Intimate partner violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... biting, slapping, choking, or attacking with a weapon. Sexual abuse, forcing someone to have any type of sexual ...
f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How can I tell if my partner is abusive? • What is the ...
Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...
Domestic violence and child abuses especially as perpetrated by men and linked to alcohol abuse is an issue well covered in what I term conventional liberal scholarship. In this I deploy Maria Lugones' decolonising feminism theory in which the position of the black women is at the bottom of the human hierarchy and the ...
Pinn, Vivian W.; Chunko, Mary T.
Difficulty in identifying and eliciting information on domestic abuse is exacerbated by social, economic, and cultural factors. Study of the relationships between race/ethnicity/culture and domestic violence must be incorporated into both research and medical school curricula to sensitize students and enable them to develop skills for detecting,…
We focus on an emerging trend in the context of domestic violence-the use of technology to facilitate stalking and other forms of abuse. Surveys with 152 domestic violence advocates and 46 victims show that technology-including phones, tablets, computers, and social networking websites-is commonly used in intimate partner stalking. Technology was used to create a sense of the perpetrator's omnipresence, and to isolate, punish, and humiliate domestic violence victims. Perpetrators also threatened to share sexualized content online to humiliate victims. Technology-facilitated stalking needs to be treated as a serious offense, and effective practice, policy, and legal responses must be developed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Slep, Amy M Smith; Heyman, Richard E; Garrido, Edward
This article addresses the following questions: (a) How common is child abuse among domestically violent families? (b) Are there specific patterns of child abuse among domestically violent families? (c) What may explain occurrences of child abuse in domestically violent families? (d) How might domestic violence affect treatment for child abuse? We review research on child abuse in the context of domestic violence. We discuss implications of this research for service-delivery programs for domestically violent families.
Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Recupero, Patricia R; Stuart, Gregory L
Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV), perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence were examined. Forty-one percent (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 1.5% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend toward a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration. © The Author(s) 2014.
Guterman, Neil B.
Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent…
Full Text Available Research and specialised practice indicate that women who are abused by their intimate partners are at an increasing risk the longer the abuse continues. Many men show escalating violent behaviour toward their female partners and many women are killed by their partners (Roche, 1999:24. Several researchers (Artz, 1999:2; Damon, 2003:94; Flinck, Paavilainen & Asredt-Kurki, 2005:383; Gelles, 1999:168; Vincent & Jouriles, 2002:7 view domestic violence as a leading cause of female injury in almost every country. Dwyer, Smokowski, Bricout and Wodarski (1995:185 claim that injuries as a result of domestic violence are more common than from muggings, car accidents and death resulting from cancer combined
The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of clinical staff in responding to disclosure of domestic violence and abuse, and to evaluate the effectiveness of training and support provided by a dedicated Domestic Abuse Nurse Specialist across one acute National Health Service Trust in the UK. The impact of domestic violence and abuse is well documented and is far reaching. Health care professionals have a key role to play in the effective identification and management of abuse across a range of settings. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the constituents of effective support for practitioners within wider nonemergency hospital-based services. A qualitative approach semi-structured interviews (n = 11) with clinical staff based in one acute care Trust in the UK. Interviews were informed by an interview guide and analysed using the Framework approach. The organisation of the nurse specialist role facilitated a more cohesive approach to management at an organisational level with training and ongoing support identified as key facets of the role by practitioners. Time constraints were apparent in terms of staff training and this raises questions with regard to the status continuing professional development around domestic violence and abuse. Domestic violence and abuse continues to exert a significant and detrimental impact on the lives and health of those who encounter abuse. Health care services in the UK and globally are increasingly on the frontline in terms of identification and management of domestic violence and abuse. This is coupled with the growing recognition of the need for adequate support structures to be in place to facilitate practitioners in providing effective care for survivors of domestic violence and abuse. This study provides an approach to the expansion of existing models and one which has the potential for further exploration and application in similar settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Selek, Salih; Vural, Mehmet; Cakmak, Ilknur
Our aim was to evaluate domestic violence among nurses in eastern Turkey. Ninety six (96) female nurses with an intimate partner were enrolled. Modified form of Abuse Assessment Screen Questionnaire was used. Twenty two (22.7%) of the participants reported domestic violence. None of them took legal steps. Most frequent domestic violence type was economic abuse (46%). Nurses, whose mothers were exposed to domestic violence, had significantly higher abuse rates. The abused group had also significantly higher smoking and miscarriage rates. Nurses need to be well informed for taking legal steps in case of domestic violence. Family history, smoking status and abortion rates may be further research focus for risk factors of domestic violence. Legal interventions should be optimized in order to encourage the victims to take legal steps.
Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.
Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…
Callaghan, Jane; Alexander, Jo; Fellin, Lisa; Sixsmith, Judith
Children’s experiences and voices are underrepresented in academic literature and professional practice around domestic violence and abuse. The project “Understanding Agency and Resistance Strategies” (UNARS) addresses this absence, through direct engagement with children. We present an analysis from interviews with 21 children in the United Kingdom (12 girls and 9 boys, aged 8-18 years), about their experiences of domestic violence and abuse, and their responses to this violence. These inter...
Guterman, Neil B
Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent methodological issues in these areas and points out emerging research strategies that are forging advances in garnering valid, rigorous, and useful knowledge to prevent interpersonal violence. Research issues and emerging strategies in three key domains of prevention research are considered, including complexities in validly conceptualizing and measuring varying forms of violence as specific targets for preventive intervention, research issues and strategies designed to reliably predict and identify future violence risk to be targeted by preventive intervention, and research issues and emerging strategies in the application of empirical methods to forge specific advances in preventive intervention strategies themselves.
Callaghan, Jane E M; Alexander, Joanne H; Sixsmith, Judith; Fellin, Lisa Chiara
Children's experiences and voices are underrepresented in academic literature and professional practice around domestic violence and abuse. The project "Understanding Agency and Resistance Strategies" (UNARS) addresses this absence, through direct engagement with children. We present an analysis from interviews with 21 children in the United Kingdom (12 girls and 9 boys, aged 8-18 years), about their experiences of domestic violence and abuse, and their responses to this violence. These interviews were analyzed using interpretive interactionism. Three themes from this analysis are presented: (a) "Children's experiences of abusive control," which explores children's awareness of controlling behavior by the adult perpetrator, their experience of that control, and its impact on them; (b) "Constraint," which explores how children experience the constraint associated with coercive control in situations of domestic violence; and (c) "Children as agents," which explores children's strategies for managing controlling behavior in their home and in family relationships. The article argues that, in situations where violence and abuse occur between adult intimate partners, children are significantly affected, and can be reasonably described as victims of abusive control. Recognizing children as direct victims of domestic violence and abuse would produce significant changes in the way professionals respond to them, by (a) recognizing children's experience of the impact of domestic violence and abuse; (b) recognizing children's agency, undermining the perception of them as passive "witnesses" or "collateral damage" in adult abusive encounters; and (c) strengthening professional responses to them as direct victims, not as passive witnesses to violence. © The Author(s) 2015.
Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G
Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.
Volant, Anne M; Johnson, Judy A; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J
Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the community took part in the study. Significantly higher rates of partner pet abuse, partner threats of pet abuse, and pet abuse by other family members were found in the violent families compared with the nondomestic violence group. As hypothesized, children from the violent families were reported by their mothers to have witnessed and committed significantly more animal abuse than children from the nonviolent families. Logistic regression analyses revealed, for the group as a whole, that a woman whose partner had threatened the pets was 5 times more likely to belong to the intimate partner violence group.
Lokhmatkina, Natalia V; Feder, Gene; Blake, Sarah; Morris, Richard; Powers, Victoria; Lightman, Stafford
Background Domestic violence and abuse is threatening behavior, violence/abuse used by one person to control the other within an intimate or family-type relationship. Women experience more severe physical and sexual domestic violence and abuse and more mental health consequences than men. The current study aims at exploring of the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity in abuse impact on women's mental health. Study objectives: 1) To evaluate diurnal cortisol slope, corti...
The article analyzes the portrayal of the male perpetrator of heterosexual domestic violence in a selection of contemporary Spanish texts (novel, drama, and autobiography) that form part of a clearly discernible cultural response to the issue of intimate partner violence in Spain today. It reads the figure of the abuser in conjunction with a range…
... YOUR RIGHTS Domestic Violence CONOZCA SUS DERECHOS La violencia doméstica For immediate help call National Domestic Violence ... different. Abuse can include: • physical attacks, including forced sexual relations • verbal abuse or harassment, including disre- spectful ...
Scott, Melanie C; Easton, Caroline J
It is unclear whether racial differences in treatment effect exist for individuals in substance abuse and domestic violence programs. This study examined racial differences in treatment effect among substance dependent Caucasian and African-American male intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders court mandated to an integrated substance abuse and domestic violence treatment. From baseline to completion of treatment (week 12), 75 participants (39 Caucasian; 36 African-American) were assessed on demographics, substance use, legal characteristics, and use of violence (physical, verbal, and psychological). African-American men served more months incarcerated in their life than Caucasian men. Both groups showed decreases in their use of physical violence and alcohol abuse over treatment. Caucasian men also showed a decrease in their use of verbal abuse. At treatment completion, both groups showed a reduction in physical abuse and alcohol abuse. Caucasian men showed a reduction in their use of verbal abuse, but African-American men did not. Substance dependent African-American male IPV offenders may benefit from interventions that thoroughly target communication skills in addition to issues of substance abuse and IPV to reduce use of verbal abuse and improve treatment outcomes among African American men.
Traditionally, domestic violence in Japan referred to children's physical and emotional violence against their parents. However, in recent years, the general public's awareness of and actions toward other types of domestic violence, especially violence against women and children, has increased. Following a brief description of filial violence and elderly abuse, both spousal abuse and child abuse are discussed in terms of their prevalence and cultural and historical backgrounds. The article concludes with current and future challenges in the intervention of violence, particularly against women and children, in the Japanese family.
Ullah Akm Ahsan
Full Text Available This paper explores various abuses Foreign Domestic Helpers (FDHs or migrant domestic workers (MDW in Hong Kong suffer and the strategies they take up to cope with this abuse. Data were collected from 215 domestic helpers (135 from the Philippines, 30 from Thailand, 41 from Indonesia, and 9 from Sri Lanka all of whom had been in residence for at least six months. Selected by snow-balling technique, respondents were interviewed with structured and non-structured questionnaires. Research shows that sexual abuse is the most common form of abuse against MDWs followed by psychological and physical abuses. Female employers are the main perpetuators of psychological abuse while the male employers are culpable for sexual abuses. Coping strategies varied widely among the MDWs. Many of them endure the violence to keep the job; some quit the job and others struggle with the decision to stay or quit.
Ascione, Frank R; Weber, Claudia V; Thompson, Teresa M; Heath, John; Maruyama, Mika; Hayashi, Kentaro
Women residing at domestic violence shelters (S group) were nearly 11 times more likely to report that their partner had hurt or killed pets than a comparison group of women who said they had not experienced intimate violence (NS group). Reports of threatened harm to pets were more than 4 times higher for the S group. Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, the authors demonstrated that severe physical violence was a significant predictor of pet abuse. The vast majority of shelter women described being emotionally close to their pets and distraught by the abuse family pets experienced. Children were often exposed to pet abuse, and most reported being distressed by these experiences. A substantial minority of S-group women reported that their concern for their pets' welfare prevented them from seeking shelter sooner. This seemed truer for women without children, who may have had stronger pet attachments. This obstacle to seeking safety should be addressed by domestic violence agencies.
Krienert, Jessie L; Walsh, Jeffrey A; Matthews, Kevin; McConkey, Kelly
Companion animals play a complex role in families impacted by violence. An outlet of emotional support for victims, the family pet often becomes a target for physical abuse. Results from a comprehensive e-survey of domestic violence shelters nationwide (N = 767) highlight both improvements and existing gaps in service provision for domestic violence victims and their pets. Quantitative and qualitative data noted frequently encountered obstacles to successful shelter seeking by abuse victims with companion animals including a lack of availability, funding, space, and reliable programming. Although results indicate an overall improvement in organizational awareness, fewer than half of surveyed shelters include intake questions about animals. Continued awareness and an expansion of services is needed to create viable safety planning strategies and reliable alternatives for women with companion animals in order to improve the likelihood that abuse victims will seek escape and refuge for themselves, their children, and their pets.
Cohn, Amy; Najavits, Lisa M
Victimization by and perpetration of domestic violence are associated with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders. This study used data from the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services to examine differences in organizational factors, treatment approaches offered, and client-level factors among 13,342 substance abuse treatment facilities by whether or not they offered domestic violence services. Only 36% of the facilities offered domestic violence services. Those that offered such services were more likely than those that did not to treat clients with co-occurring disorders. Principal-components analysis reduced eight treatment approaches to two factors: psychosocial services and traditional substance abuse services. Regression models indicated that the frequency with which psychosocial services were offered depended on the percentage of clients with co-occurring disorders who were being treated in the facility and whether or not that facility offered domestic violence services. Specifically, facilities that did not offer domestic violence services and that had a high percentage of clients with co-occurring disorders were more likely to offer psychosocial services than facilities that offered domestic violence services. A larger proportion of facilities offering domestic violence services offered traditional substance abuse treatment services, compared with facilities not offering domestic violence services, but this relationship was not contingent on the percentage of clients with co-occurring disorders at each facility. Improved efforts should be made to tailor treatments to accommodate the links between domestic violence, mental disorders, and substance abuse.
Full Text Available Background & Aims: Violence against wives has been one of the things that are of interest to researchers, sociologists and psychologists. In all countries, despite the social and economic and cultural differences between them, Domestic violence occurs by husbands. It encompasses any behavior between them in close relationship. It causes physical, psychological and sexual abuse. Therefore this study is aimed to impact of social factors effective in the incidence of domestic violence in the Tehranian families who are referred to the parks. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive - analytical. The data collection tools are questionnaires. The questionnaires consist of 4 parts: Demographic data, physical, Sexual and psychological violence. Then 224 persons of married women referring to Tehran parks were completed these questionnaires, so data were analyzed by SPPS software (version 16 using descriptive, inferential statistics. Results: 33.6% of women participating in the study have experienced physical violence at least one during the last year, also between variables female age, remarried women, Gender of children, who Have adopted children, income, property, A separate bank account, type of married are significant relationship with violence. Conclusion: Economic problem, low education and type of job connected to Domestic violence. To combat of domestic violence as a global challenge, should be promoted the men's knowledge about women's rights and educated couple before marriage about their right and created an environment and support and counseling services and psychotherapy for individuals who are victims of violence.
Cook, Paddy; Gartner, Constance Grant; Markl, Lise; Henderson, Randi; Brooks, Margaret K.; Wesson, Donald; Dogoloff, Mary Lou; Vitzthum, Virginia; Hayes, Elizabeth
The major goal of this TIP, on the best practice guidelines to improve the treatment of substance abuse, is to provide clinicians, educators, and paraprofessionals with the latest findings concerning domestic violence. The information is intended to educate providers about the needs and behaviors of batterers and survivors, and how to tailor…
In this article we pay attention to the violence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society - physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances.
Hinsliff-Smith, Kathryn; McGarry, Julie
To identify, review and critically evaluate published empirical studies concerned with the prevalence, management and support for survivors of domestic violence and abuse who present at emergency department. Domestic violence and abuse is a global phenomenon with a wealth of studies that explore the different aspects of the issue including the economic, social and health effects on survivors and on society as a whole. Emergency department is widely recognised as one healthcare facility where domestic violence and abuse survivors will often disclose domestic violence and abuse. In the UK, National Institute of Clinical Excellence produced guidelines in 2014 requiring all sectors of health care and those they work alongside to recognise support and manage survivors of domestic violence and abuse. Whilst there is an increasing body of research on domestic violence and abuse, limited synthesised work has been conducted in the context of domestic violence and abuse within emergency department. This review encompasses empirical studies conducted in emergency department for screening interventions, management and support for domestic violence and abuse patients including prevalence. This review included studies that included emergency department staff, emergency department service users and domestic violence and abuse survivors. A systematic approach across five electronic bibliographic databases found 35 studies meeting the inclusion criteria published between 2000-2015. From the 35 studies, four descriptive overarching themes were identified (i) prevalence of domestic violence and abuse in emergency department, (ii) use of domestic violence and abuse screening tools and emergency department interventions, (iii) current obstacles for staff working in emergency department and (iv) emergency department users and survivor perspectives. Having knowledgeable and supportive emergency department staff can have a positive benefit for the longer-term health of the domestic
Illinois Coalition Against Domestic Violence, Springfield.
This handbook provides guidance for women in Illinois who are victims of domestic violence and spouse abuse. It consists of facts about domestic violence, a survival sheet telling what to do before, during, and after incidents of domestic violence, and advice on seeking emergency assistance and shelter. It then provides advice and resources on…
Yamawaki, Niwako; Ochoa-Shipp, Monica; Pulsipher, Craig; Harlos, Andrew; Swindler, Scott
Researchers in this study examined the attitudes toward domestic violence, the victim, and her perpetrator. A total of 194 participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 hypothetical scenarios to evaluate how observers' perceptions were influenced by their own sex and myths about domestic violence, by the victim's decision to return to the…
In this article we pay attention to the violence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society – physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances. PMID:26973948
Surianti Sukeri, PhD
Full Text Available Objectives: This qualitative study aims to discover the factors that influenced the decisions of women who successfully escaped domestic violence by attaining a divorce. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 women, ages 21-56 who were either divorced or currently in the process of getting divorced in Kelantan, Malaysia. Results: Several themes emerged, indicating the following five reasons for divorce: 1 reaching the point of ultimatum, 2 having adequate support pre- and post-divorce, 3 concern for children's welfare, 4 seeking financial independence, and 5 fear of harm. Conclusion: The identification of the driving factors for divorce may spark a change in our society's mindset to empower female divorcees and allow them to lead happy, abuse-free lives. Keywords: Divorce, Domestic violence, In-depth interview, Malaysia
Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J
Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects.
Hunter, Caroline; Nixon, Judy; Parr, Sadie
International evidence suggests that in advanced welfare states the abuse of parents, most particularly mothers, by their (most frequently male) adolescent children is increasingly prevalent. In the United Kingdom, however, child-to-mother abuse remains one of the most under-acknowledged and under-researched forms of family violence. Although it is an issue shrouded in silence, stigma, and shame, the authors' work in the youth justice sphere, focusing on interventions to deal with anti-social behaviour, suggests that adolescent violence toward mothers is a topical and prevalent issue. We identify different ways of conceptualizing it in the policy realms of youth justice, child welfare, and domestic violence. The behaviour of both child/young person and mother is constructed in ways which inform the assignment of blame and responsibility. The paper highlights the silence that surrounds the issue in both the policy and wider academic spheres, hiding the failure of service providers to respond to this very destructive form of intimate interpersonal violence.
Fujiwara, T; Okuyama, M; Izumi, M
To assess the impact of childhood abuse history, domestic violence experiences and mental health symptoms on the parenting behaviour of mothers in Japan who have separated from violent husbands or partners. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted on a sample of mothers (n = 304) and their children (n = 498) residing in 83 mother-child homes in Japan. The survey assessed the mothers' childhood abuse history (physical, psychological and sexual abuse and neglect history), domestic violence experiences, current mental health symptoms (dissociative, depressive and traumatic symptoms) and parenting behaviours after moving into the homes to separate from a violent husband or partner. The mothers' childhood abuse history and experience of domestic violence were not associated with their not playing with their children. In contrast, the mothers' dissociative and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with not playing with their children. Although there was no association between the mothers' total childhood abuse history and not praising their children, their childhood physical abuse history was significantly associated with their not praising their children. The dissociative and depressive symptoms were also associated with no praise. Interestingly, the experience of domestic violence showed an inverse association with no praise. Mental health symptoms, more specifically dissociative and depressive symptoms, are associated with a decrease in parenting quality. Mothers who were physically abused as children are less likely to praise their own children, independent of maternal mental health symptoms. In contrast, mothers who experienced domestic violence but subsequently separated from their violent husbands or partners are more likely to praise their children. The treatment of mental health symptoms, particularly dissociative and depressive symptoms, therapy for childhood abuse history and separation from violent husbands or partners might be
Full Text Available In this article we pay attention to the vio- lence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society – physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances.
Lokhmatkina, Natalia V; Feder, Gene; Blake, Sarah; Morris, Richard; Powers, Victoria; Lightman, Stafford
Domestic violence and abuse is threatening behavior, violence/abuse used by one person to control the other within an intimate or family-type relationship. Women experience more severe physical and sexual domestic violence and abuse and more mental health consequences than men. The current study aims at exploring of the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity in abuse impact on women's mental health. 1) To evaluate diurnal cortisol slope, cortisol awakening response, and the mean cortisol concentration in women with a current or recent experience of abuse; 2) To estimate whether cortisol secretion is associated with type, severity, duration and cessation of abuse; 3) To investigate whether cortisol acts as mediator between abuse and mental health condition; 4) To examine whether there is any distinction in cortisol levels between those women exposed to both childhood abuse and domestic violence and abuse and those experienced only the latter. 4) To explore whether cortisol secretion differs between women living in refuge and those still living in the community. To meet study objectives 128 women will be recruited in a domestic violence agency and local communities. Baseline and 3-month follow-up measures will be taken over 6 months after recruitment. Each assessment will include: (1) standardized self-administered questionnaires to evaluate socio-demographics, experience of violence and abuse, mental and physical health; (2) weight and height measurement; (3) self-completion of wakening, post-wakening and evening saliva samples. Saliva will be analysed for cortisol and cortisone using Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We will compare diurnal cortisol parameters between non-abused controls and abuse survivors with and without mental health conditions. First following descriptive statistics for all the cortisol and mental health outcomes, relationships between them will be investigated using appropriate regression
Naughton, Catherine M; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Muldoon, Orla T
Recent literature on exposure to domestic violence (DV) highlights the need for increased understanding of the dynamics of domestic violence and abuse (DVA). The current aims were to explore whether two separate dimensions, physical and psychological DVA, were evident in adult children's reports of their exposure to DVA in their family of origin, and whether these dimensions affected psychological well-being and perceived satisfaction with emotional support (hereafter referred to as social support satisfaction). Young adults ( N = 465, aged 17-25, 70% female) reported their experiences of DVA as perpetrated by their parents/caregivers, as well as psychological well-being and social support satisfaction, in an online survey. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we verified the presence of a two-factor model (physical and psychological DVA). Hierarchical linear regression analysis demonstrated the differing impact of these two factors: Specifically, although exposure to psychological DVA (domestic abuse [DA]) was related to reduced psychological well-being, there was no significant effect of exposure to physical DVA (DV). However, mediation analysis suggested the presence of a suppression effect; there was a magnification of the negative relationship between exposure to psychological DA and social support satisfaction when exposure to physical DV was accounted for. Although findings are preliminary, they provide strong evidence to support theoretical arguments regarding the need for future research to conceptualize exposure to DVA in terms of both physical and psychological dimensions. Our findings also highlight that to improve service response and provide effective interventions, it is essential to include exposure to psychological DA in risk assessments of such young adults.
Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko; Osada, Yukiko
Objective: To understand the independent and interactive effects of childhood abuse history (CAH) and domestic violence (DV) on the mental health status of women in Japan. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among a sample of 340 women staying in 83 Mother-Child Homes in Japan to assess the women's CAH and DV…
C. H. Thesnaar
Full Text Available Substance abuse among young people is an ever increasing reality and one of the most significant contributing factors to domestic violence within families. The essential question is how practical theology and, to be more exact, pastoral interpretive guides (within the local church can contribute to assist individuals, families and communities in dealing with this traumatic reality in a responsible way. This article argues for a theologically responsible pastoral hermeneutic as it engages with the challenges of the presented case study, within a transdisciplinary approach.
Substance abuse among young people is an ever increasing reality and one of the most significant contributing factors to domestic violence within families. The essential question is how practical theology and, to be more exact, pastoral interpretive guides (within the local church can contribute to assist individuals, families and communities in dealing with this traumatic reality in a responsible way. This article argues for a theologically responsible pastoral hermeneutic as it engages with the challenges of the presented case study, within a transdisciplinary approach.
Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean
This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, while youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, those who were abused only, and those who w...
Plant, Malcolm; van Schaik, Paul; Gullone, Eleonora; Flynn, Clifton
Whereas the majority of previous research conducted on animal abuse has been in environments where animal abuse is rarely evidenced, the current study investigated the ramifications of animal abuse in an environment wherein the national culture creates an ethos of the "social acceptability" of animal abuse in society. Two survey studies were conducted with adolescent participants, to investigate the role played by several factors in the prediction of animal abuse in this age group. In Study 1, with samples from two different national cultures (101 from Germany and 169 from Romania; 143 boys/135 girls; age 13 to 17), animal abuse was negatively associated with affective empathy and national culture; more frequent animal abuse was found in Romania. Affective empathy fully mediated the association between gender and animal abuse. Specifically, girls were found to be higher in affective empathy; in turn, participants who were higher in affective empathy committed less animal abuse. Witnessing animal abuse was also predictive of engaging in animal abuse, but not independent of national culture. In Study 2, 15-year-old males ( n = 21) and females ( n = 39) took part, 29 from rural and 31 from urban locations in Romania. Rural adolescents were more likely to abuse animals and had higher exposure to domestic violence, which (in turn) was associated with more animal abuse. The implications of these findings in a society where animal abuse is encouraged and enacted on a national scale are discussed.
Mueller, Catherine; Tranchant, Jean-Pierre; Oosterhoff, Pauline
This paper investigates how domestic violence relates to violence against children, including severe corporal punishment. The literature suggests a link between intimate partner violence in the household and child abuse and maltreatment. Studies are, however, limited by the use of narrowly defined measures of violence against children, data availability, and a lack of characterization of domestic violence. In this paper we use original data on domestic violence and child disciplining methods ...
Callaghan, Jane E M; Alexander, Joanne H; Sixsmith, Judith; Fellin, Lisa C
This article explores how children see their relationships, particularly their sibling relationships, in families affected by domestic violence (DV) and how relationality emerges in their accounts as a resource to build an agentic sense of self. The 'voice' of children is largely absent from the DV literature, which typically portrays them as passive, damaged and relationally incompetent. Children's own understandings of their relational worlds are often overlooked, and consequently, existing models of children's social interactions give inadequate accounts of their meaning-making-in-context. Drawn from a larger study of children's experiences of DV and abuse, this article uses two case studies of sibling relationships to explore young people's use of relational resources, for coping with violence in the home. The article explores how relationality and coping intertwine in young people's accounts and disrupts the taken-for-granted assumption that children's 'premature caring' or 'parentification' is (only) pathological in children's responses to DV. This has implications for understanding young people's experiences in the present and supporting their capacity for relationship building in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.
Join Together, Boston, MA.
Frequently, firearm fatalities occur in the context of domestic violence, suicide, or acts committed under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs. Because gun violence is related to these other social problems, it must be considered more than just a criminal justice issue. It is also a public health issue that should be addressed by domestic…
Postmus, Judy L; Hoge, Gretchen L; Breckenridge, Jan; Sharp-Jeffs, Nicola; Chung, Donna
The predominant perception of intimate partner violence (IPV) as constituting physical violence can still dominate, particularly in research and media reports, despite research documenting multiple forms of IPV including sexual violence occurring between intimate partners and various forms of psychological and emotional abuse. One frequently hidden or "invisible" form of abuse perpetrated within intimate partner relationships is economic abuse, also referred to as financial abuse in much of the literature. While the links between gendered economic insecurity and economic abuse are emerging, there remains a lack of consistency about definitions within the United States and globally, as there is no agreed upon index with which to measure economic abuse. As such, the purpose of this article is to review and analyze the global literature focused on either economic or financial abuse to determine how it is defined and what measures are used to capture its prevalence and impact. The 46 peer-reviewed articles that met all inclusion criteria for analysis came from a range of countries across six continents. Our review found that there is growing clarity and consistency of terminologies being used in these articles and found some consistency in the use of validated measures. Since this research is in its "infancy," we need to have stronger collaborative efforts to use similar measures and terminology. Part of that collaborative effort is to consider how language and cultural differences may play a part in our understanding of economic abuse.
Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luis
Neuropsychological impairments of the executive functions, memory, attention, intelligence quotient, and empathy have been found in perpetrators of domestic violence (intimate partner violence). These impairments could be partially explained by alcohol abuse, dependence, or traumatic brain injuries. This study reviews the neuropsychological deficits of perpetrators of intimate partner violence. At the same it seeks to integrate and relate these main points with their neuroanatomical correlates. We have also established the relationship between alcohol abuse, dependence, brain damage (including traumatic brain injuries) and those deficits. Scientific literature has been reviewed by means of Google Scholar, PsycINFO, PubMed, Medline and ISI Web of Knowledge. Perpetrators of domestic violence present high mental rigidity, as well as low levels of inhibition, processing speed, verbal and attention skills, and abstract reasoning. Additionally, perpetrators show working and long play memory impairments. Moreover, those deficits could be impaired by traumatic brain injuries and alcohol abuse and/or dependence. Nonetheless, these both variables are not enough to explain the deficits. Functional abnormalities on the prefrontal and occipital cortex, fusiform gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, thalamus and amygdala could be associated with these impairments. An analysis of these mechanisms may assist in the development of neuropsychological rehabilitation programmes that could help improve current therapies.
Antović Aleksandra R.
Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Domestic violence is a phenomenon as old as the history of human civilization, present in all cultures, epochs and social systems. Despite the fact that domestic violence represents a dangerous and unacceptable social phenomenon, as well as a significant medical problem, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of this phenomenon in our country. This study aims to determine the elementary forensic characteristics of domestic violence that would represented the basis for future medical research in this field. Methods. A total of 4,593 records of forensic autopsy (n = 3,120 and clinical forensic medical examinations (n = 1,473 were analyzed in the 1996–2005 period in order to determine the cases of domestic violence. Results. The analysis encompassed 300 cases (6.5% of clinically examined (n = 211; 70.3% and autopsied (n = 89; 29.7% victims of domestic violence. A statistically significant increase in domestic violence cases (χ2 = 12.74; p = 0.00036 was determined in the observed period. The victims were mostly females (78%, with the mean age of 45.8 years (min = 0.3; max = 85; SD = 17.7, married (45%, with personal income (74.4%, and urban residence (66.3%. The majority of abusers were males (89.3%. Intimate partner violence was present in 58.3% of the cases. Physical abuse was the most common form of violence (97.7%, while sexual violence (2.3% and child abuse (4.3% were rarely recorded. Conclusion. The results of this research indicate that forensic medicine can be of great help in designing appropriate standards for conducting clinical medical examination, preventive programs, and strategies in fighting domestic violence.
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Mihić Biljana D.
Full Text Available In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.
Mihić Biljana D.
In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.
Many violent people were themselves exposed to scenes of domestic abuse when they were children. This reproduction is linked to the construction of a traumatic memory, to the attack on the mother as a reassuring attachment figure for the child, diminished maternal competence and cerebral impairment due to the stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sternberg, Kathleen J.; And Others
Parents and children completed measures that assessed children's behavior problems and depression. Children had experienced abuse, witnessed spouse abuse, experienced and witnessed abuse, or experienced no domestic violence. Reports of effects of domestic violence on children varied, depending on the type of violence and the person reporting it.…
A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.
Yut-Lin, Wong; Othman, Sajaratulnisah
Despite being an emergent major public health problem, little research has been done on domestic violence from the perspectives of early detection and prevention. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to identify domestic violence among female adult patients attending health centers at the primary care level and to determine the relationship between social correlates of adult patients and domestic violence screening and subsequent help/health-seeking behavior if abused. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 710 female adult patients from 8 health centers in Selangor who matched the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study, using a structured questionnaire that included adaptation of a validated 8-item Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST). Statistical tests showed significant differences in ethnicity, income, and education between those screened positive and those screened negative for domestic violence. Of the participants, 92.4% reported that during consultations, doctors had never asked them whether they were abused by their husband/partner. Yet, 67.3% said they would voluntarily tell the doctor if they were abused by their husband/partner. The findings indicate that primary care has an important role in identifying domestic violence by applying the WAST screening tool, or an appropriate adaptation, with women patients during routine visits to the various health centers. Such assessment for abuse could be secondary prevention for the abused women, but more important, it will serve as primary prevention for nonabused women. This approach not only will complement the existing 1-stop crisis center policy by the Ministry of Health that copes with crisis intervention but also will spearhead efforts toward prevention of domestic violence in Malaysia.
Domestic abuse is a kind of violence common in South Africa which for most part focuses on women. Children and adolescents who witness these abuses are hardly the focus of domestic abuse research. Hence the need to understand the relationship between gender, exposure to domestic violence and identity ...
Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko; Osada, Yukiko
To understand the independent and interactive effects of childhood abuse history (CAH) and domestic violence (DV) on the mental health status of women in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among a sample of 340 women staying in 83 Mother-Child Homes in Japan to assess the women's CAH and DV experiences, along with their current mental health problems, including dissociated, depressed, and traumatic symptoms. Independent from DV, CAH, especially psychological abuse, had a significant impact on all of the women's mental health symptoms. DV was found to have an independent effect on traumatic symptoms. Weak interactive effects of CAH and DV were found on dissociated and traumatic symptoms. Among those women without CAH, DV was significantly associated with dissociated and traumatic symptoms; however, DV had no impact on dissociated and traumatic symptoms if CAH was present. The findings suggest the significant impact of CAH on women's mental health problems, independent from DV. CAH and DV weakly interact on women's mental health. In psychological therapy for battered women with mental health problems, if the cases were abused during childhood, it is recommended that therapy be focused on childhood abuse, especially if the client was psychologically abused. In addition, mental health care and welfare providers should be aware that the mental health problems of mothers without CAH might be exacerbated by DV; thus, appropriate resource allocation should be considered. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mahapatro, Meerambika; Gupta, R. N.; Gupta, Vinay; Kundu, A. S.
Domestic violence can result in many negative health consequences for women's health and well-being. Studies on domestic violence illustrate that abused women in various settings had increased health problems such as injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal, and gynecological signs including sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and…
Purpose: Domestic violence poses a major challenge to social workers. Low-income families are significantly more likely to have to contend with domestic violence, as poverty can act as a fuelling factor in this type of conflict. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of low-income abused women. Method: A…
Yount, Kathryn M.; Carrera, Jennifer S.
We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical…
Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean
This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, while youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, those who were abused only, and those who were exposed only to domestic violence, the relationship between exposure types and youth outcomes did not differ by level of attachment to parents. However, stronger bonds of attachment to parents in adolescence did appear to predict a lower risk of antisocial behavior independent of exposure status. Preventing child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence could lessen the risk of antisocial behavior during adolescence, as could strengthening parent-child attachments in adolescence. However, strengthening attachments between parents and children after exposure may not be sufficient to counter the negative impact of earlier violence trauma in children. PMID:20457846
Turner, William; Hester, Marianne; Broad, Jonathan; Szilassy, Eszter; Feder, Gene; Drinkwater, Jessica; Firth, Adam; Stanley, Nicky
Exposure of children to domestic violence and abuse (DVA) is a form of child maltreatment with short- and long-term behavioural and mental health impact. Health care professionals are generally uncertain about how to respond to domestic violence and are particularly unclear about best practice with regards to children's exposure and their role in a multiagency response. In this systematic review, we report educational and structural or whole-system interventions that aim to improve professionals' understanding of, and response to, DVA survivors and their children. We searched 22 bibliographic databases and contacted topic experts for studies reporting quantitative outcomes for any type of intervention aiming to improve professional responses to disclosure of DVA with child involvement. We included interventions for physicians, nurses, social workers and teachers. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria: three randomised controlled trials (RCTs), 18 pre-post intervention surveys. There were 18 training and three system-level interventions. Training interventions generally had positive effects on participants' knowledge, attitudes towards DVA and clinical competence. The results from the RCTs were consistent with the before-after surveys. Results from system-level interventions aimed to change organisational practice and inter-organisational collaboration demonstrates the benefit of coordinating system change in child welfare agencies with primary health care and other organisations. Implications for policy and research are discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Child Abuse Review published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 'We searched 22 bibliographic databases and contacted topic experts'. We reviewed published evidence on interventions aimed at improving professionals' practice with domestic violence survivors and their children.Training programmes were found to improve participants' knowledge, attitudes and clinical competence up to a year after delivery.Key elements of
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Neglecting women's health and the domestic violence prevailing against them can cause a variety of mental and even physical diseases that threaten the health of the family. Disruptions in the life pattern of women and mothers have adverse health effects for both the family and the entire society. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between wife abuse and mental health in female victims of domestic violence referred to the Forensic Medical Center of Shiraz. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study was conducted over three months in 2013 on 197 women with abusive husbands referred to the Forensic Medical Center of Shiraz. The study data collection tools included a demographic information questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and a standard violence against women questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was measured to assess the data collection tools' reliability. Data were analyzed in SPSS-18. Results: The mean age of the study subjects was reported as 30.42±6.72. More than 50 percent of the women had been victim to domestic violence and suffered from disorders in all the aspects of general health (P<0.05. There was a positive relationship between domestic violence and all the aspects of general health. In other words, violence of any kind was a predictor of general health disorders (P<0.05. Domestic violence was found to have the greatest effect on the incidence of depression and anxiety. Conclusion: The present study revealed the psychological consequences of wife abuse and violence against women and confirmed the damaging effect of violence on women's mental health. In addition to imposing heavy costs on the society for providing healthcare and medications, mental health disorders in women are also a burden for the family life and the children's upbringing.
Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean
This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…
Tolman, Richard M.; Weisz, Arlene
Reports results of a study on the effectiveness of a coordinated community intervention to reduce domestic violence in DuPage County, IL. Logistic regression analysis indicated that arrest significantly deterred subsequent domestic violence incidents over an 18-month follow-up period, especially with those with a previous history of police…
Full Text Available It has been widely acknowledged that the majority of persons affected by Gender-Based Violence (GBV are women and girls. The violence females are subject to can occur at each stage of their life with immediate and long-term effects. According to a World Bank publication, The Costs ofViolence, (2009 most estimates on the cost to society of GBV have focused on domestic violence. A study of the Extent, Nature and Costs of Domestice Violence to the Mauritian Economy (2010 reveals that there is a forty-six fold difference between the administrative data provided the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare. To scale up the fight against domestic violence the Government of Mauritius has launched the Victim Empowerment and Abuser Rehabilitation Policy (VEARP in 2013 whereby the workplace becomes a platform for primary prevention.This study aims to document the consultations held with stakeholders at the workplace (public and private sector and to make proposals to ensure that the VEARP is institutionalised at the workplace. It has been found that the Human Resource (HR function is not well developed in the mauritian society and among the three main models of prevention of domestic violence at the workplace, the partnerships model is the most appropriate.The organisation of training of trainers on GBV issues and the referrral system set up by the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare will encourage employers to join the fight against domestic violence. To assist the HR department in implementing this workplace initiative, there is an urgent need to set up Employer Assistance Programs (EAP at the workplace. However, there is an urgent need to institutionalise work-family life balance policies, to adopt legislation to cater for violence at the workplace and to amend the Protection of Domestic Violence Act of 2011.
Ergönen, Akça Toprak; Ozdemir, M Hakan; Can, Ismail Ozgür; Sönmez, Ersel; Salaçin, Serpil; Berberoğlu, Evrim; Demir, Namik
Domestic violence is accepted worldwide as an important health problem. Besides diagnosis and treatment process, there are difficulties when considering of medico-legal evaluation of pregnant women subjected to domestic violence. As a signatory of the ''Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)'' Turkey has certain commitments regarding domestic violence and made regulations on national law. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy among the women who applied to obstetrics clinics and evaluating of the participants' knowledge level about the legal legislation concerning domestic violence. Pregnant women attending for antenatal care to department of Gynecology and Obstetrics were interviewed using an anonymous and confidential questionnaire. The questionnaire used was a version of Abuse Assessment Screen with guidance of references. 28 (13.4%) women stated that they had been subjected to violence before pregnancy. Only 10 (4.67%) women had stated experience of violence during pregnancy. 148 (69.2%) of them had stated that they had no knowledge about any legislation concerning domestic violence in our country. We believe that society awareness should be increased and the health workers should be informed about their ethical and legal responsibilities concerning domestic violence during pregnancy. The knowledge and sensitivity of health care personnel in Prenatal Clinics and Family Planning Services should be increased and examination protocols should be provided about domestic violence against pregnant women.
Larkins, Cath; Drinkwater, Jessica; Hester, Marianne; Stanley, Nicky; Szilassy, Eszter; Feder, Gene
Government and professional guidance encourages general practice clinicians to identify and refer children who experience domestic violence and abuse (DVA) but there is scant understanding of how general practice clinicians currently work with DVA in families. The study explored general practice clinicians' practice with children and their parents experiencing DVA and reflected on the findings in the light of current research and policy guidelines. Semi-structured interviews with 54 clinicians (42 GPs and 12 practice nurses/nurse practitioners) were conducted across six sites in England. Data were analysed using current literature and emerging themes. Data presented here concern clinicians' perspectives on engaging with family members when a parent discloses that she is experiencing DVA. When a parent disclosed DVA, clinicians were more likely to consider talking to abusive fathers than talking to children about the abuse. Perspectives varied according to whether consultation opportunities arose, risks, consent and confidentiality. Perceptions of 'patienthood', relationships and competence shaped clinicians' engagement. Perpetrators were seen as competent informers and active service users, with potential for accepting advice and support. Clinicians were more hesitant in talking with children. Where this was considered, children tended to be seen as passive informants, only two GPs described direct and ongoing consultations with children and providing them with access to support. Clinicians appear more inclined to engage directly with abusive fathers than children experiencing DVA. Clinician skills and confidence to talk directly with children experiencing DVA, in child sensitive ways, should be developed through appropriate training. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Hartman, Christie A; Hageman, Tina; Williams, James Herbert; Ascione, Frank R
We examined rates of animal abuse in pet-owning families experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). We also examined whether higher levels of IPV (as measured by subscales from the Conflict Tactics Scales) predicted increased risk for partner-perpetrated animal abuse. Our sample included 291 mother-child dyads, where the mothers sought services from domestic violence agencies. Nearly half the sample is comprised of Mexican immigrants. Mothers reported that 11.7% of partners threatened to harm a pet and 26.1% actually harmed a pet, the latter of which represents a lower rate than in similar studies. When examining animal abuse by "Hispanic status," follow-up analyses revealed significant omnibus differences between groups, in that non-Hispanic U.S.-born partners (mostly White) displayed higher rates of harming pets (41%) than either U.S.-born or Mexican-born Hispanic groups (27% and 12.5%, respectively). Differences in rates for only threatening (but not harming) pets were not significant, possibly due to a small number of partners ( n = 32) in this group. When examining whether partners' IPV predicted only threatening to harm pets, no IPV subscale variables (Physical Assault, Psychological Aggression, Injury, or Sexual Coercion) were significant after controlling for income, education, and Hispanic status. When examining actual harm to pets, more Psychological Aggression and less Physical Assault significantly predicted slightly higher risk of harm. However, Mexican-born partners had nearly 4 times lower risk of harming a pet. Overall, these results suggest that Hispanic men who are perpetrators of IPV are less likely to harm pets than non-Hispanic perpetrators of IPV, particularly if Mexican-born. Considering that the United States has a significant proportion of Mexican immigrants, it may be worthwhile to explore the topics of IPV and animal abuse within this group.
Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; Alavimajd, Hamid
Millions of men and women suffer from infertility worldwide. In many cultures, infertile women are at risk of social and emotional problems. Infertility may affect the public health in many countries. Domestic violence is the intentional use of physical force, power or threat against oneself, another person or another group or community which leads to injury, death, mental harm, lack of development or deprivation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of domestic violence against infertile women who referred to the infertility centres of Tehran, Iran in 2011. This was cross- sectional descriptive study conducted on 400 infertile women who were selected through convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used in this study included two sections: a demographic section with questions about demographic characteristics of the infertile women and their husbands; and the domestic violence questionnaire with questions about physical, emotional and sexual violence. Data were analysed by SPSS16; descriptive statistics, Spearman's test, t- test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Four hundred women with the average age of 30.50 ± 6.16 years participated in the study; of whom, 34.7% experienced domestic violence physical violence (5.3%), emotional violence (74.3%) and sexual violence (47.3%). Domestic violence was significantly associated with unwanted marriage, number of IVFs, drug abuse, emotional status of the women, smoking and addiction or drug abuse of the spouse, mental and physical diseases of the husband (pwomen experience violence in Iran. Domestic violence against infertile women is a problem that should not be ignored. Clinicians should identify abused women. Providing counseling services to women in infertility treatment centers is suggested to prevent domestic violence against infertile women.
Straka, Silvia M; Montminy, Lyse
Older women experiencing domestic violence are an invisible group who fall into the gap between two forms of family violence: elder abuse and domestic violence. This article reviews the literature in both fields, describing each paradigm, how it explains and responds to its specific form of violence, and why neither has been able to provide an adequate response to domestic violence against older women. A collaborative response is needed, accounting for both the age and gender dimensions of the problem.
In Britain, a Women's Aid program offers practical support and assistance to abused women. Survivors of domestic abuse can benefit from the opportunity afforded by an objective appraisal of the social context of their personal experiences, facilitated by trained volunteers. (JOW)
Zinke, Michelle; Zinke, Linda
Domestic violence can be described as a pattern of intentional behaviors that includes a variety of tactics, such as physical and sexual violence, stalking, threats/intimidation, isolation, psychological attacks, and spiritual and economic abuse. Domestic violence can happen to anyone. It does not discriminate on the basis of economic status,…
Background: Domestic violence is a global concern. Domestic violence refers to violence inflicted on a partner (mostly females) within the context of the family or an intimate relationship. It is known to be responsible for numerous hospital visits undertaken by women, although they mostly fail to complain of abuse. There is ...
León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio
According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed.
Tappis, Hannah; Biermann, Elizabeth; Glass, Nancy; Tileva, Margarita; Doocy, Shannon
A domestic violence questionnaire was administered to 701 adult females in a sample of 813 Iraqi households in Syria; unmarried women and women whose husbands were away were excluded, yielding a final sample of 486. Lifetime physical, verbal, or emotional abuse was reported by 30%, and approximately 20% experienced abuse within the past year. Non-Damascus residence, children Syria were associated with increased risk of domestic violence within the past year. Support services are inadequate and should be expanded; and longer-term prevention measures also should be implemented.
Robertson, I A
The majority of veterinarians recognise their important role and responsibility to society and animal welfare in the detection and reporting of suspected abuse of animals and humans. In spite of the existing moral, ethical, and legal duties applied to veterinarians, they face substantial barriers that prohibit them from fulfilling their professional role in handling cases of suspected abuse. With increasing public and legal attention on issues of animal welfare, the non-fulfillment of these duties places the profession and its members at considerable risk of public criticism and adverse legal accountability. The issue is raised here that the veterinary profession in New Zealand needs to provide a clear policy statement and take pro-active measures that provide practical enforceable solutions to these existing barriers and legal risks. Such an initiative will assist in ensuring that all registered members consistently fulfil their obligations, and are legally protected while doing so. Veterinary counterparts overseas already provide a legislative immunity for their veterinarians who report suspected abuse as part of a mandated duty to report. Implementation of such a duty has significant benefits for all veterinarians, including the requirement for education and effective support systems. In the absence of such a mandatory duty, intermediary measures can be introduced, demonstrating social responsibility and commitment by the profession to their existing duty of care.
Shaikh, M Ali; Kayani, A; Shaikh, I Ali
Domestic violence is globally endemic and adversely impacts the health and economic well-being of women and society. This study used the standardized and validated assessment instrument "Woman Abuse Screening Tool" to study the prevalence of various forms of domestic violence among married women. The relationship between domestic violence and consanguineous marriage was studied using the chi-squared test. Cumulatively, 1010 married women were interviewed. Emotional abuse was the most commonly reported abuse, reported by 721 (71.4%) women as either often or sometimes, followed by sexual abuse and physical abuse, reported by 527 (52.2%) and 511 (50.6%) respectively. Being married to one's cousin did not protect married women from being abused either emotionally or physically by their husbands; thsi was statistically significant. There is a need for better understanding of the magnitude and scale of domestic violence in Pakistan by using standardized assessment tools for meaningful comparisons across different parts of the country over time.
Avdibegovic, Esmina; Brkic, Maja; Sinanovic, Osman
Research indicates that women victims of domestic violence show significant cognitive changes, emotional numbing, and avoidance of interpersonal relationships. The aim of this research was to analyze emotional profile of women victims of domestic violence, and to determine the relationship between dimensions of emotions and frequency of women exposure to domestic violence. The research was conducted on the sample of 169 women, 111 were victims of domestic violence and 58 were women who did not experience domestic violence. Plutchik's Emotions Profile Index (EPI) was used for measuring of the emotion profile, and the Modified Inventory of Domestic Violence for measuring experiences of different types of violence. Basic socio-demographic data were also collected. Significant differences between women victims of domestic violence and women who did not experience domestic violence were found in a few dimensions of emotional profile. Women victims of domestic violence had higher results in the dimensions of deprivation/depression and aggression/destruction, while women who did not experience domestic violence had higher results in dimensions of reproduction and incorporation. Aggression was in significant negative correlation with reproduction, incorporation and self protection, whereas it was significant positive correlation with deprivation and opposition. There were significant and positive correlation between the dimensions of aggression and deprivation and frequency of all three forms of domestic violence and age of women. According to results obtained in this research, it can be concluded that women victims of domestic violence have significantly more intensive negative emotional dimensions in comparison to women who were not abused. Women victims of domestic violence with higher frequency of abuse describe themselves as more sad, apathetic, lonely, angry, quarrelsome and less sociable. Prominence of negative emotions, deprivation and aggression, can be factor of
Avdibegovic, Esmina; Brkic, Maja; Sinanovic, Osman
Introduction: Research indicates that women victims of domestic violence show significant cognitive changes, emotional numbing, and avoidance of interpersonal relationships. Aim: The aim of this research was to analyze emotional profile of women victims of domestic violence, and to determine the relationship between dimensions of emotions and frequency of women exposure to domestic violence. Methods: The research was conducted on the sample of 169 women, 111 were victims of domestic violence and 58 were women who did not experience domestic violence. Plutchik’s Emotions Profile Index (EPI) was used for measuring of the emotion profile, and the Modified Inventory of Domestic Violence for measuring experiences of different types of violence. Basic socio-demographic data were also collected. Results: Significant differences between women victims of domestic violence and women who did not experience domestic violence were found in a few dimensions of emotional profile. Women victims of domestic violence had higher results in the dimensions of deprivation/depression and aggression/destruction, while women who did not experience domestic violence had higher results in dimensions of reproduction and incorporation. Aggression was in significant negative correlation with reproduction, incorporation and self protection, whereas it was significant positive correlation with deprivation and opposition. There were significant and positive correlation between the dimensions of aggression and deprivation and frequency of all three forms of domestic violence and age of women. Conclusion: According to results obtained in this research, it can be concluded that women victims of domestic violence have significantly more intensive negative emotional dimensions in comparison to women who were not abused. Women victims of domestic violence with higher frequency of abuse describe themselves as more sad, apathetic, lonely, angry, quarrelsome and less sociable. Prominence of negative
Ali, Sirwan Kamil
Background and objective; There is growing recognition that violence against women has a large public health impact, in addition to being a gross violation of women's human rights. The study's aims were: To show the types of domestic abuse encountered by Kurdish women, and study the relationship between them. Methods; The study conducted in the…
Haeseler, Lisa Ann
Women and children coping with issues of domestic violence abuse urgently require help from early childhood professionals. The U.S. Department of Justice (2008) details these women and children are in peril. This article focuses on female domestic violence abuse. It presents some warning signs of domestic violence. It also offers steps on how to…
SORIN M. RĂDULESCU
Full Text Available The study presents the main findings of the secondary analysis conducted by the author on the statistics of the Prosecutors' Office with the High Court of Cassation and Justice in the period between 2005 and the first semester of 2007, regarding domestic physical and sexual abuse against minors. The study emphasizes the increase or decrease trends in the number of victims of domestic abuse according to the category of crime (for example manslaughter, battery resulting in death, battery and other types of violence, rape, incest, sexual corruption, etc. as well as in relation to aggressors and victims.
Knight, Lucy; Hester, Marianne
Domestic violence affects every age group and is present throughout the life span, but, while the mental health impact of domestic violence is clearly established in working age adults, less is known about the nature and impact of domestic violence among older adults. This review, therefore, aimed to synthesize findings on the prevalence, nature, and impact of domestic violence among older adults, and its identification and management. Electronic searches were conducted of Medline, PsycINFO, Cinahl, and Embase to identify studies reporting on the mental health and domestic violence in older adults. Findings suggested that, although prevalence figures are variable, the likely lifetime prevalence for women over the age of 65 is between 20-30%. Physical abuse is suggested to decrease with age, but rates of emotional abuse appear to be stable over the lifespan. Among older adults, domestic violence is strongly associated with physical and mental health problems, and the scarce research comparing the impact of domestic violence across the age cohorts suggests that the physical health of older victims may be more severely affected than younger victims. In contrast, there is evidence that older victims may experience less psychological distress in response to domestic violence than younger victims. Internationally, evidence on the management of domestic violence in older adults is sparse. Findings suggest, however, that identification of domestic violence is poor among older adults, and there are very limited options for onwards referral and support.
Malpass, Alice; Sales, Kim; Feder, Gene
This paper explores ideas of symbolic violence inherent in the research encounter (Bourdieu 1999). After defining symbolic violence and how the concept enters into domestic violence and abuse (DVA) research, we discuss the challenges arising from a (DVA) survivor taking on the role of interviewer in a qualitative study nested within a UK primary care based trial: IRIS (Identification and Referral to Improve Safety). KS, a survivor of DVA, conducted interviews with 12 women who had been referred to a domestic violence agency by primary care clinicians taking part in the IRIS trial in two UK cities (Bristol and east London) during 2009. Field notes were kept during all of the research meetings with KS and these were included in analysis. Our analysis maps the research pathway of 'non-violent communication' and discusses the role of social symmetry and proximity in the research encounter. We conclude that while a welcoming disposition, empathy and active listening are all generic skills to qualitative research; if a researcher can enter fieldwork with a claim of social proximity and symmetry, their use of these generic skills is enhanced through a process of shared objectification and empowerment talk. We explore the limitations of social proximity, its relationship to feminist and anthropological theories of 'insider' research and its relevance to primary care research. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Abuse against animals is an indicator of children's maladjustment associated with domestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to interparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results indicate that half of all youth ever abused animals,
Abuse against animals is an indicator of children's maladjustment associated with domestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to interparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results indicate that half of all youth ever abused animals,
Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have
Hamilton, Melissa; Worthen, Meredith G. F.
Domestic violence arrests have been historically focused on protecting women and children from abusive men. Arrest patterns continue to reflect this bias with more men arrested for domestic violence compared to women. Such potential gender variations in arrest patterns pave the way to the investigation of disparities by sex of the offender in…
Polites, Andrea; Kuchar, Karen; Bigelow, Shauna
Domestic violence is a devastating social problem that leaves an enduring, negative impact on all family members, especially the victims and their children. The costs to children and to society as a whole are enormous. Children who have witnessed domestic violence or have been threatened or abused by a parent are at great risk for emotional and…
Peterman, Linda M.; Dixon, Charlotte G.
Discusses the dynamics of domestic violence between partners of the same sex. The social and cultural issues in the gay and lesbian communities play a large part in perpetuating the myths of domestic violence, which keeps the abuse hidden. This article is based on an extensive review of the literature and a clinical consensus among experts in the…
This paper discusses the reported incidence of domestic violence in Nigeria, the different forms of abuse which may occur in the home and the devastating consequences on the individuals involved and the society at large. Some of the predisposing factors of domestic violence are discussed and counselling – preventive ...
Background:Domestic violence is any intentional abuse of a family member mostly women by a partner which causes pain or injury. It is a growing phenomenon and is affected by several social variables. In pregnancy, domestic violence causes adverse pregnancy outcomes and other reproductive health consequences to ...
Full Text Available This article analyzes the perceptive differences on domestic violence against women. These perceptive differences refer to the moral emotions that both specialists and non specialists believe that social actors should experience when they commit an abuse qualified as an act of domestic violence against women. The purpose of this research was on one side to identify the potential perceptive differences of these moral emotions, materialized as feelings of embarrassment, shame and guiltiness and on the other side to identify any perceptive differences as far as women’ myths go.
Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....
Full Text Available Nowadays, domestic violence is present in all countries and is having bad impact in the family development. In this manuscript we will analyze the domestic violence in Kosovo. Cases of domestic violence after the war in Kosovo from year to year have increased and given its consequences not only for the family, but also for the society, which imposes the need for a research. There are many factors that affect social life, domestic violence is one of them that is having a very bad impact and in this paper it will be analyzed the number of cases and also the factors that are causing the domestic violence in Kosovo. To analyze the situation of domestic violence in Kosovo we have used primary and secondary data. Based on results domestic violence is present in females at around 81% and males around 19%. The treatment of domestic violence is even worse in the urban areas. This paper can also serve as a sufficient reference for future research in measuring economic growth and development pace of the country.
Domestic violence has a lasting and damaging effect on the lives of thousands of women, men and children in Ireland and the UK. Yet, healthcare services are il equipped to deal with the victims of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse, many of whom present to emergency departments because they need help and support. As this article discusses, healthcare staff have a responsibility of care for such people. They must be able to recognise and respond to the signs of domestic abuse, and refer people who experience it to the appropriate organisations.
Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; van der Lee, Johanna H; Teeuw, Arianne H
Child maltreatment is a major social problem with many adverse consequences, and a substantial number of maltreated children are not identified by health care professionals. In 2010, in order to improve the identification of maltreated children in hospitals, a new hospital-based policy was developed in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. This policy was adapted from another policy that was developed in The Hague, the Netherlands, in 2007. In the new Amsterdam policy, all adults presenting at the emergency department due to domestic violence, substance abuse, and/or a suicide attempt are asked whether they have any children in their care. If this is the case, parents are urged to visit the outpatient pediatric department together with all of their children. During this visit, problems are evaluated and voluntary referrals can be arranged to different care organizations. If parents refuse to cooperate, their children are reported to the Dutch Child Abuse Counseling and Reporting Centre. The two aims of this study are to describe (1) characteristics of the identified families and (2) the referrals made to different voluntary and involuntary care organizations during the first 2 years after implementation of the policy. Data were collected from medical records. One hundred and six children from 60 households were included, of which 68 children because their mother was a victim of domestic violence. Referrals to care organizations were arranged for 99 children, of which 67 on a voluntary basis. The Amsterdam policy seems successful in arranging voluntary support for the majority of identified children.
... distress. Your abuser may use such incidents to manipulate you, describing them as proof that you are ... relationship. You may have grown up in a time when domestic violence was simply not discussed. You ...
Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Maas, Carl D; Barber, Sara
Court-mandated domestic violence (DV) treatment programs across the country have seen a marked increase in female clients. These programs use a variety of measurement tools to assess the needs of their clients. Increased numbers of women in treatment for DV reflect a need to address the measurement of intimate partner violence (IPV) for both males and females. Unfortunately, the reliability and validity of many of measures used to assess IPV and related constructs for women remains unknown. The current study focuses on a particular measure, the Propensity for Abusiveness Scale (PAS). The PAS is not a measure of abusive behavior per se; rather, it assesses risk factors for abuse, including affective lability, anger expression, trauma symptoms, and harsh parenting experienced by the respondent. Specifically, the current study compares the factor structure and the measurement properties of the PAS for males and females in a sample of 885 (647 female, 238 male) participants in a DV treatment program. Findings indicate that the PAS demonstrated configural, metric, and scalar invariance between the female and male samples. These results suggest that it is appropriate for researchers and clinicians to make comparisons between women and men based on PAS factor scores. © The Author(s) 2014.
This paper will analyze the domestic violence prevention problems and perspectives. The goal of this work is to discuss the main domestic violence characteristics, analyze Lithuanian and international prevention means and offer suggestions to improve Lithuanian domestic violence prevention. This work consentrates on mens violence over women. The conseption of violence is analyzed – the general violence features in criminology and law literature are discussed, the main domestic violence forms ...
Full Text Available Any form of domestic violence leaves its mark on minority's personality forma¬tion and generates dysfunctions in the behavioral, cognitive and emotional sphere. The study found that in the modern family up to 30% of children suffer from physical violence and up to 45% by psychological violence. Sexual violence, unlike other forms of violence, is more difficult to discover. It has more dramatic consequences and re¬quires a longer time for psychological recovery. In this study, are described a few cases of sexual violence in the family literally
Yanelis Emilia Tabio Henry
Full Text Available The elder abuse is a destructive behaviour to an older person, which according to its intensity or frequency can produce damaging of physical, psychological, financial, sexual carelessness, neglect of duty and its dimension. A descriptive investigation was made, with the objective to describe the behaviour of domestic violence in older persons of Community Mental Health Center in Jatibonico Municipality during the period: January first until December 31, 2011. The sample was formed by 32 abused elderly. The predominant groups were: ages between 70 – 79 years. (75.0%, the female sex (59.3%, those with marital links (65.6% dissatisfaction with their lives like a psychological symptom (53,2% psychological abused (50,0% and children as principles aggressors. The adult persons studied were a victim of any kind of domestic abused and as a consequence was presented second psychological manifestations.
Abuse against animals is an indicator of children's maladjustment associated with domestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to interparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results indicate that half of all youth ever abused animals, with boys more often involved than girls. Almost half of the whole sample has been exposed to violence by fathers against mothers or by mothers against fathers, with no gender differences. Results are...
Lepistö, Sari; Luukkaala, Tiina; Paavilainen, Eija
The aim of the study was to describe the experiences of different types of domestic violence among adolescents and associations between the family background and different types of domestic violence. The survey included 1393 ninth-graders from one Finnish municipality. Domestic violence is fairly common in the lives of adolescents. Sixty-seven percent of respondents had experienced parental symbolic aggression, 55% mild violence and 9% severe violence during their childhood. Twelve percent of adolescents had witnessed parent-to-parent violence. Witnessing domestic violence and exposure to parental violence is associated with a number of adolescents' background factors such as self-perceived health, satisfaction with life, family relationships, parenting practice, school bullying and sexual activity. The findings stress the relevance of corporal punishment and witnessing domestic violence as a risk factor for more severe domestic violence and sexual abuse. Different types of domestic violence have a major effect on adolescent well-being and risk behaviours. To break the negative cycle, nurses and other professionals working with adolescents in different settings should pay attention to all forms of violence, including the milder ones. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Perham-Hester, Kathy; Chamberlain, Linda
Over 1,000 Alaskan women experienced domestic abuse during pregnancy in 1996-97. Alaska Native and teenage mothers are at increased risk of experiencing physical abuse before or during pregnancy. Most Alaska mothers do not receive domestic violence screening during prenatal care. Domestic violence training is recommended for prenatal care…
It is only recently that domestic violence has been considered a violation of the law. Although men have battered, abused and mistreated their wives or intimate partners for a long time, historically, wife or partner abuse has been viewed as a "normal" part of marriage or intimate relationships. Only towards the end of the twentieth century, in the 1970 s, has domestic violence been defined a crime, justifying intervention by the criminal justice system. This article surveys the history of domestic violence as a criminal offense, and the justice system response to woman battering incidents. It first discusses the definition of the offense including debates around the offense definition, and the prevalence and reported frequency of the behavior termed woman battering. It then reviews the legal and social changes over time that have altered the criminal justice system s approach to domestic violence. Next it outlines the responses of the police, and the prosecution of domestic violence. The article also discusses research findings related to domestic violence and the criminal justice system, along with current controversies concerning the justice approach to domestic violence, its law enforcement, and related unfolding trends in the movement to address domestic violence through the criminal justice system.
This paper describes the key findings of a two year project focused on children's experiences of domestic violence. It draws on 107 interviews with children in Greece, Italy, Spain and the UK. The paper explores children's capacity to articulate their experiences, and highlights that they are not 'witnesses' to intimate partner violence, but experience it directly and make meaning of it, as members of a family affected by violence. I argue that children need to be recognised as direct victims...
This article discusses recent preliminary research findings on domestic violence against women in Calcutta, India, during 1994-95 and other evidence from around the world. The Beijing Conference on Women affirmed that physical, sexual, and psychological abuse of women occurs regardless of income, class, or culture. The author found from interviews with 47 abused Indian women from a mixture of backgrounds that middle-class women were the most private and difficult to interview. Findings from interviews suggest that women can resist or challenge the abuse by men, and resolution is the end to abuse. The research aimed to identify factors that enhanced resistance and resolution. Over 66% of abused women responded by informing others or crying or offering resistance. Single women and mothers are vulnerable due to stereotyping and economic insecurity. Women's groups recommend formation of shelters for abused women, income generation programs, and training projects, but funding is frequently limited for such activities. Some abused women are unaware of their rights or do not seek help from agencies. Illiteracy interferes with exchanges of pertinent information. Women in the Indian study did not accept violence as part of marriage. 70% of the women stated that after reporting the violence there was resolution. For sexual violence, resolution did not occur, and Indian law does not treat marital rape as a criminal offense. Most of the abused Indian women had contacts with governmental or other organizations. It appears that outside support is important to resolution and nonviolent relationships. Employment that is home-based isolates women and may not be useful as a resource for achieving resolution. Groups need to focus on capacity-building.
Holly B. LaPota
Full Text Available Women reported to child protective service agencies frequently report problems that significantly interfere with the health and well-being of their children and themselves. Behavioral treatment programs appear to be effective in managing these co-existing problems, such as domestic violence and substance abuse. However, evidence-supported interventions are rarely exemplified in complicated clinical cases, especially within child welfare settings. Therefore, in this case example, we describe the process of adapting an evidence-supported treatment to assist in managing significant co-existing health-related problems in a mother who was referred due to child neglect and drug abuse. At the conclusion of therapy, the participant reported improvements in perceived family relationships, illicit drug use, child maltreatment potential, whereas other health-related outcomes were mixed. Most improvements were maintained at 4-month follow-up. Issues relevant to implementing evidence-based treatments within community contexts are discussed, including methods of increasing the likelihood of valid outcome assessment, managing treatment integrity, and adjusting standardized treatments to accommodate co-occurring problems. This research was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (1R01DA020548-01A1 awarded to Brad Donohue. The authors wish to thank Sally K. Miller, PhD, APN, FAANP and Associate Professor, UNLV School of Nursing for her work in completing the initial in-home health evaluation/physical for the current project.
Bowlus, Audra J.; Seitz, Shannon N.
In this paper we study the effects of abusive behavior on the labor force andmarital status decisions of women. Using a unique Canadian data set on domestic violence, we estimate the effects of abuse on the marital history as well as current employment using a sequential, multi-state model. In our
Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K
Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.
If health care practitioners and institutions became familiar with legal options available to survivors of domestic violence, they could better facilitate their patients' access to potentially life-saving recourses. Such options include calling the police and obtaining civil protection orders and bringing custody, divorce, and support actions. Provider awareness of legal obligations and other legal considerations that arise when handling domestic violence cases is important for patient care and the practice of good risk management. Examples of such issues include domestic violence protocol requirements, documentation of abuse, and repercussions of mandatory reporting laws. Health care providers should work in collaboration with community domestic violence programs in educating staff on issues pertaining to domestic violence and in crafting policies that promote patient safety and autonomy.
Ceballo, Rosario; Ramirez, Cynthia; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela Alejandra; Lozoff, Betsy
Domestic violence against women is a pervasive, global health problem. This study investigates the correlates and psychological outcomes of domestic abuse among women in a semi-industrial country. The participants included 215 mothers residing in working-class communities located on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. We utilized structural equation…
Tonsing, Jenny C
This study examines South Asian women's experience of domestic violence in Hong Kong. Despite the proliferation of literature on domestic violence, this issue remain unexplored in the discourse of domestic violence in Hong Kong. A qualitative research approach through face to face interview with 14 women was employed. Participants were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. Findings from this study highlight the importance of considering the social and cultural influence on how women perceived and construct their experiences of abuse.Implications for practice and policies are highlighted.
... Am I being abused? Domestic or intimate partner violence Signs of domestic violence or abuse Getting a restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault ...
... abused? Domestic or intimate partner violence Signs of domestic violence or abuse Getting a restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault ...
Nittis, Maria; Hughes, Rod; Gray, Cecile; Ashton, Mandy
One in four women presenting to Emergency Departments in Australia have experienced domestic violence in their lives but there are no specialist services for victims of domestic violence in the state of New South Wales, population of 7.25 million. Fundamental forensic medical and nursing skills developed for the comprehensive assessment of complainants of sexual assault were utilised in the examination of victims of domestic violence in a trial project at Nepean Hospital, Sydney. The project was then reviewed via a series of qualitative patient and police interviews along with an analysis of court outcomes. Assessment by specialists in forensic documentation and interpretation of injuries with the provision of balanced expert opinions for court purposes can result in a number of benefits for the victims and the criminal justice system, including an increase in the rate of successful prosecutions. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sohal, Alex Hardip; Pathak, Neha; Blake, Sarah; Apea, Vanessa; Berry, Judith; Bailey, Jayne; Griffiths, Chris; Feder, Gene
Sexual health and gynaecological problems are the most consistent and largest physical health differences between abused and non-abused female populations. Sexual health services are well placed to identify and support patients experiencing domestic violence and abuse (DVA). Most sexual health professionals have had minimal DVA training despite English National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommendations. We sought to determine the feasibility of an evidence-based complex DVA training intervention in female sexual health walk-in services (IRIS ADViSE: Identification and Referral to Improve Safety whilst Assessing Domestic Violence in Sexual Health Environments). An adaptive mixed method pilot study in the female walk-in service of two sexual health clinics. Following implementation and evaluation at site 1, the intervention was refined before implementation at site 2. The intervention comprised electronic prompts, multidisciplinary training sessions, clinic materials and simple referral pathways to IRIS ADViSE advocate-educators (AEs). The pilot lasted 7 weeks at site 1 and 12 weeks at site 2. Feasibility outcomes were to assign a supportive DVA clinical lead, an IRIS ADViSE AE employed by a local DVA service provider, adapt electronic records, develop local referral pathways, assess whether enquiry, identification and referral rates were measurable. Both sites achieved all feasibility outcomes: appointing a supportive DVA clinical lead and IRIS ADViSE AE, establishing links with a local DVA provider, adapting electronic records, developing local referral pathways and rates of enquiry, identification and referral were found to be measurable. Site 1: 10% enquiry rate (n=267), 4% identification rate (n=16) and eight AE referrals. Site 2: 61% enquiry rate (n=1090), a 7% identification rate (n=79) and eight AE referrals. IRIS ADViSE can be successfully developed and implemented in sexual health clinics. It fulfils the unmet need for DVA training. Longer
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence by...
van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.
One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…
van Wijk, N.Ph.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.
One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence
According to a report by the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), up to half of the world's female population have suffered abuse at the hands of those closest to them, at some point in their lives. This report on Domestic Violence Against Women and Girls is a first effort by the UNICEF to establish the global dimensions of domestic abuse. It is also another step deeper into an aggressive campaign to address the root causes of the problems of millions of the world's women and children. Meanwhile, an outcome of the 5-day UN special meeting is a new blueprint to improve women's lives, noting domestic violence as a primary issue with emphasis on abortion, and punishment for marital rape, domestic abuse, and trafficking. In addition, the conference acknowledged the role of men in the process of improving women's lives. Moreover, the issues of welfare for women caught in armed conflict are also discussed with focus on the war in Mindanao, Philippines.
Uno, Hideo; Ui, Shiori; Aoyama, Atsuko
Domestic violence (DV) implies violence against women by intimate male partners. DV is a serious health issue for women, as well as a violation of human rights. It is a challenge to develop effective public health interventions, as they have to take into account complicated social and psychological background factors. In this paper we present an overview of various interventions in Japan and elsewhere in the world up to now, and propose a strategy for developing effective public health interventions. Governments and NGOs have been involved in various interventions to eliminate DV, e.g., establishing legal frameworks, providing emergency shelters for abused women, and educating male abusers. Health sector interventions include: systematic DV education to health professionals in Europe and the United States; and development of DV victim support networks, in which health facilities play core roles, in Asia and Latin America. The major expected roles of health professionals are identification and treatment of abused women, and prevention of recurrent violence. However, achievement of those goals is insufficient, because of the lack of systematic education, different views on DV between health professionals and abused women, misunderstanding of background factors, and lack of coordination between relevant agencies. The health sector, including clinical and public health services, is expected to play important roles in identifying and supporting abused women in Japan. A possible strategy is to integrate DV interventions into existing maternal and child health service systems. All the front-line health professionals should be provided with systematic training and practical manuals to treat abused women. Further research and evaluation of past interventions are needed to develop effective interventions.
Nyberg, E; Stieglitz, R-D; Flury, M; Riecher-Rössler, A
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESES: Domestic violence is common and can lead to severe physical and psychological problems. Thus, we have investigated the frequency of occurrence, forms and risk factors of domestic violence against female patients on a crisis intervention ward. 115 women were screened with the "screening spouse violence" (SPG) and the "index of spouse abuse" (ISA). The life time prevalence concerning spouse violence was 70 %. Out of 74 women who were currently living in a relationship 28 (38 % )were victims of violence in the last 12 months prior to their admission. Women who experienced violence had a significantly lower level of education. Screening for domestic violence in female patients in the field of crisis intervention and psychiatry should become a standard of "good clinical practice". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Hidrobo, Melissa; Fernald, Lia
Violence against women is a major health and human rights problem yet there is little rigorous evidence as to how to reduce it. We take advantage of the randomized roll-out of Ecuador's cash transfer program to mothers to investigate how an exogenous increase in a woman's income affects domestic violence. We find that the effect of a cash transfer depends on a woman's education and on her education relative to her partner's. Our results show that for women with greater than primary school education a cash transfer significantly decreases psychological violence from her partner. For women with primary school education or less, however, the effect of a cash transfer depends on her education relative to her partner's. Specifically, the cash transfer significantly increases emotional violence in households where the woman's education is equal to or more than her partner's. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Horan, D L; Chapin, J; Klein, L; Schmidt, L A; Schulkin, J
To ascertain the current knowledge base and screening practices of obstetrician-gynecologists in the area of domestic violence. We mailed a survey to 189 ACOG Fellows who are members of the Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network. Questionnaires were also mailed to a random sample of 1250 nonmember Fellows. Obstetrician-gynecologists are aware of the nature of domestic violence and are familiar with common symptomatology that may be associated with domestic violence. For pregnant patients, 39% of respondents routinely screen at the first prenatal visit; 27% of respondents routinely screen nonpregnant patients at the initial visit. Screening is most likely to occur when the obstetrician-gynecologist suspects a patient is being abused, both during pregnancy (68%) and when the patient is not pregnant (72%). Only 30% of obstetrician-gynecologists received training on domestic violence during medical school; 37% received such instruction during residency training. The majority (67%) have received continuing education on the subject. Years since training and personal experiences with intimate-partner violence were associated with increased screening practices. Routine screening of all women for domestic violence has been recommended by ACOG for more than a decade. The majority of obstetrician-gynecologists screen both pregnant and nonpregnant patients when they suspect abuse. However, with universal screening, more female victims of violence can be identified and can receive needed services.
Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna Ž.
Full Text Available The majority states in the world, as well as Serbia and Montenegro, took over the obligations from international law documents with regards to prevention, protection and prosecution of domestic violence. Over the last several years, in Serbia and Montenegro, there have been some positive steps regarding more decisive reaction on domestic violence, in the first place thanks to NGOs advocacy. However, the state involvement and contribution is still symbolic in comparison with obligations that international documents require from it. Having that in mind, authors try to explain the role and significance of international law for improving social responses on family violence. They also give systematic review of the most important demands that international law set up before the state. The main aim of the text is the analysis of the role that international law has in making state strategies in the field of domestic violence, as well as systematic review of existing international standards in this area which have to be taken into consideration in legislative, institutionalized and other reforms which are on going in Serbia and Montenegro.
Monica L Zilberman
Full Text Available Domestic violence and substance abuse are common in primary care patients. Although these problems are associated with severe physical and psychological sequelae, they are often undiagnosed. This article provides an overview of the prevalence of these problems, the health-related consequences for adults, children and elderly, as well as the challenges for clinicians in screening, assessment and referral.Violência doméstica e abuso de substâncias psicoativas são comuns em pacientes atendidos no sistema de saúde de baixa complexidade. Apesar de estes problemas acarretarem graves seqüelas físicas e psicológicas, eles freqüentemente não são diagnosticados. Este artigo oferece uma revisão ampla sobre a prevalência destes problemas e suas conseqüências para a saúde de adultos, crianças e idosos, bem como discute os desafios enfrentados por médicos clínicos para a sua detecção, avaliação e encaminhamento.
McGarry, Julie; Westbury, Maggie; Kench, Selecia; Furse, Bella
Domestic violence is recognised as a significant global health and societal concern. It is associated with physical and emotional effects, and individuals may present to a range of healthcare providers. There has been a paucity of evidence regarding effective strategies for the identification and support of patients who have experienced domestic violence, particularly in acute healthcare environments, until recently. This article describes the development and implementation of a domestic abuse nurse specialist role within one acute hospital trust. The wider implications for staff education and training are also considered.
Offers the author's experiences in teaching a college-level domestic violence sociology course, presenting specific strategies and a description of the syllabus. The course presents a feminist analysis of domestic violence and examines how the patriarchal structure and ideology of society create and perpetuate violence. (SLD)
violence in pregnancy secret. It is recommended that public awareness, about the inherent dangers associated with this act should be improved. Key words: Domestic violence, pregnant women; suburban community. INTRODUCTION. Domestic violence (DV) against women refers to any type of harmful behaviour directed ...
Bright, Melissa A; Huq, Mona Sayedul; Spencer, Terry; Applebaum, Jennifer W; Hardt, Nancy
Youth who engage in animal cruelty are known to be at increased risk of perpetrating violence on other people in their lives including peers, loved ones, and elder family members. These youths have often been exposed to family violence, including animal cruelty perpetrated on their beloved pets by violent adults. The current study utilizes a data set of 81,000 juvenile offenders whose adverse childhood experiences are known and includes 466 youth who self-report engaging in animal cruelty. Compared to the larger group of juvenile offenders, the children admitting to engaging in animal cruelty are younger at time of first arrest, more likely to be male, and more likely to be White. When looking at their reports of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), they are more likely than other juvenile offenders to have an array of adverse experiences beyond family violence and to have four or more ACEs. Although the youth who are cruel to animals are already troubled, the fact that they present to law enforcement at early ages provides early opportunities for intervention. Service providers outside the law enforcement field, such as teachers, physicians, veterinarians and animal control officers may be able to identify these vulnerable youth, and refer them to needed services before violence is visited on other humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Goddard, Chris; Piterman, Leon
Victims of domestic violence frequently attend health care facilities. In many cases, their abusive experience is neither disclosed nor discussed during clinical consultations. This study examined the barriers faced by women when discussing abuse with health care providers, specifically in cases involving Malaysian women with a history of domestic violence. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews was conducted with 10 women with a history of domestic violence residing at a shelter. Purposive sampling was conducted until data saturation. Using the grounded theory approach of analysis, themes that emerged from these interviews were then further analyzed to examine the barriers faced by these women. Women who experienced domestic violence faced multiple barriers while discussing their accounts of abuse with others. Values placed on the privacy of domestic violence; upholding the traditional gender roles; preserving the family unity; minimizing the abuse, the feeling of shame, self-blame; and fearing their abuser generally create internal barriers when discussing their encounters of abuse with health care providers. The perceived unknown role of health care professionals when dealing with patients experiencing domestic violence as well as the previous negative experiences in clinical consultations acted as external barriers for discussing abuse with health care providers. Women with domestic violence experiences faced internal and external barriers to discussing their abuse during clinical consultations. Physicians and health care providers must consider domestic violence in consultations with female patients. A good doctor-patient relationship that encompasses empathy, confidence, trust, support, assurance, confidentiality, and guidance can help patients with abusive backgrounds overcome these barriers, leading to the disclosure and discussion of their abusive encounters. Proper education, guidelines, and support for health care providers are required to help
Kenney, John P
As a natural outgrowth of the dental professional's role in recognizing and reporting child abuse the topic has been broadened in recent years to domestic violence, that is child, spouse/intimate partner, disabled and elder abuse. Forty years ago in the US there were 662 cases of child abuse reported to authorities. Today that reported number is in excess of 3 million per year [D. Wiese, D. Daro, Current trends in reporting and fatalities; the results of the 1994 annual 50 state survey, National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse, Working Paper 808, 1995]. The "dirty secret" of spousal/intimate partner violence is believed to affect 3-4 million individuals per year in the US. Studies have also found that between 50 and 70% of these perpetrators also abuse their children or those of their intimate partner [J. Kessman, Domestic violence, identifying the deadly silence, Texas Dent. J. (2000) 43]. Just as child abuse is most often manifested in the head or neck regions, likewise the evidence of physical violence to intimate partners and the elderly can be seen in the head or neck regions. The insidious part of partner and elder abuse is that often the largest component of these behaviors is psychological, emotional and indirect neglect, which leave no physical evidence [M. Bowers, Forensic Dental Evidence: An Investigator's Handbook, Elesevier, San Diego, CA, 2004, p. 119].
Weingourt, R; Maruyama, T; Sawada, I; Yoshino, J
There are positive changes in both the social and legal understanding of domestic violence in Japan. However, the scope of the problem has not been investigated in depth and described in the Japanese nursing literature. This descriptive study of a random sample of 177 women investigated domestic violence and the relationship between domestic violence and the mental health of the victims. Sixty-seven per cent of the female respondents reported having experiences of physical, psychological and/or sexual abuse. Forty-seven per cent of the abused women achieved statistically significant General Health Questionnaire scores that indicated clinical depression or anxiety. The findings of this study will enable Japanese nurses to better assess and intervene on behalf of their patients. In addition, avenues for further nursing research are suggested.
Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna
Violence in the family constitutes a serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in the psychological functioning of the victim and, secondarily, also the perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine resilience in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Ego Resiliency Scale" (ERS) was used to study the group of women suffering domestic violence. The study group included 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. They most often reported suffering psychological and physical violence, with the husband or intimate partner being the most common perpetrator. Study women experiencing domestic violence obtained significantly lower scores on the ERS. The lowest scores on the ERS were achieved by women suffering paternal violence, while the highest - by women experiencing violence on the part of the intimate partner. Resilience of study women suffering domestic violence was lower than resilience of the general population, i.e. individuals not experiencing domestic violence. Suffered violence inflicted by the father exerted the greatest adverse impact on resilience. It seems advisable to consider resilience in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.
Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.
This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…
Hossain, Nazli; Khan, Sharmeen
Domestic violence against women is a global issue. An earlier report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA, reported that injury caused by domestic violence was the second most common cause of death during pregnancy and in the postpartum period (1). The pregnancy-associated homicide ratio was found to be 1.7 per 100,000 deliveries and firearms were identified as the main source of injury. Domestic violence is more common in developing countries than in the developed world, and rural areas are worse affected than urban ones. The risk factors associated with intimate partner violence include husbands being unemloyed, belonging to a lower socioeconomic group, poor educational status, and alcohol and substance abuse. In a hospital-based study of 500 women, around 12.6% reported physical abuse by their spouses in index pregnancy (2). In another hospital-based study in which women were interviewed during the postpartum period, 23% reported physical abuse during index pregnancy (3). Death as a result of violence is not a new phenomenon. In 1994 the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan reported 372 cases of domestic violence, due to which around 274 women died during an 8-month period. According to a report for the year 2012-13 around 389 cases of domestic violence were reported in the Pakistani media that year. The same report states that in 2013, more than 800 women committed suicide due to domestic violence. In 2013, the Provincial Assembly of Sindh, Pakistan, passed The Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection) Bill, 2013, which imposes a fine of Rs 20,000 for violent offences against women. Such bills have not been passed in other provincial assemblies of the country. Other countries in South Asia (India, Nepal, Bangladesh, the Maldives, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan) have national laws which make provision for extending medical assistance to women who have suffered domestic violence (4). However, a lot remains to be done to translate these
... receiving vital treatment when they are most vulnerable. Now, victims need not fear the additional burden of... affected. In order to combat the prevalence of domestic violence and sexual assault in tribal areas, I... for failure in school, emotional disorders, substance abuse, and perpetrating violent behavior later...
This article provides a reflection on the experiences of Muslim women with regard to domestic violence. A qualitative approach was utilised following an explorative, descriptive, phenomenological contextual research design, as the researchers sought to understand the lived experiences of Muslim women in abusive ...
15-49 age group covering 320 Standard Enumeration Areas (clusters). In this paper, the data ... coercion, physical threats, psychological abuse and controlling actions such as physical isolation or restricting ... and associated factors of domestic violence among women of reproductive age across industrialized, middle and ...
forward the initial report of the Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence . This report is submitted in accordance with the provisions of Section 591...programs and policies associated with domestic violence in the military. These programs are commonly referred to within the Department of Defense as...Department in addressing domestic violence matters. During our initial meeting on April 24-26, 2000, we formed four standing workgroups: (1) Community
Gerard van den Berg; Michele Tertilt
In this paper we estimate the effects of the business cycle on the occurrence of domestic violence. For the victims, domestic violence is among the most traumatic events conceivable. Victims (typically, children and female spouses) are often tied to the perpetrator in a relationship of economic and emotional dependence. The current recession has hit men aged 18-65, who are the usual perpetrators, especially hard. Effects of job loss and economic hardship and deprivation on domestic violence m...
Izmirli, Gulsen O; Sonmez, Yonca; Sezik, Mekin
To determine the prevalence of, and independent risk factors for various domestic violence categories among married women of reproductive age in southwestern Turkey. The present cross-sectional study included 260 randomly selected women registered to a family physician in the district of Gönen, Isparta. During home visits between October 1 and December 31, 2012, the women completed a questionnaire that included between four and eight questions for each violence category (physical, verbal, economic, emotional, and sexual) to assess the lifetime presence of domestic violence. Logistic regression models with backward elimination were constructed to define independent risk factors for domestic violence. In total, 176 (67.7%) women reported any type of domestic violence at least once in their lifetime. Verbal/psychological abuse was the most frequent type (reported by 121 [46.5%] women). Living in a village, young age (19-29 years) of the husband, adolescent age (violence. Attention should be given to area of residence, age of both partners at marriage, adolescent marriage, and husband characteristics during screening for domestic violence. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mcgraw, C.; Jeffers, S.
A significant part of the health visiting role is to work with families where there is domestic violence. Pets are often regarded as members of the family and as such are additional victims in environments where domestic violence is perpetrated. This paper explores the co-existence of domestic violence and animal cruelty and the implications of the use of animal cruelty to exercise coercive control over intimate partners in terms of the dangerousness of the abuser. It also considers the impac...
Eng, Sothy; Szmodis, Whitney; Grace, Kelly
Divorce rates continue to rise, especially in urban centers, which in turn contributes to increasing numbers of women who remarry. While remarriage is one of the only options for survival for divorced women, especially those from low socioeconomic status, remarriage also brings with it increased stressors of financial strain and the strain of blended families. This study tested the hypothesis that remarried women compared with first-time married and divorced women are at increased risk for domestic violence. The sample was drawn from the Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey, consisting of 1,560 women with the average age of 31.64. Results showed that 20% of women reported emotional violence and 14%, physical violence. Based on hierarchical multiple regressions, this study found that remarried women were more likely to experience physical and emotional abuse than women in their first marriage or women who remain divorced/not in union. Further interaction analyses showed that domestic violence varies depending on place of residence, number of children younger than 5 years, partners' education, and wealth index. Rural residents who were in poorest and poorer groups and urban residents in their poorer and middle groups of their wealth index showed high risk of domestic violence. Remarried women with two or three children younger than 5 years showed highest risk of domestic violence. Additional three-way interaction analysis revealed that remarried women residing in rural/urban areas with a spouse having no education and/or primary level of education were at highest risk of domestic violence. The study lends support to the structural role of the power of male dominance on women's social and emotional well-being. This study suggested that to reduce men's perceived domination, structural intervention that includes implementing gender-responsive curriculum in formal education, as well as strengthening domestic violence law enforcement would help reduce domestic violence
Kocacik, Faruk; Dogan, Orhan
To determine the self-reported prevalence of domestic violence and associated risk factors in the Sivas province of Turkey. Five hundred and eighty-three households were chosen by the method of stratified random sampling. The average age among women was 28.65+/-4.64. A total of 45.3% of women were in 30-34 age-group, 76.5% were housewives, and 91.2% were married. The data were gathered by performing face-to-face interviews in participants' homes. Demographic data were obtained by fill-in forms. We found a statistically significant relationship among the types of violence and annual income, type of family, education and occupation level of women, education level of perpetrators, watching violent films, and childhood experience of emotional abuse or negligence. Fifty-two percent of women were exposed to at least one type of violence. Verbal violence was the most frequent type of violence (53.8%), followed by physical violence (38.3%). About 45% of women exposed to violence were in the 30-34 age group, 41.6% completed only primary schools, 73.6% were housewives, 91.7% were married, 71.0% had been exposed to violence during their childhood, and 45.2%, had been exposed to violence several times in a month. Economic problems were reported as the most important reason for domestic violence (31.4%). Our study found higher prevalence of domestic violence than expected. As an important public health problem, domestic violence requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand its causes and plan preventive measures.
Crandall, Marie; Senturia, Kirsten; Sullivan, Marianne; Shiu-Thornton, Sharyne
This article explores the experience of domestic violence and utilization of domestic violence resources among immigrant women who were Russian speaking. Participants, many of whom came to the United States as so-called mail-order brides, reported diverse forms of abuse, including isolation and financial restrictions, and were reluctant to get…
Studies of domestic violence in rural areas have predominantly focused on barriers that keep women trapped in abusive relationships. The literature has frequently suggested that rural culture influences the incidence of domestic violence, the forms it takes, and how it is experienced. Yet there is surprisingly little research on how rural culture…
McClennen, Joan C.
Empirical literature about same-gender domestic violence was relatively nonexistent until the past 20 years, and conducting research with this population about a sensitive topic remains a daunting endeavor. Existing studies reveal similarities between opposite- and same-gender domestic violence in prevalence, types of abuse, and various dynamics,…
Ponzetti,James J. Jr.; And Others
Presents an integrative review of the literature on spousal violence as it relates to the abusive male. Suggests various issues that need to be addressed before effective intervention with abusive males can proceed. (Author)
Sobkoviak, Rudina M; Yount, Kathryn M; Halim, Nafisa
Domestic violence against women is endemic globally and is an important social problem in its own right. A compounding concern is the impact of domestic violence against mothers on the nutritional status of their children. Liberia is an apt setting to examine this understudied topic, given the poor nutritional status of young children, high rate of domestic violence against women, and prolonged period of conflict that included systematic sexual violence against women. We expected that maternal exposure to domestic violence would predict lower anthropometric z-scores and higher odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight in children less than five years. Using data from 2467 mother-child dyads in the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey (LDHS) undertaken between December 24, 2006 and April 19, 2007, we conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine the total, unadjusted and adjusted associations of maternal exposure to domestic violence with these anthropometric measures in children. Maternal reports of sexual domestic violence in the prior year predicted lower adjusted z-scores for height-for-age and weight-for-height as well as higher odds of stunting and underweight. The findings underscore the needs to (1) enhance and enforce conventional and customary laws to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence; (2) treat maternal survivors of domestic violence and screen their children for nutritional deficits; (3) heighten awareness of the intergenerational implications especially of recent sexual domestic violence; and (4) clarify the biological and behavior pathways by which domestic violence may influence child growth, thereby mitigating early growth failure and its adverse implications into adulthood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
health, law enforcement and justice system in the areas, leaving many victims of domestic violence to suffer10. Several reports on the conflict in northern Uganda have noted domestic violence as one of the most pervasive violations of the rights of women and girls and a major public health problem in the region10.
Anczewska, Marta; Roszczynska-Michta, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Justyna; Charzynska, Katarzyna; Czabala, Czeslaw
It is generally held that it has been only recently that domestic violence gained appropriate attention as a major social problem. However several approaches, drawn from different theories are applicable in explaining the origin of this negative phenomenon. It is well recognized that trauma of domestic violence has destructive impact on somatic…
Tokuc, Burcu; Ekuklu, Galip; Avcioglu, Serap
The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence against married women in Edirne, Turkey. This is a cross-sectional study which included a representative sample of the married women living in the Provincial Center of Edirne. The total past year prevalence of some forms of physical domestic violence is 34% in…
Domestic abuse continues to claim many lives in Spain despite a series of new laws to protect women and to punish abusers. This essay explores the cultural influences of contemporary Spanish cinema on domestic violence. Four films are assessed against a Portfolio Model of social responsibility that uses two basic dimensions: realism and human…
Madhani, Farhana I; Karmaliani, Rozina; Patel, Cyra; Bann, Carla M; McClure, Elizabeth M; Pasha, Omrana; Goldenberg, Robert L
This community-based observational study of 1,325 women seen for antenatal care examined how women in Pakistan define violence against women (VAW), with an emphasis on domestic violence, what an acceptable response to violence is, reasons for remaining silent, and whether participants are willing to disclose incidents of domestic violence to others. Nearly half of the study participants believed that physical violence was VAW. Verbal abuse, controlling behavior by the husband, conflict with in-laws, overburdening domestic work, and threatening to leave or remarry were also considered VAW. However, only five respondents (0.4%) considered sexual abuse to be VAW. Most women who screened positive for domestic violence responded by remaining silent or verbal fighting back. None sought professional help. Women who decided to remain silent feared that the abuse would escalate or that responding would not help them. Women cited social stigma and concerns about the impact of the violence on children as reasons for not disclosing violent incidents to others or seeking professional help. Women's lack of autonomy further reduced their ability to take steps against violence. Although societal norms, particularly patriarchal beliefs and women's subordination to men, likely explain women's tolerance of abuse, their recognition of physical abuse as violence indicates that they do not necessarily believe it is always justified. Educational interventions to drive changes in the social norms around gender violence along with effective and enforceable legal measures are likely required to ensure women's safety. © The Author(s) 2015.
Dempsey, Bernadette; Day, Andrew
An understanding of how the beliefs of domestically violent offenders might influence their abusive behavior is central to the development and delivery of any intervention program that aims to reduce the risk of further violence against women and children. This article reports the results of a preliminary investigation into the core beliefs of a sample of domestically violent men. Three major themes emerged from an analysis of the accounts of their violence, which were understood in relation to three implicit theories that participants held about themselves, their relationships, and the world. These are discussed in terms of previous studies of offender cognition, how domestic violence programs might be conceptualized, and their implications for practice.
Polychronopoulou, M; Douzenis, A
This study is trying to record the consequences of domestic violence to the mental health of abused women. The tools that were used were the following: PCL-S and GHQ. The research was conducted by B΄Psychiatric Clinic of Attica General Hospital in collaboration with the National Centre of Social Solidarity and the WIN HELLAS (NGO). The victims did not have any diagnosed mental disorder before the present study. Concerning the form of violence that they had gone through, 33% of the victims had suffered psychological abuse, 30% has suffered physical abuse and the 16% sexual abuse, while 20% of the victims has suffered all the above forms of violence. As arises from the preliminary results of our research, 60% of the victims presented symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder while 46% from the above percentage presented chronic PTSD. Regarding to the state of their psychosomatic health, 40% of victims has declared that during the last two weeks they felt worse than usual. More specifically, 60% feels a physical discomfort, 73% of victims presents reduction in functionalism while 56% seems to have stress symptoms. Finally 53% of victims show symptoms of depressions. By referring to the duration of abuse, 72% of total victims declared that had suffered violence during the last months; while 13% of total declared that they were being abused for more than five years.1,2.
Hester, Marianne; Walker, Sarah-Jane
The paper looks at the different attrition trajectories of rape cases involving acquaintance rape, rape in the context of domestic violence by intimate (ex)partners and in the context of historical child sexual abuse. Rape in the contexts of domestic violence or historical child sexual abuse have not received much separate attention in previous studies, tending to be included in categories involving alleged offender known to victim or excluded altogether as involving under-16s. The article ex...
Seinfeld, S.; Arroyo-Palacios, J.; Iruretagoyena, G.; Hortensius, R.; Zapata, L. E.; Borland, D.; de Gelder, B.; Slater, M.; Sanchez-Vives, M. V.
The role of empathy and perspective-taking in preventing aggressive behaviors has been highlighted in several theoretical models. In this study, we used immersive virtual reality to induce a full body ownership illusion that allows offenders to be in the body of a victim of domestic abuse. A group of male domestic violence offenders and a control group without a history of violence experienced a virtual scene of abuse in first-person perspective. During the virtual encounter, the participants...
Full Text Available Background: It is over the last decade that research in this field of domestic violence has led to greater recognition of the issue as public health problem. The paper aims to study the prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and potential risk factors of the women confronting violence within the home in India. Materials and Methods: A multicentric study with analytical cross-sectional design was applied. It covers 18 states in India with 14,507 women respondents. Multistage sampling and probability proportion to size were done. Results: The result shows that overall 39 per cent of women were abused. Women who have a lower household income, illiterate, belonging to lower caste, and have a partner who drinks/bets, etc. found to be important risk factors and place women in India at a greater risk of experiencing domestic violence. Conclusion: As India has already passed a bill against domestic violence, the present results on robustness of the problem will be useful to sensitize the concerned agencies to strictly implement the law. This may lead to more constructive and sustainable response to domestic violence in India for improvement of women health and wellbeing.
Mahapatro, Meerambika; Gupta, Rn; Gupta, Vinay
It is over the last decade that research in this field of domestic violence has led to greater recognition of the issue as public health problem. The paper aims to study the prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and potential risk factors of the women confronting violence within the home in India. A multicentric study with analytical cross-sectional design was applied. It covers 18 states in India with 14,507 women respondents. Multistage sampling and probability proportion to size were done. The result shows that overall 39 per cent of women were abused. Women who have a lower household income, illiterate, belonging to lower caste, and have a partner who drinks/bets, etc. found to be important risk factors and place women in India at a greater risk of experiencing domestic violence. As India has already passed a bill against domestic violence, the present results on robustness of the problem will be useful to sensitize the concerned agencies to strictly implement the law. This may lead to more constructive and sustainable response to domestic violence in India for improvement of women health and wellbeing.
Mohammadi, Nooredin; Kochak, Hamid Emadi; Gharacheh, Maryam
Domestic violence is one of the most prevalent problems linked to HIV. Domestic violence in HIV-infected women has not been sufficiently explored, particularly in developing countries including Iran. This study aimed to explore the lived experience of domestic violence in Iranian HIV-infected women. A qualitative approach was used to conduct the study. Data were collected through semi-structured, in-depth interviews with ten HIV-infected women and were analyzed using content analysis. During the data analysis, four main themes emerged including, "regretful past", "disappointing future", "loneliness", and "no other option", which refer to the condition that the participants experienced in their lives due to challenges that mainly stem from the experience of HIV-related domestic violence. HIV infection can be a risk factor for domestic violence. Health care providers need to address domestic violence during the assessment of HIV-infected women and make appropriate referrals for abused women.
Kataoka, Yaeko; Yaju, Yukari; Eto, Hiromi; Horiuchi, Shigeko
To determine the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) against women during pregnancy and to identify risk factors for DV and effects on women's mental health. Pregnant women from an OB-GYN outpatient clinic at a hospital in an urban area were recruited consecutively from February to May 2003. Women who agreed to participate in the research answered three self-administered questionnaires: the GHQ30, the Rosenberg Self Esteem, and one for demographic characteristics at 14 gestational weeks. In order to determine DV prevalence rate during pregnancy, the Japanese version of the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) for measuring severity of DV was provided to those women over 35 gestational weeks. Two hundred seventy nine women answered all questionnaires. 15 of the 279 respondents (5.4%) were DV positive during pregnancy based on the Japanese version of the ISA. Nine had experienced physical violence, and twelve had non-physical violence Compared with women who had not experienced DV during pregnancy, DV positive pregnant women were more likely to be multipara (OR = 3.9) and to have experienced physical violence in the past from a different partner (OR = 9.1). Moreover, general illness (OR = 3.8), sleep disturbance (OR = 5.8), anxiety (OR = 6.3), depression (OR = 11.5) and low self-esteem (P = 0.02) were identified as effects of DV on women's mental health. Some 5.4% of women in Japan, approximately 1 in every 20, may experience DV during pregnancy. This is associated with parity and a past history of DV as demographic characteristics, and has an adverse impact on mental health, especially depression. Development of a support system for screening, intervention and referral for DV sufferers is urgently needed.
Bhandari, Mohit; Dosanjh, Sonia; Tornetta, Paul; Matthews, David
Domestic violence is the most common cause of nonfatal injury to women in the United States, with an estimated cost of $50 billion annually. Little is known about the spectrum of musculoskeletal injuries in victims of domestic violence. We examined the characteristics of abused women, the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries, and the variables associated with increasing frequency of physical violence against women. We identified all female survivors of intimate partner violence who were referred to the Minnesota Domestic Abuse Program from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2003. Characteristics of each woman's background, abuse history, and injuries were obtained by a trained program therapist in an in-depth, 2-hour intake interview. Specific data forms were completed for each interview. Five forms of experienced abuse were explored (physical, emotional, psychological, sexual, and financial). Injuries were subcategorized as (1) head and neck, (2) musculoskeletal, (3) chest, (4) abdomen, and (5) skin (integumentary system). We conducted regression analyses to determine factors associated with the frequency of physical abuse. Of 270 potentially eligible women, 263 (97%) with complete records were included. Women were commonly Caucasian (62%) in their third decade of life with one or more children (87%). A history of abuse was recalled by over half of the women (54%). The most prevalent forms of abuse were emotional (84%), psychological (68%), physical (43%), sexual (41%), and financial (38%). Child protective services were concomitantly involved in half of the women living in abusive relationships. Among those women who reported physical abuse, 36% sought medical attention. We identified 144 injuries in 218 physically abused women. Head and neck injuries were the most prevalent after intimate partner violence (40%). Musculoskeletal injuries were the second most common manifestation of intimate partner violence (28%). The spectrum of injuries included sprains (n
Ramsay, Jean; Rutterford, Clare; Gregory, Alison; Dunne, Danielle; Eldridge, Sandra; Sharp, Debbie; Feder, Gene
Domestic violence affects one in four women and has significant health consequences. Women experiencing abuse identify doctors and other health professionals as potential sources of support. Primary care clinicians agree that domestic violence is a healthcare issue but have been reluctant to ask women if they are experiencing abuse. To measure selected UK primary care clinicians' current levels of knowledge, attitudes, and clinical skills in this area. Prospective observational cohort in 48 general practices from Hackney in London and Bristol, UK. Administration of the Physician Readiness to Manage Intimate Partner Violence Survey (PREMIS), comprising five sections: responder profile, background (perceived preparation and knowledge), actual knowledge, opinions, and practice issues. Two hundred and seventy-two (59%) clinicians responded. Minimal previous domestic violence training was reported by participants. Clinicians only had basic knowledge about domestic violence but expressed a positive attitude towards engaging with women experiencing abuse. Many clinicians felt poorly prepared to ask relevant questions about domestic violence or to make appropriate referrals if abuse was disclosed. Forty per cent of participants never or seldom asked about abuse when a woman presented with injuries. Eighty per cent said that they did not have an adequate knowledge of local domestic violence resources. GPs were better prepared and more knowledgeable than practice nurses; they also identified a higher number of domestic violence cases. Primary care clinicians' attitudes towards women experiencing domestic violence are generally positive but they only have basic knowledge of the area. Both GPs and practice nurses need more comprehensive training on assessment and intervention, including the availability of local domestic violence services.
Ramsay, Jean; Rutterford, Clare; Gregory, Alison; Dunne, Danielle; Eldridge, Sandra; Sharp, Debbie; Feder, Gene
Background Domestic violence affects one in four women and has significant health consequences. Women experiencing abuse identify doctors and other health professionals as potential sources of support. Primary care clinicians agree that domestic violence is a healthcare issue but have been reluctant to ask women if they are experiencing abuse. Aim To measure selected UK primary care clinicians’ current levels of knowledge, attitudes, and clinical skills in this area. Design and setting Prospective observational cohort in 48 general practices from Hackney in London and Bristol, UK. Method Administration of the Physician Readiness to Manage Intimate Partner Violence Survey (PREMIS), comprising five sections: responder profile, background (perceived preparation and knowledge), actual knowledge, opinions, and practice issues. Results Two hundred and seventy-two (59%) clinicians responded. Minimal previous domestic violence training was reported by participants. Clinicians only had basic knowledge about domestic violence but expressed a positive attitude towards engaging with women experiencing abuse. Many clinicians felt poorly prepared to ask relevant questions about domestic violence or to make appropriate referrals if abuse was disclosed. Forty per cent of participants never or seldom asked about abuse when a woman presented with injuries. Eighty per cent said that they did not have an adequate knowledge of local domestic violence resources. GPs were better prepared and more knowledgeable than practice nurses; they also identified a higher number of domestic violence cases. Conclusion Primary care clinicians’ attitudes towards women experiencing domestic violence are generally positive but they only have basic knowledge of the area. Both GPs and practice nurses need more comprehensive training on assessment and intervention, including the availability of local domestic violence services. PMID:22947586
Crandall, Marie; Senturia, Kirsten; Sullivan, Marianne; Shiu-Thornton, Sharyne
This article explores the experience of domestic violence and utilization of domestic violence resources among immigrant women who were Russian speaking. Participants, many of whom came to the United States as so-called mail-order brides, reported diverse forms of abuse, including isolation and financial restrictions, and were reluctant to get outside help because of embarrassment about their circumstances. Survivors stressed the importance of language- and culture-appropriate outreach and services and urged that women receive information about domestic violence services and laws on immigration. Assistance with housing, child care, and job searches is integral to safe transitions out of abusive relationships.
Kim, Bitna; Titterington, Victoria B; Kim, Yeonghee; Wells, William
The present research contributes to the growing body of cross-cultural research on domestic violence. This is accomplished by answering the question of how severity of intimate partner abuse varies for (1) women incarcerated for the homicides of their male partners (2) abused women who sought domestic violence shelter, short of killing their intimate assailants, and (3) a group of South Korean females outside of domestic violence shelters or prison. The article concludes with a discussion of potential policy implications of the findings as well as promising directions for future research.
Antle, Becky; Barbee, Anita; Yankeelov, Pam; Bledsoe, Linda
This purpose of this research was to evaluate the mandatory reporting law for domestic violence victims in the state of Kentucky through the qualitative interview of 24 female victims of domestic violence. Victims were generally supportive of the law and felt that professionals should be required to report domestic abuse. They did not feel that…
Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence.
Radulović Danka M.
Full Text Available Domestic violence is a problem to which more attention is paid today. However, in its theoretical consideration, as well as in practical reaction, one must not lose sight of characteristics of domestic violence of one, rather numerous category of perpetrators who have psychopathic structure of personality. Domestic violence which offenders are psychopaths must be treated very carefully, because each mistake in intervention can cause much bigger damage to the victim than absence of reaction at all. Due to that, before any intervention, it would be necessary to make a diagnosis on whether the perpetrator has psychopathic structure of personality or not.
IASK WORK UNIT ELEfMENT NO. INO. NO ACCESSiON NO- 11. T’LE (Include Security Classif’carton) (UNCLASSIFIED) Domestic Violence : Battered Women Who Kill...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE AFIT/CI "OVERPRINT" DOMESTIC VIOLENCE : BATTERED WOMEN WHO KILL Mickey D. Cockerill B.S., Baptist College, South Carolina...SACRAMENTO SUMMER 1988 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE : BATTERED WOMEN WHO KILL A Thesis by Mickey D. Cockerill Approved by: -/" " , Chair Dr. Thomas R. Phelps tA-t bl
... disorders, problems at school, aggressive behavior and low self-esteem. You might worry that seeking help could further ... one deserves to be abused. Intimate partner violence: Definitions. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www. ...
Borras-Guevara, Martha Lucia; Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I
Potential protection from violence has been suggested as an explanation for women's preferences for more masculine partners. Previous studies, however, have not considered that violence may be multi-modal, and hence come from different sources. Therefore, we tested the effect of different fears of violence (i.e. vulnerability to public crime, likelihood of within-partnership violence) on masculinity preferences of women from Colombia, a country known for its high rates of violence. Eighty-three adult heterosexual women (mean age ± SD = 26.7 ± 6.01) answered a survey that included questions about health (e.g. frequency of illnesses during the last year and during childhood), access to media (e.g. time spent watching television, frequency of internet use), education (i.e. highest level achieved) and violence perceptions. Participants' masculinity preferences for Salvadoran, European and Colombian male faces were recorded. Factor analysis revealed two different factors for the answers to questions related to violence. One factor loaded mostly on questions related to public violence and the second factor related to domestic violence. We found that women with higher scores on the domestic violence factor preferred significantly less masculine Colombian male faces. Even after controlling for participant age, education, access to media (TV and internet) and health-related factors, the domestic violence factor contributed significantly to explaining masculinity preferences. The results presented here suggest that women's preferences for masculinity may be a strategy to avoid aggressive partners and that the source of violence matters in mate choice. Women who perceive higher risks of domestic violence prefer less masculine looking partners. Using an experimental approach, we show that Colombian women who feel more in danger of violence within partnership prefer the faces of less masculine males. This was true even after controlling for women's education level
Fowler, Drew R; Cantos, Arthur L; Miller, Steven A
The present study investigated the predictive utility of self-reported domestic violence perpetrators' exposure to violence in their family of origin and patterns related to this exposure through the use of longitudinal analyses on a sample of 228 men on probation in Lake County, Illinois. Differences in typology, recidivism, recidivism frequency, and violent behavior survival patterns in men with a history of domestic violence perpetration and with varying levels of family of origin violence exposure were examined. Findings suggest that those who witnessed interparental violence (either alone, or in combination with experiencing violence) were most likely to be classified as Generally Violent offenders (e.g., perpetrators who direct violence toward their family and others), compared to those who did not report experiencing or witnessing violence. In addition, results also indicate that men who experienced both witnessing interparental violence and receiving physical abuse in childhood were more likely to recidivate more frequently compared to those who did not report experiencing or witnessing violence. No significant findings for typology and recidivism were noted. Clinical and policy/practice implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gyuse, A N I; Ushie, A P; Etukidem, A
Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual well being and not just the absence of disease. Domestic violence (synonyms: spouse abuse, partner or intimate violence, family violence) is a public health problem which is defined as any intentional abuse of a family member (mostly females but not exclusive) by his/her partner that causes pain or injury. There is paucity of data on domestic violence mainly because of under-reporting by the victims. However, domestic violence is said to be a more frequent occurrence than other recognized pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, twin pregnancy or gestational diabetes for which women are routinely screened during the antenatal period. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence in pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a local Nigerian mission hospital in Jos, Plateau state. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of women attending antenatal clinic at ECWA Evangel Hospital, Jos over a six month period using the Abuse Assessment Screen developed by McFarlane to detect the prevalence of domestic violence. The data were analysed using Epi Info Version 2002. Three hundred and forty pregnant women were studied. Majority of them were married and were mostly aged between 20 and 39 years. Domestic violence prevalence was 12.6% (43) in the current pregnancy and 63.2% (215) previously. The study establishes that women in our environment experience domestic violence during pregnancy and majority of them also have a previous history of abuse. There is the need to routinely screen for domestic violence in pregnant women so as to prevent potential adverse pregnancy outcomes and to interrupt existing abuse.
Groth, B; Chelmowski, M K; Batson, T P
Domestic violence is a prevalent problem with significant health consequences. Early recognition and appropriate intervention with referral to local domestic violence agencies can be life-saving. Little is known, however, about the current level of training, knowledge base and attitudes of physicians in this area. A survey was sent to 1300 physicians practicing in Milwaukee County in the following specialties: Family Practice, Internal Medicine, OB/GYN, Psychiatry. Demographic information was obtained. Questions were designed to explore attitudes towards domestic violence, frequency of encounters with victims or abusers, and knowledge of resources and appropriate intervention. Of the 192 respondents, 74% reported having some training in domestic violence. Thirty percent reported seeing victims in their practice on a daily or weekly basis. Seventy percent feel able to identify a victim of domestic violence. Less than a third of respondents screened at least half of the patients they see for the possibility of abuse. Less than half always refer victims to a hotline or shelter, and less than a quarter of the respondents discuss safety plans with victims. A potentially dangerous response is telling a victim not to go back to an abuser without providing referrals and safety supports. In spite of this, almost a quarter of respondents always tell a victim to not go back to the abuser. Family practitioners and psychiatrists were more likely to discuss abuse with patients than were internists. Significant numbers of physicians, in Milwaukee County, practicing certain specialties that potentially have a high rate of contact with domestic violence victims have had insufficient training in domestic violence assessment and intervention. Physicians should be familiar with the domestic violence hotlines and shelters in their communities and need to incorporate screen questions for domestic violence into their regular practice.
This article focuses on the particular cultural factors that affect South Asian women who are abused and immigrant South Asian women who are abused, in particular, in the restorative justice process. By exploring cultural practices and the icon of Sita, the mythological heroine of the Ramayana, this article demonstrates how the South Asian ideals of womanhood and wifehood help to create a mind-set whereby South Asian women are reluctant to advocate for themselves and are reluctant to leave. Such a condition is contrary to the conditions and abilities assumed by the restorative justice movement for dispute resolution, inside or outside of domestic violence. It is concluded that restorative justice options are ill-suited to application among immigrant South Asian communities for domestic violence cases.
Karakurt, Gunnur; Patel, Vishal; Whiting, Kathleen; Koyutürk, Mehmet
Intimate partner violence (IPV) often culminates in acute physical injury, sexual assault, and mental health issues. It is crucial to understand the healthcare habits of victims to develop interventions that can drastically improve a victim's quality of life and prevent future abuse. The objective of this study is to mine de-identified and aggregated Electronic Health Record data to identify women's health issues that are potentially associated with IPV. In this study we compared health issues of female domestic abuse victims to female non-domestic abuse victims. The Domestic abuse population contained 5870 patients, while the Non-Domestic Abuse population contained 14,315,140 patients. Explorys provides National Big Data from the entire USA. Statistical analysis identified 2429 terms as significantly more prevalent among victims of domestic abuse, compared to the general population. These terms were classified into broad categories, including acute injury, chronic conditions, substance abuse, mental health, disorders, gynecological and pregnancy related problems.
Full Text Available The most common synonyms for term family are: love, support, understanding, warmness, etc. The family should present the place of the most protected living where each its member gets everything what he/she needs for undisturbed psychological and physical growth. However, sometimes it isn’t like that and the family present the place of violence, harassment and neglecting. Unfortunately, domestic violence is as old as the human being. Special mechanisms and tactics of harassment are built through history. They succeeded to make the domestic violence hidden and away from detailed sociopsyhological researches and practical interventions for so long. The aim of this work is to inspire expert’s attention to more often phenomenon of domestic violence, and the need for more detailed analysis of mechanisms which determine appearance and maintenance of violence, and all this with intention to find out the most adequate solution in prevention of this social problem.
Full Text Available The most common synonyms for term family are: love, support, understanding, warmness, etc. The family should present the place of the most protected living where each its member gets everything what he/she needs for undisturbed psychological and physical growth. However, sometimes it isn't like that and the family present the place of violence, harassment and neglecting. Unfortunately, domestic violence is as old as the human being. Special mechanisms and tactics of harassment are built through history. They succeeded to make the domestic violence hidden and away from detailed socio-psyhological researches and practical interventions for so long. The aim of this work is to inspire experts' attention to more often phenomenon of domestic violence, and the need for more detailed analysis of mechanisms which determine appearance and maintenance of violence, and all this with intention to find out the most adequate solution in prevention of this social problem.
Lima, Lucia Helena Mello de; Mattar, Rosiane; Abrahão, Anelise Riedel
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence in adolescent and adult mothers who were admitted to obstetrics services centers in Brazil and to identify risk factors of domestic violence and any adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. Researchers used standardized interviews, the questionnaire Abuse Assessment Screen, and a review of patients' medical records. Descriptive statistical analyses were also used. The prevalence of domestic violence among all participants totaled 40.1% (38.5% of adolescents, 41.7% of adults). Factors associated with domestic violence during pregnancy were as follows: a history of family violence, a greater number of sexual partners, and being a smoker. No statistically significant association was found for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. Results showed that, in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, pregnancy did not protect a woman from suffering domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God is one of the acclaimed boldly feminist novels of the 20th century. In general, this article draws on feminism and what looms large in feminism which is called sexism. In particular it focuses on domestic violence as a major sexist oppression. Domestic violence aroused by jealousy, anger, coercion, humiliation, threatening is manifest in verbal and physical abusing of women. Hurston skillfully depicts her heroine's undergoing of domestic violence by her husbands, each in different ways. This article aims to show that how the black heroine's battling with this violence purports to feminism and self-discovery of women.
... rebellious or oppositional behavior Declining grades Social withdrawal Depression or anxiety Loss of interest in school, friends or other things they enjoyed in the past Children and adolescents exposed to domestic violence should be evaluated by ...
van Wijk, N Ph L; de Bruijn, J G M
One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single parenthood, and unemployment increase the risk for women, but not for men. These findings are consistent with current literature on the subject. Further research on the context, nature, and severity of domestic violence in the Caribbean is necessary. Studies should preferably combine the strengths of national crime surveys and family conflict studies: nationally representative samples (including men and women) and questionnaires that include all possible experiences of psychological, physical, and sexual assaults by current and former partners, family, and friends.
Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p abused in childhood (8...
Montoya, Celeste; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen
Violence against women is a universal problem, affecting women at all levels of society; however, differently situated women have unique experiences with violence. Theoretically, this calls for the necessity to balance universality with intersectionality. Analyzing EU policy texts, we argue...... that the recognition of different forms of violence has led to an increased tendency toward culturalization, i.e. articulating culture as the only explanation behind certain forms of violence or focusing exclusively on culturalized forms of violence. While largely ignoring the gendered nature of violence, cultural...... framings of violence also create a dichotomy between “insiders” (non-violent Europeans) and “outsiders” (violent others)....
Al Dosary, Ahmad Hamad
Domestic violence is a major public health problem. A wide range of health hazards result from violence against women directly, or from its long-term consequences. The objective of this study is to determine health related consequences of domestic violence against women. A community based cross-sectional study was carried through online survey; convenience sample was taken during the period between December 2013 and February 2014. 421 women completed the survey, who met the inclusion criteria and accepted willing to be a part of this study. The data was collected through online survey website. A validated Arabic version of NorVold Domestic Abuse Questionnaire (NOVAQ) was used as a tool to assess domestic violence among the study sample. Analysis was performed using SPSS, version 18.0. A total of 421 women participated in the survey. There was no significant correlation between socio-demographic characteristics and being abused or not. However, by further analysis we found more sexual abuse among non-working women P=0.048. There was significant correlation between abused women and general health status, doctor visits, depression, insomnia, and somatic symptoms. The consequences of abuse are profound, extending beyond the health of individual to affect the well-being of entire community. So, we recommend to increase community awareness through national awareness campaign, national prevalence survey of domestic violence and well trained health professionals for assessing domestic violence cases.
Sarkar, N N
The objective of this study is to evaluate and elucidate the impact of domestic violence on the health and pregnancy outcomes of women. Data were extracted from literature through the MEDLINE database for years 2000-2011. Domestic violence occurs in every society, irrespective of class, creed, religion and country. Women attending antenatal clinics in Delhi reported experience of 26.9% physical, 29% mental and 6.2% sexual abuse, irrespective of their age. The spouse was the perpetrator of abuse in 47% cases and his family members were responsible for 31%. Pregnant women were hit by their husbands on the back and abdomen, sometimes repeatedly, besides psychological abuse. Incidence of domestic violence was more when the male spouse was less educated or in the habit of consuming alcohol, opium or tobacco. Illiteracy, poverty, family status and uncaring attitude of community about spousal violence were the causes of domestic violence. Women having experience of violence were less likely to receive antenatal care or home visits by health workers and had a risk of perinatal and neonatal mortality of 2.59 and 2.37 times higher, respectively, than women having no violence during pregnancy. The survey indicated that 4.5% of abused women required hospitalisation and 3.8% needed medical care. Women's education, economic autonomy and empowerment may reduce the incidence of domestic violence among Indian women.
Santos Corraliza, E; Larrañaga Hernando, G; Neve Lete, I; Sánchez García, A
Domestic violence is currently an issue of great political and social importance. The real incidence of domestic violence is difficult to determine due to the environment where it takes place and the reluctance of victims to report abuse. On the other hand, all types of violence represent an important public health problem. We report the case of a young woman who presented with thromboembolic phenomena at different sites due to domestic violence. We emphasize that it is necessary for radiologists and other healthcare professionals to consider the possibility of domestic violence when establishing the diagnosis. This can be important for determining the incidence of abuse, diminishing its sequela, and help increase its reporting. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Völkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Huemer, Julia; Jandl-Jager, Elisabeth; Abensberg-Traun, Marihan; Marecek, Sonja; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Skala, Katrin
The experience of cumulative childhood adversities, such as exposure to domestic violence or abuse by caregivers, has been described as risk factor for poor mental health outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. We performed an investigation of experience of violence in all patients aged 6 to 20 years who had consulted the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, as outpatients during the period of one year. We were using the Childhood Trauma Interview (CTI) in order to obtain information on the kind of violence. Seventy-five percent of all patients had reported experiences of violence. These youth were significantly more often involved in acts of school violence, thus a significant correlation between experience of domestic violence and violence at school could be revealed. The results of our study emphasize the need for interventions preventing violence both in domestic and in school environments.
Overlien, Carolina; Hyden, Margareta
The aim of this article is, by analysing children's discourses, to investigate their actions or absence of actions during a domestic violence episode. The empirical data are recorded group therapy sessions and individual interviews with children who have grown up experiencing their fathers' violence against their mothers. The analysis shows that…
Domestic violence against women or girl child has been an old phenomenon women were compared as weak, vulnerable, and in position to be exploited. The traditional norms has made them subject of violence where men were given the outright domination over the issue that affect their lines. They are assaulted ...
An innovative methodology will document approximately 150 victims' experience of accessing justice for rape and domestic violence while the cases play out in the ... IDRC is supporting research that studies the most effective ways to empower women, prevent gender-based violence, and make digital platforms work for ...
Objective The aim of the present study was to review and analyse academic literature and program evaluations to identify promising evidence for health system responses to domestic violence in Australia and internationally. Methods English-language literature published between January 2005 and March 2016 was retrieved from search results using the terms 'domestic violence' or 'intimate partner violence' in different combinations with other relevant terms, resulting in 1671 documents, of which 59 were systematic reviews. Electronic databases (Medline (Ovid), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Psycinfo, Social work Abstracts, Informit, Violence and Abuse Abstracts, Family Studies Abstracts, Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews and EMBASE) were searched and narrative analysis undertaken. Results This review details the evidence base for the following interventions by health services responding to domestic violence: first-line responses, routine screening, risk assessment and safety planning, counselling with women, mother-child interventions, responses to perpetrators, child protection notifications, training and system-level responses. Conclusions There is growing evidence for the effectiveness of health service interventions to reduce the extent of harm caused by domestic violence. What is known about the topic? Domestic violence is a significant problem globally with enormous human, social and economic costs. Although women who have experienced abuse make extensive use of healthcare services, health services have lagged behind the policing, criminal justice and other human service domains in responding to domestic violence. What does this paper add? The present comprehensive review identifies best-practice health system responses to domestic violence. What are the implications for practitioners? Health systems can play a key role in identifying and responding to domestic violence for women who often do not access other services
Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Bates, Lisa M; Islam, Farzana
This article seeks to deepen understanding of the reasons that abused women in a resource-poor rural setting seek recourse so seldom and with so little success. Data from in-depth interviews and group discussions are used to explore the range of responses to domestic violence and to examine barriers to recourse seeking. Findings illustrate how the combination of poverty and gender inequality, inequities in the legal framework, and patriarchal attitudes and corruption in both formal and informal institutions at the local level discourage abused women from seeking recourse and decrease the likelihood of a favorable outcome when they do.
Francis, Lyn; Loxton, Deborah; James, Colin
To explore in detail how women perceived their experience of domestic violence and leaving or ending the abuse. This research also examined how service providers identified their professional role in assisting women to end such relationships. Domestic violence against women continues to occur internationally. Reliable statistics are difficult to capture because of inconsistent definitions, contradictory methods of acquiring data and unreported incidents. A qualitative study, undertaken in two phases, was conducted in Australia. Twelve women who had experienced domestic violence and ended those relationships participated in one semistructured interview (Phase 1). Twenty-five professionals from health, social sciences and law, whose work included assisting women experiencing domestic violence, participated in three focus groups (Phase 2). Thematic analysis guided by a narrative inquiry approach forms the framework for information collection and interpretation of data in this project. The barriers that impede women from disclosing abuse and taking action to end domestic violence are complex and varied between participants. Women did not always acknowledge or realise their relationship was precarious and often denied or minimised the abuse to cope with the domestic violence. Professionals identified that women did not always identify or acknowledge abuse inherent in their relationship although this delayed the provision of appropriate services. Whether women disclose abuse or deny violence in their relationship, acceptance by service providers and the offer of support is crucial to assisting women in violent relationships. It is hoped that the findings may assist health practitioners, including nurses, to provide nonjudgemental support to women experiencing domestic violence whether women acknowledge the abusive relationship or not. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sahin, H A; Sahin, H G
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and type of domestic violence during pregnancy in Turkey and to compare socioeconomic background factors. A survey was carried out among a representative sample of 475 pregnant women. Data were collected on the incidence and the nature of domestic violence perpetrated by the woman's spouse or other family members during her current pregnancy and before. Sociodemographic characteristics such as age, duration of marriage, number of children, monthly income, education, occupation of the husband, domestic violence towards children, contribution to family decisions, smoking habits, sexual relations and whether the pregnancy was planned or not, were also recorded. Of the 475 women screened for domestic violence during pregnancy, 158 (33.3%) reported physical or sexual abuse since they had become pregnant. The source of the domestic violence was mainly the husband in 105 (66.5%) women. Types of abuse were psychological in 71 (44.9%) and physical in 87 (55.1%) women. The rate of women's satisfaction with their sexual life among abused women was 43.67% compared to 61.2% among non-abused women. Abused pregnant women were less educated, had lower income, had more children, had a longer duration of marriage, were applying violence towards their children, were not contributing to family decisions, were less satisfied with their sexual life and were more likely to have unplanned pregnancies when compared to non-abused women. Antenatal care protocols should be modified to address domestic violence and contributing factors during pregnancy so that identified women can be counseled appropriately and attempts can be made to intervene to prevent further episodes of domestic violence in primary care settings.
Wai Sze Paulin Ma
Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its risk factors in women presenting with urinary symptoms.The study was carried out in the urogynecology clinic and general gynecology clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong from 1st May 2013 till 31st October 2014. Two hundred and twenty-five women presenting to the urogynecology clinic with urinary symptoms were categorized according to their symptoms and were asked to complete the Modified Abuse Assessment Screen. Demographic data of the subjects and their partners were collected. Mann-Whitney U test were used for analysis of continuous variables, while Chi-square test and Fisher Exact test were used for analysis of categorical variables between the abused and non-abused group. Prevalence of domestic violence were calculated and compared.The prevalence of domestic violence among this group of patients (7.6% was found to be lower when compared with other studies. Verbal abuse was the commonest form of violence in our locality. The median age of the abused group and the non-abused group were both 56 years old, with the age ranging from 40 to 64 and 29 to 70 years old respectively. The prevalence of domestic violence among patients with overactive bladder syndrome, stress urinary incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence were 19.5%, 4.2% and 5.5% respectively (Fisher Exact test for whole group, P<0.05.The prevalence and nature of abuse in our locality was different from the quoted figures worldwide. Patients with overactive bladder syndrome were more likely to be victims of abuse than patients with other urinary symptoms. The difference in the prevalence of domestic violence among patients with different urinary symptoms could be related to their underlying pathophysiology. When encountering patients with overactive bladder syndrome, clinicians should consider this high incidence of domestic violence and provide prompt referral whenever necessary.
effects of domestic violence. Key Words: Socio-economic determinants of women voilence, women, domestic violence. .... communities of the nation, this study identified the socio-economic determinants of domestic violence suffered by .... study area fall under emotional/psychological violence. This agrees with the findings.
are reserved by the copyright owner. 14. ABSTRACT The Predictive Societal Indicators of Radicalism (PSIR) Model of Domestic Political Violence ...for instances of increased domestic political violence , with implications for resource allocation and intelligence asset assignment. Using a regression...demonstrated correlation with political violence . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Forecasting Domestic Political Violence , Social Cultural Models 16. SECURITY
Lindhorst, Taryn; Meyers, Marcia; Casey, Erin
Despite a high prevalence of domestic violence among welfare clients, most studies of the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform find that women rarely receive domestic violence services in welfare offices. This study reviews findings from current research on the factors that improve the likelihood that women will reveal their domestic violence experiences to service personnel, and uses the guidelines drawn from this review to evaluate domestic violence screening practices in welfare offices using 782 transcribed interviews between welfare workers and clients from 11 sites in four states. The analysis found that only 9.3% of case encounters involved screening for domestic violence. Screening rates differed by state, interview type, and length of worker employment. Qualitative analysis of the interviews showed that the majority of screening by workers was routine or consisted of informing clients of the domestic violence policy without asking about abuse. Only 1.2% of the interviews incorporated at least two of the procedures that increase the likelihood of disclosure among domestic violence survivors, suggesting deeply inadequate approaches to screening for abuse within the context of welfare offices, and a need for improved training, protocol, and monitoring of FVO implementation.
Full Text Available The battered women’s movement in the United States contributed to a sweeping change in the recognition of men’s violence against female intimate partners. Naming the problem and arguing in favor if its identification as a serious problem meriting a collective response were key aspects of this effort. Criminal and civil laws have been written and revised in an effort to answer calls to take such violence seriously. Scholars have devoted significant attention to the consequences of this reframing of violence, especially around the unintended outcomes of the incorporation of domestic violence into criminal justice regimes. Family law, however, has remained largely unexamined by criminologists. This paper calls for criminological attention to family law responses to domestic violence and provides directions for future research.
Marais, A; de Villiers, P J; Möller, A T; Stein, D J
It has been suggested that domestic violence is not only highly prevalent and associated with significant morbidity, but that it is also overlooked by medical practitioners. Despite this, few studies have focused on domestic violence in the South African setting, so that there is a paucity of data here on its prevalence, phenomenology, and associated psychopathology. Sixteen general practitioners from the South African Sentinel Practitioner Research Network (SASPREN) screened all their female patients aged 18 years or older for a 3-month period (N = 1,050). A sociodemographic questionnaire was completed, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression were assessed, both in subjects with a history of domestic violence and in a control group without such a history. 21.5% of patients reported a history of domestic violence at screening. Patients and controls did not differ significantly in terms of age or race. However, patients with a history of domestic violence were significantly more likely to be married, not to have begun a high-school education, and to be working outside the home. Both PTSD and major depression were significantly more common in patients with a history of domestic violence (35.3% and 48.2%, respectively) than in controls (2.6% and 11.4%, respectively). Compared with other patients reporting domestic violence, those with either PTSD or major depression were subjected to more violence and were more likely to report a suicide attempt. In a large, diverse population of adult female patients presenting to a range of general practitioners in South Africa, there was a high prevalence of reported domestic violence. A significant association was found between domestic violence and both PTSD and major depression, with these diagnoses indicative of increased severity of abuse and increased morbidity. Routine screening by medical practitioners of all female patients for a history of domestic violence seems warranted, and patients
Full Text Available Background: Domestic violence (DV against women is often hidden, repeated and prolonged. DV is both a direct and an indirect risk factor for physical and mental health problems, and is associated with increased health care utilization. Husbands' violence against wives not only affects the person and her family, but the society as a whole. Methods: In a cross sectional case series study, 100 women of Bushehr Province with the experience of DV were evaluated in 1999. A questionnaire was filled out by interview. Physical abuse, emotional abuse, and controlling behavior aspects of DV were evaluated. Results: All the subjects had experienced the three types of DV. The duration of DV was more than two years in more than half of the participants. 50.6 % of them had experiences of severe and very severe violence. Social isolation (38%, headache (50%, nightmares (25%, misbehavior with children (39%, and irritability (32% were the most common sequelae. Being fearful of losing their children (23%, shamed by what is happening to them (19% and low information level (17% were the most common reasons that they hid their condition regarding DV. Conclusion: The present study indicates the severity and long duration of domestic violence, including symptoms of physical and psychological diseases, in the studied subjects in Bushehr Province.
Ali, AbdelAziem A; Yassin, Khalid; Omer, Rawia
Violence against women is one of the major public health problems in both developed and developing worlds. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of current (occurred in one year preceding the survey) domestic violence and socio-demographic factors associated with domestic violence against women. This was a cross sectional household survey (face to face interview) conducted in Kassala, eastern Sudan, from 1(st) March to 1(st) June 2014. Multivariable analyses were performed, Confidence intervals of 95% were calculated and P women, 33.5% (338) reported current experience of physical violence and, of these 338 women, 179 (53%) and 159 (47%) reported moderate and severe form of physical violence respectively. The prevalence of sexual coercion, psychological violence and verbal insult was 17% (172\\1009), 30.1% (304\\1009) and 47.6% (480\\1009) respectively. In the majority of cases, violence was experienced as repeated acts, ie, more than three times per year. For verbal insult 20.1% (203\\480) and 27.5% (277\\480) reported yelling and shouting respectively. Again 251 (24.9%) and 270 (26.8%) women reported that they experience divorce threat and second marriage threat respectively. In logistic regression model, husband's education (OR = 1.5; CI = 1.0-2.1; P = 0.015), polygamous marriage (OR = 1.9; CI = 1.3-2.9; P = 0.000), and husband's alcohol consumption (OR = 13.9; CI = 7.9-25.4; P domestic violence. Domestic violence was found to be highly prevalent in eastern Sudan and strongly associated with the educational status, polygamous marriage and husband's alcohol consumption. We recommend more research to include men.
Stephenson, Rob; Koenig, Michael A; Ahmed, Saifuddin
Although there is increasing recognition of the global scope of domestic violence and the potential reproductive health consequences of violence, little is known about the relationship between physical and sexual domestic violence and gynecologic morbidity in developing country settings. A sample of 3,642 couples from northern India was created by matching husbands and wives who responded to the men's and women's surveys of the 1995-1996 PERFORM System of Indicators Survey. The association between men's reports of physical and sexual violence they had perpetrated against their wives and wives' reports of gynecologic symptoms was analyzed in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Overall, 37% of men said they had committed one or more acts of physical or sexual violence against their wives in the past 12 months, with 12% reporting physical violence only, 17% sexual violence only and 9% both physical and sexual violence. Thirty-four percent of women reported at least one symptom of gynecologic morbidity. Compared with women whose husbands reported no violence, those who had experienced both physical and sexual violence and those who had experienced sexual violence only had elevated odds of reporting gynecologic symptoms (odds ratios, 1.7 and 1.4, respectively). Plausible mechanisms through which domestic violence may influence gynecologic morbidity include physical trauma, psychological stress or transmission of STIs. Reproductive health care that incorporates domestic violence support services is needed to meet the special needs of abused women.
Perilla, Julia L.
Examines domestic violence from a human rights perspective. Explores the antecedents, dynamics, and effects of domestic abuse in light of the historical, philosophical, cultural, social, spiritual, and political realities of Latino immigrants in the United States. Discusses levels of awareness and responsibility necessary to break the…
McMullin, Steve; Nason-Clark, Nancy; Fisher-Townsend, Barbara; Holtmann, Cathy
The focus of this article by our research team looks specifically at the teaching of domestic violence classes in a seminary or religious context, as well as the ongoing professional education of religious leaders, such as pastors. It also considers ways to introduce therapeutic staff to the unique vulnerabilities of highly religious clients who have been abused or who act abusively. Based on data that we have collected at North American theological seminaries and in congregations, we explain some of the challenges of including instruction about domestic violence in a religious context. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Violence in relationships is a common experience for a significant number of women. VicHealth (Australia has noted that one of the underlying and contributing factors towards violence against women is their environment, citing ‘faith-based institutions’ such as churches as one such environment for many women. Indeed, international research shows that the language of religion is often used by women to explain abuse. Additionally, abused Christian women are more likely to remain in or return to unsafe relationships, citing religious beliefs to support avoidance of ‘family break-ups’ despite abuse. In contrast, however, churches can address domestic violence within a context of care, with emphasis on a theology of biblical equality. This paper examines how domestic violence may be supported by Christian language and belief, and suggests an ‘alternate theology’ concerning religious language in concepts of gender roles, sacrifice, submission, and suffering. It reviews current research on the connection between Christian religious language and domestic violence against women, to highlight the Christian church’s role as a contributing factor to such abuse. Finally, the paper makes some suggestions on how religious language can, in contrast to perpetuating abuse through norms, sever the connections between domestic violence and religious language.
Sullivan, Marianne; Senturia, Kirsten; Negash, Tigist; Shiu-Thornton, Sharyne; Giday, Beruke
This article discusses the experiences of domestic violence among Ethiopian refugees and immigrants in the United States. A subset (n = 18) of the larger study sample (N = 254) participated in three focus groups with Amharic-speaking survivors of domestic violence who were currently in or had left abusive relationships. The research was conducted…
Holt, Stephanie; Buckley, Helen; Whelan, Sadhbh
Objective: This article reviews the literature concerning the impact of exposure to domestic violence on the health and developmental well-being of children and young people. Impact is explored across four separate yet inter-related domains (domestic violence exposure and child abuse; impact on parental capacity; impact on child and adolescent…
The United Kingdom has seen conflicting developments in safeguarding women's and children's safety when there has been domestic violence. Although criminal justice responses have improved, child contact arrangements following parental separation remain dominated by pro-contact models that fail to take full account of the impact of domestic violence. Drawing on qualitative research in U.K. child contact (visitation) centers, this article presents women's perspectives to demonstrate how family court proceedings and welfare practices marginalized violence and exposed women and children to further abuse. This builds on previous articles in the journal to show how, in the post-separation family, contact now constitutes a significant site for continuing violence.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of domestic violence on psychosocial well-being.Comparisons were made between the effects of psychological, physical and sexual abuse. Possible gender differences in the prevalence and effects of domestic violence were also taken into account. The data used in this study was collected from the staff of the Central Finland Health Care District in 2010. A total of 1 952 people participated in the study. The dependent variables included in...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This qualitative study was held with the objective of analyzing the adolescentes’ social representation about domestic violence. It involved eighteen high school students in Passo Fundo – RS. Through some prejecting techniques and semi-structured interviews, it was possible to notice that the violence representation is a present phenomenon in the society and it is supported by the use of drugs, personal defence with the use of guns and by the antisocial behaviour. The domestic violence is represented as an attitude of escape and defence, harmful, intentional and unpunished and as a legitimate trivialization. This representation is supported by the sensation of abandonment and rejection and it should be overcome through the search of a multi-dimensional way to introduce new practices and socially acceptable behaviour. KEYWORDS: Violence; Adolescence; Public Health.
Joseph, Bellal; Khalil, Mazhar; Zangbar, Bardiya; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Orouji, Tahereh; Pandit, Viraj; O'Keeffe, Terence; Tang, Andrew; Gries, Lynn; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter; Davis, James W
Domestic violence is an extremely underreported crime and a growing social problem in the United States. However, the true burden of the problem remains unknown. To assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients. A 6-year (2007-2012) retrospective analysis of the prospectively maintained National Trauma Data Bank. Trauma patients who experienced domestic violence and who presented to trauma centers participating in the National Trauma Data Bank were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes (995.80-995.85, 995.50, 995.52-995.55, and 995.59) and E codes (E967.0-E967.9). Patients were stratified by age into 3 groups: children (≤18 years), adults (19-54 years), and elderly patients (≥55 years). Trend analysis was performed on April 10, 2014, to assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence over the years. Trauma patients presenting to trauma centers participating in the National Trauma Data Bank. To assess the reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients. A total of 16 575 trauma patients who experienced domestic violence were included. Of these trauma patients, 10 224 (61.7%) were children, 5503 (33.2%) were adults, and 848 (5.1%) were elderly patients. The mean (SD) age was 15.9 (20.6), the mean (SD) Injury Severity Score was 10.9 (9.6), and 8397 (50.7%) were male patients. Head injuries (46.8% of patients) and extremity fractures (31.2% of patients) were the most common injuries. A total of 12 515 patients (75.1%) were discharged home, and the overall mortality rate was 5.9% (n = 980). The overall reported prevalence of domestic violence among trauma patients was 5.7 cases per 1000 trauma center discharges. The prevalence of domestic violence increased among children (14.0 cases per 1000 trauma center discharges in 2007 to 18.5 case per 1000 trauma center discharges in 2012; P = .001) and adults (3.2 cases per 1000 discharges in 2007 to 4.5 cases per
Jordana Brock Carneiro
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To know the meanings attributed by women regarding the repercussions of the experience of domestic violence. Method: Qualitative study, based on the Grounded Theory method. Data were collected in two sticks of domestic and family violence against the Brazilian Northeast woman. An interview was conducted with 37 participants, who composed two sample groups. Results: The study demonstrates that the physical and mental health of women and their children are compromised, expressed through visible marks such as bruises and cuts, in addition to low self-esteem, sadness, fear and depression. There are also repercussions for the social relations of women as a consequence of social isolation and non-qualification for the labor market, and of children, related to the decrease in school performance, introspection and vulnerability to drug use. Conclusion: It is necessary to sensitize health professionals to the recognition of cases and promote educational actions, thus transcending the invisibility barrier of domestic violence.
Lutgendorf, Monica A; Snipes, Marie A; Rau, Terri; Busch, Jeanne M; Zelig, Craig M; Magann, Everett F
The impact of mandatory reporting laws on domestic violence reports is unclear. In 2006, the Department of Defense removed its requirement for mandatory reporting of domestic violence against adults. Our objective was to determine if there was a change in the incidence of domestic violence reports to the Navy's Family Advocacy Program after the shift from mandatory reporting to a policy allowing restricted reporting. Reports of domestic violence to the Navy Central Registry between fiscal year (FY) 2000 and 2010 were studied. Frequencies and rates of domestic violence reports, type of abuse, and victim and offender gender were studied. Over the past 11 years, the total number of unrestricted domestic violence reports to the Navy Central Registry has decreased by just over a third. In addition, the number of substantiated reports has decreased by approximately 50%. Since the collection of data on restricted reports in 2008, the aggregated reporting rate of substantiated reports is significantly smaller, 0.87% for FYs 2008 to 2010 compared to 1.34% for FYs 2000 to 2005, p Domestic violence reports to the Navy Central Registry have declined over the past 11 years, even with the removal of the requirement for mandatory reporting of domestic violence.
Full Text Available The article deals with a socially relevant and actual issue of domestic violence with respect to the development and protection of children. First, it describes the concept of domestic violence, particularly intimate partner violence, and brings some numerical data. In spite of the fact that the reported numbers are different, each situation when a child is exposed to the domestic violence is very unfavorable or even traumatic for him. The immediate effects are feelings of fear, anxiety, confusion, anger and helplessness. Younger children often feel guilty for the situation at home. Most experts are convinced that long-term consequences of witnessing domestic violence are very negative for the development of child's personality. The exposure to intimate partner violence is increasingly being recognized as a form of child maltreatment. The World Health Organization expressed this conviction in 2013 when children´s exposure to domestic violence was added to the syndrome of child abuse and neglect as one form of psychic abuse. Further, the consequences of exposure to the domestic violence are summarized developmentally from early childhood to young adulthood. The typical symptom in children growing up in an atmosphere of fear and violence is the reduced self-esteem. Emotional and behavioral disorders are also frequent. It was even proven that children who are passively exposed to domestic violence tend to have equally severe emotional symptoms (e.g. depression as children who are really physically abused. The intensity and extent of the consequences of children's exposure to domestic violence depend on several factors, such as age and sex of the child, his resilience, rate of brutality and frequency of its occurrence, supportive social network of the family and so on. The fact that reduced parental skills are common in families with domestic violence is pointed out. Empirical evidence shows that the quality of parenting and the ability to meet the
Lazenbatt, Anne; Devaney, John; Gildea, Aideen
Although domestic violence is seen as a serious public health issue for women worldwide, international evidence suggests that women aged over 50 who are victims are suffering in silence because the problem is often ignored by health professionals. More U.K. research is needed to identify the extent of the problem, and services to meet the needs of older women. This study aims to bridge this gap by gaining a deeper understanding of how 'older women' cope with domestic violence and how it affects their wellbeing. Eighteen older women who were currently, or had been in an abusive relationship were recruited. Semi-structured interview schedules were used to discuss the personal nature of DV and its effects on wellbeing, ways of coping and sources of support. Findings suggest that living in a domestically violent context has extremely negative effects on older women's wellbeing leading to severe anxiety and depression. Three-quarters of the women defined themselves as in 'very poor' mental and physical health and were using pathogenic coping mechanisms, such as excessive and long-term use of alcohol, prescription and non-prescription drugs and cigarettes. This negative coping increased the likelihood of these women experiencing addiction to drugs and alcohol dependence and endangered their health in the longer term. Our findings suggest that health professionals must receive appropriate education to gain knowledge and skills in order to deal effectively and support older women experiencing domestic violence.
Domestic violence is recognised as a serious violation of women’s basic rights. Conventional economic models of domestic violence suggest that higher participation by women in the labour force leads to a decrease in domestic violence. In this paper, we study the relationship between women employment and domestic violence in India. We used a nationally representative database, National Family Health Survey Data III (2005–06), for our analysis. We found that employed women are more exposed to ...
Sandu Mihaela Luminița
Full Text Available The effects of domestic violence phenomenon and its severity were recently acknowledged worldwide, most European Union countries faced with significant increase in cases of domestic violence. Due to the inefficient public social services in combating and preventing domestic violence, services like this are taken mostly by civil society. However, help victims of domestic violence, there are several protection services, and a range of social services targeting the aggressors.
Avdibegovic, Esmina; Brkic, Maja; Sinanovic, Osman
Introduction: Research indicates that women victims of domestic violence show significant cognitive changes, emotional numbing, and avoidance of interpersonal relationships. Aim: The aim of this research was to analyze emotional profile of women victims of domestic violence, and to determine the relationship between dimensions of emotions and frequency of women exposure to domestic violence. Methods: The research was conducted on the sample of 169 women, 111 were victims of domestic violence ...
Sandu Mihaela Luminița; Tănase Tasente; Postaru (Voinea) Dorina; Nadoleanu Gheorghe
The effects of domestic violence phenomenon and its severity were recently acknowledged worldwide, most European Union countries faced with significant increase in cases of domestic violence. Due to the inefficient public social services in combating and preventing domestic violence, services like this are taken mostly by civil society. However, help victims of domestic violence, there are several protection services, and a range of social services targeting the aggressors.
It includes battering of intimate partners and others, sexual abuse of children, marital rape and traditional practices that are ... violence victims turn to a family member, in three-quarter of the cases, they are told to keep quiet and endure the beatings. ... Edo Journal of Counselling. Vol. 2, No. 1, May 2009. 3 victim rather than ...
Shah, Sandeep H; Rajani, Kajal; Kataria, Lakhan; Trivedi, Ashish; Patel, Sangita; Mehta, Kedar
Domestic violence is a major contributor to physical and mental ill health of the victim, and it is evident to some degree, in every society of the world. 1) To study perception about domestic violence in the study population. 2) To compare prevalence of domestic violence within the three subgroups of the study population (i.e. spouses of psychotic patients, spouses of non-psychiatric patients and hospital staff). A cross-sectional study was conducted among married men and women coming to Dhiraj General Hospital. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Inquiry was done about their perception regarding domestic violence, own experience any time in their life, and about the form of violence. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS. 42.7% of study participants had never heard the words domestic violence. The overall prevalence of any form of violence in the study population as a whole was 32.3%. There was no significant difference found in the proportion of domestic violence among the three groups. The prevalence of physical, emotional, sexual and economic domestic violence was 16.3%, 25.3%, 2% and 11.3% respectively. Younger age group and female sex were significantly associated with the occurrence of domestic violence. Apart from the high prevalence of domestic violence in the present era, it is evident from the study that the participants' perception about domestic violence was low. Efforts should be made to raise public consciousness and reporting of domestic violence and its attendant consequences.
Nagham N. Alsafy
Jun 12, 2011 ... KEYWORDS. Domestic violence;. Primary care nurses;. Knowledge. Abstract Introduction: Domestic violence (DV) against women has been identified as a serious ... mate partner.1 DV, also known as intimate partner violence. (IPV), is ..... mate partner violence (IPV) from India, Bangladesh, Thailand,.
... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND SERVICES PROGRAMS § 1370.4 State domestic violence coalition grants. Each... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State domestic violence coalition grants. 1370.4...
Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.
Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…
Thiara, Ravi K.; Hague, Gill; Mullender, Audrey
The links between disability and domestic violence have been under-examined to date, leading to the marginalisation of disabled women affected by domestic violence in theory, politics, and practice. This paper draws on the findings from the first national study in the United Kingdom of the needs of disabled women experiencing domestic violence and…
Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Pei-Ying; Wu, Jia-Lin; Li, Chien-De; Kuo, Fang-Yu
The present study analyzed national data from "Domestic Violence Report System" derived primarily from the Council of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assaults Prevention, Ministry of the Interior, Taiwan, to describe the reported prevalence of domestic violence in people with disabilities and to examine the time-effect on the prevalence…
Conwill, William Louis
There are striking gender, race, and class variations in rates of domestic violence. Some leading family theorists called for an intersectional analysis of how gender, race and class systems interact to improve domestic violence theory. This article improves domestic violence theory by: 1) using the discourse, or language, of intersectionality; 2)…
Lindhorst, Taryn; Oxford, Monica; Gillmore, Mary Rogers
This study uses longitudinal data spanning 13 years from a study of 234 adolescent mothers to evaluate the effects of cumulative domestic violence on employment and welfare use before and after welfare reform. Domestic violence increased the odds of unemployment after welfare reform, but not before; domestic violence had no effect on welfare use…
In India, the nature of interdependency between wife and husband is regarded as different from what it is in the west. It is observed that in Indian state of Bihar, there is co-existence of memory of domestic violence and attitudinal justification of domestic violence on all the dimensions of domestic violence. However, In Tamil ...
Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Howard, Louise M; Medley, Nancy
Domestic violence during pregnancy is a major public health concern. This preventable risk factor threatens both the mother and baby. Routine perinatal care visits offer opportunities for healthcare professionals to screen and refer abused women for effective interventions. It is, however, not clear which interventions best serve mothers during pregnancy and postpartum to ensure their safety. To examine the effectiveness and safety of interventions in preventing or reducing domestic violence against pregnant women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2014), scanned bibliographies of published studies and corresponded with investigators. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) including cluster-randomised trials, and quasi-randomised controlled trials (e.g. where there was alternate allocation) investigating the effect of interventions in preventing or reducing domestic violence during pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We included 10 trials with a total of 3417 women randomised. Seven of these trials, recruiting 2629 women, contributed data to the review. However, results for all outcomes were based on single studies. There was limited evidence for the primary outcomes of reduction of episodes of violence (physical, sexual, and/or psychological) and prevention of violence during and up to one year after pregnancy (as defined by the authors of trials). In one study, women who received the intervention reported fewer episodes of partner violence during pregnancy and in the postpartum period (risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 0.88, 306 women, moderate quality). Groups did not differ for Conflict Tactics Score - the mean partner abuse scores in the first three months postpartum (mean difference (MD) 4.20 higher, 95% CI -10.74 to 19.14, one study, 46 women, very low quality). The Current
Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Hessler, Danielle M.; Annest, Amalia
This article examined emotion competence in children exposed to domestic violence (DV). It also examined the hypothesis that children's emotional competence mediates relations between DV and children's later difficulties with peers and behavioral adjustment. DV was assessed when children were at the age of five, emotional competence was assessed…
Sexual and Domestic Violence: Policy Protocols. India is witnessing a rising rate of crime against women. According to recent National Crime Bureau data, a rape happens every 26 minutes, molestation every 14 minutes, dowry death every 63 minutes, and acts of cruelty by husband and relatives every 6 minutes.
African Safety Promotion Journal, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2015. 1. Original contributions. Perceived childhood exposure to domestic violence: The risk for adult revictimisation. Jill Ryan1. Child and Family Studies programme, Department of Social Work, University of the. Western Cape. Edna Rich. Child and Family Studies ...
Wagers, Shelly M; Wareham, Jennifer; Boots, Denise Paquette
In recent decades, significant effort and money have been spent to change social and legal responses to domestic violence and affect public perceptions. A small body of research has examined individuals' opinions about what behaviors are considered domestic violence. Using a sample of college students, the present study examined a modified version of a somewhat popular instrument used to measure beliefs about domestic violence, extending previous work done by Carlson and Worden. Results indicated beliefs about domestic violence are multidimensional, depending on the nature of the behavior and, in part, the gender of the perpetrator. Opinions about the lawfulness of these behaviors fit the same factor structure as beliefs about domestic violence. Demographic characteristics, current relationship status, secondhand experiences with domestic violence, and perceived prevalence of domestic violence in the community are generally not related to beliefs about domestic violence or the lawfulness of these behaviors. However, attributions of blame on the victim are negatively related to domestic violence beliefs and lawfulness. Moreover, lawfulness is a key covariate for domestic violence beliefs. In addition, results also indicate that the gender of the perpetrator is an important variable affecting student's beliefs about sexual assault behaviors. Results from this study support the prevailing ideas behind the Battered Women's Movement that enacting policies and educational programs deeming domestic violence socially, morally, and legally wrong could shift long-standing sociocultural beliefs about men's use of violence against women. Implications of this study for research and policy specific to college students are discussed.
Ma, Wai Sze Paulin; Pun, Ting Chung
Objectives To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its risk factors in women presenting with urinary symptoms. Methods The study was carried out in the urogynecology clinic and general gynecology clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong from 1st May 2013 till 31st October 2014. Two hundred and twenty-five women presenting to the urogynecology clinic with urinary symptoms were categorized according to their symptoms and were asked to complete the Modified Abuse Assessment Screen. Demographic data of the subjects and their partners were collected. Mann-Whitney U test were used for analysis of continuous variables, while Chi-square test and Fisher Exact test were used for analysis of categorical variables between the abused and non-abused group. Prevalence of domestic violence were calculated and compared. Results The prevalence of domestic violence among this group of patients (7.6%) was found to be lower when compared with other studies. Verbal abuse was the commonest form of violence in our locality. The median age of the abused group and the non-abused group were both 56 years old, with the age ranging from 40 to 64 and 29 to 70 years old respectively. The prevalence of domestic violence among patients with overactive bladder syndrome, stress urinary incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence were 19.5%, 4.2% and 5.5% respectively (Fisher Exact test for whole group, Pdomestic violence among patients with different urinary symptoms could be related to their underlying pathophysiology. When encountering patients with overactive bladder syndrome, clinicians should consider this high incidence of domestic violence and provide prompt referral whenever necessary. PMID:27428060
Ma, Wai Sze Paulin; Pun, Ting Chung
To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its risk factors in women presenting with urinary symptoms. The study was carried out in the urogynecology clinic and general gynecology clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong from 1st May 2013 till 31st October 2014. Two hundred and twenty-five women presenting to the urogynecology clinic with urinary symptoms were categorized according to their symptoms and were asked to complete the Modified Abuse Assessment Screen. Demographic data of the subjects and their partners were collected. Mann-Whitney U test were used for analysis of continuous variables, while Chi-square test and Fisher Exact test were used for analysis of categorical variables between the abused and non-abused group. Prevalence of domestic violence were calculated and compared. The prevalence of domestic violence among this group of patients (7.6%) was found to be lower when compared with other studies. Verbal abuse was the commonest form of violence in our locality. The median age of the abused group and the non-abused group were both 56 years old, with the age ranging from 40 to 64 and 29 to 70 years old respectively. The prevalence of domestic violence among patients with overactive bladder syndrome, stress urinary incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence were 19.5%, 4.2% and 5.5% respectively (Fisher Exact test for whole group, Pdomestic violence among patients with different urinary symptoms could be related to their underlying pathophysiology. When encountering patients with overactive bladder syndrome, clinicians should consider this high incidence of domestic violence and provide prompt referral whenever necessary.
Pournaghash-Tehrani, Said; Ehsan, Hadi Bahrami; Gholami, Somaye
The present study assessed relationships between religiosity and the perpetration of violence by husbands and wives toward one another in an Iranian context. 180 Iranian couples living in Iran were administered the Islamic Religious Tendency and Domestic Violence questionnaires. Patterns of relationship between aspects of religious tendency and expressed violence were similar in men and women. There was a negative correlation between Religiosity, Religious Valuation, and self-reported Domestic Violence of husbands and wives. Religious Disorganization was positively correlated with expressed Domestic Violence of husbands and wives. Finally, the results of a regression analysis revealed that only Religiosity and Religious Disorganization predicted self-reported Domestic Violence of husbands and wives.
Ferrari, Giulia; Agnew-Davies, Roxane; Bailey, Jayne; Howard, Louise; Howarth, Emma; Peters, Tim J.; Sardinha, Lynnmarie; Feder, Gene Solomon
Background Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) are associated with increased risk of mental illness, but we know little about the mental health of female DVA survivors seeking support from domestic violence services. Objective Our goal was to characterise the demography and mental health of women who access specialist DVA services in the United Kingdom and to investigate associations between severity of abuse and measures of mental health and health state utility, accounting for important confounders and moderators. Design Baseline data on 260 women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a psychological intervention for DVA survivors were analysed. We report the prevalence of and associations between mental health status and severity of abuse at the time of recruitment. We used logistic and normal regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. The following mental health measures were used: Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment, and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale to measure posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) measured abuse. Results Exposure to DVA was high, with a mean CAS score of 56 (SD 34). The mean CORE-OM score was 18 (SD 8) with 76% above the clinical threshold (95% confidence interval: 70–81%). Depression and anxiety levels were high, with means close to clinical thresholds, and more than three-quarters of respondents recorded PTSD scores above the clinical threshold. Symptoms of mental illness increased stepwise with increasing severity of DVA. Conclusions Women DVA survivors who seek support from DVA services have recently experienced high levels of abuse, depression, anxiety, and especially PTSD. Clinicians need to be aware that patients presenting with mental health conditions or symptoms of depression or anxiety may be experiencing or have experienced DVA. The high psychological
Ferrari, Giulia; Agnew-Davies, Roxane; Bailey, Jayne; Howard, Louise; Howarth, Emma; Peters, Tim J; Sardinha, Lynnmarie; Feder, Gene Solomon
Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) are associated with increased risk of mental illness, but we know little about the mental health of female DVA survivors seeking support from domestic violence services. Our goal was to characterise the demography and mental health of women who access specialist DVA services in the United Kingdom and to investigate associations between severity of abuse and measures of mental health and health state utility, accounting for important confounders and moderators. Baseline data on 260 women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a psychological intervention for DVA survivors were analysed. We report the prevalence of and associations between mental health status and severity of abuse at the time of recruitment. We used logistic and normal regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. The following mental health measures were used: Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment, and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale to measure posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) measured abuse. Exposure to DVA was high, with a mean CAS score of 56 (SD 34). The mean CORE-OM score was 18 (SD 8) with 76% above the clinical threshold (95% confidence interval: 70-81%). Depression and anxiety levels were high, with means close to clinical thresholds, and more than three-quarters of respondents recorded PTSD scores above the clinical threshold. Symptoms of mental illness increased stepwise with increasing severity of DVA. Women DVA survivors who seek support from DVA services have recently experienced high levels of abuse, depression, anxiety, and especially PTSD. Clinicians need to be aware that patients presenting with mental health conditions or symptoms of depression or anxiety may be experiencing or have experienced DVA. The high psychological morbidity in this population means that trauma
Full Text Available Background: Domestic violence and abuse (DVA are associated with an increased risk of mental illness, but we know little about the mental health of female DVA survivors seeking support from domestic violence services. Objective: To characterize the demography and mental health of women who access specialist DVA services in the United Kingdom and to investigate associations between severity of abuse and measures of mental health and health state utility, accounting for important confounders and moderators. Design: Baseline data on 260 women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a psychological intervention for DVA survivors was analyzed. We report prevalence of and associations between mental health status and severity of abuse at the time of recruitment. We used logistic and normal regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. Mental health measures used were: Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM, Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment, and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS to measure posttraumatic stress disorder. The Composite Abuse Scale (CAS measured abuse. Results: Exposure to DVA was high, with a mean CAS score of 56 (SD 34. The mean CORE-OM score was 18 (SD 8 with 76% above the clinical threshold (95% confidence interval: 70–81%. Depression and anxiety levels were high, with means close to clinical thresholds, and all respondents recorded PTSD scores above the clinical threshold. Symptoms of mental illness increased stepwise with increasing severity of DVA. Conclusions: Women DVA survivors who seek support from DVA services have recently experienced high levels of abuse, depression, anxiety, and especially PTSD. Clinicians need to be aware that patients presenting with mental health conditions or symptoms of depression or anxiety may be experiencing or may have experienced DVA. The high psychological morbidity in this population means that
Full Text Available Background: Domestic violence and abuse (DVA are associated with increased risk of mental illness, but we know little about the mental health of female DVA survivors seeking support from domestic violence services. Objective: Our goal was to characterise the demography and mental health of women who access specialist DVA services in the United Kingdom and to investigate associations between severity of abuse and measures of mental health and health state utility, accounting for important confounders and moderators. Design: Baseline data on 260 women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a psychological intervention for DVA survivors were analysed. We report the prevalence of and associations between mental health status and severity of abuse at the time of recruitment. We used logistic and normal regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. The following mental health measures were used: Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure (CORE-OM, Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment, and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale to measure posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The Composite Abuse Scale (CAS measured abuse. Results: Exposure to DVA was high, with a mean CAS score of 56 (SD 34. The mean CORE-OM score was 18 (SD 8 with 76% above the clinical threshold (95% confidence interval: 70–81%. Depression and anxiety levels were high, with means close to clinical thresholds, and more than three-quarters of respondents recorded PTSD scores above the clinical threshold. Symptoms of mental illness increased stepwise with increasing severity of DVA. Conclusions: Women DVA survivors who seek support from DVA services have recently experienced high levels of abuse, depression, anxiety, and especially PTSD. Clinicians need to be aware that patients presenting with mental health conditions or symptoms of depression or anxiety may be experiencing or have experienced DVA. The high
Souto, Rafaella Queiroga; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; Guruge, Sepali; Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de
Domestic violence is a global public health issue, as it is in Brazil. The psychological violence is one of the most prevalent forms of domestic violence, affecting more women than men. However, many older adults do not consider it as a type of domestic violence. In addiction, psychological violence has received little attention from researchers. So, this study aims to further understand the phenomenon of psychological domestic violence perpetrated by relatives against older adult women (60 years and older). A qualitative study was conducted using a social phenomenological approach proposed by Alfred Schütz. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 older Brazilian women from three different agencies, two in Campina Grande and one in São Bernardo do Campo. Data collection took place between November 2012 and February 2013. We performed data analysis using the key concepts (such as the world of everyday life, natural attitude, intersubjetivity, stock of knowledge, biographical situation, social action, motivation and typification) proposed by Alfred Schutz. Despite the fact that participants reported being psychologically abused, they also referred to being neglected and financially abused. They revealed being threatened, disrespected, neglected, financially abused, forced to do housework, and humiliated. Older women expressed feelings of sadness, anger, grief, and fear, which had negative effects on their health. Attempts by the participants to change their current situations were unsuccessful and resulted in feelings of helplessness. The abuser's behaviour will change, and leaving the abusive situation were two possible outcomes pointed for participants. A support network is crucial to help changing the behaviour of aggressors and/or to help older adult women leave the abusive situation. Further research is needed to understand the risk factors linked to abuse behaviours, to develop educational programs for the abusers, and to design social support for the
Entilli, Lorenza; Cipolletta, Sabrina
To promote a critical approach on the conceptualisation of domestic violence by investigating the experience of abuse on the part of men who are victims of domestic violence by their female partners. Media attention and prevention programmes relating to domestic violence have mainly focused on women as the victims and men as the perpetrators. The underlying idea is that violence is predominantly physical and a prerogative of men. This conceptualisation of violence reduces the opportunities for the consideration of different modalities of abuse. Discourse analysis within a qualitative approach. Semistructured interviews with 20 Italian men who claimed to have been abused by their female partners were conducted via Skype and analysed with the software atlas.ti. The grounded theory methodology was used to avoid imposing external points of view. Personal data were collected; in particular, their occupational level was compared to their partners' to assess the social power within the couple. Because of their strong endorsement of social and cultural values, participants showed a protective attitude towards their partners and imputed their violent acts to fragility or an external condition. Emotional distress emerged due to the isolation and subsequent inability to seek help. Although the physical violence reported is severe, the psychological violence was indicated as more damaging. Gaining an understanding of how men experience domestic abuse offers an opportunity to provide better prevention and intervention for them and other family members at risk of abuse. The study identifies gaps in service provision generated by a lack of information or perceived prejudice towards abused men. The role of the nurse in supporting male victims is discussed, and future applications for treatments and prevention plans are proposed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: In India, women are not keen to seek formal help to solve the issue of domestic violence (DV. Aim and objectives: Current study attempted to understand the profile of women who sought or availed institutional help (legal/counselling services etc. to address DV. Material and methods: Data were collected from sixty women aged between 18 years and 50 who faced domestic violence from their husbands. Results: Most of the respondents were young, unemployed and not well educated. They faced physical, emotional & verbal, sexual and economic types of violence from husbands and husbands’ family members. Their children also witnessed DV. Perceived causes for DV were; husbands’ exposure on their parental violence, psychoactive substance abuse, dissatisfied sexual life, extra marital relationships in husbands and influence of other wife-beating family members. Most of them felt that DV as their fate and had attempted suicide. Even though many of them received legal help; many felt that, legal help was not adequate in addressing DV. Conclusion: Importance of mental health approach to address DV has been discussed.
Limited knowledge is available on the conditions that contribute to women's help-seeking after domestic violence in South Africa. Qualitative research conducted with 17 abused women in shelters in South Africa indicate that the best interests of children are influential both in women's decisions to stay in abusive relationships and to seek help. The personal decisions of women to seek help are influenced by powerful social discourses on the best interests of the child. Policy and practice that advocate for the best interests of the child need to prioritize the safety of both mothers and their children in domestic violence situations. © The Author(s) 2015.
Toro-Alfonso, Jose; Rodriguez-Madera, Sheilla
Domestic violence (DV) is a pattern of behaviors in the context of an intimate relationship, which can be manifested in emotional, physical, or sexual abuse. DV currently represents a social and a public health issue. This study is an effort to foster a better understanding of DV among same-sex couples. In it, the authors included the…
Poutiainen, Marika; Holma, Juha
Effects of domestic violence are reflected in victims' physical, psychological, and sexual health as well as in victims' subjective evaluations of health or subjective well-being. The principal aim of this study was to study the extent to which the consequences of domestic violence are reflected in patients' subjectively evaluated well-being, life management, and sense of security in an emergency department, a maternity department, and a reception unit of a psychiatric hospital. A questionnaire on the effects of domestic violence was administered to 530 patients. 61 patients reported either current or previous domestic violence that affected their current well-being and life management. Domestic violence was reported to have an effect on subjective well-being and sense of security: the more recent or frequent the experience of violence was, the greater was considered its impact on well-being and sense of security. Routine inquiry can uncover hidden cases of abuse and hence would be of great benefit in the healthcare context. Early identification of abuse victims can prevent further harm caused by violence.
... are related to domestic abuse. Physical injuries include: Cuts and bruises around the neck, face, head, abdomen (stomach), arms, legs, feet, fingers, and buttocks. Loose or broken teeth. Ruptured eardrum. Cigarette burns. Bite marks. Rope burns. Welts (raised, red marks) on the ...
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The World Health Organization declared violence against women a top priority for health and emphasized the importance of the world's attention to the prevention and control programs. This study was conducted aimed to identify the training needs of married women referring to health centers in Ahvaz with the objective of enabling the design of a program to prevent violence. Methodology: This sectional study consisted of two qualitative and quantitative studies. In qualitative study, the opinions of 30 married women residing in Ahvaz were collected and analyzed in four focus group discussions. using a validated and reliable questionnaire, the knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and performance of 320 married women in area of domestic violence were identified Findings: 79% of the women surveyed had adequate awareness about violence against women. 34% of the target group in the field of domestic violence against women has had the right attitude and more than 80% of them stated that violence by men is considered inevitable and natural. 89% of the target group expressed lack of efficacy for the prevention of domestic violence against women. The findings also suggest that there is significant relationship between education and early marriage with violent behavior. Conclusion: providing proper education and awareness to women and group discussion and clarification in order to change attitudes and increase efficacy in abused women against domestic violence are the necessary strategies which result in changing attitudes of women and increasing empowerment of women against domestic violence.
Solomon, Suniti; Subbaraman, Ramnath; Solomon, Sunil S; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C; Vasudevan, C K; Anand, Santhanam; Ganesh, Aylur K; Celentano, David D
This article examined the prevalence of physical and sexual violence among 1,974 married women from 40 low-income communities in Chennai, India. The authors found a 99% and 75% lifetime prevalence of physical abuse and forced sex, respectively, whereas 65% of women experienced more than five episodes of physical abuse in the 3 months preceding the survey. Factors associated with violence after multivariate adjustment included elementary/middle school education and variables suggesting economic insecurity. These domestic violence rates exceed those in prior Indian reports, suggesting women in slums may be at increased risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
Domestic violence is one of the essential problems of our society. Domestic violence is determined by high prevalence, enormous latency and great victimization impact. The aim of my thesis is to describe the psychological aspects of the victims of domestic violence. I presume that long-term psychological and physical violence has a crucial influence on the psycho-somatic health of the victim. I am aware of the fact that this problem does not concern only battered women. Nevertheless I want to...
Antonio Henrique Graciano Suxberger
Full Text Available The article highlights multidisciplinary policies on gender based violence, acoording to the Maria da Penha Statute. It considers the context after the legal prohibition of probation during the criminal prosecution. From a literature review and document analysis, specially on researches conducted on the subject, the article sustains the importance of multidisciplinary actions combined or dissociated to formal criminal responses and focus the need of interventions considering the aggressors as well the victims, in order to assure a preventive efficiency regarding future cases of domestic violence against women.
Gharacheh, Maryam; Azadi, Shahdokht; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Montazeri, Simin; Khalajinia, Zohre
Domestic violence during pregnancy is a major health problem with significant psychological and physical impairments for pregnant women. To assess the relationship between domestic violence during pregnancy and women's health-related quality of life (HRQoL), a cross-sectional study was conducted on 341 postnatal women who referred to urban health care centers in Gachsaran, Islamic Republic of Iran. Domestic violence was assessed using a questionnaire modified from the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS), and Iranian version of Short Form-36 questionnaire was used to assess women's HRQoL. The findings of the study showed 44.5% of women reported experiencing domestic violence during pregnancy. All the SF-36 subscales including both physical and mental health dimensions scored lower in the abused women compared to the non-abused women, and differences between the groups in the six subscales of SF-36 except 'physical functioning' and 'bodily pain' were statistically significant (Pdomestic violence during pregnancy is associated with poor HRQoL in abused women.
Pewa, Preksha; Thomas, Susan; Dagli, Rushabh; Solanki, Jitendra; Arora, Geetika; Garla, Bharath
This study had a two objectives to determine the prevalence of domestic violence and to know the impact of the same on the oral health. An observational cross-sectional study was done in Jodhpur, Rajasthan; among 150 married women of 18 to 60 years of age using a predesigned pretested proforma from 18th January 2014 to 27th February 2014. Pretested semistructured open-ended questionnaire used for collecting the data from the study subjects. Pearson's Chi-square test and p-value were used to calculated the occurrence and impact of domestic violence on oral health among women. The most common form of domestic violence found was physical abuse (54.7%) followed by emotional abuse (20.0%) and financial abuse (14.0%). The most important risk factor was alcoholism followed by literacy status and having a girl child. Study shows that physical abuse is more in graduate than lower level of educational females. Females living in urban area show highest frequency of physical abuse than those living in rural area. Injury to the face were highly reported (38.7%) followed by injury to lip (13.3%) and nose fracture/bleeding nose (9.3%). Government has to take stringent action to prevent domestic violence by making women more self-reliant especially by making women more literate and more financially independent.
Bagcioglu, Erman; Vural, Mehmet; Karababa, Ibrahim Fatih; Aksin, Mahmut; Selek, Salih
Our aim is to evaluate the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) among pregnant women and find out whether several factors were associated with DV or not. A total of 317 pregnant women applied at Sanliurfa Obstetrics Hospital and Harran University obstetrics and gynecology department outpatient clinic were interviewed using the modified form of Abuse Assessment Screen questionnaire. Several clinical and sociodemographic data were also obtained from the participants. Mean pregnancy number per woman (gravida) was 3.62 ± 0.13. 47.3% of women had experienced DV before pregnancy. However, the rate of DV exposure significantly decreased to 10.3% during pregnancy (p violence. Pregnancy appears to decrease DV in Sanliurfa.
Covey, Herbert C; Menard, Scott; Franzese, Robert J
Research on the effects of adolescent physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, and perceptions of community violence have generally, with few exceptions, found them to be predictive of subsequent negative behavioral outcomes, such as substance abuse, crime, and other problem behaviors. Less frequently studied is the relationship of these adverse adolescent experiences to adult socioeconomic statuses. This study utilizes longitudinal self-report data from the National Youth Survey Family Study to investigate how these three factors influence future socioeconomic statuses: marital status, educational attainment, employment, income, and wealth (net worth). Significant associations with adult socioeconomic statuses are found most often for physical abuse, but neighborhood violence is the only one of the three that is predictive of adult employment. Witnessing parental violence is associated with adult income and net worth. Limitations and policy implications of the present research, in the context of past research in this area, are considered.
Monsalve, Stefany; Ferreira, Fernando; Garcia, Rita
Several studies have reported a connection between animal abuse and interpersonal violence. The importance of veterinarians in recognizing and intervening in the cycle of violence has been debated in different articles. This review outlines the findings about this connection around the world and describes the role veterinarians play in this field. We looked up electronic databases and analyzed articles published between 1960 and 2016. Publications were classified into three categories: area of publication, topic of the study and continent where the study had been conducted. Out of the 96 articles included, 76 (79.2%) were from North America. None were from South America or Africa. Ninety-four articles (97.9%) found some association between animal abuse and violence against people. The rates of co-occurrence between domestic violence and animal abuse reported varied between 25% and 86%. Furthermore, children who were abused, exposed to domestic violence, or animal abuse were at risk of developing criminal behavior. Veterinarians play an important role in public health and animal welfare. Yet, only seven articles (7.3%) were published in the field of veterinary medicine. Studies report that between 42.8% and 86% of veterinarians know about the "Link". However, most veterinarians not being trained to intervene in cases of animal abuse and human violence. This emphasizes the importance of educating veterinarians about this topic and their participation in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kargar Jahromi, Marzieh; Jamali, Safieh; Rahmanian Koshkaki, Afifeh; Javadpour, Shohreh
Domestic violence against women is a health problem. Research on domestic violence in order to clarify the relationship between the different forms of violence and health outcomes is needed. This study aimed to determine the frequency and risk factors of domestic violence in women. It also assessed the association between risk factors and psychological, physical, and sexual violence against women by their intimate partners. This cross-sectional study was done on married women 16-80 years of age living in jahrom south of Iran between August 2013 and December 2014. This research was implemented through questionnaires including the demographic characteristic. The form of partner violence including emotional abuse, physical violence and sexual violence was assessed with a validated questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to measure the association between violence and factors. The prevalence of physical, sexual and emotional domestic violence was respectively 16.4%, 18.6% and 44.4%.and was associated with Age (p=0.002), Husband's Age (p=0.001), Length of marriage (p=0.002), Woman's low educational level women's education (OR=4.67 95%.CI=1.97-11.07), husband's low education (OR=9.22 95%. CI=0.69-12.16), were the most important risk factors for violence. Prevalence of physical, emotional or sexual violence was very high. Men's violence against women in intimate relationships is commonly occurring in Iran. Considering the factors contributing to violence against women, raising the level of education of men and women is one of the ways to prevent violence.
Guita Grin Debert
Full Text Available Alternative conflict resolution based on conciliation have been identified as a possible response to problems of access to courts deriving from the numbers, costs and length of proceedings in the Brazilian's judicial system. This paper focuses on these alternative forms of justice, regarding domestic violence. Using ethnographic studies of Women's Police Stations and at Small Claim Courts, we argue that conciliation can be very different in these two institutions of the judicial system. The contrasts between moral values and the symbols used in different forms by these two institutions offer elements that can further be our understanding of the context in which Maria da Penha Law was created on August 17th of 2006. With the promulgation of this law, cases of domestic violence against women were excluded from Small Claim Courts in Brazil.
This paper examines the symmetry between domestic violence and gender domination by x-raying some of the issues and challenges that generate domestic violence. Using two video Films produced in the Nigerian Film Industry as case studies, the work argues that gender based violence is not limited to the female ...
Towns, Alison J; Terry, Gareth
This study reports on discourse analysis of transcripts from focus group discussions held with 28 "ordinary" men about domestic violence. Two broad "mateship" themes emerged: (a) a strong "mateship" discourse that produced public/private boundaries around discussions about intimate heterosexual relationships. Policed by the threat of violence, these boundaries prevented some men from challenging men about their violence. (b) "Loyalty to mates" discourses constituted attention to men's violence against women as threatening the moral integrity of all men. Finally, some men positioned themselves against men's domestic violence, distinguishing their masculinity from men who abuse women. Implications for prevention campaigns are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Levendosky, Alytia A; Huth-Bocks, Alissa; Semel, Michael A
Examined the impact of domestic violence, child abuse, and attachment style on adolescent mental health and relationship functioning. Data were collected on 111 adolescents, ages 14 to 16, and their mothers. Results indicate that both attachment and family violence experiences negatively impact mental health. In addition, family violence significantly predicted attachment style. Significant protective and vulnerability factors included maternal psychological functioning, maternal positive parenting, and perceived social support from friends. However, findings provided only limited support for the model of attachment as a mediator of the impact of family violence on adolescent relationships.
Goldberg, Stuart H.; McRill, Connie M.; Bruno, Christopher R.; Ten Have, Tom; Lehman, Erik
Domestic violence is an important cause of orbital fractures in women. Physicians who treat patients with orbital fractures may not suspect this mechanism of injury. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between domestic violence and orbital fractures. A medical center-based case-control study with matching on age and site of admission was done. Medical center databases were searched using ICD-9 codes to identify all cases of orbital fractures encountered during a three-year period. Medical records of female patients age 13 and older were reviewed along with those of age, gender and site of admission matched controls. A stratified exact test was employed to test the association between domestic violence and orbital fracture. Among 41 adult female cases with orbital fractures treated at our medical center, three (7.3%) reported domestic violence compared to zero among the matched controls (p = 0.037). We believe that domestic violence may be under-reported in both orbital fracture cases and controls. This may result in an underestimate of the orbital fracture versus domestic violence association. Domestic violence is a serious women's health and societal problem. Domestic violence may have a variety of presentations, including illnesses and injuries. Orbital fracture is an identifiable manifestation of domestic violence. Domestic violence is more likely to be detected in adult female hospital patients with orbital fracture than in matched controls with any other diagnosis. Physicians who treat patients with orbital fractures should be familiar with this mechanism of injury.
Özpinar, Saliha; Dinç Horasan, Gönül; Baydur, Hakan; Canbay, Tülin
Domestic violence against women is an important social and public health problem worldwide resulting from unequal power relationships between men and women. The purpose of the present cross-sectional descriptive study was to determine the factors affecting the views and experiences of women living in the city centre of Manisa, Turkey, regarding domestic violence. The data were collected from a representative sample of women (n=873) in 2012. The socio-demographic questionnaire and the World Health Organization's Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Against Women were used for data collection. The study results revealed that of the women, 14.8% were exposed to physical violence, 7.9% to sexual violence, 20.2% to emotional violence/abuse and 11.2% to economic violence/abuse within the last 12 months. Lower income level, lower social status, lower educational level, unemployment, being exposed to parental violence during childhood and being married to husbands exposed to parental violence during childhood were associated risk factors with domestic violence. The study results indicate that domestic violence against women is a common phenomenon in Manisa.
Richardson, Jo; Coid, Jeremy; Petruckevitch, Ann; Chung, Wai Shan; Moorey, Stirling; Feder, Gene
Objectives To measure the prevalence of domestic violence among women attending general practice; test the association between experience of domestic violence and demographic factors; evaluate the extent of recording of domestic violence in records held by general practices; and assess acceptability to women of screening for domestic violence by general practitioners or practice nurses. Design Self administered questionnaire survey. Review of medical records. Setting General practices in Hackney, London. Participants 1207 women (>15 years) attending selected practices. Main outcome measures Prevalence of domestic violence against women. Association between demographic factors and domestic violence reported in questionnaire. Comparison of recording of domestic violence in medical records with that reported in questionnaire. Attitudes of women towards being questioned about domestic violence by general practitioners or practice nurses. Results 425/1035 women (41%, 95% confidence interval 38% to 44%) had ever experienced physical violence from a partner or former partner and 160/949 (17%, 14% to 19%) had experienced it within the past year. Pregnancy in the past year was associated with an increased risk of current violence (adjusted odds ratio 2.11, 1.39 to 3.19). Physical violence was recorded in the medical records of 15/90 (17%) women who reported it on the questionnaire. At least 202/1010 (20%) women objected to screening for domestic violence. Conclusions With the high prevalence of domestic violence, health professionals should maintain a high level of awareness of the possibility of domestic violence, especially affecting pregnant women, but the case for screening is not yet convincing. What is already known on this topicDomestic violence is associated with a wide range of health and social problems for women and their childrenWomen experiencing violence are often not identified by health professionals in hospital settingsProfessional organisations and
Donnelly, Elizabeth A; Oehme, Karen; Melvin, Rebecca
In 2012, the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) reaffirmed that domestic violence is a serious public health hazard that emergency medical services (EMS) personnel will encounter. Many victims of domestic violence may refuse transport to the hospital, making EMS prehospital field personnel --EMTs and paramedics-- their only contact with healthcare providers. Despite these facts, the interaction of field EMS personnel and victims of domestic violence remains largely unexamined. Given the importance of the interaction of field EMS personnel have with victims of domestic violence, the goal of this study is to explore attitudes about and experiences of EMS personnel on the issue of domestic violence after completing a training on domestic violence. Participants were recruited by researchers contacting multiple EMS agencies. Data were gathered using a survey attached to an online domestic violence training for field EMS personnel (EMTs and paramedics) circulated in a large southern state. Participants were able to obtain continuing education credits for completing the online modules. A total of 403 respondents completed the survey. 71% of respondents indicated that they frequently encounter patients who disclose domestic violence; 45% believe that if a victim does not disclose abuse, there is little they can do to help; and from 32% to 43% reported assumptions and attitudes that indicate beliefs that victims are responsible for the abuse. Implications of the data are discussed suggesting that EMS providers are aware that they frequently assist victims of domestic violence, yet many continue to endorse common myths and negative attitudes about victims. Core components of training that can educate EMS personnel about the dynamics of domestic violence are described, and a new free online training for medical professionals on domestic violence is offered for use as part of ongoing education to enhance the EMS response to victims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd
Satyanarayana, Veena A; Chandra, Prabha S
Research on sensitive issues such as abuse and violence in vulnerable populations poses several ethical dilemmas. An important aspect is the impact of such enquiries on one's mental health. This paper discusses specific ethical issues related to mental health based on violence research conducted and reviewed by the authors. Research on violence among women includes the possibility that some revelations are occurring for the first time and are likely to be emotionally charged. Further, the very act of disclosure may involve emotional risks for the respondent. Psychological distress may be present prior to, during, or following the study. Hence assessing mental health parameters becomes essential and integral to research of this nature. Several issues in methodology are also important in mitigating the level of distress. Research on sensitive issues should either use measures developed in the same culture or those with adequate adaptation. The order of questions, language and method of termination of the interview may often make a difference to its psychological impact. While focus group discussions and semi structured interview schedules are most suited, questionnaires with a less structured and rigid approach may also be used. Preludes may be introduced to facilitate transition between different sections of an interview schedule and to provide a rationale for further enquiry. Obtaining informed consent in violence research should be a process rather than a one-time formality. Reports of adverse events are likely in violence research and hence such studies must include mental health intervention, ongoing follow up, documentation and appropriate referral services. Finally, since the researcher and the subject of the research are both affected in a study of this nature, adequate sensitisation, ongoing training and supervision of research staff are essential. Based on findings from ongoing research on violence and from review of other studies done in India, the paper
Cobos-Cali, Martha; Ladera, Valentina; Perea, María Victoria; García, Ricardo
Studies that deal with child maltreatment have become relevant during these past years. One important aspect to consider is the impact of maltreatment on the cognitive functioning and more precisely on language. Our objective is to analyze the different components in the comprehension and production of language in children victims of domestic abuse in Childreńs Homes. The sample consists of 104 participants divided in two groups. A group of children who have just been institutionalized due to domestic abuse (VG) (Age: 8 years 2 months with a standard deviation of 1, 5 years) without previous treatment; a group of comparison (CG) made up by children who have not been victim of domestic violence (Age: 8 years 6 months with a standard deviation of 2 years and a month), with similar characteristics of gender, age and schooling. The Child Neuropsychological Assessment by Matute, Rosselli, Ardila and Ostrosky (2007) was applied. This test includes metalinguistic, oral and written comprehension and expression skills. The VG group showed low scores in all components of the analyzed language with exception to the discourse, syllable and non-word dictation compared to the CG children. The alterations of the language observed in these children semantic suggest a lack of consolidation of phonological coding and a low use of code. From our findings an early language evaluation in these children can be of especial interest to apply timely intervention programs with the aim of diminishing the impact caused by domestic violence on school failure which is a frequent trait in these children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.
Fahmy, Howaida H; Abd El-Rahman, Seham I
Violence against women is a global phenomenon that cuts across all social and economic classes, it has recently drawn attention in the medical field as a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. The present study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence, to identify socio-demographic and behavioral risk factors and to investigate the relationship between the women's psychological health status and violence exposure. This is a comparative cross-sectional study using a multistage random sampling technique. The sample comprised 500 women aged 18-50y. Data was collected via a structured interview questionnaire including the socio-demographic characteristics of the women and their husbands, some of the husbands' habits, attitude and history of chronic illnesses. Also, the questionnaire assesses different forms of domestic violence, women's reaction to it and its consequences on psychological well-being of women. A depression anxiety scale was used to assess the women's psychological status. The study revealed that the overall prevalence of domestic violence among the studied group was (62.2%); the commonest form (74.0%) was psychological abuse, followed by social (26.8%) one, then the physical (22.4%) and lastly sexual abuse (19.6%). On studying the socio-demographic variables, a significantly higher percentage of younger ( pound 30 years) non-educated, low income and those having any property ownership were more exposed to violence. Also exposure to abuse was more prevalent among women whose husbands were young, non-educated, skilled workers, drug abuser, with positive history of family troubles and chronic illness. The majority of women reported that they react to violence by crying loudly or screaming, while a minority may seek medical care or call the police. Regarding the psychological effect of violence exposure, the most common effects were anxiety (69.2%) and depression (52.2%), with a highly statistically significant
Dubrow-Marshall, LJ; Dubrow-Marshall, R
A judge in a recent court case involving domestic abuse stated that the victim of abuse had not been vulnerable because of her university education and circle of supportive friends. The authors comment on the nature of coercive control, and the lack of understanding about the universal vulnerability to domestic abuse, which is not mitigated by education or social support.
Assessing the feasibility of a web-based domestic violence intervention using chronic disease frameworks: reducing the burden of 'treatment' and promoting capacity for action in women abused by a partner.
Tarzia, Laura; May, Carl; Hegarty, Kelsey
Domestic violence shares many features with chronic disease, including ongoing physical and mental health problems and eroded self-efficacy. Given the challenges around help-seeking for women experiencing domestic violence, it is essential that they be given support to 'self-manage' their condition. The growing popularity of web-based applications for chronic disease self-management suggests that there may be opportunities to use them as an intervention strategy for women experiencing domestic violence, however, as yet, little is known about whether this might work in practice. It is critical that interventions for domestic violence-whether web-based or otherwise-promote agency and capacity for action rather than adding to the 'workload' of already stressed and vulnerable women. Although randomised controlled trials are vital to determine the effectiveness of interventions, robust theoretical frameworks can complement them as a way of examining the feasibility of implementing an intervention in practice. To date, no such frameworks have been developed for the domestic violence context. Consequently, in this paper we propose that it may be useful to appraise interventions for domestic violence using frameworks developed to help understand the barriers and facilitators around self-management of chronic conditions. Using a case study of an online healthy relationship tool and safety decision aid developed in Australia (I-DECIDE), this paper adapts and applies two theories: Burden of Treatment Theory and Normalisation Process Theory, to assess whether the intervention might increase women's agency and capacity for action. In doing this, it proposes a new theoretical model with which the practical application of domestic violence interventions could be appraised in conjunction with other evaluation frameworks. This paper argues that theoretical frameworks for chronic disease are appropriate to assess the feasibility of implementing interventions for domestic violence in
To be able to help women and their children escape the hell of domestic violence, some knowledge of the mechanisms of this abuse is necessary. Children are deeply affected by violence within the family and present various disorders depending on their age. Professionals must be aware of the warning signs in order to break the silence and put the right help in place as early as possible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
The prevalence of domestic violence among the respondents in the past 1 year was 53.3% and of these, 55.4% experienced it in the current pregnancy. A higher proportion of respondents (41.5%) suffered physical violence followed by those who suffered sexual violence (34.0%) and emotional violence (31.3%). There was ...
Ascione, Frank R.
The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…
... colleges more tools to educate students about dating violence and sexual assault, and empowers tribal... ones who have suffered from domestic violence, and we must tell them they are not alone. I encourage...
Shuchi M Jain
Full Text Available Abuse of pregnant women is a serious health problem with the potential to cause life-threatening injuries to the mother and her baby. This is a case of domestic violence leading to splenic injury and massive intraperitoneal hemorrhage leading to fetal demise. Fortunately, timely interventions saved the mother′s life.
van Dam, B.A.F.M.; van der Sanden, W.J.M.; Bruers, J.J.M.
Background On July 1st 2013 the Mandatory Reporting Code Act came into force in the Netherlands, making it compulsory for health professionals to adhere to a reporting code when they suspect patients to be victims of domestic violence (DV) or child abuse (CA). The Royal Dutch Dental Association
This practicum took place at a spouse abuse shelter located in a county classified as urban in the southeast United States. It was found that once a family left the shelter, support groups were not available to help the children with feelings related to living in a home where domestic violence has occurred. Most of these children were already…
Hess, Jacob Z.; Allen, Nicole E.; Todd, Nathan R.
In spite of common public condemnations of domestic violence, survey research suggests that citizens aware of actual abuse often believe they cannot or should not personally respond. Through in-depth interviews with 20 local citizens across the political spectrum, we sought to explore this dynamic more carefully by better understanding community…
Chabot, Heather Frasier; Tracy, Tracy L.; Manning, Christine A.; Poisson, Chelsea A.
Most domestic violence (DV) researchers examine professional intervention (e.g., police and nurses), but informal helpers (e.g., friends and bystanders) are critical. The authors measure undergraduates' intervention likelihood, type of involvement (i.e., contact with abuser), and the influence of attribution decisions in DV situations where the…
Ruijne, R.E.; Howard, L.M.; Trevillion, K.; Jongejan, F.E.; Garofalo, C.; Bogaerts, S.; Mulder, N.L.; Kamperman, A.
Domestic Violence and Abuse (DVA) is associated with a range of psychosocial and mental health problems. Having a psychiatric illness increases likelihood of being a victim of DVA. Despite the evidence of a high risk for DVA and the serious effects of violent victimization in psychiatric patients,
Craig, Mary E.; Robyak, James; Torosian, Elaine J.; Hummer, John
Domestic violence in intimate relationships is a ubiquitous social problem. This study addresses a gap in the research literature on batterers intervention programs with heterosexual male batterers by evaluating whether or not self-reported attitudes about partner abuse and sexist beliefs could be modified over time as a result of participation in…
Shurman, Lauren A.; Rodriguez, Christina M.
A model of women's readiness to terminate an abusive relationship was examined, using cognitive and emotional factors to predict readiness to change as conceptualized in the transtheoretical model. Factors previously identified in the domestic violence literature were selected to represent cognitive predictors (attribution and attachment style)…
Foss, Louisa L.; Warnke, Melanie A.
Multicultural, family process and structure, and gender concepts are used to provide a framework for understanding supports for and barriers to mental health experienced by abused fundamentalist Protestant Christian (FPC) women. For FPC women who are victims of domestic violence, these factors may intersect to prohibit or facilitate healthy life…
Lehmann, Peter; Elliston, Ellen J.
A study examined posttraumatic stress disorder in Mexican, Mexican American, and non-Mexican American children exposed to domestic violence. Surveys of 68 mothers with children in shelters in Mexico and Texas revealed no ethnic differences in children's overall trauma symptoms. Mothers' experience of physical and sexual abuse predicted greater…
Full Text Available Objectives. In this study, we have evaluated the lifetime and past-year prevalence of exposure to physical violence among married women in the city of Tehran and urban and rural areas of Hashtgerd. Methods. The target population were noninstitutionalized female citizens, aged 15 years or older, who have at least one history of marriage and who resided in the capital city of Tehran or Hashtgerd County from the summer of 2008 to fall of 2010. We used a multistage sampling method. Tehran’s District Six, a central district in Tehran, was selected as a representative cluster of all municipal districts in Tehran. A total of fifty blocks were randomly selected from this district, from which 1,000 married women aged 15 years or older were interviewed using a cross-sectional design. Data was gathered face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. The lifetime prevalence, past-year prevalence, and related factors of domestic violence were measured. SPSS version 11.5 was used for the analyses. Results. Figures for lifetime prevalence and past-year prevalence were measured to be 38.7% and 6.6%, respectively. The independent effects of marital status and location and type of residency for women, along with education and smoking habits of their spouses, were statistically significant in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion. Domestic violence is a public health concern in Iran. Based on our findings, we propose that empowering women through education, and improving their ability to find employment and income, along with increasing public awareness of human rights issues through education could lower the prevalence of domestic violence.
Rasoulian, M; Habib, S; Bolhari, J; Hakim Shooshtari, M; Nojomi, M; Abedi, Sh
In this study, we have evaluated the lifetime and past-year prevalence of exposure to physical violence among married women in the city of Tehran and urban and rural areas of Hashtgerd. The target population were noninstitutionalized female citizens, aged 15 years or older, who have at least one history of marriage and who resided in the capital city of Tehran or Hashtgerd County from the summer of 2008 to fall of 2010. We used a multistage sampling method. Tehran's District Six, a central district in Tehran, was selected as a representative cluster of all municipal districts in Tehran. A total of fifty blocks were randomly selected from this district, from which 1,000 married women aged 15 years or older were interviewed using a cross-sectional design. Data was gathered face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. The lifetime prevalence, past-year prevalence, and related factors of domestic violence were measured. SPSS version 11.5 was used for the analyses. Figures for lifetime prevalence and past-year prevalence were measured to be 38.7% and 6.6%, respectively. The independent effects of marital status and location and type of residency for women, along with education and smoking habits of their spouses, were statistically significant in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Domestic violence is a public health concern in Iran. Based on our findings, we propose that empowering women through education, and improving their ability to find employment and income, along with increasing public awareness of human rights issues through education could lower the prevalence of domestic violence.
Sandeep H Shah
Full Text Available Background: Domestic violence is a major contributor to physical and mental ill health of the victim, and it is evident to some degree, in every society of the world. Objectives: 1 To study perception about domestic violence in the study population. 2 To compare prevalence of domestic violence within the three subgroups of the study population (i.e. spouses of psychotic patients, spouses of non-psychiatric patients and hospital staff. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among married men and women coming to Dhiraj General Hospital. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Inquiry was done about their perception regarding domestic violence, own experience any time in their life, and about the form of violence. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS. Results: 42.7% of study participants had never heard the words domestic violence. The overall prevalence of any form of violence in the study population as a whole was 32.3%. There was no significant difference found in the proportion of domestic violence among the three groups. The prevalence of physical, emotional, sexual and economic domestic violence was 16.3%, 25.3%, 2% and 11.3% respectively. Younger age group and female sex were significantly associated with the occurrence of domestic violence. Conclusion: Apart from the high prevalence of domestic violence in the present era, it is evident from the study that the participants′ perception about domestic violence was low. Efforts should be made to raise public consciousness and reporting of domestic violence and its attendant consequences.
Zambon, Mariana Porto; Jacintho, Antonio Carvalho de Ávila; Medeiros, Michelle Marchi de; Guglielminetti, Rachel; Marmo, Denise Barbieri
To study children and adolescents victims of domestic violence treated at the Referenced Pediatric Emergency Unit of the Hospital de Clínicas of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas and its specialized outpatient clinic between January 2003 and December 2007, emphasizing sexual abuse. The variables gender, age, origin, and classification were studied. For victims of sexual abuse, the following variables were also studied: type of abuse (rape), location (domestic/urban), duration (acute/chronic), perpetrator (known, incestuous), alterations at medical examination, notification to child protection agencies, and antiretroviral medication and serology (HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B and C). Patients were divided into two groups according to the type of abuse and type of perpertrator and they were associated with gender, age, and duration. For the comparison, chi-squared or Fisher's exact test were performed (significance p domestic area, 81.1% by known perpetrator; 31.6% were incestuous, 47.4% were chronic, and 76.5% had no clinical alterations. 81.1% were referred to child protection agencies. Antiretroviral medication was prescribed to 49.1% of patients, and serological tests (HIV in 46 [48.4%], syphilis in 42 [44.2%], hepatitis B in 44 [46.3%] and hepatitis C in 45 [47.4%]%), all of which were negative, were more frequent in rape victims (p = 0.00). There was an association between rape and age (10 and 15 years, p = 0.01) and between incestuous perpetrator and chronic duration (p = 0.01). Although this study does not reflect reality, it can be used as a warning to pediatricians.
Lucena, Kerle Dayana Tavares de; Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo; Nascimento, João Agnaldo do; Campos, Hemílio Fernandes Coelho; Oliveira, Elaine Cristina Tôrres
ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the association between domestic violence against women and quality of life. Method: a cross-sectional population-based household survey conducted with women 18 years and older, using a stratified sample by neighborhoods. For analysis, prevalence of domestic violence and quality of life index was verified and logistic regression was used to determine associations, with a significance level of 5%. Results: 424 women who had a prevalence of domestic violence of...
I estimate the impact of political violence (i.e. terrorism) and domestic violence (i.e. intimate partner violence) on child health outcomes. Given that there is a strand of literature showing that armed conflicts, and thus, political violence, increase the likelihood of violence within a household, I test for this possible link as well as the combined effect of these two types of violence on children's height. I find a separate negative effect of both violence outcomes on children'...
Full Text Available Background: Gender-based violence is universal, differing only in scope from one society to the other. The most common form of violence against women is domestic violence or violence within families. Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence and different forms of domestic violence perpetrated by intimate partner against married women. 2. To study socio economic and demographic factors which affect the victimization of woman for domestic violence. 3.To study prevalence of sexually transmitted infection and its association with domestic violence in the study group. Methods: Based on a pilot study results, a sample size of 257 was determined. Total 257 currently married women in the reproductive age group (15-49 yrs were interviewed by systematic random sampling with prior consent using a well designed, pre- tested questionnaire . All the women were screened for sexually transmitted infections as per the WHO guidelines by syndromic approach. The data was analyzed by percentages and chi-square test. Results: Prevalence of domestic violence was found to be 29.57% in the study group. Verbal abuse was reported by 81.58% of the women, Physical abuse by 31.58% of the women ,Psychological abuse by 27.63% of the women and Sexual abuse by 10.53% of the women. Among the 76 victimized women none of them reported to the police. Interpretation and conclusions: The vulnerability to domestic violence was found significantly associated with age at marriage, duration of marriage and addiction of husband to alcohol. The association between domestic violence and sexually transmitted infections was also found significant.
Full Text Available Family Law passed in 1998 introduced the term domestic violence for the very first time in Croatian legal system. Article 118 of this Code contains explicit ban of if violent behavior of a spouse or other adult family member. Violation of this ban is, according to the article 362, a misdemeanor, and the sanction is up to 30 days of imprisonment. Article 118 is placed under section of parental care, subsection is Protection of rights and welfare of a child and minors. Entering article regarding family violence into this section and connecting violent behavior only to a spouse or other adult family member is dangerous, because of possibility for restrictive interpretation of this article in practice and giving protection only to children. However, in practice, although the implementation of this law started late, in June 1999, police mostly intervene and protect victims of domestic violence in all cases, no matter if it is a family with or without children. From January 1st 2001 violent behavior in a family is provided as criminal offence (article 215 of the Criminal Code. Sanction for this offence is from three months up to three years of imprisonment.
Programs designed to address domestic violence often name empowerment of women as a major program goal. However, programs do not necessarily define what empowerment for survivors of domestic violence entails. This review examines the literature on empowerment, including characteristics of an empowerment process and critiques of empowerment. Diversity of goals for empowerment and differences in access to resources for women experiencing domestic violence are explored as two major factors that should inform program development. Recommendations are offered for developing programs to address domestic violence that support women engaged in an empowerment process.
Saffari, Mohsen; Arslan, Syed Asadullah; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeid; Pakpour, Amir H; Zaben, Faten Al; Koenig, Harold G
Domestic violence against women committed by intimate partners is a worldwide concern especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the problem among Iranian women and identify associated risk factors. Using a cross-sectional multicenter design, 1,600 women in six different areas of Iran were surveyed. A measure of domestic violence against women was administered and demographic information collected. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with domestic violence. The prevalence of domestic violence among participants were emotional (64%), physical (28%), and sexual (18%). Higher education (both women and their partners), employment status of partner (being employed), and lower number of children lowered the risk, whereas history of previous marriage (for either women or their partners), unstable marriage, substance abuse, crowded family situation, and lower socioeconomic status increased the risk of domestic violence. There is a high prevalence of domestic violence, particularly emotional, against women by their partners. Preventive measures are recommended such as increasing public awareness, improving in socioeconomic status of families, educating women about what they can do, and encouraging counseling for the couple or the woman alone.
Ackerson, Leland K; Subramanian, S V
Domestic violence has harmful physical and psychological health correlates, but there is little evidence regarding a relation between domestic violence and malnutrition. To investigate this relation, the authors analyzed data from 69,072 women aged 15-49 years and 14,552 children aged 12-35 months in the 1998-1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. Physical domestic violence victimization was self-reported by the women. Aspects of nutritional status included in this study were anemia and underweight. Anemia was measured with a blood test for hemoglobin. Underweight was calculated from anthropometric measurements and was determined as body mass index for women, and it included stunting and wasting for children. Results indicate associations of multiple incidents of domestic violence in the previous year with anemia (odds ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.18) and underweight (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.29) in women and a suggested relation among children. Possible mechanisms for this relation include withholding of food as a form of abuse and stress-mediated influences of domestic violence on nutritional outcomes. These findings indicate that reducing domestic violence is important not only from a moral and intrinsic perspective but also because of the instrumental health benefits likely to accrue.
Hayati, Elli Nur; Eriksson, Malin; Hakimi, Mohammad; Högberg, Ulf; Emmelin, Maria
Background Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways in which women cope with domestic violence. Objective Our study aimed to deepen our understanding of how rural Javanese women cope with domestic violence. Our objective was to explore how the sociocultural context influences coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence in rural Purworejo. Design A phenomenological approach was used to transform lived experiences into textual expressions of the coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence. Results Experiencing chronic violence ruined the women's personal lives because of the associated physical, mental, psychosocial, and financial impairments. These chronic stressors led women to access external and internal resources to form coping strategies. Both external and internal factors prompted conflicting impulses to seek support, that is, to escape versus remain in the relationship. This strong tension led to a coping strategy that implied a long-term process of moving between actively opposing the violence and surrendering or tolerating the situation, resembling an elastic band that stretches in and out. Conclusions Women survivors in Purworejo face a lack of institutional support and tend to have traditional beliefs that hamper their potential to stop the abuse. Although the women in this study were educated and economically independent, they still had difficulty mobilizing internal and external support to end the abuse, partly due to internalized gender norms. PMID:23336615
Hayati, Elli Nur; Eriksson, Malin; Hakimi, Mohammad; Högberg, Ulf; Emmelin, Maria
Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways in which women cope with domestic violence. Our study aimed to deepen our understanding of how rural Javanese women cope with domestic violence. Our objective was to explore how the sociocultural context influences coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence in rural Purworejo. A phenomenological approach was used to transform lived experiences into textual expressions of the coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence. Experiencing chronic violence ruined the women's personal lives because of the associated physical, mental, psychosocial, and financial impairments. These chronic stressors led women to access external and internal resources to form coping strategies. Both external and internal factors prompted conflicting impulses to seek support, that is, to escape versus remain in the relationship. This strong tension led to a coping strategy that implied a long-term process of moving between actively opposing the violence and surrendering or tolerating the situation, resembling an elastic band that stretches in and out. Women survivors in Purworejo face a lack of institutional support and tend to have traditional beliefs that hamper their potential to stop the abuse. Although the women in this study were educated and economically independent, they still had difficulty mobilizing internal and external support to end the abuse, partly due to internalized gender norms.
Owusu Adjah, Ebenezer S; Agbemafle, Isaac
The prevalence of domestic violence remains unacceptably high with numerous consequences ranging from psychological to maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity outcomes in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to identify factors that increased the likelihood of an event of domestic violence as reported by ever married Ghanaian women. Data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) was analysed using a multivariate logistic model and risk factors were obtained using the forward selection procedure. Of the 1524 ever married women in this study, 33.6 % had ever experienced domestic violence. The risk of ever experiencing domestic violence was 35 % for women who reside in urban areas. Risk of domestic violence was 41 % higher for women whose husbands ever experienced their father beating their mother. Women whose mother ever beat their father were three times more likely to experience domestic violence as compared to women whose mother did not beat their father. The risk of ever experiencing domestic violence was 48 % less likely for women whose husbands had higher than secondary education as compared to women whose husbands never had any formal education. Women whose husbands drink alcohol were 2.5 times more likely to experience domestic violence as compared to women whose husbands do not drink alcohol. Place of residence, alcohol use by husband and family history of violence do increase a woman's risk of ever experiencing domestic violence. Higher than secondary education acted as a protective buffer against domestic violence. Domestic violence against women is still persistent and greater efforts should be channelled into curtailing it by using a multi-stakeholder approach and enforcing stricter punishments to perpetrators.
Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna
Violence in family constitutes serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in emotional functioning of victim and, secondarily, also perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine emotional intelligence of women experiencing domestic violence. INTE, i.e. Polish version of "Assessing Emotional Scale" by Schutte, was used to study two groups of women. Study (criterion) group included 40 women aged 23-47 years (mean age 35.28) using assistance of Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. Reference (control) group was well-matched in terms of socio-demographic characteristics and consisted of 140 women not experiencing domestic violence. Study women experiencing domestic violence have significantly lower scores on all INTE indicators (general score, Factor I and Factor II). Women not experiencing domestic violence achieved significantly higher scores on Factor I than on Factor II. In this group all INTE components (general score, Factor I, Factor II) are positively correlated, whereas in group of women experiencing domestic violence there is no significant correlation between Factor I and Factor II and coefficients are lower. Emotional intelligence of study women experiencing domestic violence is lower than emotional intelligence of women not experiencing domestic violence. Their abilities and skills making up emotional intelligence are also less developed. The internal structure of emotional intelligence of study women experiencing domestic violence differs from emotional intelligence of women not experiencing domestic violence. It seems advisable to consider emotional intelligence in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.
Shanko, W.; Wolday, M.; Assefa, N.
Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross-sectional in......Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross...
Semahegn, Agumasie; Mengistie, Bezatu
Violence against women is now widely recognized as a serious human right abuse, and an important public health problem with substantial consequences physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health. Data on systematic review of domestic violence are needed to support policy and program recommendations. Therefore, the overall purpose of this systematic review was to assess magnitude of domestic violence against women and associated factors in Ethiopia. Studies systematically reviewed in Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia from 2000 to 2014. Systematic review was employed on published research works from databases such as Pubmed, popline, Hinari, and Google using key words. We also consulted public health experts. Community based studies with a study population (15-49 years) were included for review. Thirteen peer reviewed papers and two consecutive Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (2005 and 2011) were included to the systematic review. Twenty seven available in open access journals were retrieved and assessed based on the criteria's such as community based study, cross sectional study design, clearly report prevalence and associated factors were included in the systematic review work. Finally, 15 papers were included in this review. Lifetime prevalence of domestic violence against women by husband or intimate partner among 10 studies ranged from 20 to 78 %. The lifetime domestic physical violence by husband or intimate partner against women ranged from 31 to 76.5 %. The life time domestic sexual violence against women by husband or intimate partner ranged from 19.2 to 59 %. The mean life time prevalence of domestic emotional violence was 51.7 %. Significant number of women experienced violence during their pregnancy period. Domestic violence against women significantly associated with alcohol consumption, chat chewing, family history of violence, occupation, religion, educational status, residence and decision making power. Domestic violence against
Figueiredo, M. C.; Suleman, F.; Botelho, M.C.
Using an original dataset, our study explores types of abuse and harassment suffered by a sample of domestic workers in Portugal (n=684). Empirical evidence based on multiple correspondence and cluster analyses pointed to three segments of domestic workers: victims of labour abuse related to contract and wages, victims of multiple abuse including mistreatment and also psychological and sexual harassment, and a segment with no occurrence of abuse. Descriptive statistics suggest migrants, es...
Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D
Children who are exposed to domestic violence (DV) may experience many short- and long-term negative effects. They are up to 3.8 times more likely to become perpetrators or victims in adulthood than are children not exposed to DV. They also are at high risk of health problems, risky health behaviors, violence, and social functioning problems. Girls who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) are more likely to experience depression, anxiety, and trauma symptoms, and boys exposed to IPV are more likely to exhibit aggression and delinquent behaviors. To prepare the practice to identify and assist children exposed to DV, physicians should undergo training, implement screening protocols, use caution when documenting findings, collaborate with local agencies, and learn about the state's reporting laws. State and local DV service programs or other community resources can provide assessment and intervention assistance. Social workers, mental health professionals, and child and DV advocates can assist in providing treatment for children exposed to violence. Physicians should schedule follow-up appointments for children who need treatment, monitor behavior, and coordinate intervention services. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Muzrif, Munas M; Perera, Dinusha; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Schei, Berit; Swahnberg, Katarina
The aims of this study were to assess the regional differences in domestic violence among pregnant women in the capital district and in the tea plantation sector of Sri Lanka, to explore potential contributory factors and to assess whether healthcare workers addressed domestic violence and disclosure among survivors. A cross-sectional study was carried out using interviewer-administered Abuse Assessment Screen. Fifty-seven antenatal clinic centres in the capital district and 30 in the tea plantation sector. Pregnant women between 6 and 40 weeks of gestational age. In the capital district, 1375 women were recruited from antenatal clinic centres in the urban (n=25) and in the rural areas (n=32), and 800 women from 30 centres in the tea plantation sector. The response rate in the capital district was 95.6% and 96.7% in the tea plantation sector. Among the total sample of pregnant women (n=2088), the prevalence of 'ever abused' was 38.6%, and the prevalence of 'currently abused' was 15.9%. 'Ever abused' (31.5% vs 50.8%) and 'currently abused' (10% vs 25.8%) were significantly higher (Pviolence care centre and of Muslim ethnicity, after adjusting for age, education and family income. Only 38.8% of all participants had been asked by healthcare workers about abuse. Living in the tea plantation sector and lower level of education were associated with not being asked. Among those who reported 'ever abused', only 8.7% had disclosed the experience to a healthcare worker. Domestic violence was prevalent and highest among women in the tea plantation sector compared with the capital district. The capacity of healthcare workers in addressing domestic violence should be increased. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Basow, Susan A.; Thompson, Janelle
In this online vignette study, a national sample of domestic violence shelter service providers (N = 282) completed a 10-item questionnaire about a woman experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Scenarios varied in terms of couple sexual orientation (heterosexual or lesbian) and type of abuse (physical or nonphysical). Results indicate that…
Esqueda, Cynthia Willis; Hack, Lori; Tehee, Melissa
Few studies have focused on the unique issues surrounding American Indian violence. Yet American Indian women are at high risk for domestic abuse, and domestic violence has been identified as the most important issue for American Indians now and in the future by the National Congress of American Indians. American Indian women suffer from domestic…
Kelleher, Kelly J; Hazen, Andrea L; Coben, Jeffrey H; Wang, Yun; McGeehan, Jennifer; Kohl, Patricia L; Gardner, William P
To examine the association between physical domestic violence victimization (both recent and more than a year in past measured by self-report) and self-reported disciplinary practices among female parents/caregivers in a national sample of families referred to child welfare. Cross-sectional survey of more than 3,000 female caregivers in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW) study, a nationally representative sample of children and their families referred to child welfare agencies for investigation of abuse and neglect. Women reported physical domestic violence victimization and their disciplinary practices for their child on different versions of the Conflict Tactics Scales. Four hundred and forty-three women reported prior year domestic violence, 1,161 reported domestic violence but not in the past 12 months, and 2,025 reported no domestic violence exposure. Any prior domestic violence exposure was associated with higher rates of self-reported psychological aggression, physical aggression and neglectful disciplinary behaviors as compared to those with no domestic violence victimization in bivariate comparisons. After controlling for child behavior, demographic factors, and maternal characteristics, those with remote and recent domestic violence victimization employed more self-reported psychological aggression, while only caregivers with recent DV reported more physical aggression or neglectful behaviors. In a national child welfare sample, self-reported aggressive and neglectful parenting behaviors were common. In this sample, domestic violence victimization is associated with more self-reported aggressive and neglectful disciplinary behaviors among female caregivers. The mechanism for these associations is not clear. Rates of aggressive and neglectful disciplinary practices are especially high among female parents/caregivers exposed to domestic violence. Child welfare agencies should plan routine and structured assessments for domestic
... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Protection for Victims of Domestic Violence in Public and Section 8 Housing § 5.2005 Protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking in public and Section 8 housing. (a) Domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking. An incident or incidents of actual...
Ackerson, Leland K; Kawachi, Ichiro; Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Subramanian, S V
To investigate the relation between domestic violence and tobacco use among adults in India. Multilevel cross sectional analyses of a nationally representative population based sample from the 1998-9 Indian national family health survey. 278,977 individuals aged 15 or older; and 89,092 ever married women aged 15-49. Dichotomous variables for smoking and chewing tobacco. Women who reported being abused more than one year ago and those who reported being abused in the past year were more likely to smoke and chew tobacco than women who have never experienced domestic violence. Compared to individuals who lived in homes where no abuse was reported, those who lived in homes where a woman reported experiencing domestic violence were more likely to smoke and chew tobacco. Domestic violence is associated with higher odds of smoking and chewing tobacco in India. Efforts to control tobacco use need to consider the larger psychosocial circumstances within which individuals who practise such harmful health behaviours reside.
Full Text Available "nObjective: Family violence, specifically domestic violence, has been identified by the medical community as a serious, no remitting epidemic with adverse health consequences. World Health Organization(WHO has stated that violence against women is a priority issue in the fields of health and human rights. A quasi experimental study were conducted in different faculties of Tehran University of Medical Sciences to determine the effect of teaching on prevention of domestic violence against female employees. "nMethods: Forty four women working in various faculties of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2004 were selected. A designed questionnaire was given to the participants to identify kinds, causes and consequences of domestic violence. Then an educational booklet was given to subjects. This booklet contained information about kinds, causes and consequences of domestic violence and how to manage them. To compare the impact of teaching, the same questionnaires were distributed among the subjects after six months. The questionnaire was specifically tested for content validity. "nResults:The results indicated that the incidence rate of domestic violence pre test and post test education was 5.17%. "nConclusion: Our study showed that education had no effect on domestic violence. Solving problems relating to domestic violence due to cardinal roots in short time seems to be impossible and impracticable.
Background: Despite the growing recognition of domestic violence as a public health and human rights concern, it remains rampant in developing countries and has a negative impact on the victim's health. This study describes the injury characteristics and treatment outcome of trauma associated with domestic violence in ...
Domestic violence against pregnant women exposes victims to higher risk of pregnancy complications. The aim of this questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence, knowledge and perception of domestic violence amongst 400 consecutive pregnant women attending the ante-natal clinic of ...
Chronister, Krista M.
Comments on the article by Robert Bornstein, "The Complex Relationship Between Dependency and Domestic Violence,". Bornstein's attention to both types of dependency and women's experiences of domestic violence. I believe that his discussion of these complex relationships and social policy recommendations may be enhanced with a more integrated and…
Background: In Nigeria, some provisions in the penal code still allow cultural acceptance of some forms of domestic violence, thereby providing avenue for many in the society to accept domestic violence as an accepted fact of life and as such many people live with it without feeling that it was anything wrong. In recent years ...
This study aimed to investigate depression among female survivors of domestic violence. 112 female survivors of domestic violence who came to a trauma centre in Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province to seek help were selected as participants in the study. The participants‟ ages ranged from 15 to 65 years.
The popular discourse on domestic violence in South Africa highlights the preponderance of domestic violence among low income earners, living mainly in black townships. To illustrate the trajectory of this view, it is estimated that one in every four women is assaulted by their partners every week, and one woman is killed ...
The Domestic Violence Act, 2007 (Act 732) of Ghana was a conscious legal response by the state to provide protection for persons in a domestic setting against violence and also to promote human dignity in accordance with provisions of the 1992 Constitution and international acceptable norms and practices. This work ...
BACKGROUND: Domestic violence has been a subject of interest worldwide. However, most studies document men as the culprits with little attention given to male victims. This study sought to find out the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence experienced by men in a sub Saharan African setting. METHOD: ...
In 2008/9 MOSAIC,1 with the assistance of the Gender, Health & Justice Research Unit (UCT), embarked on research that sought to identify the factors that contribute to domestic violence victims withdrawing from the legal process before they finalise protection orders (POs) applied for under the Domestic. Violence Act ...
In many developing countries, domestic violence has recently become not only human rights or public health concern but also a development issue. Studies suggest that Ethiopia has the highest prevalence of domestic violence against women. However, evidence from representative, population-based studies is limited and ...
The high rate of domestic violence has become an issue of concern in South African families today. In most instances women and children die due to domestic violence and cases go unreported because of fear, lack of facilities such as: crisis intervention centers, hot lines as well as refugee places (shelters). The overall aim ...
Behnke, Andrew O.; Ames, Natalie; Hancock, Tina U.
Understanding what Latino church leaders believe about domestic violence, and what they do when they confront it, is a key step in developing programs to help them engage in domestic violence prevention and intervention activities in their congregations. This article presents the findings from an exploratory study of 28 Latino church leaders. The…
Domestic Violence (DV) continues to be a worldwide public health problem. Research in the area indicates that domestic violence has damaging, long-term serious mental, emotional, as well as physiological consequences both for the partners of the perpetrators and for their children. Even though various programs focused on treatments of the damaging…
The productivity of victims experiencing domestic violence is reduced due to sapping of their energy, undermining their confidence and compromising their health. It is against this background that this study examined the impact of domestic violence in the workplace and workers' welfare and productivity in Nigeria industries.
Macy, Rebecca J.; Johns, Natalie; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Martin, Sandra L.; Giattina, Mary
We investigated agency directors' perspectives about how service goals should be prioritized for domestic violence and sexual assault service subtypes, including crisis, legal advocacy, medical advocacy, counseling, support group, and shelter services. A sample of 97 (94% response rate) North Carolina domestic violence and/or sexual assault agency…
The high incidence of domestic violence in South Africa calls for a competent legal response. The Constitution as well as international human rights conventions oblige the state to protect human rights, including the rights of victims of domestic violence. The government is, therefore, challenged to enact effective legal ...
Robinson, Amanda L.; Howarth, Emma
Data from the largest study to date of the working practices of British victim support workers (known as Independent Domestic Violence Advisors or IDVAs) are used to provide insight into how "risk judgments" are made in cases of domestic violence. Using data from more than 2,000 victims, this study found a convergence between actuarial…
In 1998, in an attempt to undo the long-standing neglect of domestic violence, legislators placed a set of duties on the police in relation to domestic violence, and coupled these with a unique system of accountability relations and practices. This article examines the effect of these in three ways: a review, both of complaints of ...
This paper will provide the reader with an understanding of how domestic violence affects the behavior of high school students. The presentation is designed to provide the reader with a working definition of domestic violence, the rate of occurrence and its effects on high school students. Additionally the paper will summarize the negative effects…
youth-gang and school vices. Domestic Violence. Domestic violence, the main focus of this paper, involves any behavior used by one person in a relationship to control the other. Strickly speaking, the involved partners may be married or not married, gay, lesbian or heterosexual, living together, separated or dating. It.
There are no published studies on impact of neighbourhood on domestic violence in Sango-Ota. This is the first study to examine formal and informal control method and the influence of family structure and socio-economic status on the occurrence of domestic violence in Sango-Ota. A closed-ended questionnaire with two ...
Mohamadian, Fathola; Hashemian, Ataollah; Bagheri, Maryam; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf
Violence against women in families is the most common form of violence against them. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its effects on married women of Ilam. In this descriptive-sectional research, 334 married women referred to medical health centers in Ilam were selected to participate using a random sampling method. After obtaining their consent to participate in the study, participants responded to a 46 items questionnaire and responses were analyzed using IBM SPSS for Windows ver. 20.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA). The majority of the participants reported experiencing domestic violence and emotional violence was more prevalent than other kinds of violence. Logistic regression analysis showed that lower education level, marriage at a younger age, shorter duration of marriage, fewer children, being a housewife, and husband's unemployment had a significant relationship with domestic violence against women. The high prevalence of wife abuse in Ilam especially emotional violence due to lower education levels and marriage at younger age could be a serious threat for women's health as well as for other members of the family. This could be a grounding factor for other social harms such as suicide and this issue must be studied from legal, religious, and cultural standpoints.
Health professionals responding to men for safety (HERMES): feasibility of a general practice training intervention to improve the response to male patients who have experienced or perpetrated domestic violence and abuse.
Williamson, Emma; Jones, Sue K; Ferrari, Giulia; Debbonaire, Thangam; Feder, Gene; Hester, Marianne
To evaluate a training intervention for general practice-based doctors and nurses in terms of the identification, documentation, and referral of male patients experiencing or perpetrating domestic violence and abuse (DVA) in four general practices in the south west of England. Research suggests that male victims and perpetrators of DVA present to primary care clinicians to seek support for their experiences. We know that the response of primary care clinicians to women patients experiencing DVA improves from training and the establishment of referral pathways to specialist DVA services. The intervention consisted of a 2-h practice-based training. Outcome measures included: a pre-post, self-reported survey of staff practice; disclosures of DVA as documented in medical records pre-post (six months) intervention; semi-structured interviews with clinicians; and practice-level contact data collected by DVA specialist agencies. Results show a significant increase in clinicians' self-reported preparedness to meet the needs of male patients experiencing or perpetrating DVA. There was a small increase in male patients identified within the medical records (6 pre- to 17 post-intervention) but only five of those patients made contact with a specialist DVA agency identified within the referral pathway. The training increased clinicians' confidence in responding to male patients affected by DVA. The increase in recorded identification of DVA male patients experiencing or perpetrating DVA was small and contact of those patients with a specialist DVA support service was negligible. We need to better understand male help seeking in relation to DVA, further develop interventions to increase identification of male patients experiencing or perpetrating DVA behaviours, and facilitate access to support services.
Background: When guns fell silent in the post conflict northern Uganda, another form of physical injuries has come in place, Domestic Violence also commonly referred to as Gender based violence. This injury from violence leading to physical trauma is one of the leading public health problems in this region. We describe ...
Gender-based violence is an issue that has become a part of modern society, cutting across cultures, race, ethnicity and status. In Adichie's Purple Hibiscus, gender-based violence manifests in the form of domestic violence, projected through the Eugene Achike family around whom the story, set in the eastern part of ...
... Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, or Sexual Assault Program Grantees Agency... Violence Against Women (OVW) will be submitting the following information collection request to the Office... collection, please Cathy Poston, Office on Violence Against Women, at 202-514-5430. Written comments and...
Kevany, Sebastian; Woelk, Godfrey; Shade, Starley B; Kulich, Michal; Turan, Janet M; Chingono, Alfred; Morin, Stephen F
Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and behavioral variables that might be associated with physical domestic violence based on a review of the literature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, and odds ratios (OR) were computed using logistic regression. Women reporting physical domestic violence were significantly more likely to report (i) a history of childhood domestic violence (OR=2.96, Peconomic status as measured by type of homestead (OR=1.4, P=0.04) than women who reported no experience of physical domestic violence. Married women were less likely to experience physical domestic violence than unmarried women (OR=0.65, P=0.011). Women at greatest risk of domestic violence include those with a personal history of violence or sexual abuse, multiple lifetime partners, and low or medium socio-economic status. Risk assessments and joint interventions for both domestic violence reduction and HIV prevention should target these population groups, which are effective both on the public health and global heath diplomacy levels.
I explore the long-term effects of internal displacement caused by the Kurdish-Turkish conflict on women's attitudes towards domestic violence. Using the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey, I show that forced migrants are more likely to view domestic violence as acceptable. As suggestive evidence, I use data from applicants to a women's shelter and show that forced migrant women endure violence for longer and of greater intensity before deciding to seek assistance. I discuss possible mecha...
Swanberg, Jennifer E.; Ojha, Mamta U.; Macke, Caroline
Evidence indicates that domestic violence has negative consequences on victims' employment; yet employers lag in recognizing this as a workplace issue. To address the problem, some states have established several policy solutions. To understand the scope of the public sector's response to domestic violence as a workplace issue, a content analysis…
Nabi, Robin L; Southwell, Brian; Hornik, Robert
A central assumption of many models of human behavior is that intention to perform a behavior is highly predictive of actual behavior. This article presents evidence that belies this notion. Based on a survey of 1,250 Philadelphia adults, a clear and consistent pattern emerged suggesting that beliefs related to domestic violence correlate with intentions to act with respect to domestic violence but rarely correlate with reported actions (e.g., talking to the abused woman). Numerous methodological and substantive explanations for this finding are offered with emphasis placed on the complexity of the context in which an action to prevent a domestic violence incident occurs. We conclude by arguing that despite the small, insignificant relationships between beliefs and behaviors found, worthwhile aggregate effects on behavior might still exist, thus reaffirming the role of communication campaign efforts.
Gabatz, Ruth Irmgard Bärtschi; Padoin, Stela Maris de Mello; Neves, Eliane Tatsch; Terra, Marlene Gomes
This is a qualitative study aimed to understand the factors associated with institutionalization of children who suffered domestic violence. It was carried out in two institutions for shelter in Southern Brazil in June and July, 2008. The creative sensitive method was chosen for data production and involved two dynamics of creativity and sensibility: playing on stage and body knowledge with four school-age children. The data were submitted to French discourse analysis. The results pointed out as factors associated to institutionalization: mother's mental disorders and alcohol abuse and aggression. We believe that the reconnaissance of the factors associated with domestic violence enables a preventive work, minimizing its deleterious effects to family as a whole. In this way, caring must be directed not only to the children whom suffered domestic violence but also to their families involving victims and aggressors.
Tavoli, Zahra; Tavoli, Azadeh; Amirpour, Razieh; Hosseini, Reihaneh; Montazeri, Ali
Quality of life in pregnant women is an important issue both for women's and fetus' health. This study aimed to examine quality of life in a group of women who were exposed to domestic violence during pregnancy. This was a cross sectional study of quality of life among a consecutive sample of pregnant women attending to a teaching hospital in Lorestan, Iran. Women were screened for experiencing violence using the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS) questionnaire and were categorized as psychological abused, physical abused and non-abused groups. Quality of life was assessed using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). One-way analysis of variance and t-test were used to examine differences in quality of life in the study sub-samples. In addition logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between general health and mental health and independent variables including age, education, parity and type of violence. In all 266 pregnant women were approached, of which 230 (86.5%) agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 149 women (64.8%) reported that they had experienced either physical or psychological violence during pregnancy. A significant difference between abused and non-abused groups was identified, with the abused group recording lower mean scores on all sub-scales with the exception of the bodily pain (p = 0.27). In addition comparing quality of life between physical and psychological abused groups, women who reported physical violence recorded lower mean scores for physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain and general health, while women reporting psychological abuse had lower mean scores on social functioning, role emotional, vitality and mental health. Comparison between the physically and psychologically abused groups indicated significant differences only for role physical (p = 0.04), bodily pain (p = 0.003) and general health (p = 0.04). After adjusting for age, parity, and education, physical abuse was
Cramer, Elizabeth P; Brady, Shane R
State mandatory reporting statutes may directly or indirectly list domestic violence programs as among those that are mandated reporters of cases of suspected abuse, neglect, or exploitation of older individuals and those with disabilities. Domestic violence programs, however, may not consider themselves to be mandated reporters, because the responsibility of reporting abuse may be contrary to their programmatic philosophy. In the Commonwealth of Virginia, the potential conflict between domestic violence programs and Adult Protective Services about the issue of mandated reporting has created tension between these organizations as each entity continues interpreting the issues and policies of mandated reporting through its own lens. The authors draw out some of the reasons for the conflict as well as make recommendations for improving relationships between the two organizations, which will ultimately benefit vulnerable adults who are experiencing abuse.
Husso, Marita; Virkki, Tuija; Notko, Marianne; Holma, Juha; Laitila, Aarno; Mäntysaari, Mikko
Intervening in domestic violence in the health care and social service settings is a complex and contested issue. In this qualitative, multidisciplinary study, the barriers to but also the possibilities for health care professionals in encountering victims of violence were scrutinised. The focus was on omissions in service structure and practices. The data consisted of six focus group interviews with nurses, physicians, social workers and psychologists in specialist health care (n = 30) conducted in Finland in 2009. The aim was to explore professionals' processes of making sense of violence interventions and the organisational practices of violence interventions. Four types of framing of the domestic violence issue were identified: (i) practical frame, (ii) medical frame, (iii) individualistic frame and (iv) psychological frame. Each frame consisted of particular features relating to explaining, structuring or dismissing the question of domestic violence in health care settings. The main themes included the division of responsibilities and feasibility of treatment. All four frames underlie the tendency for healthcare professionals to arrive at sense-making practices where it is possible to focus on fixing the injuries and consequences of domestic violence and bypassing the issue of violence as the cause of symptoms and injuries. The results indicate that developing successful practices both in identifying survivors of domestic violence and in preventing further victimisation requires a broad understanding of the effects of domestic violence and the challenges for health care professionals in dealing with it. New perspectives are needed in creating adequate practices both for victims of violence seeking help and for professionals working with this issue. Strong support at the organisational level and established practices throughout the fields of health and social care are the key elements in building a responsible approach to domestic violence. © 2011 Blackwell
Infanti, Jennifer J; Lund, Ragnhild; Muzrif, Munas M; Schei, Berit; Wijewardena, Kumudu
Domestic violence in pregnancy is a significant health concern for women around the world. Globally, much has been written about how the health sector can respond effectively and comprehensively to domestic violence during pregnancy via antenatal services. The evidence from low-income settings is, however, limited. Sri Lanka is internationally acknowledged as a model amongst low-income countries for its maternal and child health statistics. Yet, very little research has considered the perspectives and experiences of the key front line health providers for pregnant women in Sri Lanka, public health midwives (PHMs). We address this gap by consulting PHMs about their experiences identifying and responding to pregnant women affected by domestic violence in an underserved area: the tea estate sector of Badulla district. Over two months in late 2014, our interdisciplinary team of social scientists and medical doctors met with 31 estate PHMs for group interviews and a participatory workshop at health clinics across Badulla district. In the paper, we propose a modified livelihoods model to conceptualise the physical, social and symbolic assets, strategies and constraints that simultaneously enable and limit the effectiveness of community-based health care responses to domestic violence. Our findings also highlight conceptual and practical strategies identified by PHMs to ensure improvements in this complex landscape of care. Such strategies include estate-based counselling services; basic training in family counselling and mediation for PHMs; greater surveillance of abusive men's behaviours by male community leaders; and performance evaluation and incentives for work undertaken to respond to domestic violence. The study contributes to international discussions on the meanings, frameworks, and identities constructed at the local levels of health care delivery in the global challenge to end domestic violence. In turn, such knowledge adds to international debates on the roles
This article aims to examine the intervention approach of the police in handling domestic violence and the reasons behind the inactive response of police to domestic violence situations in Hong Kong. The study adopted a qualitative approach to data collection that included 20 in-depth interviews to survivors and 2 interviews to police officers. Findings of this study show that the police are likely to adopt a non-intervention or mediation approach rather than arrest approach because of their distrust of abused women. The police have different reactions in responding to domestic violence issues namely (1) stereotyping the victims, (2) cynical interpretation of women's motivation in reporting, and (3) disbelieve the problem is solvable. All these reactions are associated with the trust of the police that hold on domestic violence issues stems from the dominant patriarchy ideology. The beliefs of police are shaped by the male-dominated police occupational culture, which is characterized by sexism and suspicion. Such beliefs coupled with traditional family values and the dependency discourses prevalent in society have concealed the truth and reality of domestic violence.
This article analyzing national data (N=7,408) examines the connection between men's and women's relative economic contributions in families and the risk of husband-to-wife physical violence and emotional abuse. Family violence researchers have conceptualized the association between economic variables and the risk of intimate partner violence with…
Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian
Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists. PMID:25641992
Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian
Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists.
Stephenson, Rob; Koenig, Michael A; Ahmed, Saifuddin
This study examines the association between domestic violence and the subsequent adoption of modern contraception in North India. Matched data on married couples who were not practicing contraception are analyzed from companion surveys of married husbands and wives in five districts of Uttar Pradesh. By means of hazard modeling, a significant negative association was found between a husband's reporting of using physical domestic violence against his wife and the couple's adoption of a modern method of contraception. Community norms that were more tolerant of domestic violence were, in contrast, not a significant predictor of subsequent method adoption. The results highlight the need to address the issue of support for women experiencing domestic violence within existing family planning services and to sensitize service providers to the specific needs of women experiencing such violence.
Will, Joanna L; Loper, Ann B; Jackson, Shelly L
Adult inmates who experienced the incarceration of a parent, known as "second-generation prisoners," experience unique challenges and are at heightened risk for experiencing other adversities throughout the life span. Our study investigated one specific, and previously unexplored, type of adversity--domestic violence--within a sample of 293 incarcerated adults. We examined the relation between generation status (first- or second-generation prisoners), childhood exposure to domestic violence, and participation in adult relationship violence prior to incarceration. Results indicate that prisoners who had been exposed to domestic violence in childhood were more likely to engage in intimate partner violence resulting in inflicted and received injury. Relative to first-generation prisoners, second-generation prisoners reported more childhood domestic violence exposure and were more likely to have been injured by a relationship partner. However, this relation between second-generation status and injury victimization was mediated by domestic violence exposure. These results support an intergenerational pattern of domestic violence and suggest that second-generation prisoners are a unique population worthy of future investigation and mental health intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.
Kumar, Shuba; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Suresh, Saradha; Ahuja, Ramesh Chandra
Domestic spousal violence against women has far-reaching mental health implications. To determine the association of domestic spousal violence with poor mental health. In a household survey of rural, urban non-slum and urban slum areas from seven sites in India, the population of women aged 15-49 years was sampled using probability proportionate to size. The Self Report Questionnaire was used to assess mental health status and a structured questionnaire elicited spousal experiences of violence. Of 9938 women surveyed, 40% reported poor mental health. Logistic regression showed that women reporting 'any violence' -- 'slap', 'hit', 'kick' or 'beat' (OR 2.2, 95% CI 2.0-2.5) -- or 'all violence' -- all of the four types of physically violent behaviour (OR 3.5, 95% CI 2.94-3.51) -- were at increased risk of poor mental health. Findings indicate a strong association between domestic spousal violence and poor mental health, and underscore the need for appropriate interventions.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find and analyze the policy formulation of legal protection of women on the crime of domestic violence in Indonesia find and analyze the policy of criminal law in the formulation of a system of criminal sanctions against the crime of domestic violence find and analyze the constraints and solutions in the application of the crime of domestic violence This study uses normative research and empirical jurisdiction which is supported by field research conducted by interviewing. The data used is primary and secondary data. The data analysis used is qualitative analysis. The results stated first Policy Formulation against the crime of domestic violence based on provisions of Law Domestic Violence does not have an effect in the form of illness or impediment to carry out daily activities. Criminal law in the formulation of a system of criminal sanctions against the crime of domestic violence according to the provisions of the Law on Domestic Violence using this type of system an alternative formulation.
The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes of university students towards domestic violence against women. This cross-sectional study was conducted on students attending the School of Nursing and School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation at a university in Turkey. The study was conducted between February 2015 and May 2015. The study was conducted on 415 volunteer students without resorting to the sampling selection method. Data were collected using a Personal Information Form and The Scale of Attitude Toward Domestic Violence. The data were analysed using frequencies, means, standard deviations, independent t-tests and ANOVA. The mean of attitude scores of university students toward domestic violence were 23.13 ± 6.66 and were affected by variables such as gender, and whether the questions should be asked to women who experienced domestic violence such as: "Does your partner have justified reasons for applying domestic violence against women?" and "Should domestic violence against women be shared by others?" and "Does domestic violence against women bother you?" (p.
Daniela Taysa Rodrigues
Full Text Available O presente estudo advém da revisão sistemática de publicações científicas indexadas no Medline de 1993 a 2004, objetivando analisar o conhecimento científico sobre violência doméstica e abuso de drogas na gestação. Os 19 artigos analisados estão publicados em periódicos internacionais de especialidades relacionadas, predominantemente, à saúde da criança, sendo a maioria da área médica e de origem americana, todos com o idioma inglês. Desses artigos, 57,9% são estudos descritivos e 42,1% trabalhos teóricos. Abordam temas relacionados às necessidades psicossociais da mulher, importância da responsabilidade paterna na gestação, e os fatores de risco e as implicações na saúde da mulher e da criança associados à violência doméstica e ao uso de drogas. Este embasamento teórico possibilita a intervenção neste cenário.El presente estudio resulta de la revisión sistemática de publicaciones científicas indexadas en Medline de 1993 a 2004, con objeto de analizar el conocimiento científico sobre violencia doméstica y abuso de drogas en la gestación. Los 19 artículos analizados están publicados en periódicos internacionales de especialidades, relacionadas predominantemente a la salud del niño, siendo la mayoría del área médica y de origen americana, todos en el idioma inglés. De esos artículos, el 57,9% corresponde a estudios descriptivos y el 42,1% a trabajos teóricos. Tratan de temas relacionados a las necesidades psicosociales de la mujer, importancia de la responsabilidad paterna en la gestación, y los factores de riesgo y las implicaciones en la salud de la mujer y del niño asociadas a la violencia doméstica y al uso de drogas. Esta fundamentación teórica posibilita intervenir en este escenario.This study results from a systematic review of scientific publications indexed in Medline between 1993 and 2004, aimed at analyzing scientific knowledge about domestic violence and drugs abuse during
Mattson, Susan; Shearer, Nelma; Long, Carol
To determine the degree of interest in using a computer for the purpose of accessing services from a nurse practitioner (NP) at domestic violence shelters (DVSs); and to identify issues of privacy and confidentiality that might arise from participation by victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) in a Telehealth intervention. Focus groups with 19 women residing in two DVSs. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and themes were identified that answered the questions posed in the interviews. Most of the women understood the term NP and were favorably inclined to seek services from one. Over half of the women were not familiar with computer use, but were willing to learn in order to receive health care services, both for episodic needs and for maintenance of chronic conditions. After learning of the method proposed to allow them to access an NP through the internet while still protecting their privacy and confidentiality, the women felt comfortable with this approach to meeting their health care needs. Results from this study can be used to support the development and testing of Telehealth interventions for these victims of IPV.
Ogbonnaya, Ijeoma Nwabuzor; Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Kohl, Patricia L
Many children involved with the child welfare system witness parental domestic violence. The association between children's domestic violence exposure and child welfare involvement may be influenced by certain socio-cultural factors; however, minimal research has examined this relationship. The current study compares domestic violence experiences and case outcomes among Latinas who are legal immigrants (n=39), unauthorized immigrants (n=77), naturalized citizens (n=30), and US-born citizen mothers (n=383) reported for child maltreatment. This analysis used data from the second round of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Mothers were asked about whether they experienced domestic violence during the past year. In addition, data were collected to assess if (a) domestic violence was the primary abuse type reported and, if so, (b) the maltreatment allegation was substantiated. Results show that naturalized citizens, legal residents, and unauthorized immigrants did not differ from US-born citizens in self-reports of domestic violence; approximately 33% of mothers reported experiences of domestic violence within the past year. Yet, unauthorized immigrants were 3.76 times more likely than US-born citizens to have cases with allegations of domestic violence as the primary abuse type. Despite higher rates of alleged domestic violence, unauthorized citizens were not more likely than US-born citizens to have these cases substantiated for domestic violence (F(2.26, 153.99)=0.709, p=.510). Findings highlight that domestic violence is not accurately accounted for in families with unauthorized immigrant mothers. We recommend child welfare workers are trained to properly assess and fulfill the needs of immigrant families, particularly as it relates to domestic violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Rural development policy deals with achieving goals for rural areas and a wide range of socio-economic activities are included within it. This work intends to connect rural development policies with the occurrence of domestic violence in rural areas. The area of research is the territory of Tuzla Canton, which is, by definition of OECD (less than 150 habitants/km2, a predominantly rural area. Domestic violence is a wide spread form of violence and a discrimination against women. Domestic violence includes all forms of violence occurring in the family, expanding the possibilities that perpetrators of violence and victims of violence may even be persons who do not live in the family but are related to family members, e.g. former partners, relatives, etc. Research results show that victims of domestic violence are in 90% of the cases women (wives, mothers, daughters, sisters, etc. and that domestic violence is constantly increasing each following year. All forms of violence over women come stem from a principal discrimination towards women which results in coerce or use of force. For that reason, violence over women is a manifestation of a fundamentally unequal position of women and men, and it represents a form of discrimination against women. This paper uses data acquired from Federal Office of Statistics of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and statistical data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Tuzla Canton. On the basis of the gathered data, we employed the descriptive method, the method of analysis and synthesis, as well as the comparative method of analysis. The hypothesis of this paper was the assumption that 'women in rural areas are more frequently victims of domestic violence than women living in urban areas'.
Coulthard, Paul; Yong, Sin Leong; Adamson, Linda; Warburton, Alison; Worthington, Helen V; Esposito, Marco; Sharif, Mohammad O
Domestic violence exists in all communities across the world. Healthcare services have a pivotal role in the identification, assessment and response to domestic violence. As the face is a common target in assault, dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons are in a unique position to screen for domestic violence in the context of presentation of dental and facial injury. Owing to lack of training, dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons may not be the best persons to give advice to someone experiencing domestic violence. Improper advice such as encouragement to leave an abusive relationship may escalate the frequency of violence. It may be more appropriate to refer to specialist agencies for intervention and support. It would, therefore be useful to know whether screening and intervention programmes are effective. (1) To assess the benefits and harms of intervention programmes employed to reduce and or prevent domestic violence in adults with dental and/or facial injuries. (2) To assess the benefits and harms of screening and the use of different screening tools in the detection of the proportion of adult victims of domestic violence who present with dental and/or facial injury. The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 18 May 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 18 May 2010), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 18 May 2010), PsycINFO via OVID (1950 to 18 May 2010), LILACS via BIREME (1982 to 18 May 2010) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 18 May 2010). There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults aged 16 years and over presenting with dental and/or facial injury relating to domestic violence in any healthcare setting. Screening of eligible studies was conducted in duplicate and independently by two reviewers. Results were to be expressed as
Shanko, W.; Wolday, M.; Assefa, N.
Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross......-sectional interview-based survey was conducted in 2008 on 858 women of reproductive age. Only 39.7% of women reported that they recognized that violence against women was a problem in their area. Ever experience of violence by an intimate partner was reported by 166 women (19.6%) and 70.3% of the perpetuators were...... husbands. Ever experience of domestic violence among women was significantly related to Amhara ethnicity and age group 30-49 years. Only 33 (19.9%) women who ever experienced violence had reported it to the legal authorities. Women's reasons for failing to report to the legal system were not wanting...
Um, Mee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A
Although many North Korean (NK) refugee women are victims of domestic violence (DV) in North Korea, face sexual exploitation during migration, and remain at risk of DV while adapting to life in South Korea, there is no empirical evidence about risk factors for DV in this population. To fill this gap, this study examined whether gender role beliefs, child abuse history, and sociocultural adaptation were associated with past-year physical, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse, and whether they were associated with multiple forms of abuse. We also explored whether these associations were similar or different across different types of DV among NK refugee women. A sample of 180 ever-married NK refugee women in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence was used for analysis. Physical abuse was associated with more traditional gender role beliefs; emotional abuse and multiple forms of abuse were associated with lower levels of sociocultural adaptation; and sexual and economic abuse were associated with an increased likelihood of childhood abuse and poor sociocultural adaptation. Our study findings underscore the importance of assisting NK refugee women to be better adapted to the new culture in a practical way, because better sociocultural adaptation might protect them from experiencing various types of abuse. At the same time, findings of this study highlight the need for empowering NK refugee women who report physical abuse by educating their rights and altering their traditional beliefs of gender roles, and screening of childhood abuse and providing culturally sensitive psychotherapy to those who report sexual or economic abuse. Moreover, we suggest future studies to examine correlates of different forms of abuse separately because they can inform culturally tailored interventions for abused NK refugee women. To prevent further victimization, educational programs should be provided to NK refugee women at an early stage of resettlement in South Korea
This qualitative study explored the experiences of 22 domestic violence survivors attempting to negotiate safe post-separation parenting arrangements through the Australian family law system. Their allegations of violence put them at odds with a system that values mediated settlements and shared parenting. Skeptical responses, accusations of parental alienation, and pressure to agree to unsafe arrangements exacerbated the effects of post-separation violence. Core themes in the women's narratives of engagement with the family law system-silencing, control, and undermining the mother-child relationship-mirrored domestic violence dynamics, suggesting the concept of secondary victimization as a useful lens for understanding their experiences. © The Author(s) 2016.
... violence affects people regardless of gender, age, sexual orientation, race, or religion. Tragically... include difficulty in school, post-traumatic disorders, alcohol and drug abuse, and criminal behavior. My...
Hajikhani Golchin, Nayereh Azam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Hamzehgardeshi, Leila; Shirzad Ahoodashti, Mahboobeh
Domestic violence refers to any type of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse enforced in the setting of familial relationships. Domestic violence has a significant relationship with poor outcome among pregnant women. Success in resolving this social phenomenon rests on accurate assessment of the society and the factors associated with violence in that specific community. The present study was conducted to assess the demographic characteristics of pregnant women exposed to different types of domestic violence during pregnancy in Iranian setting. This is a descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study. Sampling was done with convenience sampling method. in the current study, 301 pregnant women aged 15-45 years of Iranian nationality who were referred to the hospital for delivery or abortion, regardless of the gestational age, were selected as the subjects. Data collection tools consisted of a sociodemographic questionnaire and a violence checklist. Violence was assessed using Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2). Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytic statistics on SPSS version 16 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) and STATA version 10. The characteristics of the participants were presented as mean ± SD or number and percentage. Differences between variables were determined by the χ2 test, and multivariate logistic regression. P patriarchal household (AOR = 16.75). As domestic violence is greatly influenced by the customs and cultures of each community, no single strategy can be adopted to resolve it universally. Simultaneously, it is necessary to adopt comprehensive measures to control factors associated with domestic violence in the healthcare, judiciary, and the educational systems in order to prevent and curb this social challenge.
... disproportionate number of victims are women, domestic violence can affect anyone. The effects of domestic violence... required by section 2 of this memorandum, to prevent domestic violence and address its effects on the... agency-specific policies and practices for addressing the effects of domestic violence on its workforce...
Banks, Jamye R.; Fedewa, Alicia L.
Domestic violence is often perceived to occur only in heterosexual relationships. However, domestic violence is also prevalent in same-sex relationships. The majority of the research indicates that counselors perceive same-sex domestic violence differently than heterosexual domestic violence. This literature review synthesizes the research…
Fox, Claire L; Gadd, David; Sim, Julius
To provide a more robust assessment of the effectiveness of a domestic abuse prevention education program, a questionnaire was developed to measure children's attitudes to domestic violence. The aim was to develop a short questionnaire that would be easy to use for practitioners but, at the same time, sensitive enough to pick up on subtle changes in young people's attitudes. We therefore chose to ask children about different situations in which they might be willing to condone domestic violence. In Study 1, we tested a set of 20 items, which we reduced by half to a set of 10 items. The factor structure of the scale was explored and its internal consistency was calculated. In Study 2, we tested the factor structure of the 10-item Attitudes to Domestic Violence (ADV) Scale in a separate calibration sample. Finally, in Study 3, we then assessed the test-retest reliability of the 10-item scale. The ADV Questionnaire is a promising tool to evaluate the effectiveness of domestic abuse education prevention programs. However, further development work is necessary. © The Author(s) 2014.
Shams, Mohsen; Kianfard, Leila; Parhizkar, Saadat; Mousavizadeh, Ali
Violence against women is an urgent health priority in Iran. Designing effective programs for preventing and controlling the problem necessitates a thorough understanding of Iranian women and their perspectives regarding domestic violence. This study was aimed at exploring the domestic violence-related views of married women who were referred to health care facilities in Ahvaz, Iran. In this qualitative research, data were collected through four focus group discussions with 30 married women. All the discussions were recorded and transcribed, after which the data were classified separately. The main themes and subthemes were then manually derived from the data and analyzed. The five main themes identified were domestic violence against women in Ahvaz, behavioral influencing factors, nonbehavioral influencing factors, the necessity to empower women to prevent domestic violence, and recommendations for developing special training programs for Ahvazi women. Most of the participants were aware that domestic violence against women is a common occurrence in Iran. They were well aware of the definition of violence and expressed a belief that behavioral factors exert an important effect on the occurrence of the problem. They recommended the development of appropriate training programs that empower women to prevent the problem, the use of mass media to educate citizens about domestic violence, and the involvement of opinion leaders in eliminating the taboo against considering such violence a crime against Iranian women. Considering the views and ideas of women as consumers of educational services is a principle used to develop effective programs for preventing and controlling domestic violence. As indicated by the findings, the participants believe that empowering women must be treated as a priority in the Iranian health care system. However, they recommended differing approaches and methods of empowerment on the basis of their individual views and concerns.
Khalifeh, H; Moran, P; Borschmann, R; Dean, K; Hart, C; Hogg, J; Osborn, D; Johnson, S; Howard, L M
Domestic and sexual violence are significant public health problems but little is known about the extent to which men and women with severe mental illness (SMI) are at risk compared with the general population. We aimed to compare the prevalence and impact of violence against SMI patients and the general population. Three hundred and three randomly recruited psychiatric patients, in contact with community services for ⩾ 1 year, were interviewed using the British Crime Survey domestic/sexual violence questionnaire. Prevalence and correlates of violence in this sample were compared with those from 22 606 general population controls participating in the contemporaneous 2011/12 national crime survey. Past-year domestic violence was reported by 27% v. 9% of SMI and control women, respectively [odds ratio (OR) adjusted for socio-demographics, aOR 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-4.0], and by 13% v. 5% of SMI and control men, respectively (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.8). Past-year sexual violence was reported by 10% v. 2.0% of SMI and control women respectively (aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8). Family (non-partner) violence comprised a greater proportion of overall domestic violence among SMI than control victims (63% v. 35%, p domestic and sexual violence, with a relative excess of family violence and adverse health impact following victimization. Psychiatric services, and public health and criminal justice policies, need to address domestic and sexual violence in this at-risk group.
Full Text Available Legal protection of victims of domestic violence in Republika Srpska is analyzed in this work. With regard to the above, the author highlights that in Republika Srpska there are two forms of legal protection from domestic violence they fall within the remit of criminal law and misdemeanor law. Introduction of such protection model was intended for the protection of victims from this form of violent behavior, which is, by its characteristics a specific form of criminal behavior and as such demands special measures of lawful reaction by the state. Protection of victims of domestic violence falling within the remit of criminal law, which is very important since it attaches the same gravity to this and the other forms of criminality giving it a certain degree of criminal-political weight, has not produced expected results. For that reason was adopted a special Law on Protection from Domestic Violence defining the notion of domestic violence, persons considered to be a family members, methods of their protection, as well as the kind and purpose of misdemeanor law related norms with emphasizing the fact that all the proceedings initiated under this law are of an urgent nature. The main driving force leading to the adoption of this Law is to obtain a complete and systematic regulation of domestic violence to enable faster, more efficient and durable protection of the endangered persons. The most important thing about this Law on Protection from Domestic Violence is introduction of protective measures, which could be sentenced against the perpetrator and which, in fact, allow for the protection of victims to family violence. Method of its concrete implementation regulated is by the relevant by-laws. Adoption of law sanctioning domestic violence, either as a criminal act or as a misdemeanor, together with the adoption of by-laws for the implementation of particular protective measures, represent a step forward in combat and prevention of domestic
Nwabunike, Collins; Tenkorang, Eric Y
There is evidence that between half and two thirds of Nigerian women have experienced domestic violence, and that this is higher in some ethnic groups than others. Yet, studies that examine the ethnic dimensions of domestic and marital violence are conspicuously missing in the literature. We fill this void using data from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Results indicate significant ethnic differences with Igbo women more likely to have experienced sexual and emotional violence compared with Yoruba women. Hausa women were however significantly less likely to experience physical and sexual violence but not emotional violence, compared with Yoruba women. Women with domineering husbands were significantly more likely to experience physical, sexual, and emotional violence. Similarly, those who thought wife-beating was justified were more likely to experience all three types of violence. The independent effects of ethnicity on domestic violence suggests that specific interventions may be needed for women belonging to different ethnic groups if the problem of domestic violence is to be dealt with effectively in Nigeria. © The Author(s) 2015.
Sánchez-Guzmán, María Alejandra; Paz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Espinola-Nadurille, Mariana; Trujillo-De Los Santos, Zoila
Patients with neurological diseases are susceptible to abuse and neglect. Studies on violence in this context have mainly focused on abuse perpetrated by a caregiver to the patient directionally. In this study we describe violence in dyads of caregivers and patients with neurological disorders according to frequency, directionality, and type of relation. One-hundred-and-eighty-five caregiver-patient dyads were assessed by means of the National Survey of Violence Against Women (NSVAW) guidelines and the Zarit and Pfeiffer questionnaires. Bivariate analysis and Spearman correlation tests were performed. Violence was reported by 32.5% of caregivers and 33.5% of patients. In both groups, psychological abuse was the most common. Mutual violence (54.5%) is the most common type of abuse and the caregiver reported as having more violent behavior is the intimate partner. Epilepsy was the neurological disorder where violence was more prevalent (47.6%). The prevalence of violence in our sample is higher than the one for the general population of 21%, as reported by the NSVAW. Clinical neurologists and healthcare services are key elements for the detection of abuse in this context.
Cao, Yuping; Li, Longfei; Zhao, Xingfu; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yalin; Luo, Xingguang
Domestic physical violence (DPV) is common in China due to its long history of slavery and feudalism. This study aimed to examine the effects of exposure to DPV on children's behavior in a Chinese community. Ninety-three 12- to 16-year-old adolescents exposed to DPV were compared to 54 adolescents with no exposure to DPV. We found that DPV exposure was associated with adverse behaviors in children, especially among boys. Children witnessing DPV alone had similar behavioral scores as the abused children. We recommend that both abused and DPV witness-only adolescents in Chinese communities need treatment to mitigate the effects on maladjusted behaviors. The intervention programs for children who witness domestic violence are also important.
Zorjan, Saša; Smrke, Urška; Šprah, Lilijana
Abstract Background Domestic violence is recognized as a public health problem with a high prevalence in the general population. Healthcare professionals play an important role in the recognition and treatment of domestic violence. Hence, conducting research on factors that facilitate or inhibit appropriate actions by healthcare professionals is of the upmost importance. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between healthcare professionals’ attitudes toward the acceptability of domestic violence and their responses when dealing with victims of domestic violence. Methods The sample consisted of 322 healthcare professionals (physicians, dentists, nursing staff and other healthcare workers; 85.2% female), who completed a questionnaire, assessing their attitudes towards domestic violence, experience, behaviour and perceived barriers in recognizing and treating domestic violence in the health care sector. The study was cross-sectional and used availability sampling. Results The results showed no significant differences in domestic violence acceptability attitudes when comparing groups of healthcare professionals who reported low or high frequency of domestic violence cases encounters. Furthermore, we found that domestic violence acceptability attitudes were negatively associated with action taking when the frequency of encounters with domestic violence cases was high and medium. However, the attitudes were not associated with action taking when the frequency of encounters with domestic violence cases was low. Conclusions The results highlight the important role of attitudes in action taking of healthcare professionals when it comes to domestic violence. This indicates the need for educational interventions that specifically target healthcare professionals’ attitudes towards domestic violence. PMID:28713445
Zorjan, Saša; Smrke, Urška; Šprah, Lilijana
Domestic violence is recognized as a public health problem with a high prevalence in the general population. Healthcare professionals play an important role in the recognition and treatment of domestic violence. Hence, conducting research on factors that facilitate or inhibit appropriate actions by healthcare professionals is of the upmost importance. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between healthcare professionals' attitudes toward the acceptability of domestic violence and their responses when dealing with victims of domestic violence. The sample consisted of 322 healthcare professionals (physicians, dentists, nursing staff and other healthcare workers; 85.2% female), who completed a questionnaire, assessing their attitudes towards domestic violence, experience, behaviour and perceived barriers in recognizing and treating domestic violence in the health care sector. The study was cross-sectional and used availability sampling. The results showed no significant differences in domestic violence acceptability attitudes when comparing groups of healthcare professionals who reported low or high frequency of domestic violence cases encounters. Furthermore, we found that domestic violence acceptability attitudes were negatively associated with action taking when the frequency of encounters with domestic violence cases was high and medium. However, the attitudes were not associated with action taking when the frequency of encounters with domestic violence cases was low. The results highlight the important role of attitudes in action taking of healthcare professionals when it comes to domestic violence. This indicates the need for educational interventions that specifically target healthcare professionals' attitudes towards domestic violence.
Full Text Available Background: Violence against women is a universal phenomenon that persists in all communities and in all countries of the world and the perpetrator of that violence is often well-known to the victim. Domestic violence in particular continues to be frighteningly common and well-accepted as "normal" within too many societies. Objectives: (1 The primary aim of this study is to find out the extent of different type of domestic violence and to identify various risk factors for domestic violence against married women. (2 The secondary aim is to identify the various protective factors of domestic violence against married women. Materials and Methods: The present study was a population based cross-sectional study carried out in the urban area of Gwalior city for a period of one year. Stratified random sampling technique was used for the selection of the samples. The study participants were interviewed using a pretested semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. Proportion, Pearson′s, chi-square test and odds ratio were calculated for the analysis of the study. Result: Of the 144 study participants, 68 participants reported some form of domestic violence, which was either physical, sexual or emotional. The most common type of violence reported was physical violence. The most important risk factor for domestic violence was alcoholism followed by literacy status. Majority of the abused women were dependent on their husbands for money, material assets and expenditure. Conclusion: The study hereby recommends that to prevent domestic violence government has to take stringent action for making women more self-reliant especially by making the women more literate and more financially independent.
Anderson, Fraser; Howard, Louise; Dean, Kimberlie; Moran, Paul; Khalifeh, Hind
To investigate the association between childhood maltreatment and adulthood domestic and sexual violence victimisation among people with severe mental illness (SMI), and to explore this association in terms of gender differences and potential mediators. A cross-sectional survey of 318 people living in the community who were receiving care from Community Mental Health Teams. Associations were assessed using logistic regression of multiply imputed data. 63 % (95 % CI 55-71 %) of men and 71 % (95 % CI 63-79 %) of women reported childhood maltreatment, 46 % (95 % CI 37-54 %) of men and 67 % (95 % CI 59-76 %) of women reported adulthood domestic violence victimisation, and 22 % (95 % CI 15-28 %)of men and 62 % (95 % CI 53-70 %)of women reported adulthood sexual violence victimisation. Men and women with SMI who reported experiences of childhood maltreatment were two to five times more likely to report domestic and sexual violence victimisation in adulthood after adjusting for confounders. The associations held for each of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse. People with severe mental illness have high prevalence of experiences of childhood maltreatment and adulthood domestic and sexual violence victimisation. Childhood maltreatment appears to be an independent risk factor for adulthood victimisation among men and women with SMI.
Valandra; Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Higgins, Brandon M; Brown, Lucy M
Relatively few studies have explored domestic violence from a multiplicity of African American perspectives, experiences, and socio-demographic backgrounds within rural African American communities. Community-based participatory action research methods were used to explore domestic violence perceptions of African Americans with heterogeneous backgrounds and experiences of violence. Ten focus groups were held throughout the community with 52 diverse women ( n = 33) and men ( n = 19) living in the northwest region of Arkansas. Demographic data were collected from 47 women ( n = 28) and men ( n = 19) participating in focus groups regarding their perceptions and experiences of domestic violence, media messages, help-seeking behaviors, and services. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Three major themes emerged, including (a) a heightened awareness of race, gender, and class differences; (b) imbalanced and mixed messages from media; and (c) multi-systemic dynamics influencing abusive behavior and relationships. Results indicate that study participants' perspectives and experiences with domestic violence reflect a complex interrelated gamut of societal, community, familial, and individual dynamics. Participant recommendations related to interpersonal dynamics, media messages, and societal influences are reported with implications for practice, policy, and future research.
Saliba, Orlando; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Garbin, Artênio José Isper; Dossi, Ana Paula
Domestic violence reporting by health providers contributes to the epidemiological assessment of the magnitude of the problem, which allows the development of specific programs and actions. The aim of the study was to assess the level of responsibility of these providers towards reporting violence, especially domestic violence, and potential related legal and ethical implications. The Brazilian legislation and ethics code of Medicine, Dentistry, Nursing and Psychology were studied. Legal sanctions are found in the Criminal Law of Misdemeanor Offenses, the Child and Adolescent Statute, the Elderly Statute and in the law establishing mandatory reporting of violence against women. There are also penalties in all ethics codes reviewed. It is concluded that health providers have the legal duty of reporting known domestic violence cases and they can even be charged with omission.
Two percent of women in the United States suffer from intimate partner violence annually, with poor and minority women disproportionately affected. I provide evidence of an important negative externality associated with domestic violence by estimating a negative and causal relationship between violence during pregnancy and newborn health,…
Szilassy, Eszter; Drinkwater, Jess; Hester, Marianne; Larkins, Cath; Stanley, Nicky; Turner, William; Feder, Gene
We describe the development of an evidence-based training intervention on domestic violence and child safeguarding for general practice teams. We aimed - in the context of a pilot study - to improve knowledge, skills, attitudes and self-efficacy of general practice clinicians caring for families affected by domestic violence. Our evidence sources included: a systematic review of training interventions aiming to improve professional responses to children affected by domestic violence; content mapping of relevant current training in England; qualitative assessment of general practice professionals' responses to domestic violence in families; and a two-stage consensus process with a multi-professional stakeholder group. Data were collected between January and December 2013. This paper reports key research findings and their implications for practice and policy; describes how the research findings informed the training development and outlines the principal features of the training intervention. We found lack of cohesion and co-ordination in the approach to domestic violence and child safeguarding. General practice clinicians have insufficient understanding of multi-agency work, a limited competence in gauging thresholds for child protection referral to children's services and little understanding of outcomes for children. While prioritising children's safety, they are more inclined to engage directly with abusive parents than with affected children. Our research reveals uncertainty and confusion surrounding the recording of domestic violence cases in families' medical records. These findings informed the design of the RESPONDS training, which was developed in 2014 to encourage general practice clinicians to overcome barriers and engage more extensively with adults experiencing abuse, as well as responding directly to the needs of children. We conclude that general practice clinicians need more support in managing the complexity of this area of practice. We need to
Dienye, Paul O; Gbeneol, Precious K
Domestic violence against men is rare in Nigeria. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of domestic violence against men, the sociodemographic characteristics of victims, and the pattern of injury sustained in a primary care setting. This was a retrospective study over a period of 5 years in which all the medical records of patients were retrieved and information on domestic violence extracted from them and transferred to a data sheet. Those whose records were grossly deficient were excluded from the study. A total of 220,000 patients were seen of which 48 (22 per 100,000) were victims of domestic violence. There were only five married male victims with a prevalence of 0.0023%. The injuries observed were scratches, bruises, welts, and scalds. The primary care physician needs a high index of suspicion to be able to detect it.
... working not only to curb domestic violence, but to bring it to an end. Last year, we announced an... women, mothers and fathers, and schools and universities in the fight, we can teach our children about...
Rosana Santos Mota
Full Text Available This quantitative study aims to evaluate pregnant adolescents in relation to socio demographic, gynecological and obstetric aspects and the experience of domestic violence. The subjects were 34 pregnant adolescents who got prenatal care in the city of São Francisco do Conde (Bahia, Brazil. Interviews were conducted. The majority of pregnant adolescents was between 16 and 19 years old and was single, black, non-educated, and financially dependent on parents or husband/partner, having initiated a sexual relationship before the age of 15. More than 40% declared a history of domestic violence. Some of them revealed the experience of domestic violence during pregnancy. In face of this reality, a professional look is necessary in order to recognize domestic violence as an aggravating factor to the health of these adolescents, a fact which has not been perceived in health care.
Full Text Available The article discusses domestic violence as dangerous, unlawful and violent conduct, which currently threatens a generation of seniors. The author stresses the need for primary prevention of domestic violence in the context of the education of seniors, at the University of the Third Age. In the text we present the content focus of preventative lectures to the target group of seniors. In connection with the content of primary prevention is highlighted to the opportunity to help the victims of domestic violence through the association for assistance to victims of crime „Bílý kruh bezpečí“. On the basis of the exploratory investigation, in the text there where presented the views at the seniors on the issue of the domestic violence
A contextual analysis was conducted of Utah domestic violence agency websites to determine if these agencies recognized and/or acknowledged male victims of domestic violence and if the provided similar services to male victims that are provided to female victims of domestic violence. A Google search was conducted to obtain a list of Utah domestic violence agencies and their web addresses. The search revealed sixteen (16) Utah domestic violence agencies across the state, however; only twelve (...
Katz, Lynn Fainsilber
This paper examined whether individual differences in children’s vagal reactivity to peer provocation was related to domestic violence within the family. It also examined the question of whether conduct-problem children who show vagal augmentation to peer provocation come from families with high levels of domestic violence. During the peer provocation, children were expecting to interact with a difficult peer while vagal reactivity was assessed. Groups were divided into children who showed va...
Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna
Lives of people experiencing domestic or/and intimate partner violence abound in many unpleasant events and physical and psychological suffering, which affects their psychosocial functioning. The aim of this study was to explore indirect self-destructiveness as a generalised behavioural tendency and its manifestations in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale" (CS-DS) was used to study two groups of women: 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence (V group) and 150 well-matched women not experiencing domestic violence (NV group). Women suffering domestic violence (V) obtained significantly higher scores than women not experiencing domestic violence (NV) for both the general index and a majority of CS-DS subscales; it was only for the A1 (Transgression and Risk) subscale that they achieved somewhat lower scores. Correlation coefficients between particular CS-DS subscales in the V group were higher than in the NV group; there were also certain differences in coefficients between the groups. Subscale factor analysis results were different too: only one factor was isolated in the V group while two were distinguished in the NV group. It can be inferred from the results that the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness as a generalised behavioural tendency as well as of most its categories was higher in women experiencing domestic violence. Tendencies and categories of indirectly self-destructive behaviours in women suffering domestic violence were more closely connected with one another, and the internal coherence of indirect self-destructiveness in those women might also be higher.
Zust, Barbara; Flicek, Breanna; Moses, Katie; Schubert, Courtney; Timmerman, Jessica
Religious beliefs play a significant role in the lives of victims of domestic violence. Victims find strength in their faith and would rather endure the violence at all costs to keep a family or a marriage together, than to compromise their faith by leaving. This 10 -year study explored the climate of support for victims of domestic violence among Christian clergy and church members between 2005 and 2015. Using a convenience sample, surveys were sent out to congregations in the Upper Midwest in 2005 and 2015. The survey included demographics; two items measuring perception of domestic violence in the congregation andcommunity; six Likert Scale items regarding agreement with statements concerning leaving an abusive marriage; four 'Yes-No' items regarding the impact of faith in leaving, support of the congregation, community resources,and clergy as counselors. The clergy's survey had the same questions, plus open-ended questions about their skills in counseling victims, their congregation's support for victims, community resources, and beliefs that could impact a victim's choice in leaving. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, simple frequencies, and bivariate correlations. Narrative data were analyzed using content analysis. The results of this study indicated that change is slow. Members want their clergy to become more educated in counseling and in speaking about domestic violence from the pulpit. Clergy felt comfortable in making referrals for professional counseling, while the majority of members would prefer counseling with their pastor if they were in a violent relationship. Both clergy and members want to create a safe and supportive environment for victims/survivors of violent relationships. Findings from this study exemplify the need for pastors to remove the silence about domestic violence in their congregations and address the misunderstood social religious beliefs that may bind a victim to the violence.
Stith, Sandra M.; Rosen, Karen H.; McCollum, Eric E.
This paper describes challenges faced in a four-year project to develop a manualized couples treatment program for domestic violence. The couples treatment program is an add-on to a male batterer program where the male partner has perpetrated mild-to-moderate violence, yet both partners want to remain together. The project involved the cooperation…
This article therefore shows the portrayals of women in different messages in the media. Against these backdrops of emerging trends globally and in Nigeria, this article provides an insightful ethnography of mass media messages directed at eradicating domestic violence and as a tool for advocating for violence against ...
Introduction: Domestic violence (DV) is considered as one of the most frequent forms of gender-based violence. Since primary care physicians frequently are the first in the community to encounter the battered woman, they must be equipped with the necessary knowledge, training and experience. Objective: The aim of this ...
Violence against women is a phenomenon that has been with us from time immemorial. This study was designed to investigate the causes and health consequences of domestic violence against women in the North-East sub-region. A total of 2500 women taken from some professional groups from six states that make up ...
Although the negative effects of witnessing domestic violence are finally becoming acknowledged, many young girls are already victims of violence within their own dating relationships. Research studies uniformly find that, on average, about 25% of teen dating relationships contain violent elements. Research with pregnant and parenting teens show…
Currie, Cheryl L.
Objective: The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. Method: A…
This meta-summary study explores, extracts, and summarizes themes from related qualitative studies on the lived experiences and coping mechanisms among culturally diverse domestic violence survivors. Using Sandelowski and Barroso's meta-summary strategy, a systematic literature review of articles published between 1990 and 2010 was conducted using a qualitative approach. Of a total of 802 studies, nine met the study inclusion criteria. This meta-summary of nine studies confirms the recurring themes in primary qualitative studies in the literature that illustrate women's experiences of domestic violence. These themes include (a) the effects of violence, (b) the cyclical nature of violence, (c) normalizing and tolerating violence, (d) the strength and resilience of victims, (e) barriers to help-seeking, and (f) the role of substance use in domestic violence. The review shows key cross-cultural differences in women's perceptions of abuse and the causes and strategies for responding to abuse. The review also reveals the lack of studies on domestic violence among women from Central Asia and the former Soviet Union.
Ben Natan, Merav; Khater, Marva; Ighbariyea, Raeqa; Herbet, Hanin
Although domestic violence against women is common in Israel and elsewhere, and though medical staff in Israel have a universal obligation to screen women for domestic violence, actual screening rates remain low. To examine which variables affect nursing students' intention to screen women for domestic violence when providing treatment, and whether the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) developed by Ajzen (1991) predicts this intention. This study is a quantitative cross sectional study. A large academic nursing school in central Israel. A convenience sample of 200 nursing students who had completed at least one year of studies took part in the study. Students completed a questionnaire based on the TPB. Nursing students showed high intention to screen women for domestic violence when providing treatment. Normative beliefs, subjective norms, behavioral beliefs, perceived control, and knowledge were found to affect students' intention to screen women for domestic violence. The opinion of the clinical instructor was most significant for students. The theoretical model predicted 32% of students' intention to screen women for domestic violence, with normative beliefs being the most significant variable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meerambika Mahapatro; R N Gupta; Vinay Gupta
Background: It is over the last decade that research in this field of domestic violence has led to greater recognition of the issue as public health problem. The paper aims to study the prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and potential risk factors of the women confronting violence within the home in India. Materials and Methods: A multicentric study with analytical cross-sectional design was applied. It covers 18 states in India with 14,507 women respondents. Multistag...
Sweet, Paige L
Diagnostic categories for domestic violence have shifted over time, transforming from a disorder of psychological passivity and acute injury into a chronic and somatically invasive condition. This paper links these changing diagnoses to constructions of the abused body and to victim-blaming narratives. Based on an analysis of medical journal articles, this research identifies two logics that undergird domestic violence diagnoses, the body, and victim-blaming: 1) the logic of injury (1970s-1980s); and 2) the logic of health (late 1980s-present). The logic of injury is associated with overt victim-blaming, a temporally bounded and injured body, and psychological passivity. Once the feminist anti-violence movement gained mainstream credibility, however, the logic of injury fell out of favor as an explanation for domestic violence. What surfaced next was the logic of health, which is associated with chronic diagnoses and what the author calls a temporally extended body. The temporally extended body is flexible and layered, linking up past, present, and future states of disordered embodiment. The author suggests that, rather than ushering in hope and possibility via the logic of health's somatic flexibility, this abused body creates spaces into which new forms of blame and self-responsibility can take shape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article describes the work of Southall Black Sisters (SBS), a small women's group in London that engages in political lobbying, activism, and case work, largely with Asian women immigrants seeking an escape from domestic violence. The strategies that SBS uses include: maintaining a strong link between its case work and the larger policy and social practices that make it difficult for women to counter domestic violence effectively; challenging multiple forms of oppression (based on gender, race, ethnicity, and the patriarchy) simultaneously; and networking with a range of other organizations to accomplish specific tasks. Thus, SBS's work for social change challenges the following: the prevailing culture that permits violence against women to be endemic; the construction and delivery of services to abused women that fail to meet the needs of Asian immigrants with little command of English; and the overriding legal and policy context. In particular, SBS clients face difficulties because the UK's immigration rules require incoming spouses to remain married for a year in order to stay in the country. During this period, incoming spouses are denied the very welfare benefits that provide funding for abused women in shelters. SBS case work includes counseling, arranging accommodations, finding legal counsel, and supporting clients through legal processes. SBS draws on its case work to inform its lobbying and to give a voice to victims of domestic violence.
Full Text Available Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods: Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results: We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries.
Shelton, Samuel Z
Since the foundations of the contemporary anti-violence movement in the 1960s and 1970s, advocates have sought to establish a critical understanding of domestic violence that we can use to direct our efforts for social change. Yet many advocates and advocacy organizations continue to rely on a problematic narrative of sameness that marginalizes and erases diverse victims' experiences and needs. In this article, I conduct a critical discourse analysis of the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence Web site to identify outcomes of this narrative for the inclusivity of advocacy efforts. I argue that despite the organization's numerous claims to represent diverse victims' experiences, Web site content reveals that its purportedly general account of domestic violence normalizes the experiences of a small group of victims-namely, heterosexual, cisgender women. Further, the Web site's content greatly limits the potential for thinking about and discussing violence across difference. I conclude with recommendations for changes in advocacy practices.
Felker-Kantor, Erica; Wallace, Maeve; Theall, Katherine
To determine the association between neighborhood domestic violence and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth and to examine if there is a differential impact of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births by race in a high crime community. This analysis includes all birth records issued in New Orleans, Louisiana from 2011 to 2012 geocoded by census tract (N=177 census tracts, N=8322 women). Hierarchical modeling and ecologic spatial analysis were used to examine the area-effect of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births, independent of individual-level predictors and accounting for the propensity to live in high domestic violence neighborhoods. Tests for spatial autocorrelation reveled area-level clustering and overlap of SGA and domestic violent rates. Pregnant women living in high domestic violence areas were more likely to give birth to an SGA infant compared to women in low-domestic violence areas (OR=1.04, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.08), net of the effects of individual-level factors and propensity scores. Neighborhood-level attributes including rates of domestic violence may increase women's risk for SGA birth, highlighting a policy-relevant and potentially amenable exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad
Conclusion: Despite overall low rate of domestic elder abuse, its high prevalence indicates that some interventions are necessary to decrease domestic elder abuse. Emotional neglect of elders should be addressed more than other abuse types.
Mahnaz Shoghi, MSN
Conclusion: The findings showed a noticeable trend of a rising number of assaults against nurses. The findings of this study may help hospital staff and nurses to avoid, reduce and control violence and abuse.
Wilson-Williams, Lyndsey; Stephenson, Rob; Juvekar, Sanjay; Andes, Karen
This study uses qualitative methods to examine how domestic violence affects the use of contraceptives by women in a rural village in India. The study highlights how multilevel factors are linked to a woman's ability to contracept and make fertility decisions in a context where being a wife implies obedience, limited mobility, sexual availability, and high fertility. The authors find that violence is normalized, or considered acceptable, if women do not adhere to expected gender roles. Although women's ability to make autonomous decisions is shown to be limited, the study explores covert strategies used to avoid pregnancy, which also tend to increase women's risk of experiencing domestic violence.
Hackett, Shannon; McWhirter, Paula T; Lesher, Susan
A meta-analysis on domestic violence interventions was conducted to determine overall effectiveness of mental health programs involving women and children in joint treatment. These interventions were further analyzed to determine whether outcomes are differentially affected based on the outcome measure employed. To date, no meta-analyses have been published on domestic violence victim intervention efficacy. The 17 investigations that met study criteria yielded findings indicating that domestic violence interventions have a large effect size (d = .812), which decreases to a medium effect size when compared to control groups (d = .518). Effect sizes were assessed to determine whether treatment differed according to the focus of the outcome measure employed: (a) external stress (behavioral problems, aggression, or alcohol use); (b) psychological adjustment (depression, anxiety, or happiness); (c) self-concept (self-esteem, perceived competence, or internal locus of control); (d) social adjustment (popularity, loneliness, or cooperativeness); (e) family relations (mother-child relations, affection, or quality of interaction); and (f) maltreatment events (reoccurrence of violence, return to partner). Results reveal that domestic violence interventions across all outcome categories yield effects in the medium to large range for both internalized and externalized symptomatology. Implications for greater awareness and support for domestic violence treatment and programming are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Puchala, Chassidy; Paul, Sarah; Kennedy, Carla; Mehl-Madrona, Lewis
We report the results of involving traditional healing elders (THE) in the clinical care of aboriginal families who were involved in domestic violence in the context of a clinical case series of referrals made for domestic violence. Psychiatric consultations were requested from senior author L.M.M. for 113 aboriginal individuals involved with domestic violence as recipients or perpetrators (or both) between July 2005 and October 2008. As part of their clinical care, all were encouraged to meet with a THE, with 69 agreeing to do so. The My Medical Outcomes Profile 2 scale was being used as a clinical instrument to document effectiveness. Elders used traditional cultural stories and aboriginal spirituality with individuals, couples, and families to transform the conditions underlying domestic violence. For those people who met with the THE, a statistically significant change (p domestic violence is effective. We speculate that it helps by providing traditional stories about relationships and roles that do not include violence. Spiritual approaches within aboriginal communities may be more effective than more secular, clinical approaches. Research is indicated to compare elder-based interventions with conventional clinical care.
Maeder, Evelyn M.; Mossiere, Annik; Cheung, Liann
This study manipulated the race of the defendant and the victim (White/White, White/Asian, Asian/Asian, and Asian/White) in a domestic violence case to examine the potential prejudicial impact of race on juror decision making. A total of 181undergraduate students read a trial transcript involving an allegation of spousal abuse in which defendant…
The article explores some of the ways heterosexual women are portrayed as perpetrators of intimate partner domestic violence (IPV) in police domestic violence records in England and is the first study in the United Kingdom to examine the issue of gender and domestic violence perpetrators in any detail and over time. The article is based on a study of 128 IPV cases tracked longitudinally over 6 years, including 32 cases where women were the sole perpetrators and a further 32 cases where women were "dual" perpetrators alongside men. Women were 3 times more likely than men to be arrested when they were construed as the perpetrator. However, Pence and Dasgupta's category of "pathological violence" appeared more useful as an analytical category in the construction of women as "perpetrators" and men as "victims" than the notion of "battering."
Full Text Available Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and behavioral variables that might be associated with physical domestic violence based on a review of the literature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, and odds ratios (OR were computed using logistic regression. Women reporting physical domestic violence were significantly more likely to report (i a history of childhood domestic violence (OR=2.96, P<0.001, (ii two or more lifetime partners (OR=1.94, P<0.001, (iii some form of sexual abuse as a child (OR=1.82, not significant, and (iv low or medium socio-economic status as measured by type of homestead (OR=1.4, P=0.04 than women who reported no experience of physical domestic violence. Married women were less likely to experience physical domestic violence than unmarried women (OR=0.65, P=0.011. Women at greatest risk of domestic violence include those with a personal history of violence or sexual abuse, multiple lifetime partners, and low or medium socio-economic status. Risk assessments and joint interventions for both domestic violence reduction and HIV prevention should target these population groups, which are effective both on the public health and global heath diplomacy levels.
Patrikar, Seema; Verma, Ak; Bhatti, Vk; Shatabdi, S
Violence affects the lives of millions of women worldwide, in all socioeconomic classes. Violence and the fear of violence are emerging as important risk factor contributing to the vulnerability to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for women. The objective of the present cross sectional study is to compare the experiences of domestic violence between HIV-positive and HIV-negative married women seeking treatment in a tertiary care hospital. The study is conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Pune on a randomly selected 150 married women (75 HIV-positive and 75 HIV-negative). Informed consent was obtained from all the women and also a trained counsellor was present during the process of data collection. The data was collected by interview method by taking precautions as laid down in the World Health Organization's ethical and safety recommendations for research on domestic violence and using modified conflict tactics scale (CTS). The definition of violence followed is as per the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1993. The percentage of women reporting domestic violence is 44.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 36.84-52.68). The proportion of physical, emotional and sexual violence reported is 38% (95% CI = 30.49-45.96), 24% (95% CI = 17.67-31.31), and 14.7% (95% CI = 9.66-21.02), respectively. The odds of reporting violence of all forms is significantly higher among HIV-positive women than among HIV-negative women (Pdomestic violence. The findings suggest high proportion of HIV-positive women report violence then HIV-negative women which must be addressed through multilevel prevention approaches.
... protection for victims of domestic violence. 982.53 Section 982.53 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... requirements and protection for victims of domestic violence. (a) The tenant-based program requires compliance...) Protection for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking. The PHA must apply 24 CFR part 5...
... domestic violence? 286.140 Section 286.140 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF... special provisions apply to victims of domestic violence? (a) Tribes electing the Family Violence Option... and identify individuals receiving TANF assistance with a history of domestic violence, while...
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Certification of Domestic Violence... Collection Title of Information Collection: Certification of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Sexual... that may be used in response to an incident or incidents of actual or threatened domestic violence...
Childress, Saltanat; Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; Joshi, Manisha
Despite the global nature of domestic violence against women, few studies have examined the phenomenon in Kyrgyzstan. This grounded theory study gives voice to survivors of domestic violence by examining women's experiences of various forms of violence and the complexities surrounding Kyrgyz women's decision making about leaving violent relationships. Findings revealed that survivors move through a three-stage process of leaving: (a) reaching a turning point, (b) implementing the leaving process, and (c) reclaiming self. Participants described "turning points" as critical events or sudden realizations that the violence had become uncontrollable or intolerable, and that the problem was not going to be solved without external support. The turning points fell into four major categories, including epiphanies and moments of truth, losing hope for a change in the abuser's behavior, reaching the point of saturation and giving up, and experiencing fear for the safety of children and protecting self. The main factor that led women to leave was being confronted with the pervasive fear that the abuse would lead to permanent disability or death. In the second stage, the process of leaving was characterized by an iterative cycle of leaving and returning until women were able to weigh the costs and benefits of staying and leaving in the face of cultural, institutional, and systemic constraints. The final stage of leaving involved "reclaiming self," which was the result of cognitive shifts, finding new meanings in their experiences of abuse and attempts to leave, and support received from advocates at the shelter. Results have implications for interventions with survivors and policies addressing the problem of domestic violence in Kyrgyzstan.
This article explores sexual violence in male prisons in South Africa. It focuses on the social meanings and identities that surround sexual violence, particularly the ideas of manhood that shape both the perpetration of sexual abuses and how it is dealt with – or not. The dominant inmate culture endorses prison rape and ...
Lohff, Brigitte; Voss, Angelika
During the last decades an, international discussion has started on how to reduce the gender gap in women's and men's health. Feminist activists and public health scientists in Canada, Latin America (foremost Brazil), the States and South Africa issued a declaration of intention to focus on health impacts caused by gender-related domestic violence. In Europe, and particularly in Germany, the topic as an issue of medical care has lately been given increased attention. In this article, we present activities undertaken to overcome the obstacles in integrating the topic of domestic violence as a medical issue. The successful Brazilian strategy served as a model, in particular for implementing a hot-line for victims of domestic violence within the day-to-day clinical setting. The General Medical Council (Arztekammer), the Women's Medical Association of Lower-Saxony, and the Hanover Medical School founded a working committee "domestic violence" in co-operation with the Ministry of Women, Work and Social Affairs. Between 2002 and 2003, this task force worked out several guidelines and hand-outs for physicians to promote gender-sensitive treatment of abused women, gaining increasing acceptance by the German medical care providers in medical education and in-training services for physicians.
Mikaela A Ming
Full Text Available The Solomon Islands has one of the highest rates of family and sexual violence (FSV in the world with 64% of women aged 15-49 have reported physical and/or sexual abuse by a partner. The National Referral Hospital (NRH in the capital, Honiara, is the only tertiary hospital for the country. Our 4-week medical elective at the NRH was spent reflecting on healthcare challenges including FSV, with the aim of identifying cases of FSV and assessing on the current strategies to improve care for victims. Throughout our placement, we encountered many cases of probable FSV, particularly in the Emergency Department and Obstetrics and Gynecology. These patients were often not managed effectively, largely due to time pressures and overcrowding in the hospital. However, we identified a number of strategies, which have recently been implemented in order to help FSV victims in the Solomon Islands. These include strategies within the healthcare setting, in particular, the commencement of FSV reporting within the hospital, and the production of a manual to enable healthcare worker education on the issue. Strategies within the criminal justice system are also in place. These include recent changes in legislation and the work of the volunteer police force, Royal Assist Mission to the Solomon Islands, to improve attitudes toward FSV. These approaches to tackle the problem of FSV are currently in their early stages and have largely stemmed from Western policies and ideals. This report concludes that more time is needed to accurately assess the impact of the current changes before further recommendations are made.
A small number of studies have identified a positive relationship between alcohol outlet density and domestic violence. These studies have all been based on cross-sectional data and have been limited to the assessment of ecological correlations between outlet density and domestic violence rates. This study provides the first longitudinal examination of this relationship. Cross-sectional time-series using aggregated data from small areas. The relationships between alcohol outlet density and domestic violence were assessed over time using a fixed-effects model. Controls for the spatial autocorrelation of the data were included in the model. The study uses data for 186 postcodes from within the metropolitan area of Melbourne, Australia for the years 1996 to 2005. Alcohol outlet density measures for three different types of outlets (hotel/pub, packaged liquor, on-premise) were derived from liquor licensing records and domestic violence rates were calculated from police-recorded crime data, based on the victim's postcode. Alcohol outlet density was associated significantly with rates of domestic violence, over time. All three licence categories were positively associated with domestic violence rates, with small effects for general (pub) and on-premise licences and a large effect for packaged liquor licences. In Melbourne, the density of liquor licences is positively associated with rates of domestic violence over time. The effects were particularly large for packaged liquor outlets, suggesting a need for licensing policies that pay more attention to o off-premise alcohol availability. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Leguizamon, J Sebastian; Leguizamon, Susane; Howden, Wesley
Male unemployment may decrease the incidence of domestic violence, due to loss of economic power in the relationship, or increase the incidence of domestic violence, due to emotional outbursts fueled by increased stress. We hypothesize that Black men may face a greater loss of expected future earnings after an unemployment shock due to a more unfavorable labor market relative to White men. Consequently, we would expect that Black men would, on net, exhibit a greater reduction (or a smaller increase) in incidences of domestic violence following an employment shock. This study uses mass layoff events reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) at the county level ( N = 3,377) for the years 2003-2008. Mass layoff events occur when a firm lays off at least 50 workers and are uncorrelated with individual-level characteristics ( N = 28,939 events, affecting N = 5,337,481 individuals). Domestic violence data are taken from the National Archive of Criminal Justice and defined as occurring when an accused perpetrator is charged, but not necessarily convicted. We use a multivariate regression model to estimate how differences in the change in reported incidences of domestic violence by race correlate with changes in mass layoffs by race. We control for the poverty rate, real per capita income, percent Black, percent women, and percent of females laid off. The standard errors are clustered at the county level and include county and time dummies to account for regional and time specific trends. We observe that an increase in the number of Blacks subject to a mass layoff event do exert a negative associated influence on domestic violence while layoffs of White men exert a positive influence. Our results shed light on how the influence of economic uncertainty on incidences of domestic violence has been found to be positive in some previous research but negative in other research.
Gallagher, B; Allen, M; Jones, B
Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.
Full Text Available Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.
Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets\\' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens\\' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.
Daly, Jeanette M
Statutes pertinent to elder abuse vary widely. This article provides examples of organizational structure, dependency and age of the victim, definitions of abuse, classification of penalties, and investigation processes. Health care providers must learn their state's elder abuse laws and review any operating manuals produced from the statutes or regulations. All health care workers must know and implement the law to protect the welfare of older persons. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Violence against women is one of the major public health and human rights issue in the world today which is prevalent in all human societies irrespective of religion, socioeconomic status, and culture. Therefore, recognized as a significant barrier to women empowerment and their health. Aims & Objectives: The aim of this study was to find out the extent of different type of domestic violence and to identify various risk factors for domestic violence against married women. Material & Methods: The present study is a community based cross-sectional study carried out in a slum of Kolkata. Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of the samples. The study participants were interviewed using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Result: 97 married women participated in the study. 32.9% of the study population reported some form of domestic violence. In a logistic regression analysis, significant association was found between domestic violence and alcohol abuse by the spouse, level of education of the spouse, per capita income and occupation of the women. Conclusion: This study confirms, high prevalence of all forms of violence against women, which underscores the need for policy makers to increase their recognition of domestic violence as a critical target in public health concerns
Gordon, Kristina Coop; Burton, Shacunda; Porter, Laura
Recent findings indicate that college women's forgiveness of hypothetical dating violence was predictive of their hypothetical decisions to stay in the relationship. This study was designed to evaluate the role of forgiveness in women's intentions to return to their partners from a domestic violence shelter. A sample of 121 women residing in both urban and rural domestic violence shelters filled out a series of questionnaires evaluating demographic information, severity of violence, attributions for violence, psychological constraints (or investment), and forgiveness of the partner. Forgiveness was found to predict intention to return to partner over and above the other variables studied. These findings suggest that the degree to which women are willing to "move on" from the abuse and to let go of their anger toward their partners may play a significant role in their intention to remain in a relationship with their partners.
Background Since many health problems are associated with abuse and neglect at all ages, domestic violence victims may be considered as a group of primary care patients in need of special attention. Methods The aim of this multi-centre study was to assess the prevalence of domestic violence in primary care patients, and to identify those factors which influence the co-occurrence of psychological and physical violence exposure and their consequences (physical, sexual and reproductive and psychological) as obtained from medical records. A study was carried out in 28 family practices in Slovenia in 2009. Twenty-eight family physicians approached every fifth family practice attendee, regardless of gender, to be interviewed about their exposure to domestic violence and asked to specify the perpetrator and the frequency. Out of 840 patients asked, 829 individuals, 61.0% women (n = 506) and 39.0% men (n = 323) were assessed (98.7% response rate). They represented a randomised sample of general practice attendees, aged 18 years and above, who had visited their physician for health problems and who were given a physical examination. Visits for administrative purposes were excluded. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with exposure to both psychological and physical violence. Results Of 829 patients, 15.3% reported some type of domestic violence experienced during the previous five years; 5.9% reported physical and 9.4% psychological violence; of these 19.2% of men and 80.8% of women had been exposed to psychological violence, while 22.4% of men and 77.6% of women had been exposed to physical violence. The domestic violence victims were mostly women (p violence was more prevalent than exposure to physical violence. Of the women, 20.0% were exposed to either type of violence, compared to 8.0% of male participants, who reported they were rarely exposed to physical violence, while women reported often or constant
Shoghi, Mahnaz; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Shirazi, Fateme; Heidari, Shiva; Salemi, Sedighe; Mirzabeigi, Ghazanfar
The rising rate of violence and abuse in health care centers has become a major problem for nurses. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore the prevalence of assaults during nurses' careers in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Self-report questionnaires were filled out by 1,317 nurses. Verbal abuse was experienced by 87.4% of the population during a 6-month period, and physical violence by 27.6% during the same period of time. No physical harm was reported in 66.4% of cases. Only 35.9% cases of verbal abuse and 49.9% cases of physical violence were actually reported. The majority of cases reported that abuse was followed by either inaction or by actions which failed to satisfy the victim. According to the findings, men were exposed to more abuse than women, and the risk of experiencing abuse was higher in nurses with more job experience or who worked more hours. Also, nurses who are responsible for first aid were subjected to more abuse than those in other positions. The findings showed a noticeable trend of a rising number of assaults against nurses. The findings of this study may help hospital staff and nurses to avoid, reduce and control violence and abuse.
Full Text Available Despite advances in knowledge and understanding about the impacts of domestic violence on women's lives, global research on violence against women shows there is a need for research that not only places women centre stage in research praxis, but also that involves them more collaboratively in genuine dialogue about their experiences, including their agentic stances. This is especially the case for marginalised and socially excluded women victims of domestic violence, such as those who are not known or do not present to services and who survive abusive relationships alone or with little outside support. Evidence from two studies reported here—secondary analysis of women with severe and enduring mental health problems and a collaborative narrative project with unsupported women victims of domestic violence—suggest that women's capacity for agency are compromised by a number of critical factors, and that these are also reflected in the tensions between micro–macro analyses and understanding of the impact of domestic violence on women. This article considers the barriers to women's agency from the women's perspective and in the context of broader, systemic dynamics, including the denial or obscuring of abuse by governments and states and the consequences of stringent fiscal retrenchment that put women at increased risk of domestic violence.
D'Silva, Sahana; Frey, Sarah; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Manhart, Lisa E; Kaysen, Debra; Andu, Eaden; Rao, Deepa
In India, reported rates of domestic violence rise as high as 31%. Abuse against pregnant women in India is associated with depressive and PTSD symptoms, and poor birth outcomes, yet no evidence-based interventions have been tested on this population. In this cross-sectional qualitative study, we sought perspective on South Indian women's concerns about abuse during pregnancy and what they believed would help. Participants cited economic dependence on husbands and sociocultural structures as factors perpetuating domestic violence. Women also described resilience factors that can protect against abuse. Our participants highlighted a requisite for interventions within health and social systems.
... domestic workers, most of them girls from poor family backgrounds. Child domestic workers in Nairobi face many workplace social hazards that include injury, verbal harassment and sexual abuse. Based on these findings, the study makes appropriate policy recommendations. Eastern African Social Sciences Review Vol.
Abstract. The article compares the victimization that takes place in a dysfunctional abusive household and that which takes place in the household of God (Eph 2:9) where the bride of Christ (2 Cor 11:2) is abused at the hands of individuals that constitute what we know as the church system. This is often directed at the poor, ...
Kamlesh Kumari Sharma
Full Text Available Background: In recent times, domestic violence against women by marital partners has emerged as an important public health problem. Objectives: 1. To determine the prevalence, characteristics and impact of domestic violence against nurses by their marital partners, in Delhi, India. 2. To identify nurses′ perceptions regarding acceptable behavior for men and women. Materials and Methods: A facility-based pilot study was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi. Data were collected using self-administered standardized questionnaire, among 60 ever married female nurses working at AIIMS hospital, selected by convenience sampling. The principal outcome variables were controlling behavior, emotional, physical and sexual violence by marital partners. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12 software. The test applied was Fisher′s exact test and 1-sided Fisher′s exact test. Results: Sixty percent of nurses reported marital partner perpetrated controlling behavior, 65% reported emotional violence, 43.3% reported physical violence and 30% reported sexual violence. About 3/5 th of nurses (58% opined that no reason justified violence, except wife infidelity (31.67%. Of the physically or sexually abused respondents, 40% were ever injured, and 56.7% reported that violence affected their physical and mental health. Conclusion: There is a high magnitude of domestic violence against nurses and this is reported to have affected their physical and mental health.
Sharma, Kamlesh Kumari; Vatsa, Manju
In recent times, domestic violence against women by marital partners has emerged as an important public health problem. 1. To determine the prevalence, characteristics and impact of domestic violence against nurses by their marital partners, in Delhi, India. 2. To identify nurses' perceptions regarding acceptable behavior for men and women. A facility-based pilot study was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi. Data were collected using self-administered standardized questionnaire, among 60 ever married female nurses working at AIIMS hospital, selected by convenience sampling. The principal outcome variables were controlling behavior, emotional, physical and sexual violence by marital partners. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12 software. The test applied was Fisher's exact test and 1-sided Fisher's exact test. Sixty percent of nurses reported marital partner perpetrated controlling behavior, 65% reported emotional violence, 43.3% reported physical violence and 30% reported sexual violence. About 3/5(th) of nurses (58%) opined that no reason justified violence, except wife infidelity (31.67%). Of the physically or sexually abused respondents, 40% were ever injured, and 56.7% reported that violence affected their physical and mental health. There is a high magnitude of domestic violence against nurses and this is reported to have affected their physical and mental health.
MacGregor, Jennifer C D; Wathen, C Nadine; MacQuarrie, Barbara J
Domestic violence (DV) is associated with serious consequences for victims, children, and families, and even national economies. An emerging literature demonstrates that DV also has a negative impact on workers and workplaces. Less is known about the extent to which people are aware of coworkers' experiences of DV. Using data from a pan-Canadian sample of 8,429 men and women, we examine: (1) awareness of coworker DV victimization and perpetration; (2) the warning signs of DV victimization and perpetration recognized by workers; (3) whether DV victims are more likely than nonvictims to recognize DV and its warning signs in the workplace; and (4) the impacts of DV that workers perceive on victims'/perpetrators' ability to work. Nearly 40% of participants believed they had recognized a DV victim and/or perpetrator in the workplace and many reported recognizing more than one warning sign. DV victims were significantly more likely to report recognizing victims and perpetrators in the workplace, and recognized more DV warning signs. Among participants who believed they knew a coworker who had experienced DV, 49.5% thought the DV had affected their coworker's ability to work. For those who knew a coworker perpetrating DV, 37.9% thought their coworker's ability to work was affected by the abusive behavior. Our findings have implications for a coordinated workplace response to DV. Further research is urgently needed to examine how best to address DV in the workplace and improve outcomes for victims, perpetrators, and their coworkers.
Keeling, June; Fisher, Colleen
This study explored women's experiences of their responses from health professionals following disclosure of domestic violence within a health setting. The existence of health-based policies guiding professionals in the provision of appropriate support following disclosure of domestic violence is only effective if health professionals understand the dynamics of violent relationships. This article focuses on the findings from the interviews conducted with 15 women living in the United Kingdom who disclosed their experiences of domestic violence when accessing health care. Following thematic analysis, themes emerged that rotated around their disclosure and the responses they received from health professionals. The first two themes revealed the repudiation of, or recognition of and failure to act upon, domestic violence. A description of how the health professional's behavior became analogous with that of the perpetrator is discussed. The final theme illuminated women's receipt of appropriate and sensitive support, leading to a positive trajectory away from a violent relationship. The findings suggest that the implicit understanding of the dynamics of violent relationships and the behaviors of the perpetrator of domestic violence are essential components of health care provision to avoid inadvertent inappropriate interactions with women. © The Author(s) 2014.
Özçakar, Nilgün; Yeşiltepe, Gözde; Karaman, Gökçe; Ergönen, Akça Toprak
Many victims of domestic violence do not seek recourse to the needed medical and legal services. The aim of this study was to determine the difficulties faced by and experiences of female survivors of domestic violence during their medical and legal proceedings. We designed our study using a qualitative approach to understand the experiences of survivors during the legal process as well as their feelings and attitudes towards domestic violence through in-depth interviews. The data obtained from the participants were analyzed and synthesized using a thematic analysis procedure. Most of our participants reported different types of domestic violence, citing feelings of fear and loneliness during these experiences. They reported feeling dissatisfied with their complaints being ignored by the police and the perpetrators remaining unpunished. They complained of the complex procedures and negligence of staff in health-care centers such as hospitals, and they reported being shifted to several different places. We believe that an assessment of such female survivors in terms of specific standards set by specialists will help make improvements to the legal process. Education programs should be organized for professionals dealing with survivors of domestic violence. Special health-care services with fast proceedings must be established in health-care centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Ford, Julian D.; Gagnon, Kerry; Connor, Daniel F.; Pearson, Geraldine
In a clinical sample of child psychiatry outpatients, chart review data were collected for 114 consecutive admissions over a 1-year period at a Child and Adolescent Outpatient Psychiatry Clinic. Data included history of documented maltreatment, potentially traumatic domestic or community violence, neglect or emotional abuse, and noninterpersonal…
Deacy, Susan; McHardy, Fiona
Previous studies of ancient Greek examples of uxoricide in pregnancy have concluded that the theme is used to suggest tyrannical abuse of power and that the violence is a product of the patriarchal nature of ancient society. This article uses evolutionary analyses of violence during pregnancy to argue that the themes of sexual jealousy and uncertainty over paternity are as crucial as the theme of power to an understanding of these examples and that the examples can be seen as typical instances of spousal abuse as it occurs in all types of society.
Vu, Ha Song; Schuler, Sidney; Hoang, Tu Anh; Quach, Trang
This paper examines obstacles for women who face domestic violence in making decisions about divorce and in seeking and securing support for a divorce. The research was undertaken in the context of a project in one district of a coastal province in Vietnam that sought to reduce gender based-violence and mitigate its effects. Data from in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions are used to examine abused women's attitudes, strategies and behaviours and the responses of people in their communities and in the support system established by the project. The findings show that social norms supporting marriage discourage abused women from seeking divorce and, in some cases, any kind of support, and discourage community-based support networks, police and local court systems from providing effective assistance to these women.
Francisco González Sala
Full Text Available The profile of women having suffered domestic violence is presented. It is based on a study made on 297 women who receive social care from the Valencia Council. 37,3% of the women in this group has suffered domestic violence. The profile of these women, compared with the ones belonging to the same group who don’t suffer domestic violence, is characterized by the following features: non-gypsy ethnic group, one-parent familiar structure, marital status separated, several previous sentimental relationships, and psychological problems. In other features which characterize the women receiving social care, like studies level, labour situation, familiar and non-familiar support, no significant differences where appreciated. Based on the present information’s, advise on prevention and community intervention is considered.
Petronella J. Davies
Full Text Available South Africa suffers a scourge of domestic violence. Colonial oppression upset the delicate balance between ‘discipline’ and ‘protection’ in traditional cultures. The full consequence of a patriarchal mindset of male control is unleashed on girls and women. The aim of this article is to investigate how the cycle of domestic violence can be broken and what role pastoral counsellors can play with regard to both victims and offenders in order to prevent history from repeating itself. The article also investigates the extent to which legislation has succeeded in protecting individuals. Pastoral care and counselling comprise both spiritual and emotional support. The combination of two counselling methods compatible with religious themes such as ‘hope’ and ‘new life’, namely logotherapy (Victor Frankl and narrative pastoral counselling, is presented as an effective response to domestic violence.
Wolf, R S
A 1997 nationwide (US and Canada) search to identify support groups for older victims of domestic violence located 16 sponsored by domestic violence programs and 14 sponsored by aging services. Interviews with group leaders indicated more similarities than differences between the two types of sponsorship in group purpose, leadership, numbers served, content of support group sessions, and success in accomplishing goals. Resistance of elders to participate in a group experience was cited by leaders as a major barrier. Recommendations for future groups include insuring accessibility of meeting site; using a leader and co-leader, at least one of whom is older or familiar with aging issues; allocating resources for recruitment; and seeking a steady source of funding. A policy of collaboration among the state's domestic violence coalition, state unit on aging, adult protective services, and victim assistance program may help in promoting support group development and utilization.
This study explores the relationship between a mother's attitude toward domestic violence and her children's schooling outcomes in Turkey. The sample is drawn from the 2003 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey and consists of 7,951 children within the ages of legally mandated compulsory education. A probit regression model is used to analyze the data. The results suggest that the daughters of mothers who find domestic violence acceptable are 2.6 percentage point less likely to enroll in school, all else being equal, than the daughters of mothers who do not tolerate abuse. In comparison, the schooling outcomes of male children are not statistically sensitive to the mother's attitude toward wife beating. The policy implications of the results are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Yoshioka, Marianne R.; Choi, Deborah Y.
This article addresses the importance of culture within the context of domestic violence. It takes the position that to work more effectively with diverse cultural groups, the development of a full continuum of services that includes eliminating the violence and keeping families together is required. The authors believe that intervention models…
Malik, Neena M.; Ward, Kristin; Janczewski, Colleen
There is increasing awareness that domestic violence (DV) and child maltreatment often overlap and that there are significant negative consequences to women and children who are victims in the same families. The present study contains data from a participatory evaluation of a multisite national demonstration project on family violence (the…
Tomoda, Akemi; Polcari, Ann; Anderson, Carl M; Teicher, Martin H
Exposure to interparental violence is associated with negative outcomes, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and reduced cognitive abilities. However, little is known about the potential effects of witnessing domestic violence during childhood on gray matter volume (GMV) or cortical thickness. High-resolution 3.0 T volumetric scans (Siemens Trio Scanner) were obtained on 52 subjects (18-25 years) including 22 (6 males/16 females) with a history of visually witnessing episodes of domestic violence, and 30 (8 males/22 females) unexposed control subjects, with neither a current nor past DSM-IV Axis I or II disorder. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, level of parental verbal aggression, parental education, financial stress, full scale IQ, and total GMV, or average thickness were modeled using voxel based morphometry and FreeSurfer. Witnessing domestic violence subjects had a 6.1% GMV reduction in the right lingual gyrus (BA18) (P = 0.029, False Discovery Rate corrected peak level). Thickness in this region was also reduced, as was thickness in V2 bilaterally and left occipital pole. Theses regions were maximally sensitive to exposure to witnessing domestic violence between 11-13 years of age. Regional reductions in GMV and thickness were observed in both susceptible and resilient witnessing domestic violence subjects. Results in subjects witnessing domestic violence were similar to previously reported results in subjects with childhood sexual abuse, as the primary region affected was visual cortex. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse may be specifically modified by this experience, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that visual cortex is a highly plastic structure.
Full Text Available Exposure to interparental violence is associated with negative outcomes, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and reduced cognitive abilities. However, little is known about the potential effects of witnessing domestic violence during childhood on gray matter volume (GMV or cortical thickness. High-resolution 3.0 T volumetric scans (Siemens Trio Scanner were obtained on 52 subjects (18-25 years including 22 (6 males/16 females with a history of visually witnessing episodes of domestic violence, and 30 (8 males/22 females unexposed control subjects, with neither a current nor past DSM-IV Axis I or II disorder. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, level of parental verbal aggression, parental education, financial stress, full scale IQ, and total GMV, or average thickness were modeled using voxel based morphometry and FreeSurfer. Witnessing domestic violence subjects had a 6.1% GMV reduction in the right lingual gyrus (BA18 (P = 0.029, False Discovery Rate corrected peak level. Thickness in this region was also reduced, as was thickness in V2 bilaterally and left occipital pole. Theses regions were maximally sensitive to exposure to witnessing domestic violence between 11-13 years of age. Regional reductions in GMV and thickness were observed in both susceptible and resilient witnessing domestic violence subjects. Results in subjects witnessing domestic violence were similar to previously reported results in subjects with childhood sexual abuse, as the primary region affected was visual cortex. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse may be specifically modified by this experience, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that visual cortex is a highly plastic structure.
Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; ?uczak, Joanna
Violence in family constitutes serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in emotional functioning of victim and, secondarily, also perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine emotional intelligence of women experiencing domestic violence. INTE, i.e. Polish version of ?Assessing Emotional Scale? by Schutte, was used to study two groups of women. Study (criterion) group included 40 women aged 23?47?years (mean age 35.28) using ass...
Usta, Jinan; Hlais, Sani; Farhat, Hala Abou; Romani, Maya; Bzeih, Hiba; Abdo, Lynn
Our purpose was to assess medical students' willingness to help women survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its relation to past exposure to violence. A cross-sectional study of medical students enrolled in three major universities in Beirut was carried out: 545 students filled out a self-administered questionnaire. The Inventory of Beliefs About Wife Beating, the Attitudes Toward Women's scale, the Marriage Role Expectations Inventory, the Conflict Tactics scale, and the Trauma Symptoms scale were used. The majority (93.6%) of medical students believed that battered wives should be helped by either social or governmental agencies, but only 48% showed readiness to provide help themselves. Female medical students were significantly more likely to be willing to help survivors of violence, whereas students exposed to domestic violence in childhood were significantly less likely to do so. Female medical students previously exposed to violence had significantly higher scores on the Briere and Runtz's Trauma Symptom Checklist, indicating more negative trauma-related symptoms. Multivariate analysis revealed that the students' exposure to verbal aggression, their marital role expectations, attitudes toward women, and parents' marital status accounted for 26% of the variability in the Helping Battered Wives score. The results of this study suggest that the medical students' past exposure to DV impacts their psychological well-being and their willingness to help abuse survivors. Given the multitude of stresses medical students are exposed to, careful attention and attendance to the effect of abuse on their well-being may be warranted.
Turk, Rukiye; Celik, Sevilay Senol; Çetin, Merve; Soydan, Gamze
The aim of this study was to determine the experiences and views of married women about the topic of domestic violence. This research was planned as a mixed methods study with an in-depth interview and descriptive approach. The study was conducted between November 2011 and December 2012 with 24 married women living in Ankara, Turkey. Two main data-collection tools were used in the study: the "Personal Information Form" and the "In-depth Interview Questionnaire." Data of this study were evaluated by content analysis. A majority of the participants (83.3%) stated that they had been exposed to domestic violence that had been committed primarily by their husbands. The actual reasons for the violence were reported to be such factors as "financial problems and lack of education and love and respect between the couples." It was determined that as the victims became more desperate, they turned to reading of the Koran, prayer, and smoking. Domestic violence adversely affects the physical and mental health of individuals, families, and the entire community. Therefore, it will take a community effort to address the causes of domestic violence and to create viable solutions that will improve the health of everyone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Mar 26, 2003 ... Ho JJ, Subramaiam P, Hendersen-:-Smart D}, Davis PG. Continuous distending pressure for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants (Cochrane .... 209, lnt J Gynaeco/ Obstet 1995; 51: 161-170,. 2. Department of Health (United Kingdom). Domestic Violence: A Resource Manual for Health Care.
Myhill, Andy; Hohl, Katrin
Research on risk assessment for domestic violence has to date focused primarily on the predictive power of individual risk factors and the statistical validity of risk assessment tools in predicting future physical assault in sub-sets of cases dealt with by the police. This study uses data from risk assessment forms from a random sample of cases of domestic violence reported to the police. An innovative latent trait model is used to test whether a cluster of risk factors associated with coercive control is most representative of the type of abuse that comes to the attention of the police. Factors associated with a course of coercive and controlling conduct, including perpetrators' threats, controlling behavior and sexual coercion, and victims' isolation and fear, had highest item loadings and were thus the most representative of the overall construct. Sub-lethal physical violence-choking and use of weapons-was also consistent with a course of controlling conduct. Whether a physical injury was sustained during the current incident, however, was not associated consistently either with the typical pattern of abuse or with other context-specific risk factors such as separation from the perpetrator. Implications for police practice and the design of risk assessment tools are discussed. We conclude that coercive control is the "golden thread" running through risk identification and assessment for domestic violence and that risk assessment tools structured around coercive control can help police officers move beyond an "incident-by-incident" response and toward identifying the dangerous patterns of behavior that precede domestic homicide.
van Wijk, N.Ph.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.
Previous international studies have found collectivism and low gender empowerment to contribute to higher domestic violence perpetration by males, compared to females. Little is known about gender differences in domestic violence perpetration prevalence in collectivist countries with high gender
Zaher, Eman; Keogh, Kelly; Ratnapalan, Savithiri
To describe and evaluate the effectiveness of domestic violence education in improving physicians' knowledge, recognition, and management of abused women. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE were searched for articles published between January 1, 2000, and November 1, 2012. This search was supplemented by manual searches for relevant articles using a combined text-word and MeSH-heading search strategy. Randomized controlled trials were selected that used educational interventions among physicians and provided data on the effects of the interventions. Nine randomized controlled trials were included that described different educational approaches with various outcome measures. Three studies examined the effects of educational interventions among postgraduate trainee physicians and found an increase in knowledge but no change in behaviour with regard to identifying victims of domestic violence. Six studies examined educational interventions for practising physicians. Three of these studies used multifaceted physician training that combined education with system support interventions to change physician behaviour, such as increasing general awareness of domestic violence with brochures and posters, providing aids to remind physicians how to identify victims, facilitating physician access to victim support services, and providing audits and feedback. Multifaceted educational interventions included interactive workshops, Web-based learning, and experiential training. Another study used focus-group discussions and training, and showed improved domestic violence reporting among physicians. The remaining 2 studies showed improved perceptions of practising physicians' self-efficacy using problem-based online learning. It was difficult to determine the most effective educational strategy, as the educational interventions and the outcome measures varied among the selected studies. Brief interventions for postgraduate trainee
Jahromi, Marzieh Kargar; Jamali, Safieh; Koshkaki, Afifeh Rahmanian; Javadpour, Shohreh
Objective: Domestic violence against women is a health problem. Research on domestic violence in order to clarify the relationship between the different forms of violence and health outcomes is needed. This study aimed to determine the frequency and risk factors of domestic violence in women. It also assessed the association between risk factors and psychological, physical, and sexual violence against women by their intimate partners. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done...
van Wijk, N.Ph.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.
Previous international studies have found collectivism and low gender empowerment to contribute to higher domestic violence perpetration by males, compared to females. Little is known about gender differences in domestic violence perpetration prevalence in collectivist countries with high gender empowerment, for example Curaçao. Curaçao demonstrates gender similarity in committing domestic violence, resembling Western countries: 25–33 % have committed psychological domestic violence, 11–17 % ...
Baird, Kathleen; Salmon, Debra; White, Paul
a follow-up study to evaluate the degree to which practice changes identified in the 2004/2005 evaluation of the Bristol Pregnancy Domestic Violence Programme (BPDVP) for routine enquiry for domestic abuse have been maintained. a multimethod approach was adopted, using a follow-up survey and focus groups. an acute Trust within the South West of England. 58 midwives completed the survey, 73% (n=36) of whom had taken part in the original study in 2004/2005. Eleven of those surveyed also participated in focus group interviews. participating midwives completed a 54-item questionnaire, where possible the questions were the same as those utilised in the original follow-up questionnaire. Similar to the previous study, the questionnaire was divided into a number of sections, including view of professional education, knowledge of domestic violence and abuse, attitudes and efficacy beliefs, barriers and support. The aim of the focus groups discussion was to obtain the overall views of midwives with the regard to the on-going implementation of routine enquiry. Frequency distributions for midwife responses in 2010 were compared with the corresponding frequency distributions in 2004/2005 and a statistical assessment of differences was performed using the χ(2) test of association. midwives have to feel confident in their abilities to ask about abuse and the findings from this study demonstrate that across the cohort there was a tendency to have an increase in confidence in asking about domestic violence. Midwives have to feel confident in their abilities to ask about abuse. The findings from this study demonstrate that across the cohort there was a statistically significant increase in self-reported confidence in asking women about domestic abuse. In addition, there was a statistically significant increase in the degree of self-reported knowledge of how to deal with a disclosure of domestic violence when comparing the 2010 data with 2005 data. results suggest that improvements
Herrenkohl, Todd I; Jung, Hyunzee
Children's exposure to violence increases their risk for later victimisation and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, the relative influence of child abuse, adolescent violence, peer approval of violence and pro-violence attitudes on later IPV is not well established. Analyses focus on the prediction of adult IPV from variables measured in childhood and adolescence to establish the unique influence of earlier victimisation and perpetration of violence, as well as other variables grounded in theory and empirical findings. Data are from a longitudinal study that began in the 1970s with a sample of 457 preschool-aged children who were reassessed as adults. Outcomes of adult IPV victimisation and perpetration types were regressed on predictors of parent-reported child abuse, officially recorded child maltreatment, adolescent victimisation, violence perpetration, pro-violence attitudes and peer approval of violence during adolescence, controlling for childhood Socio Economic Status (SES), age in adolescence and gender. Dating violence victimisation and peer approval of dating violence in adolescence emerged as the unique predictors of IPV victimisation and perpetration in adulthood. Official child maltreatment predicted IPV perpetration. Results underscore the importance of prevention programmes and strategies to disrupt the cycle of violence at its early stages, as well as interventions during adolescence targeting peer influences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... protection for victims of domestic violence. 960.103 Section 960.103 Housing and Urban Development... requirements and protection for victims of domestic violence. (a) Applicable requirements. The PHA must... violence, dating violence, and stalking. The PHA must apply 24 CFR part 5, subpart L in all applicable...
Stover, Carla Smith
Domestic violence has been an intense area of study in recent decades. Early studies helped with the understanding of the nature of perpetration, the cycle of violence, and the effect of family violence on children. More recently, studies have focused on beginning to evaluate domestic violence interventions and their effects on recidivism. This…
Implementing Recommendations to Reduce Domestic Violence , but Further Management Action Needed May 2006 GAO-06-540 Report Documentation... Domestic Violence , but Further Management Action Needed 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Accountability Integrity Reliability May 2006 MILITARY PERSONNEL Progress Made in Implementing Recommendations to Reduce Domestic Violence , but
Perez Trujillo, Monica; Ross, Stuart
Assessing and responding to risk are key elements in how police respond to domestic violence. However, relatively little is known about the way police make judgments about the risks associated with domestic violence and how these judgments influence their actions. This study examines police decisions about risk in domestic violence incidents when…
... domestic violence waivers? 260.54 Section 260.54 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... Special Provisions Apply to Victims of Domestic Violence? § 260.54 Do States have flexibility to grant good cause domestic violence waivers? (a) Yes; States have broad flexibility to grant these waivers to...
Bapat, Mona; Tracey, Terence
Reactions of students in helping professions to domestic violence were examined with respect to whether or not the students had any training in domestic violence. One hundred, four students read one of two vignettes describing a domestic violence case and responded to statements related to treatment options. The vignettes differed only in…
Stanley, Nicky; Miller, Pam; Richardson Foster, Helen; Thomson, Gill
Police notifications of incidents of domestic violence to child protection services constitute an acknowledgement of the harm that domestic violence inflicts on children. However, these notifications represent a substantial demand on child welfare services and the outcomes for children and victims of domestic violence have been questioned. This…
Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S.; Galadanci, Hadiza S.; Hayatu, Zainab; Aliyu, Muktar H.
Many women experience domestic violence during pregnancy. The magnitude and risk factors for domestic violence during pregnancy are not well documented in many countries, including Nigeria. Using interviewer- administered questionnaires the authors investigated predictors of domestic violence during current pregnancy among women presenting for…
Davis, Dytisha Monicke
Domestic violence is a national concern that affects women of all ages and ethnicities, as well as women with disabilities. Although there is literature focusing on attitudes about domestic violence toward women, the literature review provided no studies that investigated attitudes about domestic violence toward women in relation to domestic…
Römkens, R.; Lünnemann, K.
The call for preventive interventions to curb domestic violence is becoming stronger. The barring order has been launched as an innovative approach to preventing domestic violence. It allows the police to temporarily bar the perpetrator of domestic violence from entering his or her home, as a way to
Lea, Susan J.; Lynn, Nick
This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging…
Yanikkerem, Emre; Karadaş, Gülşah; Adigüzel, Betül; Sevil, Umran
The purpose of this study was to estimate prevalence and risk groups of domestic violence during pregnancy in Manisa, Turkey, and to determine antenatal complications or health problems and health service use. This study was a population-based, cross-sectional, and household survey. The study universe included two primary health units situated in two different socioeconomic areas (rural and urban) in the city of Manisa, Turkey, from January to June 2004; the homes of 246 women were visited and the study sample included 217 women. A questionnaire was used that comprised sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics, and the Domestic Violence Against Women Determination Scale, developed by Yanikkerem in 2002 to measure the frequencies of type and severity of violence. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 10.0 for Windows) was used to analyze the data. Student t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to evaluate data. Results indicated that 9.7% of women were beaten by their partner during the pregnancy (17.3% in the rural area and 2.7% in the urban area) and 14.3% of women were beaten before pregnancy. A total of 10.6% of women said they had been slapped, 9.1% reported an object was thrown at them by their partner, and 6.5% admitted to having been kicked during pregnancy. A total of 36.4% of women reported experiencing forced sexual activity. Abused pregnant women were less educated, had lower income, were unmarried, were multiparous, had more children, had a longer duration of marriage, lived rural areas, were more likely to have unplanned pregnancies, had miscarriage, had an interpregnancy interval of 2 years or less, smoked more cigarettes, did not visit a health institution for control during pregnancy and did not know the sex or knew the fetus was female when compared with nonabused women. Abused women who live with various problems during pregnancy and are victims of violence tend to feel isolated, insecure, and depressed. Our
Dalal, Koustuv; Lindqvist, Kent
This article estimates the national prevalence rate of domestic violence in India and examines the demographic and socioeconomic status of the victims of domestic violence. The study used the Indian National Family Health Survey 3, a cross-sectional national survey of 124 385 ever-married women of reproductive age from all the 29 member states. χ(2) Analysis and logistic regression were used. Lifetime experiences of violence among respondents were as follows: emotional violence, 14%; less severe physical violence, 31%; severe physical violence, 10%; and sexual violence, 8%. Women of scheduled castes and Muslim religion were most often exposed to domestic violence. Women's poorer economic background, working status, and husband's controlling behavior emerged as strong predictors for domestic violence in India. Elimination of structural inequalities inherent in the indigenous oppressive institutions of religion, caste, and the traditional male hierarchy in society could prevent domestic violence.
Stephenson, Rob; Koenig, Michael A; Acharya, Rajib; Roy, Tarun K
This study examines the relationship between male-to-female physical domestic violence and unwanted pregnancy among women in three economically and culturally diverse areas of India. A central methodological focus of the study is the examination of retrospective and prospective measures of pregnancy unwantedness, contrasting their usefulness for specifying levels of unwanted pregnancy and its relationship with domestic violence. Data from India's 1998-99 National Family Health Survey and a 2002-03 follow-up survey for which women in four states were reinterviewed are analyzed, and the factors associated with the intersurvey adoption of contraception and the experience of an unwanted pregnancy are examined. Women who experience physical violence from their husbands are significantly less likely to adopt contraception and more likely to experience an unwanted pregnancy. A prospectively measured indicator of unwanted pregnancy identifies a higher prevalence of unwanted pregnancies than do the traditionally employed retrospective measures and is more successful in establishing a relationship between unwanted pregnancies and domestic violence. The results demonstrate a clear relationship between a woman's experience of physical violence from her husband and her ability to achieve her fertility intentions. The need to improve the measurement of pregnancy intendedness is clear, and a move toward using prospective measures as the standard is necessary.
This comparative qualitative study was conducted in four countries: Cyprus (central scientific coordinator), Italy, Romania, Slovakia. Research priorities are domestic violence and children's rights. I present the results of the Italian portion of the study and report some of the themes drawn from testimonies (n = 58) from focus group interviews…
Thackeray, Jonathan D.; Scribano, Philip V.; Rhoda, Dale
Objective: This study was designed to identify the frequency, methods, and practices of universal assessments for domestic violence (DV) within child advocacy centers (CACs) and determine which factors are associated with CACs that conduct universal DV assessments. Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional, web-based survey distributed to…
Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the pattern of mandibular fractures associated with domestic violence. Methods: This prospective study was carried out at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) in the Accident and Emergency Centre and Dental and Maxillofacial Clinic between the ...
Introduction: Domestic violence (DV) has a deteriorating influence on society by affecting victims, their children, families, and friends, as well as social and financial relationships. Primary care providers, including physicians and nurses, frequently are the first in the community to encounter the battered women. Objective: The ...
Domestic violence (DV) is quite prevalent and negatively impacts the health and mental wellbeing of those affected. Victims of DV are frequent users of health service, yet they are infrequently recognized. Physicians tend to treat the presenting complaints without addressing the root cause of the problem. Lack of knowledge ...
Three hundred and eight Igbo women were randomly selected to respond to a number of questions on experiences, patterns and attitudes to domestic violence. Data was collected using structured questionnaires that were complemented with focus group discussions. The results show that 78.8% of the women have ever ...
Introduction: Domestic violence (DV) against women has been identified as a serious public health problem. Primary care nurses usually play an important role in managing battered women. They must be equipped with the necessary knowledge, training and experience. Objective: The aim of this work was to study the ...
Objective: Bride price payment is a gender issue with implications on gender relations in different socio-cultural contexts. It also impacts Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights. In a qualitative study on the perceptions of domestic violence in Wakiso district, payment of bride price emerged as one of the key factors ...
The study identified the socio-economic determinants of domestic violence suffered by rural women crop farmers in Orlu agricultural zone of Imo State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 80 rural women crop farmers for the study. Data were collected using structured interview schedule and ...
Domestic violence is not only a reality in Northwestern Ghana, it is also a threat to development. As the people of Ghana and Northwestern Ghana, particularly, struggle to overcome poverty and economic deprivation, there should be no stone left unturned that stands in the way of development. As this paper will contend, ...
Domestic violence (DV) is common globally. In South Africa, emergency care providers (ECPs) lack a clear policy framework and the necessary training to identify DV and intervene when it is encountered. We investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of ECPs towards DV, and identify factors affecting early ...
Kolbo, Jerome R.; And Others
Presents a review of the empirical literature examining the initial effects of witnessing domestic violence on children's functioning. Although results are somewhat inconclusive regarding children's social, cognitive, and physical development, findings of recently conducted investigations, when combined and compared with the previously reviewed…
An Innovative Program For Domestic Violence Victims: A University – Community Collaboration. ... Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted on the data collected by graduate student interns in social work. The study found that program services were appropriate and valued by a community partner who doubled ...