale, 8% had followed the attractive advertisements, 8% had started the application on the recommendation of friends/family while only 4% people had correctly gone through the proper channel to consult a dermatologist. Conclusion: The problem of topical products or steroids abuse is rampant and significant, and unless and until immediate steps are taken to root out this problem from our setup, the condition will become worse all the more. PMID:26955124

  4. Alcohol misuse in emerging adulthood: Association of dopamine and serotonin receptor genes with impulsivity-related cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamy, Talia E; Connor, Jason P; Voisey, Joanne; Young, Ross McD; Gullo, Matthew J

    2016-12-01

    Impulsivity predicts alcohol misuse and risk for alcohol use disorder. Cognition mediates much of this association. Genes also account for a large amount of variance in alcohol misuse, with dopamine and serotonin receptor genes of particular interest, because of their role in motivated behavior. The precise psychological mechanisms through which such genes confer risk is unclear. Trait impulsivity conveys risk for alcohol misuse by influencing two distinct domains of cognition: beliefs about the reinforcing effects of alcohol consumption (positive alcohol expectancy) and the perceived ability to resist it (drinking refusal self-efficacy). This study investigated the effect of the dopamine-related polymorphism in the DRD2/ANKK1 gene (rs1800497) and a serotonin-related polymorphism in the HTR2A gene (rs6313) on associations between impulsivity, cognition, and alcohol misuse in 120 emerging adults (18-21years). HTR2A predicted lower positive alcohol expectancy, higher refusal self-efficacy, and lower alcohol misuse. However, neither polymorphism moderated the linkages between impulsivity, cognition, and alcohol misuse. This is the first report of an association between HTR2A and alcohol-related cognition. Theoretically-driven biopsychosocial models have potential to elucidate the specific cognitive mechanisms through which distal risk factors like genes and temperament affect alcohol misuse in emerging adulthood. PMID:27399274

  5. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  6. Surveillance and uncertainty: community pharmacy responses to over the counter medicine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard

    2013-05-01

    The sale of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines from community pharmacies offers important opportunities for members of the public to access medicines and self-treat conditions. They are increasingly recognised, however, as having the potential for abuse and harm despite their perceived relative safety. This study reports on a qualitative study that explored the experiences and views of community pharmacy staff in relation to current practices and concerns, management and support relating to OTC medicine abuse. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of ten pharmacists and seven medicines counter assistants in the United Kingdom. Analysis of interviews indicated that a range of medicines was implicated, including opiates, sedative antihistamines, laxatives and decongestants. A surveillance role was apparent for assistants, who placed emphasis on regulations, procedure and monitoring frequency of purchases to manage abuse, with referral on to pharmacists. Frequency of purchase was central to assistants' definition of those suspected of OTC medicine abuse, which pharmacists also utilised as well as a distinction between intentional abuse and unintentional medicine misuse. A lack of information about customers, easy access to, and poor communication between community pharmacies were emergent barriers to pharmacists providing more support. Many appeared uncertain of referral options or how pharmacists could effectively stop the problem of abuse. The commercial environment was a particular concern, in relation to customer expectations, medicine advertising and easy access to different community pharmacies. A key tension emerged between providing medicine supplies that permitted consumer freedom, with the needs of healthcare professionals to understand more about those consumers qua patients. Policy implications include the need for improved knowledge for community pharmacy staff about signposting to relevant services, increased awareness of who

  7. Male-initiated partner abuse during marital separation prior to divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Michelle L; McKenry, Patrick C; Catlett, Beth S

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of male-initiated psychological and physical partner abuse during the separation process prior to divorce among a sample of 80 divorced fathers who reported no physical violence during their marriages. The predictor variables examined were male gender-role identity, female-initiated divorces, dependence on one's former wife, depression, anxiety, and coparental conflict. Through ordinary least square (OLS) regression techniques, it was found that male gender-role identity was positively related to male-initiated psychological abuse during separation. Logistic regression analyses revealed that male-initiated psychological abuse, anxiety level, coparental conflict, and dependence on one's former spouse increased the odds of a man engaging in physical abuse. However, depression decreased the odds of separation physical abuse. The models predicting both male-initiated psychological abuse (F = 2.20, p separation process were significant (Model chi2 = 35.00, df= 7, p < .001).

  8. Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Lacher, Simone; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann

    2016-01-01

    PRINCIPLES Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. METHODS Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to...

  9. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD. PMID:27613348

  10. Dental treatment abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalakkal, Paul; Ataide, Ida De Noronha De; Krishnan, Ramesh; Pavaskar, Rajdeep

    2014-07-01

    These case reports highlight dental treatment abuse performed by a quack on children. The anterior teeth of these children were metal capped using cement, which were otherwise healthy. The treatment was done on children without parental consent by a quack from Denmark who gave the reason as for resolving proclination of upper permanent incisors. The unanatomic, unaesthetic metal caps were removed after the child reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. PMID:25177645

  11. Opportunities for computer abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Willison, Robert; Backhouse, James

    2005-01-01

    Systems risk refers to the likelihood that an IS is inadequately guarded against certain types of damage or loss. While risks are posed by acts of God, hackers and viruses, consideration should also be given to the ‘insider’ threat of dishonest employees, intent on undertaking some form of computer abuse. Against this backdrop, a number of researchers have addressed the extent to which security managers are cognizant of the very nature of systems risk. In particular, they note how security pr...

  12. Drug abuse in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with "advances" in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  13. Child Abuse and Neglect in Indian Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, M. B.

    Conditions in India that contribute to child abuse and neglect are discussed. Sections focus on child rearing practices, discipline of children at home and in school, the nation's six million abandoned children, child sexual abuse, causes of abuse, poverty, lack of education, characteristics of abused children and their abusers, situational…

  14. Medical Diagnosis of the Sexually Abused Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Jan; Chadwick, David

    1993-01-01

    This article on medical diagnosis of the sexually abused child summarizes clinical research on physical findings in nonabused children, abused children, and abused children with independent confirmation of abuse. A classification of physical findings is proposed along a continuum of certainty that sexual abuse has occurred. (Author/JDD)

  15. Transcriptional changes common to human cocaine, cannabis and phencyclidine abuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Lehrmann

    Full Text Available A major goal of drug abuse research is to identify and understand drug-induced changes in brain function that are common to many or all drugs of abuse. As these may underlie drug dependence and addiction, the purpose of the present study was to examine if different drugs of abuse effect changes in gene expression that converge in common molecular pathways. Microarray analysis was employed to assay brain gene expression in postmortem anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC from 42 human cocaine, cannabis and/or phencyclidine abuse cases and 30 control cases, which were characterized by toxicology and drug abuse history. Common transcriptional changes were demonstrated for a majority of drug abuse cases (N = 34, representing a number of consistently changed functional classes: Calmodulin-related transcripts (CALM1, CALM2, CAMK2B were decreased, while transcripts related to cholesterol biosynthesis and trafficking (FDFT1, APOL2, SCARB1, and Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum (ER functions (SEMA3B, GCC1 were all increased. Quantitative PCR validated decreases in calmodulin 2 (CALM2 mRNA and increases in apolipoprotein L, 2 (APOL2 and semaphorin 3B (SEMA3B mRNA for individual cases. A comparison between control cases with and without cardiovascular disease and elevated body mass index indicated that these changes were not due to general cellular and metabolic stress, but appeared specific to the use of drugs. Therefore, humans who abused cocaine, cannabis and/or phencyclidine share a decrease in transcription of calmodulin-related genes and increased transcription related to lipid/cholesterol and Golgi/ER function. These changes represent common molecular features of drug abuse, which may underlie changes in synaptic function and plasticity that could have important ramifications for decision-making capabilities in drug abusers.

  16. Drug abuse in Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresanek, Jaroslav; Plackova, Silvia; Caganova, Blazena; Klobusicka, Zora

    2005-01-01

    The drug abusing structure has dramatically changed since 1989. While in 1989 the sniffing of the fluid drugs represented 98% of the global drug abuse, the most abused drugs were: heroin, marijuana, cocaine, amphetamine and its derivatives. During last 10 years situation with drug abuse has changed. Currently the most abused drugs: cannabinoides, amphetamines. The plant drugs (Datura stramonium, hallucinogenic mushrooms Psilocybe semilanceata, nutmeg--the seed of Myristica fragrans) combined with the alcohol are popular among the young abusers. According to an analysis of the phone consultations in our Toxicological Information Centre (TIC) we found out, that the number of intoxications with the plant drugs has increased five times during the last year (comparing with the year 2000), because of their easy availability, low price and quick spreading of information.

  17. ABUSE OF BOOT POLISH BY INGESTION: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Nigam, Anil K.; Srivastava, R. P.; Chavan, B.S.; Saxena, Shekhar

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY This case report describes the abuse of boot polish by inhalation and ingestion in a 32 year old patient who also had alcohol dependence. Pleasurable psychological effects, craving, active search for the substance and tolerance were present but withdrawal symptoms could not be demonstrated because of simultaneous alcohol dependence.

  18. Substance abuse co-morbidity in schizophrenia: An inpatient study of course and outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Aich, Tapas K.; Sinha, Vinod K.; Khess, Christoday R.J.; Singh, Shailja

    2005-01-01

    Background: Differences in opinion exist among researchers in relation to the course and outcome of substance abuse co-morbidity in schizophrenia. Aim: To compare the pattern of remission of symptoms in positive and negative schizophrenics with and without a history of substance abuse. Methods: Seventy schizophrenics were divided into two groups based on the history of presence or absence of substance abuse/dependence. Thirty-eight patients (54.3%) were diagnosed as having co-morbid alcohol/s...

  19. Treatment of drug abusers in Malaysia: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S H

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare two forms of treatment for heroin abusers in Malaysia--traditional medicine and institutional--and to evaluate which form of treatment the drug abusers consider more effective. The study involved interviewing 100 male drug abusers in Malaysia who had had treatment from an institution and from a traditional healer. The data revealed that traditional medicine was better for some abusers, but institutional treatment was better for others, depending upon an individual's own needs and personality. Advantages and disadvantages of both forms of treatment were given by those interviewed. The data can be used as guidelines for the development of a more flexible, individualized program within an institutional setting in Malaysia.

  20. Toxicological Analysis of Some Drugs of Abuse in Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Ciobanu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of drugs of abuse is a scourge of modern world. Abuse, drug addiction and their consequences are one of the major current problems of European society because of the significant repercussions in individual, family, social and economic level. In this context, toxicological analysis of the drugs of abuse in biological samples is a useful tool for: diagnosis of drug addiction, checking an auto-response, mandatory screening in some treatment programs, identification of a substance in the case of an overdose, determining compliance of the treatment. The present paper aims to address the needs of healthcare professionals involved in drugs addiction treatment through systematic presentation of information regarding their toxicological analysis. Basically, it is a tool that help you to select the suitable biological sample and the right collecting time, as well as the proper analysis technique, depending on the purpose of analysis, pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drugs of abuse, available equipment and staff expertise.

  1. Prevent elder abuse--using a family systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, G P

    1989-03-01

    1. Family stressors occur when the adult child is caregiver for an elderly parent, particularly when care is intensive or protracted. Under certain circumstances of high risk, severe and unresolved strains in intergenerational relationships can develop into elder abuse. 2. Elder abuse is a non-accidental act or omission that causes physical, psychological, or financial harm to an older person. 3. Using a family systems perspective, an original validated instrument is presented that evaluates the risk of elder abuse in the home (REAH). Using this instrument, the nurse can construct two profiles of 1) the older person, including personal data and dependency needs, and 2) the caregiver, including personal data and family dynamics. 4. The instrument provides a simple method for recognizing family strains and noting changes over time within the family system. Appropriate interventions and referrals can be initiated that may avert the crisis of elder abuse. PMID:2926101

  2. Therapeutic approach to sexual abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Furniss, T; Bingley-Miller, L; Bentovim, A

    1984-01-01

    An account is given of the development of a treatment project for sexually abused children and their families. We review incidence data which indicate that sexual abuse of children is likely to be a far more frequent problem than has been recognised and cause an appreciable degree of psychological damage. Professional responses to this are confused and treatment facilities limited. Sexual abuse is seen as an expression of severe relationship problems in the family and therapeutic provision is...

  3. Child abuse in panic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bonevski Dimitar; Novotni Antoni

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering...

  4. Chylothorax associated with child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Sato, Atsuo; Sato, Kodai; Nakamura, Kaori; Kitagawa, Norihiko; Tanoue, Koji; Shiro, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    We report a case of right chylothorax associated with physical abuse in a 10-month-old boy who presented with respiratory decompensation. Chylothorax was improved by thoracic drainage and nutrition management, such as fasting followed by medium-chain triglyceride milk. Chest computed tomography on admission showed bilateral old rib fractures. Accordingly, physical abuse was suspected. Chylothorax of unknown cause in infancy, especially in those with coexisting rib fractures, must be scrutinized for child abuse. PMID:26388541

  5. Early Detection of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Shearman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

  6. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  7. Substance abuse and rehabilitation: responding to the global burden of diseases attributable to substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Tzy Wu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu*Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA *Li-Tzy Wu is the Editor-in-Chief of Substance Abuse and RehabilitationAbstract: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use are pervasive throughout the world. Substance use problems are among the major contributors to the global disease burden, which includes disability and mortality. The benefits of treatment far outweigh the economic costs. Despite the availability of treatment services, however, the vast majority of people with substance use disorders do not seek or use treatment. Barriers to and unmet need for evidence-based treatment are widespread even in the United States. Women, adolescents, and young adults are especially vulnerable to adverse effects from substance abuse, but they face additional barriers to getting evidence-based treatment or other social/medical services. Substance use behaviors and the diseases attributable to substance use problems are preventable and modifiable. Yet the ever-changing patterns of substance use and associated problems require combined research and policy-making efforts from all parts of the world to establish a viable knowledge base to inform for prevention, risk-reduction intervention, effective use of evidence-based treatment, and rehabilitation for long-term recovery. The new international, open-access, peer-reviewed Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation (SAR journal strives to provide an effective platform for sharing ideas for solutions and disseminating research findings globally. Substance use behaviors and problems have no boundaries. The journal welcomes papers from all regions of the world that address any aspect of substance use, abuse/dependence, intervention, treatment, and policy. The “open-access” journal makes cutting edge knowledge freely available to practitioners and researchers worldwide, and this is particularly important for addressing

  8. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  9. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  10. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  11. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and drug abuse Alcohol ... Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites Consequences of the ...

  12. Fostering the Battered and Abused Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    1980-01-01

    This article describes a 20-hour, eight-week course for experienced foster parents. Goals include understanding the causes of child abuse, understanding the consequences of child abuse, and understanding the interaction patterns which provoke child abuse. (Author/DB)

  13. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome) KidsHealth > For Parents > Abusive Head ... babies tend to cry the most. How These Injuries Happen Abusive head trauma results from injuries caused ...

  14. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), alcohol abuse and other substance abuse ...

  15. Psychopathology among cocaine abusers entering treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, P H; Miller, A B; Millman, R B; Woody, G E; Todd, T; Kemp, J; Lipton, D S

    1990-07-01

    A number of different indicators of psychopathology were assessed in this study of 76 cocaine and crack abusers who entered outpatient treatment in New York City between June and December 1987. The majority (75%) had used cocaine for 4 years or more, and the majority (62%) spent over one thousand dollars a month on cocaine in the 6 months before entry into treatment. Forty-seven percent of the sample were found to be clinically depressed. Phobic disorders were the only other axis I diagnoses found in addition to depression, and all persons who were found to have phobic disorders also were diagnosed as having some form of depressive disorder. The four most common axis II diagnoses were antisocial personality (21%), passive-aggressive (21%), borderline (18%) and self-defeating (18%). Subjects were classified as falling into one of the following three categories of a newly developed "psychopathology classification": a) no diagnosed psychopathology except substance abuse or dependency; b) one or more axis II diagnoses, but no axis I diagnoses except for substance abuse or dependency; c) at least one axis I diagnosis in addition to drug disorders whether or not accompanied by an axis II diagnosis. Mean scores on subscales and total score on the SCL-90, as well as total score on the Beck Depression Inventory, were ordered by category of the classification scheme, with those having no diagnosed psychopathology except substance abuse having the lowest score and persons in the third category having the highest score.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2366058

  16. Early childhood sexual abuse increases suicidal intent

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K.; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated...

  17. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    normal intelligence adolescents with behavioral disorders. Risk factors that increase the chances of developing either simple or more complicated types of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation have been found to be based on individual, family and social levels. On the other hand, the individual characteristics of adolescents (intellectual level, attention capacity, understandable linguistic expression, overall progress until adolescence), the existence of a supportive family environment and the presence of social support and awareness through the creation of special counseling, education and medical services, are the most important protective factors which contribute to the prevention of several forms of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation. For the writing of the literature review, the following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The key words used were: Intellectual Disability, Behavioral disorders, Adolescents, Mental Retardation, Learning disabilities, Developmental Disabilities, Disruptive behaviour disorders, Conduct disorder, Substance Abuse, Substance Misuse, Oppositional defiant disorder, Alcohol and illicit drug use, Smoking Use, Young people, Teenagers, Youths.

  18. 16 CFR 23.3 - Misuse of the terms “hand-made,” “hand-polished,” etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.3 Misuse of the terms “hand... bulk sheet, strip, wire, and similar items that have not been cut, shaped, or formed into jewelry...

  19. Opportunities for computer abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willison, Robert Andrew; Backhouse, James

    2005-01-01

    Systems risk refers to the likelihood that an IS is inadequately guarded against certain types of damage or loss. While risks are posed by acts of God, hackers and viruses, consideration should also be given to the `insider' threat of dishonest employees, intent on undertaking some form of computer...... for the offender. To achieve this goal a model known as the `Crime Specific Opportunity Structure' is advanced. Focussing on the opportunities for computer abuse, the model addresses the nature of such opportunities with regards to the organisational context and the threats posed by rogue employees. Drawing...

  20. Abusing National Privilege

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As U.S. mortgage finance giants-Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac-try to sell their huge backlog of foreclosed homes, they face foreclosures themselves as the U.S. Government contemplates cutting their government-backed support as indicated by a white paper issued by the Obama administration in February. Zhang Monan, an associate research fellow with the State Information Center, said the downfall of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac is the result of abuses of privileges the two companies have enjoyed since their inception.

  1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Response, and Recovery Health Care and Health Systems Integration Health Disparities Health Financing Health Information Technology HIV, AIDS, and Viral Hepatitis Homelessness and Housing Laws, Regulations, and Guidelines Mental and Substance Use Disorders Prescription Drug Misuse and ...

  2. Intention and Willingness in Understanding Ritalin Misuse Among Iranian Medical College Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Jalilian, Farzad; Ataee, Mari; Alavijeh, Mehdi Mirzaei; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Afsar, Ali; Aghaei, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Ritalin misuse can create powerful stimulant effects and serious health risks. The main aim of present study was compared that two cognitive construct (behavioral intention or behavioral willingness) for predicting Ritalin misuse. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 264 Iranian medical college students; participants selected in random sampling, and data were collected by using self-report questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 at 95% significant level. Our findings sh...

  3. Primary care providers' judgments of opioid analgesic misuse in a community-based cohort of HIV-infected indigent adults

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayaraghavan, M.; Penko, J; D. Guzman; Miaskowski, C; Kushel, MB

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary care providers (PCPs) must balance treatment of chronic non-cancer pain with opioid analgesics with concerns about opioid misuse. OBJECTIVE: We co-enrolled community-based indigent adults and their PCPs to determine PCPs' accuracy of estimating opioid analgesic misuse and illicit substance use. DESIGN: Patient-provider dyad study. PARTICIPANTS: HIV-infected, community-based indigent adults ('patients') and their PCPs. MAIN MEASURES: Using structured interviews, we queried ...

  4. Perceived differences in self-reported problems with sexual harassment, racial prejudice, and drug misuse amoung USNA varsity athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Tamulevich, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis examines perceptions regarding sexual harassment, racial prejudice and drug misuse among USNA varsity athletes. Based on previous research, it was hypothesized that both gender and minority status would be predictive of perceptions regarding these behaviors among midshipmen and midshipmen athletes. The thesis also explores the relationship between indicators of athletic participation and experiences and perceptions regarding sexual harassment, racial prejudice and drug misuse. Dat...

  5. Functional and Structural Brain Changes Associated with Methamphetamine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce R. Russell

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA is a potent psychostimulant drug whose abuse has become a global epidemic in recent years. Firstly, this review article briefly discusses the epidemiology and clinical pharmacology of methamphetamine dependence. Secondly, the article reviews relevant animal literature modeling methamphetamine dependence and discusses possible mechanisms of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Thirdly, it provides a critical review of functional and structural neuroimaging studies in human MA abusers; including positron emission tomography (PET and functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The effect of abstinence from methamphetamine, both short- and long-term within the context of these studies is also reviewed.

  6. Analysis of drug abuse data reported by medical institutions in Taiwan from 2002 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui Hsu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse has become a global issue of concern. It affects not only individual users, but also their families and communities. Data were retrieved from the database of the Taiwan Surveillance System of Drug Abuse and Addiction Treatment (SSDAAT from 2002 to 2011, and 147,660 cases reported by medical institutions in Taiwan were reviewed. This study showed that the top five reported abused drugs by medical institutions during the last decade were heroin, methamphetamine, benzodiazepines, ketamine, and zolpidem. Heroin and methamphetamine continued to be the first two abused drugs reported by medical institutions. Heroin abuse was significant, but has shown a downward trend. However, emerging abused drugs, such as ketamine and zolpidem, presented upward trends. 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA abuse seems to have re-emerged and has increased gradually since 2010. Injection without needle sharing has become the most common route of administration of abused drugs since 2002. The majority of causes for these reported drug abuses were drug dependence, followed by peer influence and stress relief. Hepatitis C was the most commonly reported infectious disease, followed by hepatitis B and AIDS in the drug abusers reported by medical institutions. It should be noted that access to drugs via the Internet increased year by year, and this is clearly an area needing constant monitoring.

  7. Misuse of "Power" and Other Mechanical Terms in Sport and Exercise Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Edward M; Abt, Grant; Brookes, F B Carl; Challis, John H; Fowler, Neil E; Knudson, Duane V; Knuttgen, Howard G; Kraemer, William J; Lane, Andrew M; van Mechelen, Willem; Morton, R Hugh; Newton, Robert U; Williams, Clyde; Yeadon, M R

    2016-01-01

    Despite the Système International d'Unitès (SI) that was published in 1960, there continues to be widespread misuse of the terms and nomenclature of mechanics in descriptions of exercise performance. Misuse applies principally to failure to distinguish between mass and weight, velocity and speed, and especially the terms "work" and "power." These terms are incorrectly applied across the spectrum from high-intensity short-duration to long-duration endurance exercise. This review identifies these misapplications and proposes solutions. Solutions include adoption of the term "intensity" in descriptions and categorizations of challenge imposed on an individual as they perform exercise, followed by correct use of SI terms and units appropriate to the specific kind of exercise performed. Such adoption must occur by authors and reviewers of sport and exercise research reports to satisfy the principles and practices of science and for the field to advance.

  8. [Prophylaxis of substance abuse in the Armed Forces: organization and performance of screening. Problem of substance dependence disorders is the actual for many countries in the world and affects on health of servicemen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisun, A Ia; Kuvshinov, K É; Shamreĭ, V K; Alekseev, V V; Goncharenko, A Iu; Pastushenkov, A V; Tikhenko, V V

    2014-03-01

    Due to this fact specialists underline the necessity of implementation of constant drug testing system of servicemen. The most effective researches individuals suffering from substance abuse are sample and control survey. Promising areas of prevention of addictive disease include the use of modem technologies for early detection of drug narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, using the psychophysiological and laboratory techniques. The most common rapid laboratory procedure is the use of test strips (tablets) based immunoassay analysis. To facilitate the evaluation of the results is increasingly incorporated hardware and software systems based on photometric detection. The work done on the testing of such complexes allowed us to determine the algorithm of screening soldiers to assess the effectiveness of various hardware and software systems and identify promising technologies to identify individuals with addictive disorders.

  9. Ethics and Undertreatment of Pain in Patients with a History of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Brooke Faria

    2015-01-01

    Patients with substance abuse history make up 14% of inpatient admissions to acute care units, where it has been reported a great deal of patient pain is unrelieved (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration [SAMHSA], 2009. Definitions of substance abuse terms including tolerance, dependence, addiction, and pseudoaddiction are essential to a nurse's understanding of pain medication administration in patients with substance abuse history. Pain management is one of the nurse's main responsibilities, and using the principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice can guide the nurse to making appropriate pain management decisions for and with these patients. Nursing implications and resources for more information are discussed.

  10. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  11. Marijuana abuse and bullous emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Harsh Golwala

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana abuse has been on an increasing trend worldwide in the last decade. We hereby report a case of severe bullous emphysema resulting in pneumothorax in a patient with few years of marijuana abuse. We also review the major conditions in the differential diagnosis of bullous emphysema in adults.

  12. Caregiver Stress and Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how to report it: The National Center on Elder Abuse 1225 I Street, N.W., Suite 725 Phone: (202) 898-2586 Washington, D.C. 20005 Email: NCEA@nasua.org http://www.elderabusecenter.org National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse 1101 Vermont Ave. NW, Suite 1000 Phone: ( ...

  13. Elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inger Plaisier; Mirjam de Klerk

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Ouderenmishandeling in Nederland It is twenty years since the last study was carried out on the number of older persons in the Netherlands who are deliberate or accidental victims of abuse in the form of verbal, physical or sexual violence, financial abuse and/or neglect by those o

  14. Personality Development Following Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Liz; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The follow-up study evaluated 37 girls and 12 boys (aged 5-19 years) who had been sexually abused an average of 2.6 years previously. Results found that, compared to control children, abused children had less confidence, fewer friends, more aggression, increased sexual awareness, and more behavior and academic problems. (Author/JDD)

  15. The abuse of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different aspects of possible abuse of nuclear power by countries or individuals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the advantage of nuclear power, despite the risk of weapon proliferation or terrorism. The concepts of some nuclear power critics, concerning health risks in the nuclear sector are rejected as untrue and abusive

  16. Impact of Remembering Childhood Sexual Abuse on Addiction Recovery for Young Adult Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Christina R.; Brooks-Livingston, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of childhood sexual abuse on young adult lesbians' sexual identity and their recovery from chemical dependency. The authors recommend that counselors assess for sexual orientation (past and present), sexual abuse, and possible dual diagnosis. Implications for counselors are discussed.

  17. Interviewing Children versus Tossing Coins: Accurately Assessing the Diagnosticity of Children's Disclosures of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Scurich, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian approach to evaluating children's abuse disclosures and review research demonstrating that children's disclosure of genital touch can be highly probative of sexual abuse, with the probative value depending on disclosure spontaneity and children's age. We discuss how some commentators understate the probative value of…

  18. A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Association between School Bullying Victimization and Substance Misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jun Sung; Davis, Jordan P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Yoon, Jina; Choi, Shinwoo; Smith, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews current research findings and presents a conceptual framework for better understanding the relationship between bullying victimization (hereafter referred to as victimization) and substance misuse (hereafter referred to as SM) among adolescents. Although victimization and SM may appear to be separate problems, research suggests an intriguing relationship between the two. We present a brief, empirical overview of the direct association between victimization and adolescent ...

  19. Self medication: a potentially avoidable cause of antibiotic misuse and resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Anant D Patil

    2013-01-01

    I read the article by Chawla S et al on buying patterns of drugs from pharmacies in Northern India with interest. Overall self medication was reported by close to one third (35.7%) study population. The results prompted me to write about burden of antibiotic self medication and measures to tackle this serious issue. Self medication with antibiotics is concern not only in India; several studies from different parts of world have shown antibiotics being misused and commonly consumed without pre...

  20. Possibilities of the misuse of chemical poisonous substance against civil population

    OpenAIRE

    SVOZILOVÁ, Jana

    2007-01-01

    There are numberless possibilities of how to misuse combat poisonous substances against a civilian population. In my bachelor work I dealt with a standard of a civilian population{\\crq}s protection after a terrorist attack with a use of one of the chosen nerve paralytic substances (NPS), and an ability of an integrated rescue system (IRS) how to solve this incurred situation. Nerve paralytic substance (NPS) belong to combat poisonous substances and they are characterized by its high toxicity....