... violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... 2016. National Domestic Violence Hotline website. What is domestic violence? www.thehotline.org/is-this-abuse/abuse-defined . Accessed July 10, 2016.
Zilberman, Monica L; Blume, Sheila B
Domestic violence and substance abuse are common in primary care patients. Although these problems are associated with severe physical and psychological sequelae, they are often undiagnosed. This article provides an overview of the prevalence of these problems, the health-related consequences for adults, children and elderly, as well as the challenges for clinicians in screening, assessment and referral.
Trevillion, Kylee; Corker, Elizabeth; Capron, Lauren E; Oram, Siân
Domestic violence and abuse is a considerable international public health problem, which is associated with mental disorders in both women and men. Nevertheless, victimization and perpetration remain undetected by mental health services. This paper reviews the evidence on mental health service responses to domestic violence, including identifying, referring, and providing care for people experiencing or perpetrating violence. The review highlights the need for mental health services to improve rates of identification and responses to domestic violence and abuse, through the provision of specific training on domestic violence and abuse, the implementation of clear information sharing protocols and evidence-based interventions, and the establishment of care referral pathways. This review also highlights the need for further research into mental health service users who perpetrate domestic violence and abuse.
Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...
Haeseler, Lisa Ann
Through this phenomenological case study the author investigates the experience of coping by women in the spectrum of domestic violence abuse. An ecological view of women's coping is critically reviewed. Women of abuse cope with many factors simultaneously in their lives as there are numerous, multifaceted, and diverse issues that comprise and contribute to an abusive situation. Eight providers from four different agencies, two providers per agency, describe the coping experiences of women both in and out of the abusive situation. Study results corroborate with research and demonstrate that women's coping, both in and out of the abusive relationship is unique and complex.
Since the 1960s, there has been growing awareness regarding the issue of domestic violence as a form of violence against women, which has been largely influenced by the work of feminist activist and scholars in North America and Europe (Dobash and Dobash 1992). Other terms have been used to describe the same phenomenon, including domestic abuse, spousal abuse, wife battering, marital violence, intimate partner violence. Though there is no doubt that this problem has existed for much more than...
Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Recupero, Patricia R.; Stuart, Gregory L.
Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence was examined. 41% (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 3.0% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend towards a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration. PMID:25324474
Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Recupero, Patricia R; Stuart, Gregory L
Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV), perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence were examined. Forty-one percent (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 1.5% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend toward a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration. © The Author(s) 2014.
Riger, Stephanie; Bennett, Larry W; Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig
Substance abuse commonly co-occurs with intimate partner violence among both perpetrators and survivors. Specialized courts that focus on intimate partner violence provide a unique opportunity to address both problems simultaneously, but research has yet to identify whether this happens. In this qualitative study of a domestic violence court in a large midwestern metropolitan area, key informants were interviewed to understand how the Court treats substance abuse. Results indicate that substance abuse typically is not identified among perpetrators or survivors going through the Court unless it is mentioned in a police report. Barriers to such identification are the organization of the Court, bounded definition of actors' roles in the Court, limited resources, and negative attitudes towards survivors. These results suggest that specialized courts that attend to only one problem may overlook the possibility of addressing issues that commonly co-occur.
The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of clinical staff in responding to disclosure of domestic violence and abuse, and to evaluate the effectiveness of training and support provided by a dedicated Domestic Abuse Nurse Specialist across one acute National Health Service Trust in the UK. The impact of domestic violence and abuse is well documented and is far reaching. Health care professionals have a key role to play in the effective identification and management of abuse across a range of settings. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the constituents of effective support for practitioners within wider nonemergency hospital-based services. A qualitative approach semi-structured interviews (n = 11) with clinical staff based in one acute care Trust in the UK. Interviews were informed by an interview guide and analysed using the Framework approach. The organisation of the nurse specialist role facilitated a more cohesive approach to management at an organisational level with training and ongoing support identified as key facets of the role by practitioners. Time constraints were apparent in terms of staff training and this raises questions with regard to the status continuing professional development around domestic violence and abuse. Domestic violence and abuse continues to exert a significant and detrimental impact on the lives and health of those who encounter abuse. Health care services in the UK and globally are increasingly on the frontline in terms of identification and management of domestic violence and abuse. This is coupled with the growing recognition of the need for adequate support structures to be in place to facilitate practitioners in providing effective care for survivors of domestic violence and abuse. This study provides an approach to the expansion of existing models and one which has the potential for further exploration and application in similar settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Selek, Salih; Vural, Mehmet; Cakmak, Ilknur
Our aim was to evaluate domestic violence among nurses in eastern Turkey. Ninety six (96) female nurses with an intimate partner were enrolled. Modified form of Abuse Assessment Screen Questionnaire was used. Twenty two (22.7%) of the participants reported domestic violence. None of them took legal steps. Most frequent domestic violence type was economic abuse (46%). Nurses, whose mothers were exposed to domestic violence, had significantly higher abuse rates. The abused group had also significantly higher smoking and miscarriage rates. Nurses need to be well informed for taking legal steps in case of domestic violence. Family history, smoking status and abortion rates may be further research focus for risk factors of domestic violence. Legal interventions should be optimized in order to encourage the victims to take legal steps.
Berry, Vashti Louise; Stanley, Nicky; Radford, Lorraine; McCarry, Melanie; Larkins, Cath
Independent researchers from the Connect Centre for International Research on Interpersonal Violence based in the School of Social Work at the University of Central Lancashire were commissioned by the Welsh Government in 2013 to conduct research into violence against women, domestic abuse and sexual violence services in Wales. The research aimed to inform the forthcoming Ending Violence Against Women and Domestic Abuse (Wales) Bill, implementation of the legislation and future policy more gen...
Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.
Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…
Callaghan, Jane E M; Alexander, Joanne H; Sixsmith, Judith; Fellin, Lisa Chiara
Children's experiences and voices are underrepresented in academic literature and professional practice around domestic violence and abuse. The project "Understanding Agency and Resistance Strategies" (UNARS) addresses this absence, through direct engagement with children. We present an analysis from interviews with 21 children in the United Kingdom (12 girls and 9 boys, aged 8-18 years), about their experiences of domestic violence and abuse, and their responses to this violence. These interviews were analyzed using interpretive interactionism. Three themes from this analysis are presented: (a) "Children's experiences of abusive control," which explores children's awareness of controlling behavior by the adult perpetrator, their experience of that control, and its impact on them; (b) "Constraint," which explores how children experience the constraint associated with coercive control in situations of domestic violence; and (c) "Children as agents," which explores children's strategies for managing controlling behavior in their home and in family relationships. The article argues that, in situations where violence and abuse occur between adult intimate partners, children are significantly affected, and can be reasonably described as victims of abusive control. Recognizing children as direct victims of domestic violence and abuse would produce significant changes in the way professionals respond to them, by (a) recognizing children's experience of the impact of domestic violence and abuse; (b) recognizing children's agency, undermining the perception of them as passive "witnesses" or "collateral damage" in adult abusive encounters; and (c) strengthening professional responses to them as direct victims, not as passive witnesses to violence. © The Author(s) 2015.
Domestic violence, spouse abuse, and battering all refer to the victimization of a person with whom the abuser has or has had an intimate relationship. Domestic violence may take the form of physical, sexual and psychological abuse, is generally repeated, and often escalates within relationships. Most evidence indicates that domestic violence is predominantly perpetrated by men against women. Some evidence suggests that women are just as likely to use violence against male partners as men are...
Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G
Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.
Martin, Sandra L; Moracco, Kathryn E; Chang, Judy C; Council, Carol L; Dulli, Lisa S
This article discusses the results of a survey of North Carolina domestic violence programs that found that substance abuse problems are common among program clients, yet only half of the programs had policies concerning substance-abusing clients, and one fourth had memoranda of agreement with substance abuse treatment providers. Most programs with shelters asked clients about substance use; however, one third of the shelters would not admit women if they were noticeably under the influence of substances while seeking shelter residence, instead referring them to substance abuse programs. Approximately one tenth of the domestic violence programs did not have any staff or volunteers with training in substance abuse issues. Implications are discussed.
Chartas, Nicole D.; Culbreth, John R.
This study explored the philosophical issues hindering the linkage of substance abuse and domestic violence treatment. Results suggest that counselors tend to use treatment models that could not concurrently assign responsibility and address either present or past victimization. (Author)
Volant, Anne M; Johnson, Judy A; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J
Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the community took part in the study. Significantly higher rates of partner pet abuse, partner threats of pet abuse, and pet abuse by other family members were found in the violent families compared with the nondomestic violence group. As hypothesized, children from the violent families were reported by their mothers to have witnessed and committed significantly more animal abuse than children from the nonviolent families. Logistic regression analyses revealed, for the group as a whole, that a woman whose partner had threatened the pets was 5 times more likely to belong to the intimate partner violence group.
Lokhmatkina, Natalia V; Feder, Gene; Blake, Sarah; Morris, Richard; Powers, Victoria; Lightman, Stafford
Background Domestic violence and abuse is threatening behavior, violence/abuse used by one person to control the other within an intimate or family-type relationship. Women experience more severe physical and sexual domestic violence and abuse and more mental health consequences than men. The current study aims at exploring of the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity in abuse impact on women's mental health. Study objectives: 1) To evaluate diurnal cortisol slope, corti...
The article analyzes the portrayal of the male perpetrator of heterosexual domestic violence in a selection of contemporary Spanish texts (novel, drama, and autobiography) that form part of a clearly discernible cultural response to the issue of intimate partner violence in Spain today. It reads the figure of the abuser in conjunction with a range…
Scott, Melanie C; Easton, Caroline J
It is unclear whether racial differences in treatment effect exist for individuals in substance abuse and domestic violence programs. This study examined racial differences in treatment effect among substance dependent Caucasian and African-American male intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders court mandated to an integrated substance abuse and domestic violence treatment. From baseline to completion of treatment (week 12), 75 participants (39 Caucasian; 36 African-American) were assessed on demographics, substance use, legal characteristics, and use of violence (physical, verbal, and psychological). African-American men served more months incarcerated in their life than Caucasian men. Both groups showed decreases in their use of physical violence and alcohol abuse over treatment. Caucasian men also showed a decrease in their use of verbal abuse. At treatment completion, both groups showed a reduction in physical abuse and alcohol abuse. Caucasian men showed a reduction in their use of verbal abuse, but African-American men did not. Substance dependent African-American male IPV offenders may benefit from interventions that thoroughly target communication skills in addition to issues of substance abuse and IPV to reduce use of verbal abuse and improve treatment outcomes among African American men.
Ullah Akm Ahsan
Full Text Available This paper explores various abuses Foreign Domestic Helpers (FDHs or migrant domestic workers (MDW in Hong Kong suffer and the strategies they take up to cope with this abuse. Data were collected from 215 domestic helpers (135 from the Philippines, 30 from Thailand, 41 from Indonesia, and 9 from Sri Lanka all of whom had been in residence for at least six months. Selected by snow-balling technique, respondents were interviewed with structured and non-structured questionnaires. Research shows that sexual abuse is the most common form of abuse against MDWs followed by psychological and physical abuses. Female employers are the main perpetuators of psychological abuse while the male employers are culpable for sexual abuses. Coping strategies varied widely among the MDWs. Many of them endure the violence to keep the job; some quit the job and others struggle with the decision to stay or quit.
Domestic violence The present thesis deals with the phenomenon of domestic violence, from the substantive, procedural and criminological aspects. The first part defines the specifics of domestic violence, its signs and forms. It shows a typology of victims and perpetrators. It analyzes in detail the basic facts of the crimes that are the most commonly perpetrated forms of domestic violence. It also describes the sanctions and some of the treatment programs that are available for perpetrators ...
Hegarty, K; Roberts, G
We systematically reviewed studies of the prevalence of domestic violence. Selected overseas community studies were compared with all Australian prevalence studies found to be published. Twelve-month prevalence estimates of partner abuse in Australia varied from 2.1 per cent to 28.0 per cent, depending mainly on the definition of domestic violence used in each study. Implications of the lack of a precise definition result in varying operationalised definitions of partner abuse, from all types of violence in relationships (including a single minor violent incident), through to only those violent incidents that are classified as a crime. Recommendations for any future prevalence studies in this field include the need to collect frequency data which reflected the fact that partner abuse against women is a complex behavioural phenomenon involving emotional, physical and sexual abuse against a partner, not just simply physical incidents.
Ascione, Frank R; Weber, Claudia V; Thompson, Teresa M; Heath, John; Maruyama, Mika; Hayashi, Kentaro
Women residing at domestic violence shelters (S group) were nearly 11 times more likely to report that their partner had hurt or killed pets than a comparison group of women who said they had not experienced intimate violence (NS group). Reports of threatened harm to pets were more than 4 times higher for the S group. Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, the authors demonstrated that severe physical violence was a significant predictor of pet abuse. The vast majority of shelter women described being emotionally close to their pets and distraught by the abuse family pets experienced. Children were often exposed to pet abuse, and most reported being distressed by these experiences. A substantial minority of S-group women reported that their concern for their pets' welfare prevented them from seeking shelter sooner. This seemed truer for women without children, who may have had stronger pet attachments. This obstacle to seeking safety should be addressed by domestic violence agencies.
Essential facts The government's definition of domestic violence and abuse, published in 2016 by the Home Office, is: 'Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those 16 years or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality.'
Krienert, Jessie L; Walsh, Jeffrey A; Matthews, Kevin; McConkey, Kelly
Companion animals play a complex role in families impacted by violence. An outlet of emotional support for victims, the family pet often becomes a target for physical abuse. Results from a comprehensive e-survey of domestic violence shelters nationwide (N = 767) highlight both improvements and existing gaps in service provision for domestic violence victims and their pets. Quantitative and qualitative data noted frequently encountered obstacles to successful shelter seeking by abuse victims with companion animals including a lack of availability, funding, space, and reliable programming. Although results indicate an overall improvement in organizational awareness, fewer than half of surveyed shelters include intake questions about animals. Continued awareness and an expansion of services is needed to create viable safety planning strategies and reliable alternatives for women with companion animals in order to improve the likelihood that abuse victims will seek escape and refuge for themselves, their children, and their pets.
Across the Global North, adolescent-to-parent abuse (APA) is becoming recognized as a significant social problem and is receiving attention from researchers, policymakers, and practitioners who work in the intersecting fields of juvenile justice, child protection, and domestic violence. One of the key questions shaping current debates concerns the extent to which APA maps onto the contours of domestic violence, in terms of research and theory, policy, and practice. In particular, to what extent can our established ways of working with domestic violence be applied when working with APA? This article begins by reviewing definitions and prevalence rates of APA. It then considers how the problem fits into the "family conflicts" and "gender-based violence" paradigms that are most frequently used to conceptualize domestic violence. The article then examines how APA represents a similar but distinct phenomenon to adult-instigated domestic violence and identifies how its departures represent particular challenges in working toward its elimination. The article concludes by reviewing intervention programs that work with APA and exploring some of the ways in which they adopt and reject elements of good practice from the domestic violence practice field. © The Author(s) 2015.
Cohn, Amy; Najavits, Lisa M
Victimization by and perpetration of domestic violence are associated with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders. This study used data from the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services to examine differences in organizational factors, treatment approaches offered, and client-level factors among 13,342 substance abuse treatment facilities by whether or not they offered domestic violence services. Only 36% of the facilities offered domestic violence services. Those that offered such services were more likely than those that did not to treat clients with co-occurring disorders. Principal-components analysis reduced eight treatment approaches to two factors: psychosocial services and traditional substance abuse services. Regression models indicated that the frequency with which psychosocial services were offered depended on the percentage of clients with co-occurring disorders who were being treated in the facility and whether or not that facility offered domestic violence services. Specifically, facilities that did not offer domestic violence services and that had a high percentage of clients with co-occurring disorders were more likely to offer psychosocial services than facilities that offered domestic violence services. A larger proportion of facilities offering domestic violence services offered traditional substance abuse treatment services, compared with facilities not offering domestic violence services, but this relationship was not contingent on the percentage of clients with co-occurring disorders at each facility. Improved efforts should be made to tailor treatments to accommodate the links between domestic violence, mental disorders, and substance abuse.
Full Text Available Background & Aims: Violence against wives has been one of the things that are of interest to researchers, sociologists and psychologists. In all countries, despite the social and economic and cultural differences between them, Domestic violence occurs by husbands. It encompasses any behavior between them in close relationship. It causes physical, psychological and sexual abuse. Therefore this study is aimed to impact of social factors effective in the incidence of domestic violence in the Tehranian families who are referred to the parks. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive - analytical. The data collection tools are questionnaires. The questionnaires consist of 4 parts: Demographic data, physical, Sexual and psychological violence. Then 224 persons of married women referring to Tehran parks were completed these questionnaires, so data were analyzed by SPPS software (version 16 using descriptive, inferential statistics. Results: 33.6% of women participating in the study have experienced physical violence at least one during the last year, also between variables female age, remarried women, Gender of children, who Have adopted children, income, property, A separate bank account, type of married are significant relationship with violence. Conclusion: Economic problem, low education and type of job connected to Domestic violence. To combat of domestic violence as a global challenge, should be promoted the men's knowledge about women's rights and educated couple before marriage about their right and created an environment and support and counseling services and psychotherapy for individuals who are victims of violence.
Faramarzi, M; Esmailzadeh, S; Mosavi, S
To examine the effects of women's subjective definitions of wife abuse and of their general attitudes to acceptance of male dominance on the occurrence of domestic violence. A case-control survey was conducted in the public health center of Babol University of Medical Sciences from November 2002 to October 2003. The Abuse Assessment Screen Form was used to identify partner violence, and the Abuse Definition Form and Abuse Attitude Form were applied to measure how the women defined wife abuse and their attitudes to male dominance. Women with positive attitudes to male dominance had experienced more physical and emotional abuse than those with negative attitudes toward male dominance (p family income were important risk factors for domestic violence, the strongest predictor of physical abuse was a positive attitude to male dominance. A positive attitude of women to male dominance increases the acceptance and frequency of partner violence. This finding shows the need to raise the educational levels of women and raise their awareness of their rights. This could convert an attitude of male dominance to equality of men and women.
Swift, Charlotte; Waites, Erin; Goodman, Wendy
Background: Domestic violence abuse (DVA) has been identified by the UK Government as a priority to address. Whilst there is a growing body of research into perpetrators of DVA from the mainstream population, there is scant research into perpetrators of DVA who have an intellectual disability. This lack of an evidence base suggests there may be a…
Cook, Paddy; Gartner, Constance Grant; Markl, Lise; Henderson, Randi; Brooks, Margaret K.; Wesson, Donald; Dogoloff, Mary Lou; Vitzthum, Virginia; Hayes, Elizabeth
The major goal of this TIP, on the best practice guidelines to improve the treatment of substance abuse, is to provide clinicians, educators, and paraprofessionals with the latest findings concerning domestic violence. The information is intended to educate providers about the needs and behaviors of batterers and survivors, and how to tailor…
Hinsliff-Smith, Kathryn; McGarry, Julie
To identify, review and critically evaluate published empirical studies concerned with the prevalence, management and support for survivors of domestic violence and abuse who present at emergency department. Domestic violence and abuse is a global phenomenon with a wealth of studies that explore the different aspects of the issue including the economic, social and health effects on survivors and on society as a whole. Emergency department is widely recognised as one healthcare facility where domestic violence and abuse survivors will often disclose domestic violence and abuse. In the UK, National Institute of Clinical Excellence produced guidelines in 2014 requiring all sectors of health care and those they work alongside to recognise support and manage survivors of domestic violence and abuse. Whilst there is an increasing body of research on domestic violence and abuse, limited synthesised work has been conducted in the context of domestic violence and abuse within emergency department. This review encompasses empirical studies conducted in emergency department for screening interventions, management and support for domestic violence and abuse patients including prevalence. This review included studies that included emergency department staff, emergency department service users and domestic violence and abuse survivors. A systematic approach across five electronic bibliographic databases found 35 studies meeting the inclusion criteria published between 2000-2015. From the 35 studies, four descriptive overarching themes were identified (i) prevalence of domestic violence and abuse in emergency department, (ii) use of domestic violence and abuse screening tools and emergency department interventions, (iii) current obstacles for staff working in emergency department and (iv) emergency department users and survivor perspectives. Having knowledgeable and supportive emergency department staff can have a positive benefit for the longer-term health of the domestic
Foshee, Vangie A; Dixon, Kimberly S; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael; Chang, Ling-Yin; Moss, Jennifer L
Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at increased risk of dating abuse, yet no evaluated dating abuse prevention programs have been designed specifically for this high-risk population. This article describes the process of adapting Families for Safe Dates (FSD), an evidenced-based universal dating abuse prevention program, to this high-risk population, including conducting 12 focus groups and 107 interviews with the target audience. FSD includes six booklets of dating abuse prevention information, and activities for parents and adolescents to do together at home. We adapted FSD for mothers who were victims of domestic violence, but who no longer lived with the abuser, to do with their adolescents who had been exposed to the violence. Through the adaptation process, we learned that families liked the program structure and valued being offered the program and that some of our initial assumptions about this population were incorrect. We identified practices and beliefs of mother victims and attributes of these adolescents that might increase their risk of dating abuse that we had not previously considered. In addition, we learned that some of the content of the original program generated negative family interactions for some. The findings demonstrate the utility of using a careful process to adapt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to cultural sub-groups, particularly the importance of obtaining feedback on the program from the target audience. Others can follow this process to adapt EBIs to groups other than the ones for which the original EBI was designed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Yamawaki, Niwako; Ochoa-Shipp, Monica; Pulsipher, Craig; Harlos, Andrew; Swindler, Scott
Researchers in this study examined the attitudes toward domestic violence, the victim, and her perpetrator. A total of 194 participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 hypothetical scenarios to evaluate how observers' perceptions were influenced by their own sex and myths about domestic violence, by the victim's decision to return to the…
Surianti Sukeri, PhD
Full Text Available Objectives: This qualitative study aims to discover the factors that influenced the decisions of women who successfully escaped domestic violence by attaining a divorce. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 women, ages 21-56 who were either divorced or currently in the process of getting divorced in Kelantan, Malaysia. Results: Several themes emerged, indicating the following five reasons for divorce: 1 reaching the point of ultimatum, 2 having adequate support pre- and post-divorce, 3 concern for children's welfare, 4 seeking financial independence, and 5 fear of harm. Conclusion: The identification of the driving factors for divorce may spark a change in our society's mindset to empower female divorcees and allow them to lead happy, abuse-free lives. Keywords: Divorce, Domestic violence, In-depth interview, Malaysia
In this article we pay attention to the violence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society – physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances. PMID:26973948
A Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing the Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Substance-Dependent Domestic Violence Offenders: An Integrated Substance Abuse-Domestic Violence Treatment Approach (SADV).
Easton, Caroline J; Crane, Cory A; Mandel, Dolores
The current study evaluates a therapy for substance-dependent perpetrators of partner violence. Sixty-three males arrested for partner violence within the past year were randomized to a cognitive behavioral substance abuse-domestic violence (SADV; n = 29) or a drug counseling (DC; n = 34) condition. Seventy percent of offenders completed eight core sessions with no differences between SADV and DC conditions in the amount of substance or aggression at pretreatment. SADV participants had fewer cocaine-positive toxicology screens and breathalyzer results during treatment, were less likely to engage in aggressive behavior proximal to a drinking episode, and reported fewer episodes of violence than DC participants at posttreatment follow-up. SADV shows promise in decreasing addiction and partner violence among substance-dependent male offenders. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J
Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects.
Macy, Rebecca J; Goodbourn, Melissa
Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization are more likely to struggle with substance abuse problems than are women who do not experience IPV. Given the connection between IPV victimization and substance abuse, recommended practices urge collaboration between domestic violence service agencies and substance abuse treatment agencies to provide comprehensive services for women with these co-occurring problems. However, domestic violence and substance abuse services have unique histories of development that have led to distinct ways of service delivery. To promote successful collaborations, service providers and researchers are developing strategies to foster relationships across the two service sectors. The authors conducted a review of this emerging body of knowledge with the aim of assembling recommendations for strategies to foster collaboration between domestic violence and substance abuse services. The authors identified 15 documents for review inclusion and our analysis established 5 categories of documents. Findings yield key collaboration strategies and recommended service models. In addition, the review determined the existence of considerable challenges to promoting collaborative relationships between domestic violence and substance abuse treatment service sectors.
Murphy-Edwards, Latesha; van Heugten, Kate
This article reports on the qualitative phase of mixed method research conducted in a medium-size city in New Zealand, which examined 14 parents' experiences of child- and youth-perpetrated domestic property violence (DPV). The research used semi-structured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis, enabling parents' perceptions of the causes and impacts of this form of family violence to be explored in depth. Three superordinate themes were identified in the analysis: damage done, the various impacts of DPV; staying safe and sane; and making sense of DPV, parents' perspectives. An ecological meaning-making theory emerged from the data and provided an overarching interpretative framework for considering the themes both separately and together. The findings showed that DPV is a distinct form of parent abuse and one that can have serious impacts of a financial, emotional, and relational nature. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed along with ideas for further research into this problem.
Full Text Available In this article we pay attention to the vio- lence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society – physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances.
Lokhmatkina, Natalia V; Feder, Gene; Blake, Sarah; Morris, Richard; Powers, Victoria; Lightman, Stafford
Domestic violence and abuse is threatening behavior, violence/abuse used by one person to control the other within an intimate or family-type relationship. Women experience more severe physical and sexual domestic violence and abuse and more mental health consequences than men. The current study aims at exploring of the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity in abuse impact on women's mental health. 1) To evaluate diurnal cortisol slope, cortisol awakening response, and the mean cortisol concentration in women with a current or recent experience of abuse; 2) To estimate whether cortisol secretion is associated with type, severity, duration and cessation of abuse; 3) To investigate whether cortisol acts as mediator between abuse and mental health condition; 4) To examine whether there is any distinction in cortisol levels between those women exposed to both childhood abuse and domestic violence and abuse and those experienced only the latter. 4) To explore whether cortisol secretion differs between women living in refuge and those still living in the community. To meet study objectives 128 women will be recruited in a domestic violence agency and local communities. Baseline and 3-month follow-up measures will be taken over 6 months after recruitment. Each assessment will include: (1) standardized self-administered questionnaires to evaluate socio-demographics, experience of violence and abuse, mental and physical health; (2) weight and height measurement; (3) self-completion of wakening, post-wakening and evening saliva samples. Saliva will be analysed for cortisol and cortisone using Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We will compare diurnal cortisol parameters between non-abused controls and abuse survivors with and without mental health conditions. First following descriptive statistics for all the cortisol and mental health outcomes, relationships between them will be investigated using appropriate regression
Dan Anderberg; Helmut Rainer; Jonathan Wadsworth; Tanya Wilson
Contrary to popular belief, the incidence of domestic violence in Britain does not seem to have risen during the recession. But according to research by Jonathan Wadsworth and colleagues, men and women have experienced different risks of unemployment - and these have had contrasting effects on the level of physical abuse.
Tandon, S. Darius; Mercer, Constance D.; Saylor, Elizabeth L.; Duggan, Anne K.
This research was conducted to understand paraprofessional home visitors' perceptions of their training in addressing poor mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence, and their actions in working with families in addressing these issues. Five focus groups were conducted with a total of 28 paraprofessional home visitors. Three main…
Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko; Osada, Yukiko
Objective: To understand the independent and interactive effects of childhood abuse history (CAH) and domestic violence (DV) on the mental health status of women in Japan. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among a sample of 340 women staying in 83 Mother-Child Homes in Japan to assess the women's CAH and DV…
Plant, Malcolm; van Schaik, Paul; Gullone, Eleonora; Flynn, Clifton
Whereas the majority of previous research conducted on animal abuse has been in environments where animal abuse is rarely evidenced, the current study investigated the ramifications of animal abuse in an environment wherein the national culture creates an ethos of the "social acceptability" of animal abuse in society. Two survey studies were conducted with adolescent participants, to investigate the role played by several factors in the prediction of animal abuse in this age group. In Study 1, with samples from two different national cultures (101 from Germany and 169 from Romania; 143 boys/135 girls; age 13 to 17), animal abuse was negatively associated with affective empathy and national culture; more frequent animal abuse was found in Romania. Affective empathy fully mediated the association between gender and animal abuse. Specifically, girls were found to be higher in affective empathy; in turn, participants who were higher in affective empathy committed less animal abuse. Witnessing animal abuse was also predictive of engaging in animal abuse, but not independent of national culture. In Study 2, 15-year-old males ( n = 21) and females ( n = 39) took part, 29 from rural and 31 from urban locations in Romania. Rural adolescents were more likely to abuse animals and had higher exposure to domestic violence, which (in turn) was associated with more animal abuse. The implications of these findings in a society where animal abuse is encouraged and enacted on a national scale are discussed.
Full Text Available In this article author examines a definition of a family, the role of a family as a social and legal institution as well as state reaction in a situation of mal function of a family. Special attention is given to a definition of a family, its protective function and criminal law in modern legal systems. Author also analyzes recent reform of our legislation firstly new criminal offence (Article 118a of the Criminal Code of Republic of Serbia - Domestic Violence - and its relation to other similar criminal offences. Finally, author gives an overview of up-to-now practice from District and Municipal Prosecutors Offices in Belgrade and suggestions for solving observed problems in implementation of this criminal offence.
Mueller, Catherine; Tranchant, Jean-Pierre; Oosterhoff, Pauline
This paper investigates how domestic violence relates to violence against children, including severe corporal punishment. The literature suggests a link between intimate partner violence in the household and child abuse and maltreatment. Studies are, however, limited by the use of narrowly defined measures of violence against children, data availability, and a lack of characterization of domestic violence. In this paper we use original data on domestic violence and child disciplining methods ...
Callaghan, Jane E M; Alexander, Joanne H; Sixsmith, Judith; Fellin, Lisa C
This article explores how children see their relationships, particularly their sibling relationships, in families affected by domestic violence (DV) and how relationality emerges in their accounts as a resource to build an agentic sense of self. The 'voice' of children is largely absent from the DV literature, which typically portrays them as passive, damaged and relationally incompetent. Children's own understandings of their relational worlds are often overlooked, and consequently, existing models of children's social interactions give inadequate accounts of their meaning-making-in-context. Drawn from a larger study of children's experiences of DV and abuse, this article uses two case studies of sibling relationships to explore young people's use of relational resources, for coping with violence in the home. The article explores how relationality and coping intertwine in young people's accounts and disrupts the taken-for-granted assumption that children's 'premature caring' or 'parentification' is (only) pathological in children's responses to DV. This has implications for understanding young people's experiences in the present and supporting their capacity for relationship building in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.
Postmus, Judy L; Hoge, Gretchen L; Breckenridge, Jan; Sharp-Jeffs, Nicola; Chung, Donna
The predominant perception of intimate partner violence (IPV) as constituting physical violence can still dominate, particularly in research and media reports, despite research documenting multiple forms of IPV including sexual violence occurring between intimate partners and various forms of psychological and emotional abuse. One frequently hidden or "invisible" form of abuse perpetrated within intimate partner relationships is economic abuse, also referred to as financial abuse in much of the literature. While the links between gendered economic insecurity and economic abuse are emerging, there remains a lack of consistency about definitions within the United States and globally, as there is no agreed upon index with which to measure economic abuse. As such, the purpose of this article is to review and analyze the global literature focused on either economic or financial abuse to determine how it is defined and what measures are used to capture its prevalence and impact. The 46 peer-reviewed articles that met all inclusion criteria for analysis came from a range of countries across six continents. Our review found that there is growing clarity and consistency of terminologies being used in these articles and found some consistency in the use of validated measures. Since this research is in its "infancy," we need to have stronger collaborative efforts to use similar measures and terminology. Part of that collaborative effort is to consider how language and cultural differences may play a part in our understanding of economic abuse.
Teresi, Jeanne A.; Burnes, David; Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Dutton, Mary Ann; Mosqueda, Laura; Lachs, Mark S.; Pillemer, Karl
The goal of this review is to discuss the state-of-the-science in elder abuse prevention. Findings from evidence-based programs to reduce elder abuse are discussed, drawing from findings and insights from evidence-based programs for child maltreatment and domestic/ intimate partner violence. A conceptual measurement model for the study of elder abuse is presented, and linked to possible measures of risk factors and outcomes. Advances in neuroscience in child maltreatment and novel measurement strategies for outcome assessment are presented. PMID:27676289
Teresi, Jeanne A; Burnes, David; Skowron, Elizabeth A; Dutton, Mary Ann; Mosqueda, Laura; Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl
The goal of this review is to discuss the state of the science in elder abuse prevention. Findings from evidence-based programs to reduce elder abuse are discussed, drawing from findings and insights from evidence-based programs for child maltreatment and domestic/intimate partner violence. A conceptual measurement model for the study of elder abuse is presented and linked to possible measures of risk factors and outcomes. Advances in neuroscience in child maltreatment and novel measurement strategies for outcome assessment are presented.
Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luis
Neuropsychological impairments of the executive functions, memory, attention, intelligence quotient, and empathy have been found in perpetrators of domestic violence (intimate partner violence). These impairments could be partially explained by alcohol abuse, dependence, or traumatic brain injuries. This study reviews the neuropsychological deficits of perpetrators of intimate partner violence. At the same it seeks to integrate and relate these main points with their neuroanatomical correlates. We have also established the relationship between alcohol abuse, dependence, brain damage (including traumatic brain injuries) and those deficits. Scientific literature has been reviewed by means of Google Scholar, PsycINFO, PubMed, Medline and ISI Web of Knowledge. Perpetrators of domestic violence present high mental rigidity, as well as low levels of inhibition, processing speed, verbal and attention skills, and abstract reasoning. Additionally, perpetrators show working and long play memory impairments. Moreover, those deficits could be impaired by traumatic brain injuries and alcohol abuse and/or dependence. Nonetheless, these both variables are not enough to explain the deficits. Functional abnormalities on the prefrontal and occipital cortex, fusiform gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, thalamus and amygdala could be associated with these impairments. An analysis of these mechanisms may assist in the development of neuropsychological rehabilitation programmes that could help improve current therapies.
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Mihić Biljana D.
In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.
... tell if my partner is abusive? Disagreements and arguments, even heated ones, are part of a normal ... patient, resources, and limitations unique to institution or type of practice, may be appropriate. Copyright August 2017 ...
This article describes the views of Tibetan women who have experienced physical violence from male intimate partners. How they conceptualise abuse, their views on acceptable versus unacceptable hitting, and the acts besides hitting which they felt to be unacceptable or abusive, are explored. Views of survivors' relatives/friends and men who have hit their wives are also included. Western-based domestic violence theory is shown to be incommensurate with abuse in particular socio-cultural settings. As feminist scholars emphasize listening deeply to voices of women in the global South, this article demonstrates how such listening might be undertaken when the views expressed by women diverge from feminism. © The Author(s) 2016.
Edleson, Jeffrey L.
Expands common definitions of how children witness adult domestic violence through a review of 31 research articles. A variety of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive-functioning problems among children were found to be associated with exposure to domestic violence. Factors that appear to moderate the impact of witnessing violence (child abuse,…
Habib, Sadia; Abbasi, Nasreen; Khan, Bushra; Danish, Nargis; Nazir, Quratulain
Domestic violence during pregnancy is an important social & health issue in all societies. In Muslim world and particularly underdeveloped countries, domestic violence is often under reported. It is the need of hour to encourage reporting of such events & implementation of research-based policies for prevention of women abuse & support of the victims of domestic violence (DV). The objective of this study was to highlight this neglected social problem of our society & to identify at risk population. This is a cross sectional study conducted at Ayub Teaching Hospital & Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad (January 2014 to December. 2016). Pregnant women were inquired regarding history of abuse by husband and sociodemographic characteristics were noted in a Performa to analyse the risk factors for domestic violence. The overall prevalence was found to be 35%. Out of 1000 pregnant women, 270 (27%) suffered from simple violence and 60 (6%) were victims of grievous assault. Violence among pregnant women is found to be more prevalent among residents of urban areas, women of older age being uneducated & belonging to poor socioeconomic status. Domestic violence during pregnancy is a common & often neglected psychosocial health problem. High risk population needs to be identified so that preventive strategies can be planned & implemented.
Smetanová, Kristina. Criminal aspects of domestic violence The topic of this thesis is the criminal aspects of domestic violence. The aim of the thesis is to describe this dangerous and complicated social problem and focus on outlining the possibilities of protection under Czech criminal law. The thesis consists of eight chapters. The first chapter explains what the domestic violence is and which sources, types and characters does it have.The second chapter shows who can be the violent person...
Westmarland, Nicole; Thorlby, Katie; Wistow, Jane; Gadd, David
While domestic violence is high on the public policy agenda in the UK, successive reviews have highlighted policing problems. A recent HMIC report found domestic violence is not policed at the same level as other offences and identified a catalogue of policing failures that have a long history of recurrence. With domestic violence accounting for around a large proportion of violent crime incidents reported to the police, and the majority of all female homicides (Office for National Statistics...
Yut-Lin, Wong; Othman, Sajaratulnisah
Despite being an emergent major public health problem, little research has been done on domestic violence from the perspectives of early detection and prevention. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to identify domestic violence among female adult patients attending health centers at the primary care level and to determine the relationship between social correlates of adult patients and domestic violence screening and subsequent help/health-seeking behavior if abused. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 710 female adult patients from 8 health centers in Selangor who matched the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study, using a structured questionnaire that included adaptation of a validated 8-item Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST). Statistical tests showed significant differences in ethnicity, income, and education between those screened positive and those screened negative for domestic violence. Of the participants, 92.4% reported that during consultations, doctors had never asked them whether they were abused by their husband/partner. Yet, 67.3% said they would voluntarily tell the doctor if they were abused by their husband/partner. The findings indicate that primary care has an important role in identifying domestic violence by applying the WAST screening tool, or an appropriate adaptation, with women patients during routine visits to the various health centers. Such assessment for abuse could be secondary prevention for the abused women, but more important, it will serve as primary prevention for nonabused women. This approach not only will complement the existing 1-stop crisis center policy by the Ministry of Health that copes with crisis intervention but also will spearhead efforts toward prevention of domestic violence in Malaysia.
A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.
Cheng, Tyrone C; Lo, Celia C
A study with 591 low-income women examined domestic violence's role in treatment seeking for mental health or substance abuse problems. (The women resided in one of two California counties.) Following Aday's behavioral model of health services utilization, the secondary data analysis considered the women's need, enabling, and predisposing factors. Generalized estimating equations analyzed the women's longitudinal records of treatment seeking. Results showed that those in the sample who were likely to seek treatment had experienced three or more controlling behaviors and only one abusive behavior. Multivariate data analysis showed treatment-seeking women were likely to be white and older; responsible for few dependent children; not graduates of high school; employed; not participating in Medicaid; diagnosed; and perceiving a need for treatment. The implications of these results for services and policies are discussed.
Bacchus, L J; Buller, A M; Ferrari, G; Peters, T J; Devries, K; Sethi, G; White, J; Hester, M; Feder, G S
This cross-sectional survey measured adult experience and perpetration of negative and potentially abusive behaviours with partners and its associations with mental and sexual health problems, drug and alcohol abuse in gay and bisexual men attending a UK sexual health service. Of 532 men, 33.9% (95% CI: 29.4-37.9) experienced and 16.3% (95% CI: 13.0-19.8) reported carrying out negative behaviour. Ever being frightened of a partner (aOR 2.5; 95% CI: 2.0-3.1) and having to ask a partner's permission (aOR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.6-4.7) were associated with increased odds of being anxious. There were increased odds of cannabis use in the last 12 months amongst men who reported ever being physically hurt (aOR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.7-3.6). Being frightened (aOR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.5-3.2), being physically hurt (aOR 2.3; 95% CI: 1.4-3.8), being forced to have sex (aOR 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-4.9) and experiencing negative behaviour in the last 12 months (aOR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.5) were associated with increased odds of using a Class A drugs in the last 12 months. Sexual health practitioners should be trained with regards to the risk indicators associated with domestic violence and abuse, how to ask about domestic violence and abuse and refer to support.
Mahapatro, Meerambika; Gupta, R. N.; Gupta, Vinay; Kundu, A. S.
Domestic violence can result in many negative health consequences for women's health and well-being. Studies on domestic violence illustrate that abused women in various settings had increased health problems such as injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal, and gynecological signs including sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and…
Purpose: Domestic violence poses a major challenge to social workers. Low-income families are significantly more likely to have to contend with domestic violence, as poverty can act as a fuelling factor in this type of conflict. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of low-income abused women. Method: A…
Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Domestic violence is a serious threat for many women. Know the signs of an abusive relationship and how to leave a dangerous ... If this sounds familiar, you might be experiencing domestic violence. Domestic violence — also called intimate partner violence — occurs ...
Turner, William; Hester, Marianne; Broad, Jonathan; Szilassy, Eszter; Feder, Gene; Drinkwater, Jessica; Firth, Adam; Stanley, Nicky
Exposure of children to domestic violence and abuse (DVA) is a form of child maltreatment with short- and long-term behavioural and mental health impact. Health care professionals are generally uncertain about how to respond to domestic violence and are particularly unclear about best practice with regards to children's exposure and their role in a multiagency response. In this systematic review, we report educational and structural or whole-system interventions that aim to improve professionals' understanding of, and response to, DVA survivors and their children. We searched 22 bibliographic databases and contacted topic experts for studies reporting quantitative outcomes for any type of intervention aiming to improve professional responses to disclosure of DVA with child involvement. We included interventions for physicians, nurses, social workers and teachers. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria: three randomised controlled trials (RCTs), 18 pre-post intervention surveys. There were 18 training and three system-level interventions. Training interventions generally had positive effects on participants' knowledge, attitudes towards DVA and clinical competence. The results from the RCTs were consistent with the before-after surveys. Results from system-level interventions aimed to change organisational practice and inter-organisational collaboration demonstrates the benefit of coordinating system change in child welfare agencies with primary health care and other organisations. Implications for policy and research are discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Child Abuse Review published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 'We searched 22 bibliographic databases and contacted topic experts'. We reviewed published evidence on interventions aimed at improving professionals' practice with domestic violence survivors and their children.Training programmes were found to improve participants' knowledge, attitudes and clinical competence up to a year after delivery.Key elements of
... 3224 TTD You CAN do something about domestic violence Domestic violence is a pattern of many behaviors directed ... violence. Look in the Yellow Pages under “domestic violence help,” “domestic violence shelters,” “human services organizations,” or “crisis intervention” ...
Second wave feminists in Australia brought the social issue of domestic violence out of the suburban shadows and into the activist and policy spotlight in the 1970s. Subsequent feminist-inspired law reforms around domestic violence included the introduction of state domestic violence order regimes in the 1980s, and amendments to the Family Law Act 1975 (Cth) in 1995 to specify family violence as one of the matters to be taken into account by the Family Court in\\ud determining the best interes...
Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean
This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…
Femi-Ajao, Omolade; Kendal, Sarah; Lovell, Karina
Domestic violence and abuse has been recognised as an international public health problem. However, the pervasiveness of the problem is unknown due in part to underreporting, especially among women from ethnic minority populations. In relation to this group, this review seeks to explore: (1) the barriers to disclosure; (2) the facilitators of help-seeking; and (3) self-perceived impacts of domestic violence. We systematically identified published qualitative studies conducted among women from ethnic minority populations in the UK. Data analysis was completed using thematic analysis approach. 562 papers were identified and eight papers from four studies conducted among women from ethnic minority populations in the UK met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Barriers to disclosure include: Immigration status, community influences, problems with language and interpretation, and unsupportive attitudes of staff within mainstream services. Facilitators of help-seeking were: escalation of abuse and safety of children. Self-perceived impact of abuse includes: shame, denial, loss of identity and lack of choice. There is an on-going need for staff from domestic violence services to be aware of the complexities within which women from ethnic minority populations experience domestic violence and abuse.
Tolman, Richard M.; Weisz, Arlene
Reports results of a study on the effectiveness of a coordinated community intervention to reduce domestic violence in DuPage County, IL. Logistic regression analysis indicated that arrest significantly deterred subsequent domestic violence incidents over an 18-month follow-up period, especially with those with a previous history of police…
Macías-Cortés, Emma Del Carmen; Llanes-González, Lidia; Aguilar-Faisal, Leopoldo; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan
Although individualized homeopathic treatment is effective for depression in climacteric women, there is a lack of well-designed studies of its efficacy for depression in battered women or in post-traumatic stress disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the association between individualized homeopathic treatment or fluoxetine and response to depression treatment in climacteric women with high levels of domestic violence, sexual abuse or marital dissatisfaction. One hundred and thirty-three Mexican climacteric women with moderate-to-severe depression enrolled in the HOMDEP-MENOP Study (a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm trial, with a 6-week follow-up study) were evaluated. Domestic violence, marital dissatisfaction and sexual abuse were assessed at baseline. Response to depression treatment was defined by a decrease of 50% or more from baseline score of Hamilton scale. Association between domestic violence, sexual abuse, and marital dissatisfaction and response to depression treatment was analyzed with bivariate analysis in the three groups. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Homeopathy versus placebo had a statistically significant association with response to depression treatment after adjusting for sexual abuse (OR [95% CI]: 11.07 [3.22 to 37.96]), domestic violence (OR [95% CI]: 10.30 [3.24 to 32.76]) and marital dissatisfaction (OR [95% CI]: 8.61 [2.85 to 25.99]). Individualized homeopathic treatment is associated with response to depression treatment in climacteric women with high levels of domestic violence, sexual abuse or marital dissatisfaction. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate its efficacy specifically for post-traumatic stress disorder in battered women. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01635218,: URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01635218?term=depression+homeopathy&rank=1. The Faculty of Homeopathy.
Evans, Maggie; Gregory, Alison; Feder, Gene; Howarth, Emma; Hegarty, Kelsey
This article explores the challenges of providing a quantitative measure of domestic violence and abuse (DVA), illustrated by the Composite Abuse Scale, a validated multidimensional measure of frequency and severity of abuse, used worldwide for prevalence studies and intervention trials. Cognitive "think-aloud" and qualitative interviewing with a sample of women who had experienced DVA revealed a tendency toward underreporting their experience of abuse, particularly of coercive control, threatening behavior, restrictions to freedom, and sexual abuse. Underreporting was linked to inconsistency and uncertainty in item interpretation and response, fear of answering truthfully, and unwillingness to identify with certain forms of abuse. Suggestions are made for rewording or reconceptualizing items and the inclusion of a distress scale to measure the individual impact of abuse. The importance of including qualitative methods in questionnaire design and in the interpretation of quantitative findings is highlighted.
Parmar, Alpa; Sampson, Alice
This paper critiques the approach of identifying ‘best practice’ projects and discusses the problem with simply transferring projects into different contexts. The argument is illustrated by explaining the evaluation process of three domestic violence projects which all had the same aim, which was to reduce domestic violence. The evaluated projects all delivered advocacy programmes and were located in disadvantaged areas in the United Kingdom. A more suitable evaluation approach is proposed wh...
Full Text Available It has been widely acknowledged that the majority of persons affected by Gender-Based Violence (GBV are women and girls. The violence females are subject to can occur at each stage of their life with immediate and long-term effects. According to a World Bank publication, The Costs ofViolence, (2009 most estimates on the cost to society of GBV have focused on domestic violence. A study of the Extent, Nature and Costs of Domestice Violence to the Mauritian Economy (2010 reveals that there is a forty-six fold difference between the administrative data provided the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare. To scale up the fight against domestic violence the Government of Mauritius has launched the Victim Empowerment and Abuser Rehabilitation Policy (VEARP in 2013 whereby the workplace becomes a platform for primary prevention.This study aims to document the consultations held with stakeholders at the workplace (public and private sector and to make proposals to ensure that the VEARP is institutionalised at the workplace. It has been found that the Human Resource (HR function is not well developed in the mauritian society and among the three main models of prevention of domestic violence at the workplace, the partnerships model is the most appropriate.The organisation of training of trainers on GBV issues and the referrral system set up by the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare will encourage employers to join the fight against domestic violence. To assist the HR department in implementing this workplace initiative, there is an urgent need to set up Employer Assistance Programs (EAP at the workplace. However, there is an urgent need to institutionalise work-family life balance policies, to adopt legislation to cater for violence at the workplace and to amend the Protection of Domestic Violence Act of 2011.
... National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... silence surrounding domestic violence to reach thousands of survivors, prevent countless incidences of abuse, and save untold numbers of lives. While these are critical achievements, domestic violence...
Ergönen, Akça Toprak; Ozdemir, M Hakan; Can, Ismail Ozgür; Sönmez, Ersel; Salaçin, Serpil; Berberoğlu, Evrim; Demir, Namik
Domestic violence is accepted worldwide as an important health problem. Besides diagnosis and treatment process, there are difficulties when considering of medico-legal evaluation of pregnant women subjected to domestic violence. As a signatory of the ''Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)'' Turkey has certain commitments regarding domestic violence and made regulations on national law. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy among the women who applied to obstetrics clinics and evaluating of the participants' knowledge level about the legal legislation concerning domestic violence. Pregnant women attending for antenatal care to department of Gynecology and Obstetrics were interviewed using an anonymous and confidential questionnaire. The questionnaire used was a version of Abuse Assessment Screen with guidance of references. 28 (13.4%) women stated that they had been subjected to violence before pregnancy. Only 10 (4.67%) women had stated experience of violence during pregnancy. 148 (69.2%) of them had stated that they had no knowledge about any legislation concerning domestic violence in our country. We believe that society awareness should be increased and the health workers should be informed about their ethical and legal responsibilities concerning domestic violence during pregnancy. The knowledge and sensitivity of health care personnel in Prenatal Clinics and Family Planning Services should be increased and examination protocols should be provided about domestic violence against pregnant women.
Du Mont, Janice; Mirzaei, Aftab; Macdonald, Sheila; White, Meghan; Kosa, Daisy; Reimer, Linda
Elder abuse is an increasingly important issue that must be addressed in a systematic and coordinated way. Our objective was to evaluate the perceived feasibility of establishing an elder abuse care program at hospital-based sexual assault and domestic violence treatment centers in Ontario, Canada. In July 2012, a questionnaire focused on elder abuse care was distributed to all of Ontario's Sexual Assault/Domestic Violence Treatment Centre (SA/DVTC) Program Coordinators/Managers. We found that the majority of Program Coordinators/ Managers favored expansion of their program mandates to include an elder abuse care program. However, these respondents viewed collaboration with a large network of well trained professionals and available services in the community that address elder abuse as integral to responding in a coordinated manner. The expansion of health services to address the needs of abused older adults in a comprehensive and integrated manner should be considered as an important next step for hospital-based violence care programs worldwide.
Hartman, Christie A; Hageman, Tina; Williams, James Herbert; Ascione, Frank R
We examined rates of animal abuse in pet-owning families experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). We also examined whether higher levels of IPV (as measured by subscales from the Conflict Tactics Scales) predicted increased risk for partner-perpetrated animal abuse. Our sample included 291 mother-child dyads, where the mothers sought services from domestic violence agencies. Nearly half the sample is comprised of Mexican immigrants. Mothers reported that 11.7% of partners threatened to harm a pet and 26.1% actually harmed a pet, the latter of which represents a lower rate than in similar studies. When examining animal abuse by "Hispanic status," follow-up analyses revealed significant omnibus differences between groups, in that non-Hispanic U.S.-born partners (mostly White) displayed higher rates of harming pets (41%) than either U.S.-born or Mexican-born Hispanic groups (27% and 12.5%, respectively). Differences in rates for only threatening (but not harming) pets were not significant, possibly due to a small number of partners ( n = 32) in this group. When examining whether partners' IPV predicted only threatening to harm pets, no IPV subscale variables (Physical Assault, Psychological Aggression, Injury, or Sexual Coercion) were significant after controlling for income, education, and Hispanic status. When examining actual harm to pets, more Psychological Aggression and less Physical Assault significantly predicted slightly higher risk of harm. However, Mexican-born partners had nearly 4 times lower risk of harming a pet. Overall, these results suggest that Hispanic men who are perpetrators of IPV are less likely to harm pets than non-Hispanic perpetrators of IPV, particularly if Mexican-born. Considering that the United States has a significant proportion of Mexican immigrants, it may be worthwhile to explore the topics of IPV and animal abuse within this group.
Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; Alavimajd, Hamid
Background: Millions of men and women suffer from infertility worldwide. In many cultures, infertile women are at risk of social and emotional problems. Infertility may affect the public health in many countries. Domestic violence is the intentional use of physical force, power or threat against oneself, another person or another group or community which leads to injury, death, mental harm, lack of development or deprivation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of domestic violence against infertile women who referred to the infertility centres of Tehran, Iran in 2011. Methods: This was cross- sectional descriptive study conducted on 400 infertile women who were selected through convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used in this study included two sections: a demographic section with questions about demographic characteristics of the infertile women and their husbands; and the domestic violence questionnaire with questions about physical, emotional and sexual violence. Data were analysed by SPSS16; descriptive statistics, Spearman’s test, t- test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Four hundred women with the average age of 30.50 ± 6.16 years participated in the study; of whom, 34.7% experienced domestic violence physical violence (5.3%), emotional violence (74.3%) and sexual violence (47.3%). Domestic violence was significantly associated with unwanted marriage, number of IVFs, drug abuse, emotional status of the women, smoking and addiction or drug abuse of the spouse, mental and physical diseases of the husband (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Many of the current problems in this society, particularly in families are due to the transition of the society from a traditional model to a modern one. The majority of the infertile women experience violence in Iran. Domestic violence against infertile women is a problem that should not be ignored. Clinicians should identify abused women. Providing
Ogle, Richard L; Baer, John S
Two personalized substance abuse assessment and feedback interventions were tested for effectiveness in engaging female domestic violence shelter residents in substance abuse treatment. One hundred forty-seven residents were assessed for quantity andfrequency of substance use, negative consequences due to use, motivation to change substance use behavior, and psychopathological symptoms related to substance abuse. Assessment identified (33) 22% of participants as heavy substance users. Twenty of the 33 heavy-using residents received one of two personalized substance use feedback interventions:face-to-face feedback or writtenfeedbackplaced in shelter mailboxes. Treatment engagement was defined as attending at least one substance abuse treatment session within 30 days after the intervention. Results showed a significant difference in treatment engagement rates in favor of the face-to-face feedback group (60% vs. 0%). The results provide preliminary data suggesting that substance abuse assessment can be effectively accomplished in the shelter environment and that the face-to-face feedback procedure may be an effective intervention to bridge the service linkage problem between domestic violence services and substance abuse treatment.
Zaher, Eman; Keogh, Kelly; Ratnapalan, Savithiri
Abstract Objective To describe and evaluate the effectiveness of domestic violence education in improving physicians’ knowledge, recognition, and management of abused women. Data sources The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE were searched for articles published between January 1, 2000, and November 1, 2012. This search was supplemented by manual searches for relevant articles using a combined text-word and MeSH-heading search strategy. Study selection Randomized controlled trials were selected that used educational interventions among physicians and provided data on the effects of the interventions. Synthesis Nine randomized controlled trials were included that described different educational approaches with various outcome measures. Three studies examined the effects of educational interventions among postgraduate trainee physicians and found an increase in knowledge but no change in behaviour with regard to identifying victims of domestic violence. Six studies examined educational interventions for practising physicians. Three of these studies used multifaceted physician training that combined education with system support interventions to change physician behaviour, such as increasing general awareness of domestic violence with brochures and posters, providing aids to remind physicians how to identify victims, facilitating physician access to victim support services, and providing audits and feedback. Multifaceted educational interventions included interactive workshops, Web-based learning, and experiential training. Another study used focus-group discussions and training, and showed improved domestic violence reporting among physicians. The remaining 2 studies showed improved perceptions of practising physicians’ self-efficacy using problem-based online learning. Conclusion It was difficult to determine the most effective educational strategy, as the educational interventions and the outcome measures varied
Criminal aspects of domestic violence SUMMARY Domestic violence is a serious social concern with high level of latency. The domestic violence victims protection is ensured by legal standarts of Civil, Administrative and Criminal Law and other legal standarts. Criminal Law is one of the important instruments for tackling of serious forms of domestic violence. However Criminal Law is an instrument "ultima ratio" which needs claiming of subsidiarity principal of the crime repression. The purpose...
Background: Domestic violence is a global concern. Domestic violence refers to violence inflicted on a partner (mostly females) within the context of the family or an intimate relationship. It is known to be responsible for numerous hospital visits undertaken by women, although they mostly fail to complain of abuse. There is ...
Zinke, Michelle; Zinke, Linda
Domestic violence can be described as a pattern of intentional behaviors that includes a variety of tactics, such as physical and sexual violence, stalking, threats/intimidation, isolation, psychological attacks, and spiritual and economic abuse. Domestic violence can happen to anyone. It does not discriminate on the basis of economic status,…
Robertson, I A
The majority of veterinarians recognise their important role and responsibility to society and animal welfare in the detection and reporting of suspected abuse of animals and humans. In spite of the existing moral, ethical, and legal duties applied to veterinarians, they face substantial barriers that prohibit them from fulfilling their professional role in handling cases of suspected abuse. With increasing public and legal attention on issues of animal welfare, the non-fulfillment of these duties places the profession and its members at considerable risk of public criticism and adverse legal accountability. The issue is raised here that the veterinary profession in New Zealand needs to provide a clear policy statement and take pro-active measures that provide practical enforceable solutions to these existing barriers and legal risks. Such an initiative will assist in ensuring that all registered members consistently fulfil their obligations, and are legally protected while doing so. Veterinary counterparts overseas already provide a legislative immunity for their veterinarians who report suspected abuse as part of a mandated duty to report. Implementation of such a duty has significant benefits for all veterinarians, including the requirement for education and effective support systems. In the absence of such a mandatory duty, intermediary measures can be introduced, demonstrating social responsibility and commitment by the profession to their existing duty of care.
Shaikh, M Ali; Kayani, A; Shaikh, I Ali
Domestic violence is globally endemic and adversely impacts the health and economic well-being of women and society. This study used the standardized and validated assessment instrument "Woman Abuse Screening Tool" to study the prevalence of various forms of domestic violence among married women. The relationship between domestic violence and consanguineous marriage was studied using the chi-squared test. Cumulatively, 1010 married women were interviewed. Emotional abuse was the most commonly reported abuse, reported by 721 (71.4%) women as either often or sometimes, followed by sexual abuse and physical abuse, reported by 527 (52.2%) and 511 (50.6%) respectively. Being married to one's cousin did not protect married women from being abused either emotionally or physically by their husbands; thsi was statistically significant. There is a need for better understanding of the magnitude and scale of domestic violence in Pakistan by using standardized assessment tools for meaningful comparisons across different parts of the country over time.
The primary objectives of this thesis are to, circularly, deconstruct contemporary domestic violence policy while developing and evaluating methods for deconstructing policy. Policy is theorised as a discursive practice, which allows a variety of policies to be compared and critiqued by how they position the people they affect. These are known as subject positions, or subjectivities, and throughout this thesis I attempt to critique policy by examining the (re)construction of subjectivity. In ...
Avdibegovic, Esmina; Brkic, Maja; Sinanovic, Osman
Research indicates that women victims of domestic violence show significant cognitive changes, emotional numbing, and avoidance of interpersonal relationships. The aim of this research was to analyze emotional profile of women victims of domestic violence, and to determine the relationship between dimensions of emotions and frequency of women exposure to domestic violence. The research was conducted on the sample of 169 women, 111 were victims of domestic violence and 58 were women who did not experience domestic violence. Plutchik's Emotions Profile Index (EPI) was used for measuring of the emotion profile, and the Modified Inventory of Domestic Violence for measuring experiences of different types of violence. Basic socio-demographic data were also collected. Significant differences between women victims of domestic violence and women who did not experience domestic violence were found in a few dimensions of emotional profile. Women victims of domestic violence had higher results in the dimensions of deprivation/depression and aggression/destruction, while women who did not experience domestic violence had higher results in dimensions of reproduction and incorporation. Aggression was in significant negative correlation with reproduction, incorporation and self protection, whereas it was significant positive correlation with deprivation and opposition. There were significant and positive correlation between the dimensions of aggression and deprivation and frequency of all three forms of domestic violence and age of women. According to results obtained in this research, it can be concluded that women victims of domestic violence have significantly more intensive negative emotional dimensions in comparison to women who were not abused. Women victims of domestic violence with higher frequency of abuse describe themselves as more sad, apathetic, lonely, angry, quarrelsome and less sociable. Prominence of negative emotions, deprivation and aggression, can be factor of
Ali, Sirwan Kamil
Background and objective; There is growing recognition that violence against women has a large public health impact, in addition to being a gross violation of women's human rights. The study's aims were: To show the types of domestic abuse encountered by Kurdish women, and study the relationship between them. Methods; The study conducted in the…
Haeseler, Lisa Ann
Women and children coping with issues of domestic violence abuse urgently require help from early childhood professionals. The U.S. Department of Justice (2008) details these women and children are in peril. This article focuses on female domestic violence abuse. It presents some warning signs of domestic violence. It also offers steps on how to…
Antović Aleksandra R.; Stojanović Jovan
Introduction/Objective. Domestic violence is a phenomenon as old as the history of human civilization, present in all cultures, epochs and social systems. Despite the fact that domestic violence represents a dangerous and unacceptable social phenomenon, as well as a significant medical problem, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of this phenomenon in our country. This study aims to determine the elementary forensic characteristics of domestic violence that would represented the...
Abuse against animals is an indicator of children's maladjustment associated with domestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to interparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results indicate that half of all youth ever abused animals,
Abuse against animals is an indicator of children's maladjustment associated with domestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to interparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results indicate that half of all youth ever abused animals,
Malpass, Alice; Sales, Kim; Feder, Gene
This paper explores ideas of symbolic violence inherent in the research encounter (Bourdieu 1999). After defining symbolic violence and how the concept enters into domestic violence and abuse (DVA) research, we discuss the challenges arising from a (DVA) survivor taking on the role of interviewer in a qualitative study nested within a UK primary care based trial: IRIS (Identification and Referral to Improve Safety). KS, a survivor of DVA, conducted interviews with 12 women who had been referred to a domestic violence agency by primary care clinicians taking part in the IRIS trial in two UK cities (Bristol and east London) during 2009. Field notes were kept during all of the research meetings with KS and these were included in analysis. Our analysis maps the research pathway of 'non-violent communication' and discusses the role of social symmetry and proximity in the research encounter. We conclude that while a welcoming disposition, empathy and active listening are all generic skills to qualitative research; if a researcher can enter fieldwork with a claim of social proximity and symmetry, their use of these generic skills is enhanced through a process of shared objectification and empowerment talk. We explore the limitations of social proximity, its relationship to feminist and anthropological theories of 'insider' research and its relevance to primary care research. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Riggs, Damien W; Taylor, Nik; Fraser, Heather; Donovan, Catherine; Signal, Tania
Over the past three decades, a growing body of research has focused on experiences of domestic violence and abuse (DVA) among people of diverse genders and/or sexualities. Missing, however, has been a focus on what is known as "the link" between DVA and animal cruelty with regard to people of diverse genders and/or sexualities. The present article reports on a study of 503 people living in either Australia or the United Kingdom, who reported on both their intimate human relationships and their relationships with animals, including relationships that were abusive. In terms of "the link," a fifth of respondents who had experienced violence or abuse also reported that animal cruelty had been perpetuated by the violent or abusive partner. Statistical interactions were found between having witnessed animal cruelty perpetrated by a partner, gender and sexuality, and both psychological distress and social connectedness. Female participants who had witnessed animal cruelty reported greater psychological distress and lower levels of social support, and both lesbian and bisexual participants who had witnessed animal cruelty reported lower levels of social support. The article concludes by considering the implications of these findings for future research and service provision.
Knight, Lucy; Hester, Marianne
Domestic violence affects every age group and is present throughout the life span, but, while the mental health impact of domestic violence is clearly established in working age adults, less is known about the nature and impact of domestic violence among older adults. This review, therefore, aimed to synthesize findings on the prevalence, nature, and impact of domestic violence among older adults, and its identification and management. Electronic searches were conducted of Medline, PsycINFO, Cinahl, and Embase to identify studies reporting on the mental health and domestic violence in older adults. Findings suggested that, although prevalence figures are variable, the likely lifetime prevalence for women over the age of 65 is between 20-30%. Physical abuse is suggested to decrease with age, but rates of emotional abuse appear to be stable over the lifespan. Among older adults, domestic violence is strongly associated with physical and mental health problems, and the scarce research comparing the impact of domestic violence across the age cohorts suggests that the physical health of older victims may be more severely affected than younger victims. In contrast, there is evidence that older victims may experience less psychological distress in response to domestic violence than younger victims. Internationally, evidence on the management of domestic violence in older adults is sparse. Findings suggest, however, that identification of domestic violence is poor among older adults, and there are very limited options for onwards referral and support.
... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Domestic Violence and Children No. 109; Updated April 2013 As ... each year. This kind of violence is called domestic violence or intimate partner violence. The US Department of ...
Łepecka-Klusek, Celina; Pawłowska-Muc, Agnieszka Konstancja; Pilewska-Kozak, Anna Bogusława; Stadnicka, Grażyna; Pałucka, Klaudia
Łepecka-Klusek Celina, Pawłowska-Muc Agnieszka Konstancja, Pilewska‑Kozak Anna Bogusława, Stadnicka Grażyna, Pałucka Klaudia. Przemoc domowa = Domestic violence. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(6):169-182. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI 10.5281/zenodo.18420 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%286%29%3A169-182 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/564476 http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.18420 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X. A...
Background:Domestic violence is any intentional abuse of a family member mostly women by a partner which causes pain or injury. It is a growing phenomenon and is affected by several social variables. In pregnancy, domestic violence causes adverse pregnancy outcomes and other reproductive health consequences to ...
domestic violence, divorce, murder, nudity, rape, molestation and assault. ... show what families, marriages or couples experience. ... of discouraging the negative domestic violence tendencies acted on ... considerable amount of real life experience from childhood to ..... subjects the wife to both sexual and emotional abuse.
Hamilton, Melissa; Worthen, Meredith G. F.
Domestic violence arrests have been historically focused on protecting women and children from abusive men. Arrest patterns continue to reflect this bias with more men arrested for domestic violence compared to women. Such potential gender variations in arrest patterns pave the way to the investigation of disparities by sex of the offender in…
Mayer, L; Liebschutz, J
Every day, obstetric providers treat patients experiencing domestic violence. Domestic violence can have both dramatic and subtle impacts on maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. This article enumerates patient risk factors for and obstetric consequences of domestic violence. It describes adaptations to the assessment and treatment of pregnancy complications occurring in the context of domestic violence and presents behavioral interventions that can be performed within existing obstetric care delivery systems. Behavioral interventions include assessments of a patient's readiness for change and her emotional responses to the violence. Obstetric interventions include an assessment of risk of physical harm to a pregnant woman and her fetus from domestic violence. Interviewing techniques include educating the patient about the effects of abuse and, over time, validating a patient's efforts to change. Reliance on a team approach and use of community resources are emphasized. All of these mechanisms enable obstetric providers to assist pregnant women in taking steps to end the abuse.
... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Violence and Abuse in Rural America Violence and abuse ... of harassment, stalking, and bullying? How prevalent is violence and abuse in rural America? According to the ...
The paper reviews the forms of domestic abuse, its causes, prevalence and possible consequences. British and Hungarian Law, guidelines and the roles and responsibilities of healthcare professionals in relation to dealing with domestic abuse in their practice is also addressed within the paper.
Donohue, Brad C.; Romero, Valerie; Herdzik, Karen; Lapota, Holly; Al, Ruwida Abdel; Allen, Daniel N.; Azrin, Nathan H.; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.
High rates of co-occurrence between substance abuse and child neglect have been well documented and especially difficult to treat. As a first step in developing a comprehensive evidence-based treatment for use in this population, the present case examination underscores Family Behavior Therapy (FBT) in the treatment of a mother who evidenced Substance Dependence, child neglect, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Bipolar I Disorder, and domestic violence. Utilizing psychometrically validated self-report inventories and objective urinalysis, treatment was found to result in the cessation of substance use, lower risk of child maltreatment, improved parenting attitudes and practices, and reduced instances of violence in the home. The importance of utilizing validity scales in the assessment of referrals from child welfare settings is discussed, and future directions are reported in light of the results. PMID:23457426
Bunn, Mikiko Yazawa; Higa, Nicole A; Parker, Willie J; Kaneshiro, Bliss
Domestic violence is an important health concern that has been shown to have adverse effects on maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of prenatal screening for domestic violence in a hospital-based resident clinic setting with screening practices in private obstetric offices in Honolulu, Hawai'i and to explore physician attitudes towards domestic violence screening during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was conducted at Queen's Medical Center in Honolulu, Hawai'i in women who delivered between 2003 and 2004. A 6 item written survey was also given to all attending and resident physicians with obstetric privileges. Descriptive statistics including frequency measures were generated and chi square tests were used to compare categorical variables. A total of 270 charts were reviewed. There was a statistically significant difference (p obstetric practices (39.3 percent) that were screened for domestic violence. While the majority of respondents (77.6%) to the domestic violence survey were aware that the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends domestic violence screening in pregnancy most respondents (69.0 percent) indicated that they "never or rarely" screened their patients for domestic violence. Despite professional recommendations and an awareness of these recommendations, between 2003 and 2004, routine prenatal screening for domestic violence was markedly lacking for patients in this study population.
Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....
Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; van der Lee, Johanna H; Teeuw, Arianne H
Child maltreatment is a major social problem with many adverse consequences, and a substantial number of maltreated children are not identified by health care professionals. In 2010, in order to improve the identification of maltreated children in hospitals, a new hospital-based policy was developed in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. This policy was adapted from another policy that was developed in The Hague, the Netherlands, in 2007. In the new Amsterdam policy, all adults presenting at the emergency department due to domestic violence, substance abuse, and/or a suicide attempt are asked whether they have any children in their care. If this is the case, parents are urged to visit the outpatient pediatric department together with all of their children. During this visit, problems are evaluated and voluntary referrals can be arranged to different care organizations. If parents refuse to cooperate, their children are reported to the Dutch Child Abuse Counseling and Reporting Centre. The two aims of this study are to describe (1) characteristics of the identified families and (2) the referrals made to different voluntary and involuntary care organizations during the first 2 years after implementation of the policy. Data were collected from medical records. One hundred and six children from 60 households were included, of which 68 children because their mother was a victim of domestic violence. Referrals to care organizations were arranged for 99 children, of which 67 on a voluntary basis. The Amsterdam policy seems successful in arranging voluntary support for the majority of identified children.
Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Maas, Carl D; Barber, Sara
Court-mandated domestic violence (DV) treatment programs across the country have seen a marked increase in female clients. These programs use a variety of measurement tools to assess the needs of their clients. Increased numbers of women in treatment for DV reflect a need to address the measurement of intimate partner violence (IPV) for both males and females. Unfortunately, the reliability and validity of many of measures used to assess IPV and related constructs for women remains unknown. The current study focuses on a particular measure, the Propensity for Abusiveness Scale (PAS). The PAS is not a measure of abusive behavior per se; rather, it assesses risk factors for abuse, including affective lability, anger expression, trauma symptoms, and harsh parenting experienced by the respondent. Specifically, the current study compares the factor structure and the measurement properties of the PAS for males and females in a sample of 885 (647 female, 238 male) participants in a DV treatment program. Findings indicate that the PAS demonstrated configural, metric, and scalar invariance between the female and male samples. These results suggest that it is appropriate for researchers and clinicians to make comparisons between women and men based on PAS factor scores. © The Author(s) 2014.
This paper will analyze the domestic violence prevention problems and perspectives. The goal of this work is to discuss the main domestic violence characteristics, analyze Lithuanian and international prevention means and offer suggestions to improve Lithuanian domestic violence prevention. This work consentrates on mens violence over women. The conseption of violence is analyzed – the general violence features in criminology and law literature are discussed, the main domestic violence forms ...
Full Text Available Any form of domestic violence leaves its mark on minority's personality forma¬tion and generates dysfunctions in the behavioral, cognitive and emotional sphere. The study found that in the modern family up to 30% of children suffer from physical violence and up to 45% by psychological violence. Sexual violence, unlike other forms of violence, is more difficult to discover. It has more dramatic consequences and re¬quires a longer time for psychological recovery. In this study, are described a few cases of sexual violence in the family literally
Yanelis Emilia Tabio Henry
Full Text Available The elder abuse is a destructive behaviour to an older person, which according to its intensity or frequency can produce damaging of physical, psychological, financial, sexual carelessness, neglect of duty and its dimension. A descriptive investigation was made, with the objective to describe the behaviour of domestic violence in older persons of Community Mental Health Center in Jatibonico Municipality during the period: January first until December 31, 2011. The sample was formed by 32 abused elderly. The predominant groups were: ages between 70 – 79 years. (75.0%, the female sex (59.3%, those with marital links (65.6% dissatisfaction with their lives like a psychological symptom (53,2% psychological abused (50,0% and children as principles aggressors. The adult persons studied were a victim of any kind of domestic abused and as a consequence was presented second psychological manifestations.
Abuse against animals is an indicator of children's maladjustment associated with domestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to interparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results indicate that half of all youth ever abused animals, with boys more often involved than girls. Almost half of the whole sample has been exposed to violence by fathers against mothers or by mothers against fathers, with no gender differences. Results are...
Mauri, Elisa Marta; Nespoli, Antonella; Persico, Giuseppina; Zobbi, Virna Franca
the aim of this qualitative study was to explore midwives׳ knowledge and clinical experience of domestic violence among pregnant women, with particular emphasis on their perceptions of their professional role. the data collected for this phenomenological-hermeneutical qualitative study were collected using semi-structured interviews, and analysed according to Denzin and Lincoln (2011). fifteen hospital and community midwives working in the local health district of Monza and Brianza in northern Italy were recruited between July and October 2012. three main themes emerged: 'it is difficult to recognise domestic violence' because of a limited knowledge of the most common signs and symptoms of violence, a lack of training, cultural taboos, and the women׳s unwillingness to disclose abuse; 'we have a certain number of means of identifying violence', such as relationships with the woman, specific professional training and screening tools, which have advantages and disadvantages; 'the professionals involved' in identifying and managing family violence highlight the importance of a interdisciplinary approach. midwives acknowledge their crucial role in identifying and managing domestic violence but are still unprepared to do so and indicate various barriers that need to be overcome. There is a need to implement basic university education on the subject and provide specific professional training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
It is only recently that domestic violence has been considered a violation of the law. Although men have battered, abused and mistreated their wives or intimate partners for a long time, historically, wife or partner abuse has been viewed as a "normal" part of marriage or intimate relationships. Only towards the end of the twentieth century, in the 1970 s, has domestic violence been defined a crime, justifying intervention by the criminal justice system. This article surveys the history of domestic violence as a criminal offense, and the justice system response to woman battering incidents. It first discusses the definition of the offense including debates around the offense definition, and the prevalence and reported frequency of the behavior termed woman battering. It then reviews the legal and social changes over time that have altered the criminal justice system s approach to domestic violence. Next it outlines the responses of the police, and the prosecution of domestic violence. The article also discusses research findings related to domestic violence and the criminal justice system, along with current controversies concerning the justice approach to domestic violence, its law enforcement, and related unfolding trends in the movement to address domestic violence through the criminal justice system.
This paper describes the key findings of a two year project focused on children's experiences of domestic violence. It draws on 107 interviews with children in Greece, Italy, Spain and the UK. The paper explores children's capacity to articulate their experiences, and highlights that they are not 'witnesses' to intimate partner violence, but experience it directly and make meaning of it, as members of a family affected by violence. I argue that children need to be recognised as direct victims...
Castro, Roberto; Ruíz, Agustín
To determine whether pregnancy is a risk factor for domestic violence and to compare prevalence and severity of violence reported by women before and during pregnancy. There were interviewed 468 women in the third trimester of pregnancy who were seen during prenatal visits at public clinics in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Emotional, physical and sexual violence were investigated. A severity index was built up. Logistic regression analysis was applied in order to identify the main variables associated to domestic violence during pregnancy. The prevalence of domestic violence did not change significantly before and during pregnancy (32%). The prevalence of each type of violence remained the same. About 27% of women who reported violence during pregnancy did not have experience it before, and a comparable proportion had experienced violence before but not during pregnancy. The severity of emotional violence significantly increased during pregnancy (compared to the previous year) whereas the severity of physical violence decreased. Variables most clearly related to violence during pregnancy were: couple's past history of child abuse; women witnessing domestic violence during childhood; and violence in the year before pregnancy. Several risk scenarios were identified, which could be helpful for health care providers. The results showed that emotional violence is more prevalent than physical and sexual violence, allowing for a better understanding of this phenomenon.
Full Text Available A violência doméstica é o uso da força entre parceiros que vivem juntos como um casal. A maioria é uma forma de gestão de conflitos conhecida como autoajuda: o tratamento de uma queixa com agressão. Em Violência doméstica e tempo social eu introduzo dois princípios de violência doméstica que explicam 1 quais casais têm mais violência e 2 o que causa sua violência. O primeiro princípio - a violência doméstica é uma função direta da distância doméstica – explica por que algumas estruturas domésticas (como “patriarquias frias” têm mais violência do que outras (como “democracias estreitas”. O segundo princípio – a violência doméstica é uma função direta do movimento do tempo doméstico – explica casos particulares de violência doméstica com mudanças (como diminuição da intimidade ou aumento da desigualdade nas relações domésticas onde elas ocorrem. Esses princípios explicam a violência doméstica nas sociedades tradicionais e modernas, entre homens e mulheres, e em casais heterossexuais e do mesmo sexo. Domestic violence is the use of force between partners who live together as a couple. Most is a form of conflict management known as self-help: the handling of a grievance with aggression. Here I introduce two principles of domestic violence that explain 1 which couples have more violence and 2 what causes their violence. The first principle – domestic violence is a direct function of domestic distance – explains why some domestic structures (such as “cold patriarchies” have more violence than others (such as “close democracies”. The second principle – domestic violence is a direct function of the movement of domestic time – explains particular cases of domestic violence with changes (such as decreases of intimacy or increases of inequality in the domestic relationships where they occur. These principles explain domestic violence in traditional and modern societies, by men and
Holly B. LaPota
Full Text Available Women reported to child protective service agencies frequently report problems that significantly interfere with the health and well-being of their children and themselves. Behavioral treatment programs appear to be effective in managing these co-existing problems, such as domestic violence and substance abuse. However, evidence-supported interventions are rarely exemplified in complicated clinical cases, especially within child welfare settings. Therefore, in this case example, we describe the process of adapting an evidence-supported treatment to assist in managing significant co-existing health-related problems in a mother who was referred due to child neglect and drug abuse. At the conclusion of therapy, the participant reported improvements in perceived family relationships, illicit drug use, child maltreatment potential, whereas other health-related outcomes were mixed. Most improvements were maintained at 4-month follow-up. Issues relevant to implementing evidence-based treatments within community contexts are discussed, including methods of increasing the likelihood of valid outcome assessment, managing treatment integrity, and adjusting standardized treatments to accommodate co-occurring problems. This research was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (1R01DA020548-01A1 awarded to Brad Donohue. The authors wish to thank Sally K. Miller, PhD, APN, FAANP and Associate Professor, UNLV School of Nursing for her work in completing the initial in-home health evaluation/physical for the current project.
Bowlus, Audra J.; Seitz, Shannon N.
In this paper we study the effects of abusive behavior on the labor force andmarital status decisions of women. Using a unique Canadian data set on domestic violence, we estimate the effects of abuse on the marital history as well as current employment using a sequential, multi-state model. In our
Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K
Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.
This special issue brings together emerging research concerning the issue of Sexual Violence and Abuse from around the world. The importance of pulling together research that explores the central topic of sexual violence and abuse is more pressing than ever and having a collection of work using different methodological approaches to unique samples previously unexplored contributes significantly to our understanding towards this type of offence.
Ofei-aboagye, R O
This article aims to expose the anxiety of abused women in Ghana by defining domestic violence within their culture. A survey conducted among 50 women clients of the Legal Aid Clinic of the International Federation of Women Lawyers in Ghana revealed that wife beating, to some extent, is an acceptable norm of the society. These battered women are more likely to define their experiences as a form of discipline at the hands of their husbands rather than domestic violence or wife battering. An examination of their social practices demonstrates that tradition is the most important reason why Ghanaian women accept the obvious disparity between their lifestyles and that of their male counterparts. Their traditional folk tales narrates stories about a man beating his wife to maintain law and order; while Ghanaian folk and highlife songs revolve around themes that encourage this mastery of wives and male superiority. The existence of domestic violence in all Ghanaian communities highlights the need for social reforms and substantive equality for Ghanaian women. Initial solutions include emphasis on public education, which fosters awareness and social change through women's organizations that work within communities. Once educational efforts have been established, long-term solutions such as adopting legislation to help battered women, as well as educating the police and the judiciary about domestic violence can then be integrated into Ghanaian society.
If health care practitioners and institutions became familiar with legal options available to survivors of domestic violence, they could better facilitate their patients' access to potentially life-saving recourses. Such options include calling the police and obtaining civil protection orders and bringing custody, divorce, and support actions. Provider awareness of legal obligations and other legal considerations that arise when handling domestic violence cases is important for patient care and the practice of good risk management. Examples of such issues include domestic violence protocol requirements, documentation of abuse, and repercussions of mandatory reporting laws. Health care providers should work in collaboration with community domestic violence programs in educating staff on issues pertaining to domestic violence and in crafting policies that promote patient safety and autonomy.
Ceballo, Rosario; Ramirez, Cynthia; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela Alejandra; Lozoff, Betsy
Domestic violence against women is a pervasive, global health problem. This study investigates the correlates and psychological outcomes of domestic abuse among women in a semi-industrial country. The participants included 215 mothers residing in working-class communities located on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. We utilized structural equation…
Sohal, Alex Hardip; Pathak, Neha; Blake, Sarah; Apea, Vanessa; Berry, Judith; Bailey, Jayne; Griffiths, Chris; Feder, Gene
Sexual health and gynaecological problems are the most consistent and largest physical health differences between abused and non-abused female populations. Sexual health services are well placed to identify and support patients experiencing domestic violence and abuse (DVA). Most sexual health professionals have had minimal DVA training despite English National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommendations. We sought to determine the feasibility of an evidence-based complex DVA training intervention in female sexual health walk-in services (IRIS ADViSE: Identification and Referral to Improve Safety whilst Assessing Domestic Violence in Sexual Health Environments). An adaptive mixed method pilot study in the female walk-in service of two sexual health clinics. Following implementation and evaluation at site 1, the intervention was refined before implementation at site 2. The intervention comprised electronic prompts, multidisciplinary training sessions, clinic materials and simple referral pathways to IRIS ADViSE advocate-educators (AEs). The pilot lasted 7 weeks at site 1 and 12 weeks at site 2. Feasibility outcomes were to assign a supportive DVA clinical lead, an IRIS ADViSE AE employed by a local DVA service provider, adapt electronic records, develop local referral pathways, assess whether enquiry, identification and referral rates were measurable. Both sites achieved all feasibility outcomes: appointing a supportive DVA clinical lead and IRIS ADViSE AE, establishing links with a local DVA provider, adapting electronic records, developing local referral pathways and rates of enquiry, identification and referral were found to be measurable. Site 1: 10% enquiry rate (n=267), 4% identification rate (n=16) and eight AE referrals. Site 2: 61% enquiry rate (n=1090), a 7% identification rate (n=79) and eight AE referrals. IRIS ADViSE can be successfully developed and implemented in sexual health clinics. It fulfils the unmet need for DVA training. Longer
Tonsing, Jenny C
This study examines South Asian women's experience of domestic violence in Hong Kong. Despite the proliferation of literature on domestic violence, this issue remain unexplored in the discourse of domestic violence in Hong Kong. A qualitative research approach through face to face interview with 14 women was employed. Participants were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. Findings from this study highlight the importance of considering the social and cultural influence on how women perceived and construct their experiences of abuse.Implications for practice and policies are highlighted.
It has been widely acknowledged that the majority of persons affected by Gender-Based Violence (GBV) are women and girls. The violence females are subject to can occur at each stage of their life with immediate and long-term effects. According to a World Bank publication, The Costs ofViolence, (2009) most estimates on the cost to society of GBV have focused on domestic violence. A study of the Extent, Nature and Costs of Domestice Violence to the Mauritian Economy (2010) reveals that there is...
Nimmo-Smith, Victoria; Brugha, Traolach S; Kerr, Michael P; McManus, Sally; Rai, Dheeraj
To quantify the experience of discrimination, domestic violence, abuse, and other stressful life events in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population and people with other chronic conditions. To assess whether any excess relative burden of these adversities could explain the higher rates of depression in people with epilepsy. The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 used comprehensive interviews with 7,403 individuals living in private residences in England. Doctor-diagnosed epilepsy and other chronic conditions were established by self-report. Discrimination, domestic violence, physical and sexual abuse, and other stressful life events were assessed using computerized self-completion and a face-to-face interview, respectively. People with epilepsy were sevenfold more likely to have reported experiencing discrimination due to health problems (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 7.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1-16.3), than the general population without epilepsy. This estimate was substantially greater in people with epilepsy than for people with other chronic conditions. People with epilepsy also had greater odds of experiencing domestic violence and sexual abuse than the general population, although these associations were also found in people with other chronic conditions. There was less evidence of an association between epilepsy and a history of physical abuse or having a greater burden of other stressful life events. In exploratory analyses, assuming they lie on the causal pathway, discrimination, domestic violence, and sexual abuse explained 42.7% of the total effect of the relationship between epilepsy and depression or anxiety disorders. People with epilepsy can face a range of psychosocial adversities and extensively report feeling discriminated against as compared to the general population. In addition, if confirmed in longitudinal studies, the results suggest that these psychosocial adversities may have a significant role in the
Hester, M; Ferrari, G; Jones, S K; Williamson, E; Bacchus, L J; Peters, T J; Feder, G
To measure the experience and perpetration of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse (DVA), and investigate its associations with health conditions and behaviours in men attending general practice. Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted between September 2010 and June 2011. 16 general practices in the south west of England. Male patients aged 18 or older, attending alone, who could read and write English. A total of 1403 of eligible patients (58%) participated in the survey and 1368 (56%) completed the questions relevant to this paper. 97% of respondents reported they were heterosexual. Lifetime occurrence of negative behaviour consistent with DVA, perceived health impact of negative behaviours, associations with anxiety and depression symptoms, and cannabis use in the past 12 months and binge drinking. 22.7% (95% CI 20.2% to 24.9%) of men reported ever experiencing negative behaviour (feeling frightened, physically hurt, forced sex, ask permission) from a partner. All negative behaviours were associated with a twofold to threefold increased odds of anxiety and depression symptoms in men experiencing or perpetrating negative behaviours or both. 34.9% (95% CI 28.7% to 41.7%) of men who reported experiencing negative behaviour from a partner, and 30.8% (95% CI 23.7% to 37.8%) of men who perpetrated negative behaviours said they had been in a domestically violent or abusive relationship. No associations with problematic drinking were found; there was a weak association with cannabis use. DVA is experienced or perpetrated by a large minority of men presenting to general practice, and these men were more likely to have current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Presentation of anxiety or depression to clinicians may be an indicator of male experience or perpetration of DVA victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Hester, M; Ferrari, G; Jones, S K; Williamson, E; Bacchus, L J; Peters, T J; Feder, G
Objective To measure the experience and perpetration of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse (DVA), and investigate its associations with health conditions and behaviours in men attending general practice. Design Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted between September 2010 and June 2011. Setting 16 general practices in the south west of England. Participants Male patients aged 18 or older, attending alone, who could read and write English. A total of 1403 of eligible patients (58%) participated in the survey and 1368 (56%) completed the questions relevant to this paper. 97% of respondents reported they were heterosexual. Main outcome measures Lifetime occurrence of negative behaviour consistent with DVA, perceived health impact of negative behaviours, associations with anxiety and depression symptoms, and cannabis use in the past 12 months and binge drinking. Results 22.7% (95% CI 20.2% to 24.9%) of men reported ever experiencing negative behaviour (feeling frightened, physically hurt, forced sex, ask permission) from a partner. All negative behaviours were associated with a twofold to threefold increased odds of anxiety and depression symptoms in men experiencing or perpetrating negative behaviours or both. 34.9% (95% CI 28.7% to 41.7%) of men who reported experiencing negative behaviour from a partner, and 30.8% (95% CI 23.7% to 37.8%) of men who perpetrated negative behaviours said they had been in a domestically violent or abusive relationship. No associations with problematic drinking were found; there was a weak association with cannabis use. Conclusions DVA is experienced or perpetrated by a large minority of men presenting to general practice, and these men were more likely to have current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Presentation of anxiety or depression to clinicians may be an indicator of male experience or perpetration of DVA victimisation. PMID:25991450
van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.
One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…
Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Domestic violence against men isn't always easy to identify, but it can be a serious threat. Know how to recognize if ... Staff Women aren't the only victims of domestic violence. Understand the signs of domestic violence against men, ...
van Wijk, N.Ph.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.
One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence
Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)
Nyberg, E; Stieglitz, R-D; Flury, M; Riecher-Rössler, A
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESES: Domestic violence is common and can lead to severe physical and psychological problems. Thus, we have investigated the frequency of occurrence, forms and risk factors of domestic violence against female patients on a crisis intervention ward. 115 women were screened with the "screening spouse violence" (SPG) and the "index of spouse abuse" (ISA). The life time prevalence concerning spouse violence was 70 %. Out of 74 women who were currently living in a relationship 28 (38 % )were victims of violence in the last 12 months prior to their admission. Women who experienced violence had a significantly lower level of education. Screening for domestic violence in female patients in the field of crisis intervention and psychiatry should become a standard of "good clinical practice". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
McFeely, Clare; Whiting, Nel; Lombard, Nancy; McGowan, Mhairi
Domestic abuse is a global phenomenon which adversely affects individuals who experience it and creates social and financial burdens for the societies in which it occurs. While abuse can be perpetrated by women against male partners and occurs in same sex relationships, domestic abuse is overwhelmingly perpetrated by men against female partners. As a result, the United Nations has identified domestic abuse as a form of gender based violence that is predominantly experienced by women and pe...
Hidrobo, Melissa; Fernald, Lia
Violence against women is a major health and human rights problem yet there is little rigorous evidence as to how to reduce it. We take advantage of the randomized roll-out of Ecuador's cash transfer program to mothers to investigate how an exogenous increase in a woman's income affects domestic violence. We find that the effect of a cash transfer depends on a woman's education and on her education relative to her partner's. Our results show that for women with greater than primary school education a cash transfer significantly decreases psychological violence from her partner. For women with primary school education or less, however, the effect of a cash transfer depends on her education relative to her partner's. Specifically, the cash transfer significantly increases emotional violence in households where the woman's education is equal to or more than her partner's. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Horan, D L; Chapin, J; Klein, L; Schmidt, L A; Schulkin, J
To ascertain the current knowledge base and screening practices of obstetrician-gynecologists in the area of domestic violence. We mailed a survey to 189 ACOG Fellows who are members of the Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network. Questionnaires were also mailed to a random sample of 1250 nonmember Fellows. Obstetrician-gynecologists are aware of the nature of domestic violence and are familiar with common symptomatology that may be associated with domestic violence. For pregnant patients, 39% of respondents routinely screen at the first prenatal visit; 27% of respondents routinely screen nonpregnant patients at the initial visit. Screening is most likely to occur when the obstetrician-gynecologist suspects a patient is being abused, both during pregnancy (68%) and when the patient is not pregnant (72%). Only 30% of obstetrician-gynecologists received training on domestic violence during medical school; 37% received such instruction during residency training. The majority (67%) have received continuing education on the subject. Years since training and personal experiences with intimate-partner violence were associated with increased screening practices. Routine screening of all women for domestic violence has been recommended by ACOG for more than a decade. The majority of obstetrician-gynecologists screen both pregnant and nonpregnant patients when they suspect abuse. However, with universal screening, more female victims of violence can be identified and can receive needed services.
Monica L Zilberman
Full Text Available Domestic violence and substance abuse are common in primary care patients. Although these problems are associated with severe physical and psychological sequelae, they are often undiagnosed. This article provides an overview of the prevalence of these problems, the health-related consequences for adults, children and elderly, as well as the challenges for clinicians in screening, assessment and referral.Violência doméstica e abuso de substâncias psicoativas são comuns em pacientes atendidos no sistema de saúde de baixa complexidade. Apesar de estes problemas acarretarem graves seqüelas físicas e psicológicas, eles freqüentemente não são diagnosticados. Este artigo oferece uma revisão ampla sobre a prevalência destes problemas e suas conseqüências para a saúde de adultos, crianças e idosos, bem como discute os desafios enfrentados por médicos clínicos para a sua detecção, avaliação e encaminhamento.
Alexander, Helen; Macdonald, Elspeth; Paton, Sandra
Previous studies suggest that around 30 per cent of children may witness domestic abuse, by which we mean physical or mental violence perpetrated by men on women. This paper reports the views of older children--a group from which there is little direct evidence available. Ninety-eight percent of pupils in a Scottish Secondary School consented to…
Gilliland, M G; Spence, P R; Spence, R L
Strategies for preventing domestic violence can be tailored to a particular geographic or socioeconomic area if the patterns of domestic violence in the area are known. National statistics, although widely available, may not be applicable to a specific region. We reviewed homicide deaths in Eastern North Carolina between 1978 and 1999 to identify patterns in this rural area. Approximately 20% of the homicide deaths in eastern North Carolina are caused by intimate partners. Women accounted for 53% of the victims in 1976, similar to national figures but not rising to 72% as seen nationally in 1998. Latinos are an increasing presence in the area, but had only one recorded episode of lethal violence against an intimate partner. Gunshots accounted for most of the deaths (59% in men, 72% in women). Knowledge of such patterns can assist in selecting prevention strategies for this particular area. Over the last 25 years increasing attention has been devoted to domestic violence (DV), initially defined as abuse committed against a spouse, former spouse, fiancée, boy- or girlfriend, or cohabitant. As time has passed, the definition has been broadened to include other family members--elders, children, and siblings. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now uses the term "intimate partner violence" for intentional emotional or physical abuse inflicted by a spouse, ex-spouse, a present or former boy- or girlfriend, or date. For the purposes of this paper, we consider DV interchangeable with intimate partner violence. There has been a national concern that abusive events are under-reported. The National Crime Victimization Survey, an anonymous household survey, indicated nearly 1 million incidents of non-lethal intimate partner violence per year between 1992 and 1996. The number decreased from 1.1 million in 1993 to 840,000 in 1996. Attempts to validate such data for a given geographic area often require subjects to violate anonymity--this may account for lower
Bright, Melissa A; Huq, Mona Sayedul; Spencer, Terry; Applebaum, Jennifer W; Hardt, Nancy
Youth who engage in animal cruelty are known to be at increased risk of perpetrating violence on other people in their lives including peers, loved ones, and elder family members. These youths have often been exposed to family violence, including animal cruelty perpetrated on their beloved pets by violent adults. The current study utilizes a data set of 81,000 juvenile offenders whose adverse childhood experiences are known and includes 466 youth who self-report engaging in animal cruelty. Compared to the larger group of juvenile offenders, the children admitting to engaging in animal cruelty are younger at time of first arrest, more likely to be male, and more likely to be White. When looking at their reports of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), they are more likely than other juvenile offenders to have an array of adverse experiences beyond family violence and to have four or more ACEs. Although the youth who are cruel to animals are already troubled, the fact that they present to law enforcement at early ages provides early opportunities for intervention. Service providers outside the law enforcement field, such as teachers, physicians, veterinarians and animal control officers may be able to identify these vulnerable youth, and refer them to needed services before violence is visited on other humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Offers the author's experiences in teaching a college-level domestic violence sociology course, presenting specific strategies and a description of the syllabus. The course presents a feminist analysis of domestic violence and examines how the patriarchal structure and ideology of society create and perpetuate violence. (SLD)
Starsoneck, Leslie; Ake, George
Children's exposure to domestic violence is well established as an adverse childhood experience (ACE). Much is known about the impact of this exposure, but efforts to ameliorate its effects are too often unsuccessful. Reconsidering our response requires a candid assessment of whether convening large and disparate systems leads to the best outcome. ©2018 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.
Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Goddard, Chris; Piterman, Leon
Victims of domestic violence frequently attend health care facilities. In many cases, their abusive experience is neither disclosed nor discussed during clinical consultations. This study examined the barriers faced by women when discussing abuse with health care providers, specifically in cases involving Malaysian women with a history of domestic violence. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews was conducted with 10 women with a history of domestic violence residing at a shelter. Purposive sampling was conducted until data saturation. Using the grounded theory approach of analysis, themes that emerged from these interviews were then further analyzed to examine the barriers faced by these women. Women who experienced domestic violence faced multiple barriers while discussing their accounts of abuse with others. Values placed on the privacy of domestic violence; upholding the traditional gender roles; preserving the family unity; minimizing the abuse, the feeling of shame, self-blame; and fearing their abuser generally create internal barriers when discussing their encounters of abuse with health care providers. The perceived unknown role of health care professionals when dealing with patients experiencing domestic violence as well as the previous negative experiences in clinical consultations acted as external barriers for discussing abuse with health care providers. Women with domestic violence experiences faced internal and external barriers to discussing their abuse during clinical consultations. Physicians and health care providers must consider domestic violence in consultations with female patients. A good doctor-patient relationship that encompasses empathy, confidence, trust, support, assurance, confidentiality, and guidance can help patients with abusive backgrounds overcome these barriers, leading to the disclosure and discussion of their abusive encounters. Proper education, guidelines, and support for health care providers are required to help
Hossain, Nazli; Khan, Sharmeen
Domestic violence against women is a global issue. An earlier report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA, reported that injury caused by domestic violence was the second most common cause of death during pregnancy and in the postpartum period (1). The pregnancy-associated homicide ratio was found to be 1.7 per 100,000 deliveries and firearms were identified as the main source of injury. Domestic violence is more common in developing countries than in the developed world, and rural areas are worse affected than urban ones. The risk factors associated with intimate partner violence include husbands being unemloyed, belonging to a lower socioeconomic group, poor educational status, and alcohol and substance abuse. In a hospital-based study of 500 women, around 12.6% reported physical abuse by their spouses in index pregnancy (2). In another hospital-based study in which women were interviewed during the postpartum period, 23% reported physical abuse during index pregnancy (3). Death as a result of violence is not a new phenomenon. In 1994 the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan reported 372 cases of domestic violence, due to which around 274 women died during an 8-month period. According to a report for the year 2012-13 around 389 cases of domestic violence were reported in the Pakistani media that year. The same report states that in 2013, more than 800 women committed suicide due to domestic violence. In 2013, the Provincial Assembly of Sindh, Pakistan, passed The Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection) Bill, 2013, which imposes a fine of Rs 20,000 for violent offences against women. Such bills have not been passed in other provincial assemblies of the country. Other countries in South Asia (India, Nepal, Bangladesh, the Maldives, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan) have national laws which make provision for extending medical assistance to women who have suffered domestic violence (4). However, a lot remains to be done to translate these
Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna
Violence in the family constitutes a serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in the psychological functioning of the victim and, secondarily, also the perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine resilience in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Ego Resiliency Scale" (ERS) was used to study the group of women suffering domestic violence. The study group included 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. They most often reported suffering psychological and physical violence, with the husband or intimate partner being the most common perpetrator. Study women experiencing domestic violence obtained significantly lower scores on the ERS. The lowest scores on the ERS were achieved by women suffering paternal violence, while the highest - by women experiencing violence on the part of the intimate partner. Resilience of study women suffering domestic violence was lower than resilience of the general population, i.e. individuals not experiencing domestic violence. Suffered violence inflicted by the father exerted the greatest adverse impact on resilience. It seems advisable to consider resilience in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.
Nojomi, Marzieh; Agaee, Saideh; Eslami, Samira
Violence against women and threat of violence are some of the main barriers to women's empowerment and equal participation in the society. However, they often go unnoticed and undocumented and therefore unresolved. For women, one of every five years of healthy life lost because of injury, disease, or premature death is attributable to violence. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of domestic violence in women attending three obstetric and gynecologic clinics in Tehran, and to determine the association between domestic violence and demographic factors. One thousand women, 15-64 years old, attending three obstetric and gynecologic clinics affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey with self-administered questionnaire. The association between demographic factors (age, level of education, religious believes, annual income, job, husband's employment status, drug and alcohol abuse, previous custody of husbands) and domestic violence was assessed by questionnaire. Five hundred and ninety out of the 1000 women had experienced at least one form of violence (physical, mental, not sexual) from their husbands, 196 women had experienced some forms of controlling behavior and mental violence, and 361 women had been physically threatened. Low level of education in women, nongovernmental job, previous custody, psychiatric disorders of men, and coercive marriage for women were associated with an increased risk of domestic violence. With the high prevalence of domestic violence, health workers should not ignore the seriousness of domestic violence. Health and social personnel should be appropriately trained before "asking all cases" becomes a policy within health and social services.
Coleman, Frances L.
Refines the behavioral definition of stalking, investigates the role stalking plays in domestic violence, and develops demographic profiles of stalkers and their victims. Results based on information taken from 141 college women show that subjects who reported significantly more abuse during relationships were more likely to be stalked by former…
This article provides a reflection on the experiences of Muslim women with regard to domestic violence. A qualitative approach was utilised following an explorative, descriptive, phenomenological contextual research design, as the researchers sought to understand the lived experiences of Muslim women in abusive ...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence by inflicting physical harm, bodily injury, or sexua...
Izmirli, Gulsen O; Sonmez, Yonca; Sezik, Mekin
To determine the prevalence of, and independent risk factors for various domestic violence categories among married women of reproductive age in southwestern Turkey. The present cross-sectional study included 260 randomly selected women registered to a family physician in the district of Gönen, Isparta. During home visits between October 1 and December 31, 2012, the women completed a questionnaire that included between four and eight questions for each violence category (physical, verbal, economic, emotional, and sexual) to assess the lifetime presence of domestic violence. Logistic regression models with backward elimination were constructed to define independent risk factors for domestic violence. In total, 176 (67.7%) women reported any type of domestic violence at least once in their lifetime. Verbal/psychological abuse was the most frequent type (reported by 121 [46.5%] women). Living in a village, young age (19-29 years) of the husband, adolescent age (violence. Attention should be given to area of residence, age of both partners at marriage, adolescent marriage, and husband characteristics during screening for domestic violence. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eng, Sothy; Szmodis, Whitney; Grace, Kelly
Divorce rates continue to rise, especially in urban centers, which in turn contributes to increasing numbers of women who remarry. While remarriage is one of the only options for survival for divorced women, especially those from low socioeconomic status, remarriage also brings with it increased stressors of financial strain and the strain of blended families. This study tested the hypothesis that remarried women compared with first-time married and divorced women are at increased risk for domestic violence. The sample was drawn from the Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey, consisting of 1,560 women with the average age of 31.64. Results showed that 20% of women reported emotional violence and 14%, physical violence. Based on hierarchical multiple regressions, this study found that remarried women were more likely to experience physical and emotional abuse than women in their first marriage or women who remain divorced/not in union. Further interaction analyses showed that domestic violence varies depending on place of residence, number of children younger than 5 years, partners' education, and wealth index. Rural residents who were in poorest and poorer groups and urban residents in their poorer and middle groups of their wealth index showed high risk of domestic violence. Remarried women with two or three children younger than 5 years showed highest risk of domestic violence. Additional three-way interaction analysis revealed that remarried women residing in rural/urban areas with a spouse having no education and/or primary level of education were at highest risk of domestic violence. The study lends support to the structural role of the power of male dominance on women's social and emotional well-being. This study suggested that to reduce men's perceived domination, structural intervention that includes implementing gender-responsive curriculum in formal education, as well as strengthening domestic violence law enforcement would help reduce domestic violence
Kocacik, Faruk; Dogan, Orhan
To determine the self-reported prevalence of domestic violence and associated risk factors in the Sivas province of Turkey. Five hundred and eighty-three households were chosen by the method of stratified random sampling. The average age among women was 28.65+/-4.64. A total of 45.3% of women were in 30-34 age-group, 76.5% were housewives, and 91.2% were married. The data were gathered by performing face-to-face interviews in participants' homes. Demographic data were obtained by fill-in forms. We found a statistically significant relationship among the types of violence and annual income, type of family, education and occupation level of women, education level of perpetrators, watching violent films, and childhood experience of emotional abuse or negligence. Fifty-two percent of women were exposed to at least one type of violence. Verbal violence was the most frequent type of violence (53.8%), followed by physical violence (38.3%). About 45% of women exposed to violence were in the 30-34 age group, 41.6% completed only primary schools, 73.6% were housewives, 91.7% were married, 71.0% had been exposed to violence during their childhood, and 45.2%, had been exposed to violence several times in a month. Economic problems were reported as the most important reason for domestic violence (31.4%). Our study found higher prevalence of domestic violence than expected. As an important public health problem, domestic violence requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand its causes and plan preventive measures.
McClennen, Joan C.
Empirical literature about same-gender domestic violence was relatively nonexistent until the past 20 years, and conducting research with this population about a sensitive topic remains a daunting endeavor. Existing studies reveal similarities between opposite- and same-gender domestic violence in prevalence, types of abuse, and various dynamics,…
Studies of domestic violence in rural areas have predominantly focused on barriers that keep women trapped in abusive relationships. The literature has frequently suggested that rural culture influences the incidence of domestic violence, the forms it takes, and how it is experienced. Yet there is surprisingly little research on how rural culture…
Rabbani, F; Qureshi, F; Rizvi, N
There is no adequate profile of domestic violence in Pakistan although this issue is frequently highlighted by the media. This case study used qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the nature and forms of domestic violence, circumstances, impact and coping mechanisms amongst selected women victims in Karachi. Violence was a continuum: all the women reported verbal abuse, often escalating into physical, emotional, sexual and economic abuse. The husband was the most common perpetrator. Women suffered in silence due to sociocultural norms, misinterpretation of religious beliefs, subordinate status, economic dependence and lack of legal redress. Besides short-term local measures, public policy informed by correct interpretation of religion can bring about a change in prevailing societal norms.
Smith, M; Martin, F
Domestic violence is a significant social and health problem that has received intensive recent publicity in the lay media. Nurses should play a major role in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions. Intensified health promotion and public policy initiatives can reduce the incidence of domestic violence in the future.
Anczewska, Marta; Roszczynska-Michta, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Justyna; Charzynska, Katarzyna; Czabala, Czeslaw
It is generally held that it has been only recently that domestic violence gained appropriate attention as a major social problem. However several approaches, drawn from different theories are applicable in explaining the origin of this negative phenomenon. It is well recognized that trauma of domestic violence has destructive impact on somatic…
Tokuc, Burcu; Ekuklu, Galip; Avcioglu, Serap
The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence against married women in Edirne, Turkey. This is a cross-sectional study which included a representative sample of the married women living in the Provincial Center of Edirne. The total past year prevalence of some forms of physical domestic violence is 34% in…
Domestic abuse continues to claim many lives in Spain despite a series of new laws to protect women and to punish abusers. This essay explores the cultural influences of contemporary Spanish cinema on domestic violence. Four films are assessed against a Portfolio Model of social responsibility that uses two basic dimensions: realism and human…
This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…
Madhani, Farhana I; Karmaliani, Rozina; Patel, Cyra; Bann, Carla M; McClure, Elizabeth M; Pasha, Omrana; Goldenberg, Robert L
This community-based observational study of 1,325 women seen for antenatal care examined how women in Pakistan define violence against women (VAW), with an emphasis on domestic violence, what an acceptable response to violence is, reasons for remaining silent, and whether participants are willing to disclose incidents of domestic violence to others. Nearly half of the study participants believed that physical violence was VAW. Verbal abuse, controlling behavior by the husband, conflict with in-laws, overburdening domestic work, and threatening to leave or remarry were also considered VAW. However, only five respondents (0.4%) considered sexual abuse to be VAW. Most women who screened positive for domestic violence responded by remaining silent or verbal fighting back. None sought professional help. Women who decided to remain silent feared that the abuse would escalate or that responding would not help them. Women cited social stigma and concerns about the impact of the violence on children as reasons for not disclosing violent incidents to others or seeking professional help. Women's lack of autonomy further reduced their ability to take steps against violence. Although societal norms, particularly patriarchal beliefs and women's subordination to men, likely explain women's tolerance of abuse, their recognition of physical abuse as violence indicates that they do not necessarily believe it is always justified. Educational interventions to drive changes in the social norms around gender violence along with effective and enforceable legal measures are likely required to ensure women's safety. © The Author(s) 2015.
Domestic violence is a continuing public health problem. Immigrant women facing domestic violence have additional challenges in dealing with domestic violence and accessing services. Hopeful thinking has been identified as a strategy for intervening and surviving beyond domestic violence. The purpose of this multiple descriptive case study was to…
Full Text Available Background: It is over the last decade that research in this field of domestic violence has led to greater recognition of the issue as public health problem. The paper aims to study the prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and potential risk factors of the women confronting violence within the home in India. Materials and Methods: A multicentric study with analytical cross-sectional design was applied. It covers 18 states in India with 14,507 women respondents. Multistage sampling and probability proportion to size were done. Results: The result shows that overall 39 per cent of women were abused. Women who have a lower household income, illiterate, belonging to lower caste, and have a partner who drinks/bets, etc. found to be important risk factors and place women in India at a greater risk of experiencing domestic violence. Conclusion: As India has already passed a bill against domestic violence, the present results on robustness of the problem will be useful to sensitize the concerned agencies to strictly implement the law. This may lead to more constructive and sustainable response to domestic violence in India for improvement of women health and wellbeing.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the phenomenon of domestic violence and the distinctive features for which is it may be recognized as a specific form of torture and/or terrorism at home. The author provides an overview of the scientific debate among feminist authors on this conception which has given rise to an innovative approach to understanding the concept of domestic violence. Underscoring the substantive similarity of domestic violence with the acts of torture and/or terrorism, the author urges for state action arguing that domestic violence as a form of gender-based violence should be approached by applying the same logic and strategies which are employed in response to traditional torture and terrorism.
Lutgendorf, M A; Thagard, A; Rockswold, P D; Busch, J M; Magann, E F
The objective was to estimate the self-reported prevalence of domestic violence in a pregnant military population presenting for emergency care, and to determine the acceptability of domestic violence screening. A prospective observational survey of patients presenting for obstetric emergency care. Women were anonymously screened for domestic violence using the Abuse Assessment Screen. A total of 499 surveys were distributed, with 26 duplicate surveys. After excluding the 12 blank surveys, a total of 461 surveys were included in the final analysis. The lifetime prevalence of domestic violence (including physical, emotional and sexual abuse) was 22.6% (95% CI=19.0 to 26.4) with 4.1% (95% CI=2.3-6.0) of women reporting physical abuse in the past year and 2.8% (95% CI=1.3-4.3) reporting abuse since becoming pregnant. The majority of women 91.8% (95% CI=88.7-94.2) were not offended by domestic violence screening and 88.8% (95% CI=82.0-88.9) felt that patients should be routinely screened. The self-reported prevalence of domestic violence in a pregnant military population presenting for emergency care was 22.6%. Most women are not offended by domestic violence screening and support routine screening.
Antle, Becky; Barbee, Anita; Yankeelov, Pam; Bledsoe, Linda
This purpose of this research was to evaluate the mandatory reporting law for domestic violence victims in the state of Kentucky through the qualitative interview of 24 female victims of domestic violence. Victims were generally supportive of the law and felt that professionals should be required to report domestic abuse. They did not feel that…
Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354
Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence.
Radulović Danka M.
Full Text Available Domestic violence is a problem to which more attention is paid today. However, in its theoretical consideration, as well as in practical reaction, one must not lose sight of characteristics of domestic violence of one, rather numerous category of perpetrators who have psychopathic structure of personality. Domestic violence which offenders are psychopaths must be treated very carefully, because each mistake in intervention can cause much bigger damage to the victim than absence of reaction at all. Due to that, before any intervention, it would be necessary to make a diagnosis on whether the perpetrator has psychopathic structure of personality or not.
Fowler, Drew R; Cantos, Arthur L; Miller, Steven A
The present study investigated the predictive utility of self-reported domestic violence perpetrators' exposure to violence in their family of origin and patterns related to this exposure through the use of longitudinal analyses on a sample of 228 men on probation in Lake County, Illinois. Differences in typology, recidivism, recidivism frequency, and violent behavior survival patterns in men with a history of domestic violence perpetration and with varying levels of family of origin violence exposure were examined. Findings suggest that those who witnessed interparental violence (either alone, or in combination with experiencing violence) were most likely to be classified as Generally Violent offenders (e.g., perpetrators who direct violence toward their family and others), compared to those who did not report experiencing or witnessing violence. In addition, results also indicate that men who experienced both witnessing interparental violence and receiving physical abuse in childhood were more likely to recidivate more frequently compared to those who did not report experiencing or witnessing violence. No significant findings for typology and recidivism were noted. Clinical and policy/practice implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Borras-Guevara, Martha Lucia; Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I
Potential protection from violence has been suggested as an explanation for women's preferences for more masculine partners. Previous studies, however, have not considered that violence may be multi-modal, and hence come from different sources. Therefore, we tested the effect of different fears of violence (i.e. vulnerability to public crime, likelihood of within-partnership violence) on masculinity preferences of women from Colombia, a country known for its high rates of violence. Eighty-three adult heterosexual women (mean age ± SD = 26.7 ± 6.01) answered a survey that included questions about health (e.g. frequency of illnesses during the last year and during childhood), access to media (e.g. time spent watching television, frequency of internet use), education (i.e. highest level achieved) and violence perceptions. Participants' masculinity preferences for Salvadoran, European and Colombian male faces were recorded. Factor analysis revealed two different factors for the answers to questions related to violence. One factor loaded mostly on questions related to public violence and the second factor related to domestic violence. We found that women with higher scores on the domestic violence factor preferred significantly less masculine Colombian male faces. Even after controlling for participant age, education, access to media (TV and internet) and health-related factors, the domestic violence factor contributed significantly to explaining masculinity preferences. The results presented here suggest that women's preferences for masculinity may be a strategy to avoid aggressive partners and that the source of violence matters in mate choice. Women who perceive higher risks of domestic violence prefer less masculine looking partners. Using an experimental approach, we show that Colombian women who feel more in danger of violence within partnership prefer the faces of less masculine males. This was true even after controlling for women's education level
Gyuse, A N I; Ushie, A P; Etukidem, A
Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual well being and not just the absence of disease. Domestic violence (synonyms: spouse abuse, partner or intimate violence, family violence) is a public health problem which is defined as any intentional abuse of a family member (mostly females but not exclusive) by his/her partner that causes pain or injury. There is paucity of data on domestic violence mainly because of under-reporting by the victims. However, domestic violence is said to be a more frequent occurrence than other recognized pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, twin pregnancy or gestational diabetes for which women are routinely screened during the antenatal period. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence in pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a local Nigerian mission hospital in Jos, Plateau state. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of women attending antenatal clinic at ECWA Evangel Hospital, Jos over a six month period using the Abuse Assessment Screen developed by McFarlane to detect the prevalence of domestic violence. The data were analysed using Epi Info Version 2002. Three hundred and forty pregnant women were studied. Majority of them were married and were mostly aged between 20 and 39 years. Domestic violence prevalence was 12.6% (43) in the current pregnancy and 63.2% (215) previously. The study establishes that women in our environment experience domestic violence during pregnancy and majority of them also have a previous history of abuse. There is the need to routinely screen for domestic violence in pregnant women so as to prevent potential adverse pregnancy outcomes and to interrupt existing abuse.
Groth, B; Chelmowski, M K; Batson, T P
Domestic violence is a prevalent problem with significant health consequences. Early recognition and appropriate intervention with referral to local domestic violence agencies can be life-saving. Little is known, however, about the current level of training, knowledge base and attitudes of physicians in this area. A survey was sent to 1300 physicians practicing in Milwaukee County in the following specialties: Family Practice, Internal Medicine, OB/GYN, Psychiatry. Demographic information was obtained. Questions were designed to explore attitudes towards domestic violence, frequency of encounters with victims or abusers, and knowledge of resources and appropriate intervention. Of the 192 respondents, 74% reported having some training in domestic violence. Thirty percent reported seeing victims in their practice on a daily or weekly basis. Seventy percent feel able to identify a victim of domestic violence. Less than a third of respondents screened at least half of the patients they see for the possibility of abuse. Less than half always refer victims to a hotline or shelter, and less than a quarter of the respondents discuss safety plans with victims. A potentially dangerous response is telling a victim not to go back to an abuser without providing referrals and safety supports. In spite of this, almost a quarter of respondents always tell a victim to not go back to the abuser. Family practitioners and psychiatrists were more likely to discuss abuse with patients than were internists. Significant numbers of physicians, in Milwaukee County, practicing certain specialties that potentially have a high rate of contact with domestic violence victims have had insufficient training in domestic violence assessment and intervention. Physicians should be familiar with the domestic violence hotlines and shelters in their communities and need to incorporate screen questions for domestic violence into their regular practice.
This article focuses on the particular cultural factors that affect South Asian women who are abused and immigrant South Asian women who are abused, in particular, in the restorative justice process. By exploring cultural practices and the icon of Sita, the mythological heroine of the Ramayana, this article demonstrates how the South Asian ideals of womanhood and wifehood help to create a mind-set whereby South Asian women are reluctant to advocate for themselves and are reluctant to leave. Such a condition is contrary to the conditions and abilities assumed by the restorative justice movement for dispute resolution, inside or outside of domestic violence. It is concluded that restorative justice options are ill-suited to application among immigrant South Asian communities for domestic violence cases.
Hegarty, K; Hindmarsh, E D; Gilles, M T
Domestic violence is a complex pattern of behaviours that may include, in addition to physical acts of violence, sexual abuse and emotional abuse. Women experience domestic violence at far greater rates than men do, and women and children often live in fear as a result of the abuse that is used by men to maintain control over their partners. Domestic violence is a major public health problem and is very common in women attending clinical practice. Women present most commonly with a range of chronic symptoms to unsuspecting general practitioners, emergency department doctors or medical specialists. Women who have experienced partner abuse want to be asked about it and are more likely to disclose if asked in an empathic, non-judgemental way. Doctors can make a difference.
Karakurt, Gunnur; Patel, Vishal; Whiting, Kathleen; Koyutürk, Mehmet
Intimate partner violence (IPV) often culminates in acute physical injury, sexual assault, and mental health issues. It is crucial to understand the healthcare habits of victims to develop interventions that can drastically improve a victim's quality of life and prevent future abuse. The objective of this study is to mine de-identified and aggregated Electronic Health Record data to identify women's health issues that are potentially associated with IPV. In this study we compared health issues of female domestic abuse victims to female non-domestic abuse victims. The Domestic abuse population contained 5870 patients, while the Non-Domestic Abuse population contained 14,315,140 patients. Explorys provides National Big Data from the entire USA. Statistical analysis identified 2429 terms as significantly more prevalent among victims of domestic abuse, compared to the general population. These terms were classified into broad categories, including acute injury, chronic conditions, substance abuse, mental health, disorders, gynecological and pregnancy related problems.
Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p sexually abused in childhood (8...
Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p abused in childhood (8...
Montoya, Celeste; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen
Violence against women is a universal problem, affecting women at all levels of society; however, differently situated women have unique experiences with violence. Theoretically, this calls for the necessity to balance universality with intersectionality. Analyzing EU policy texts, we argue...... that the recognition of different forms of violence has led to an increased tendency toward culturalization, i.e. articulating culture as the only explanation behind certain forms of violence or focusing exclusively on culturalized forms of violence. While largely ignoring the gendered nature of violence, cultural...... framings of violence also create a dichotomy between “insiders” (non-violent Europeans) and “outsiders” (violent others)....
Full Text Available Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God is one of the acclaimed boldly feminist novels of the 20th century. In general, this article draws on feminism and what looms large in feminism which is called sexism. In particular it focuses on domestic violence as a major sexist oppression. Domestic violence aroused by jealousy, anger, coercion, humiliation, threatening is manifest in verbal and physical abusing of women. Hurston skillfully depicts her heroine's undergoing of domestic violence by her husbands, each in different ways. This article aims to show that how the black heroine's battling with this violence purports to feminism and self-discovery of women.
Lima, Lucia Helena Mello de; Mattar, Rosiane; Abrahão, Anelise Riedel
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence in adolescent and adult mothers who were admitted to obstetrics services centers in Brazil and to identify risk factors of domestic violence and any adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. Researchers used standardized interviews, the questionnaire Abuse Assessment Screen, and a review of patients' medical records. Descriptive statistical analyses were also used. The prevalence of domestic violence among all participants totaled 40.1% (38.5% of adolescents, 41.7% of adults). Factors associated with domestic violence during pregnancy were as follows: a history of family violence, a greater number of sexual partners, and being a smoker. No statistically significant association was found for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. Results showed that, in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, pregnancy did not protect a woman from suffering domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2016.
Ending domestic violence against women: assessment of knowledge and ... Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design was utilized for this study. ... study documented poor knowledge and perception of DV among the studied population.
Sarkar, N N
The objective of this study is to evaluate and elucidate the impact of domestic violence on the health and pregnancy outcomes of women. Data were extracted from literature through the MEDLINE database for years 2000-2011. Domestic violence occurs in every society, irrespective of class, creed, religion and country. Women attending antenatal clinics in Delhi reported experience of 26.9% physical, 29% mental and 6.2% sexual abuse, irrespective of their age. The spouse was the perpetrator of abuse in 47% cases and his family members were responsible for 31%. Pregnant women were hit by their husbands on the back and abdomen, sometimes repeatedly, besides psychological abuse. Incidence of domestic violence was more when the male spouse was less educated or in the habit of consuming alcohol, opium or tobacco. Illiteracy, poverty, family status and uncaring attitude of community about spousal violence were the causes of domestic violence. Women having experience of violence were less likely to receive antenatal care or home visits by health workers and had a risk of perinatal and neonatal mortality of 2.59 and 2.37 times higher, respectively, than women having no violence during pregnancy. The survey indicated that 4.5% of abused women required hospitalisation and 3.8% needed medical care. Women's education, economic autonomy and empowerment may reduce the incidence of domestic violence among Indian women.
Jeremiah, I; Kalio, G B; Oriji, Vaduneme K
Domestic violence is common worldwide. When it occurs in pregnancy it is associated with maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It is a human rights violation with medical implication which is under-diagnosed and under-reported. This study sought to determine the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy and the factors that promotes domestic violence at the family unit. A cross sectional study of antenatal clients seen at the antenatal booking clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital from 1st June to 31st December 2007. Five hundred clients selected from a simple random technique completed an interviewer administered structured questionnaire which sought information on domestic violence. Data collected was entered into a spreadsheet and analyzed using the statistical package SPSS 15.00 for Windows. The prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy in this group was 7.8%. Those who experienced domestic violence were mainly those with low education and low parity. The commonest form of domestic violence was verbal abuse (shouting, cursing) occurring in 43.5% of those who have been abused in the index pregnancy and 1.2% of the victims of domestic violence suffered physical injuries from domestic violence in previous pregnancies. However, less than one third disclosed the incident. Women whose husbands indulge in substance abuse or are without jobs were more likely to experience domestic violence. Abdominal pain and miscarriage were the commonest obstetric complications following domestic violence-in pregnancy in this group. Eight percent of our antenatal mothers suffer domestic violence and many of them are unlikely to report it. Unemployment and substance abuse in the partners are major associated factors. Domestic violence in pregnancy has far-reaching adverse consequence on the mother and her unborn fetus such as miscarriage especially when it occasions bodily harm.
Krizsan, Andrea; Paantjens, Marjolein
This article juxtaposes shifts in prevailing frames on domestic violence in the Netherlands, Hungary and the EU. Domestic violence, first brought on the political agenda by women’s rights proponents as a problem related to gender inequalities, has been framed and re-framed under the influence of mainstream policy makers. The analysis of these frames shows how shifts in the gender of governance, particularly the marginalization of feminist NGO voices, have led to shifts in the governance of ge...
Domestic violence continues to be a global problem that kills and maims – physically, psychologically, sexually and economically. This problem is present in every country, cutting across boundaries of culture, class, education, income, ethnicity and age. Domestic Violence occurs in all kinds of intimate relationships, including married couples, people who are dating, couples who live together, parents, same-sex partners, people who were formerly in a relationship and teen dating relationships...
Santos Corraliza, E; Larrañaga Hernando, G; Neve Lete, I; Sánchez García, A
Domestic violence is currently an issue of great political and social importance. The real incidence of domestic violence is difficult to determine due to the environment where it takes place and the reluctance of victims to report abuse. On the other hand, all types of violence represent an important public health problem. We report the case of a young woman who presented with thromboembolic phenomena at different sites due to domestic violence. We emphasize that it is necessary for radiologists and other healthcare professionals to consider the possibility of domestic violence when establishing the diagnosis. This can be important for determining the incidence of abuse, diminishing its sequela, and help increase its reporting. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Völkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Huemer, Julia; Jandl-Jager, Elisabeth; Abensberg-Traun, Marihan; Marecek, Sonja; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Skala, Katrin
The experience of cumulative childhood adversities, such as exposure to domestic violence or abuse by caregivers, has been described as risk factor for poor mental health outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. We performed an investigation of experience of violence in all patients aged 6 to 20 years who had consulted the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, as outpatients during the period of one year. We were using the Childhood Trauma Interview (CTI) in order to obtain information on the kind of violence. Seventy-five percent of all patients had reported experiences of violence. These youth were significantly more often involved in acts of school violence, thus a significant correlation between experience of domestic violence and violence at school could be revealed. The results of our study emphasize the need for interventions preventing violence both in domestic and in school environments.
Domestic violence against women or girl child has been an old phenomenon women were compared as weak, vulnerable, and in position to be exploited. The traditional norms has made them subject of violence where men were given the outright domination over the issue that affect their lines. They are assaulted ...
Objective The aim of the present study was to review and analyse academic literature and program evaluations to identify promising evidence for health system responses to domestic violence in Australia and internationally. Methods English-language literature published between January 2005 and March 2016 was retrieved from search results using the terms 'domestic violence' or 'intimate partner violence' in different combinations with other relevant terms, resulting in 1671 documents, of which 59 were systematic reviews. Electronic databases (Medline (Ovid), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Psycinfo, Social work Abstracts, Informit, Violence and Abuse Abstracts, Family Studies Abstracts, Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews and EMBASE) were searched and narrative analysis undertaken. Results This review details the evidence base for the following interventions by health services responding to domestic violence: first-line responses, routine screening, risk assessment and safety planning, counselling with women, mother-child interventions, responses to perpetrators, child protection notifications, training and system-level responses. Conclusions There is growing evidence for the effectiveness of health service interventions to reduce the extent of harm caused by domestic violence. What is known about the topic? Domestic violence is a significant problem globally with enormous human, social and economic costs. Although women who have experienced abuse make extensive use of healthcare services, health services have lagged behind the policing, criminal justice and other human service domains in responding to domestic violence. What does this paper add? The present comprehensive review identifies best-practice health system responses to domestic violence. What are the implications for practitioners? Health systems can play a key role in identifying and responding to domestic violence for women who often do not access other services
The current article examined the overlap of domestic violence across the life course, connecting childhood abuse and adolescent dating victimization to adult intimate partner victimization, and the connection between these behaviors and adult domestic violence perpetration against partners and children. Using three waves of Add Health data, the study found that childhood and adolescent domestic victimization were directly and indirectly linked to adult intimate partner victimization and that domestic violence perpetration also played a role. These findings indicate that offending must be accounted for in tracking patterns of victimization over the life course and that the overlap must more directly be reconciled in current criminal justice policy.
Lúcia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Williams
Full Text Available Usually, one investigates marital violence, children victimization, and school violence in an isolated way. The aim of this paper is to highlight the relationship between domestic violence and school violence, suggesting actions to deal with these serious issues. With this goal in mind, two studies are described in this paper. The first one evaluates if boys who behave aggressively in school, in comparison with their non-aggressive peers, have more incidence of domestic violence exposure and victimization. The second study investigates if exposure to domestic violence and child victimization are factors associated with bullying. These studies indicated that there is a relation between the violence experienced in these two contexts; however they emphasize the need for further investigations with more participant and longitudinal studies. Teacher in-service training is suggested, aimed at: identifying students living in families with a history of domestic violence; supporting teachers and principals in case of disclosures in the school setting; social skills training for students; class discussions about healthy and non-violent family relationships and, psychotherapy referral to students who are victimized.
Ana Lucia Couto Coronel
Full Text Available Introduction: Functional disorders of the digestive system are often related to various forms of abuse and the integral approach of the problem requires a multidisciplinary network. The objectives of this research were: to evaluate the prevalence of domestic violence in adults with functional constipation and to identify the services and standards available to care for the victims. Methodology: The study was developed in two complementary parts. Part I: A cross-sectional study, which evaluated the prevalence of domestic violence in patients attended in the coloproctology outpatient clinic of the Hospital Materno-infantil Presidente Vargas, from September to December 2016. Part II: A narrative review, with bibliographical and documentary research that sought to identify the services and norms available in Brazil to assist victims of domestic violence. Results: 146 women were evaluated, 42 of whom had FC and, of these, 26 had a history of domestic violence (p = 0.007, with an Odds Ratio of 2.71 (CI95% O: 1.29–5.67. A network of services has been identified to assist victims of violence, the Network of Attention to Violence, formed by the health services, social assistance, public security, justice, human rights, and organized civil society. However, a standard system for the operation of this network has not been identified. Conclusion: The prevalence of domestic violence in women with functional constipation is high and a careful investigation of this possible interrelationship in clinical practice is suggested. Besides that, it is necessary to promote an integration of the Network of Attention to Violence, in order to offer integral care to the victims and a best utilization of the resources. Resumo: Introdução: Os distúrbios funcionais do aparelho digestivo são frequentemente relacionados a diversas formas de abuso e a abordagem integral do problema requer uma rede multidisciplinar de cuidados. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: avaliar a
Sahin, H A; Sahin, H G
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and type of domestic violence during pregnancy in Turkey and to compare socioeconomic background factors. A survey was carried out among a representative sample of 475 pregnant women. Data were collected on the incidence and the nature of domestic violence perpetrated by the woman's spouse or other family members during her current pregnancy and before. Sociodemographic characteristics such as age, duration of marriage, number of children, monthly income, education, occupation of the husband, domestic violence towards children, contribution to family decisions, smoking habits, sexual relations and whether the pregnancy was planned or not, were also recorded. Of the 475 women screened for domestic violence during pregnancy, 158 (33.3%) reported physical or sexual abuse since they had become pregnant. The source of the domestic violence was mainly the husband in 105 (66.5%) women. Types of abuse were psychological in 71 (44.9%) and physical in 87 (55.1%) women. The rate of women's satisfaction with their sexual life among abused women was 43.67% compared to 61.2% among non-abused women. Abused pregnant women were less educated, had lower income, had more children, had a longer duration of marriage, were applying violence towards their children, were not contributing to family decisions, were less satisfied with their sexual life and were more likely to have unplanned pregnancies when compared to non-abused women. Antenatal care protocols should be modified to address domestic violence and contributing factors during pregnancy so that identified women can be counseled appropriately and attempts can be made to intervene to prevent further episodes of domestic violence in primary care settings.
Francis, Lyn; Loxton, Deborah; James, Colin
To explore in detail how women perceived their experience of domestic violence and leaving or ending the abuse. This research also examined how service providers identified their professional role in assisting women to end such relationships. Domestic violence against women continues to occur internationally. Reliable statistics are difficult to capture because of inconsistent definitions, contradictory methods of acquiring data and unreported incidents. A qualitative study, undertaken in two phases, was conducted in Australia. Twelve women who had experienced domestic violence and ended those relationships participated in one semistructured interview (Phase 1). Twenty-five professionals from health, social sciences and law, whose work included assisting women experiencing domestic violence, participated in three focus groups (Phase 2). Thematic analysis guided by a narrative inquiry approach forms the framework for information collection and interpretation of data in this project. The barriers that impede women from disclosing abuse and taking action to end domestic violence are complex and varied between participants. Women did not always acknowledge or realise their relationship was precarious and often denied or minimised the abuse to cope with the domestic violence. Professionals identified that women did not always identify or acknowledge abuse inherent in their relationship although this delayed the provision of appropriate services. Whether women disclose abuse or deny violence in their relationship, acceptance by service providers and the offer of support is crucial to assisting women in violent relationships. It is hoped that the findings may assist health practitioners, including nurses, to provide nonjudgemental support to women experiencing domestic violence whether women acknowledge the abusive relationship or not. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wai Sze Paulin Ma
Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its risk factors in women presenting with urinary symptoms.The study was carried out in the urogynecology clinic and general gynecology clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong from 1st May 2013 till 31st October 2014. Two hundred and twenty-five women presenting to the urogynecology clinic with urinary symptoms were categorized according to their symptoms and were asked to complete the Modified Abuse Assessment Screen. Demographic data of the subjects and their partners were collected. Mann-Whitney U test were used for analysis of continuous variables, while Chi-square test and Fisher Exact test were used for analysis of categorical variables between the abused and non-abused group. Prevalence of domestic violence were calculated and compared.The prevalence of domestic violence among this group of patients (7.6% was found to be lower when compared with other studies. Verbal abuse was the commonest form of violence in our locality. The median age of the abused group and the non-abused group were both 56 years old, with the age ranging from 40 to 64 and 29 to 70 years old respectively. The prevalence of domestic violence among patients with overactive bladder syndrome, stress urinary incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence were 19.5%, 4.2% and 5.5% respectively (Fisher Exact test for whole group, P<0.05.The prevalence and nature of abuse in our locality was different from the quoted figures worldwide. Patients with overactive bladder syndrome were more likely to be victims of abuse than patients with other urinary symptoms. The difference in the prevalence of domestic violence among patients with different urinary symptoms could be related to their underlying pathophysiology. When encountering patients with overactive bladder syndrome, clinicians should consider this high incidence of domestic violence and provide prompt referral whenever necessary.
CONCLUSION: Men are also victims of domestic violence in this setting, but the violence is mostly verbal and psychological in nature. There is need to provide support services for male victims of domestic violence and also encourage them to report their experience of domestic violence in order to obtain help and ...
Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Cobb, Norman; Fowler, Carol R.
Women arrested for intimate partner violence raise challenges for those working in domestic violence programs. Theoretically, there is no agreement about whether women are aggressive for the same reasons as men or merely victims fighting back in an abusive relationship. Practically, there is very little research to guide treatment of this…
Full Text Available The battered women’s movement in the United States contributed to a sweeping change in the recognition of men’s violence against female intimate partners. Naming the problem and arguing in favor if its identification as a serious problem meriting a collective response were key aspects of this effort. Criminal and civil laws have been written and revised in an effort to answer calls to take such violence seriously. Scholars have devoted significant attention to the consequences of this reframing of violence, especially around the unintended outcomes of the incorporation of domestic violence into criminal justice regimes. Family law, however, has remained largely unexamined by criminologists. This paper calls for criminological attention to family law responses to domestic violence and provides directions for future research.
Görgen, T; Nägele, B
The main task of a federally funded model project in the German city of Hannover was to develop approaches for prevention and intervention in the field of domestic elder abuse. Over a three year period (1998-2001), different approaches--like a telephone helpline for senior citizens, and social workers operating as counsellors for elderly people and their relatives--were tested at a local level. The paper presents results from the evaluation of the project and draws conclusions for future prevention and intervention in the field. The authors argue that the explicit use of the conceptual framework of "violence"/"abuse" creates potentials for scandalizing the issue and is therefore supportive for media appearance, whereas it can impede the approach to the main target groups (elderly people and their relatives) and reduce accessibility of counselling services for potential clients. In the light of evaluation results the focus of the project ("domestic elder abuse" or "violence against elderly people in close relationships") was too narrow for a local project. Counselling services were used in a relatively small number of cases; analyses of cases show that incidents of domestic elder abuse are often embedded in complex problem constellations. Cases brought to the attention of the model project were multifaceted and not limited to incidents of neglect and abuse of elderly care recipients caused by caregiver overload. Cases of intimate violence in partnerships and of intergenerational violence without any of the participants being dependent on care show the need to develop a broader concept of domestic elder abuse. Integration of the concepts of domestic violence, violence against women, elder abuse/neglect and abuse/neglect in caregiving relationships is necessary on a conceptual level as well as on the level of interagency cooperation of institutions dealing with cases of "elder abuse".
Macedo Piosiadlo, Laura Christina; Godoy Serpa da Fonseca, Rosa Maria
To create and validate an instrument that identifies women's vulnerability to domestic violence through gender subordination indicators in the family. An instrument consisting on 61 phrases was created, that indicates gender subordination in the family. After the assessment from ten judges, 34 phrases were validated. The approved version was administered to 321 health service users of São José dos Pinhais (Estado de Paraná, Brasil), along with the validated Portuguese version of the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS) (for purposes of separating the sample group - the ''YES'' group was composed of women who have suffered violence and the ''NO'' group consisted of women who had not suffered violence). Data were transferred into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 22, and quantitatively analyzed using exploratory and factor analysis, and tests for internal consistency. After analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) statistics, Monte Carlo Principal Components Analysis (PCA, and diagram segmentation), two factors were identified: F1 - consisting of phrases related to home maintenance and family structure; F2 - phrases intrinsic to the couple's relationship. For the statements that reinforce gender subordination, the mean of the factors were higher for the group that answered YES to one of the violence identifying issues. The created instrument was able to identify women who were vulnerable to domestic violence using gender subordination indicators. This could be an important tool for nurses and other professionals in multidisciplinary teams, in order to organize and plan actions to prevent violence against women.
Marais, A; de Villiers, P J; Möller, A T; Stein, D J
It has been suggested that domestic violence is not only highly prevalent and associated with significant morbidity, but that it is also overlooked by medical practitioners. Despite this, few studies have focused on domestic violence in the South African setting, so that there is a paucity of data here on its prevalence, phenomenology, and associated psychopathology. Sixteen general practitioners from the South African Sentinel Practitioner Research Network (SASPREN) screened all their female patients aged 18 years or older for a 3-month period (N = 1,050). A sociodemographic questionnaire was completed, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression were assessed, both in subjects with a history of domestic violence and in a control group without such a history. 21.5% of patients reported a history of domestic violence at screening. Patients and controls did not differ significantly in terms of age or race. However, patients with a history of domestic violence were significantly more likely to be married, not to have begun a high-school education, and to be working outside the home. Both PTSD and major depression were significantly more common in patients with a history of domestic violence (35.3% and 48.2%, respectively) than in controls (2.6% and 11.4%, respectively). Compared with other patients reporting domestic violence, those with either PTSD or major depression were subjected to more violence and were more likely to report a suicide attempt. In a large, diverse population of adult female patients presenting to a range of general practitioners in South Africa, there was a high prevalence of reported domestic violence. A significant association was found between domestic violence and both PTSD and major depression, with these diagnoses indicative of increased severity of abuse and increased morbidity. Routine screening by medical practitioners of all female patients for a history of domestic violence seems warranted, and patients
Haselschwerdt, Megan L; Carlson, Camille E; Hlavaty, Kathleen
Guided by a review of the literature on intergenerational transmission of violence, or "the cycle of violence", and Johnson's typology of domestic violence, the current study qualitatively examined the romantic relationship experiences of 23 young adult women who were exposed to father-mother-perpetrated domestic violence (DV) during childhood and adolescence. Findings are partially consistent with the hypothesis that DV exposure is associated with an increased risk of later experiencing dating violence, such that half of the sample reported having abusive partners or relationships during high school. However, none of the young women reported violence or abuse during the early years of college, suggesting the salience of developmental timing when examining transmission of violence. Beyond whether the women experienced dating violence, they described how their earlier DV exposure experiences influence how they entered into, managed, and exited romantic relationships. By comparing their potential, former, and current romantic relationships with their fathers' violence and abuse, their mothers' victimization, and high school relationship partners' behaviors, the young women actively and strategically managed their relationship involvement over time. Although women exposed to both situational couple and coercive controlling violence reported experiencing abuse during high school, only women with coercive controlling exposure experienced reported having nonabusive, healthy, and supportive relationships. Findings suggest that the romantic relationship experiences of DV-exposed young adult women are complex, warranting a holistic approach that takes into consideration the full range of potential relationship experiences, the role of former relationships, and developmental timing when seeking to prevent and intervene in intergenerational transmission processes.
Full Text Available Violence in relationships is a common experience for a significant number of women. VicHealth (Australia has noted that one of the underlying and contributing factors towards violence against women is their environment, citing ‘faith-based institutions’ such as churches as one such environment for many women. Indeed, international research shows that the language of religion is often used by women to explain abuse. Additionally, abused Christian women are more likely to remain in or return to unsafe relationships, citing religious beliefs to support avoidance of ‘family break-ups’ despite abuse. In contrast, however, churches can address domestic violence within a context of care, with emphasis on a theology of biblical equality. This paper examines how domestic violence may be supported by Christian language and belief, and suggests an ‘alternate theology’ concerning religious language in concepts of gender roles, sacrifice, submission, and suffering. It reviews current research on the connection between Christian religious language and domestic violence against women, to highlight the Christian church’s role as a contributing factor to such abuse. Finally, the paper makes some suggestions on how religious language can, in contrast to perpetuating abuse through norms, sever the connections between domestic violence and religious language.
Joseph, Bellal; Khalil, Mazhar; Zangbar, Bardiya; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Orouji, Tahereh; Pandit, Viraj; O'Keeffe, Terence; Tang, Andrew; Gries, Lynn; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter; Davis, James W
Domestic violence is an extremely underreported crime and a growing social problem in the United States. However, the true burden of the problem remains unknown. To assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients. A 6-year (2007-2012) retrospective analysis of the prospectively maintained National Trauma Data Bank. Trauma patients who experienced domestic violence and who presented to trauma centers participating in the National Trauma Data Bank were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes (995.80-995.85, 995.50, 995.52-995.55, and 995.59) and E codes (E967.0-E967.9). Patients were stratified by age into 3 groups: children (≤18 years), adults (19-54 years), and elderly patients (≥55 years). Trend analysis was performed on April 10, 2014, to assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence over the years. Trauma patients presenting to trauma centers participating in the National Trauma Data Bank. To assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients. A total of 16 575 trauma patients who experienced domestic violence were included. Of these trauma patients, 10 224 (61.7%) were children, 5503 (33.2%) were adults, and 848 (5.1%) were elderly patients. The mean (SD) age was 15.9 (20.6), the mean (SD) Injury Severity Score was 10.9 (9.6), and 8397 (50.7%) were male patients. Head injuries (46.8% of patients) and extremity fractures (31.2% of patients) were the most common injuries. A total of 12 515 patients (75.1%) were discharged home, and the overall mortality rate was 5.9% (n = 980). The overall reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients was 5.7 cases per 1000 trauma center discharges. The prevalence of domestic violence increased among children (14.0 cases per 1000 trauma center discharges in 2007 to 18.5 case per 1000 trauma center discharges in 2012; P = .001) and adults (3.2 cases per 1000 discharges in 2007 to 4.5 cases per
Rojas, Patria; Dillon, Frank R.; Duan, Rui; De La Rosa, Mario
This paper focuses on the importance of family member closeness as a protective factor against domestic abuse. We explore the link between long-lasting relations within the family and intra-familial violence perpetrated against women in Latino households in South Florida. We use data from an Inter-generational Transmission of Drug Use between Latina Mothers and Daughters (ITDMD) study. The study includes data on family relations and domestic abuse. We estimate a series of multivariate regressions to obtain the probability of abuse against women, the types of abuse inflicted and the relationship with the abusers. Our results indicate that among abused women, the effects of long-lasting relations within the family differ depending on the type of relationship between the abuser and the victim and the degree of closeness the victim feels towards other family members. Given these findings, there is a need to further study family relations and abuse in Latino households. PMID:29033494
Full Text Available The article deals with a socially relevant and actual issue of domestic violence with respect to the development and protection of children. First, it describes the concept of domestic violence, particularly intimate partner violence, and brings some numerical data. In spite of the fact that the reported numbers are different, each situation when a child is exposed to the domestic violence is very unfavorable or even traumatic for him. The immediate effects are feelings of fear, anxiety, confusion, anger and helplessness. Younger children often feel guilty for the situation at home. Most experts are convinced that long-term consequences of witnessing domestic violence are very negative for the development of child's personality. The exposure to intimate partner violence is increasingly being recognized as a form of child maltreatment. The World Health Organization expressed this conviction in 2013 when children´s exposure to domestic violence was added to the syndrome of child abuse and neglect as one form of psychic abuse. Further, the consequences of exposure to the domestic violence are summarized developmentally from early childhood to young adulthood. The typical symptom in children growing up in an atmosphere of fear and violence is the reduced self-esteem. Emotional and behavioral disorders are also frequent. It was even proven that children who are passively exposed to domestic violence tend to have equally severe emotional symptoms (e.g. depression as children who are really physically abused. The intensity and extent of the consequences of children's exposure to domestic violence depend on several factors, such as age and sex of the child, his resilience, rate of brutality and frequency of its occurrence, supportive social network of the family and so on. The fact that reduced parental skills are common in families with domestic violence is pointed out. Empirical evidence shows that the quality of parenting and the ability to meet the
Madden, Margaret E.
Attributions affect coping with victimization. Battered women who blame their husbands' moods are less likely to leave than are women who blame their husbands' permanent characteristics for the violence. Abused women often have repeated contacts with crisis intervention workers and the attitudes of those workers may affect the attributions made by…
Sandu Mihaela Luminița
Full Text Available The effects of domestic violence phenomenon and its severity were recently acknowledged worldwide, most European Union countries faced with significant increase in cases of domestic violence. Due to the inefficient public social services in combating and preventing domestic violence, services like this are taken mostly by civil society. However, help victims of domestic violence, there are several protection services, and a range of social services targeting the aggressors.
Thiara, Ravi K.; Hague, Gill; Mullender, Audrey
The links between disability and domestic violence have been under-examined to date, leading to the marginalisation of disabled women affected by domestic violence in theory, politics, and practice. This paper draws on the findings from the first national study in the United Kingdom of the needs of disabled women experiencing domestic violence and…
Conwill, William Louis
There are striking gender, race, and class variations in rates of domestic violence. Some leading family theorists called for an intersectional analysis of how gender, race and class systems interact to improve domestic violence theory. This article improves domestic violence theory by: 1) using the discourse, or language, of intersectionality; 2)…
Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Pei-Ying; Wu, Jia-Lin; Li, Chien-De; Kuo, Fang-Yu
The present study analyzed national data from "Domestic Violence Report System" derived primarily from the Council of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assaults Prevention, Ministry of the Interior, Taiwan, to describe the reported prevalence of domestic violence in people with disabilities and to examine the time-effect on the prevalence…
In India, the nature of interdependency between wife and husband is regarded as different from what it is in the west. It is observed that in Indian state of Bihar, there is co-existence of memory of domestic violence and attitudinal justification of domestic violence on all the dimensions of domestic violence. However, In Tamil ...
... National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation For far too long, domestic violence was ignored or treated as a private matter where victims were... reducing the incidence of domestic violence. But we also know that we have not come far enough, and that...
... National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation During Domestic Violence Awareness Month, we recognize the significant achievements we have made in reducing domestic violence in America, and we recommit ourselves to the important work still...
... National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A... response to domestic violence has greatly improved. What was too often seen as a private matter best hidden... domestic violence homicides and improved training for police, prosecutors, and advocates. Yet we must do...
This study analyses au pair arrangements in six EU Member States (Denmark, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain) through descriptions of national and international legal frameworks and practices of au pairing. The findings show different patterns of au pair migration and different ...... situations of au pairing as well as different strategies to protect the au pairs. The overall recommendation is to separate current au pair immigration into two programmes: one of cultural exchange and one of domestic and care work....
Stuart, Gregory L; Meehan, Jeffrey C; Moore, Todd M; Morean, Meghan; Hellmuth, Julianne; Follansbee, Katherine
There is a paucity of research developing and testing conceptual models of intimate partner violence, particularly for female perpetrators of aggression. Several theorists' conceptual frameworks hypothesize that distal factors-such as personality traits, drinking patterns, and marital discord-influence each other and work together to increase the likelihood of physical aggression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate these variables in a relatively large sample of men and women arrested for domestic violence and court-referred to violence intervention programs. We recruited 409 participants (272 men and 137 women) who were arrested for domestic violence. We assessed perpetrator alcohol problems, antisociality, trait anger, relationship discord, psychological aggression, and physical abuse. We also assessed the alcohol problems, psychological aggression, and physical abuse of their relationship partners. We used structural equation modeling to examine the interrelationships among these variables in both genders independently. In men and women, alcohol problems in perpetrators and their partners contributed directly to physical abuse and indirectly via psychological aggression, even after perpetrator antisociality, perpetrator trait anger, perpetrator relationship discord, and perpetrator and partner psychological and physical aggression were included in the model. The only significant gender difference found was that, in male perpetrators, trait anger was significantly associated with relationship discord, but this path was not significant for women perpetrators. The results of the study provide further evidence that alcohol problems in both partners are important in the evolution of psychological aggression and physical violence. There were minimal differences between men and women in the relationships of most distal risk factors with physical aggression, suggesting that the conceptual framework examined may fit equally well regardless of perpetrator
occur in the home and the devastating consequences on the individuals involved and the society at large. ... Female genital mutilation is a form of domestic violence. ... places of work and girls and young women in secondary schools and .... students with anger problem, the various anger management techniques should be ...
Ma, Wai Sze Paulin; Pun, Ting Chung
To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its risk factors in women presenting with urinary symptoms. The study was carried out in the urogynecology clinic and general gynecology clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong from 1st May 2013 till 31st October 2014. Two hundred and twenty-five women presenting to the urogynecology clinic with urinary symptoms were categorized according to their symptoms and were asked to complete the Modified Abuse Assessment Screen. Demographic data of the subjects and their partners were collected. Mann-Whitney U test were used for analysis of continuous variables, while Chi-square test and Fisher Exact test were used for analysis of categorical variables between the abused and non-abused group. Prevalence of domestic violence were calculated and compared. The prevalence of domestic violence among this group of patients (7.6%) was found to be lower when compared with other studies. Verbal abuse was the commonest form of violence in our locality. The median age of the abused group and the non-abused group were both 56 years old, with the age ranging from 40 to 64 and 29 to 70 years old respectively. The prevalence of domestic violence among patients with overactive bladder syndrome, stress urinary incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence were 19.5%, 4.2% and 5.5% respectively (Fisher Exact test for whole group, Pdomestic violence among patients with different urinary symptoms could be related to their underlying pathophysiology. When encountering patients with overactive bladder syndrome, clinicians should consider this high incidence of domestic violence and provide prompt referral whenever necessary.
Wagers, Shelly M; Wareham, Jennifer; Boots, Denise Paquette
In recent decades, significant effort and money have been spent to change social and legal responses to domestic violence and affect public perceptions. A small body of research has examined individuals' opinions about what behaviors are considered domestic violence. Using a sample of college students, the present study examined a modified version of a somewhat popular instrument used to measure beliefs about domestic violence, extending previous work done by Carlson and Worden. Results indicated beliefs about domestic violence are multidimensional, depending on the nature of the behavior and, in part, the gender of the perpetrator. Opinions about the lawfulness of these behaviors fit the same factor structure as beliefs about domestic violence. Demographic characteristics, current relationship status, secondhand experiences with domestic violence, and perceived prevalence of domestic violence in the community are generally not related to beliefs about domestic violence or the lawfulness of these behaviors. However, attributions of blame on the victim are negatively related to domestic violence beliefs and lawfulness. Moreover, lawfulness is a key covariate for domestic violence beliefs. In addition, results also indicate that the gender of the perpetrator is an important variable affecting student's beliefs about sexual assault behaviors. Results from this study support the prevailing ideas behind the Battered Women's Movement that enacting policies and educational programs deeming domestic violence socially, morally, and legally wrong could shift long-standing sociocultural beliefs about men's use of violence against women. Implications of this study for research and policy specific to college students are discussed.
Entilli, Lorenza; Cipolletta, Sabrina
To promote a critical approach on the conceptualisation of domestic violence by investigating the experience of abuse on the part of men who are victims of domestic violence by their female partners. Media attention and prevention programmes relating to domestic violence have mainly focused on women as the victims and men as the perpetrators. The underlying idea is that violence is predominantly physical and a prerogative of men. This conceptualisation of violence reduces the opportunities for the consideration of different modalities of abuse. Discourse analysis within a qualitative approach. Semistructured interviews with 20 Italian men who claimed to have been abused by their female partners were conducted via Skype and analysed with the software atlas.ti. The grounded theory methodology was used to avoid imposing external points of view. Personal data were collected; in particular, their occupational level was compared to their partners' to assess the social power within the couple. Because of their strong endorsement of social and cultural values, participants showed a protective attitude towards their partners and imputed their violent acts to fragility or an external condition. Emotional distress emerged due to the isolation and subsequent inability to seek help. Although the physical violence reported is severe, the psychological violence was indicated as more damaging. Gaining an understanding of how men experience domestic abuse offers an opportunity to provide better prevention and intervention for them and other family members at risk of abuse. The study identifies gaps in service provision generated by a lack of information or perceived prejudice towards abused men. The role of the nurse in supporting male victims is discussed, and future applications for treatments and prevention plans are proposed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Domestic violence and abuse (DVA are associated with increased risk of mental illness, but we know little about the mental health of female DVA survivors seeking support from domestic violence services. Objective: Our goal was to characterise the demography and mental health of women who access specialist DVA services in the United Kingdom and to investigate associations between severity of abuse and measures of mental health and health state utility, accounting for important confounders and moderators. Design: Baseline data on 260 women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a psychological intervention for DVA survivors were analysed. We report the prevalence of and associations between mental health status and severity of abuse at the time of recruitment. We used logistic and normal regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. The following mental health measures were used: Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure (CORE-OM, Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment, and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale to measure posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The Composite Abuse Scale (CAS measured abuse. Results: Exposure to DVA was high, with a mean CAS score of 56 (SD 34. The mean CORE-OM score was 18 (SD 8 with 76% above the clinical threshold (95% confidence interval: 70–81%. Depression and anxiety levels were high, with means close to clinical thresholds, and more than three-quarters of respondents recorded PTSD scores above the clinical threshold. Symptoms of mental illness increased stepwise with increasing severity of DVA. Conclusions: Women DVA survivors who seek support from DVA services have recently experienced high levels of abuse, depression, anxiety, and especially PTSD. Clinicians need to be aware that patients presenting with mental health conditions or symptoms of depression or anxiety may be experiencing or have experienced DVA. The high
Ferrari, Giulia; Agnew-Davies, Roxane; Bailey, Jayne; Howard, Louise; Howarth, Emma; Peters, Tim J.; Sardinha, Lynnmarie; Feder, Gene
Background Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) are associated with an increased risk of mental illness, but we know little about the mental health of female DVA survivors seeking support from domestic violence services. Objective To characterize the demography and mental health of women who access specialist DVA services in the United Kingdom and to investigate associations between severity of abuse and measures of mental health and health state utility, accounting for important confounders and moderators. Design Baseline data on 260 women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a psychological intervention for DVA survivors was analyzed. We report prevalence of and associations between mental health status and severity of abuse at the time of recruitment. We used logistic and normal regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. Mental health measures used were: Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment, and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) to measure posttraumatic stress disorder. The Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) measured abuse. Results Exposure to DVA was high, with a mean CAS score of 56 (SD 34). The mean CORE-OM score was 18 (SD 8) with 76% above the clinical threshold (95% confidence interval: 70–81%). Depression and anxiety levels were high, with means close to clinical thresholds, and all respondents recorded PTSD scores above the clinical threshold. Symptoms of mental illness increased stepwise with increasing severity of DVA. Conclusions Women DVA survivors who seek support from DVA services have recently experienced high levels of abuse, depression, anxiety, and especially PTSD. Clinicians need to be aware that patients presenting with mental health conditions or symptoms of depression or anxiety may be experiencing or may have experienced DVA. The high psychological morbidity in this population means that trauma
Ferrari, Giulia; Agnew-Davies, Roxane; Bailey, Jayne; Howard, Louise; Howarth, Emma; Peters, Tim J.; Sardinha, Lynnmarie; Feder, Gene Solomon
Background Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) are associated with increased risk of mental illness, but we know little about the mental health of female DVA survivors seeking support from domestic violence services. Objective Our goal was to characterise the demography and mental health of women who access specialist DVA services in the United Kingdom and to investigate associations between severity of abuse and measures of mental health and health state utility, accounting for important confounders and moderators. Design Baseline data on 260 women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a psychological intervention for DVA survivors were analysed. We report the prevalence of and associations between mental health status and severity of abuse at the time of recruitment. We used logistic and normal regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. The following mental health measures were used: Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment, and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale to measure posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) measured abuse. Results Exposure to DVA was high, with a mean CAS score of 56 (SD 34). The mean CORE-OM score was 18 (SD 8) with 76% above the clinical threshold (95% confidence interval: 70–81%). Depression and anxiety levels were high, with means close to clinical thresholds, and more than three-quarters of respondents recorded PTSD scores above the clinical threshold. Symptoms of mental illness increased stepwise with increasing severity of DVA. Conclusions Women DVA survivors who seek support from DVA services have recently experienced high levels of abuse, depression, anxiety, and especially PTSD. Clinicians need to be aware that patients presenting with mental health conditions or symptoms of depression or anxiety may be experiencing or have experienced DVA. The high psychological
Full Text Available Background: Domestic violence and abuse (DVA are associated with an increased risk of mental illness, but we know little about the mental health of female DVA survivors seeking support from domestic violence services. Objective: To characterize the demography and mental health of women who access specialist DVA services in the United Kingdom and to investigate associations between severity of abuse and measures of mental health and health state utility, accounting for important confounders and moderators. Design: Baseline data on 260 women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a psychological intervention for DVA survivors was analyzed. We report prevalence of and associations between mental health status and severity of abuse at the time of recruitment. We used logistic and normal regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. Mental health measures used were: Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM, Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment, and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS to measure posttraumatic stress disorder. The Composite Abuse Scale (CAS measured abuse. Results: Exposure to DVA was high, with a mean CAS score of 56 (SD 34. The mean CORE-OM score was 18 (SD 8 with 76% above the clinical threshold (95% confidence interval: 70–81%. Depression and anxiety levels were high, with means close to clinical thresholds, and all respondents recorded PTSD scores above the clinical threshold. Symptoms of mental illness increased stepwise with increasing severity of DVA. Conclusions: Women DVA survivors who seek support from DVA services have recently experienced high levels of abuse, depression, anxiety, and especially PTSD. Clinicians need to be aware that patients presenting with mental health conditions or symptoms of depression or anxiety may be experiencing or may have experienced DVA. The high psychological morbidity in this population means that
Ferrari, Giulia; Agnew-Davies, Roxane; Bailey, Jayne; Howard, Louise; Howarth, Emma; Peters, Tim J; Sardinha, Lynnmarie; Feder, Gene Solomon
Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) are associated with increased risk of mental illness, but we know little about the mental health of female DVA survivors seeking support from domestic violence services. Our goal was to characterise the demography and mental health of women who access specialist DVA services in the United Kingdom and to investigate associations between severity of abuse and measures of mental health and health state utility, accounting for important confounders and moderators. Baseline data on 260 women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a psychological intervention for DVA survivors were analysed. We report the prevalence of and associations between mental health status and severity of abuse at the time of recruitment. We used logistic and normal regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. The following mental health measures were used: Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment, and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale to measure posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) measured abuse. Exposure to DVA was high, with a mean CAS score of 56 (SD 34). The mean CORE-OM score was 18 (SD 8) with 76% above the clinical threshold (95% confidence interval: 70-81%). Depression and anxiety levels were high, with means close to clinical thresholds, and more than three-quarters of respondents recorded PTSD scores above the clinical threshold. Symptoms of mental illness increased stepwise with increasing severity of DVA. Women DVA survivors who seek support from DVA services have recently experienced high levels of abuse, depression, anxiety, and especially PTSD. Clinicians need to be aware that patients presenting with mental health conditions or symptoms of depression or anxiety may be experiencing or have experienced DVA. The high psychological morbidity in this population means that trauma
Limited knowledge is available on the conditions that contribute to women's help-seeking after domestic violence in South Africa. Qualitative research conducted with 17 abused women in shelters in South Africa indicate that the best interests of children are influential both in women's decisions to stay in abusive relationships and to seek help. The personal decisions of women to seek help are influenced by powerful social discourses on the best interests of the child. Policy and practice that advocate for the best interests of the child need to prioritize the safety of both mothers and their children in domestic violence situations. © The Author(s) 2015.
Childress, Saltanat; Gioia, Deborah; Campbell, Jacquelyn C
This paper provides an account of the adverse impacts of domestic violence on women in Kyrgyzstan and develops a grounded theory of coping among survivors of abuse. The results indicate that women adopt a range of strategies to prevent, avert, and minimize anticipated violence. Two key aspects of coping appeared in the narratives: 1) maintaining the status quo and 2) developing agency to resist the abuse. The results suggest that Government and nongovernmental organizations must take additional action to draw women to formal violence prevention services. Providing professional help at several levels (e.g., clinical, community, and societal) and promoting problem-focused strategies as part of therapeutic intervention are essential.
Full Text Available In this paper authors analyze seven cases of domestic violence in Niš area during one year of implementation of the new criminal offence domestic violence. Using the method of indirect observation and interviews, authors give us an overview of police's, prosecutors and court's intervention in domestic violence cases. In spite of small number of registered and processed domestic violence cases, some negative phenomenons are observed. Those phenomenons unable efficient and accurate preventive and repressive actions toward abuser. Majority of these observed facts are noted and explained, with underlining the consequences and a way for overcoming them. In order to reach valid and scientifically based conclusion about implementation of laws regarding domestic violence, it is essential to undertake extensive research in Serbia, including a research of a practice of the police, prosecutors and courts. Results of such research would allow qualitative theoretical overview of law enforcement practice regarding domestic violence. Knowledge gained in this way would help us to establish programs for education of individuals who, in different roles, participate in preventive and repressive actions against domestic violence.
Domestic violence is one of the essential problems of our society. Domestic violence is determined by high prevalence, enormous latency and great victimization impact. The aim of my thesis is to describe the psychological aspects of the victims of domestic violence. I presume that long-term psychological and physical violence has a crucial influence on the psycho-somatic health of the victim. I am aware of the fact that this problem does not concern only battered women. Nevertheless I want to...
Panzer, P G; Philip, M B; Hayward, R A
Domestic violence is a dangerous and prevalent social problem affecting up to 4 million women and countless children annually. Shelters offer safety and an opportunity for change during the crisis of family violence. These individuals also have the potential for retraumatization if leadership within the program recapitulates the abuse and coercion felt at home. This article reviews three related trends through the lens of power and control--domestic violence policy and service, models of leadership, and the study of traumatic stress disorders and recovery--and describes their implications for modern shelter service delivery.
Full Text Available There are some days in Calgary, Alta when domestic violence is more likely to happen than other days. There is a statistically significant connection between higher rates of domestic violence and certain Calgary Stampeders’ football games as well as the arrival of the Calgary Stampede. During the 10-day-long Calgary Stampede, domestic violence calls on the seventh, ninth and tenth day of Stampede, were up 15 per cent compared to an average day. Weekends and summer months were also generally associated with the highest rates of domestic violence reports in Calgary. When it came to Calgary Stampeders’ football games, calls were higher only when the Stampeders faced off against the rival Edmonton Eskimos – with a 15 per cent increase in domestic violence reports. Grey Cup games in which Calgary played were associated with a 40 per cent increase in reports of domestic violence. However, games played by the Calgary Flames seemed to have no relationship to domestic violence calls, even those against the rival Edmonton team. Also, New Year’s Day appears to be associated with a significant spike in domestic violence, going by a four-year count of phone calls reporting domestic violence to both police and a local help line for those experiencing domestic and sexual abuse. There are also increases in calls associated with Good Friday, Easter, Canada Day, Labour Day, Valentine’s Day and Halloween. Meanwhile, the 2013 catastrophic floods in Calgary resulted in an increase in reports of domestic violence to police and the Connect help line, averaging an additional 6.6 reported incidents of domestic violence per day during the flood, 14 per cent higher than average. A correlation was also found in Calgary between the fall in oil prices and the rise in calls, with every US$10 fall in the price of West Texas Intermediate resulting in an extra call for help every two days. Since reducing domestic violence requires recognizing possible contributing
Antonio Henrique Graciano Suxberger
Full Text Available The article highlights multidisciplinary policies on gender based violence, acoording to the Maria da Penha Statute. It considers the context after the legal prohibition of probation during the criminal prosecution. From a literature review and document analysis, specially on researches conducted on the subject, the article sustains the importance of multidisciplinary actions combined or dissociated to formal criminal responses and focus the need of interventions considering the aggressors as well the victims, in order to assure a preventive efficiency regarding future cases of domestic violence against women.
Laura Christina Macedo Piosiadlo
Full Text Available Objective.To create and validate an instrument that identifies women's vulnerability to domestic violence through gender subordination indicators in the family. Methods. An instrument consisting on 61 phrases was created, that indicates gender subordination in the family. After the assessment from ten judges, 34 phrases were validated. The approved version was administered to 321 health service users of São José dos Pinhais (Estado de Paraná, Brasil, along with the validated Portuguese version of the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS (for purposes of separating the sample group - the ''YES'' group was composed of women who have suffered violence and the ''NO'' group consisted of women who had not suffered violence. Data were transferred into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software, version 22, and quantitatively analyzed using exploratory and factor analysis, and tests for internal consistency. Results. After analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO statistics, Monte Carlo Principal Components Analysis (PCA, and diagram segmentation, two factors were identified: F1 - consisting of phrases related to home maintenance and family structure; F2 - phrases intrinsic to the couple's relationship. For the statements that reinforce gender subordination, the mean of the factors were higher for the group that answered YES to one of the violence identifying issues. Conclusions. The created instrument was able to identify women who were vulnerable to domestic violence using gender subordination indicators. This could be an important tool for nurses and other professionals in multidisciplinary teams, in order to organize and plan actions to prevent violence against women.
Monsalve, Stefany; Ferreira, Fernando; Garcia, Rita
Several studies have reported a connection between animal abuse and interpersonal violence. The importance of veterinarians in recognizing and intervening in the cycle of violence has been debated in different articles. This review outlines the findings about this connection around the world and describes the role veterinarians play in this field. We looked up electronic databases and analyzed articles published between 1960 and 2016. Publications were classified into three categories: area of publication, topic of the study and continent where the study had been conducted. Out of the 96 articles included, 76 (79.2%) were from North America. None were from South America or Africa. Ninety-four articles (97.9%) found some association between animal abuse and violence against people. The rates of co-occurrence between domestic violence and animal abuse reported varied between 25% and 86%. Furthermore, children who were abused, exposed to domestic violence, or animal abuse were at risk of developing criminal behavior. Veterinarians play an important role in public health and animal welfare. Yet, only seven articles (7.3%) were published in the field of veterinary medicine. Studies report that between 42.8% and 86% of veterinarians know about the "Link". However, most veterinarians not being trained to intervene in cases of animal abuse and human violence. This emphasizes the importance of educating veterinarians about this topic and their participation in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bagcioglu, Erman; Vural, Mehmet; Karababa, Ibrahim Fatih; Aksin, Mahmut; Selek, Salih
Our aim is to evaluate the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) among pregnant women and find out whether several factors were associated with DV or not. A total of 317 pregnant women applied at Sanliurfa Obstetrics Hospital and Harran University obstetrics and gynecology department outpatient clinic were interviewed using the modified form of Abuse Assessment Screen questionnaire. Several clinical and sociodemographic data were also obtained from the participants. Mean pregnancy number per woman (gravida) was 3.62 ± 0.13. 47.3% of women had experienced DV before pregnancy. However, the rate of DV exposure significantly decreased to 10.3% during pregnancy (p violence. Pregnancy appears to decrease DV in Sanliurfa.
Collado Peña, Susana Patricia; Villanueva Egan, Luis Alberto
To determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence before and during pregnancy, and its impact on obstetrical and perinatal outcomes, as well as to identify the main variables associated to domestic violence during pregnancy. From August to September 2004, 288 consecutive women in the puerperium period were screened for a cross-sectional study in the Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea Gonz6lez. The Abuse Assessment Screen and the IPPF screening instrument were used to measure emotional and physical abuse during pregnancy. Outcome data included miscarriage, cesarean delivery, gestational age, birth weight and Apgar score. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to measure the associations between maternal characteristics, perinatal outcome and violence. The prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy was 39.24%. Emotional abuse was the most prevalent type before and during pregnancy (94.71 and 96.46%, respectively) whereas the frequency of physical and sexual decreased during pregnancy. Domestic violence 12 months before pregnancy increased risk of low birth weight (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.01-2.81), and miscarriage (OR: 2.09; 95% CI 1.14-3.83). The exposure to domestic violence anytime before pregnancy (OR: 3.13; 95% CI 1.48-6.63) and 12 months before pregnancy (OR: 12.79; 95% CI 6.38-25.6) increased risk of domestic violence during pregnancy. Violence before and during pregnancy is common and is associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. There is a critical need to include a routine screening in the obstetric and gynecologic services and to provide medical and social services.
Guita Grin Debert
Full Text Available Alternative conflict resolution based on conciliation have been identified as a possible response to problems of access to courts deriving from the numbers, costs and length of proceedings in the Brazilian's judicial system. This paper focuses on these alternative forms of justice, regarding domestic violence. Using ethnographic studies of Women's Police Stations and at Small Claim Courts, we argue that conciliation can be very different in these two institutions of the judicial system. The contrasts between moral values and the symbols used in different forms by these two institutions offer elements that can further be our understanding of the context in which Maria da Penha Law was created on August 17th of 2006. With the promulgation of this law, cases of domestic violence against women were excluded from Small Claim Courts in Brazil.
Towns, Alison J; Terry, Gareth
This study reports on discourse analysis of transcripts from focus group discussions held with 28 "ordinary" men about domestic violence. Two broad "mateship" themes emerged: (a) a strong "mateship" discourse that produced public/private boundaries around discussions about intimate heterosexual relationships. Policed by the threat of violence, these boundaries prevented some men from challenging men about their violence. (b) "Loyalty to mates" discourses constituted attention to men's violence against women as threatening the moral integrity of all men. Finally, some men positioned themselves against men's domestic violence, distinguishing their masculinity from men who abuse women. Implications for prevention campaigns are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Russell, David; Springer, Kristen W.; Greenfield, Emily A.
Objective: This study addresses the relationship between retrospective reports of witnessing domestic abuse in childhood and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. We examine whether the association between having witnessed violence in childhood and depression is independent of having been the direct target of sexual and/or physical…
Levendosky, Alytia A; Huth-Bocks, Alissa; Semel, Michael A
Examined the impact of domestic violence, child abuse, and attachment style on adolescent mental health and relationship functioning. Data were collected on 111 adolescents, ages 14 to 16, and their mothers. Results indicate that both attachment and family violence experiences negatively impact mental health. In addition, family violence significantly predicted attachment style. Significant protective and vulnerability factors included maternal psychological functioning, maternal positive parenting, and perceived social support from friends. However, findings provided only limited support for the model of attachment as a mediator of the impact of family violence on adolescent relationships.
Audra J. Bowlus; Shannon N. Seitz
In this paper we study the effects of abusive behavior on the labor force and marital status decisions of women. Using a unique Canadian data set on domestic violence, we estimate the effects of abuse on the marital history as well as current employment using a sequential, multi-state model. In our model, spousal abuse affects labor supply through decreases in utility from leisure as well as through reductions in productivity at work and hence the market wage. In addition, abuse is treated as...
Özpinar, Saliha; Dinç Horasan, Gönül; Baydur, Hakan; Canbay, Tülin
Domestic violence against women is an important social and public health problem worldwide resulting from unequal power relationships between men and women. The purpose of the present cross-sectional descriptive study was to determine the factors affecting the views and experiences of women living in the city centre of Manisa, Turkey, regarding domestic violence. The data were collected from a representative sample of women (n=873) in 2012. The socio-demographic questionnaire and the World Health Organization's Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Against Women were used for data collection. The study results revealed that of the women, 14.8% were exposed to physical violence, 7.9% to sexual violence, 20.2% to emotional violence/abuse and 11.2% to economic violence/abuse within the last 12 months. Lower income level, lower social status, lower educational level, unemployment, being exposed to parental violence during childhood and being married to husbands exposed to parental violence during childhood were associated risk factors with domestic violence. The study results indicate that domestic violence against women is a common phenomenon in Manisa.
Goldberg, Stuart H.; McRill, Connie M.; Bruno, Christopher R.; Ten Have, Tom; Lehman, Erik
Domestic violence is an important cause of orbital fractures in women. Physicians who treat patients with orbital fractures may not suspect this mechanism of injury. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between domestic violence and orbital fractures. A medical center-based case-control study with matching on age and site of admission was done. Medical center databases were searched using ICD-9 codes to identify all cases of orbital fractures encountered during a three-year period. Medical records of female patients age 13 and older were reviewed along with those of age, gender and site of admission matched controls. A stratified exact test was employed to test the association between domestic violence and orbital fracture. Among 41 adult female cases with orbital fractures treated at our medical center, three (7.3%) reported domestic violence compared to zero among the matched controls (p = 0.037). We believe that domestic violence may be under-reported in both orbital fracture cases and controls. This may result in an underestimate of the orbital fracture versus domestic violence association. Domestic violence is a serious women's health and societal problem. Domestic violence may have a variety of presentations, including illnesses and injuries. Orbital fracture is an identifiable manifestation of domestic violence. Domestic violence is more likely to be detected in adult female hospital patients with orbital fracture than in matched controls with any other diagnosis. Physicians who treat patients with orbital fractures should be familiar with this mechanism of injury.
Gomes, Vera Lúcia de Oliveira; Silva, Camila Daiane; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; Acosta, Daniele Ferreira; Amarijo, Cristiane Lopes
Abstract Objective: to analyze the representations about domestic violence against women, among health professionals of Family Health Units. Method: qualitative study based on the Theory of Social Representations. Data were collected by means of evocations and interviews, treating them in the Ensemble de Programmes Pemettant L'Analyse des Evocations software - EVOC and content analysis. Results: nurses, physicians, nursing technicians and community health agents participated. The evocations were answered by 201 professionals and, of these, 64 were interviewed. The central core of this representation, comprised by the terms "aggression", "physical-aggression", "cowardice" and "lack of respect", which have negative connotations and were cited by interviewees. In the contrast zone, comprised by the terms "abuse", "abuse-power", "pain", "humiliation", "impunity", "suffering", "sadness" and "violence", two subgroups were identified. The first periphery contains the terms "fear", evoked most often, followed by "revolt", "low self-esteem" and "submission", and in the second periphery "acceptance" and "professional support". Conclusion: this is a structured representation since it contains conceptual, imagetic and attitudinal elements. The subgroups were comprised by professionals working in the rural area and by those who had completed their professional training course in or after 2004. These presented a representation of violence different from the representation of the general group, although all demonstrated a negative connotation of this phenomenon. PMID:26444175
Donnelly, Elizabeth A; Oehme, Karen; Melvin, Rebecca
In 2012, the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) reaffirmed that domestic violence is a serious public health hazard that emergency medical services (EMS) personnel will encounter. Many victims of domestic violence may refuse transport to the hospital, making EMS prehospital field personnel --EMTs and paramedics-- their only contact with healthcare providers. Despite these facts, the interaction of field EMS personnel and victims of domestic violence remains largely unexamined. Given the importance of the interaction of field EMS personnel have with victims of domestic violence, the goal of this study is to explore attitudes about and experiences of EMS personnel on the issue of domestic violence after completing a training on domestic violence. Participants were recruited by researchers contacting multiple EMS agencies. Data were gathered using a survey attached to an online domestic violence training for field EMS personnel (EMTs and paramedics) circulated in a large southern state. Participants were able to obtain continuing education credits for completing the online modules. A total of 403 respondents completed the survey. 71% of respondents indicated that they frequently encounter patients who disclose domestic violence; 45% believe that if a victim does not disclose abuse, there is little they can do to help; and from 32% to 43% reported assumptions and attitudes that indicate beliefs that victims are responsible for the abuse. Implications of the data are discussed suggesting that EMS providers are aware that they frequently assist victims of domestic violence, yet many continue to endorse common myths and negative attitudes about victims. Core components of training that can educate EMS personnel about the dynamics of domestic violence are described, and a new free online training for medical professionals on domestic violence is offered for use as part of ongoing education to enhance the EMS response to victims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd
Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.
Dubrow-Marshall, LJ; Dubrow-Marshall, R
A judge in a recent court case involving domestic abuse stated that the victim of abuse had not been vulnerable because of her university education and circle of supportive friends. The authors comment on the nature of coercive control, and the lack of understanding about the universal vulnerability to domestic abuse, which is not mitigated by education or social support.
Ascione, Frank R.
The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…
Fahmy, Howaida H; Abd El-Rahman, Seham I
Violence against women is a global phenomenon that cuts across all social and economic classes, it has recently drawn attention in the medical field as a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. The present study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence, to identify socio-demographic and behavioral risk factors and to investigate the relationship between the women's psychological health status and violence exposure. This is a comparative cross-sectional study using a multistage random sampling technique. The sample comprised 500 women aged 18-50y. Data was collected via a structured interview questionnaire including the socio-demographic characteristics of the women and their husbands, some of the husbands' habits, attitude and history of chronic illnesses. Also, the questionnaire assesses different forms of domestic violence, women's reaction to it and its consequences on psychological well-being of women. A depression anxiety scale was used to assess the women's psychological status. The study revealed that the overall prevalence of domestic violence among the studied group was (62.2%); the commonest form (74.0%) was psychological abuse, followed by social (26.8%) one, then the physical (22.4%) and lastly sexual abuse (19.6%). On studying the socio-demographic variables, a significantly higher percentage of younger ( pound 30 years) non-educated, low income and those having any property ownership were more exposed to violence. Also exposure to abuse was more prevalent among women whose husbands were young, non-educated, skilled workers, drug abuser, with positive history of family troubles and chronic illness. The majority of women reported that they react to violence by crying loudly or screaming, while a minority may seek medical care or call the police. Regarding the psychological effect of violence exposure, the most common effects were anxiety (69.2%) and depression (52.2%), with a highly statistically significant
This study compares the motivations for using violence and the context in which violence occurs among male and female domestic violence perpetrators. One hundred twenty-five participants in batterer intervention counseling in Los Angeles County, California, were surveyed. The sample was approximately half male and half female. Males and females were found to differ in their motivations for using violence in relationships. Females reported using violence in response to prior abuse, citing revenge and retaliation as a primary motivation. Because treatment approaches are commonly derived from the power and control model, which indicates that violence is used to gain power and control, batterer intervention counseling may not be appropriate for women, who appear more motivated by the desire to maintain personal liberties in a relationship where they have been victimized. Treatment must walk the fine line between addressing victimization issues and holding women accountable for decisions to use violence.
Foss, Louisa L.; Warnke, Melanie A.
Multicultural, family process and structure, and gender concepts are used to provide a framework for understanding supports for and barriers to mental health experienced by abused fundamentalist Protestant Christian (FPC) women. For FPC women who are victims of domestic violence, these factors may intersect to prohibit or facilitate healthy life…
Ruijne, R.E.; Howard, L.M.; Trevillion, K.; Jongejan, F.E.; Garofalo, C.; Bogaerts, S.; Mulder, N.L.; Kamperman, A.
Domestic Violence and Abuse (DVA) is associated with a range of psychosocial and mental health problems. Having a psychiatric illness increases likelihood of being a victim of DVA. Despite the evidence of a high risk for DVA and the serious effects of violent victimization in psychiatric patients,
Chabot, Heather Frasier; Tracy, Tracy L.; Manning, Christine A.; Poisson, Chelsea A.
Most domestic violence (DV) researchers examine professional intervention (e.g., police and nurses), but informal helpers (e.g., friends and bystanders) are critical. The authors measure undergraduates' intervention likelihood, type of involvement (i.e., contact with abuser), and the influence of attribution decisions in DV situations where the…
van Dam, B.A.F.M.; van der Sanden, W.J.M.; Bruers, J.J.M.
Background On July 1st 2013 the Mandatory Reporting Code Act came into force in the Netherlands, making it compulsory for health professionals to adhere to a reporting code when they suspect patients to be victims of domestic violence (DV) or child abuse (CA). The Royal Dutch Dental Association
Hess, Jacob Z.; Allen, Nicole E.; Todd, Nathan R.
In spite of common public condemnations of domestic violence, survey research suggests that citizens aware of actual abuse often believe they cannot or should not personally respond. Through in-depth interviews with 20 local citizens across the political spectrum, we sought to explore this dynamic more carefully by better understanding community…
Shuchi M Jain
Full Text Available Abuse of pregnant women is a serious health problem with the potential to cause life-threatening injuries to the mother and her baby. This is a case of domestic violence leading to splenic injury and massive intraperitoneal hemorrhage leading to fetal demise. Fortunately, timely interventions saved the mother′s life.
domestic violence. A G Fieggen, M ... School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town and Department of Social ... address the concurrent intimate partner violence. .... A particular point of interest was the observation that in.
Full Text Available Objectives. In this study, we have evaluated the lifetime and past-year prevalence of exposure to physical violence among married women in the city of Tehran and urban and rural areas of Hashtgerd. Methods. The target population were noninstitutionalized female citizens, aged 15 years or older, who have at least one history of marriage and who resided in the capital city of Tehran or Hashtgerd County from the summer of 2008 to fall of 2010. We used a multistage sampling method. Tehran’s District Six, a central district in Tehran, was selected as a representative cluster of all municipal districts in Tehran. A total of fifty blocks were randomly selected from this district, from which 1,000 married women aged 15 years or older were interviewed using a cross-sectional design. Data was gathered face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. The lifetime prevalence, past-year prevalence, and related factors of domestic violence were measured. SPSS version 11.5 was used for the analyses. Results. Figures for lifetime prevalence and past-year prevalence were measured to be 38.7% and 6.6%, respectively. The independent effects of marital status and location and type of residency for women, along with education and smoking habits of their spouses, were statistically significant in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion. Domestic violence is a public health concern in Iran. Based on our findings, we propose that empowering women through education, and improving their ability to find employment and income, along with increasing public awareness of human rights issues through education could lower the prevalence of domestic violence.
Irving, Laura; Liu, Ben Chi-Pun
The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence and perceived helpfulness of a variety of protective strategies that were used by female survivors of domestic abuse and to explore factors that may have influenced strategy usage. Forty participants were recruited from a voluntary sector domestic abuse service, commissioned by an outer London local authority in the United Kingdom, in early 2014. The measurement tools used were the Intimate Partner Violence Strategies Index (IPVSI) and the Coordinated Action Against Domestic Abuse (CAADA) Domestic Abuse, Stalking and "Honour"-Based Violence (DASH) Risk Assessment Checklist. The average age was 33 years ( SD = 7.9, range = 20-57); half reported to be of Asian ethnicity, 37.5% White, and 12.5% Black or Mixed ethnicity. The average DASH score was 9.8 ( SD = 13.2, range = 0-18), and an average of 18 ( SD = 6.7, range = 1-29) protective strategies were utilized by each participant. All of the most commonly used strategies were from the placating category. Although safety planning strategies were rated as the most helpful by all participants, placating strategies were also rated as helpful by two thirds of participants. Stepwise multiple regression showed that placating was the only significant predictor of DASH score (β = .375, p domestic abuse survivors.
Shah, Sandeep H.; Rajani, Kajal; Kataria, Lakhan; Trivedi, Ashish; Patel, Sangita; Mehta, Kedar
Background: Domestic violence is a major contributor to physical and mental ill health of the victim, and it is evident to some degree, in every society of the world. Objectives: 1) To study perception about domestic violence in the study population. 2) To compare prevalence of domestic violence within the three subgroups of the study population (i.e. spouses of psychotic patients, spouses of non-psychiatric patients and hospital staff). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was cond...
Full Text Available Background: Gender-based violence is universal, differing only in scope from one society to the other. The most common form of violence against women is domestic violence or violence within families. Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence and different forms of domestic violence perpetrated by intimate partner against married women. 2. To study socio economic and demographic factors which affect the victimization of woman for domestic violence. 3.To study prevalence of sexually transmitted infection and its association with domestic violence in the study group. Methods: Based on a pilot study results, a sample size of 257 was determined. Total 257 currently married women in the reproductive age group (15-49 yrs were interviewed by systematic random sampling with prior consent using a well designed, pre- tested questionnaire . All the women were screened for sexually transmitted infections as per the WHO guidelines by syndromic approach. The data was analyzed by percentages and chi-square test. Results: Prevalence of domestic violence was found to be 29.57% in the study group. Verbal abuse was reported by 81.58% of the women, Physical abuse by 31.58% of the women ,Psychological abuse by 27.63% of the women and Sexual abuse by 10.53% of the women. Among the 76 victimized women none of them reported to the police. Interpretation and conclusions: The vulnerability to domestic violence was found significantly associated with age at marriage, duration of marriage and addiction of husband to alcohol. The association between domestic violence and sexually transmitted infections was also found significant.
Mohammadi, Nooredin; Kochak, Hamid Emadi; Gharacheh, Maryam
Domestic violence is one of the most prevalent problems linked to HIV. Domestic violence in HIV-infected women has not been sufficiently explored, particularly in developing countries including Iran. This study aimed to explore the lived experience of domestic violence in Iranian HIV-infected women. A qualitative approach was used to conduct the study. Data were collected through semi-structured, in-depth interviews with ten HIV-infected women and were analyzed using content analysis. During the data analysis, four main themes emerged including, “regretful past”, “disappointing future”, “loneliness”, and “no other option”, which refer to the condition that the participants experienced in their lives due to challenges that mainly stem from the experience of HIV-related domestic violence. HIV infection can be a risk factor for domestic violence. Health care providers need to address domestic violence during the assessment of HIV-infected women and make appropriate referrals for abused women. PMID:26156897
Saffari, Mohsen; Arslan, Syed Asadullah; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeid; Pakpour, Amir H; Zaben, Faten Al; Koenig, Harold G
Domestic violence against women committed by intimate partners is a worldwide concern especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the problem among Iranian women and identify associated risk factors. Using a cross-sectional multicenter design, 1,600 women in six different areas of Iran were surveyed. A measure of domestic violence against women was administered and demographic information collected. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with domestic violence. The prevalence of domestic violence among participants were emotional (64%), physical (28%), and sexual (18%). Higher education (both women and their partners), employment status of partner (being employed), and lower number of children lowered the risk, whereas history of previous marriage (for either women or their partners), unstable marriage, substance abuse, crowded family situation, and lower socioeconomic status increased the risk of domestic violence. There is a high prevalence of domestic violence, particularly emotional, against women by their partners. Preventive measures are recommended such as increasing public awareness, improving in socioeconomic status of families, educating women about what they can do, and encouraging counseling for the couple or the woman alone.
Hayati, Elli Nur; Eriksson, Malin; Hakimi, Mohammad; Högberg, Ulf; Emmelin, Maria
Background Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways in which women cope with domestic violence. Objective Our study aimed to deepen our understanding of how rural Javanese women cope with domestic violence. Our objective was to explore how the sociocultural context influences coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence in rural Purworejo. Design A phenomenological approach was used to transform lived experiences into textual expressions of the coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence. Results Experiencing chronic violence ruined the women's personal lives because of the associated physical, mental, psychosocial, and financial impairments. These chronic stressors led women to access external and internal resources to form coping strategies. Both external and internal factors prompted conflicting impulses to seek support, that is, to escape versus remain in the relationship. This strong tension led to a coping strategy that implied a long-term process of moving between actively opposing the violence and surrendering or tolerating the situation, resembling an elastic band that stretches in and out. Conclusions Women survivors in Purworejo face a lack of institutional support and tend to have traditional beliefs that hamper their potential to stop the abuse. Although the women in this study were educated and economically independent, they still had difficulty mobilizing internal and external support to end the abuse, partly due to internalized gender norms. PMID:23336615
Full Text Available In article investigated the problem of violence and child abuse as a phenomenon of social life, considered the most popular practice areas of scientific research in the problem of violence and child abuse. Based on the conclusion that the problem of violence and child abuse is a complex problem whose solution is the most effective systemic cross-disciplinary approach, based on the interaction of specialists of different professional affiliation.
Ebenezer S. Owusu Adjah
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of domestic violence remains unacceptably high with numerous consequences ranging from psychological to maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity outcomes in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to identify factors that increased the likelihood of an event of domestic violence as reported by ever married Ghanaian women. Methods Data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS was analysed using a multivariate logistic model and risk factors were obtained using the forward selection procedure. Results Of the 1524 ever married women in this study, 33.6 % had ever experienced domestic violence. The risk of ever experiencing domestic violence was 35 % for women who reside in urban areas. Risk of domestic violence was 41 % higher for women whose husbands ever experienced their father beating their mother. Women whose mother ever beat their father were three times more likely to experience domestic violence as compared to women whose mother did not beat their father. The risk of ever experiencing domestic violence was 48 % less likely for women whose husbands had higher than secondary education as compared to women whose husbands never had any formal education. Women whose husbands drink alcohol were 2.5 times more likely to experience domestic violence as compared to women whose husbands do not drink alcohol. Conclusion Place of residence, alcohol use by husband and family history of violence do increase a woman’s risk of ever experiencing domestic violence. Higher than secondary education acted as a protective buffer against domestic violence. Domestic violence against women is still persistent and greater efforts should be channelled into curtailing it by using a multi-stakeholder approach and enforcing stricter punishments to perpetrators.
Owusu Adjah, Ebenezer S; Agbemafle, Isaac
The prevalence of domestic violence remains unacceptably high with numerous consequences ranging from psychological to maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity outcomes in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to identify factors that increased the likelihood of an event of domestic violence as reported by ever married Ghanaian women. Data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) was analysed using a multivariate logistic model and risk factors were obtained using the forward selection procedure. Of the 1524 ever married women in this study, 33.6 % had ever experienced domestic violence. The risk of ever experiencing domestic violence was 35 % for women who reside in urban areas. Risk of domestic violence was 41 % higher for women whose husbands ever experienced their father beating their mother. Women whose mother ever beat their father were three times more likely to experience domestic violence as compared to women whose mother did not beat their father. The risk of ever experiencing domestic violence was 48 % less likely for women whose husbands had higher than secondary education as compared to women whose husbands never had any formal education. Women whose husbands drink alcohol were 2.5 times more likely to experience domestic violence as compared to women whose husbands do not drink alcohol. Place of residence, alcohol use by husband and family history of violence do increase a woman's risk of ever experiencing domestic violence. Higher than secondary education acted as a protective buffer against domestic violence. Domestic violence against women is still persistent and greater efforts should be channelled into curtailing it by using a multi-stakeholder approach and enforcing stricter punishments to perpetrators.
Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna
Violence in family constitutes serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in emotional functioning of victim and, secondarily, also perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine emotional intelligence of women experiencing domestic violence. INTE, i.e. Polish version of "Assessing Emotional Scale" by Schutte, was used to study two groups of women. Study (criterion) group included 40 women aged 23-47 years (mean age 35.28) using assistance of Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. Reference (control) group was well-matched in terms of socio-demographic characteristics and consisted of 140 women not experiencing domestic violence. Study women experiencing domestic violence have significantly lower scores on all INTE indicators (general score, Factor I and Factor II). Women not experiencing domestic violence achieved significantly higher scores on Factor I than on Factor II. In this group all INTE components (general score, Factor I, Factor II) are positively correlated, whereas in group of women experiencing domestic violence there is no significant correlation between Factor I and Factor II and coefficients are lower. Emotional intelligence of study women experiencing domestic violence is lower than emotional intelligence of women not experiencing domestic violence. Their abilities and skills making up emotional intelligence are also less developed. The internal structure of emotional intelligence of study women experiencing domestic violence differs from emotional intelligence of women not experiencing domestic violence. It seems advisable to consider emotional intelligence in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.
Semahegn, Agumasie; Mengistie, Bezatu
Violence against women is now widely recognized as a serious human right abuse, and an important public health problem with substantial consequences physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health. Data on systematic review of domestic violence are needed to support policy and program recommendations. Therefore, the overall purpose of this systematic review was to assess magnitude of domestic violence against women and associated factors in Ethiopia. Studies systematically reviewed in Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia from 2000 to 2014. Systematic review was employed on published research works from databases such as Pubmed, popline, Hinari, and Google using key words. We also consulted public health experts. Community based studies with a study population (15-49 years) were included for review. Thirteen peer reviewed papers and two consecutive Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (2005 and 2011) were included to the systematic review. Twenty seven available in open access journals were retrieved and assessed based on the criteria's such as community based study, cross sectional study design, clearly report prevalence and associated factors were included in the systematic review work. Finally, 15 papers were included in this review. Lifetime prevalence of domestic violence against women by husband or intimate partner among 10 studies ranged from 20 to 78 %. The lifetime domestic physical violence by husband or intimate partner against women ranged from 31 to 76.5 %. The life time domestic sexual violence against women by husband or intimate partner ranged from 19.2 to 59 %. The mean life time prevalence of domestic emotional violence was 51.7 %. Significant number of women experienced violence during their pregnancy period. Domestic violence against women significantly associated with alcohol consumption, chat chewing, family history of violence, occupation, religion, educational status, residence and decision making power. Domestic violence against
Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian
Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England a...
Full Text Available Universal screening for domestic violence in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF program is required by most states, but its implementation is questionable. This paper employs game theory to conceptualize interactions between TANF applicants and frontline eligibility caseworkers. The intended outcomes of universal screening for intimate partner violence (IPV – granting of a good cause waiver to IPV victims – are valid only by the assumption that caseworkers perform their roles. To grant a good cause waiver, TANF applicants and caseworkers should exchange two types of information: 1 disclosure of abuse by IPV victims and 2 notification of the availability of good cause waivers by caseworkers. This paper illuminates that intended outcomes of universal screening for IPV are difficult to achieve and discusses the applicability and limitations of game theory for policy evaluation.
Basow, Susan A.; Thompson, Janelle
In this online vignette study, a national sample of domestic violence shelter service providers (N = 282) completed a 10-item questionnaire about a woman experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Scenarios varied in terms of couple sexual orientation (heterosexual or lesbian) and type of abuse (physical or nonphysical). Results indicate that…
Esqueda, Cynthia Willis; Hack, Lori; Tehee, Melissa
Few studies have focused on the unique issues surrounding American Indian violence. Yet American Indian women are at high risk for domestic abuse, and domestic violence has been identified as the most important issue for American Indians now and in the future by the National Congress of American Indians. American Indian women suffer from domestic…
Go, Eun Joo; Kong, Jung Won; Kim, Ko Eun
The aim of this meta-analysis is to examine synthesized correlation outcomes between maltreatment, witnessing domestic violence, and bullying among youths in South Korea. The study examined 42 studies from between 2000 and 2015; the results showed that there is a medium effect size for this association among youths. Specifically, the effect size of the association was found to be larger for physical and verbal/emotional abuse and neglect than exposure to domestic violence for youths. The authors suggest that effective prevention and intervention for youths who are at risk of suffering maltreatment and witnessing domestic violence may help them avoid developing bullying behaviors.
Health professionals responding to men for safety (HERMES): feasibility of a general practice training intervention to improve the response to male patients who have experienced or perpetrated domestic violence and abuse.
Williamson, Emma; Jones, Sue K; Ferrari, Giulia; Debbonaire, Thangam; Feder, Gene; Hester, Marianne
To evaluate a training intervention for general practice-based doctors and nurses in terms of the identification, documentation, and referral of male patients experiencing or perpetrating domestic violence and abuse (DVA) in four general practices in the south west of England. Research suggests that male victims and perpetrators of DVA present to primary care clinicians to seek support for their experiences. We know that the response of primary care clinicians to women patients experiencing DVA improves from training and the establishment of referral pathways to specialist DVA services. The intervention consisted of a 2-h practice-based training. Outcome measures included: a pre-post, self-reported survey of staff practice; disclosures of DVA as documented in medical records pre-post (six months) intervention; semi-structured interviews with clinicians; and practice-level contact data collected by DVA specialist agencies. Results show a significant increase in clinicians' self-reported preparedness to meet the needs of male patients experiencing or perpetrating DVA. There was a small increase in male patients identified within the medical records (6 pre- to 17 post-intervention) but only five of those patients made contact with a specialist DVA agency identified within the referral pathway. The training increased clinicians' confidence in responding to male patients affected by DVA. The increase in recorded identification of DVA male patients experiencing or perpetrating DVA was small and contact of those patients with a specialist DVA support service was negligible. We need to better understand male help seeking in relation to DVA, further develop interventions to increase identification of male patients experiencing or perpetrating DVA behaviours, and facilitate access to support services.
There are no published studies on impact of neighbourhood on domestic violence in Sango-Ota. This is the first study to examine formal and informal control method and the influence of family structure and socio-economic status on the occurrence of domestic violence in Sango-Ota. A closed-ended questionnaire with two ...
The popular discourse on domestic violence in South Africa highlights the preponderance of domestic violence among low income earners, living mainly in black townships. To illustrate the trajectory of this view, it is estimated that one in every four women is assaulted by their partners every week, and one woman is killed ...
Background: In Nigeria, some provisions in the penal code still allow cultural acceptance of some forms of domestic violence, thereby providing avenue for many in the society to accept domestic violence as an accepted fact of life and as such many people live with it without feeling that it was anything wrong. In recent years ...
Domestic violence is an issue of global concern. Historically, in many cultures domestic violence has been an accepted fact of life. In recent years, however, it has begun to be viewed as a criminal problem. However, in many societies such as the Nigerian society it is still culturally acceptable. This paper discusses the ...
Gadomski, Anne M.; Tripp, Maria; Wolff, Debra A.; Lewis, Carol; Jenkins, Paul
A 7-month public health information campaign used radio advertising, mass media articles, mailings, and posters to address attitudes and behavioral intentions toward domestic violence in a rural county. The campaign raised public awareness, particularly among men; increased stated intentions to intervene in a neighbor's domestic violence; and…
Worrall, John L.; Ross, Jay W.; McCord, Eric S.
Relatively little research explaining prosecutors' charging decisions in criminal cases is available. Even less has focused on charging decisions in domestic violence cases. Past studies have also relied on restrictive definitions of domestic violence, notably cases with male offenders and female victims, and they have not considered prosecutors'…
This paper will provide the reader with an understanding of how domestic violence affects the behavior of high school students. The presentation is designed to provide the reader with a working definition of domestic violence, the rate of occurrence and its effects on high school students. Additionally the paper will summarize the negative effects…
Robinson, Amanda L.; Howarth, Emma
Data from the largest study to date of the working practices of British victim support workers (known as Independent Domestic Violence Advisors or IDVAs) are used to provide insight into how "risk judgments" are made in cases of domestic violence. Using data from more than 2,000 victims, this study found a convergence between actuarial…
Behnke, Andrew O.; Ames, Natalie; Hancock, Tina U.
Understanding what Latino church leaders believe about domestic violence, and what they do when they confront it, is a key step in developing programs to help them engage in domestic violence prevention and intervention activities in their congregations. This article presents the findings from an exploratory study of 28 Latino church leaders. The…
Macy, Rebecca J.; Johns, Natalie; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Martin, Sandra L.; Giattina, Mary
We investigated agency directors' perspectives about how service goals should be prioritized for domestic violence and sexual assault service subtypes, including crisis, legal advocacy, medical advocacy, counseling, support group, and shelter services. A sample of 97 (94% response rate) North Carolina domestic violence and/or sexual assault agency…
Domestic Violence (DV) continues to be a worldwide public health problem. Research in the area indicates that domestic violence has damaging, long-term serious mental, emotional, as well as physiological consequences both for the partners of the perpetrators and for their children. Even though various programs focused on treatments of the damaging…
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Domestic violence and protection orders. 635.29 Section 635.29 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.29 Domestic violence and protection orders. (a)...
The Domestic Violence Act, 2007 (Act 732) of Ghana was a conscious legal response by the state to provide protection for persons in a domestic setting against violence and also to promote human dignity in accordance with provisions of the 1992 Constitution and international acceptable norms and practices. This work ...
This study aimed to investigate depression among female survivors of domestic violence. 112 female survivors of domestic violence who came to a trauma centre in Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province to seek help were selected as participants in the study. The participants‟ ages ranged from 15 to 65 years.
Domestic abuse is a serious problem across the world and it is considered a public health issue. Nurses play a crucial role in recognising and responding to domestic abuse but they sometimes lack confidence in dealing with the issue. In this article, two recently completed studies are used to extract lessons for health visiting practice. The first study investigated primary healthcare professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse. Many healthcare professionals were confident in dealing with domestic abuse. However, there was disinclination among some to discuss the issue. People who experience abuse rarely discuss it unless asked. So the study highlighted a potential dynamic of silence between health professionals and abused people in their care. The second study investigated student nurses and student midwives experiences of learning about domestic abuse. The student nurses had learned less than the student midwives. They had not been taught about domestic abuse in university and many had not had the opportunity to learn about it in clinical placement. They reported reluctance among some mentors to discuss the issue with them, with a resulting silencing of the issue. Both of these studies have important lessons for health visiting practice regarding opening up crucial conversations about domestic abuse.
Mohamadian, Fathola; Hashemian, Ataollah; Bagheri, Maryam
Background Violence against women in families is the most common form of violence against them. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its effects on married women of Ilam. Methods In this descriptive-sectional research, 334 married women referred to medical health centers in Ilam were selected to participate using a random sampling method. After obtaining their consent to participate in the study, participants responded to a 46 items questionnaire and responses were analyzed using IBM SPSS for Windows ver. 20.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA). Results The majority of the participants reported experiencing domestic violence and emotional violence was more prevalent than other kinds of violence. Logistic regression analysis showed that lower education level, marriage at a younger age, shorter duration of marriage, fewer children, being a housewife, and husband's unemployment had a significant relationship with domestic violence against women. Conclusion The high prevalence of wife abuse in Ilam especially emotional violence due to lower education levels and marriage at younger age could be a serious threat for women's health as well as for other members of the family. This could be a grounding factor for other social harms such as suicide and this issue must be studied from legal, religious, and cultural standpoints. PMID:27468345
Prinz, Ronald J; Feerick, Margaret M
The papers in this special issue of Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review provided an overview of what is known about children's exposure to domestic violence, and include indications of gaps in extant research. These gaps and research needs are summarized in this conclusion. Specifically, there is need for further research in several broad areas: definition and measurement of children's exposure to domestic violence; development of research methods and statistical designs that provide detailed information and provide for evidence of intervention effectiveness; impact of domestic violence on parenting and family functioning; the role of child factors and exposure to violence factors in predicting developmental risk and resilience; medical and health consequences of exposure to violence; and the nature of child-system interaction in response to domestic violence. Research needs in these areas are discussed in greater detail, and specific questions are raised for further development.
Background: When guns fell silent in the post conflict northern Uganda, another form of physical injuries has come in place, Domestic Violence also commonly referred to as Gender based violence. This injury from violence leading to physical trauma is one of the leading public health problems in this region. We describe ...
Gender-based violence is an issue that has become a part of modern society, cutting across cultures, race, ethnicity and status. In Adichie's Purple Hibiscus, gender-based violence manifests in the form of domestic violence, projected through the Eugene Achike family around whom the story, set in the eastern part of ...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State domestic violence coalition grants. 1370.4 Section 1370.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES...
Ameh, N; Shittu, S O; Abdul, M A
To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its relationship to adverse obstetric outcomes amongst pregnant women who deliver at a tertiary level hospital in Zaria, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study involving 310 women who delivered at the labour ward. Questionnaires were administered to parturient women. Details of their socio-demographic characteristics and obstetric outcome were compiled and the relationship to experiences of domestic violence studied. The prevalence of domestic violence was 28.4%. There was positive relationship between domestic violence during pregnancy, non-supervision of pregnancy and poor attendances to antenatal clinic (pviolence, and complications of labour and neonatal outcome (p>0.05). The prevalence of domestic violence in pregnancy is high in this environment. Poor attendances to the antenatal clinic is a significant association.
Kevany, Sebastian; Woelk, Godfrey; Shade, Starley B; Kulich, Michal; Turan, Janet M; Chingono, Alfred; Morin, Stephen F
Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and behavioral variables that might be associated with physical domestic violence based on a review of the literature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, and odds ratios (OR) were computed using logistic regression. Women reporting physical domestic violence were significantly more likely to report (i) a history of childhood domestic violence (OR=2.96, Peconomic status as measured by type of homestead (OR=1.4, P=0.04) than women who reported no experience of physical domestic violence. Married women were less likely to experience physical domestic violence than unmarried women (OR=0.65, P=0.011). Women at greatest risk of domestic violence include those with a personal history of violence or sexual abuse, multiple lifetime partners, and low or medium socio-economic status. Risk assessments and joint interventions for both domestic violence reduction and HIV prevention should target these population groups, which are effective both on the public health and global heath diplomacy levels.
Nabi, Robin L; Southwell, Brian; Hornik, Robert
A central assumption of many models of human behavior is that intention to perform a behavior is highly predictive of actual behavior. This article presents evidence that belies this notion. Based on a survey of 1,250 Philadelphia adults, a clear and consistent pattern emerged suggesting that beliefs related to domestic violence correlate with intentions to act with respect to domestic violence but rarely correlate with reported actions (e.g., talking to the abused woman). Numerous methodological and substantive explanations for this finding are offered with emphasis placed on the complexity of the context in which an action to prevent a domestic violence incident occurs. We conclude by arguing that despite the small, insignificant relationships between beliefs and behaviors found, worthwhile aggregate effects on behavior might still exist, thus reaffirming the role of communication campaign efforts.
Swanberg, Jennifer E.; Ojha, Mamta U.; Macke, Caroline
Evidence indicates that domestic violence has negative consequences on victims' employment; yet employers lag in recognizing this as a workplace issue. To address the problem, some states have established several policy solutions. To understand the scope of the public sector's response to domestic violence as a workplace issue, a content analysis…
Palmstierna, T; Olsson, D
To simultaneously evaluate actuarial and dynamic predictors of severe in-patient violence among women involuntarily admitted for severe drug abuse. All patients admitted to special facilities for involuntary treatment of absconding-prone, previously violent, drug abusing women in Sweden were assessed with the Staff Observation Aggression Scale, revised. Actuarial data on risk factors for violence were collected and considered in an extended Cox proportional hazards model with multiple events and daily assessments of the Broset Violence Checklist as time-dependent covariates. Low-grade violence and being influenced by illicit drugs were the best predictors of severe violence within 24 h. Significant differences in risk for violence between different institutions were also found. In-patient violence risk is rapidly varying over time with being influenced by illicit drugs and exhibiting low-grade violence being significant dynamic predictors. Differences in violence between patients could not be explained by patient characteristics.
Cramer, Elizabeth P; Brady, Shane R
State mandatory reporting statutes may directly or indirectly list domestic violence programs as among those that are mandated reporters of cases of suspected abuse, neglect, or exploitation of older individuals and those with disabilities. Domestic violence programs, however, may not consider themselves to be mandated reporters, because the responsibility of reporting abuse may be contrary to their programmatic philosophy. In the Commonwealth of Virginia, the potential conflict between domestic violence programs and Adult Protective Services about the issue of mandated reporting has created tension between these organizations as each entity continues interpreting the issues and policies of mandated reporting through its own lens. The authors draw out some of the reasons for the conflict as well as make recommendations for improving relationships between the two organizations, which will ultimately benefit vulnerable adults who are experiencing abuse.
Infanti, Jennifer J; Lund, Ragnhild; Muzrif, Munas M; Schei, Berit; Wijewardena, Kumudu
Domestic violence in pregnancy is a significant health concern for women around the world. Globally, much has been written about how the health sector can respond effectively and comprehensively to domestic violence during pregnancy via antenatal services. The evidence from low-income settings is, however, limited. Sri Lanka is internationally acknowledged as a model amongst low-income countries for its maternal and child health statistics. Yet, very little research has considered the perspectives and experiences of the key front line health providers for pregnant women in Sri Lanka, public health midwives (PHMs). We address this gap by consulting PHMs about their experiences identifying and responding to pregnant women affected by domestic violence in an underserved area: the tea estate sector of Badulla district. Over two months in late 2014, our interdisciplinary team of social scientists and medical doctors met with 31 estate PHMs for group interviews and a participatory workshop at health clinics across Badulla district. In the paper, we propose a modified livelihoods model to conceptualise the physical, social and symbolic assets, strategies and constraints that simultaneously enable and limit the effectiveness of community-based health care responses to domestic violence. Our findings also highlight conceptual and practical strategies identified by PHMs to ensure improvements in this complex landscape of care. Such strategies include estate-based counselling services; basic training in family counselling and mediation for PHMs; greater surveillance of abusive men's behaviours by male community leaders; and performance evaluation and incentives for work undertaken to respond to domestic violence. The study contributes to international discussions on the meanings, frameworks, and identities constructed at the local levels of health care delivery in the global challenge to end domestic violence. In turn, such knowledge adds to international debates on the roles
Fullin, K J; Cosgrove, A
Despite the progress of the last 15 years in combating family violence, some individuals, community agencies and institutions still support a man's "right" to control, and they often disregard the physical violence he uses. Because threats and assault are in fact against the law, a man who physically or sexually assaults his wife or girlfriend couldn't keep doing it without this support from the very people who are supposed to enforce the law and help the victims of crime-namely, police, prosecutors, judges, clergy, psychologists, social workers and doctors. Some let him get away with it, look the other way, or--unsure of what to do to stop it--do nothing at all. Thus, they reinforce his "right" to use force, even if they never say, "Go ahead, hit her." The police officer who walks a man around the block or fails to show up when called, the clergyman who advises a woman to go home and pray, the doctor who gently patches her injuries but avoids asking who inflicted them, all cooperate with the abusive man in several ways. He comes to understand that no one will stop him from doing what he does. He learns that there are no consequences to his actions--even his violent actions. He can beat up "his woman" if he wants to and get away with it.
Mohhamadian, Zeinab; Mohtashami, Jamileh; Rohani, Camelia; Jamshidi, Tayebeh
Domestic violence is the third sociopathology after addiction and child abuse in Iran. Fifty-six percent of Iranian women in the range of 17-32 years old are exposed to the highest domestic violence. Objective: The aim of this study was to design and psychoanalyze a comprehensive questionnaire on coping with domestic violence against women in Iranian society. This study was carried out on a random sample of women exposed to domestic violence and referred to the health and care center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, and Forensic Medical Centers in Urmia city (Iran), in 2017. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed among the participants. One hundred sixty-eight questionnaires were returned to the researchers for data analysis. Eight of those were excluded from the analysis because of incompleteness. Finally, exploratory factor analysis was performed. After reviewing the literature, a questionnaire with 32 items was developed. Content validity ratio (0.95) and content validity index (0.97) were obtained. The results of exploratory factor analysis indicated that the questionnaire explained 69.34% of the data variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and test-retest methods were used for determining the reliability and the obtained value, which were 0.82 and 0.81, respectively. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire with 32 items were confirmed. The tool can be utilized to measure how women cope with domestic violence.
Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian
Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists.
Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian
Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists. PMID:25641992
Daniela Taysa Rodrigues
Full Text Available O presente estudo advém da revisão sistemática de publicações científicas indexadas no Medline de 1993 a 2004, objetivando analisar o conhecimento científico sobre violência doméstica e abuso de drogas na gestação. Os 19 artigos analisados estão publicados em periódicos internacionais de especialidades relacionadas, predominantemente, à saúde da criança, sendo a maioria da área médica e de origem americana, todos com o idioma inglês. Desses artigos, 57,9% são estudos descritivos e 42,1% trabalhos teóricos. Abordam temas relacionados às necessidades psicossociais da mulher, importância da responsabilidade paterna na gestação, e os fatores de risco e as implicações na saúde da mulher e da criança associados à violência doméstica e ao uso de drogas. Este embasamento teórico possibilita a intervenção neste cenário.El presente estudio resulta de la revisión sistemática de publicaciones científicas indexadas en Medline de 1993 a 2004, con objeto de analizar el conocimiento científico sobre violencia doméstica y abuso de drogas en la gestación. Los 19 artículos analizados están publicados en periódicos internacionales de especialidades, relacionadas predominantemente a la salud del niño, siendo la mayoría del área médica y de origen americana, todos en el idioma inglés. De esos artículos, el 57,9% corresponde a estudios descriptivos y el 42,1% a trabajos teóricos. Tratan de temas relacionados a las necesidades psicosociales de la mujer, importancia de la responsabilidad paterna en la gestación, y los factores de riesgo y las implicaciones en la salud de la mujer y del niño asociadas a la violencia doméstica y al uso de drogas. Esta fundamentación teórica posibilita intervenir en este escenario.This study results from a systematic review of scientific publications indexed in Medline between 1993 and 2004, aimed at analyzing scientific knowledge about domestic violence and drugs abuse during
Will, Joanna L; Loper, Ann B; Jackson, Shelly L
Adult inmates who experienced the incarceration of a parent, known as "second-generation prisoners," experience unique challenges and are at heightened risk for experiencing other adversities throughout the life span. Our study investigated one specific, and previously unexplored, type of adversity--domestic violence--within a sample of 293 incarcerated adults. We examined the relation between generation status (first- or second-generation prisoners), childhood exposure to domestic violence, and participation in adult relationship violence prior to incarceration. Results indicate that prisoners who had been exposed to domestic violence in childhood were more likely to engage in intimate partner violence resulting in inflicted and received injury. Relative to first-generation prisoners, second-generation prisoners reported more childhood domestic violence exposure and were more likely to have been injured by a relationship partner. However, this relation between second-generation status and injury victimization was mediated by domestic violence exposure. These results support an intergenerational pattern of domestic violence and suggest that second-generation prisoners are a unique population worthy of future investigation and mental health intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.
Mattson, Susan; Shearer, Nelma; Long, Carol
To determine the degree of interest in using a computer for the purpose of accessing services from a nurse practitioner (NP) at domestic violence shelters (DVSs); and to identify issues of privacy and confidentiality that might arise from participation by victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) in a Telehealth intervention. Focus groups with 19 women residing in two DVSs. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and themes were identified that answered the questions posed in the interviews. Most of the women understood the term NP and were favorably inclined to seek services from one. Over half of the women were not familiar with computer use, but were willing to learn in order to receive health care services, both for episodic needs and for maintenance of chronic conditions. After learning of the method proposed to allow them to access an NP through the internet while still protecting their privacy and confidentiality, the women felt comfortable with this approach to meeting their health care needs. Results from this study can be used to support the development and testing of Telehealth interventions for these victims of IPV.
The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes of university students towards domestic violence against women. This cross-sectional study was conducted on students attending the School of Nursing and School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation at a university in Turkey. The study was conducted between February 2015 and May 2015. The study was conducted on 415 volunteer students without resorting to the sampling selection method. Data were collected using a Personal Information Form and The Scale of Attitude Toward Domestic Violence. The data were analysed using frequencies, means, standard deviations, independent t-tests and ANOVA. The mean of attitude scores of university students toward domestic violence were 23.13 ± 6.66 and were affected by variables such as gender, and whether the questions should be asked to women who experienced domestic violence such as: "Does your partner have justified reasons for applying domestic violence against women?" and "Should domestic violence against women be shared by others?" and "Does domestic violence against women bother you?" (p.
Full Text Available Rural development policy deals with achieving goals for rural areas and a wide range of socio-economic activities are included within it. This work intends to connect rural development policies with the occurrence of domestic violence in rural areas. The area of research is the territory of Tuzla Canton, which is, by definition of OECD (less than 150 habitants/km2, a predominantly rural area. Domestic violence is a wide spread form of violence and a discrimination against women. Domestic violence includes all forms of violence occurring in the family, expanding the possibilities that perpetrators of violence and victims of violence may even be persons who do not live in the family but are related to family members, e.g. former partners, relatives, etc. Research results show that victims of domestic violence are in 90% of the cases women (wives, mothers, daughters, sisters, etc. and that domestic violence is constantly increasing each following year. All forms of violence over women come stem from a principal discrimination towards women which results in coerce or use of force. For that reason, violence over women is a manifestation of a fundamentally unequal position of women and men, and it represents a form of discrimination against women. This paper uses data acquired from Federal Office of Statistics of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and statistical data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Tuzla Canton. On the basis of the gathered data, we employed the descriptive method, the method of analysis and synthesis, as well as the comparative method of analysis. The hypothesis of this paper was the assumption that 'women in rural areas are more frequently victims of domestic violence than women living in urban areas'.
Um, Mee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A
Although many North Korean (NK) refugee women are victims of domestic violence (DV) in North Korea, face sexual exploitation during migration, and remain at risk of DV while adapting to life in South Korea, there is no empirical evidence about risk factors for DV in this population. To fill this gap, this study examined whether gender role beliefs, child abuse history, and sociocultural adaptation were associated with past-year physical, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse, and whether they were associated with multiple forms of abuse. We also explored whether these associations were similar or different across different types of DV among NK refugee women. A sample of 180 ever-married NK refugee women in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence was used for analysis. Physical abuse was associated with more traditional gender role beliefs; emotional abuse and multiple forms of abuse were associated with lower levels of sociocultural adaptation; and sexual and economic abuse were associated with an increased likelihood of childhood abuse and poor sociocultural adaptation. Our study findings underscore the importance of assisting NK refugee women to be better adapted to the new culture in a practical way, because better sociocultural adaptation might protect them from experiencing various types of abuse. At the same time, findings of this study highlight the need for empowering NK refugee women who report physical abuse by educating their rights and altering their traditional beliefs of gender roles, and screening of childhood abuse and providing culturally sensitive psychotherapy to those who report sexual or economic abuse. Moreover, we suggest future studies to examine correlates of different forms of abuse separately because they can inform culturally tailored interventions for abused NK refugee women. To prevent further victimization, educational programs should be provided to NK refugee women at an early stage of resettlement in South Korea.
Ogbonnaya, Ijeoma Nwabuzor; Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Kohl, Patricia L
Many children involved with the child welfare system witness parental domestic violence. The association between children's domestic violence exposure and child welfare involvement may be influenced by certain socio-cultural factors; however, minimal research has examined this relationship. The current study compares domestic violence experiences and case outcomes among Latinas who are legal immigrants (n=39), unauthorized immigrants (n=77), naturalized citizens (n=30), and US-born citizen mothers (n=383) reported for child maltreatment. This analysis used data from the second round of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Mothers were asked about whether they experienced domestic violence during the past year. In addition, data were collected to assess if (a) domestic violence was the primary abuse type reported and, if so, (b) the maltreatment allegation was substantiated. Results show that naturalized citizens, legal residents, and unauthorized immigrants did not differ from US-born citizens in self-reports of domestic violence; approximately 33% of mothers reported experiences of domestic violence within the past year. Yet, unauthorized immigrants were 3.76 times more likely than US-born citizens to have cases with allegations of domestic violence as the primary abuse type. Despite higher rates of alleged domestic violence, unauthorized citizens were not more likely than US-born citizens to have these cases substantiated for domestic violence (F(2.26, 153.99)=0.709, p=.510). Findings highlight that domestic violence is not accurately accounted for in families with unauthorized immigrant mothers. We recommend child welfare workers are trained to properly assess and fulfill the needs of immigrant families, particularly as it relates to domestic violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
% had no definite timing pattern. ... overlapping variables at group and personal levels.1,2 Violence may begin or ... Keywords: abuse; intimate relationship; paucity of data; pregnancy; pattern .... of the motive for non-disclosure by the victim.
Shanko, W.; Wolday, M.; Assefa, N.
Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross...... husbands. Ever experience of domestic violence among women was significantly related to Amhara ethnicity and age group 30-49 years. Only 33 (19.9%) women who ever experienced violence had reported it to the legal authorities. Women's reasons for failing to report to the legal system were not wanting......-sectional interview-based survey was conducted in 2008 on 858 women of reproductive age. Only 39.7% of women reported that they recognized that violence against women was a problem in their area. Ever experience of violence by an intimate partner was reported by 166 women (19.6%) and 70.3% of the perpetuators were...
This qualitative study explored the experiences of 22 domestic violence survivors attempting to negotiate safe post-separation parenting arrangements through the Australian family law system. Their allegations of violence put them at odds with a system that values mediated settlements and shared parenting. Skeptical responses, accusations of parental alienation, and pressure to agree to unsafe arrangements exacerbated the effects of post-separation violence. Core themes in the women's narratives of engagement with the family law system-silencing, control, and undermining the mother-child relationship-mirrored domestic violence dynamics, suggesting the concept of secondary victimization as a useful lens for understanding their experiences. © The Author(s) 2016.
Hajikhani Golchin, Nayereh Azam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Hamzehgardeshi, Leila; Shirzad Ahoodashti, Mahboobeh
Domestic violence refers to any type of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse enforced in the setting of familial relationships. Domestic violence has a significant relationship with poor outcome among pregnant women. Success in resolving this social phenomenon rests on accurate assessment of the society and the factors associated with violence in that specific community. The present study was conducted to assess the demographic characteristics of pregnant women exposed to different types of domestic violence during pregnancy in Iranian setting. This is a descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study. Sampling was done with convenience sampling method. in the current study, 301 pregnant women aged 15-45 years of Iranian nationality who were referred to the hospital for delivery or abortion, regardless of the gestational age, were selected as the subjects. Data collection tools consisted of a sociodemographic questionnaire and a violence checklist. Violence was assessed using Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2). Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytic statistics on SPSS version 16 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) and STATA version 10. The characteristics of the participants were presented as mean ± SD or number and percentage. Differences between variables were determined by the χ2 test, and multivariate logistic regression. P patriarchal household (AOR = 16.75). As domestic violence is greatly influenced by the customs and cultures of each community, no single strategy can be adopted to resolve it universally. Simultaneously, it is necessary to adopt comprehensive measures to control factors associated with domestic violence in the healthcare, judiciary, and the educational systems in order to prevent and curb this social challenge.
Banks, Jamye R.; Fedewa, Alicia L.
Domestic violence is often perceived to occur only in heterosexual relationships. However, domestic violence is also prevalent in same-sex relationships. The majority of the research indicates that counselors perceive same-sex domestic violence differently than heterosexual domestic violence. This literature review synthesizes the research…
Fox, Claire L; Gadd, David; Sim, Julius
To provide a more robust assessment of the effectiveness of a domestic abuse prevention education program, a questionnaire was developed to measure children's attitudes to domestic violence. The aim was to develop a short questionnaire that would be easy to use for practitioners but, at the same time, sensitive enough to pick up on subtle changes in young people's attitudes. We therefore chose to ask children about different situations in which they might be willing to condone domestic violence. In Study 1, we tested a set of 20 items, which we reduced by half to a set of 10 items. The factor structure of the scale was explored and its internal consistency was calculated. In Study 2, we tested the factor structure of the 10-item Attitudes to Domestic Violence (ADV) Scale in a separate calibration sample. Finally, in Study 3, we then assessed the test-retest reliability of the 10-item scale. The ADV Questionnaire is a promising tool to evaluate the effectiveness of domestic abuse education prevention programs. However, further development work is necessary. © The Author(s) 2014.
Osofsky, Joy D
Violence and abuse in families occurs frequently with significant impact on children of all ages. However, this type of interpersonal violence is often the least disclosed or discussed. Therefore, the Harold and Sellers paper is important to bring attention to the broad range of both behavioral and neuroscience research in this area and the clinical implications for children and adolescents including risk for later psychopathology. The commentary also expands an understanding of the impact and outcomes for very young children exposed to domestic violence. The authors provide a thorough description of the many prevention and intervention programs and approaches to help children exposed to domestic violence. In conclusion, it is essential to recognize that even at times of adversity for children and families, such as when domestic violence occurs, it is important to recognize strengths and support resilience. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Shams, Mohsen; Kianfard, Leila; Parhizkar, Saadat; Mousavizadeh, Ali
Violence against women is an urgent health priority in Iran. Designing effective programs for preventing and controlling the problem necessitates a thorough understanding of Iranian women and their perspectives regarding domestic violence. This study was aimed at exploring the domestic violence-related views of married women who were referred to health care facilities in Ahvaz, Iran. In this qualitative research, data were collected through four focus group discussions with 30 married women. All the discussions were recorded and transcribed, after which the data were classified separately. The main themes and subthemes were then manually derived from the data and analyzed. The five main themes identified were domestic violence against women in Ahvaz, behavioral influencing factors, nonbehavioral influencing factors, the necessity to empower women to prevent domestic violence, and recommendations for developing special training programs for Ahvazi women. Most of the participants were aware that domestic violence against women is a common occurrence in Iran. They were well aware of the definition of violence and expressed a belief that behavioral factors exert an important effect on the occurrence of the problem. They recommended the development of appropriate training programs that empower women to prevent the problem, the use of mass media to educate citizens about domestic violence, and the involvement of opinion leaders in eliminating the taboo against considering such violence a crime against Iranian women. Considering the views and ideas of women as consumers of educational services is a principle used to develop effective programs for preventing and controlling domestic violence. As indicated by the findings, the participants believe that empowering women must be treated as a priority in the Iranian health care system. However, they recommended differing approaches and methods of empowerment on the basis of their individual views and concerns.
Khalifeh, H; Moran, P; Borschmann, R; Dean, K; Hart, C; Hogg, J; Osborn, D; Johnson, S; Howard, L M
Domestic and sexual violence are significant public health problems but little is known about the extent to which men and women with severe mental illness (SMI) are at risk compared with the general population. We aimed to compare the prevalence and impact of violence against SMI patients and the general population. Three hundred and three randomly recruited psychiatric patients, in contact with community services for ⩾ 1 year, were interviewed using the British Crime Survey domestic/sexual violence questionnaire. Prevalence and correlates of violence in this sample were compared with those from 22 606 general population controls participating in the contemporaneous 2011/12 national crime survey. Past-year domestic violence was reported by 27% v. 9% of SMI and control women, respectively [odds ratio (OR) adjusted for socio-demographics, aOR 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-4.0], and by 13% v. 5% of SMI and control men, respectively (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.8). Past-year sexual violence was reported by 10% v. 2.0% of SMI and control women respectively (aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8). Family (non-partner) violence comprised a greater proportion of overall domestic violence among SMI than control victims (63% v. 35%, p < 0.01). Adulthood serious sexual assault led to attempted suicide more often among SMI than control female victims (53% v. 3.4%, p < 0.001). Compared to the general population, patients with SMI are at substantially increased risk of domestic and sexual violence, with a relative excess of family violence and adverse health impact following victimization. Psychiatric services, and public health and criminal justice policies, need to address domestic and sexual violence in this at-risk group.
Muzrif, Munas M; Perera, Dinusha; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Schei, Berit; Swahnberg, Katarina
The aims of this study were to assess the regional differences in domestic violence among pregnant women in the capital district and in the tea plantation sector of Sri Lanka, to explore potential contributory factors and to assess whether healthcare workers addressed domestic violence and disclosure among survivors. A cross-sectional study was carried out using interviewer-administered Abuse Assessment Screen. Fifty-seven antenatal clinic centres in the capital district and 30 in the tea plantation sector. Pregnant women between 6 and 40 weeks of gestational age. In the capital district, 1375 women were recruited from antenatal clinic centres in the urban (n=25) and in the rural areas (n=32), and 800 women from 30 centres in the tea plantation sector. The response rate in the capital district was 95.6% and 96.7% in the tea plantation sector. Among the total sample of pregnant women (n=2088), the prevalence of 'ever abused' was 38.6%, and the prevalence of 'currently abused' was 15.9%. 'Ever abused' (31.5% vs 50.8%) and 'currently abused' (10% vs 25.8%) were significantly higher (P<0.001) among the women living in the tea plantation sector. 'Ever abused' was associated with living in the tea plantation sector, being employed, living far from gender-based violence care centre and of Muslim ethnicity, after adjusting for age, education and family income. Only 38.8% of all participants had been asked by healthcare workers about abuse. Living in the tea plantation sector and lower level of education were associated with not being asked. Among those who reported 'ever abused', only 8.7% had disclosed the experience to a healthcare worker. Domestic violence was prevalent and highest among women in the tea plantation sector compared with the capital district. The capacity of healthcare workers in addressing domestic violence should be increased. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No
Full Text Available Legal protection of victims of domestic violence in Republika Srpska is analyzed in this work. With regard to the above, the author highlights that in Republika Srpska there are two forms of legal protection from domestic violence they fall within the remit of criminal law and misdemeanor law. Introduction of such protection model was intended for the protection of victims from this form of violent behavior, which is, by its characteristics a specific form of criminal behavior and as such demands special measures of lawful reaction by the state. Protection of victims of domestic violence falling within the remit of criminal law, which is very important since it attaches the same gravity to this and the other forms of criminality giving it a certain degree of criminal-political weight, has not produced expected results. For that reason was adopted a special Law on Protection from Domestic Violence defining the notion of domestic violence, persons considered to be a family members, methods of their protection, as well as the kind and purpose of misdemeanor law related norms with emphasizing the fact that all the proceedings initiated under this law are of an urgent nature. The main driving force leading to the adoption of this Law is to obtain a complete and systematic regulation of domestic violence to enable faster, more efficient and durable protection of the endangered persons. The most important thing about this Law on Protection from Domestic Violence is introduction of protective measures, which could be sentenced against the perpetrator and which, in fact, allow for the protection of victims to family violence. Method of its concrete implementation regulated is by the relevant by-laws. Adoption of law sanctioning domestic violence, either as a criminal act or as a misdemeanor, together with the adoption of by-laws for the implementation of particular protective measures, represent a step forward in combat and prevention of domestic
Nwabunike, Collins; Tenkorang, Eric Y
There is evidence that between half and two thirds of Nigerian women have experienced domestic violence, and that this is higher in some ethnic groups than others. Yet, studies that examine the ethnic dimensions of domestic and marital violence are conspicuously missing in the literature. We fill this void using data from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Results indicate significant ethnic differences with Igbo women more likely to have experienced sexual and emotional violence compared with Yoruba women. Hausa women were however significantly less likely to experience physical and sexual violence but not emotional violence, compared with Yoruba women. Women with domineering husbands were significantly more likely to experience physical, sexual, and emotional violence. Similarly, those who thought wife-beating was justified were more likely to experience all three types of violence. The independent effects of ethnicity on domestic violence suggests that specific interventions may be needed for women belonging to different ethnic groups if the problem of domestic violence is to be dealt with effectively in Nigeria. © The Author(s) 2015.
Zorjan, Saša; Smrke, Urška; Šprah, Lilijana
Domestic violence is recognized as a public health problem with a high prevalence in the general population. Healthcare professionals play an important role in the recognition and treatment of domestic violence. Hence, conducting research on factors that facilitate or inhibit appropriate actions by healthcare professionals is of the upmost importance. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between healthcare professionals' attitudes toward the acceptability of domestic violence and their responses when dealing with victims of domestic violence. The sample consisted of 322 healthcare professionals (physicians, dentists, nursing staff and other healthcare workers; 85.2% female), who completed a questionnaire, assessing their attitudes towards domestic violence, experience, behaviour and perceived barriers in recognizing and treating domestic violence in the health care sector. The study was cross-sectional and used availability sampling. The results showed no significant differences in domestic violence acceptability attitudes when comparing groups of healthcare professionals who reported low or high frequency of domestic violence cases encounters. Furthermore, we found that domestic violence acceptability attitudes were negatively associated with action taking when the frequency of encounters with domestic violence cases was high and medium. However, the attitudes were not associated with action taking when the frequency of encounters with domestic violence cases was low. The results highlight the important role of attitudes in action taking of healthcare professionals when it comes to domestic violence. This indicates the need for educational interventions that specifically target healthcare professionals' attitudes towards domestic violence.
Valandra; Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Higgins, Brandon M; Brown, Lucy M
Relatively few studies have explored domestic violence from a multiplicity of African American perspectives, experiences, and socio-demographic backgrounds within rural African American communities. Community-based participatory action research methods were used to explore domestic violence perceptions of African Americans with heterogeneous backgrounds and experiences of violence. Ten focus groups were held throughout the community with 52 diverse women ( n = 33) and men ( n = 19) living in the northwest region of Arkansas. Demographic data were collected from 47 women ( n = 28) and men ( n = 19) participating in focus groups regarding their perceptions and experiences of domestic violence, media messages, help-seeking behaviors, and services. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Three major themes emerged, including (a) a heightened awareness of race, gender, and class differences; (b) imbalanced and mixed messages from media; and (c) multi-systemic dynamics influencing abusive behavior and relationships. Results indicate that study participants' perspectives and experiences with domestic violence reflect a complex interrelated gamut of societal, community, familial, and individual dynamics. Participant recommendations related to interpersonal dynamics, media messages, and societal influences are reported with implications for practice, policy, and future research.
Akyazi, Senem; Tabo, Abdulkadir; Guveli, Hulya; İlnem, Mehmet Cem; Oflaz, Serap
In this study, the relationship between mental disorders, childhood trauma and sociodemographic characteristics was evaulated in women staying in shelters due to domestic violence. The study comprised 59 volunteers, staying in women's shelters in Istanbul due to domestic violence. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV TR axis 1 disorders (SCID-I), Domestic Violence Data Form, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were applied by a psychiatric expert in face-to-face interviews. Of the cases 76.3% were diagnosed with at least one psychiatric disorder. Post traumatic stress disorder was the most common diagnosis (50.8%). In our study 59% of women had attempted suicide at least once, and 66% of these were found to have attempted suicide after violence started. Previous psychiatric diagnosis and exposure to childhood abuse were observed to be risk factors for suicide attempts. Psychiatric disease comorbidities and suicide attempt were identified at high rates in women exposed to domestic violence.
Mar 26, 2003 ... partner or spouse among pregnant women attending a public sector hospital in Durban, ... Following informed consent, Zulu-speaking women .... socioeconomic population, the prevalence of domestic abuse in the current ...
...- being (Section 308(b)(1)(B)). Provision of individual and group counseling, peer support groups, and..., domestic violence, or dating violence, including age- appropriate counseling, supportive services, and... violence, and their dependents, for short-term, transitional, or long-term safety; and Provide counseling...
... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE [OMB Number 1122-NEW] AG Survey of Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, or Sexual Assault Program Grantees Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection ACTION: 60-day notice. The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be...
Two percent of women in the United States suffer from intimate partner violence annually, with poor and minority women disproportionately affected. I provide evidence of an important negative externality associated with domestic violence by estimating a negative and causal relationship between violence during pregnancy and newborn health,…
Szilassy, Eszter; Drinkwater, Jess; Hester, Marianne; Larkins, Cath; Stanley, Nicky; Turner, William; Feder, Gene
We describe the development of an evidence-based training intervention on domestic violence and child safeguarding for general practice teams. We aimed - in the context of a pilot study - to improve knowledge, skills, attitudes and self-efficacy of general practice clinicians caring for families affected by domestic violence. Our evidence sources included: a systematic review of training interventions aiming to improve professional responses to children affected by domestic violence; content mapping of relevant current training in England; qualitative assessment of general practice professionals' responses to domestic violence in families; and a two-stage consensus process with a multi-professional stakeholder group. Data were collected between January and December 2013. This paper reports key research findings and their implications for practice and policy; describes how the research findings informed the training development and outlines the principal features of the training intervention. We found lack of cohesion and co-ordination in the approach to domestic violence and child safeguarding. General practice clinicians have insufficient understanding of multi-agency work, a limited competence in gauging thresholds for child protection referral to children's services and little understanding of outcomes for children. While prioritising children's safety, they are more inclined to engage directly with abusive parents than with affected children. Our research reveals uncertainty and confusion surrounding the recording of domestic violence cases in families' medical records. These findings informed the design of the RESPONDS training, which was developed in 2014 to encourage general practice clinicians to overcome barriers and engage more extensively with adults experiencing abuse, as well as responding directly to the needs of children. We conclude that general practice clinicians need more support in managing the complexity of this area of practice. We need to
Audi, Celene Aparecida Ferrari; Segall-Corrêa, Ana M; Santiago, Silvia M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael
domestic violence during pregnancy remains an unsolved and neglected social problem despite the recognised adverse physical and mental health consequences. to examine the association between domestic violence (psychological violence and physical or sexual violence) and health problems self-reported by pregnant women. a cross-sectional analysis from a cohort study of 1,379 pregnant women attending prenatal care in public primary care units in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected by interviewing women when they enroled for prenatal care. Domestic violence and alcohol abuse were ascertained by validated questionnaires. Referred morbidities, undesirable behaviours and sociodemographic characteristics were also recorded. Univariate analyses were used to estimate prevalence and unadjusted odd ratios. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the independent association between psychological violence and physical or sexual violence during pregnancy and women's health outcomes. psychological violence and physical or sexual violence were reported by 19.1% (n=263) and 6.5% (n=89) of the pregnant women, respectively. Psychological violence was significantly associated with obstetric problems [odds ratio (OR) 1.95; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.73], premature rupture of membranes (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.01-2.68), urinary tract infection (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.19-2.42), headache (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.25-2.40) and sexual risk behaviours (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.18-4.41). Physical or sexual violence was significantly associated with: obstetric problems (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.08-2.75), premature rupture of membranes (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.14-3.88), urinary tract infection (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.26-3.34), vaginal bleeding (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.10-3.43) and lack of sexual desire (OR 3.67, 95% CI 2.23-6.09). domestic violence during pregnancy was associated with adverse clinical and psychological outcomes for women. These results suggest that a well-organised health-care system and
Knowledge of primary care nurses regarding domestic violence. ... It included also knowledge about prevalence of DV, and four main aspects relevant to DV, namely deprivation, psychological, ... schools, training courses and conferences.
Knowledge of Primary Care Physicians Regarding Domestic Violence. ... prevalence of DV, and 4 main aspects relevant to DV, namely deprivation, psychological, ... and instructions about DV from scientific formal sources as medical schools, ...
Rosana Santos Mota
Full Text Available This quantitative study aims to evaluate pregnant adolescents in relation to socio demographic, gynecological and obstetric aspects and the experience of domestic violence. The subjects were 34 pregnant adolescents who got prenatal care in the city of São Francisco do Conde (Bahia, Brazil. Interviews were conducted. The majority of pregnant adolescents was between 16 and 19 years old and was single, black, non-educated, and financially dependent on parents or husband/partner, having initiated a sexual relationship before the age of 15. More than 40% declared a history of domestic violence. Some of them revealed the experience of domestic violence during pregnancy. In face of this reality, a professional look is necessary in order to recognize domestic violence as an aggravating factor to the health of these adolescents, a fact which has not been perceived in health care.
Richard Griffith, Senior Lecturer in Health Law at Swansea University, explains how the Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme aims to protect potential victims by allowing disclosure of a partner's previous crimes.
Physical domestic violence against married women by their intimate partners in Nnewi South ... supported by religious and cultural considerations and often justified ... There is need to reach out to men while women should be empowered to
Wijaya, Sandy Ari
Penal mediation is a process of extra judicial settlement for criminal case. The application ofpenal mediation on criminal law is to give the justice and protection to the victims of which it isnot accommodate by legality aspect in Indonesia criminal law. The existence of penal mediationprinciple with legal certainty affect the domestic violence (KDRT). The inconsistence continueswhen the penal mediation process relevance is applied to serious domestic violence that violate thehuman rights. T...
Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna
Lives of people experiencing domestic or/and intimate partner violence abound in many unpleasant events and physical and psychological suffering, which affects their psychosocial functioning. The aim of this study was to explore indirect self-destructiveness as a generalised behavioural tendency and its manifestations in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale" (CS-DS) was used to study two groups of women: 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence (V group) and 150 well-matched women not experiencing domestic violence (NV group). Women suffering domestic violence (V) obtained significantly higher scores than women not experiencing domestic violence (NV) for both the general index and a majority of CS-DS subscales; it was only for the A1 (Transgression and Risk) subscale that they achieved somewhat lower scores. Correlation coefficients between particular CS-DS subscales in the V group were higher than in the NV group; there were also certain differences in coefficients between the groups. Subscale factor analysis results were different too: only one factor was isolated in the V group while two were distinguished in the NV group. It can be inferred from the results that the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness as a generalised behavioural tendency as well as of most its categories was higher in women experiencing domestic violence. Tendencies and categories of indirectly self-destructive behaviours in women suffering domestic violence were more closely connected with one another, and the internal coherence of indirect self-destructiveness in those women might also be higher.
Full Text Available Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods: Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results: We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries.
Zust, Barbara; Flicek, Breanna; Moses, Katie; Schubert, Courtney; Timmerman, Jessica
Religious beliefs play a significant role in the lives of victims of domestic violence. Victims find strength in their faith and would rather endure the violence at all costs to keep a family or a marriage together, than to compromise their faith by leaving. This 10 -year study explored the climate of support for victims of domestic violence among Christian clergy and church members between 2005 and 2015. Using a convenience sample, surveys were sent out to congregations in the Upper Midwest in 2005 and 2015. The survey included demographics; two items measuring perception of domestic violence in the congregation andcommunity; six Likert Scale items regarding agreement with statements concerning leaving an abusive marriage; four 'Yes-No' items regarding the impact of faith in leaving, support of the congregation, community resources,and clergy as counselors. The clergy's survey had the same questions, plus open-ended questions about their skills in counseling victims, their congregation's support for victims, community resources, and beliefs that could impact a victim's choice in leaving. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, simple frequencies, and bivariate correlations. Narrative data were analyzed using content analysis. The results of this study indicated that change is slow. Members want their clergy to become more educated in counseling and in speaking about domestic violence from the pulpit. Clergy felt comfortable in making referrals for professional counseling, while the majority of members would prefer counseling with their pastor if they were in a violent relationship. Both clergy and members want to create a safe and supportive environment for victims/survivors of violent relationships. Findings from this study exemplify the need for pastors to remove the silence about domestic violence in their congregations and address the misunderstood social religious beliefs that may bind a victim to the violence.
Currie, Cheryl L.
Objective: The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. Method: A…
Patrikar, Seema; Verma, Ak; Bhatti, Vk; Shatabdi, S
Violence affects the lives of millions of women worldwide, in all socioeconomic classes. Violence and the fear of violence are emerging as important risk factor contributing to the vulnerability to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for women. The objective of the present cross sectional study is to compare the experiences of domestic violence between HIV-positive and HIV-negative married women seeking treatment in a tertiary care hospital. The study is conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Pune on a randomly selected 150 married women (75 HIV-positive and 75 HIV-negative). Informed consent was obtained from all the women and also a trained counsellor was present during the process of data collection. The data was collected by interview method by taking precautions as laid down in the World Health Organization's ethical and safety recommendations for research on domestic violence and using modified conflict tactics scale (CTS). The definition of violence followed is as per the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1993. The percentage of women reporting domestic violence is 44.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 36.84-52.68). The proportion of physical, emotional and sexual violence reported is 38% (95% CI = 30.49-45.96), 24% (95% CI = 17.67-31.31), and 14.7% (95% CI = 9.66-21.02), respectively. The odds of reporting violence of all forms is significantly higher among HIV-positive women than among HIV-negative women (P<0.05). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression is carried out to examine the possible predictors of domestic violence. The findings suggest high proportion of HIV-positive women report violence then HIV-negative women which must be addressed through multilevel prevention approaches.
This article describes the work of Southall Black Sisters (SBS), a small women's group in London that engages in political lobbying, activism, and case work, largely with Asian women immigrants seeking an escape from domestic violence. The strategies that SBS uses include: maintaining a strong link between its case work and the larger policy and social practices that make it difficult for women to counter domestic violence effectively; challenging multiple forms of oppression (based on gender, race, ethnicity, and the patriarchy) simultaneously; and networking with a range of other organizations to accomplish specific tasks. Thus, SBS's work for social change challenges the following: the prevailing culture that permits violence against women to be endemic; the construction and delivery of services to abused women that fail to meet the needs of Asian immigrants with little command of English; and the overriding legal and policy context. In particular, SBS clients face difficulties because the UK's immigration rules require incoming spouses to remain married for a year in order to stay in the country. During this period, incoming spouses are denied the very welfare benefits that provide funding for abused women in shelters. SBS case work includes counseling, arranging accommodations, finding legal counsel, and supporting clients through legal processes. SBS draws on its case work to inform its lobbying and to give a voice to victims of domestic violence.
long term effects of my father's physical, verbal, emotional and financial abuse of my mother along ... are astonishingly similar to my childhood experiences in an abusive household ..... An over labelling of any type of negative affectivity as anger is likely. Self- ... divorce has physical abuse as its root cause. More difficult to ...
Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad
Conclusion: Despite overall low rate of domestic elder abuse, its high prevalence indicates that some interventions are necessary to decrease domestic elder abuse. Emotional neglect of elders should be addressed more than other abuse types.
Shelton, Samuel Z
Since the foundations of the contemporary anti-violence movement in the 1960s and 1970s, advocates have sought to establish a critical understanding of domestic violence that we can use to direct our efforts for social change. Yet many advocates and advocacy organizations continue to rely on a problematic narrative of sameness that marginalizes and erases diverse victims' experiences and needs. In this article, I conduct a critical discourse analysis of the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence Web site to identify outcomes of this narrative for the inclusivity of advocacy efforts. I argue that despite the organization's numerous claims to represent diverse victims' experiences, Web site content reveals that its purportedly general account of domestic violence normalizes the experiences of a small group of victims-namely, heterosexual, cisgender women. Further, the Web site's content greatly limits the potential for thinking about and discussing violence across difference. I conclude with recommendations for changes in advocacy practices.
Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth
Objectives Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women’s Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Methods Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Results Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical/sexual violence and 17% scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15% scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Conclusions Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority. PMID:24740725
Mahnaz Shoghi, MSN
Conclusion: The findings showed a noticeable trend of a rising number of assaults against nurses. The findings of this study may help hospital staff and nurses to avoid, reduce and control violence and abuse.
Felker-Kantor, Erica; Wallace, Maeve; Theall, Katherine
To determine the association between neighborhood domestic violence and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth and to examine if there is a differential impact of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births by race in a high crime community. This analysis includes all birth records issued in New Orleans, Louisiana from 2011 to 2012 geocoded by census tract (N=177 census tracts, N=8322 women). Hierarchical modeling and ecologic spatial analysis were used to examine the area-effect of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births, independent of individual-level predictors and accounting for the propensity to live in high domestic violence neighborhoods. Tests for spatial autocorrelation reveled area-level clustering and overlap of SGA and domestic violent rates. Pregnant women living in high domestic violence areas were more likely to give birth to an SGA infant compared to women in low-domestic violence areas (OR=1.04, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.08), net of the effects of individual-level factors and propensity scores. Neighborhood-level attributes including rates of domestic violence may increase women's risk for SGA birth, highlighting a policy-relevant and potentially amenable exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nouhjah, Sedigheh; Latifi, Seyed Mahmood
Domestic violence against women is an important health issue, but few studies have focused on city of residence and ethnic differences. To estimate the prevalence of various forms of domestic violence and certain related factors, with a specific focus on city of residence and ethnicity, we studied 1820 married women attending public health centers in 4 large cities in Khuzestan Province, southwestern Islamic Republic of Iran. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. The prevalence of some forms of lifetime domestic violence against women was 47.3%. The prevalence of physical, psychological, and any form of lifetime violence was the highest in Dezful (25.7%, 54.8%, and 57.7%, resp.). For sexual violence, the highest prevalence was reported in Ahvaz (17.7%). The highest prevalence of physical and sexual violence during any point of life was reported by Arab women (25.1% and 16.7%). The experience of all forms of violence was significantly associated with city of residence. Results of regression logistic analysis revealed that all of the forms of violence except psychological violence were statistically significantly associated with ethnicity (P < 0.05). PMID:27433514
Hajikhani Golchin, Nayereh Azam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Hamzehgardeshi, Leila; Shirzad Ahoodashti, Mahboobeh
Background: Domestic violence refers to any type of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse enforced in the setting of familial relationships. Domestic violence has a significant relationship with poor outcome among pregnant women. Success in resolving this social phenomenon rests on accurate assessment of the society and the factors associated with violence in that specific community. Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the demographic characteristics of pregnant women exposed to different types of domestic violence during pregnancy in Iranian setting. Patients and Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study. Sampling was done with convenience sampling method. in the current study, 301 pregnant women aged 15-45 years of Iranian nationality who were referred to the hospital for delivery or abortion, regardless of the gestational age, were selected as the subjects. Data collection tools consisted of a sociodemographic questionnaire and a violence checklist. Violence was assessed using Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2). Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytic statistics on SPSS version 16 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) and STATA version 10. The characteristics of the participants were presented as mean ± SD or number and percentage. Differences between variables were determined by the χ2 test, and multivariate logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: According to the findings, 34.56% of participants had experienced psychological violence, 28.24% physical violence, and 3.65% sexual violence. Multivariate logistic regression revealed a statistically significant relationship only in the case of physical violence and history of penal conviction for partner (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 12.60) and a patriarchal household (AOR = 16.75). Conclusions: As domestic violence is greatly influenced by the customs and cultures of each community, no single strategy can be adopted to resolve it universally
Kapur, Sonia; Zajicek, Anna
How are the images of abused South Asian marriage migrants shaped by domestic violence advocates? We explore the social constructions of battered Asian Indian marriage migrants in the victim advocates' narratives. First, we find the narratives both reproduce and challenge the dominant stereotypes, utilizing some individualistic typifications while constructing these images with an understanding of the broader context of battered South Asian women's experiences. Second, depending on the issue (e.g., economic dependence or religion), the advocates paint either a multidimensional or a one-dimensional picture of their clients. We emphasize the need for further intersectional studies of the images of abused immigrants constructed by victim advocates.
This article explores sexual violence in male prisons in South Africa. It focuses on the social meanings and identities that surround sexual violence, particularly the ideas of manhood that shape both the perpetration of sexual abuses and how it is dealt with – or not. The dominant inmate culture endorses prison rape and ...
Maeder, Evelyn M.; Mossiere, Annik; Cheung, Liann
This study manipulated the race of the defendant and the victim (White/White, White/Asian, Asian/Asian, and Asian/White) in a domestic violence case to examine the potential prejudicial impact of race on juror decision making. A total of 181undergraduate students read a trial transcript involving an allegation of spousal abuse in which defendant…
Aghakhani, Nader; Sharif Nia, Hamid; Moosavi, Ehsan; Eftekhari, Ali; Zarei, Abbas; Bahrami, Nasim; Nikoonejad, Ali Reza
Today, domestic violence against women is a growing epidemic that can be observed in many countries. This study was carried out to determine the types of domestic violence against women who were referred to the Legal Medical Organization of Iran in Urmia, Iran in 2012. The descriptive survey included demographic information, abuse screening, and items regarding partner involvement. Data was gathered using face-to-face structured interviews. The study population included 300, women 18 years of age or older, and data was collected about their demographic characteristics and the types of domestic violence they experienced. SPSS software version 16 was used for the analyses. The majority of participants were in the 25 - 30 age group, and 83% of them were battered by their husbands in various ways. No significant relationships were observed between violence and unemployment, increasing age, and home ownership. The prevalence of abuse reported by women in this population suggests that many women that are referred to the Legal Medical Organization of Iran may have a history of abuse. Abused women may have different reasons for seeking a divorce. If routine screening for abuse is included in counseling, health providers will have the opportunity to develop a safety plan and initiate appropriate referrals.
Full Text Available The number of domestic violence cases that are reported officially in Kosovo does not represent the real situation. The cases that are reported do not get the expected support by the relevant institutions. The concerning situation on the lack of protection for the domestic violence victims keeps being reported by Non-governmental organizations that work on protection of women’s rights. The paper is based on the literature review, statistical data, surveys, and interviews. The results show women hesitate to report the violence against them. The relevant institutions, mainly police and the courts do not implement the dispositions of the applicable laws accordingly to ensure protection of the domestic violence victims. In few cases, the protection order petitions were neglected, and this negligence in one of the cases resulted having the perpetrator kill the victim. It shows that there should be a stricter monitoring of implementation of the applicable laws and not permit the cultural approach toward domestic violence be part of the institutions and have impact in their decisions. That would directly enable Kosovo society change the perception and raise the awareness that the perpetrators of the domestic violence shall get the relevant punishment.
Hackett, Shannon; McWhirter, Paula T; Lesher, Susan
A meta-analysis on domestic violence interventions was conducted to determine overall effectiveness of mental health programs involving women and children in joint treatment. These interventions were further analyzed to determine whether outcomes are differentially affected based on the outcome measure employed. To date, no meta-analyses have been published on domestic violence victim intervention efficacy. The 17 investigations that met study criteria yielded findings indicating that domestic violence interventions have a large effect size (d = .812), which decreases to a medium effect size when compared to control groups (d = .518). Effect sizes were assessed to determine whether treatment differed according to the focus of the outcome measure employed: (a) external stress (behavioral problems, aggression, or alcohol use); (b) psychological adjustment (depression, anxiety, or happiness); (c) self-concept (self-esteem, perceived competence, or internal locus of control); (d) social adjustment (popularity, loneliness, or cooperativeness); (e) family relations (mother-child relations, affection, or quality of interaction); and (f) maltreatment events (reoccurrence of violence, return to partner). Results reveal that domestic violence interventions across all outcome categories yield effects in the medium to large range for both internalized and externalized symptomatology. Implications for greater awareness and support for domestic violence treatment and programming are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
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Childress, Saltanat; Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; Joshi, Manisha
Despite the global nature of domestic violence against women, few studies have examined the phenomenon in Kyrgyzstan. This grounded theory study gives voice to survivors of domestic violence by examining women's experiences of various forms of violence and the complexities surrounding Kyrgyz women's decision making about leaving violent relationships. Findings revealed that survivors move through a three-stage process of leaving: (a) reaching a turning point, (b) implementing the leaving process, and (c) reclaiming self. Participants described "turning points" as critical events or sudden realizations that the violence had become uncontrollable or intolerable, and that the problem was not going to be solved without external support. The turning points fell into four major categories, including epiphanies and moments of truth, losing hope for a change in the abuser's behavior, reaching the point of saturation and giving up, and experiencing fear for the safety of children and protecting self. The main factor that led women to leave was being confronted with the pervasive fear that the abuse would lead to permanent disability or death. In the second stage, the process of leaving was characterized by an iterative cycle of leaving and returning until women were able to weigh the costs and benefits of staying and leaving in the face of cultural, institutional, and systemic constraints. The final stage of leaving involved "reclaiming self," which was the result of cognitive shifts, finding new meanings in their experiences of abuse and attempts to leave, and support received from advocates at the shelter. Results have implications for interventions with survivors and policies addressing the problem of domestic violence in Kyrgyzstan.
Full Text Available Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and behavioral variables that might be associated with physical domestic violence based on a review of the literature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, and odds ratios (OR were computed using logistic regression. Women reporting physical domestic violence were significantly more likely to report (i a history of childhood domestic violence (OR=2.96, P<0.001, (ii two or more lifetime partners (OR=1.94, P<0.001, (iii some form of sexual abuse as a child (OR=1.82, not significant, and (iv low or medium socio-economic status as measured by type of homestead (OR=1.4, P=0.04 than women who reported no experience of physical domestic violence. Married women were less likely to experience physical domestic violence than unmarried women (OR=0.65, P=0.011. Women at greatest risk of domestic violence include those with a personal history of violence or sexual abuse, multiple lifetime partners, and low or medium socio-economic status. Risk assessments and joint interventions for both domestic violence reduction and HIV prevention should target these population groups, which are effective both on the public health and global heath diplomacy levels.
Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets\\' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens\\' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.
Full Text Available Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.
Mikaela A Ming
Full Text Available The Solomon Islands has one of the highest rates of family and sexual violence (FSV in the world with 64% of women aged 15-49 have reported physical and/or sexual abuse by a partner. The National Referral Hospital (NRH in the capital, Honiara, is the only tertiary hospital for the country. Our 4-week medical elective at the NRH was spent reflecting on healthcare challenges including FSV, with the aim of identifying cases of FSV and assessing on the current strategies to improve care for victims. Throughout our placement, we encountered many cases of probable FSV, particularly in the Emergency Department and Obstetrics and Gynecology. These patients were often not managed effectively, largely due to time pressures and overcrowding in the hospital. However, we identified a number of strategies, which have recently been implemented in order to help FSV victims in the Solomon Islands. These include strategies within the healthcare setting, in particular, the commencement of FSV reporting within the hospital, and the production of a manual to enable healthcare worker education on the issue. Strategies within the criminal justice system are also in place. These include recent changes in legislation and the work of the volunteer police force, Royal Assist Mission to the Solomon Islands, to improve attitudes toward FSV. These approaches to tackle the problem of FSV are currently in their early stages and have largely stemmed from Western policies and ideals. This report concludes that more time is needed to accurately assess the impact of the current changes before further recommendations are made.
Lohff, Brigitte; Voss, Angelika
During the last decades an, international discussion has started on how to reduce the gender gap in women's and men's health. Feminist activists and public health scientists in Canada, Latin America (foremost Brazil), the States and South Africa issued a declaration of intention to focus on health impacts caused by gender-related domestic violence. In Europe, and particularly in Germany, the topic as an issue of medical care has lately been given increased attention. In this article, we present activities undertaken to overcome the obstacles in integrating the topic of domestic violence as a medical issue. The successful Brazilian strategy served as a model, in particular for implementing a hot-line for victims of domestic violence within the day-to-day clinical setting. The General Medical Council (Arztekammer), the Women's Medical Association of Lower-Saxony, and the Hanover Medical School founded a working committee "domestic violence" in co-operation with the Ministry of Women, Work and Social Affairs. Between 2002 and 2003, this task force worked out several guidelines and hand-outs for physicians to promote gender-sensitive treatment of abused women, gaining increasing acceptance by the German medical care providers in medical education and in-training services for physicians.
Lutgendorf, Monica; Busch, Jeanne; Magann, Everett F; Morrison, John C
Domestic violence is an important healthcare problem, and it appears more prevalent in military patient populations although no one has demonstrated the cause behind this phenomenon. The purpose of this observational study was to assess data regarding domestic violence screening from practitioners at one military training center. This study used an anonymous questionnaire for physicians, nurses and nurse midwives, which surveyed current methods, attitudes toward screening, and barriers for such assessment. Fifty-seven surveys were distributed, and 26 were returned for a response rate of 45.6%. Only about a third (38.5%) of the practitioners screened all obstetric patients while the remainder screened selected patients for domestic violence. Even less (19%) screened gynecology patients routinely, whereas 69% reported they screened selected women with chronic or somatic complaints. A history of prior abuse in the respondents led practitioners to try to identify such patients within their practice. Lack of education or training was the most common barrier to universal screening followed by time constraints and frustration about not being able to address adequately the problem when noted. These results emphasized the importance of an educational program to increase domestic violence awareness and routine screening.
Lana Wells; Casey Boodt; Herb Emery
Recent studies show that Alberta has the fifth highest rate of police reported intimate partner violence and the second highest rate of self reported spousal violence in Canada, and despite a 2.3 percent decline over the last decade, the province’s rate of self-reported domestic violence has stubbornly remained among the highest in Canada; rates of violence against women alone are 2.3 percentage points higher than the national average. In fact, every hour of every day, a woman in Alberta will...
Leguizamon, J Sebastian; Leguizamon, Susane; Howden, Wesley
Male unemployment may decrease the incidence of domestic violence, due to loss of economic power in the relationship, or increase the incidence of domestic violence, due to emotional outbursts fueled by increased stress. We hypothesize that Black men may face a greater loss of expected future earnings after an unemployment shock due to a more unfavorable labor market relative to White men. Consequently, we would expect that Black men would, on net, exhibit a greater reduction (or a smaller increase) in incidences of domestic violence following an employment shock. This study uses mass layoff events reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) at the county level ( N = 3,377) for the years 2003-2008. Mass layoff events occur when a firm lays off at least 50 workers and are uncorrelated with individual-level characteristics ( N = 28,939 events, affecting N = 5,337,481 individuals). Domestic violence data are taken from the National Archive of Criminal Justice and defined as occurring when an accused perpetrator is charged, but not necessarily convicted. We use a multivariate regression model to estimate how differences in the change in reported incidences of domestic violence by race correlate with changes in mass layoffs by race. We control for the poverty rate, real per capita income, percent Black, percent women, and percent of females laid off. The standard errors are clustered at the county level and include county and time dummies to account for regional and time specific trends. We observe that an increase in the number of Blacks subject to a mass layoff event do exert a negative associated influence on domestic violence while layoffs of White men exert a positive influence. Our results shed light on how the influence of economic uncertainty on incidences of domestic violence has been found to be positive in some previous research but negative in other research.
A small number of studies have identified a positive relationship between alcohol outlet density and domestic violence. These studies have all been based on cross-sectional data and have been limited to the assessment of ecological correlations between outlet density and domestic violence rates. This study provides the first longitudinal examination of this relationship. Cross-sectional time-series using aggregated data from small areas. The relationships between alcohol outlet density and domestic violence were assessed over time using a fixed-effects model. Controls for the spatial autocorrelation of the data were included in the model. The study uses data for 186 postcodes from within the metropolitan area of Melbourne, Australia for the years 1996 to 2005. Alcohol outlet density measures for three different types of outlets (hotel/pub, packaged liquor, on-premise) were derived from liquor licensing records and domestic violence rates were calculated from police-recorded crime data, based on the victim's postcode. Alcohol outlet density was associated significantly with rates of domestic violence, over time. All three licence categories were positively associated with domestic violence rates, with small effects for general (pub) and on-premise licences and a large effect for packaged liquor licences. In Melbourne, the density of liquor licences is positively associated with rates of domestic violence over time. The effects were particularly large for packaged liquor outlets, suggesting a need for licensing policies that pay more attention to o off-premise alcohol availability. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Zieman, Glynnis; Bridwell, Ashley; Cárdenas, Javier F
Domestic violence is a national health crisis, which affects people of all ages, races, and socioeconomic classes. Traumatic brain injury is common in victims because of the high frequency of head and neck injuries inflicted through abuse. These recurrent injuries can lead to chronic symptoms with high morbidity. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 115 patients with a history of head trauma as a result of domestic violence. All patients were seen in a subspecialty traumatic brain injury clinic, at which time information regarding their histories and self-reported symptoms were recorded. In total, 109 females and 6 males were included in our study, with an age range of 4-68 years. Overall, 88% reported more than one injury and 81% reported a history of loss of consciousness associated with their injuries. Only 21% sought medical help at the time of injury. Whereas 85% had a history of abuse in adulthood, 22% had experienced abuse in both childhood and adulthood, and 60% of the patients abused as children went on to be abused as adults. Headache was the most common chief complaint, but on a self-reported symptom severity scale, behavioral symptoms were the most severe. Psychiatric disease was present in 84% of patients. Traumatic brain injury is a frequent sequela of domestic violence, from which many victims sustain multiple injuries without seeking medical care. Brain injuries are often sustained over many years and lead to lasting physical, behavioral, and cognitive consequences. Better understanding of these injuries will lead to improved care for this population.
Full Text Available Background: Violence against women is one of the major public health and human rights issue in the world today which is prevalent in all human societies irrespective of religion, socioeconomic status, and culture. Therefore, recognized as a significant barrier to women empowerment and their health. Aims & Objectives: The aim of this study was to find out the extent of different type of domestic violence and to identify various risk factors for domestic violence against married women. Material & Methods: The present study is a community based cross-sectional study carried out in a slum of Kolkata. Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of the samples. The study participants were interviewed using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Result: 97 married women participated in the study. 32.9% of the study population reported some form of domestic violence. In a logistic regression analysis, significant association was found between domestic violence and alcohol abuse by the spouse, level of education of the spouse, per capita income and occupation of the women. Conclusion: This study confirms, high prevalence of all forms of violence against women, which underscores the need for policy makers to increase their recognition of domestic violence as a critical target in public health concerns
Gordon, Kristina Coop; Burton, Shacunda; Porter, Laura
Recent findings indicate that college women's forgiveness of hypothetical dating violence was predictive of their hypothetical decisions to stay in the relationship. This study was designed to evaluate the role of forgiveness in women's intentions to return to their partners from a domestic violence shelter. A sample of 121 women residing in both urban and rural domestic violence shelters filled out a series of questionnaires evaluating demographic information, severity of violence, attributions for violence, psychological constraints (or investment), and forgiveness of the partner. Forgiveness was found to predict intention to return to partner over and above the other variables studied. These findings suggest that the degree to which women are willing to "move on" from the abuse and to let go of their anger toward their partners may play a significant role in their intention to remain in a relationship with their partners.
Background Since many health problems are associated with abuse and neglect at all ages, domestic violence victims may be considered as a group of primary care patients in need of special attention. Methods The aim of this multi-centre study was to assess the prevalence of domestic violence in primary care patients, and to identify those factors which influence the co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure and their consequences (physical, sexual and reproductive and psychological) as obtained from medical records. A study was carried out in 28 family practices in Slovenia in 2009. Twenty-eight family physicians approached every fifth family practice attendee, regardless of gender, to be interviewed about their exposure to domestic violence and asked to specify the perpetrator and the frequency. Out of 840 patients asked, 829 individuals, 61.0% women (n = 506) and 39.0% men (n = 323) were assessed (98.7% response rate). They represented a randomised sample of general practice attendees, aged 18 years and above, who had visited their physician for health problems and who were given a physical examination. Visits for administrative purposes were excluded. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with exposure to both psychological and physical violence. Results Of 829 patients, 15.3% reported some type of domestic violence experienced during the previous five years; 5.9% reported physical and 9.4% psychological violence; of these 19.2% of men and 80.8% of women had been exposed to psychological violence, while 22.4% of men and 77.6% of women had been exposed to physical violence. The domestic violence victims were mostly women (p violence was more prevalent than exposure to physical violence. Of the women, 20.0% were exposed to either type of violence, compared to 8.0% of male participants, who reported they were rarely exposed to physical violence, while women reported often or constant
Carlson, Bonnie E.; Worden, Alissa Pollitz
This study reports analyses and findings from a public opinion survey designed to explore beliefs about domestic violence (DV) -- what it is, when it is against the law, and how prevalent it is. The project interviewed 1,200 residents from six New York communities. The analyses reveal substantial first hand and second hand experience with DV and…
D'Silva, Sahana; Frey, Sarah; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Manhart, Lisa E; Kaysen, Debra; Andu, Eaden; Rao, Deepa
In India, reported rates of domestic violence rise as high as 31%. Abuse against pregnant women in India is associated with depressive and PTSD symptoms, and poor birth outcomes, yet no evidence-based interventions have been tested on this population. In this cross-sectional qualitative study, we sought perspective on South Indian women's concerns about abuse during pregnancy and what they believed would help. Participants cited economic dependence on husbands and sociocultural structures as factors perpetuating domestic violence. Women also described resilience factors that can protect against abuse. Our participants highlighted a requisite for interventions within health and social systems.
Full Text Available Despite advances in knowledge and understanding about the impacts of domestic violence on women's lives, global research on violence against women shows there is a need for research that not only places women centre stage in research praxis, but also that involves them more collaboratively in genuine dialogue about their experiences, including their agentic stances. This is especially the case for marginalised and socially excluded women victims of domestic violence, such as those who are not known or do not present to services and who survive abusive relationships alone or with little outside support. Evidence from two studies reported here—secondary analysis of women with severe and enduring mental health problems and a collaborative narrative project with unsupported women victims of domestic violence—suggest that women's capacity for agency are compromised by a number of critical factors, and that these are also reflected in the tensions between micro–macro analyses and understanding of the impact of domestic violence on women. This article considers the barriers to women's agency from the women's perspective and in the context of broader, systemic dynamics, including the denial or obscuring of abuse by governments and states and the consequences of stringent fiscal retrenchment that put women at increased risk of domestic violence.
Kamlesh Kumari Sharma
Full Text Available Background: In recent times, domestic violence against women by marital partners has emerged as an important public health problem. Objectives: 1. To determine the prevalence, characteristics and impact of domestic violence against nurses by their marital partners, in Delhi, India. 2. To identify nurses′ perceptions regarding acceptable behavior for men and women. Materials and Methods: A facility-based pilot study was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi. Data were collected using self-administered standardized questionnaire, among 60 ever married female nurses working at AIIMS hospital, selected by convenience sampling. The principal outcome variables were controlling behavior, emotional, physical and sexual violence by marital partners. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12 software. The test applied was Fisher′s exact test and 1-sided Fisher′s exact test. Results: Sixty percent of nurses reported marital partner perpetrated controlling behavior, 65% reported emotional violence, 43.3% reported physical violence and 30% reported sexual violence. About 3/5 th of nurses (58% opined that no reason justified violence, except wife infidelity (31.67%. Of the physically or sexually abused respondents, 40% were ever injured, and 56.7% reported that violence affected their physical and mental health. Conclusion: There is a high magnitude of domestic violence against nurses and this is reported to have affected their physical and mental health.
Kunnuji, Michael O N
Gender-based domestic violence (DV) comes at great costs to the victims and society at large. Yet, many women hold the view that intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is appropriate behavior. This study aimed at exploring the nexus of experience of different forms of DV and acceptance of IPV as appropriate behavior. Using data from a survey of 480 out-of-school adolescent girls, the researcher shows that psychological abuse is a significant predictor of approval of DV resulting from the wife's failure to make food available for her husband with victims of abuse approving of violence against women. Conversely, victims of sexual abuse, more than nonvictims, disapproved of wife beating resulting from the wife going out without informing the husband. The implications of the findings are discussed and the study recommends deconstructing women's negative beliefs upon which DV rests. © The Author(s) 2014.
Özçakar, Nilgün; Yeşiltepe, Gözde; Karaman, Gökçe; Ergönen, Akça Toprak
Many victims of domestic violence do not seek recourse to the needed medical and legal services. The aim of this study was to determine the difficulties faced by and experiences of female survivors of domestic violence during their medical and legal proceedings. We designed our study using a qualitative approach to understand the experiences of survivors during the legal process as well as their feelings and attitudes towards domestic violence through in-depth interviews. The data obtained from the participants were analyzed and synthesized using a thematic analysis procedure. Most of our participants reported different types of domestic violence, citing feelings of fear and loneliness during these experiences. They reported feeling dissatisfied with their complaints being ignored by the police and the perpetrators remaining unpunished. They complained of the complex procedures and negligence of staff in health-care centers such as hospitals, and they reported being shifted to several different places. We believe that an assessment of such female survivors in terms of specific standards set by specialists will help make improvements to the legal process. Education programs should be organized for professionals dealing with survivors of domestic violence. Special health-care services with fast proceedings must be established in health-care centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Keeling, June; Fisher, Colleen
This study explored women's experiences of their responses from health professionals following disclosure of domestic violence within a health setting. The existence of health-based policies guiding professionals in the provision of appropriate support following disclosure of domestic violence is only effective if health professionals understand the dynamics of violent relationships. This article focuses on the findings from the interviews conducted with 15 women living in the United Kingdom who disclosed their experiences of domestic violence when accessing health care. Following thematic analysis, themes emerged that rotated around their disclosure and the responses they received from health professionals. The first two themes revealed the repudiation of, or recognition of and failure to act upon, domestic violence. A description of how the health professional's behavior became analogous with that of the perpetrator is discussed. The final theme illuminated women's receipt of appropriate and sensitive support, leading to a positive trajectory away from a violent relationship. The findings suggest that the implicit understanding of the dynamics of violent relationships and the behaviors of the perpetrator of domestic violence are essential components of health care provision to avoid inadvertent inappropriate interactions with women. © The Author(s) 2014.
Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie; Kroll, Thilo; Duncan, Fiona
To investigate the dynamics of domestic abuse awareness and recognition among primary healthcare professionals and abused women. Domestic abuse is a serious, public health issue that crosses geographical and demographic boundaries. Health professionals are well placed to recognise and respond to domestic abuse, but empirical evidence suggests that they are reluctant to broach the issue. Moreover, research has shown that women are reluctant to disclose abuse. A two-phase, qualitative study was conducted in Scotland. Twenty-nine primary health professionals (midwives, health visitors and general practitioners) participated in the first phase of the study, and 14 abused women took part in phase two. Data were collected in 2011. Semi-structured, individual interviews were conducted with the health professionals, and three focus groups were facilitated with the abused women. Data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Differing levels of awareness of the nature and existence of abuse are held by abused women and primary healthcare professionals. Specifically, many women do not identify their experiences as abusive. A conceptual representation of domestic abuse - the "abused women, awareness, recognition and empowerment' framework - arising from the study - presents a new way of capturing the complexity of the disclosure process. Further research is necessary to test and empirically validate the framework, but it has potential pedagogical use for the training and education of health professionals and clinical use with abused women. The framework may be used in clinical practice by nurses and other health professionals to facilitate open discussion between professionals and women. In turn, this may empower women to make choices regarding disclosure and safety planning. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Deacy, Susan; McHardy, Fiona
Previous studies of ancient Greek examples of uxoricide in pregnancy have concluded that the theme is used to suggest tyrannical abuse of power and that the violence is a product of the patriarchal nature of ancient society. This article uses evolutionary analyses of violence during pregnancy to argue that the themes of sexual jealousy and uncertainty over paternity are as crucial as the theme of power to an understanding of these examples and that the examples can be seen as typical instances of spousal abuse as it occurs in all types of society.
Vu, Ha Song; Schuler, Sidney; Hoang, Tu Anh; Quach, Trang
This paper examines obstacles for women who face domestic violence in making decisions about divorce and in seeking and securing support for a divorce. The research was undertaken in the context of a project in one district of a coastal province in Vietnam that sought to reduce gender based-violence and mitigate its effects. Data from in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions are used to examine abused women's attitudes, strategies and behaviours and the responses of people in their communities and in the support system established by the project. The findings show that social norms supporting marriage discourage abused women from seeking divorce and, in some cases, any kind of support, and discourage community-based support networks, police and local court systems from providing effective assistance to these women.
Efetie, E R; Salami, H A
Violence against women is a human rights violation, which is increasingly becoming a serious public health issue. When it occurs in pregnant women, victims are recognised to be at higher risk of complications of pregnancy. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out over a 3-month period from May to July 2005 to document the prevalence, knowledge and perception of domestic violence (DV) on pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. The mean age of the respondents was 31.5 +/- 4.25 years, with a range of 20 - 42 years. Most (85.2%) had attained tertiary education. While most (92.9%) were aware of DV in pregnancy, 125 women (37.4%) had experienced DV. Psychological abuse ranked highest with 66.4%, while physical and sexual abuse accounted for 23.4% and 10.2% of the group. Of this group, 21.2% required medical treatment as a result of DV, and all were aware of possible pregnancy complications, such as abortion, premature labour and depression. Most (81.9%) of the respondents felt DV was illegal. A majority (29.7%) kept their DV secret with a few numbers reporting to family, doctors, clergy or close friends. With higher educational status, the experience of DV was greater, although this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Similarly with increasing parity, although this tended to reverse after parity of 3. The prevalence of DV found in Abuja, the centrally located capital city of Nigeria is higher than that from the study in Zaria, northern Nigeria (28%). This is cause for concern, and points to a rising trend in the northern region of the country although the centres are different. Similarly, the husband/spouse was the most common offender; responsible here for 74.2% of cases. This may give justification to recent calls for paternal educational classes for spouses. Increasing public awareness remains the key, through education and public enlightenment campaigns, with more emphasis on the identified
Wolf, R S
A 1997 nationwide (US and Canada) search to identify support groups for older victims of domestic violence located 16 sponsored by domestic violence programs and 14 sponsored by aging services. Interviews with group leaders indicated more similarities than differences between the two types of sponsorship in group purpose, leadership, numbers served, content of support group sessions, and success in accomplishing goals. Resistance of elders to participate in a group experience was cited by leaders as a major barrier. Recommendations for future groups include insuring accessibility of meeting site; using a leader and co-leader, at least one of whom is older or familiar with aging issues; allocating resources for recruitment; and seeking a steady source of funding. A policy of collaboration among the state's domestic violence coalition, state unit on aging, adult protective services, and victim assistance program may help in promoting support group development and utilization.
Javaherian-Dysinger, Heather; Krpalek, Dragana; Huecker, Esther; Hewitt, Liane; Cabrera, Michelle; Brown, Canique; Francis, Jason; Rogers, Katie; Server, Sage
This study's purpose was to describe the occupational needs and goals of women residing in a domestic violence shelter and their self-perceived changes in satisfaction and occupational performance. Using a retrospective design, data from 68 occupational therapy evaluations from two domestic violence shelter settings were examined. Data were analyzed by coding problem areas and occupational goals and calculating frequencies for these variables. Where data were available, we also analyzed changes in pre- and postscores for self-perceived satisfaction and occupational performance (n = 25). The most common problem areas were leisure, education, work, child rearing, and health management. The most common goals were in the areas of education, work, health management, child rearing, and home management. Retrospective pre- and postchange scores in performance and satisfaction for 25 women were statistically significant. Findings provide direction for, and highlight the importance of occupational therapy services within domestic violence shelters as women regain their life skills.
Francisco González Sala
Full Text Available The profile of women having suffered domestic violence is presented. It is based on a study made on 297 women who receive social care from the Valencia Council. 37,3% of the women in this group has suffered domestic violence. The profile of these women, compared with the ones belonging to the same group who don’t suffer domestic violence, is characterized by the following features: non-gypsy ethnic group, one-parent familiar structure, marital status separated, several previous sentimental relationships, and psychological problems. In other features which characterize the women receiving social care, like studies level, labour situation, familiar and non-familiar support, no significant differences where appreciated. Based on the present information’s, advise on prevention and community intervention is considered.
This study explores the relationship between a mother's attitude toward domestic violence and her children's schooling outcomes in Turkey. The sample is drawn from the 2003 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey and consists of 7,951 children within the ages of legally mandated compulsory education. A probit regression model is used to analyze the data. The results suggest that the daughters of mothers who find domestic violence acceptable are 2.6 percentage point less likely to enroll in school, all else being equal, than the daughters of mothers who do not tolerate abuse. In comparison, the schooling outcomes of male children are not statistically sensitive to the mother's attitude toward wife beating. The policy implications of the results are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Krupp, Karl; George, Ruja; Madhivanan, Purnima
Violence against women is a global phenomenon that cuts across all social and economic classes. This study was designed to measure the prevalence and correlates of domestic violence (DV) among women seeking services at a voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) center in Bangalore, India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among women visiting an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) VCT center in Bangalore, between September and November 2005. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about violence and other variables. Univariable associations with DV were made using Pearson Chi-squared test for categorical variables and Student t-test or the Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables. Forty-two percent of respondents reported DV, including physical abuse (29%), psychological abuse (69%) and sexual abuse (1%). Among the women who reported violence of any kind, 67% also reported that they were HIV seropositive. The most common reasons reported for DV included financial problems (38%), husband's alcohol use (29%) and woman's HIV status (18%). Older women (P around the world. The findings highlight the need for additional training among health care providers in VCT centers in screening for DV, detection of signs of physical abuse and provisions and referrals for women suffering from domestic partner violence.
Malik, Neena M.; Ward, Kristin; Janczewski, Colleen
There is increasing awareness that domestic violence (DV) and child maltreatment often overlap and that there are significant negative consequences to women and children who are victims in the same families. The present study contains data from a participatory evaluation of a multisite national demonstration project on family violence (the…
Full Text Available Exposure to interparental violence is associated with negative outcomes, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and reduced cognitive abilities. However, little is known about the potential effects of witnessing domestic violence during childhood on gray matter volume (GMV or cortical thickness. High-resolution 3.0 T volumetric scans (Siemens Trio Scanner were obtained on 52 subjects (18-25 years including 22 (6 males/16 females with a history of visually witnessing episodes of domestic violence, and 30 (8 males/22 females unexposed control subjects, with neither a current nor past DSM-IV Axis I or II disorder. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, level of parental verbal aggression, parental education, financial stress, full scale IQ, and total GMV, or average thickness were modeled using voxel based morphometry and FreeSurfer. Witnessing domestic violence subjects had a 6.1% GMV reduction in the right lingual gyrus (BA18 (P = 0.029, False Discovery Rate corrected peak level. Thickness in this region was also reduced, as was thickness in V2 bilaterally and left occipital pole. Theses regions were maximally sensitive to exposure to witnessing domestic violence between 11-13 years of age. Regional reductions in GMV and thickness were observed in both susceptible and resilient witnessing domestic violence subjects. Results in subjects witnessing domestic violence were similar to previously reported results in subjects with childhood sexual abuse, as the primary region affected was visual cortex. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse may be specifically modified by this experience, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that visual cortex is a highly plastic structure.
Turk, Rukiye; Celik, Sevilay Senol; Çetin, Merve; Soydan, Gamze
The aim of this study was to determine the experiences and views of married women about the topic of domestic violence. This research was planned as a mixed methods study with an in-depth interview and descriptive approach. The study was conducted between November 2011 and December 2012 with 24 married women living in Ankara, Turkey. Two main data-collection tools were used in the study: the "Personal Information Form" and the "In-depth Interview Questionnaire." Data of this study were evaluated by content analysis. A majority of the participants (83.3%) stated that they had been exposed to domestic violence that had been committed primarily by their husbands. The actual reasons for the violence were reported to be such factors as "financial problems and lack of education and love and respect between the couples." It was determined that as the victims became more desperate, they turned to reading of the Koran, prayer, and smoking. Domestic violence adversely affects the physical and mental health of individuals, families, and the entire community. Therefore, it will take a community effort to address the causes of domestic violence and to create viable solutions that will improve the health of everyone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
van Wijk, N.Ph.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.
Previous international studies have found collectivism and low gender empowerment to contribute to higher domestic violence perpetration by males, compared to females. Little is known about gender differences in domestic violence perpetration prevalence in collectivist countries with high gender
The battered women’s movement in the United States contributed to a sweeping change in the recognition of men’s violence against female intimate partners. Naming the problem and arguing in favor if its identification as a serious problem meriting a collective response were key aspects of this effort. Criminal and civil laws have been written and revised in an effort to answer calls to take such violence seriously. Scholars have devoted significant attention to the consequences of this reframi...
Römkens, R.; Lünnemann, K.
The call for preventive interventions to curb domestic violence is becoming stronger. The barring order has been launched as an innovative approach to preventing domestic violence. It allows the police to temporarily bar the perpetrator of domestic violence from entering his or her home, as a way to
Stanley, Nicky; Miller, Pam; Richardson Foster, Helen; Thomson, Gill
Police notifications of incidents of domestic violence to child protection services constitute an acknowledgement of the harm that domestic violence inflicts on children. However, these notifications represent a substantial demand on child welfare services and the outcomes for children and victims of domestic violence have been questioned. This…
Davis, Dytisha Monicke
Domestic violence is a national concern that affects women of all ages and ethnicities, as well as women with disabilities. Although there is literature focusing on attitudes about domestic violence toward women, the literature review provided no studies that investigated attitudes about domestic violence toward women in relation to domestic…
Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S.; Galadanci, Hadiza S.; Hayatu, Zainab; Aliyu, Muktar H.
Many women experience domestic violence during pregnancy. The magnitude and risk factors for domestic violence during pregnancy are not well documented in many countries, including Nigeria. Using interviewer- administered questionnaires the authors investigated predictors of domestic violence during current pregnancy among women presenting for…
Bapat, Mona; Tracey, Terence
Reactions of students in helping professions to domestic violence were examined with respect to whether or not the students had any training in domestic violence. One hundred, four students read one of two vignettes describing a domestic violence case and responded to statements related to treatment options. The vignettes differed only in…
...--Establishing Policies for Addressing Domestic Violence in the Federal Workforce #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Policies for Addressing Domestic Violence in the Federal Workforce Memorandum for the Heads of Executive... Against Women Act in 1994 (Public Law 103-322), domestic violence remains a significant problem facing...
Lea, Susan J.; Lynn, Nick
This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging…
Rosemaré Ann Visser
Full Text Available The article compares the victimization that takes place in a dysfunctional abusive household and that which takes place in the household of God (Eph 2:9 where the bride of Christ (2 Cor 11:2 is abused at the hands of individuals that constitute what we know as the church system. This is often directed at the poor, individuals belonging to minority groups or those who for various reasons are unable to stand up against a system such as the Christian Church. The “analogical-familial theology” of Stephen Post is used as starting point. This “theology” involves four sequential, but nonlinear, stages: covenant, grace, empowering, and intimacy. The article broadens the spectrum of the theory beyond the family unit and to apply it to the broader family that belongs to God, the church. The aim of the article is to use these components from the analogical familial theology as framework and also as the criteria by which the experiences of those who see themselves as victims of abuse in the church are investigated.
Yanikkerem, Emre; Karadaş, Gülşah; Adigüzel, Betül; Sevil, Umran
The purpose of this study was to estimate prevalence and risk groups of domestic violence during pregnancy in Manisa, Turkey, and to determine antenatal complications or health problems and health service use. This study was a population-based, cross-sectional, and household survey. The study universe included two primary health units situated in two different socioeconomic areas (rural and urban) in the city of Manisa, Turkey, from January to June 2004; the homes of 246 women were visited and the study sample included 217 women. A questionnaire was used that comprised sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics, and the Domestic Violence Against Women Determination Scale, developed by Yanikkerem in 2002 to measure the frequencies of type and severity of violence. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 10.0 for Windows) was used to analyze the data. Student t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to evaluate data. Results indicated that 9.7% of women were beaten by their partner during the pregnancy (17.3% in the rural area and 2.7% in the urban area) and 14.3% of women were beaten before pregnancy. A total of 10.6% of women said they had been slapped, 9.1% reported an object was thrown at them by their partner, and 6.5% admitted to having been kicked during pregnancy. A total of 36.4% of women reported experiencing forced sexual activity. Abused pregnant women were less educated, had lower income, were unmarried, were multiparous, had more children, had a longer duration of marriage, lived rural areas, were more likely to have unplanned pregnancies, had miscarriage, had an interpregnancy interval of 2 years or less, smoked more cigarettes, did not visit a health institution for control during pregnancy and did not know the sex or knew the fetus was female when compared with nonabused women. Abused women who live with various problems during pregnancy and are victims of violence tend to feel isolated, insecure, and depressed. Our
Spruin, E.; Alleyne, E.; Baker, R.; Papadaki, I.; Franz, A.
Purpose: Support service provisions for domestic abuse victims has typically focused on the immediate risk and etiological factors associated with abuse. Consequently, there is limited research exploring more persistent and pervasive factors involved in this cycle of abuse, such as subjective experiences and beliefs held by victims of domestic abuse. The current study is a preliminary exploration of the individual experience of domestic abuse including the belief systems of participants. Incr...
Objective: Bride price payment is a gender issue with implications on gender relations in different socio-cultural contexts. It also impacts Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights. In a qualitative study on the perceptions of domestic violence in Wakiso district, payment of bride price emerged as one of the key factors ...
Domestic violence (DV) is common globally. In South Africa, emergency care providers (ECPs) lack a clear policy framework and the necessary training to identify DV and intervene when it is encountered. We investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of ECPs towards DV, and identify factors affecting early ...
Domestic violence is not only a reality in Northwestern Ghana, it is also a threat to development. As the people of Ghana and Northwestern Ghana, particularly, struggle to overcome poverty and economic deprivation, there should be no stone left unturned that stands in the way of development. As this paper will contend, ...
This study utilized the classical ABCX family crisis model in identifying how families perceive, interpret and react to various sources of stress confronting them and their perceived impact on their health. The study is timely because of the recent upsurge in domestic violence cases in Ghana, which are mainly attributable to ...
Introduction: Domestic violence (DV) against women has been identified as a serious public health problem. Primary care nurses usually play an important role in managing battered women. They must be equipped with the necessary knowledge, training and experience. Objective: The aim of this work was to study the ...
Najwa I. AbuTaleb
Jan 16, 2012 ... ... of domestic violence among primary care physicians and nurses: A comparative study ... or psychological harm by current or former partner or spouse.1–3 ..... mainly from medical school, 13.3% in training workshop, 20.7%.
Gregory, Katie; Nnawulezi, Nkiru; Sullivan, Cris M
Domestic violence shelters have historically gone beyond providing emergency residential space for survivors by assisting in obtaining future housing, employment, health care, child care, or legal services. Domestic violence shelters are expected to operate within an empowerment philosophy, with an understanding that survivors are self-determining, can identify their needs, and know what it takes to meet those needs. Recent research has indicated that, as many shelters have become more rigid in creating rules that survivors must follow to access and retain free temporary housing, the result has been survivors' feelings of disempowerment, the complete opposite of what was originally intended. This study builds on the small amount of research conducted regarding survivors' experiences of shelter rules by specifically examining how rules were perceived to affect empowerment. Seventy-three survivors from two domestic violence shelters were asked about their experiences around specific shelter rules relating to curfew, parenting, chores, time limits, food, alcohol, drugs, and medications. A transcendental phenomenological approach was used to analyze the qualitative data, seeking explanations of how survivors made meaning of the rules and how those rules influenced their empowerment. Among those survivors who found the rules problematic, three major themes emerged: (a) rules acted as barriers to carrying out their normal, day-to-day activities; (b) the shelter staff's flexibility with rules was based on contingencies; and (c) rules negatively affected their psychological well-being, and required them to engage in protective behaviors. Recommendations are made for the reexamination and restructuring of rules within domestic violence shelters.
Thackeray, Jonathan D.; Scribano, Philip V.; Rhoda, Dale
Objective: This study was designed to identify the frequency, methods, and practices of universal assessments for domestic violence (DV) within child advocacy centers (CACs) and determine which factors are associated with CACs that conduct universal DV assessments. Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional, web-based survey distributed to…
An Innovative Program For Domestic Violence Victims: A University – Community Collaboration. ... Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted on the data collected by graduate student interns in social work. The study found that program services were appropriate and valued by a community partner who doubled ...
This comparative qualitative study was conducted in four countries: Cyprus (central scientific coordinator), Italy, Romania, Slovakia. Research priorities are domestic violence and children's rights. I present the results of the Italian portion of the study and report some of the themes drawn from testimonies (n = 58) from focus group interviews…
Introduction: Domestic violence (DV) has a deteriorating influence on society by affecting victims, their children, families, and friends, as well as social and financial relationships. Primary care providers, including physicians and nurses, frequently are the first in the community to encounter the battered women. Objective: The ...
Domestic violence (DV) is quite prevalent and negatively impacts the health and mental wellbeing of those affected. Victims of DV are frequent users of health service, yet they are infrequently recognized. Physicians tend to treat the presenting complaints without addressing the root cause of the problem. Lack of knowledge ...
Three hundred and eight Igbo women were randomly selected to respond to a number of questions on experiences, patterns and attitudes to domestic violence. Data was collected using structured questionnaires that were complemented with focus group discussions. The results show that 78.8% of the women have ever ...
The study identified the socio-economic determinants of domestic violence suffered by rural women crop farmers in Orlu agricultural zone of Imo State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 80 rural women crop farmers for the study. Data were collected using structured interview schedule and ...
Blättner, Beate; Georgy, Sascha; Krüger, Kerstin
More than one of three women has been a victim of domestic violence at least once. Victims would like to have a well-informed contact person within the healthcare system who knows about support programs. In many countries that is the responsibility of the healthcare system and is called Forensic Nursing. Therefore, it is interesting to know how nurses in Germany perceive domestic violence and under what circumstances they could imagine taking on tasks in the fields of documentation and nursing. The data for this qualitative study was collected via four focus groups consisting of 38 nurses--3 men and 35 women--with work experience in a hospital. Nurses seem to have difficulties in recognising domestic violence. Whether the subject of domestic violence is addressed explicitly depends on the relationship built up between the patient and the nurses. Nurses do not necessarily take further steps. They could imagine providing help by listening actively, providing information about support programs and providing consulting services. Only occasionally nurses agree to document the case to be used as forensic evidence. Another open issue is appropriate remuneration. It is necessary to integrate that subject systematically into basic and advanced training on different levels of qualification.
a comprehensive health approach to manage domestic violence victims. The strong .... customer satisfaction and improved health outcomes for individuals and communities. (National .... (b) referrals to DV support services as the primary outcome measure is an intermediate ..... a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial.
Domestic violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are problems of great public health worldwide, especially sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing countries. This is due to their far reaching social, economic and public health consequences. The two problems have gender inequality and gender ...
Full Text Available Recent studies show that Alberta has the fifth highest rate of police reported intimate partner violence and the second highest rate of self reported spousal violence in Canada, and despite a 2.3 percent decline over the last decade, the province’s rate of self-reported domestic violence has stubbornly remained among the highest in Canada; rates of violence against women alone are 2.3 percentage points higher than the national average. In fact, every hour of every day, a woman in Alberta will undergo some form of interpersonal violence from an ex-partner or ex-spouse. Besides the devastating toll that domestic violence has on victims and their families, the ongoing cost to Albertans is significant. In the past five years alone it is estimated that over $600 million will have been spent on the provision of a few basic health and non health supports and that the majority of this cost ($521 million is coming out of the pockets of Albertans in the form of tax dollars directed at the provision of services. Fortunately, investment in quality prevention and intervention initiatives can be very cost effective, returning as much as $20 for every dollar invested. Recent research on preventative programming in the context of domestic violence shows promising results in reducing incidents of self-reported domestic violence. The economic analysis of this preventative programming suggests that the benefits of providing the various types of programming outweighed the costs by as much as 6:1. The potential cost savings for the Alberta context are significant; the implementation of these preventative programs has been estimated to be approximately $9.6 million while generating net cost-benefits of over $54 million. Domestic violence is a persistent blight, and continues to have a significant impact on individuals and families in Alberta, but potent tools exist to fight it. This brief paper offers a cogent summary of its costs, and the benefits that could be
M.A. Domestic violence is widespread in South Africa, with one in four women being the victims of it. Victims of domestic violence try to change their conditions in the hope that things will get better. Domestic violence takes many forms. Some of the victims experience only one form of violence while others experience different forms. Domestic violence has physical, emotional, sexual, and economic dimensions (Goosen and Shaik, 1998: 1). The Domestic Violence Act 116 of 1998 was passed in t...
Richards, Tara N; Jennings, Wesley G; Tomsich, Elizabeth A; Gover, Angela R
A paucity of existing research focuses on longitudinal examinations of criminal trajectories among reoffenses committed by domestic violence offenders. Specifically, few studies have longitudinally assessed whether domestic violence offenders specialize, recidivating in domestic violence assault, or generalize, committing a range of personal and property crimes. Acknowledging these research deficiencies, the current study uses longitudinal data from a cohort of 317 batterers who were processed in a domestic violence court to investigate the trajectories of domestic violence arrests and nondomestic violence arrests over a 10-year period. The degree of overlap between domestic and nondomestic violence arrest trajectory groups is examined through a cross-tabulation and chi-square analysis. Logistic and multinomial regression models are applied to identify risk factors that distinguish trajectory groups. A PROC TRAJ procedure identifies two trajectory groups for domestic violence arrests (low and high rate) and three trajectory groups for nondomestic violence arrests (very low, low, and high rate). Results indicate that specialization among domestic violence offenders is rare-prior alcohol and drug crimes predict membership in the high-rate domestic violence arrest trajectory group and prior domestic violence arrests predict membership in both the low-rate and high-rate nondomestic violence arrest trajectories. Implications for future research and policy are discussed in this article.
Fageeh, Wafa M K
This study aims to identify the factors associated with domestic violence (DV) among women in Jeddah. Cross-sectional survey. Outpatient departments of three tertiary hospitals in Jeddah. Convenience sample of women, aged 15-70 years, at the outpatient and inpatient clinics. Between 15 December 2011 and 30 May 2012, a psychologist and a professional health assistant explained the purpose of the research to participants, who were then asked to fill a 50-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was created based on questions from three questionnaires: the NorVold Domestic Abuse Questionnaire, the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System and the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale. The questionnaire was used to assess the association between DV and family status, male partner attitudes, age, educational attainment, employment, financial and socioeconomic status. A total of 2301 women participated in the survey (81% response rate). The mean±SD age of the participants was 34.4±10.9 years. The lifetime prevalence of DV was 34%. Abused women had more children than non-abused women (p=0.001), and their spouses were significantly older than those of non-abused women (p<0.0001). Financially dependent women and those with a high educational status were significantly more likely to report abuse (p=0.003 and p<0.001, respectively). Abused women were also likely to report that their spouse was a smoker (p<0.0001) and had completed at least primary or secondary education (p<0.0001). A significantly lower proportion of abused women reported that their male partners were alcohol users (p=0.001). The results of logistic regression showed that women who were financially dependent had about 1.5-fold odds of being physically abused by a spouse. Many factors are associated with DV against women, thereby highlighting the need to design effective DV prevention programmes.
Dodd, Lynda Warren
There is mounting recognition that exposure to domestic abuse causes far-reaching damage to children's lives, development and psychological well-being. Studies estimate 10% to 20% of children are at risk of exposure to domestic abuse--thus domestic abuse must be seen as a crucial issue for educational psychologists (EPs). This study investigates…
Alves, Maria João Vidal; Manita, Celina; Caldas, Inês Morais; Fernández-Martinez, Elena; Gomes da Silva, Angélica; Magalhães, Teresa
Despite the occurrence of encouraging political and social changes in the past few years, many beliefs about women's role in intimate relationships persist, influencing their response to domestic violence (DV). This study aims to analyze the influence of recent policies against DV in Portugal, concerning particularly intimate partner violence against women and their perceptions about the victimization process. Two samples of women (n = 126 each) reporting an aggressive act allegedly perpetrated by the current or former male partner were interviewed with a hiatus of 5 years (before and after some most relevant policy updates). Results suggest a positive influence of the recent policies against DV. Many significant and encouraging changes were found in the more recent women sample (S2) relatively to the first sample (S1) regarding their information, awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward DV. They seem to show less tolerance and endurance to DV, placing responsibility on the offender, as well as seem more empowered to report. In S2, there was a decrease in the acceptance of violent behaviors as normal and of reasons to explain violence; the fears, shame, and helplessness about DV; the elapsed time between the beginning of the abuse and its report; and the prevalence of more severe types of physical abuse. In S2, there was an increase on the acknowledgment of DV as a crime, the number of reports in cases without cohabitation, the report of psychological abuses, and the feeling of safety and assurance while reporting. © The Author(s) 2016.
Hammoury, N; Khawaja, M; Mahfoud, Z; Afifi, R A; Madi, H
To determine the factors associated with domestic violence against pregnant Palestinian refugee women residing in Lebanon and currently using the United Nation Relief and Work Agency's (UNRWA) primary healthcare services. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a polyclinic of primary healthcare of the UNRWA in South Lebanon during the years 2005-2006. The sample was 351 pregnant women who were 15-42 years of age and not accompanied by their husbands or relatives. All women were invited by the midwife to participate in the study during their visit to the clinic for their first checkup or during a follow-up visit. The Abuse Assessment Screen instrument was used to screen for past and recent history of physical and emotional abuse among the participants. Domestic violence was significantly associated with education, gestational age, fear of husband or someone else in the house, and unintended pregnancy. The odds of abuse for women with an elementary or lower education were 6.86 (95% CI 1.2-38.1) and for women with an intermediate or secondary education 6.84 (95% CI 1.4-33.3) compared with women with a university education. The odds of abuse during pregnancy for women whose husbands did not desire their pregnancy were 3.80 (95% CI 1.5-9.7) compared with other women. Domestic violence against women in Lebanon was associated with educational level, gestational age, fear of husband or someone else in the house, and unintended pregnancy.
Zosky, Diane L.
Unlike in the adult criminal justice system, where domestic violence policies hold perpetrators accountable for their violence, the juvenile justice system rarely addresses teenage dating violence. Although the adult criminal justice system has pursued policies toward intimate partner violence grounded on a "zero tolerance" ideology, the juvenile…
Safadi, Reema; Swigart, Valerie; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Banimustafa, Radwan; Constantino, Rose E
We interviewed 12 Jordanian women who had experienced domestic violence (DV) and were receiving assistance at the Jordanian Women's Union (JWU). Our aim was to explore the history and factors supporting attainment of freedom from DV. Narratives revealed themes of DV toward girls; forced marriage; physical, psychological, or sexual abuse before and during marriage; and escalation and enduring DV. Escaping from DV required family and JWU support. In the context of a strongly patriarchal, religious society, we observed a process of resolution by shifting cultural values and themes of empowerment, with an undercurrent of suffering blamed on inequalities in the legal process.
We conducted in-depth telephone interviews with a convenience sample of 20 South Asian women experiencing domestic violence in the United States. Utilizing the emotion-focused and problem-focused coping framework, the researchers analyzed the narratives of abused South Asian women. Emotion-focused coping strategies include (a) spirituality and/or religion and (b) the role of children. Problem-focused coping strategies include (c) informal and formal support and (d) strategies of resisting, pacifying, safety planning. Implications for practice and future research in the United States and internationally are discussed.
Marshall, Gul Aldikacti; Furr, L Allen
This article examines the attitudes of Turkish women toward justification of intimate partner violence. The data were gathered from the 2003 Turkey Demographic and Health Survey. A random sample of 8,075, aged 15-49, participated in the survey. The findings underline the importance of patriarchal beliefs and the associated practice of brides-money in addition to rural residence, large household, illiteracy, lack of wealth, and younger age at marriage as the sources of acceptance of violence among women. The study provides a theoretical explanation for how patriarchal ideology is translated into an accepting attitude toward violence and also discusses the factors that serve as mechanisms that help women resist patriarchal hegemony and not justify domestic violence against women. The final section of the article addresses policy implications.
Gillespie, Lane Kirkland; Richards, Tara N; Givens, Eugena M; Smith, M Dwayne
The news media play a substantial role in shaping society's perceptions of social issues, including domestic violence. However, minimal research has been conducted to examine whether news media frame stories of femicide within the context of domestic violence. Using frame analysis, the present research compares newspaper articles representing 113 cases of femicide that define the murder as domestic violence to a random sample of 113 cases without coverage defining the femicide as domestic violence. Findings indicate that both groups are represented by multiple frames, including a previously unidentified frame that places the femicide in the context of domestic violence as a social problem.
Patricia Andrea Sulsbach
Full Text Available In the scientific literature on violence against women the studies of how women victims of domestic violence face this situation are included. Thus, we sought to know what is being disseminated in national and international journals on the resilience process of these women daily lives. The research criteria were defined as: articles published in the last five years, available online and with a qualitative approach. We found eight articles by PubMed service portal, and by Virtual Health Library databases and portals from January to November 2016. It was noticed that women suffer in silence for abuses committed in their homes, while others face violence alone, with help from friends, family or social support groups. Even so, there is discredit around these services by some women. There is need for amplifying the study in partnership to give the support for women who have experienced domestic violence, and also for expanding the discussions involving the responsibility of each one in for its territory.
The aim of the study is to investigate sexual abuse, violence and HIV risk among a sample of South African adolescents. The sample included 400 male and 400 female 16 or 17 year-olds; 400 were from rural and 400 from urban areas, and almost all from African descent. Participants were chosen by multi-stage cluster and ...
Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.
This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV against women is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite a growing body of research into risk factors for IPV, methodological differences limit the extent to which comparisons can be made between studies. We used data from ten countries included in the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence to identify factors that are consistently associated with abuse across sites, in order to inform the design of IPV prevention programs. Methods Standardised population-based household surveys were done between 2000 and 2003. One woman aged 15-49 years was randomly selected from each sampled household. Those who had ever had a male partner were asked about their experiences of physically and sexually violent acts. We performed multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of physical and/or sexual partner violence within the past 12 months. Results Despite wide variations in the prevalence of IPV, many factors affected IPV risk similarly across sites. Secondary education, high SES, and formal marriage offered protection, while alcohol abuse, cohabitation, young age, attitudes supportive of wife beating, having outside sexual partners, experiencing childhood abuse, growing up with domestic violence, and experiencing or perpetrating other forms of violence in adulthood, increased the risk of IPV. The strength of the association was greatest when both the woman and her partner had the risk factor. Conclusions IPV prevention programs should increase focus on transforming gender norms and attitudes, addressing childhood abuse, and reducing harmful drinking. Development initiatives to improve access to education for girls and boys may also have an important role in violence prevention.
Basow, Susan A; Thompson, Janelle
In this online vignette study, a national sample of domestic violence shelter service providers (N = 282) completed a 10-item questionnaire about a woman experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Scenarios varied in terms of couple sexual orientation (heterosexual or lesbian) and type of abuse (physical or nonphysical). Results indicate that although participants did not overtly discriminate against a woman in a lesbian relationship, they were less likely to perceive her as a victim, and their acceptance of a lesbian as a client was more dependent on their comfort with her than was the case for a woman in a heterosexual relationship. Type of abuse, as expected, had a main effect on many questions, with physical abuse taken more seriously than nonphysical abuse. Scores on the Attitudes Toward Lesbians subscale (Herek) were unrelated to responses. Implications for service providers are discussed.
Implementation of routine enquiry (RE) about domestic abuse in the multidisciplinary Evelina London Guys and St. Thomas Trust (GSTT) Community Health Services (CHS). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Harvey, Jenna; Alexander, Kamila A; Saraczewski, Samantha; Campbell, Jacquelyn C
There is a need for studies to assess domestic violence (DV) shelter workers views about brief HIV prevention interventions for shelter residents to improve these workers' provision of HIV prevention interventions to shelter residents. This mixed methods study assessed DV shelter workers' views about the following: (a) the need for and appropriateness of HIV prevention services within DV shelters, (b) the utility (i.e., acceptability, systems support, understanding, and feasibility) of an HIV Risk Assessment and Safety Plan (HIV RASP) for women in DV shelters, and (c) suggested changes to or concerns about using the HIV RASP. Workers from DV shelters located in the 10 states in the United States with the highest rates of HIV reviewed the HIV RASP and answered survey questions about it including the Usage Rating Profile-Intervention (URP-I) Questionnaire and two open-ended questions. Although workers felt it was appropriate to provide HIV prevention interventions within DV shelters, only 23% reported that HIV prevention interventions had ever been implemented at their shelter and only 42% had provided residents with educational brochures about HIV prevention. Workers generally agreed that the HIV RASP was acceptable, understandable, and feasible. They somewhat disagreed about their ability to implement the tool independently. Findings suggest that little progress has been made in engaging DV shelter workers in HIV prevention efforts for residents during the past decade and reveal ways to improve the HIV RASP and overcome barriers to implementing it. The study findings may be used to help reduce gaps between the science and practice of HIV prevention for abused women.
Gracia, Enrique; Rodriguez, Christina M; Martín-Fernández, Manuel; Lila, Marisol
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse (CA) are two forms of family violence with shared qualities and risk factors, and are forms of violence that tend to overlap. Acceptability of violence in partner relationships is a known risk factor in IPV just as acceptability of parent-child aggression is a risk factor in CA. We hypothesized that these acceptability attitudes may be linked and represent the expression of a general, underlying nonspecific acceptance of violence in close family relationships. The sample involved 164 male IPV offenders participating in a batterer intervention program. Implicit measures, which assess constructs covertly to minimize response distortions, were administered to assess acceptability of partner violence against women and acceptability of parent-child aggression. To determine whether acceptability attitudes regarding both forms of violence were related to a higher order construct tapping general acceptance of family violence, Bayesian confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. Findings supported a hierarchical (bifactor) model with a general factor expressing a nonspecific acceptance of family violence, and two specific factors reflecting acceptability of violence in intimate partner and parent-child relationships, respectively. This hierarchical model supporting a general acceptance of violence in close family relationships can inform future research aiming to better understand the connections between IPV and CA.
Motta, Silvia; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Bewley, Susan
To measure the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) experienced by women seeking termination of pregnancy (TOP) in a UK abortion clinic. A cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire survey of all women aged over 16 years accessing a TOP clinic in inner London between 20 May 2012 and 2 July 2012. The main outcome measures were: distribution of questionnaires, response rate, lifetime prevalence of abuse, past-year prevalence of physical and sexual abuse, prevalence of physical abuse during current pregnancy, relationship of lifetime abuse to number of terminations, and receptivity to DV services. Questionnaires were distributed to 46% (383/828) of women accessing the clinic. Response rate was 50% (190/383). Lifetime prevalence of abuse was 16%. Past-year prevalence of physical abuse was 11% and sexual abuse was 4%. Prevalence of physical abuse during the current pregnancy was 4%. Prevalence of lifetime abuse was lower in women having a first termination (12%) versus one (20%) or two or more previous terminations (24%), although this was not statistically significant (p=0.192). The majority (75%) of participants expressing an opinion on the possibility of having a support service for DV in the abortion clinic setting were positive, unrelated to their personal experience, but some concerns were raised about implementation. In order to provide effective support for women, services require a needs assessment of their local population. Asking women presenting for abortion about DV, even anonymously, is challenging but feasible. Future work should be directed to women's unmet safety needs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Gomez, Anu Manchikanti
Child abuse is an important determinant of future violence perpetration and victimization. Past research examining linkages between child abuse and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) has predominantly focused on married individuals and not considered adolescent dating violence. In the present study, data from three waves of the National…
Romero, Valerie; Allen, Daniel N.
Although child neglect and substance abuse co-occur in greater than 60% of child protective service cases, intervention outcome studies are deplorably lacking. Therefore, a home-based Family Behavior Therapy is described in the treatment of a woman evidencing child neglect, substance dependence, domestic violence and other co-occurring problems. Treatment included contingency management, self control, stimulus control, communication and child management skills training exercises, and financial management components. Results indicated improvements in child abuse potential, home hazards, domestic violence, and drug use, which were substantiated by objective urinalysis testing, and tours of her home. Validity checks indicated the participant was being truthful in her responses to standardized questionnaires, and assessors were “blind” to study intent. Limitations (i.e., lack of experimental control and follow-up data collection) of this case example are discussed in light of these results. PMID:23226920
Camila Daiane Silva
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the social representations of the Nursing Technicians and Community Health Agents about domestic violence against women. METHOD A qualitative study carried out in the city of Rio Grande, RS, in which evocations and interviews were collected between July and November 2013. For the treatment of data were used the EVOC 2005 software and the context analysis. RESULT It is a structured representation, in which the central nucleus contains conceptual, imaging and attitudinal elements, namely: abuse, aggression, physical aggression, cowardice and lack of respect. Such terms were present in the context of the interviews. The professionals acknowledged that violence is not limited to physical aspects and were judgemental about the acts of the aggressor. CONCLUSION This knowledge may enable the problematization of the studied phenomenon with the team, and facilitate the search for prevention and intervention strategies for victims, offenders and managers of health services.
Kaplenko, Hannah; Loveland, Jennifer E; Raghavan, Chitra
Coercive control, a key element of intimate partner violence (IPV), is defined as an abuse dynamic that intends to strip the target of autonomy and liberty. While coercive control is gaining popularity in the research world, little is known about its correlates and causes. This study sought to examine how shame and men's need for dominance, measured by two trait indexes of dominance, restrictiveness and the need for authority, influence coercive control. The present study used a diverse sample of men (n = 134) who were mandated to attend a domestic violence offenders program. Findings suggest that shame plays a role in the commission of coercively controlling behavior both directly and partially through its influence on authority but not through restrictiveness. Implications for understanding IPV in a domestic violence offenders program are discussed.
Fernández-González, Liria; Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Mauri, Alice
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of domestic violence (DV) on women and their children. The records of women who were admitted to one of two types of shelter (an emergency shelter [n = 834] and a medium-long stay shelter [n = 84]) for victims of DV in Bizkaia (Spain) from 2006-2015 were analyzed. The results showed that up to 80% of the women had mental health problems. In about 20% of cases, a problematic mother-child relationship was identified. Inadequate parenting was present in around 35% of cases. Around 80-90% of the children had witnessed the abuse suffered by their mother, and more than half had been direct victims of some type of abuse. The findings point to actions that shelters can take to address the needs of DV victims. They also highlight the need for separate interventions targeting the needs of children, as well as mothers.
Loeffler, Christopher H; Prelog, Andrew J; Unnithan, N Prabha; Pogrebin, Mark R
Offender rehabilitation, pitting the rational ability of criminal justice against the seeming irrationality of criminal behavior, remains controversial. Psychology highlights the importance of emotions in mediating individual behavior. Borrowing from restorative justice as a more emotionally intelligent form of justice, this article examines the role of shame and guilt in a domestic violence offender treatment program. The emotions are differentiated and then activated, similar to the use of reintegrative shaming in restorative justice, to promote greater offender accountability and empathy. Using a two-group comparison of male domestic violence offenders, measurements were taken on three sets of scales in assessing the outcome of the shame transformation process. Statistically significant effects were found for self-esteem and empathetic concern. Findings and future research are discussed.
Shortland, Neil D; Palasinski, Marek
Although domestic abuse of women by men has received significant media, police, and research attention, domestic violence directed toward men has been marginalized across the board and is still rarely treated seriously. The purpose of this research, then, is to examine and compare different anti-domestic violence messages in which the abuser's gender is not always clear. In Study 1, 200 U.K. participants (100 females and 100 males, aged 18-67, M = 28.98, SD = 9.613) evaluated posters that varied across three levels; in that the subject (male or female) was depicted as being silenced, bruised, or experiencing live abuse. The results showed that the posters featuring female victims were all rated as more effective than posters showing male victims. In Study 2, 140 different U.K. participants (95 females; 45 males) aged 18 to 59 (M = 27.27, SD = 10.662) evaluated the cartoon facial images of Disney characters who had been altered to look like victims of violence and real-life corresponding photos of human models. The results showed that the realistic posters were found to be more believable, emotional, and effective than the cartoons. The implications of such perceptions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
More than three million children witness domestic violence each year. School counselors need to understand the dynamics of domestic violence, learn the most effective assessments of violence in the lives of their students, and be familiar with the interventions that can be implemented. External stresses on the family do not appear to influence the…
Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Gassman-Pines, Jenny; Hill, Marissa B.
Policymakers are increasingly focusing on children exposed to domestic violence. The 1999 Minnesota legislature amended the definition of child neglect to include a child's exposure to family violence. What was initially seen as a simple change to bring more attention to children exposed to domestic violence resulted in great turmoil across…
Prateek S Shrivastava
Results: The proportion of domestic violence was 36.9%. The most common form of violence was verbal in 87 (86.1% followed by physical in 64 (63.4%. Conclusion: A significant association was found between domestic violence and age, education, spousal alcoholism, and duration of marriage.
Arslantas, Hulya; Adana, Filiz; Ergin, Filiz; Gey, Neriman; Bicer, Nejla; Kiransal, Nilufer
Violence is an increasing and important community health problem that can be seen in any area of human life. Limited studies were found about domestic violence among pregnant women and its relation with social status of women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of domestic violence during pregnancy, factors affecting…
Adıbelli, Derya; Ünal, Ayşe Sevim; Şen, Tülay
Domestic violence is commonly observed worldwide; however, exposure to violence is not often mentioned directly. Prevention of domestic violence may be one of the most important social problems and requires much time and effort to resolve. This study was conducted to determine the attitudes toward domestic violence of Turkish males who are young adult and undertake military service, and the factors that affect these attitudes. A cross-sectional study design was used. This study was conducted with 221 young adult men who applied to Sarıkamış Military Hospital between December 2012 and February 2013. A questionnaire and the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale were used for the collection of data. One-way ANOVA, T test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used in the process of analyzing the data. In the study, it was found that 10% of the young adult men were exposed to violence within their own family and the average of their total scores from the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale was 49.41 ± 7.27. It was confirmed that undereducated men have more negative attitudes toward domestic violence than other groups. The present study determined that men who have negative attitudes toward domestic violence and who have a low education level affected attitudes toward domestic violence negatively. It is important that violence is prevented before it occurs. In this respect, health professionals, politicians, teachers, academics, and all community leaders have an important role in preventing initiatives on violence.
Knežević Snežana B.
Full Text Available Introduction. Identification of victims of domestic violence among the women using the healthcare is not sufficient. Objective. The aim of this study is to identify the barriers that prevent health care professionals in identifying domestic violence more often. Method. A questionnaire was distributed to health workers in the Health center of Kraljevo, by e-mail. Results. The study comprised 136 health care workers, 73.3% female and 26.7% male. 70.6% were doctors and 29.4% technicians. The mean age of respondents was 38.93 ± 7.7, (range 31-50, with the average 11.36 ± 7.74 years of service. The social barriers were significantly more present among female health workers (p=0.037. The most frequent answer is the lack of guidelines. This answer is significantly in correlation with professional qualification (p=0.002. The prominent institutional barriers are overwork (53.7%, lack of information about the procedures (significantly present among doctors, p=0.003, and the fear for their own safety (46.3%. Barriers associated to the health care workers themselves have the least number of responses, with limited time as the most important, followed by lack of training (44.9% and lack of knowledge, that is significantly related to gender (p=0.002 and to qualifications (p=0.009. Women expect more authority in their work, p=0.035. Among the 4 groups of barriers, the majority of answers is related to the victims of violence themselves (43.9%, statistically more significant among doctors, p=0.004, predominantly responding that victims hide the violent behavior of their partners (65.4%. Conclusion. Provide continuous education about domestic violence and evaluation of knowledge, encourage the victims to trust the health system, raise awareness about the judgment of violence, and skillfully inform the women of resources in the community.
Seinfeld, S; Arroyo-Palacios, J; Iruretagoyena, G; Hortensius, R; Zapata, L E; Borland, D; de Gelder, B; Slater, M; Sanchez-Vives, M V
The role of empathy and perspective-taking in preventing aggressive behaviors has been highlighted in several theoretical models. In this study, we used immersive virtual reality to induce a full body ownership illusion that allows offenders to be in the body of a victim of domestic abuse. A group of male domestic violence offenders and a control group without a history of violence experienced a virtual scene of abuse in first-person perspective. During the virtual encounter, the participants' real bodies were replaced with a life-sized virtual female body that moved synchronously with their own real movements. Participants' emotion recognition skills were assessed before and after the virtual experience. Our results revealed that offenders have a significantly lower ability to recognize fear in female faces compared to controls, with a bias towards classifying fearful faces as happy. After being embodied in a female victim, offenders improved their ability to recognize fearful female faces and reduced their bias towards recognizing fearful faces as happy. For the first time, we demonstrate that changing the perspective of an aggressive population through immersive virtual reality can modify socio-perceptual processes such as emotion recognition, thought to underlie this specific form of aggressive behaviors.
Thiago Pierobom de Avila
Full Text Available This article aims to offer a critical overview of the Brazilian legal framework for confronting domestic violence against women. Intimate partner homicides are epidemic in Brazil: there are four deaths of women per day. In 2006, the Maria da Penha Law (MPL introduced integrated polices and transformed criminal procedures to deal with the complexities of gender violence. Reforms included the establishment of The House of Brazilian Women, women-only police stations, specialised courts, intervention orders, interdisciplinary experts, and perpetrator programs. In 2015, a new law created the crime of femicide, designed to prevent ‘honor killings’ defenses in cases of intimate partner homicide and to avoid impunity. Despite law reform, structuring and articulating the network of services remains a challenge. The MPL led to great social change in Brazil regarding awareness of the violence against women, facilitating a broader discussion about gender equality.
Híjar-Medina, Martha; Flores-Regata, Lilí; Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Blanco, Julia
To describe and analyze the causes of emergency care services for intentional injuries, especially those caused by domestic violence, at four public hospitals in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 1998, which included variables related with the victim, the aggressor, and the medical care provided to the victim. A questionnaire was applied to individuals who had been injured intentionally. Statistical analysis of data consisted of simple frequencies, the chi 2 test, and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A logistic regression model was also used to adjust for variables associated with the injury requiring emergency medical care. A total of 598 cases of intentional injuries were analyzed, 16% of which were due to domestic violence. Females were the most frequent victims (76%), followed by young people between 15 and 29 years old (46%). Variables associated with medical care due to injuries by domestic violence were: age 30 or older (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.13-4.90), female gender (OR 8.60 95% CI 4.25-17.40), history of injuries (OR 4.93 95% CI 2.03-11.95), home as place of occurrence (OR 36.25 95% CI 16.59-79.18), and low education level (OR 2.33 95% CI 1.03-5.26). Study findings are consistent with those from other studies and call for enforcement of the Mexican Official Norm for Medical Care of Domestic Violence (Norma Oficial Mexicana para la Atención Médica de la Violencia Familiar) established in March 2000.
Pastoral work with survivors of domestic violence may reveal theological struggles. Understandings of scripture that reinforce a sense of powerlessness and alienation from God may contribute to an impaired relationship and limit resources for healing. One framework for re-imaging a relationship with God is process theology. This framework was applied to a case study for one survivor. The application resulted in a line of inquiry that may assist survivors in their healing process.
Olaya Guzmán, Beatriz
Descripció del recurs: 17-06-2010 Exposure to domestic violence is a current, complex concern with negative aftermath on the child's mental health. Aim: to answer the following questions about the effects that this exposure has on children's mental health: a) what should be assessed; b) what kind of psychopathology do outpatient exposed children have; c) which characteristics of the situation are more influential; and d) what is the role of parenting styles. Method: A retrospective cohort ...
Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Elkins, Sara R.; O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Temple, Jeff R.; Ramsey, Susan; Shorey, Ryan C.
Objective There is a paucity of research on the temporal association between substance use and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization, especially among women arrested for domestic violence. The current study examined whether the probability of IPV perpetration and victimization increases following alcohol or drug use relative to days of no use among women arrested for domestic violence. Method Women arrested for domestic violence and court referred to batterer intervention programs who met criteria for hazardous drinking participated in the current study (N=105). Women who reported drinking four or more drinks on one occasion at least once per month for the past six months were considered hazardous drinkers. Violence and substance use were assessed with the Timeline Followback Interviews for substance use and IPV. Results Women were more likely to perpetrate physical violence on a drinking day (OR=10.58; 95% CI=5.38–20.79) and on a heavy drinking day (OR=12.81; 95% CI=8.10–33.57), relative to a non-drinking day. Women were more likely to be victimized by physical violence on a drinking day (OR=5.22; 95% CI=2.79–9.77) and on a heavy drinking day (OR=6.16; 95% CI=3.25–11.68), relative to a non-drinking day. They were more likely to be victims of sexual coercion (OR=6.06; 95% CI=1.19–30.80) on a cocaine use day relative to a non-use day. Conclusions Alcohol use was temporally associated with physical violence perpetration and victimization, and cocaine use was temporally associated with sexual coercion victimization, suggesting that substance use should be targeted in batterer intervention programs for women. PMID:23647284
Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…
Susan Nicole Rayment-McHugh
Full Text Available Endemic sexual violence and abuse has been observed in a number of specific circumstances, most notably conflict zones, remote and marginalised communities, and religious and state institutions. In this article we examine several documented examples and argue that a similar set of causal processes are at work in all of these otherwise apparently disparate circumstances. Rather than construing the problem as ‘organised’ sexual abuse, we present the problem in terms of the breakdown (or disorganisation of usual individual, situational and ecological constraints.
Children enmeshed in violence don't experience a relaxed, predictable, or trusting home life. In fact, children exposed to home violence often experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) just as adults do after enduring violence. Domestic violence robs children of their childhood. And while early childhood staff can't erase the…
Humberto González Galbán
Full Text Available Domestic violence or spousal abuse, largely determined by the existing traditional gender roles, is the issue discussed in this article, which is focusing on the special case of young people of the state of Baja California. During the search of the conditional agents of this social process, there were valued psychological and socio–demographic variables, such as family violence during childhood, immigration status, educational level and age, all these variables were separated by the gender and age (rank 18–29 of the sudied sample.Considering the information provided of the database used; The Survey of Adolescent Reproductive Health of Baja California 2006, it is described and analyzed in this research, several indicators, all of them related with important issues which affect a part of the young population of Baja California, regardless the lack of information and almost non previous research about this theme.
Jaime, M. C. D.; Stocking, M.; Freire, K.; Perkinson, L.; Ciaravino, S.; Miller, E.
"Coaching Boys into Men" is an evidence-based dating violence prevention program for coaches to implement with male athletes. A common adaptation of this program is delivery by domestic violence and sexual violence prevention advocates instead of coaches. We explored how this implementer adaptation may influence athlete uptake of program…
Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Carroll, Richard A
Domestic violence is a significant public health issue. Prevalence rates for same-sex domestic violence vary because of methodological issues related to recruitment and definitions of sexual orientation. However, such prevalence rates are currently considered to be similar to slightly greater than other-sex prevalence rates. Research has identified differences between same-sex domestic violence and other-sex domestic violence, including internalized and externalized stressors associated with being a sexual minority that interact with domestic violence to create or exacerbate vulnerabilities, higher risk for complex trauma experiences, and difficulties accessing services. This review provides a critical review of the literature, focusing upon empirical findings regarding same-sex domestic violence.
Keeshin, Brooks R; Cronholm, Peter F; Strawn, Jeffrey R
Although the extant evidence is replete with data supporting linkages between exposure to violence or abuse and the subsequent development of medical illnesses, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are poorly defined and understood. Physiologic changes occurring in violence- or abuse-exposed individuals point to potentially common biological pathways connecting traumatic exposures with medical outcomes. Herein, the evidence describing the long-term physiologic changes in abuse- and violence-exposed populations and associated medical illnesses are reviewed. Current data support that (a) specific neurobiochemical changes are associated with exposure to violence and abuse; (b) several biological pathways have the potential to lead to the development of future illness; and (c) common physiologic mechanisms may moderate the severity, phenomenology, or clinical course of medical illnesses in individuals with histories of exposure to violence or abuse. Importantly, additional work is needed to advance our emerging understanding of the biological mechanisms connecting exposure to violence and abuse and negative health outcomes.
Kaye, Dan K; Mirembe, Florence M; Bantebya, Grace; Johansson, Annika; Ekstrom, Anna Mia
To investigate whether domestic violence during pregnancy is a risk factor for antepartum hospitalization or low birthweight (LBW) delivery. A prospective cohort study was conducted in Mulago hospital, Kampala, Uganda, among 612 women recruited in the second pregnancy trimester and followed up to delivery, from May 2004 through July 2005. The exposure (physical, sexual or psychological violence during pregnancy) was assessed using the Abuse Assessment Screen. The relative and attributable risks of LBW and antepartum hospitalization were estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The 169 women [27.7% 95% CI (24.3-31.5%)] who reported domestic violence during pregnancy did not differ significantly from the unexposed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, but differed significantly (P violence was 3.78 (95% CI 2.86-5.00). Such women had a 37% higher risk of obstetric complications (such as hypertension, premature rupture of membranes and anaemia) that necessitated antepartum hospitalization [RR 1.37 (95% CI 1.01-1.84)]. In this pregnancy cohort, domestic violence during pregnancy was a risk factor for LBW delivery and antepartum hospitalization.
Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John
The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…
This article contains an analysis of the representation of domestic violence in two British newspapers between 2009-2011. This is a somewhat overlooked subject compared to research into media reports on rape and sexual assault. This study examine s whether similar linguistic devices are used in domestic violence reports as in rape reports. The analysis uses a grounded theory approach to investigate common themes in reporting of domestic violence and the linguistic devices that are used in new...
Cengiz, Hüseyin; Kanawati, Ammar; Yıldız, Şükrü; Süzen, Sema; Tombul, Tuba
Objective Violence against women, particularly against pregnant women, is increasingly being recognized as a significant problem around the world. Limited studies were found about domestic violence among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy and the factors affecting it. Material and Methods This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, between January 2012 and April 2013. A total of 1349 pregnant women, irrespective of age and socioeconomic status, were interviewed using a questionnaire in the local language. Results The incidence of domestic violence in this study was 2.37%. The mean age of women who reported violence was 29.06±5.53 years. Age, marriage duration, gravidity, parity, educational level, partner’s educational level, and monthly income exerted no significant influences on women who experienced domestic violence during their pregnancies (p>0.05). Women who resided in the same houses with large extended families were at significantly higher risk of domestic violence during pregnancy in comparison with the pregnant women who lived within a core family (p=0.018). Conclusion Domestic violence during pregnancy is a potential public health problem. Education, improvements in economic autonomy, and society’s attitudes may reduce domestic violence. Health-care providers should increase their awareness of risk factors to protect women from domestic violence. PMID:24976770
El-Khoury, Jessica R; Shafer, Autumn
Domestic violence is a worldwide epidemic. This study examines the effects of narrative exemplars and a celebrity spokesperson in anti-domestic violence ads on Lebanese college students' attitudes and beliefs towards domestic violence and whether these effects are impacted by personal experience. The practical significance is derived from the high prevalence of domestic violence internationally, making it important to find ways to effectively use media to address this health-related issue that has huge consequences for the individual and society. This study adds to the theoretical understanding of narrative persuasion and media effects. Results indicated that narrative exemplars in anti-domestic violence ads promoting bystander awareness and intervention were more beneficial for people without relevant experience compared to people who know someone affected by domestic violence. Anti-domestic violence ads without narrative exemplars, but that also featured an emotional self-efficacy appeal targeting bystanders, were more effective for participants who know someone who had experienced domestic violence compared to participants without relevant experience. The presence of a celebrity spokesperson elicited more positive attitudes about the ad than a noncelebrity, but failed to directly affect relevant anti-domestic violence attitudes or beliefs. These results highlight the significance of formative audience research in health communication message design.
Artz, Lillian; Meer, Talia; Aschman, Gray
Since 2013, approximately 4400 women have been murdered by their partners in South Africa. This is five times higher than the per capita global average. Domestic violence is known to be cyclical, endemic and frequently involves multiple victims. It also becomes progressively more dangerous over time and may lead to fatalities. In 2012, the Health Professions Council of South Africa released a domestic violence protocol for emergency service providers. This protocol, or screening guidelines, includes assessing future risk to domestic violence, providing physical and psychosocial care, documentation of evidence of abuse and informing patients of their rights and the services available to them. The extent to which these guidelines have been circulated and implemented, particularly by general health care practitioners (HCPs), is unknown. We review international treaties to which South Africa is a signatory, as well as national legislation and policies that reinforce the right to care for victims of domestic violence, to delineate the implication of these laws and policies for HCPs. We reviewed literature and analysed national and international legislation and policies. The 'norms' contained in existing guidelines and currently practiced in an ad hoc manner are not only compatible with existing statutory duties of HCPs but are in fact a natural extension of them. Proactive interventions such as the use of guidelines for working with victims of domestic violence enable suspected cases of domestic violence to be systematically identified, appropriately managed, properly referred, and should be adopted by all South African HCPs.
Kalokhe, Ameeta S.; Potdar, Ratnaprabha R.; Stephenson, Rob; Dunkle, Kristin L.; Paranjape, Anuradha; del Rio, Carlos; Sahay, Seema
Domestic violence (DV) is reported by 40% of married women in India and associated with substantial morbidity. An operational research definition is therefore needed to enhance understanding of DV epidemiology in India and inform DV interventions and measures. To arrive at a culturally-tailored definition, we aimed to better understand how definitions provided by the World Health Organization and the 2005 India Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act match the perceptions of behaviors constituting DV among the Indian community. Between September 2012 and January 2013, 16 key informant interviews with experts in DV and family counseling and 2 gender-concordant focus groups of lay community members were conducted in Pune, India to understand community perceptions of the definition of DV, perpetrators of DV, and examples of DV encountered by married women in Pune, India. Several key themes emerged regarding behaviors and acts constituting DV including 1) the exertion of control over a woman’s reproductive decision-making, mobility, socializing with family and friends, finances, and access to food and nutrition, 2) the widespread acceptance of sexual abuse and the influences of affluence on sexual DV manifestations, 3) the shaping of physical abuse experiences by readily-available tools and the presence of witnesses, 4) psychological abuse for infertility, dowry, and girl-children, and 5) the perpetration of DV by the husband and other members of his family. Findings support the need for a culturally-tailored operational definition that expands on the WHO surveillance definition to inform the development of more effective DV intervention strategies and measures. PMID:25811374
Ameeta S Kalokhe
Full Text Available Domestic violence (DV is reported by 40% of married women in India and associated with substantial morbidity. An operational research definition is therefore needed to enhance understanding of DV epidemiology in India and inform DV interventions and measures. To arrive at a culturally-tailored definition, we aimed to better understand how definitions provided by the World Health Organization and the 2005 India Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act match the perceptions of behaviors constituting DV among the Indian community. Between September 2012 and January 2013, 16 key informant interviews with experts in DV and family counseling and 2 gender-concordant focus groups of lay community members were conducted in Pune, India to understand community perceptions of the definition of DV, perpetrators of DV, and examples of DV encountered by married women in Pune, India. Several key themes emerged regarding behaviors and acts constituting DV including 1 the exertion of control over a woman's reproductive decision-making, mobility, socializing with family and friends, finances, and access to food and nutrition, 2 the widespread acceptance of sexual abuse and the influences of affluence on sexual DV manifestations, 3 the shaping of physical abuse experiences by readily-available tools and the presence of witnesses, 4 psychological abuse for infertility, dowry, and girl-children, and 5 the perpetration of DV by the husband and other members of his family. Findings support the need for a culturally-tailored operational definition that expands on the WHO surveillance definition to inform the development of more effective DV intervention strategies and measures.
Kalokhe, Ameeta S; Potdar, Ratnaprabha R; Stephenson, Rob; Dunkle, Kristin L; Paranjape, Anuradha; Del Rio, Carlos; Sahay, Seema
Domestic violence (DV) is reported by 40% of married women in India and associated with substantial morbidity. An operational research definition is therefore needed to enhance understanding of DV epidemiology in India and inform DV interventions and measures. To arrive at a culturally-tailored definition, we aimed to better understand how definitions provided by the World Health Organization and the 2005 India Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act match the perceptions of behaviors constituting DV among the Indian community. Between September 2012 and January 2013, 16 key informant interviews with experts in DV and family counseling and 2 gender-concordant focus groups of lay community members were conducted in Pune, India to understand community perceptions of the definition of DV, perpetrators of DV, and examples of DV encountered by married women in Pune, India. Several key themes emerged regarding behaviors and acts constituting DV including 1) the exertion of control over a woman's reproductive decision-making, mobility, socializing with family and friends, finances, and access to food and nutrition, 2) the widespread acceptance of sexual abuse and the influences of affluence on sexual DV manifestations, 3) the shaping of physical abuse experiences by readily-available tools and the presence of witnesses, 4) psychological abuse for infertility, dowry, and girl-children, and 5) the perpetration of DV by the husband and other members of his family. Findings support the need for a culturally-tailored operational definition that expands on the WHO surveillance definition to inform the development of more effective DV intervention strategies and measures.
Horwood, Jeremy; Morden, Andrew; Bailey, Jayne E; Pathak, Neha; Feder, Gene
Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) is a major clinical challenge and public health issue. Sexual health services are an important potential site of DVA intervention. The Assessing for Domestic Violence in Sexual Health Environments (ADViSE) intervention aimed to improve identification and management of DVA in sexual healthcare settings and is a modified version of the Identification and Referral to Improve Safety (IRIS) general practice programme. Our qualitative evaluation aimed to explore the experiences of staff participating in an IRIS ADViSE pilot. Interviews were conducted with 17 sexual health clinic staff and DVA advocate workers. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, anonymised and analysed thematically. Staff prioritised enquiring about DVA and tailored their style of enquiry to the perceived characteristics of patients, current workload and individual clinical judgements. Responding to disclosures of abuse was divided between perceived low-risk cases (with quick onwards referral) and high-risk cases (requiring deployment of institution safeguarding procedures), which were viewed as time consuming and could create tensions with patients. Ongoing training and feedback, commissioner recognition, adequate service-level agreements and reimbursements are required to ensure sustainability and wider implementation of IRIS ADViSE. Challenges of delivering and sustaining IRIS ADViSE included the varied styles of enquiry, as well as tensions and additional time pressure arising from disclosure of abuse. These can be overcome by modifying initial training, providing regular updates and stronger recognition (and resources) at policy and commissioning levels. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Violence is the biggest obstacle for living as a respectable, dignity, equal and free individual and for self-actualization of a child. Children learn to show aggression when, how and against whom. Knowledge is transmitted from parents to children as well as children learn it from peer groups and the mass media. It has become a cycle of violence in this way. In studies on this issue, it was determined that interventions for families (counseling and therapy interventions, crisis and outreach interventions, parenting interventions, and multicomponent interventions provide developments in behavior problems in children, the level of information related security, anger and violence, self-esteem, conflict management, the psychological distress in families, empathy in parent-child interactions, parenting skills and psychological functioning. Nurses having the opportunity to meet with the group at risk for domestic violence in many environments have important responsibilities in this regard. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 123-135
Pereira-Gomes, Nadirlene; Lorenzini Erdmann, Alacoque; Rebouças-Gomes, Nadjane; da Silva-Monteiro, Deise; Moreira Dos Santos, Raiane; Menezes-Couto, Telmara
Objective To understand the meanings attributed by health professionals to the social support of women in domestic violence situations. Methods We interviewed 52 professionals from five local health units of the municipality of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were processed based on the Grounded Theory. Results It was shown that the demands are related to the threats of companions and economic dependence, which justifies intersectorial referrals and women's inclusion in the income and employment generation program. Discussion Given the high demand and the health promotion prerogative of Primary Health Care, a greater availability of social workers within the Health Strategy is needed. Social support to women requires political interest in combining the health care sector with other resources available to combat violence.
Doralúcia Gil da Silva
Full Text Available Abstract There is major exposure to domestic and community violence during adolescence, which has been negatively related to well-being. This work aimed to identify relationships between domestic and community violence and the levels of subjective well-being perceived by adolescents, considering sex and age. The participants were 426 adolescents from public schools in the south of Brazil; 62% were girls, with a mean age of 14.91 years old ( SD = 1.65, who answered one instrument about exposure to violence and another about well-being. Results indicated greater domestic violence exposure among girls and greater community exposure among boys. The age range from 16 to 18 years old was the most exposed to domestic violence. Boys reported greater well-being and less negative affect. Differences in violence exposure may be related to roles of gender in our society. Well-being promotion is highlighted as a resource for confronting violence among adolescents.
Bugeja, Lyndal; Dawson, Myrna; McIntyre, Sara-Jane; Walsh, Carolyn
Domestic/Family Violence Death Reviews (D/FVDRs) have been established in a number of high-income countries since 1990 as a mechanism to inform prevention-focused interventions to reduce domestic/family violence. D/FVDRs differ in their structure, governance, case identification processes and inclusion criteria, review measures, and outputs. Outside of the United States, the extent of heterogeneity across and within countries has not been explored. This study comprised an international comparison of D/FVDRs and their core elements to inform the establishment of D/FVDRs in other developed countries, and potentially low- and middle-income countries where violence is a leading cause of death. Such a review is also a necessary foundation for any future evaluation D/FVDRs. The review identified 71 jurisdictions where a D/FVDRs had been established in the past two decades, 25 of which met the inclusion criteria. All D/FVDRs examined stated a reduction in deaths as a goal of the review process; however, none reported an actual reduction. The focus of the D/FVDRs examined was on intimate partner homicides; however, more recently established D/FVDRs include other familial relationships. Almost one third of the D/FVDRs examined reported changes to the domestic/family system that occurred as a result of recommendations made from the review process. While similar in many ways, D/FVDRs differ along a number of important dimensions that make it difficult to identify best practices for jurisdictions considering the establishment of such an initiative. To share knowledge, existing networks should be expanded nationally and internationally to include jurisdictions that may be considering this initiative. © The Author(s) 2013.
Briceño-León, R; Camardiel, A; Avila, O B; DeArmas, E
The article gives an account of the results of a research intended to know violence reported by individual between couples and towards children and also to establish the importance of social (sex, income, education, civil status, work status, gun license, alcohol abuse, attraction to violent TV programs) and cultural (social norms about aggression between couples and children punishment, and capacity to express anger and handle conflicts in a non-violent ways) predictors in such behavior. The information is based on a survey applied to Caracas Metropolitan Area (CMA) inhabitants between 18 and 70 years of age (n = 1,297) selected by probabilistic, biphasic, and tetra-stage sampling, and at random following the Politz method. The instrument was a questionnaire with on scale answers Likert type. The information was treated with multi-varying statistical analysis, using the association technique between two variables by means of the Chi-square test, with conditional independence log-linear for three variables. The results suggest relatively low violence levels between couples and towards children. Regarding children, women tend to be more violent with them, most probably explained by factors relating income and unemployment. It was found that the bigger the accord with the norm to discipline children with physical violence, the bigger the frequency of violent behavior towards them. On the contrary, the bigger the conviction to be skilled in handling situations without violence, the lesser the frequency of violent behavior. Regarding violence between couples no association was found with the sex variable, but one can certainly talk about violent couples, which is related to the way of coupling, unemployment, and lack of formal education. From the norm point of view, a relationship between belief in the norms and violent behavior is observed, although these norms and attitudes are measured by the ability of the couple of control himself/herself and act in a non
Jyoti Srivastava, Indira Sharma, Anuradha Khanna
Full Text Available Background: Domestic violence against women is the most pervasive human rights violation in the world today. According to UNiTE to End Violence against Women (2009 by UN Women, In the United States, one-third of women murdered each year are killed by intimate partners. In South Africa, a woman is killed every 6 hours by an intimate partner. The Objective: To assess the magnitude and causes of domestic violence with mental illness & normal women. Material & Methods: The sample of study comprised of 50 women with mental illness and 50 normal women. Mental illness patients diagnosed according to with Axis one psychiatric Disorder DSM IV-TR, who were selected from the Psychiatry OPD and ward of the S.S. Hospital, BHU and normal women were be selected from the accompany with patients of Sir Sunder Lal Hospital. The patients were assessed on the structured questionnaire on Domestic Violence. Results – The domestic violence present in married women with mental illness was 72% and normal women were 36%. Perceived causes of domestic violence in married women with mental illness were more compared to those with normal women. The health care personnel should be given an opportunity to update their knowledge regarding domestic violence and there is need education for domestic violence and cessation, so that they can help the women to protect/prevent domestic violence.
Signal, Tania; Taylor, Nik; Burke, Karena J; Brownlow, Luke
Although the role of companion animals within the dynamic of domestic violence (DV) is increasingly recognized, the overlap of animal harm and insurance discrimination for victims/survivors of DV has not been considered. Prompted by a case study presented in a National Link Coalition LINK-Letter, this research note examines "Pet Insurance" policies available in Australia and whether nonaccidental injury caused by an intimate partner would be covered. We discuss the implications of exclusion criteria for victims/survivors of DV, shelters providing places for animals within a DV dynamic, and, more broadly, for cross- or mandatory-reporting (of animal harm) initiatives.
Kocacik, Faruk; Dogan, Orhan
Aim: To determine the self-reported prevalence of domestic violence and associated risk factors in the Sivas province of Turkey. Method: Five hundred and eighty-three households were chosen by the method of stratified random sampling. The average age among women was 28.65 ± 4.64. A total of 45.3% of women were in 30-34 age-group, 76.5% were housewives, and 91.2% were married. The data were gathered by performing face-to-face interviews in participants’ homes. Demographic data were obtained...