WorldWideScience

Sample records for abuse disclosure considerations

  1. Sexual abuse in Malawi: patterns of disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Carole; Kennedy, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Potential human immunodeficiency virus transmission makes prompt disclosure of child sexual abuse in Africa critical. The pattern of disclosure of 133 children presenting to the largest hospital in Malawi were analyzed. Eighty percent presented early enough for effective use of HIV postexposure prophylaxis. Seventy-five percent of children made a disclosure of child sexual abuse; 29% spontaneously and 47% after prompting. Disclosures were most commonly made to a parent, and age did not affect the pattern of disclosure. The number of children reporting child sexual abuse is increasing, possibly because of increasing awareness, availability of services, and fear of HIV. Although prompt disclosure rates were relatively high, facilitating easier disclosure of child sexual abuse by a free telephone help-line and better training of teachers may be helpful. PMID:24641596

  2. Influences of Disclosure Among Child Sexual Abuse Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Child forensic interviews are essential in eliciting disclosures in child abuse cases. Due to the nature of abuse and the child victims, barriers are inevitable to obtaining a full disclosure. This research describes the barriers as well as the factors that increase the likelihood of eliciting a disclosure during child forensic interviews. Previous research has found that factors more likely to induce a disclosure are having a supportive primary caregiver, an investigation which was instigate...

  3. Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

  4. Children's Disclosures of Sexual Abuse: Learning from Direct Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Paula; Leventhal, John M.; Asnes, Andrea Gottsegen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Published protocols for forensic interviewing for child sexual abuse do not include specific questions about what prompted children to tell about sexual abuse or what made them wait to tell. We, therefore, aimed to: (1) add direct inquiry about the process of a child's disclosure to a forensic interview protocol; (2) determine if…

  5. Ambivalence of Nonoffending Guardians after Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Rebecca M.; Lamb, J. Leah

    2004-01-01

    A concern in the intervention with sexually abused children is the support of their nonoffending guardians after disclosure of the abuse. Approximately a third of nonoffending guardians respond with vacillation in support, and these nonoffending guardians are at greater risk for having their children removed. This article reconceptualizes…

  6. Caregiver Needs Following Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Toledo, Annik; Seymour, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Caregiver support is vital in improving outcomes for child sexual abuse victims; however, the disclosure can significantly affect caregivers, thus impacting their ability to meet their children's needs. To maximize the support from caregivers, their own needs following disclosure need to be met. This study investigated the impact of child sexual abuse disclosure and associated needs as identified by caregivers. Sixty needs assessment forms were collected from families who accessed a parenting support pilot program run in New Zealand. These forms were completed by nonoffending caregivers during an assessment session with their counselor and consisted of both open-ended and Likert scale questions focusing on both the needs of the child and the family. Caregivers identified a range of impacts of the disclosure on their children, themselves, and other families members and the related support that may be needed. In particular, caregivers identified that they needed support with child behavior management and with their own coping. The findings suggest that interventions with caregivers following disclosure of child sexual abuse may be a valuable adjunct to therapy provided directly to the child. PMID:27266536

  7. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  8. Adolescents' Experiences of sexual abuse - Prevalence, abuse characteristics, disclosure, health and ethical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Priebe, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this thesis was to investigate aspects of self-reported sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence in a population-based study of Swedish high school students. The aim of this thesis was first to investigate the lifetime prevalence of sexual abuse of varying severity and characteristics as well as the associations between sexual abuse, gender, socio-demographic characteristics and consensual sexual experiences. The next aim was to investigate disclosure rates and...

  9. The disclosure of sexual abuse during middle childhood : a forensic social work perspective / Yolanda van Huyssteen

    OpenAIRE

    Van Huyssteen, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Working with sexually abused children and conducting forensic assessments is a difficult task for many professionals working in the field of child sexual abuse. In this specialised field, it is imperative that professionals are aware of the disclosure process, as well as what contributes to, or hampers the disclosure of sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the disclosure of sexual abuse during middle childhood years from a forensic social work perspective. Resear...

  10. "I Keep That Hush-Hush": Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse and the Challenges of Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsoli, Lynn; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Grossman, Frances K.

    2008-01-01

    Disclosure is a prominent variable in child sexual abuse research, but little research has examined male disclosure experiences. Sixteen male survivors of childhood sexual abuse were interviewed regarding experiences of disclosure. Analytic techniques included a grounded theory approach to coding and the use of conceptually clustered matrices.…

  11. Interviewing Children versus Tossing Coins: Accurately Assessing the Diagnosticity of Children's Disclosures of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Scurich, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian approach to evaluating children's abuse disclosures and review research demonstrating that children's disclosure of genital touch can be highly probative of sexual abuse, with the probative value depending on disclosure spontaneity and children's age. We discuss how some commentators understate the probative value of…

  12. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  13. Talking matters: Abused women's views on disclosure of partner abuse to the family doctor and its role in handling the abuse situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, S Lo Fo; Wester, F.P.J.; Mol, S.; Romkens, R.; Hezemans, D.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore what women valued most in disclosing partner abuse to their doctor and whether disclosure played a role in handling their abuse situation. METHODS: A qualitative method was used to understand abused women's views and experiences with disclosure to their family doctor.

  14. The Continuum of Disclosure: Exploring Factors Predicting Tentative Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations During Forensic Interviews and the Implications for Practice, Policy, and Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gwendolyn D

    2016-01-01

    When a child sexual abuse investigation ensues, many children do not disclose readily to professionals. Defining disclosure beyond the disclosure versus nondisclosure dichotomy is essential, yet little research exists on factors associated with a continuum of disclosure, including active and tentative disclosure. Through the coding of 196 forensic interviews using content analysis and subsequent regression analysis, findings suggest that children of color, children abused by adults, unintentional initial disclosure, and those lacking family support were more likely to tentatively disclose in this study. Implications include a need to understand tentative disclosure as part of a normal continuum of disclosure within court proceedings and investigations of abuse allegations. PMID:27266535

  15. Vaginal Foreign Bodies and Child Sexual Abuse: An Important Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Closson, Forrest T.; Lichenstein, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal foreign bodies are a complaint occasionally encountered in pediatric clinics and emergency departments, and when pediatric patients present with a vaginal foreign body sexual abuse may not be considered. We describe two children with vaginal foreign bodies who were found to have been sexually abused. Each child had a discharge positive for a sexually transmitted infection despite no disclosure or allegation of abuse. We recommend that all pre-pubertal girls who present with a vaginal ...

  16. Disclosure of abuse among female patients within general psychiatric care - a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Örmon, K.; Sunnqvist, C.; Bahtsevani, C.; Levander, M. Torstensson

    2016-01-01

    Background Experiences of abuse are common among women in general psychiatric care. Even so, there are to our knowledge no previous national or international studies exploring disclosure in a general psychiatric setting of female patient’s experiences of abuse to staff or to formal and informal networks. This study aimed to explore women’s disclosure of experiencing physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse during their most recent contact with staff at a general psychiatric clinic. The study a...

  17. Strategies and Outcomes of HIV Status Disclosure in HIV-Positive Young Women with Abuse Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Clum, Gretchen A.; Czaplicki, Lauren; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Hamvas, L.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Young women with HIV and histories of physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood may be vulnerable to difficulties with disclosure to sexual partners. Abuse in childhood is highly prevalent in HIV-positive women, and has been associated with poorer communication, low assertiveness, low self worth, and increased risk for sexual and other risk behaviors that increase the risk of secondary transmission of HIV. HIV disclosure may be an important link between abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Qualit...

  18. Vaginal Foreign Bodies and Child Sexual Abuse: An Important Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lichenstein

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal foreign bodies are a complaint occasionally encountered in pediatric clinics and emergency departments, and when pediatric patients present with a vaginal foreign body sexual abuse may not be considered. We describe two children with vaginal foreign bodies who were found to have been sexually abused. Each child had a discharge positive for a sexually transmitted infection despite no disclosure or allegation of abuse. We recommend that all pre-pubertal girls who present with a vaginal foreign body should be considered as possible victims of sexual abuse and should receive a sexual abuse history and testing for sexually transmitted infections. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:437–439.

  19. Childhood sexual abuse severity and disclosure as predictors of depression among adult African American and Latina women

    OpenAIRE

    Sciolla, A.; Glover, DA; Loeb, TB; Zhang, M.; Myers, HF; Wyatt, GE

    2011-01-01

    A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adult depression, but data on abuse severity and disclosure are scant, particularly among low-income ethnic minorities. CSA often co-occurs with other adversities, which also increase the risk of depression. This study examined the peritrauma variable of abuse severity and the posttrauma variables of disclosure and self-blame as predictors of current depression symptoms in 94 low-income African-American and Latina women with h...

  20. A Psychosocial Understanding of Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure Among Female Children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Shanaaz; Hendricks, Natasha; Abrahams, Naeemah

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is endemic in South Africa, driven by high levels of gender-based violence and underscored by structural and social factors. This article aims to develop an understanding of the process of disclosure in a sample of female children and their caregivers. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 31 female children aged 8-17 years and their caregivers at 3 intervals after presentation to a sexual assault treatment center. Nearly half of the children failed to disclose the sexual abuse immediately, fearing caregivers' reaction. Most children purposefully disclosed to a confidant through a process of identifying an intermediary to tell caregivers on their behalf. The process of disclosure was influenced by multiple factors, such as a fear of the caregiver's reaction and disbelief, which is related to parental style. Disclosure was found to be a dynamic process that unfolds and not a single or static event and influenced by multiple factors which all impact on recovery. Our findings highlight the need to address social norms on sexual abuse in order to improve responses to disclosure to facilitate post-sexual-abuse adjustment for the child and the family. PMID:27561120

  1. Expected Consequences of Disclosure Revealed in Investigative Interviews with Suspected Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Lindsay C.; Brubacher, Sonja P.; Lamb, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study explored the expected consequences of disclosure discussed by 204 5- to 13-year-old suspected victims of child sexual abuse during the course of investigative interviews conducted using the NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol. Expected consequences were mentioned in nearly half of all interviews, with older children and those…

  2. Mapping the Maze: An Art Therapy Intervention following Disclosure of Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifalo, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Disclosures of child sexual abuse create an immediate crisis within the child's family unit. Reactions of nonoffending caregivers in particular may prevent them from being emotionally available to respond immediately to the needs of the child victim. This article describes an art therapy intervention of visual mapping used in a support group of…

  3. A preliminary mapping of individual, relational, and social factors that impede disclosure of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Vézina, Delphine; De La Sablonnière-Griffin, Mireille; Palmer, Andrea M; Milne, Lise

    2015-05-01

    Uncovering the pathways to disclosures of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors influencing the willingness of victims to talk about the abuse is paramount to the development of powerful practice and policy initiatives. Framed as a long interview method utilizing a grounded theory approach to analyze data, the objective of the current study was to provide a preliminary mapping of the barriers to CSA disclosures through an ecological systemic lens, from a sample of 67 male and female CSA adult survivors, all of whom had recently received counselling services. The current project led to the identification of three broad categories of barriers that were each comprised of several subthemes, namely: Barriers from Within (internalized victim-blaming, mechanisms to protect oneself, and immature development at time of abuse); Barriers in Relation to Others (violence and dysfunction in the family, power dynamics, awareness of the impact of telling, and fragile social network); and Barriers in Relation to the Social World (labelling, taboo of sexuality, lack of services available, and culture or time period). This study points to the importance of using a broad ecological framework to understand the factors that inhibit disclosure of CSA, as barriers to disclosure do not constrain solely the victims. Results are discussed in light of their implications for research, prevention and intervention programs, and social policies and media campaigns, as the burden is on the larger community to create a climate of safety and transparency that makes the telling of CSA possible. PMID:25846196

  4. Health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure:a critical incident technique study

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor J., Bradbury-Jones C., Kroll T. & Duncan F

    2013-01-01

    Domestic abuse is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern. There is a significant body of literature regarding domestic abuse, but little is known about health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse disclosure. In addition, the intersection between health professionals' beliefs and abused women's views remains uninvestigated. We report on a two-phase, qualitative study using Critical Incident Technique (CIT) that aimed to explore community health professiona...

  5. Experiences of mothers of sexually abused children in North-West province, post disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaboipolelwe M. Masilo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence against children is increasing at an alarming rate in South Africa. In 2010 the South African Police Service (SAPS reported 21 538 rape cases of children under 18 years. In the North-West province (NWP 5039 incidents of rape cases were reported in 2009. Mothers often experience emotional pain following child sexual abuse disclosure. It is seldom acknowledged that these mothers experience trauma and need support, post disclosure. The researcher has no known evidence of research conducted on the experiences of these mothers in NWP. Objective: The objective of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of mothers of sexually abused children post disclosure of the abuse. Method: The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. Purposive sampling was used to select mothers of sexually abused children aged 23 to 59 years whose children ranged from 0 to 16 years. Permission to conduct the study was sought from the Provincial Department of Health and informed consent was obtained from the mothers. Interviews were conducted with a sample of n = 17 until data saturation. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using a voice recorder and field notes to enhance triangulation. Tesch’s method of open coding was used to analyse data. Results: Findings indicated that mothers experienced emotional pain post sexual abuse. They expressed shock, anger and guilt for not noticing the abuse. They showed significant depression as a result of lack of support by stakeholders. Conclusion: Mothers experienced secondary trauma that poses social and psychological challenges with far-reaching implications.

  6. 'Negotiating the dance of disclosure': a grounded theory study of psychologists’ experiences of childhood sexual abuse disclosures from clients in adult mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Emma Margaret Helen

    2010-01-01

    Hearing disclosures of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a clinical reality for many therapists. Psychologists within mental health services are working increasingly with clients who have traumatic histories, including the presence of CSA. Recently there has been a drive towards improving services for adult survivors of CSA, with an emphasis on asking health and social care service-users about abuse. Recent research has demonstrated that the experience of talking about CSA in psy...

  7. Social workers' knowledge base with regard to sexual abuse disclosures during the intake interview : a pilot study / Hester Susanna Boonzaaier

    OpenAIRE

    Boonzaaier, Hester Susanna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Child sexual abuse is a problem that manifests in all spheres of our society, a social problem that often crosses the desk of a social worker rendering services to children and families. The researcher can still remember how daunting her first experience was when she dealt with an allegation of child sexual abuse. Now, in hindsight she believes that if she had more in-depth knowledge when dealing with children who has been sexually abused and their disclosure thereof, it would ...

  8. Disclosure and Psychological Well-Being of Sexually Abused Adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kindy Yuk-Ip

    2015-01-01

    The role of disclosure on psychological well-being of adolescents with child sexual abuse experience was investigated in a subsample of 74 disclosers among 800 adolescents recruited in the community in Hong Kong. The results supported that CSA experiences have differential impact on adolescents' psychological well-being. Family characteristics of the disclosers accounted for only a small amount of the variance in an array of psychological well-being measures. CSA characteristics were robust predictors of disclosers' sexual eroticism and externalizing behavioral symptoms. Disclosers' cognitive appraisal of CSA experience and quality of parental attachment were strong predictors of their self-esteem and internalizing behavioral problems. After controlling for the aforementioned factors, negative disclosure experience still significantly predicted lower self-esteem, higher sexual anxiety, more internalizing behavior, and more severe post-traumatic stress disorder responses. Research to understand the factors that generate negative disclosure experiences is needed for developing effective intervention strategies to mitigate the negative consequences of disclosure. PMID:26479960

  9. Managing Opioid Abuse in Older Adults: Clinical Considerations and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreck, David; Brandt, Nicole J; DiPaula, Bethany

    2016-04-01

    Opioid use disorder is a public health epidemic. There is increasing attention being given to opioid abuse and overdose in the United States. The overall use of illicit substances by older adults is on the rise and in part can be attributed to the aging of Baby Boomers. Furthermore, much attention is being given to prescription opioid drug overdose, but it is important to note that heroin-related deaths have also increased sharply. Heroin use is part of a larger substance abuse problem, with more than nine in 10 individuals who use heroin also using at least one other drug (e.g., cocaine, prescription opioid medication). The current article highlights treatment approaches, namely buprenorphine, buprenorphine/naloxone, and naltrexone; insurance considerations; and resources to aid in understanding and managing this public health crisis. PMID:27027362

  10. What Influences Believing Child Sexual Abuse Disclosures? The Roles of Depicted Memory Persistence, Participant Gender, Trauma History, and Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarni Cromer, Lisa; Freyd, Jennifer J.

    2007-01-01

    This vignette study investigated factors that influence believing child sexual abuse disclosures. College student participants (N = 318) in a university human subject pool completed measures about their own trauma history and responded to questions about sexist attitudes. Participants then read vignettes in which an adult disclosed a history of…

  11. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  12. Elder Abuse Alert. Considerations About A Hidden Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Michelle Lee

    2009-01-01

    This publication will introduce you to the causes and types of elder abuse, the reasons why it often goes unreported, and profiles of victims and abusers. You will also learn about Adult Protective Services and the procedures and guidelines for reporting suspected abuse.

  13. Health professionals’ beliefs about domestic abuse and the impact these have on their responses to disclosure:A critical incident technique study

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Duncan, Fiona; Kroll, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Domestic abuse is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern. There is a significant body of literature regarding domestic abuse, but little is known about health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse disclosure. In addition, the intersection between health professionals' beliefs and abused women's views remains uninvestigated. This briefing summaries a two-phase, qualitative study using Critical Incident Technique (CIT) that aimed to explore community health ...

  14. Special Considerations for Substance Abuse Intervention with Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Holleran Steiker, Lori K.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 10% of Latino youth who are twelve and older are in need of substance abuse treatment for alcohol or illicit drug use. Ethnic differences exist with regard to susceptibility to drug use, attitudes regarding drugs, and drug resistance strategies. The failure of some substance abuse prevention programs can be traced in part to their lack of…

  15. Formulation considerations for the development of medications with abuse potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, Robert S; Moore, Richard A

    2006-06-01

    The availability of increasingly sophisticated drug formulations and delivery devices has created new opportunities in drug development. These newer approaches can result in improved drug bioavailability, or they can alter key pharmacokinetic parameters in such a way as to decrease dosing interval, decrease variability, or blunt maximal concentrations that are associated with adverse events of particular concern. Special formulations or devices can also provide for easier or more convenient dosing in subpopulations of interest, such as children or the elderly. Although the key principles of abuse potential assessment and the underlying neurochemistry and pharmacology are relatively well understood, evaluation of the influences of drug formulation have received much less study. Because dose and formulation - and even the therapeutic indication - are refined over the course of development, it is usually difficult to conduct more than a cursory evaluation of the influence of formulation on the underlying abuse potential of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Industrial sponsors would benefit from further research in areas of formulation science and pharmacokinetics that would improve the predictability of prescription drug abuse. In particular, validation of new pharmacokinetic parameters and standardization of methods to understand the consequences of product tampering could assist in gaining a better assessment of risk for controlled release formulations. Such methods could apply not only to innovator products, but also to those wishing to develop generic versions with similar pharmaceutical performance. This article proposes several factors that may be of use to industrial sponsors in making formulation choices for drugs with the potential for abuse. PMID:16472940

  16. Child Sexual Abuse Suspicions: Treatment Considerations during Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnle, Kathryn; Connell, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses what, if any, psychotherapeutic interventions should be provided to meet the emotional and clinical needs of alleged child victims of sexual abuse while they await judicial determinations from the family, dependency, or criminal courts. The discussion emphasizes that to minimize iatrogenic outcomes, professionals involved in…

  17. Delay in disclosure of non-parental child sexual abuse in the context of emotional and physical maltreatment: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, Sarah M; Goldfarb, Deborah; Goodman, Gail S; Quas, Jodi A; Edelstein, Robin

    2016-08-01

    The present pilot study sought to identify predictors of delays in child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure, specifically whether emotional and physical abuse by a parental figure contributes to predicting delays over and above other important victim factors. Alleged CSA victims (N=79), whose parental figures were not the purported sexual abuse perpetrators, were interviewed and their case files reviewed, across two waves of a longitudinal study. Regression analyses indicated that experiencing both emotional and physical abuse by a parental figure was uniquely predictive of longer delays in disclosure of CSA perpetrated by someone other than a parental figure. Victim-CSA perpetrator relationship type and sexual abuse duration also significantly predicted CSA disclosure delay, whereas victim age at the time of the police report, victim gender, and victims' feelings of complicity were not significant unique predictors. Child abuse victims' expectations of lack of parental support may underlie these findings. Parent-child relationships are likely crucial to timely disclosure of CSA, even when a parent is not the CSA perpetrator. PMID:27380625

  18. Substance abuse and crime: considerations for a comprehensive forensic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbec, Enrique; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong link between drug use and crime, but this relationship is complex. Drug use does not necessarily lead to an increase in crimes, such as theft, rape or assault, even among regular users or addicts. However, in cases of individuals who consume drugs excessively and commit crimes, both factors are linked. Poverty, personality disorders, social and cultural variables, relationships with other users and previous incarceration or drug use are all factors. These issues play an important role in understanding the risk of crime and drug use. Most addicts should be held liable for most criminal behaviour motivated by addiction, but that addiction can, in some cases, affect one's capacity for self-control over one's actions. This paper examines the current response of the Spanish Criminal Justice System to various aspects of drug abuse, focusing on court decisions related with the nature and enforcement of drug laws. It also addresses aspects of criminal responsibility for drug abuse and drug-related crimes and suggests legislation on drugs, sentencing alternatives for drug offenses, and drug treatment options. Expert evidence plays a crucial role in this area in the court. PMID:26990390

  19. Substance abuse and crime: considerations for a comprehensive forensic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbec, Enrique; Echeburúa, Enrique

    2016-03-02

    There is a strong link between drug use and crime, but this relationship is complex. Drug use does not necessarily lead to an increase in crimes, such as theft, rape or assault, even among regular users or addicts. However, in cases of individuals who consume drugs excessively and commit crimes, both factors are linked. Poverty, personality disorders, social and cultural variables, relationships with other users and previous incarceration or drug use are all factors. These issues play an important role in understanding the risk of crime and drug use. Most addicts should be held liable for most criminal behaviour motivated by addiction, but that addiction can, in some cases, affect one's capacity for self-control over one's actions. This paper examines the current response of the Spanish Criminal Justice System to various aspects of drug abuse, focusing on court decisions related with the nature and enforcement of drug laws. It also addresses aspects of criminal responsibility for drug abuse and drug-related crimes and suggests legislation on drugs, sentencing alternatives for drug offenses, and drug treatment options. Expert evidence plays a crucial role in this area in the court.

  20. FACTORS INFLUENCING DISCLOSURE AND HELP-SEEKING PRACTICES OF NIGERIAN WOMEN RESIDENT IN ENGLAND WITH LIVED EXPERIENCE OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND ABUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Femi-Ajao, Omolade Ibiyinka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Domestic violence and abuse is a public health problem affecting more than one third of all women globally. It usually takes place between individuals in intimate relationships and/or within the family. In the United Kingdom (UK), while theoretical and policy interventions have led to an increase in domestic violence and abuse service provision for women, there is paucity of research on the disclosure and help-seeking practices of women from ethnic minority populations. Aim: To id...

  1. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance. 240.119 Section 240.119 Transportation Other... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not...

  2. Application Use, Online Relationship Types, Self-Disclosure, and Internet Abuse among Children and Youth: Implications for Education and Internet Safety Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Ina

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between Internet abuse (IA)--self-disclosure, online application usage, and relationship types--traditional long-distance, purely virtual, and migratory mixed-mode. An online questionnaire was administered to 2884 children and youth. According to the hypotheses, applications differed in their relationships…

  3. Practical and ethical considerations for using social media in community consultation and public disclosure activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Kyle L

    2014-10-01

    Social media are becoming increasingly integrated into both the clinical and the research dimensions of emergency medicine. They can provide methods for sharing crucial information to targeted individuals or groups in a rapid fashion. As a result, investigators conducting emergency research under the exception from prospective informed consent requirements are beginning to turn to social media platforms as they engage in required community consultation and public disclosure activities before their research begins. At present, there are limited data regarding how effectively social media have been used for performing those consultation and disclosure activities. This article offers investigators four specific areas to consider before using social media in consultation and outreach efforts. First, understand the forms of outreach social media platforms can provide. Second, recognize how those outreach methods relate to the specific goals of community consultation and public disclosure. Third, consider whether or not the intended audiences of community consultation and public disclosure will be available via social media. Finally, think about how social media outreach efforts will be measured and assessed before consultation and disclosure activities are under way. PMID:25308139

  4. Caregiver Perceptions of Sexual Abuse and Its Effect on Management after a Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Sealy, Yvette M.; Laraque, Danielle; Rojas, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to examine caregiver management strategies for child sexual abuse (CSA) when presented with hypothetical scenarios that vary in physical invasiveness. Methods: One hundred fifty three caregivers were given 3 scenarios of CSA with 7 management strategies presented in the 21-item Taking Action Strategies (TAS)…

  5. Characteristics of Sexual Assault and Disclosure among Women in Substance Abuse Recovery Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Robison, Emily; Jason, Leonard A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that many women experience some form of sexual assault in their lifetime and that women who engage in substance abuse often have a higher incidence of past sexual assault than women in the general population. Given the documented rates of sexual assault among women in recovery from substance use, it is important to explore…

  6. Explaining mental health disparities for non-monosexual women: abuse history and risky sex, or the burdens of non-disclosure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Tonje J; Pfaus, James G; Ryder, Andrew G

    2015-03-01

    Research has found that non-monosexual women report worse mental health than their heterosexual and lesbian counterparts. The reasons for these mental health discrepancies are unclear. This study investigated whether higher levels of child abuse and risky sexual behavior, and lower levels of sexual orientation disclosure, may help explain elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety among non-monosexual women. Participants included 388 women living in Canada (Mean age = 24.40, SD = 6.40, 188 heterosexual, 53 mostly heterosexual, 64 bisexual, 32 mostly lesbian, 51 lesbian) who filled out the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories as part of an online study running from April 2011 to February 2014. Participants were collapsed into non-monosexual versus monosexual categories. Non-monosexual women reported more child abuse, risky sexual behavior, less sexual orientation disclosure, and more symptoms of depression and anxiety than monosexual women. Statistical mediation analyses, using conditional process modeling, revealed that sexual orientation disclosure and risky sexual behavior uniquely, but not sequentially, mediated the relation between sexual orientation, depression and anxiety. Sexual orientation disclosure and risky sexual behavior were both associated with depression and anxiety. Childhood abuse did not moderate depression, anxiety, or risky sexual behavior. Findings indicate that elevated levels of risky sexual behavior and deflated levels of sexual orientation disclosure may in part explain mental health disparities among non-monosexual women. Results highlight potential targets for preventive interventions aimed at decreasing negative mental health outcomes for non-monosexual women, such as public health campaigns targeting bisexual stigma and the development of sex education programs for vulnerable sexual minority women, such as those defining themselves as bisexual, mostly heterosexual, or mostly lesbian.

  7. Characteristics of Sexual Assault and Disclosure Among Women in Substance Abuse Recovery Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Robison, Emily; Leonard A. Jason

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that many women experience some form of sexual assault in their lifetime and that women who engage in substance abuse often have a higher incidence of past sexual assault than women in the general population. Given the documented rates of sexual assault among women in recovery from substance use, it is important to explore community interventions that promote positive recovery from substance use and sexual assault. One model that promotes successful substance use recovery is...

  8. At the Time of Disclosure: A Manual for Front-Line Community Workers Dealing with Sexual Abuse Disclosures in Aboriginal Communities. Aboriginal Peoples Collection, Technical Series = A l'etape de la divulgation: guide pour les travailleurs communautaires de premiere ligne a qui des actes de violence sexuelle sont divulgues dans les collectivites Autochtones. Collection sur les Autochtones, serie technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Judie; Bopp, Michael

    This manual was developed to assist front-line community workers (including teachers) with issues concerning the disclosure and investigation of sexual abuse allegations in Canadian aboriginal communities. Written in English and French, this document examines the needs of individuals, families, and communities dealing with sexual abuse. Part 1…

  9. HPLC-MS/MS investigation of biochemical markers for the disclosure of erythropoietin abuse in sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appolonova, S. A.; Dikunets, M. A.; Rodchenkov, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    The polypeptide hormone erythropoietin (EPO), which is a forbidden doping drug, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The hypothesis about the influence of EPO on the asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)-dimethylargininedime-thylaminohydrolase (DDAH)-NO-synthase system was verified. Changes in this system can serve as indirect biochemical markers of the presence of the forbidden EPO drug in the organism. In the test group, the concentrations of biochemical markers varied from 10 to 40 μg/ml for ADMA and symmetrical DMA (SDMA) and from 0.5 to 10 μg/ml for arginine and citrulline. A single intravenous administration of r-HuEPO (Epocrin, 2000 ME/day) for two volunteers reliably increased ADMA, SDMA, arginine, and citrulline concentrations to 40-270 μg/ml, 40-240μg/ml, 10-60 μg/ml, and 12-140 μg/ml, respectively, with respect to the reference values. The simultaneous increase in arginine, methylarginines, and citrulline contents could be an indirect marker of EPO abuse. The method is recommended for fast screening analysis.

  10. Parental Substance Abuse and Child Well-Being: A Consideration of Parents' Gender and Coresidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is associated with adverse health and developmental outcomes for children. Existing research, however, has not fully explored the relative magnitude of the associations between maternal, paternal, and both parents' substance abuse and child outcomes, nor has it examined these associations in regard to substance abuse among…

  11. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paying for Care Insurance Medicare Medicare Part D Benefits Medicaid Tax Deductions & Credits Legal Matters Planning Ahead Legal Documents alz.org » Caregiver Center » Safety » Abuse Text size: A A A Special Situations First Responders Traveling In a Disaster Abuse Find your local Chapter ...

  12. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis C. Turk; O’Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; John S Brownstein; Comer, Sandra D; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.

    2012-01-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many ...

  13. Alcohol abuse and Streptococcus pneumoniae infections: Consideration of Virulence Factors and Impaired Immune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatty, Minny; Pruett, Stephen B.; Swiatlo, Edwin; Nanduri, Bindu

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance in the world. Both acute and chronic alcohol consumption have diverse and well documented effects on the human immune system, leading to increased susceptibility to infections like bacterial pneumonia. S. pneumoniae is the most common bacterial etiology of community acquired pneumonia world-wide. The frequency and severity of pneumococcal infections in individuals with a history of alcohol abuse is much higher than the general population. Despit...

  14. Leader identity as an antecedent of the frequency and consistency of transformational, consideration, and abusive leadership behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Russell E; Venus, Merlijn; Lanaj, Klodiana; Mao, Changguo; Chang, Chu-Hsiang

    2012-11-01

    Drawing from identity-based theories of leadership, we examined relations of leader identity with leader behavior and perceived effectiveness. To do so, we employed multiwave methodology to examine the differential impact of leaders' chronic collective, relational, and individual identities on the frequency and consistency of their subsequent transformational, consideration, and abusive behaviors over a 3-week period. We also examined the relative importance of these leadership behaviors for predicting perceived leader effectiveness as rated by subordinates and peers. Results indicated that leaders' collective and individual identities were uniquely related to transformational and abusive behaviors, respectively. We also observed a significant collective by individual identity interaction, such that abusive behaviors were most frequent when a strong individual identity was paired with a weak collective identity. Frequency of transformational behaviors accounted for the largest proportion of variance in perceived leader effectiveness, followed by frequency of abusive behaviors and consistency of transformational behaviors. We discuss the implications of these findings for leadership theory and development. PMID:22730903

  15. Disclosure theories and disclosure measures

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Urquiza, Francisco; Abad Navarro, María Cristina; Trombetta, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Theories have been developed in the disclosure literature to explain the reasons behind the decision to disclose more information. Empirical evidence does not consistently support disclosure theories and results found are contradictory. The difficulty in measuring voluntary disclosure might be one of the reasons influencing on these divergences. In this paper, we investigate two key questions related to disclosure measurement. First, we aim to empirically test if use of disclosure indices tha...

  16. Cultural Considerations in the Treatment of Mental Illness among Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: The Case of Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus J.; Suryani, Luh Ketut; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence sexual abuse can have long-lasting and devastating effects on personal and interpersonal growth and development. Sexually abused children tend to exhibit higher rates of poor school performance, aggressive behavior, PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder), or depressive symptomatology, as well as social and relational…

  17. Mandatory Reporting Laws and Identification of Child Abuse and Neglect: Consideration of Differential Maltreatment Types, and a Cross-Jurisdictional Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mathews

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory reporting laws have been created in many jurisdictions as a way of identifying cases of severe child maltreatment on the basis that cases will otherwise remain hidden. These laws usually apply to all four maltreatment types. Other jurisdictions have narrower approaches supplemented by differential response systems, and others still have chosen not to enact mandatory reporting laws for any type of maltreatment. In scholarly research and normative debates about mandatory reporting laws and their effects, the four major forms of child maltreatment—physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect—are often grouped together as if they are homogenous in nature, cause, and consequence. Yet, the heterogeneity of maltreatment types, and different reporting practices regarding them, must be acknowledged and explored when considering what legal and policy frameworks are best suited to identify and respond to cases. A related question which is often conjectured upon but seldom empirically explored, is whether reporting laws make a difference in case identification. This article first considers different types of child abuse and neglect, before exploring the nature and operation of mandatory reporting laws in different contexts. It then posits a differentiation thesis, arguing that different patterns of reporting between both reporter groups and maltreatment types must be acknowledged and analysed, and should inform discussions and assessments of optimal approaches in law, policy and practice. Finally, to contribute to the evidence base required to inform discussion, this article conducts an empirical cross-jurisdictional comparison of the reporting and identification of child sexual abuse in jurisdictions with and without mandatory reporting, and concludes that mandatory reporting laws appear to be associated with better case identification.

  18. First incest disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalek, J G

    2001-09-01

    Despite the pivotal importance of disclosure to incest treatment and healing, disclosure has never been studied from the victim's perspective. How do incest victims move from keeping the secret to speaking about their abuse? Nine adult women were asked to talk about the first time they each told about the incest. They often spoke, not of "telling" in the commonly understood sense (i.e. giving information to someone who understands one's meaning), but instead of a time when some form of knowledge of the incest first entered an interaction with another person. Colaizzi's (1978) phenomenological method was used to analyze the interviews. Seven themes emerged: (1) living in the silencing home; (2) I am totally and particularly alone; (3) my mother, the focus of need; (4) incest as burden; (5) the secret must be kept; (6) disclosure: trying to balance above a chasm; and (7) disclosure as loss: no matter what, I still lose. The themes were then integrated into an essential description of first incest disclosure. Implications for nursing practice are explored.

  19. Quando o silêncio é rompido: o processo de revelação e notificação de abuso sexual infantil When the silence is broken: the process of disclosure and reporting of child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Silva dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir o processo de revelação e notificação de situações de abuso sexual envolvendo crianças e adolescentes, a partir da análise de publicações relacionadas a essa temática. Os estudos indicam que a revelação e a notificação do abuso sexual são momentos difíceis para a vítima e para seus familiares porque geralmente envolvem alguém próximo à criança e apresentam reflexos no sistema familiar, como rompimento de vínculo, culpabilização e perda de suporte financeiro. Vários fatores que podem facilitar ou inibir a revelação e notificação do abuso são discutidos, como, por exemplo, a reação materna. Destaca-se a importância de um trabalho integrado no atendimento às vítimas, no encaminhamento das questões judiciais e no fortalecimento da rede de apoio às famílias.The aim of this article is to discuss the process of disclosure and reporting of cases of sexual abuse involving children and adolescents, based on the analysis of publications related to that topic. Studies suggest that the disclosure and reporting of sexual abuse is a difficult moment for the victims and their families because it usually involves someone close to the child. It provokes changes in the family system, such as disruption of ties, guilt and loss in financial support. Several factors that may facilitate or inhibit the disclosure and reporting of sexual abuse are discussed such as the mother's reaction. It is highlighted the importance of an integrated work in the service that deals with these situations, involving the victims care, in the forwarding of the processes and in the strengthening of the supporting network for families.

  20. Are Some Individuals Diagnosed with ADHD Prone to Alcohol Abuse?: Consideration of Two Possible Mediating Factors for this Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Some studies conducted on ADHD have found a statistically significant relationship between those diagnosed with the disorder and a higher susceptibility to abuse alcohol. However, other studies have found no such correlation, or have found this to be true of only a nonstatistically significant subset of the population of individuals with ADHD.…

  1. Disrupted Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Uldam, Julie

    appearances become challenged through disruptive disclosures in mediaenvironments characterized by multiple levels of visibility, with companies both observing andbeing observed by civil society groups that criticize them; (c) why and how the mobilization aroundtransparency and ensuing practices...

  2. Teachers Who Abuse: The Impact on School Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 16 teachers and 10 children who had been abused in schools revealed a range of levels of awareness and disclosure as well as responses to disclosure of abuse. Difficulties for teachers in delineating acceptable and unacceptable behavior point to a need for improved guidelines and legislation. (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  3. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues The Role of Culture in Elder ... factor in all types of elder abuse, including physical mistreatment, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect. It is also a ...

  4. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  5. Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Physical Abuse Physical abuse is physical force or violence that results in ... may be acquaintances, sons, daughters, grandchildren, or others. Physical abuse that is perpetrated by spouses or intimate partners ...

  6. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  7. Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role ... Abuse and Neglect Ramsey-Klawsnik, H. (1996). Assessing physical and sexual abuse in health care settings. In L.A. Baumhover & S. ...

  8. The Impact of Therapist Disclosure on Patient Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Norman R.

    1976-01-01

    A psychotherapy analogue study examined the effects of therapist disclosure on subject disclosure to the therapist during a first interview. Three levels of therapist disclosure, no disclosure, demographic disclosure, and personal disclosure, and two levels of therapist warmth were manipulated. Results are discussed. (Author)

  9. eSelf Disclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The initial module incorporated into the application was the eDisclosure module to track regulatory audit disclosure reports that come through EPA's Central Data...

  10. Dissociation Predicts Later Attention Problems in Sexually Abused Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplow, Julie B.; Hall, Erin; Koenen, Karestan C.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The goals of this research are to develop and test a prospective model of attention problems in sexually abused children that includes fixed variables (e.g., gender), trauma, and disclosure-related pathways. Methods: At Time 1, fixed variables, trauma variables, and stress reactions upon disclosure were assessed in 156 children aged…

  11. Support and Profiles of Nonoffending Mothers of Sexually Abused Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Hebert, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Maternal support offered to sexually abused children following disclosure may be a crucial factor in children's recovery. A person-centered approach was used to examine how profiles of nonoffending mothers could better describe their ability to support their children after disclosure. Cluster analyses based on a total of 226 nonoffending…

  12. Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... facilities or nursing homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, ...

  13. Costly Disclosures in a Voluntary Disclosure Model with an Opponent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes voluntary disclosure equilibria when the voluntary disclosure model presented inWAGENHOFER (1990) is modified so as to include fixed disclosure costs as used in VERRECCHIA (1983). It turns out that incorporating both disclosure and proprietary costs rules out full disclosure equi

  14. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become ...

  15. 政府环保网站信息公开的实践与思考%Practice and Consideration on Information Disclosure of the Government Environmental Protection Website

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔雁波

    2015-01-01

    The government environmental protection website is the first information disclosure platform of the environmental protection department of the government and also is an important channel for community assess to the environmental information.In order to give full play to the function of information disclosure and transfer the governmental voice for the first time to society through the government environmental protection website,the paper discussed four aspects about environmental information disclosure with practical experience:releasing information,organizing environmental information,spreading government environmental information more efficiently,ensuring environmental information disclosure.%政府环保网站是政府环保部门信息公开的第一平台,也是社会获取环境信息的重要渠道。为充分发挥政府环保网站环境信息公开的功能,将政府的声音在第一时间传递给社会,结合实践经验,文章从发布环境信息、整理环境信息、提升环境信息传播能力、保障环境信息公开四个方面给出建议。

  16. Legal Considerations over Rampant Child Abuses at Chinese Kindergartens%由幼儿教师虐童案件频发引起的法律思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党颖

    2015-01-01

    随着“虐童”事件的频繁发生,看到目前我国幼儿教育违法现象面临的现状,研究探索引起“虐童”事件频繁发生的原因,提出可行性对策:健全儿童保护法律制度,遏制“虐童”思想的萌生;政府加大投资力度,提高幼儿教师待遇;利用幼儿教师职业培训提高幼儿教师队伍整体素质;加强幼儿教师及幼儿家长的法制教育。%With child abuses happening with increasing frequency in China , and in light of the notorious illegal practices inherent in China ’ s preschool education , this paper presents a discussion on the causes of child abuses and proposes relevant countermeasures to address rampant child abuses in Chinese kindergartens .Such measures include improving the legal system of the protection of children and safeguard children ’ s rights and interests accord-ing to the law, increasing government investment in preschool education and enhancing kindergarten teachers ’ wel-fare and benefits , boosting the overall quality of preschool teachers by introducing pertinent professional training programs, and strengthening legal education on both kindergarten school teachers and children ’s parents.

  17. 由幼儿教师虐童案件频发引起的法律思考%Legal Considerations over Rampant Child Abuses at Chinese Kindergartens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党颖

    2015-01-01

    With child abuses happening with increasing frequency in China , and in light of the notorious illegal practices inherent in China ’ s preschool education , this paper presents a discussion on the causes of child abuses and proposes relevant countermeasures to address rampant child abuses in Chinese kindergartens .Such measures include improving the legal system of the protection of children and safeguard children ’ s rights and interests accord-ing to the law, increasing government investment in preschool education and enhancing kindergarten teachers ’ wel-fare and benefits , boosting the overall quality of preschool teachers by introducing pertinent professional training programs, and strengthening legal education on both kindergarten school teachers and children ’s parents.%随着“虐童”事件的频繁发生,看到目前我国幼儿教育违法现象面临的现状,研究探索引起“虐童”事件频繁发生的原因,提出可行性对策:健全儿童保护法律制度,遏制“虐童”思想的萌生;政府加大投资力度,提高幼儿教师待遇;利用幼儿教师职业培训提高幼儿教师队伍整体素质;加强幼儿教师及幼儿家长的法制教育。

  18. 42 CFR 2.1 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.1 Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records. The restrictions of these regulations upon the disclosure and use of drug abuse patient records were initially authorized by section...

  19. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.2 Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records. The restrictions of these regulations upon the disclosure and use of alcohol abuse patient records were initially...

  20. Atendimento a mães de vítimas de abuso sexual e abusadores: considerações teóricas e práticas Treatment of mothers of sexual abuse victims and abusers: theoretical and practical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Dalbosco Dell'Aglio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi levantar informações sobre o atendimento psicológico prestado às mães de crianças e adolescentes vítimas de abuso sexual, bem como aos autores dessa violência. A literatura mostra a importância de incluir familiares não abusivos no tratamento da vítima, tendo em vista seu envolvimento na situação. Além disso, aponta que a discussão sobre o atendimento psicológico aos perpetradores também é necessário para que se possa intervir no ciclo da violência, prevenindo novas vítimas. Por fim, são discutidos os sentimentos de mães e perpetradores frente à revelação do abuso, objetivos do tratamento em cada caso e os aspectos psicológicos relacionados. São também apresentados alguns estudos nacionais e internacionais sobre experiências de tratamentos e algumas dificuldades práticas para o andamento dos tratamentos e para se realizar estudos sobre essa temática, sobretudo no Brasil.The aim of this article was to gather information about the psychological care provided to mothers of children and adolescent victims of sexual abuse and the perpetrators of such violence. The literature demonstrates the importance of including non abusive relatives in the treatment of victims, due to their involvement with the situation. Discussing psychological support to the perpetrators is also necessary to intervene in the cycle of violence, preventing new victims. The paper focuses on the feelings of mothers and perpetrators at the moment of the abuse disclosure, the goals of the provided care in each case, and related psychological aspects. It also presents some national and international studies that report the experiences of these processes. Some practical barriers in the progress of the psychological care, as well as the difficulties of conducting studies on this topic, especially in Brazil, are reported.

  1. Sexual abuse: consequences and correlations with the victim's age, duration of abuse and support within victim's environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Šraj

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Professionals have shown extreme interest in psychological consequences of sexual abuse for more than 20 years. Besides researching consequnces of an abuse, thier interest has also been focused on relations to other characteristics of sexual abuse. We examined correlations of short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse with time variables (age of the victim at the beginning, ending and disclosure of sexual abuse, duration of sexual abuse and support of the victim after disclousure in the sample of 78 victims of sexual abuse.Results suggest the correlation between age of the victim with some of the long-term consequences. There is tendency toward positive correlation between duaration of sexual abuse and long-term consequences. The support of the victim negativly correlated with long-term consequences. We suggest further research on the consequences and other characteristic of sexual abuse on a larger sample.

  2. Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  3. Elder abuse

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Elder abuse takes many forms and occurs in a variety of settings; it is both under-recognised and under-reported. Despite a lack of statutory guidelines or legislation, effective management is possible. More could be done to recognise abuse, and healthcare workers need to be vigilant, paying attention to both the circumstances in which abuse occurs and its warning signs.

  4. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  5. Voluntary Disclosure and Risk Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the disclosure strategy of firms that face uncertainty regarding the investor's response to a voluntary disclosure of the firm's private information.This paper distinguishes itself from the existing disclosure literature in that firms do not use voluntary disclosures to separate

  6. Firm Traits and Web Based Disclosures in Top Nigerian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Ayuba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of the internet as a medium of dissemination of information to stakeholders is increasingly gaining grounds. This study extends existing literature on web disclosures by investigating the characteristics that predict the extent of web-based disclosures. In this study, corporate websites of top Nigerian firms are used as sources of data, while a regression analysis is employed to examine the extent of prediction. Results indicate that the firm size and industry type are significant determinants of web disclosures. However, other firm traits such as ownership dispersion and financial performance do not significantly explain the extent of internet disclosures. The study recommends that a regulatory template for corporate web disclosures be put in place by government regardless of the size or industry classification of the firm. This is with a view to considerably reduce agency conflicts arising from information asymmetry in publicly listed firms in Nigeria.

  7. CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE AMONG JUNIOR COLLEG E STUDENTS OF RURAL MAHARASHTRA , INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Omkar S; Vaishali V

    2015-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is a serious problem globally. Approximately 150 million girls and 73 million boys are being victimized for sexual abuse. Disclosure by the children and reporting by the parents regarding exposure to sexual violence found to be poor. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The cu rrent study is aimed to find the magnitude of childhood sexual abuse among junior college male students and the various types of sexual abuse experienced. METHODOLOGY: TYPE OF STUDY: ...

  8. Proactive Public Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses proactive public disclosure of taxpayer information and how this may form a new strategy for securing tax compliance by tax administrators. It reports a case study from the Danish Customs and Tax Administration in which consumers of services–over a short period of time...... proactive public disclosure is compatible with the Duty of Confidentiality, but incompatible with Good Public Governance. Furthermore, the analyses show that there are a number of strong organizational rationales for using proactive public disclosure, despite its apparent incompatibility with Good Public...... Governance. The article is innovative in that it combines a legal and organizational approach to analyse a new regulatory strategy within tax administration....

  9. Protecting children in research: Safer ways to research with children who may be experiencing violence or abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Duncan; Anderson, Anna; Taylor, Julie

    2016-09-01

    Children participating in research, like other children, may be being maltreated. There is also potential for exposure to abuse during research. Research training, practices and protocols to respond to disclosure and discovery of abuse to protect both researchers and children may not be sufficiently robust. Our aim was to compare and contrast research practices reported in the literature related to protecting children and to recommend safer ways to conduct research. The simultaneous increase in research with children, along with an increased willingness to listen to child victims of abuse, means that researchers must consider the protection of children in the research setting. Twenty-three papers were identified in a literature review. These studies reported a wide variation of ethical considerations, methods, methodology and came from different disciplines. From the 23 papers, two overarching themes were identified: social justice and research and safer research. To make research safer teams should consider training, safety protocols and support for child protection, which includes support to report safeguarding concerns to social care. Further work is required to ensure that training, protocols and support are effective in facilitating researchers to identify and make appropriate child abuse referrals. Ethics practices in abuse research need further debate. PMID:26105062

  10. General considerations on the care to the elderly victim of abuse Consideraciones generales sobre la atención al anciano víctima de maltrato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalis Fernández López

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A clear indicator of the magnitude of the aging world population, of which Cuba is not free, is that the average age of the population tends to grow every day. Despite the scientific and technical progress achieved in the field of medical science and health policy efforts to improve the health and welfare of the population, there are still conditions that generate negative phenomena such as violence and its various manifestations, it also affects the elderly. Many need medical care after an act of violence, but most are not identified as such and act is much less reported to the authorities, for which the perpetrators are not prosecuted by law. It is common to find some resistance in its recognition that comes from the clash of such data or suspicion and social representation of the family classic and institutions for the elderly. The prevention and treatment of abuse of older persons in an aging world is everyone's business. Given what is referred to this work is performed in order to provide general comments on senior citizen care mistreated.Una muestra evidente de la magnitud del envejecimiento de la población mundial, y de lo cual Cuba no está exenta, es que la edad media de la población tiende a crecer cada día más. A pesar del avance científico técnico alcanzado en el campo de las ciencias médicas y de los esfuerzos de las políticas sanitarias para mejorar las condiciones de salud y bienestar de la población, aún subsisten condiciones que generan fenómenos negativos, como la violencia y sus diferentes manifestaciones, que también afecta a los ancianos. Muchos necesitan atención médica después de un acto de violencia, pero la mayoría no son identificados como tal y el acto es mucho menos denunciado a las autoridades, por lo cual los victimarios no son juzgados por las leyes. Es frecuente encontrar una cierta resistencia en su reconocimiento, que proviene del choque entre tales datos o sospechas y la representación social

  11. Financial Disclosure Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — USAID's FDTS identifies personal service contractors and local employees who should file disclosure reports. It tracks late filers and identifies those who must...

  12. 42 CFR 2.65 - Procedures and criteria for orders authorizing disclosure and use of records to criminally...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., such as one which causes or directly threatens loss of life or serious bodily injury including homicide, rape, kidnapping, armed robbery, assault with a deadly weapon, and child abuse and neglect. (2) There... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Court Orders Authorizing Disclosure and Use §...

  13. Maternal Perceptions Of And Responses To Child Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Rakovec-Felser Zlatka; Vidovič Lea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Several researches indicate that most child victims delay disclosing of sexual abuse for significant periods of time. There are numerous reasons as to why children are avoiding the disclosure of the abuse. The aim of this study was to determine how a mother’s response to a child’s allegations impacts the child’s willingness to disclose sexual abuse. Methods We conducted a retrospective quantitative and qualitative analysis of 73 court-referred cases of child sexual abuse w...

  14. [Disclosure of conflicts of interest in the Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergoets, M; Pieters, G

    2009-01-01

    Between March 2000 and December 2008 authors disclosed conflicts of interest in 9% of articles in the Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie. For the same period, in the articles dealing with pharmaceuticals, the percentage of articles containing disclosures of conflict of interest was considerably higher, namely 24%. The policy of the journal with regard to the disclosure of conflicts of interest has helped to promote transparency. Further efforts are needed to encourage authors to disclose conflicts of interest.

  15. How to Handle Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abuse: physical, sexual, verbal or emotional, and neglect. Physical abuse: Physical abuse is hitting hard with a hand or an ... choking, painful grabbing, and kicking also can be physical abuse. Sexual abuse: Your body has private parts. These ...

  16. Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... she is likely to try other kinds of drugs, especially alcohol and marijuana. Symptoms How can I tell if my child is abusing inhalants? It can be hard to recognize the signs of inhalant abuse. Teenagers who use inhalants may have some of the ...

  17. Medical error and disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew A; Gallagher, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Errors occur commonly in healthcare and can cause significant harm to patients. Most errors arise from a combination of individual, system, and communication failures. Neurologists may be involved in harmful errors in any practice setting and should familiarize themselves with tools to prevent, report, and examine errors. Although physicians, patients, and ethicists endorse candid disclosure of harmful medical errors to patients, many physicians express uncertainty about how to approach these conversations. A growing body of research indicates physicians often fail to meet patient expectations for timely and open disclosure. Patients desire information about the error, an apology, and a plan for preventing recurrence of the error. To meet these expectations, physicians should participate in event investigations and plan thoroughly for each disclosure conversation, preferably with a disclosure coach. Physicians should also anticipate and attend to the ongoing medical and emotional needs of the patient. A cultural change towards greater transparency following medical errors is in motion. Substantial progress is still required, but neurologists can further this movement by promoting policies and environments conducive to open reporting, respectful disclosure to patients, and support for the healthcare workers involved. PMID:24182370

  18. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  19. Disclosure regimes and corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Wüstemann, Jens

    2004-01-01

    As there is a strong relationship of disclosure regimes and corporate governance the internationally varying distribution of information rights can be interpreted as a function of different systems of corporate governance. A disclosure system comprises all legally recognized information claims that a system of corporate governance or a financial system furnishes financial contracting parties with: Both public disclosure and disclosure via private information channels may serve value-relevant ...

  20. Child Abuse and Domestic Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Stress Disorder Reporting Domestic Abuse Reporting Suspected Child Abuse or Neglect Traumatic Brain Injury Family & Relationships There’s more to a military family than moving and deployments — take us along through each phase of your military ... Care and Youth Programs Parenting Military Youth on ...

  1. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon Soo; Yang, Eunbae B

    2015-01-01

    In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure - release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public - in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations - 1) fairness and validity, 2) impact on passing levels, and 3) utility of item disclosure - by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers' right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration. PMID:26374693

  2. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Soo Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure – release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public – in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations – 1 fairness and validity, 2 impact on passing levels, and 3 utility of item disclosure – by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers’ right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration.

  3. Peer abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Alikaşifoğlu, Müjgan

    2011-01-01

    Peer abuse is commonly seen as bullying behaviors The most common definition of bullying used in the literature was formulated by Dan nbsp;Olweus According to Olweus bullying is an aggressive behavior that: a is intended to cause harm or distress b occurs repeatedly over nbsp;time and c occurs in a relationship in which there is an imbalance of power Peer abuse shares many characteristics with other types of nbsp;abuse namely child maltreatment and domestic violence Bullying behaviors may be ...

  4. Survivors' Perspectives on the Impact of Clergy Sexual Abuse on Families of Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Leslie H.; Sullivan, James M.; Levins, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse rose to public attention in 2002 through the disclosure of abuse by Catholic priests within the Archdiocese of Boston and a simultaneous cover-up by church hierarchy. Similar patterns have since been described in other Catholic dioceses and in other faith denominations. While recent studies have examined the impact…

  5. Opportunities for computer abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Willison, Robert; Backhouse, James

    2005-01-01

    Systems risk refers to the likelihood that an IS is inadequately guarded against certain types of damage or loss. While risks are posed by acts of God, hackers and viruses, consideration should also be given to the ‘insider’ threat of dishonest employees, intent on undertaking some form of computer abuse. Against this backdrop, a number of researchers have addressed the extent to which security managers are cognizant of the very nature of systems risk. In particular, they note how security pr...

  6. Factors Associated with Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence among Women in Lagos, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarne Jansson; Stephen Lawoko; Leah Okenwa

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Though the prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) remains high in less developed countries, data suggest that these figures may represent an underestimation considering that many women are unwilling to disclose abuse. This paper aims to determine women's willingness to report abuse, factors determining willingness to disclose IPV, and to whom such disclosure is made. Methods: A total of 911 women visiting reproductive health facility responded to the questionnaire...

  7. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  8. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...

  9. Secondary Market Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert J.; Zehner, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    In late 1994, the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) issued new rules applicable to issuers of municipal securities (including school districts) concerning disclosure to the investment community. Describes how SEC's existing Rule 15c2-12 has been implemented. Discusses its purpose, jurisdiction, obligated persons, written…

  10. Skull fracture and the diagnosis of abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, C J

    1984-01-01

    Eighty nine children under 2 years of age with skull fracture were studied retrospectively--29 children with definite non-accidental injury serially recorded by the Departments of Paediatrics and Forensic Medicine, and 60 children consecutively admitted to hospital with skull fractures after accidents. There were 20 deaths including 19 among abused children. Multiple injuries and an inadequate history assisted in diagnosing abuse. Fracture characteristics found considerably more often in abus...

  11. A Prospective Investigation of the Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Development of Sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2003-01-01

    The sexual attitudes and activities of 77 sexually abused and 89 comparison women (mean age = 20.41, SD = 3.38) were assessed 10 years after disclosure in a longitudinal, prospective study of the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth control efficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development...

  12. What Canadian Youth Tell Us about Disclosing Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael; Tutty, Leslie M.; McConnell, Sheri; Barter, Ken; Fairholm, Judi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To report findings from a study of anonymous disclosures of abuse experiences among a national sample of youth in Canada who participated in violence prevention programming. Methods: A qualitative analysis was done of a purposeful sample of 1,099 evaluation forms completed following Red Cross RespectED violence prevention programming…

  13. 32 CFR 806b.49 - Disclosure accountings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 771 10 , Accounting of Disclosures. Retain disclosure accountings for 5 years after the disclosure, or... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure accountings. 806b.49 Section 806b.49... PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.49 Disclosure accountings. System managers must keep...

  14. 12 CFR 37.6 - Disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disclosures in appendix A to this part will satisfy the short form disclosure requirements of this section. (b... satisfy the long form disclosure requirements of this section. (c) Disclosure requirements; timing and... shall make the long form disclosures in writing before the customer completes the purchase of...

  15. 32 CFR 310.25 - Disclosure accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure accounting. 310.25 Section 310.25....25 Disclosure accounting. (a) Disclosure accountings. (1) Keep an accurate record of all disclosures... accounting is required even if the individual has consented to the disclosure of the information....

  16. Public Disclosure and Bank Failures

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Levy Yeyati; Tito Cordella

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of public disclosure of banks’ risk exposure on banks’ risk taking incentives and its implications in terms of soundness of the banking system. We find that, when banks have a complete control over the volatility of their loan portfolio, public disclosure reduces the probability of banking crises. When asset risk is driven largely by exogenous factors beyond the control of bank managers, however, information disclosure may increase banking sector fragility, as t...

  17. [Intra and extra-familiar sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The sexual abuse of a child or young person constitutes a major social and public health problem and there is recent evidence that intra-familial (IF) sexual abuses are more serious in their consequences than extra-familial (EF). However, there are no studies on this phenomenon in Portugal. Thus, the aim of the present study is to contribute to a better characterization of these types of abuses and to identify possible differences between IF and EF cases. A retrospective study was preformed based on medico-legal reports related to victims below the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused (n = 764), corresponding to 67% of the total of observed sexual crimes. Results revealed that 34.9% of the abuses are IF and they show statistically significant differences when compared to EF cases. These are due to the following factors found in IF situations: a) lower victim age; b) closeness between victim and abuser; c) abusers with a higher rate of previous sexual abuse; d) sexual practices of reduced physical intrusion; e) decreased physical violence but increased emotional violence; f) greater delay between last abuse and the forensic exam; g) reduced number of injuries or biological evidence (none in the great majority of the cases). Results point out the existence of several characteristics in IF abuse that have been identified as factors that influence the severity of the abuse consequences. Among them are: a) lower victim age; b) greater proximity to the abuser; c) increased amount of emotional violence. These factors account for the reduced visibility of this kind of cases and therefore explain their delayed disclosure and diagnosis. The association of this fact with the reduced intrusiveness of this sort of practice and the consequent decrease in number of injuries and other evidence leads to a marked reduction of the number of cases where evidence of the abuse can be found by physical examination alone. The above aspects underlie the need of using different

  18. Disclosure of HIV positive result to a sexual partner among adult clinical service users in Kemissie district, northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Mohammed; Wasie, Belaynew; Admassu, Mengesha

    2012-03-01

    HIV Status disclosure is vital for HIV prevention efforts and the couple's health in the context of accelerated highly active antiretroviral therapy. This study aimed to identify factors associated with disclosure of HIV Status to a sexual partner and its outcomes. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted at Kemissie Health center on 360 HIV positive individuals selected by systematic random sampling. Data were collected using a structured, interviewer administered questionnaire. The level of disclosure to a sexual partner was 93.1%. Among those who disclosed, 74.5% were accepted, 10.8% minor challenges or suspicion of result and the last 7.8% faced physical abuse and blame. The main reasons for not disclosing were fear of divorce [32%], fear of stigma and discrimination [32%] and fear of physical abuse [16%]. Prior discussion, disclosure to family, smooth relationship and knowing partner status were significantly associated with disclosure. HIV prevention programs and counseling efforts should focus on mutual disclosure of HIV test results, by encouraging discussion, reduction of stigma, for better disclosure and continuing care.

  19. Design and implementation of website information disclosure assessment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Internet application technologies, such as cloud computing and cloud storage, have increasingly changed people's lives. Websites contain vast amounts of personal privacy information. In order to protect this information, network security technologies, such as database protection and data encryption, attract many researchers. The most serious problems concerning web vulnerability are e-mail address and network database leakages. These leakages have many causes. For example, malicious users can steal database contents, taking advantage of mistakes made by programmers and administrators. In order to mitigate this type of abuse, a website information disclosure assessment system is proposed in this study. This system utilizes a series of technologies, such as web crawler algorithms, SQL injection attack detection, and web vulnerability mining, to assess a website's information disclosure. Thirty websites, randomly sampled from the top 50 world colleges, were used to collect leakage information. This testing showed the importance of increasing the security and privacy of website information for academic websites.

  20. Design and implementation of website information disclosure assessment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Internet application technologies, such as cloud computing and cloud storage, have increasingly changed people's lives. Websites contain vast amounts of personal privacy information. In order to protect this information, network security technologies, such as database protection and data encryption, attract many researchers. The most serious problems concerning web vulnerability are e-mail address and network database leakages. These leakages have many causes. For example, malicious users can steal database contents, taking advantage of mistakes made by programmers and administrators. In order to mitigate this type of abuse, a website information disclosure assessment system is proposed in this study. This system utilizes a series of technologies, such as web crawler algorithms, SQL injection attack detection, and web vulnerability mining, to assess a website's information disclosure. Thirty websites, randomly sampled from the top 50 world colleges, were used to collect leakage information. This testing showed the importance of increasing the security and privacy of website information for academic websites. PMID:25768434

  1. Design and implementation of website information disclosure assessment system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chiang Cho

    Full Text Available Internet application technologies, such as cloud computing and cloud storage, have increasingly changed people's lives. Websites contain vast amounts of personal privacy information. In order to protect this information, network security technologies, such as database protection and data encryption, attract many researchers. The most serious problems concerning web vulnerability are e-mail address and network database leakages. These leakages have many causes. For example, malicious users can steal database contents, taking advantage of mistakes made by programmers and administrators. In order to mitigate this type of abuse, a website information disclosure assessment system is proposed in this study. This system utilizes a series of technologies, such as web crawler algorithms, SQL injection attack detection, and web vulnerability mining, to assess a website's information disclosure. Thirty websites, randomly sampled from the top 50 world colleges, were used to collect leakage information. This testing showed the importance of increasing the security and privacy of website information for academic websites.

  2. Voluntary disclosure: Evidence from UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Zourarakis (Nicolaos)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the voluntary disclosure of Intellectual Capital (IC) of British firms and provides some evidence on an unexplored area of the literature; that of the association of Corporate Governance (CG) with IC disclosure. Inconsistent with expectations, the results show tha

  3. Opportunities for computer abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willison, Robert Andrew; Backhouse, James

    2005-01-01

    Systems risk refers to the likelihood that an IS is inadequately guarded against certain types of damage or loss. While risks are posed by acts of God, hackers and viruses, consideration should also be given to the `insider' threat of dishonest employees, intent on undertaking some form of computer...... for the offender. To achieve this goal a model known as the `Crime Specific Opportunity Structure' is advanced. Focussing on the opportunities for computer abuse, the model addresses the nature of such opportunities with regards to the organisational context and the threats posed by rogue employees. Drawing...

  4. The consequences of incomplete disclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, J.H. [Osler Hoskin and Harcourt, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-01

    The disclosure requirements imposed on Canadian public companies are discussed. The basis of the capital market system in Canada is the integrity of full and true disclosure of all material facts in a prospectus and continuous disclosure of material changes and information, including financial results. Securities regulators have the right to report to the appropriate law enforcement agencies any company director who intentionally files misleading financial statements or press releases. The fundamental policy of Canadian stock exchanges is that all persons investing in securities listed on an exchange have equal access to information that may affect their investment decisions. Canadian stock exchanges have developed by-laws, rules and regulations relating to listed companies disclosure obligations, breach of which may lead to suspension of trading, delisting of the securities of the offending issuer, and substantial fines. Details of civil and criminal liability, current and proposed, for incomplete or inaccurate disclosure under Canadian securities legislation are explained. 59 refs.

  5. Through the eyes of the wounded: a narrative analysis of children's sexual abuse experiences and recovery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer M; Hagedorn, W Bryce

    2014-01-01

    Numerous children receive counseling for sexual abuse, yet their personal perspectives related to the abuse, the impact of making the disclosure, and the recovery process are noticeably absent from the scholarly literature. This study addressed this gap by analyzing trauma narratives written by children as part of a counseling intervention. Qualitative analysis revealed three themes: memories of the abuse, the disclosure and subsequent events, and the healing journey. Children's descriptions of their thoughts, feelings, and beliefs about their experiences are delineated and recommendations are provided for counseling professionals to increase the efficacy of care provided. PMID:24819252

  6. 38 CFR 1.576 - General policies, conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions. 1.576 Section 1.576 Pensions... and address of the person or agency to whom the disclosure is made; (2) Retain the accounting made... longer, after the disclosure for which the accounting is made; (3) Except for disclosures made...

  7. 19 CFR 162.74 - Prior disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... loss of revenue finally calculated by CBP shall result in denial of the prior disclosure. (d) Effective... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prior disclosure. 162.74 Section 162.74 Customs... disclosure. (a) In general—(1) A prior disclosure is made if the person concerned discloses the...

  8. 14 CFR 1212.203 - Disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Records § 1212.203 Disclosures. (a) The system manager shall keep a disclosure accounting for each... (2) In accordance with § 1212.203(g) (1) and (2), below. (c) The disclosure accounting required by...) The name and address of the recipient person or Agency. (d) The disclosure accounting shall...

  9. The Role of Theory in Explaining Motivation for Corporate Social Disclosures: Voluntary Disclosures vs ‘Solicited’ Disclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra van der Laan

    2009-01-01

    Corporate social disclosures (CSD) are primarily voluntary in nature and subsequently provide an area forresearch into motivational aspects of disclosures. The main focus of prior research has been whethercorporate social disclosures constitute a discharge of accountability or are part of a process of legitimation.Prior research, however, ignores the emergence of an alternate style of corporate social disclosure, the‘solicited’ disclosure. Increasingly companies are requested to report on the...

  10. What is Elder Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to another, but broadly defined, abuse may be: Physical Abuse —inflicting physical pain or injury on a senior, ... abrasions, and burns may be an indication of physical abuse, neglect, or mistreatment. Unexplained withdrawal from normal activities, ...

  11. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  12. Disclosure of information in criminal proceedings : a comparative analysis of national and international criminal procedural systems and human rights law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiori, Brando

    2015-01-01

    Disclosure and the procedure regulating it represent a subject matter in which crime control and human rights find their synthesis. Disclosure is a complex subject that covers different branches of law as it involves aspects of a procedural nature as well as considerations that belong to the realm o

  13. Donor type and parental disclosure following oocyte donation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Stephenson; Eric Blyth; Wendy Kramer; Jennifer Schneider

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To ascertain the perspectives of parents of children conceived via oocyte donation regarding donor anonymity and disclosure of the nature of their conception to their children. Methods:Information was gathered by means of an anonymous online survey initiated by theDonorSiblingRegistry, in which108 parents with143 children conceived following oocyte donation and aged between one year and15 yearsparticipated.Results:Parental use of an anonymous or open-identity donor-and regardless of parental choice of donor-makes very little difference to the timing of parental disclosure to their donor-conceived child about their conception.The median age of children at disclosure is about3.5years;UK/Australian parents seem more ready to tell their children at an early stage(median age around two years) thanNorth American parents(median age around4.5 years), although about three quarters of all children have been told by the age of six years.Considerable ambiguity among parents who intend to disclose to their children as to the optimal age of disclosure is evidenced.Conclusions:Parents’ experiences of disclosure to children at different ages need to be more thoroughly examined in order to establisha coherent body of knowledge that may facilitate improved evidence-based parental decision making.

  14. Disclosure Decisions: HIV-Positive Persons Coping With Disease-Related Stressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjaer, Lotte; Sodemann, Morten; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen;

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to investigate how Danish HIV-positive persons live with their disease, focusing on HIV-related stressors. Using the Glaserian method, we analyzed textual data from in-depth interviews with 16 HIV-positive persons. Decisions about disclosure appeared...... to be a major concern and a determining factor for HIV-related stress. Consequently, we developed a substantive theory about disclosure decisions in which three different strategies could be identified: (a) disclosing to everyone (being open); (b) restricting disclosure (being partly open); and (c) disclosing...... to no one (being closed). Disclosure was a continuum; none of the three strategies automatically relieved HIV-related stress. The theory describes the main determinants and consequences of each strategy. Our study demonstrates the importance of recurrent individual considerations about disclosure choices...

  15. Uncovering sexual abuse: evaluation of the effectiveness of The Victims of Violence and Abuse Prevention Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, J

    2010-02-01

    Discusses factors inhibiting open talk around a client's history of abuse including gender, age and diagnosis. * Evaluates the helpfulness of a training course designed to reduce and overcome these factors. * Aim of the evaluation is to help replicate the training nationally, following the positive impact found. Abstract Despite the high prevalence of sexual abuse among users of mental health services, it appears that mental health professionals are frequently unaware of clients' abuse histories. In order to address this, a Mental Health Trusts Collaboration Project of nine trusts was formed, which piloted delivering the Department of Health's Victims of Violence & Abuse Prevention Programme one-day education and training course regarding enquiring about histories of sexual abuse to various mental health practitioners. This hoped to educate practitioners in factors associated with victims and offenders, improve confidence and competence in asking about client's history of abuse and to increase awareness of the importance of asking. The purpose of this paper is to describe the impact of this course on mental health professionals' practice and attitudes in one of these nine trusts. It was found that since the delivery of the course, 44% (n= x) of professionals had been asking about abuse in 75-100% of cases. Gender, age and diagnosis of both the service users and the practitioners were all identified as factors potentially affecting practitioners' willingness to ask about abuse. Most importantly, 93% (n= x) of participants were found to feel they have the skills and knowledge to enquire about abuse and respond to disclosure in the appropriate way and 77% (n= x) of participants felt that this training had changed their clinical practice. The aim of this evaluation is to prove the effectiveness of the Department of Health's education and training course, which will help towards replicating the project nationally. PMID:20100302

  16. Emotional security in the family system and psychological distress in female survivors of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors.

  17. Radiation Alert Immediate Disclosure Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon's Radiation Alert Immediate Disclosure (RAID) system is a miniature, low-power, real-time, active radiation badge. It is designed for monitoring personnel,...

  18. Laboratory approach for diagnosis of toluene-based inhalant abuse in a clinical setting

    OpenAIRE

    Raka Jain; Arpita Verma

    2016-01-01

    The steady increase of inhalant abuse is a great challenge for analytical toxicologists. This review describes an overview of inhalant abuse including the extent of the problem, types of products abused, modes of administration, pharmacology and effects of inhalants, the role of laboratory, interpretation of laboratory results and clinical considerations. Regular laboratory screening for inhalant abuse as well as other substance abuse and health risk behaviors must be a part of standard clini...

  19. Laboratory approach for diagnosis of toluene-based inhalant abuse in a clinical setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raka Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady increase of inhalant abuse is a great challenge for analytical toxicologists. This review describes an overview of inhalant abuse including the extent of the problem, types of products abused, modes of administration, pharmacology and effects of inhalants, the role of laboratory, interpretation of laboratory results and clinical considerations. Regular laboratory screening for inhalant abuse as well as other substance abuse and health risk behaviors must be a part of standard clinical care.

  20. Data Disclosure for Chemical Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Lutter, Randall; Barrow, Craig; Borgert, Christopher J.; Conrad, James W.; Edwards, Debra; Felsot, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Public disclosure of scientific data used by the government to make regulatory decisions for chemicals is a practical step that can enhance public confidence in the scientific basis of such decisions. Objectives: We reviewed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) current practices regarding disclosure of data underlying regulatory and policy decisions involving chemicals, including pesticides. We sought to identify additional opportunities for the U.S. EPA to disclose da...

  1. Corporate Governance Disclosure in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    ONG, Wei Jiin

    2006-01-01

    This research provides evidence on corporate governance disclosure in Malaysia based on a sample of 25 Malaysian public listed companies on the Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI) in the year 1998 and 2005 that are listed on the Bursa Malaysia. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine whether after the launch of the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance (HLFC, 2000) following the 1997/98 financial crisis, corporate governance in Malaysia has improved in terms of disclosure information ...

  2. Sexual Orientation, Disclosure and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Plug, Erik; Berkhout, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Gay/bisexual workers tend to earn less than other men. Does this occur because of discrimination or because of selection? In this paper we address this question and collect new information on workplace disclosure to separate out discrimination effects from selection effects. Using a large sample of recently graduated men in the Netherlands, we find that gay/bisexual workers earn about 3 to 4 percent less than other men. Our disclosure estimates, however, provide little evidence that the labor...

  3. The impact of personalized social cues of immediacy on consumers' information disclosure: a social cognitive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doohwang; LaRose, Robert

    2011-06-01

    This study examined how personalized social cues of immediacy can affect two types of information disclosure intentions (embarrassing information and descriptive information) directly and indirectly through two positive outcome expectations (social trust and customization outcome expectations) and two negative outcome expectations (embarrassment and information abuse outcome expectations) in the context of a personal health record (PHR) Web-site service. An online experiment was chosen and 252 participants were directed to visit a newly created PHR Web site. The results showed that, regardless of the two different type of information, participants' exposure to the high-immediacy level on the site increased their information disclosure intentions even when their privacy self-efficacy beliefs were controlled. Further, the results of path analyses suggest that such main effect on information disclosure is mediated by social cognitive variables of positive and negative outcome expectations.

  4. Clinical assessment of suspected child physical abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.)

  5. The last taboo: sexual abuse of children The last taboo: sexual abuse of children G Search Penguin 178pp £3-99 0-14-011049-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-10

    Gay Search presents an honest and balanced study into the increasingly publicised problem of the sexual abuse of children. She shows a sensitive approach, without sensationalism, treating each area of study with equal consideration. There appears to be no expression of bias towards either abused or abuser. PMID:27237672

  6. Child sexual abuse in religiously affiliated and secular institutions: a retrospective descriptive analysis of data provided by victims in a government-sponsored reappraisal program in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Spröber, Nina; Schneider, Thekla; Rassenhofer, Miriam; Seitz, Alexander; Liebhardt, Hubert; König, Lilith; Fegert, Jörg M

    2014-01-01

    Background The disclosure of widespread sexual abuse committed by professional educators and clergymen in institutions in Germany ignited a national political debate, in which special attention was paid to church-run institutions. We wanted to find out whether the nature of the abuse and its effect on victims differed depending on whether the abuse had been experienced in religiously affiliated versus secular institutions. Methods In 2010, the German government established a hotline that vict...

  7. 38 CFR 17.504 - Disclosure methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure methods. 17.504 Section 17.504 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Confidentiality of Healthcare Quality Assurance Review Records § 17.504 Disclosure methods. (a) Disclosure...

  8. 32 CFR 701.111 - Disclosure accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure accounting. 701.111 Section 701.111... THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.111 Disclosure accounting. Disclosure accounting allows the individual to determine what agencies or persons have been...

  9. Childhood sexual abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Aktepe

    1993-01-01

    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Aktepe, Evrim

    2009-01-01

    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  11. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  12. The impact of intellectual capital disclosure on cost of equity capital: A case of French firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Boujelbene

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the impact of intellectual capital disclosure (IC on cost of Equity capital. The empirical research is based on companies listed in the French SBF 120 stock market index. The findings confirm our hypotheses that stipulate the existence of a significant and negative association between intellectual capital disclosure with its two components (human capital, structural and the cost of equity. However, the negative impact of the relational capital disclosure is not validated. The results in this paper are of considerable importance to both policy makers and firms. In fact, the understanding of the impact of Intellectual capital disclosure on cost of equity capital helps policy makers in the evaluation of the costs and benefits of disclosure. Moreover, with regard to managers of firms, the results show the benefit of enhanced IC disclosure regarding the reduction in their cost of capital. This study is one of the very first to provide empirical evidence of the association between Cost of equity capital and the level of disclosure in the three individual intellectual capital categories (human; structural and relational capital.

  13. Exploratory Evaluation of a School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Ian G.; Topping, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, efficacy studies of school-based child sexual abuse prevention programs display a series of methodological shortcomings. Few studies include adolescent participants, recording of disclosures has been inconsistent, and no studies to date have assessed presenter adherence to program protocols or summated the costs of program…

  14. Multiple Forensic Interviews during Investigations of Child Sexual Abuse: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Stephanie D.; Foster, E. Michael; Pierce, Matthew W.; Berkoff, Molly C.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2013-01-01

    In suspected child sexual abuse some professionals recommend multiple child interviews to increase the likelihood of disclosure or more details to improve decision-making and increase convictions. We modeled the yield of a policy of routinely conducting multiple child interviews and increased convictions. Our decision tree reflected the path of a…

  15. Extended Evaluations in Cases of Child Sexual Abuse: How Many Sessions Are Sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2010-01-01

    This article provides new findings from a national study involving 18 forensic interview sites of 137 children who were randomly assigned to a four or eight session extended evaluation. Cases assigned to the eight session protocol were significantly more likely to be classified "credible disclosure" of sexual abuse (56.6%) than cases assigned to…

  16. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  17. Puppet Play as Interactive Approach in Drug Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadic-Bilan, Diana; Vigato, Teodora

    2010-01-01

    The national strategies of drug abuse prevention across Europe have come to recognise that the drug abuse problem presents a complex set of issues of which there is no simple solution. There is a considerable increase in investment in prevention, treatment and harm-reduction activities and increased focus on supply reduction. School settings are…

  18. Prevalence and Pedagogy: Understanding Substance Abuse in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm, Twyla; Sevigny, Phil; Mulholland, Val; Greenberg, Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    This case study examines not only the prevalence of substance abuse in one rural, Canadian high school, but also how teachers understand teaching and learning in relation to substance abuse. Over one third of students reported that they had used marijuana (37%) and alcohol (38%) in the last seven days, a rate considerably higher than typical…

  19. Jury Selection in Child Sex Abuse Trials: A Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.

    2009-01-01

    Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…

  20. Helping children to the other side of silence: A study of the impact of the stay safe programme on Irish children's disclosures of sexual victimisation.

    OpenAIRE

    MacIntyre, Deirdre; Carr, Alan.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a school based safety skills programme - The Stay Safe Programme - in facilitating the disclosure of sexual abuse among sexually victimized children and adolescents in Dublin. Method. A cohort of 145 children who had participated in the Stay Safe Programme prior to their referral to a sexual abuse assessment unit were compared with a cohort of 443 children who had not participated in the prevention programme on a rang...

  1. Skin manifestations of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

  2. Abuse during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... partner may try to hurt your body. This physical abuse can include hitting, slapping, kicking, choking, pushing or ... your unborn baby in grave danger. During pregnancy, physical abuse can lead to miscarriage and vaginal bleeding . It ...

  3. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not lead to physical dependence and withdrawal, the feelings these drugs give people can cause them to use the drugs more and more ...

  4. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  5. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

  6. Financial Disclosure : A Closer Look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ermans, C.J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The central concern of this paper is the company's financial disclosure process.We briefly discuss this phenomenon.Furthermore, the research in this area is surveyed and discussed.Most of the research so far has been quantitative.Some early studies are discussed including their validity and their sh

  7. Sexual orientation, disclosure and earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Plug; P. Berkhout

    2008-01-01

    Gay/bisexual workers tend to earn less than other men. Does this occur because of discrimination or because of selection? In this paper we address this question and collect new information on workplace disclosure to separate out discrimination effects from selection effects. Using a large sample of

  8. Teacher Political Disclosure as Parrhesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journell, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The traditional stance on teacher political disclosure within K-12 education is that neutrality is the only morally appropriate approach for teachers to take when broaching political or social issues in their classes due to their role as state employees who serve a particular community. A number of recent high-profile cases of…

  9. Addressing Wife Abuse in Mexican Immigrant Couples: Challenges for Family Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Tina

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses wife abuse in undocumented Mexican immigrant couples and suggests an ecosystems treatment approach that takes into consideration the structural forces of oppression and discrimination on abusive behaviors in the home and combines individual, family and community level interventions to help immigrant men stop the abuse.…

  10. 76 FR 3913 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... and projects conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, including consideration of personnel... Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Johns Hopkins Bayview Campus, Baltimore, MD...

  11. 76 FR 65517 - National Institute on Drug Abuse Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse Notice of Closed Meeting... projects conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, including consideration of personnel..., National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Johns Hopkins Bayview Campus, Baltimore, MD 21223. Contact...

  12. 78 FR 55265 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... projects conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, including consideration of personnel... Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Johns Hopkins Bayview Campus, Baltimore, MD...

  13. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-6076....

  14. Routes of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics: a review and assessment of the potential impact of abuse-deterrent formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Maciej; Bond, Mary; Malamut, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Prescription opioid analgesics are an important treatment option for patients with chronic pain; however, misuse, abuse and diversion of these medications are a major global public health concern. Prescription opioid analgesics can be abused via intended and non-intended routes of administration, both intact or after manipulation of the original formulation to alter the drug-delivery characteristics. Available data indicate that ingestion (with or without manipulation of the prescribed formulation) is the most prevalent route of abuse, followed by inhalation (snorting, smoking and vaping) and injection. However, reported routes of abuse vary considerably between different formulations. A number of factors have been identified that appear to be associated with non-oral routes of abuse, including a longer duration of abuse, younger age, male sex and a rural or socially deprived location. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics is an important step toward reducing abuse of these medications. Available abuse-deterrent formulations aim to hinder extraction of the active ingredient, prevent administration through alternative routes and/or make abuse of the manipulated product less attractive, less rewarding or even aversive. There are currently five opioid analgesics with a Food and Drug Administration abuse-deterrent label, and a number of other products are under review. A growing body of evidence suggests that introduction of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics in the USA has been associated with decreased rates of abuse of these formulations. The availability of abuse-deterrent formulations therefore appears to represent an important step toward curbing the epidemic of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics, while ensuring the availability of effective pain medications for patients with legitimate medical need.

  15. Preventing Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvy, Kerby T.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…

  16. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci, S. Erhan; Açık, Yasemin

    2003-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors.

  17. Drug and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are common in later life. The Most Common Types of Drug and Substance Abuse Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications Abuse Among ... older population than in younger people. But, other types of substance abuse, such as inappropriate use of prescription and over- ...

  18. Child Sexual Abuse, Links to Later Sexual Exploitation/High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Prevention/Treatment Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide numbe...

  19. Young Victims Telling their Stories of Sexual Abuse in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mona; Gary, Faye A; Hotz, Renee; Killion, Cheryl; Vicken, Totten

    2015-01-01

    Among young children, child sexual abuse is a common type of maltreatment. Child sexual abuse (CSA) is an important national public health problem that has a devastating impact on the emotional and psychological makeup of the child, family, and society. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the young victim's own stories of disclosure of child sexual abuse and is an exploratory case study using reported assault histories of victims of CSA between the ages of 6 and 14, taken in the immediate wake of the assault. The data were extracted from the hospital records of child victims treated in an emergency department between 2006 and 2010. This qualitative research, using thematic analysis, explored the stories of sexual abuse for children as told by them. Two themes emerged regarding the experience of sex abuse and the immediate outcomes on the children: (1) Abuse Circumstances, which included the child's level of awareness of child sexual abuse, predisposing factors, and the perpetrator's preparation (physical, behavioral, and verbal tactics), and (2) Physical/Psychological Suffering associated with disclosure. These have important implications for all service and health care providers.

  20. CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE AMONG JUNIOR COLLEG E STUDENTS OF RURAL MAHARASHTRA , INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkar S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a serious problem globally. Approximately 150 million girls and 73 million boys are being victimized for sexual abuse. Disclosure by the children and reporting by the parents regarding exposure to sexual violence found to be poor. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The cu rrent study is aimed to find the magnitude of childhood sexual abuse among junior college male students and the various types of sexual abuse experienced. METHODOLOGY: TYPE OF STUDY: Descriptive Cross sectional study . STUDY SETTING: Junior college of Rural Malkapur Maharashtra . STUDY SUBJECTS: Male students enrolled in Junior college during year 2012 to 2013 . RESULTS: It was found that more than half of male junior college students were the victims of verbal sexual assault. Threatening by the abuser and fe ar and poor knowledge associated with the assault leads to poor disclosure and poor identification of victims and perpetrators. CONCLUSION: Awareness program on child sexual abuse for students, teachers and parents must be adopted to prevent assault and to identify victims of child sexual abuse

  1. The Role of Theory in Explaining Motivation for Corporate Social Disclosures: Voluntary Disclosures vs ‘Solicited’ Disclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra van der Laan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social disclosures (CSD are primarily voluntary in nature and subsequently provide an area forresearch into motivational aspects of disclosures. The main focus of prior research has been whethercorporate social disclosures constitute a discharge of accountability or are part of a process of legitimation.Prior research, however, ignores the emergence of an alternate style of corporate social disclosure, the‘solicited’ disclosure. Increasingly companies are requested to report on their interactions with society invarious forms. Non-government organisations (NGOs, regulatory agencies, ethical or socially responsibleinvestment fund managers and other researchers are requesting social information from corporations. Thisshift from voluntary information provision to demanded information can be viewed as a natural consequenceof the increasing pressures on corporations to be ‘responsible’, particularly in light of intensified world wideattention on unethical corporate behaviour and corporate collapse. These contemporary variants of socialdisclosure are worthy of scrutiny when considering these ‘solicited’ disclosures potentially reduce acorporation’s power in defining the scope and nature of disclosures. Two theories, which are similar andderived from the broader political economy perspective, are commonly offered as explanations of motivationsfor social disclosures. Stakeholder theory offers an explanation of accountability to stakeholders. Legitimacytheory, on the other hand, suggests voluntary disclosures are part of a process of legitimation. This paperargues that these theoretical perspectives may provide greater insights into managerial motivation fordisclosure if they are linked more explicitly to the nature of corporate social disclosure under examination:voluntary or solicited.

  2. Home health agencies: targets of anti-fraud and abuse investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, C

    1995-08-01

    Increased health care fraud and abuse investigations could result in home health agencies, and other targets, becoming politically acceptable casualties of war in the battle to balance the federal budget. To protect themselves, home health agencies would be well advised to conduct internal fraud and abuse audits on an annual basis and to develop corporate compliance plans (see Newsletter, Vol. 9, No. 7, July 1994, at 16, and next month's issue, which will discuss corporate compliance programs as well as the OIG's new voluntary disclosure program). In addition, purchasers of home health agencies should be especially vigilant of fraud and abuse problems during the due diligence phase of the acquisition and, if problems are discovered, should consider whether voluntary disclosure to the OIG and settlement of any resulting claims is an appropriate condition of closing.

  3. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  4. Child Abuse in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area i...

  5. 5 CFR 297.403 - Accounting of disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting of disclosure. 297.403 Section... PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS Disclosure of Records § 297.403 Accounting of disclosure. (a) The Office or..., agency, or other entity to whom the disclosure is made. (c) Except for the accounting of disclosure...

  6. 44 CFR 6.22 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting of disclosures. 6... Accounting of disclosures. (a) Except for disclosures made pursuant to § 6.20 (a) and (b), an accurate accounting of each disclosure shall be made and retained for 5 years after the disclosure or for the life...

  7. Protecting children in research: Safer ways to research with children who may be experiencing violence or abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Julie; Anderson, Anna; Randall, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Children participating in research, like other children, may be being maltreated. There is also potential for exposure to abuse during research. Research training, practices and protocols to respond to disclosure and discovery of abuse to protect both researchers and children may not be sufficiently robust. Our aim was to compare and contrast research practices reported in the literature related to protecting children and to recommend safer ways to conduct research. The simultaneous increase ...

  8. Compliance with Segment Disclosure Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Anil; Frimor, Hans; Mittendorf, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory oversight of capital markets has intensified in recent years, with a particular emphasis on expanding financial transparency. A notable instance is efforts by the Financial Accounting Standards Board that push firms to identify and report performance of individual business units...... (segments). This paper seeks to address short-run and long-run consequences of stringent enforcement of and uniform compliance with these segment disclosure standards. To do so, we develop a parsimonious model wherein a regulatory agency promulgates disclosure standards and either permits voluntary...... compliance or mandates strict compliance from firms. Under voluntary compliance, a firm is able to credibly withhold individual segment information from its competitors by disclosing data only at the aggregate firm level. Consistent with regulatory hopes, we show that mandatory compliance enhances welfare...

  9. Body disclosure and self-disclosure--relating two modes of interpersonal encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, S A

    1977-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between body-disclosure and self-disclosure. The author drew upon current research in self-disclosure and body image and hypothesized that self-disclosure and body-disclosure would be directly related. Ss who volunteered for the experiment were matched for sex, past disclosure, and willingness to disclose to someone of the opposite sex. A social nudity experience was provided for one group, an outing day was provided for the second group, and a third group recieved no treatment. Testing included a tape recorded self-disclosure dialogue and ratings of self- and body attitudes. Finally, the Ss were asked to write their subjective "experience of the experiment." Ss who had undergone a body-disclosure experience disclosed more to each other than did Ss in the other groups. Ss also tended to like themselves better after the social nudity experience. Furthermore, they described the body-disclosing day as a peak experience. PMID:925176

  10. HIV disclosure in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Degroote, S.; Vogelaers, D.; Koeck, R.; Borms, R.; De Meulemeester, L.; Vandijck, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: As HIV is currently a chronic and manageable disease, an increasing amount of people living with HIV (PLHIV) are (again) active on the labour market. Since research on this topic is scarce, this study aimed to explore experiences of PLHIV in the workplace, especially concerning disclosure and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and validated in collaboration with Sensoa (Flemish expertise centre for sexual health) and participants were recru...

  11. Disclosure of stress test results

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Should regulatory bank examinations be made public? Regulators have argued that the confidentiality of the examination process promotes frank exchanges between bankers and examiners and that public disclosure of examination results could have a chilling effect. I examine the tradeoffs in a world in which examination results can be kept confidential, but regulatory interventions are observable by market participants, as they typically are for stress tests. Inducing banks to communicate truthfu...

  12. Steroid abuse in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honour, J W

    1997-06-01

    Drug abuse in sport attracts considerable media and public interest, particularly around the time of major international events such as the Olympic Games. From a scientific viewpoint the benefits of drugs to sportspersons have been difficult to address. In the case of steroids, the experiments required for proof, particularly in women, are unethical. Drug testing is an expensive mechanism for deterrence, but there are areas in the scenario where validation data are lacking and improvements to the procedures are needed. Testing standards for women cannot be based on results from tests in men, and regulations need revision to take account of new data. PMID:9263702

  13. Disclosure of executive remuneration in large banks

    OpenAIRE

    Schott, Max

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this thesis analyzes and quantifies the magnitude of executive remuneration disclosure of the world?s 245 largest exchange-listed banks, using annual reports as the primary source of information, and the diverse disclosure rules in the 31 countries in which these banks are domiciled. Descriptive statistics suggests that banks located in common law countries have higher (more than three times in terms of the quantifying proxy) disclosure compared to banks in civil law countri...

  14. 22 CFR 1003.1 - General policies, conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions. 1003.1 Section 1003.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN... disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions. (a) The Inter-American Foundation will... only where an important public policy need for such exemption has been determined pursuant to...

  15. 5 CFR 2100.10 - Conditions of disclosure and accounting of certain disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions of disclosure and accounting... ARMED FORCES RETIREMENT HOME PRIVACY ACT PROCEDURES § 2100.10 Conditions of disclosure and accounting of... Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, unless when such disclosure is: (a) To those officers and employees...

  16. The Effects of Similarity and Actual Levels of Self-Disclosure and Self-Disclosure Flexibility on Perceptions of Interpersonal Attraction and Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winum, Paul C.; Banikiotes, Paul G.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated how individuals perceive others who systematically vary in both level of disclosure and disclosure flexibility. Subjects were 52 students rated high or low in self-disclosure and disclosure flexibility. Found a similarity effect for disclosure flexibility and highest ratings for medium-high disclosure and high disclosure flexibility…

  17. Maltreated and abused children

    OpenAIRE

    HOUFOVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    According to the statistics there are forty thousand of battered and abused children in the Czech Republic. Maltreatment and abuse are not revealed in most cases and thus they accompany the children during their whole childhood. The reason is that children cannot defend themselves. The maltreatment or the abuse of a child is revealed only if somebody from the child?s neighbourhood observes anything suspicious and decides to report it, which is both a moral and a legal obligation. A person, wh...

  18. Causes of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    S. Erhan Deveci; Yasemin Acik

    2003-01-01

    Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000): 396-405

  19. Causes of Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Erhan Deveci

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is an important public health problem that is present almost in every society and environment at different level and intensities. For implementation of child abuse protection measures it is necessary to investigate its causes. In this review, causes of child abuse was attempted to investigate with respects to the society and institution, family and individual and child related factors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 396-405

  20. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-01-01

    Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguis...

  1. Child Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    HROBAŘOVÁ, Petra

    2008-01-01

    My thesis deals with the problems of sexual abuse of children. It is divided into nine chapters, each of which has a subhead. In the first part, I focused on the term of child sexual abuse. In the second part, I focused on the problem of sexual abuse of children by family members. In the third part, I explained the term of commercial sexual violence committed against children. In the fourth part, I focused on the victims of sexual abuse and in the following part, I focused on the perpetrators...

  2. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano Rubeena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  3. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  4. Substance Abuse in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DrugFacts » Substance Abuse in the Military DrugFacts: Substance Abuse in the Military Email Facebook Twitter Revised March ... alcohol and tobacco use, and especially prescription drug abuse, are much more prevalent and are on the ...

  5. Iranian EFL teachers' perceptions of teacher self-disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teacher self-disclosure (TSD as a communication behavior can influence students' learning by increasing their engagement and class participation as well as helping them establish effective interpersonal relationships. Owning to its context-sensitive and culture-dependent nature, however, TSD topics, purposes, and considerations may vary cross-culturally. This study was an attempt to explore Iranian EFL teachers' perceptions of appropriateness of TSD as well as to investigate whether there was a significant difference between male and female teachers' perceptions of appropriateness of TSD. To this end, the Appropriateness of Teacher Self-Disclosure Scale was distributed among 68 Iranian EFL teachers (34 females and 34 males from six language institutes. The results of the study indicated the extent to which the Iranian EFL teachers perceived TSD topics, purposes, and considerations to be appropriate or inappropriate. Furthermore, the study found convergence and divergence between male and female teachers' perceptions in terms of the topics used in TSD, the purposes TSD serves in classroom, and considerations the teachers take into account when practicing TSD. The results of the study suggest that Iranian EFL teachers can practice TSD as a pedagogical tool to enhance learning although they should be wary of its consequences in some aspects as TSD is contingent upon context and culture.

  6. Perspectives on clinical trial data transparency and disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Demissie; Anziano, Richard J; Levenstein, Marcia

    2014-09-01

    The increased demand for transparency and disclosure of data from clinical trials sponsored by pharmaceutical companies poses considerable challenges and opportunities from a statistical perspective. A central issue is the need to protect patient privacy and adhere to Good Clinical and Statistical Practices, while ensuring access to patient-level data from clinical trials to the wider research community. This paper offers options to navigate this dilemma and balance competing priorities, with emphasis on the role of good clinical and statistical practices as proven safeguards for scientific integrity, the importance of adopting best practices for reporting of data from secondary analyses, and the need for optimal collaboration among stakeholders to facilitate data sharing.

  7. Abuse deterrent formulations and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Frank L

    2006-06-01

    The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) has reduced the diversion of controlled substances at the manufacturing and distribution levels. Recent increased diversion has occurred at the retail level. Levels of diversion and abuse of controlled substances with similar abuse potential and therapeutic indications often parallel availability for medical use, while rates of diversion and abuse may be influenced by factors related to specific products, including their formulations and risk management plans. Abuse deterrent formulations may reduce abuse and attendant adverse health consequences even if the products are diverted. Their development should consider how, to what extent and by whom products containing the targeted substance are abused. It should take into consideration all potential types of abuse including "as is", multiple doses, alternate routes of administration, physical or chemical separation of the active ingredient, compromised extended release mechanisms and abuse in combination with other substances. Industry incentives for developing abuse-resistant formulations include enhanced corporate image and potentially less restrictive scheduling or risk management plans. Scheduling is substance specific, but the CSA includes products/formulations that are differentially scheduled. Issues to be considered for differential scheduling under the CSA include: (1) whether there is legal authority to do so; (2) application of standard scheduling criteria to individual products; (3) product specific data for "eight factor analyses"; (4) development of predictive data and standards accepted by the scientific and regulatory communities; (5) use of predictive data or post marketing surveillance data; (6) international treaty obligations. These issues must be addressed before differential scheduling can be considered.

  8. Bioethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Lawson, Erma; Macdonald, Arlene; Temple, Jeff R; Phelps, John Y

    2014-11-01

    The clinical literature notes that pregnancy has become an expected benefit of solid organ transplant. Establishing "best practices" in the management of this particular transplant population requires careful consideration of the ethical dimensions, broadly speaking, of posttransplant pregnancies and these women's lived experiences. In this article, we present the current clinical and social science posttransplant pregnancy research. We specifically address the psychosocial and ethical issues surrounding preconception counseling and posttransplant health quality of life and mothering and suggest areas for future research. PMID:25151472

  9. 7 CFR 400.409 - Unauthorized disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized disclosure. 400.409 Section 400.409... Unauthorized disclosure. Anyone having access to the records identifying a participant's SSN or EIN will abide... section 6109(f), Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 6109(f) and the Privacy Act of 1974 (5...

  10. 16 CFR 259.2 - Advertising disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advertised. Fuel economy estimates assigned to “unique nameplates” (see 40 CFR 600.207-86(a)(2)) apply only... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising disclosures. 259.2 Section 259.2... ADVERTISING FOR NEW AUTOMOBILES § 259.2 Advertising disclosures. (a) No manufacturer or dealer shall make...

  11. 48 CFR 9903.202 - Disclosure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Program Requirements 9903.202 Disclosure requirements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure requirements. 9903.202 Section 9903.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS...

  12. 16 CFR 432.4 - Optional disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional disclosures. 432.4 Section 432.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.4 Optional disclosures. Other operating characteristics...

  13. 16 CFR 432.5 - Prohibited disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited disclosures. 432.5 Section 432.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.5 Prohibited disclosures. No performance characteristics...

  14. Self-Determination and Disclosure. Cutting Edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Ann

    2001-01-01

    The disclosure provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act raise issues for persons with hidden disabilities in the workplace and classroom regarding if, when, and how much to disclose. Educators should prepare students to address the disclosure issue and secure the accommodations they need. (SK)

  15. 16 CFR 432.2 - Required disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required disclosures. 432.2 Section 432.2... UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.2 Required disclosures. (a) Whenever any direct or indirect... frequency response, in Hertz (Hz), for the rated power output required to be disclosed in paragraph (a)...

  16. Self -Disclosure through Sharing with the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    Self-disclosure is a rather difficult skill for both the counselor and the counselee in the psychological counseling process. In this study, the self-disclosure skill, which is an important concept in psychological counseling, and sharing with the public, i.e. with other people, will be studied. The data for the study, which is of a qualitative…

  17. HIV-positive parents, HIV-positive children, and HIV-negative children’s perspectives on disclosure of a parent’s and child’s illness in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Gachanja

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV disclosure from parent to child is complex and challenging to HIV-positive parents and healthcare professionals. The purpose of the study was to understand the lived experiences of HIV-positive parents and their children during the disclosure process in Kenya. Sixteen HIV-positive parents, seven HIV-positive children, and five HIV-negative children completed semistructured, in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the Van Kaam method; NVivo 8 software was used to assist data analysis. We present data on the process of disclosure based on how participants recommended full disclosure be approached to HIV-positive and negative children. Participants recommended disclosure as a process starting at five years with full disclosure delivered at 10 years when the child was capable of understanding the illness, or by 14 years when the child was mature enough to receive the news if full disclosure had not been conducted earlier. Important considerations at the time of full disclosure included the parent’s and/or child’s health statuses, number of infected family members’ illnesses to be disclosed to the child, child’s maturity and understanding level, and the person best suited to deliver full disclosure to the child. The results also revealed it was important to address important life events such as taking a national school examination during disclosure planning and delivery. Recommendations are made for inclusion into HIV disclosure guidelines, manuals, and programs in resource-poor nations with high HIV prevalence.

  18. Modeling veterans healthcare administration disclosure processes :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyeler, Walter E; DeMenno, Mercy B.; Finley, Patrick D.

    2013-09-01

    As with other large healthcare organizations, medical adverse events at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities can expose patients to unforeseen negative risks. VHA leadership recognizes that properly handled disclosure of adverse events can minimize potential harm to patients and negative consequences for the effective functioning of the organization. The work documented here seeks to help improve the disclosure process by situating it within the broader theoretical framework of issues management, and to identify opportunities for process improvement through modeling disclosure and reactions to disclosure. The computational model will allow a variety of disclosure actions to be tested across a range of incident scenarios. Our conceptual model will be refined in collaboration with domain experts, especially by continuing to draw on insights from VA Study of the Communication of Adverse Large-Scale Events (SCALE) project researchers.

  19. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... example, by a friend, neighbor, child care person, teacher, or stranger. When sexual abuse has occurred, a child can develop many distressing ... t tell children to 'always do everything the teacher or baby-sitter tells you to ... of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. ...

  20. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  1. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  2. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n = 17...

  3. Typological and Integrative Models of Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demidova L.Y.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the basic typological and integrative theoretical models that explain the occurrence of child sexual abuse and the differences detected among the perpetrators of crimes against sexual integrity of minors. A comprehensive review of the theoretical concepts of sexual abuse in our country, in fact has not been carried out, and in this paper for the first time we made such an attempt. It is shown that the existing notions of sexual abuse largely overlap each other, but each of the models somehow takes into account the factors not explicitly addressed in other concepts. Systematic consideration of the theoretical models of sexual abuse can generalize and systematize the available data on the mechanisms of pedophile behavior. This review provides an opportunity to develop a new benchmark in the study of sexual abuse, get closer to building the most accurate and comprehensive model. In turn, this may contribute to solving the questions about the factors, dynamics, and the prevention of criminal sexual conduct against children

  4. Irish child sexual abuse victims attending a specialist centre

    OpenAIRE

    O'Riordan, Beth; Carr, Alan.; Turner, Rhonda

    2003-01-01

    We profiled a cohort of CSA cases referred for assessment to a specialist child sexual abuse (CSA) centre in a national paediatric hospital in Ireland. Historical and clinical data were drawn from records of 171 cases. The majority of cases were referred by social workers following purposeful disclosure of CSA. Three quarters of the cases were female with a mean age of 9 years. They were from a wide spectrum of socioeconomic groups and many had suffered a range of family adversities. In most ...

  5. Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M

    2008-12-01

    Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased. PMID:18355799

  6. 28 CFR 802.20 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounting of disclosures. 802.20 Section... COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 802.20 Accounting of disclosures. (a) We will provide an accounting of all disclosures of a record for five years or until the record is destroyed, whichever...

  7. 41 CFR 51-9.202 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accounting of disclosures... RULES 9.2-Disclosure of Records § 51-9.202 Accounting of disclosures. (a) Except for disclosures made pursuant to paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 51-9.201 of this part, an accurate accounting of each...

  8. 20 CFR 401.80 - Accounting for disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... entity to whom the disclosure is made. (c) You may request access to an accounting of disclosures of your... an accounting of a disclosure of a record made under paragraph (g) of § 401.110. ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for disclosures. 401.80...

  9. 5 CFR 2100.12 - Accounting of disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting of disclosure. 2100.12 Section... PROCEDURES § 2100.12 Accounting of disclosure. (a) The AFRH or agency will maintain a record of disclosures... made. (c) Except for the accounting of disclosure made to agencies, individuals, or entities in...

  10. 10 CFR 1008.18 - Accounting for disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for disclosures. 1008.18 Section 1008.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) Disclosure to Third Parties § 1008.18 Accounting for disclosures. (a) For each disclosure of information contained in a...

  11. The risks of partner violence following HIV status disclosure, and health service responses: narratives of women attending reproductive health services in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Colombini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For many women living with HIV (WLWH, the disclosure of positive status can lead to either an extension of former violence or new conflict specifically associated with HIV status disclosure. This study aims to explore the following about WLWH: 1. the women's experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV risks following disclosure to their partners; 2. an analysis of the women's views on the role of health providers in preventing and addressing IPV, especially following HIV disclosure. Methods: Thirty qualitative interviews were conducted with purposively selected WLWH attending clinics in Kenya. Data were coded using NVivo 9 and analyzed thematically. Results: Nearly one third of the respondents reported experiencing physical and/or emotional violence inflicted by their partners following the sero-disclosure, suggesting that HIV status disclosure can be a period of heightened risk for partner stigma and abuse, and financial withdrawal, and thus should be handled with caution. Sero-concordance was protective for emotional and verbal abuse once the partner knew his positive status, or knew the woman knew his status. Our results show acceptance of the role of the health services in helping prevent and reduce anticipated fear of partner stigma and violence as barriers to HIV disclosure. Some of the approaches suggested by our respondents included couple counselling, separate counselling sessions for men, and facilitated disclosure. The women's narratives illustrate the importance of integrating discussions on risks for partner violence and fear of disclosure into HIV counselling and testing, helping women develop communication skills in how to disclose their status, and reducing fear about marital separation and break-up. Women in our study also confirmed the key role of preventive health services in reducing blame for HIV transmission and raising awareness on HIV as a chronic disease. However, several women reported receiving no

  12. Invisible Abuse: Utah's Response to Emotional Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sirrine, Janae

    2010-01-01

    The very nature of emotional child abuse makes it difficult to detect and report. Nevertheless, scholars and professionals in the field of child welfare have identified emotional abuse as being equally detrimental to children as physical abuse and neglect. Many states, including Utah, have unclear definitions of emotional child abuse. The purpose of this study is to interpret how Utah has used its statute on emotional abuse in the court system and whether the current definition of emotional c...

  13. Educators, Schools, and Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Diane D.

    The booklet provides an overview on the school-related issues involved in child abuse and neglect. Definitions, causes, and effects of abuse and neglect are reviewed in the first chapter; guidelines for identifying physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment are offered in chapter 2. Aspects of reporting abuse are noted as are…

  14. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  15. When Caregivers Sexually Abuse Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Fred

    1998-01-01

    A veteran child therapist reflects on the distressing problem of adults who sexually violate children and youth in their care. Discusses changes in society that may be the cause of increased child sexual abuse. Offers three "truths" concerning child sexual abuse. Presents the account of an abuser and discusses what happens when an abuser is…

  16. Child Abuse and Other Traumatic Experiences, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Health Problems in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Duncan B.; Thatcher, Dawn L.; Martin, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We prospectively examined the health effects of child abuse and other traumatic events, with objective health indicators and consideration of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods Adolescents (n = 668) were recruited from clinical and community sources. At baseline, we examined child abuse and other traumas, AUD, health-related symptoms, physical findings, and blood assays. Subjects were assigned to Trauma Classes (TC), including witnessing violence, physical abuse, and sexual abuse....

  17. Child sexual abuse and mandatory reporting intervention preservice content preferred by student teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D G; Grimbeek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The importance of preservice university teacher training about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting intervention is addressed in educational literature, although very little is known about student teachers' learning interests and preferences in this area. In this article, student teachers refer to students in university who are training to become teachers whose training includes teaching experiences in schools. This study examines the content about child sexual abuse and its intervention that student teachers believe they should learn. Results based on quantitative analyses show the relative importance of gender in determining responses to questions about university training and, to a lesser extent, the importance of a previous acquaintance with victims of sexual abuse, previous employment, and the length of the university course. Results based on qualitative data show that content knowledge preferred by elementary/primary and secondary school student teachers includes the teacher's role in mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse and signs, experiences, and responses to student disclosure. Student teachers prefer content examples of school professionals' responses and procedures after disclosure and prefer direct learning content from intervening school professionals. These outcomes could usefully guide teachers and educators who design intervention curricula on child sexual abuse for preservice teachers.

  18. Child sexual abuse and mandatory reporting intervention preservice content preferred by student teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D G; Grimbeek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The importance of preservice university teacher training about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting intervention is addressed in educational literature, although very little is known about student teachers' learning interests and preferences in this area. In this article, student teachers refer to students in university who are training to become teachers whose training includes teaching experiences in schools. This study examines the content about child sexual abuse and its intervention that student teachers believe they should learn. Results based on quantitative analyses show the relative importance of gender in determining responses to questions about university training and, to a lesser extent, the importance of a previous acquaintance with victims of sexual abuse, previous employment, and the length of the university course. Results based on qualitative data show that content knowledge preferred by elementary/primary and secondary school student teachers includes the teacher's role in mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse and signs, experiences, and responses to student disclosure. Student teachers prefer content examples of school professionals' responses and procedures after disclosure and prefer direct learning content from intervening school professionals. These outcomes could usefully guide teachers and educators who design intervention curricula on child sexual abuse for preservice teachers. PMID:24393087

  19. Infantile abuse: Radiological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Araujo Reyes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Infantile abuse is a frequent problem, that must be suspected to bediagnosed, the children victims of infantile abuse can present anytype of injury, nevertheless there are associated injuries common toan inferred trauma that constitute radiological patterns highly specific for abuse, among them are the metafisial injuries, posterior costal fractures and first costal arc fractures, fractures of the toracolumbar region, fractures without apparent explanation, fractures in different stage of evolution, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenquimatose contusion and diffuse axonal injury, which combined with the history of the trauma, the age, the development of mental abilities, as well as the mechanism guides the injury diagnose.

  20. Sexual identity group differences in child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvy, Lisa M; Hughes, Tonda L; Kristjanson, Arlinda F; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2013-07-01

    Childhood abuse and neglect are pervasive problems among girls and young women that have numerous health consequences. Research suggests that sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and neglect, but little is known about which sexual minority women are at greatest risk for these early adverse experiences. Using data from a pooled sample of women in a national probability study and in a large community-based study of sexual minority women designed to replicate the national study's methodology (pooled n = 953), we investigated rates and characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect among women from five sexual identity groups. As predicted, heterosexual women reported significantly less childhood abuse and neglect than did women who identified as mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, or lesbian. We found considerable variability across the sexual minority subgroups, including severity of abuse, highlighting the need for research that distinguishes among these groups. To the extent that differences reported by women in the sample reflect the actual prevalence and severity of abuse experiences, sexual identity group differences in childhood abuse have important clinical and public health implications.

  1. Exploring the Impact of Childhood Abuse on HIV Social and Attitudinal Factors Among Adults With and Without this History in Sub-Saharan Africa: Findings from NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda; Makusha, Tawanda; Komárek, Arnošt; Daniels, Joseph; Coates, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Using data from four sites in three African countries, this community randomized study examined the association between childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA and/or CPA) and HIV disclosure, HIV-related stigma, stress, and social support among adults with and without a history of abuse. A history of abuse among men was associated with higher levels of adult-reported stress and HIV-related stigma, and with significantly lower rates of HIV test result disclosure to current partners. Women with a history of CSA and/or CPA had significantly higher perceived stigma, discrimination and stress. Although childhood abuse was significantly associated with adult stress and stigmatization, participants with histories of CSA and/or CPA also reported significantly higher perceived social support compared to people without such experiences. These findings may reflect support received in response to disclosure of CSA or CPA or emotional ambivalence in relationships that have been found to be associated with child abuse. We conclude that it is critical for HIV prevention interventions to advocate for the primary prevention of child abuse, for early identification of adolescents and adults who report experiencing childhood abuse, and to address stigma and stress-related attitudinal, behavioral and relationship difficulties experiences as an aftermath of early abuse that increase their risk of HIV. PMID:26271817

  2. Enterprise risk management and disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Farcane

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our paper deals with aspects regarding risk and uncertainty. Many risk management methods are today implemented in organizations. This perspective reveals that managers are linked in different forms to the activities they are managing, depending on the conditions and levels of uncertainty they are in. Actually, these multiple levels of uncertainty lead to the conclusion that any situation in an organizational system can be classified in two different models of organizational phenomena: the organizational phenomena that are putting managers and stakeholders in conditions of risk and the organizational phenomena that are putting them in condition of uncertainty. Using content analyze in this paper we survey the disclosure level of risk management information in the annual report of top Romanian listed companies.

  3. Children, contact and domestic abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the issue of children’s contact with non-resident parents has been increasingly debated. The policy gaze has focused on contested contact when there are allegations of domestic abuse. Some commentators argue that in circumstances of domestic abuse, contact with an abusive father may not be in the ‘best interests’ of the child. To support these claims they point to evidence that domestic abuse adversely affects children, and domestic abuse often continues followi...

  4. Domestic Abuse and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlings, Samantha; Siddique, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of different kinds of domestic abuse (physical violence, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and physical violence while the victim is pregnant) on health outcomes of children born to victims. We use data on approximately 0.6 million children born between 1975 and 2013 across thirty different developing countries to investigate this relationship. Comparing children of abused mothers with otherwise similar children whose mothers were not victims of abuse, we find these childre...

  5. CREATIVE DISCLOSURE: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuzdriorean Dan Dacian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study extends the study conducted by Vladu, Grosanu and Cuzdriorean (2012 and reached similar conclusions. This particular research was conducted with the scope of assessing the impact of: positive bias, persuasive language, creative visual manipulation and performance comparisons over the unsophisticated users of accounting opinion. We have chosen this particular category since retail investors have been identified as relying on the information provided in corporate annual reports for decision making (Wills, 2008. Based on their relative inexperience and limited knowledge of these investors it is plausible that they can be mislead easily comparing to more sophisticated users of accounting information, as financial analysts. The main argument for conducting such a research is the fact that little research was conducted so far and the effects of creative disclosure on investment decision cannot be assessed so far. Based on this, we conducted a laboratory experiment where participants where provided with an informational set of financial data and required to make an investment decision. Our results document that the users perceptions is strongly affected by creative disclosure, contradictory with previous results documented in the literature, that their opinion cannot be influenced since they relay mostly on numerical information and less on the narrative segments of the financial statements. Even if our sample compressed few participants, we consider the results conclusive. A further research can extend the sample and test if our research hypothesis can be validated. Another possible spring of research can deal with the assessing of the opinion of the users of accounting information that are not considered unsophisticated, as financial analysts.

  6. Effects of Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking ...

  7. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking ...

  8. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future therapeutics. PMID:22130115

  9. Drug abuse in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Reardon CL; Creado S

    2014-01-01

    Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines t...

  10. Detecting Medicare Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    David Becker; Daniel Kessler; Mark McClellan

    2004-01-01

    This paper identifies which types of patients and hospitals have abusive Medicare billings that are responsive to law enforcement. For a 20 percent random sample of elderly Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized from 1994-98 with one or more of six illnesses that are prone to abuse, we obtain longitudinal claims data linked with Social Security death records, hospital characteristics, and state/year-level anti-fraud enforcement efforts. We show that increased enforcement leads certain types of t...

  11. Dental care of patients with substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, K

    1999-07-01

    Patients who abuse alcohol, crack, heroin or prescription drugs, are likely to interact with the dental professional. The dentist should therefore be able to identify problems of abuse and provide informed care and referral. Substance abuse should be a consideration in all patients who present with dental trauma and those who present with frequent vague complaints, multiple pain medication allergies, and regimens with multiple narcotic medications. Polydrug use, either prescription or illicit, is also a possibility, and effective treatment requires prompt recognition. Dentists should be alert to drug-seeking behavior within the context of pain management, and because pain severity is an objective experience, each patient must be treated carefully and sensitively. Unrelieved or unremitting pain can be a relapse trigger and therefore adequate pain control is a necessity in the recovering chemically dependent patient. New modalities, such as coanalgesia with low-dose ketamine in the opioid addicted have been shown to work effectively. In the post-dental surgical patient with chemical dependency, agents with less psychoactive activity than their drugs of abuse, such as extended-release morphine (MS Contin) have been tried with variable success. An informed treatment plan includes recognition of substance abuse, appropriate intervention, and referral. This plan may include universal screening, followed by brief interventional therapy for positive patients and in some cases, pharmacological pain control. On discharge from the office, instructions concerning referral to a substance abuse program or, in the case of the patient who may require more immediate treatment, to the emergency department are important. PMID:10516924

  12. Financial Reporting and Supplemental Voluntary Disclosures.

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnoli, Mark; Watts, Susan G.

    2006-01-01

    Using a Verreccia [1983]-type model, we study the optimal voluntary disclosure strategy of a manager with private information that helps the market interpret financial information the firm is required to report. In equilibrium, the manager’s disclosure strategy enhances upward or mitigates downward revisions in the market’s estimate of firm value conditional on the firm’s financial reports. Hence, what the manager discloses (large or small values of her private information) and the probabilit...

  13. Transparency in Central Bank Financial Statement Disclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Sullivan

    2000-01-01

    The IMF's development of the Code of Good Practices on Transparency in Monetary and Financial Policies and the introduction of safeguards assessments have increased emphasis on transparency of the disclosures made in central bank financial statements. This paper, which updates WP/00/186, looks at the disclosure requirements for central banks under International Financial Reporting Standards and provides practical guidance for those responsible for preparing central bank financial statements.

  14. Non-heterosexual disclosure at the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voergård-Olesen, Rikke Karen; Eskerod, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    non-heterosexual women, 34-44 years old, working in Denmark, open (to some degree) about their sexual orientation, and representing more industries and educational backgrounds. Even though the informants claimed openness, significant differences concerning disclosure were identified - across...... to tell my client. Further, the empirical study shows that disclosure takes place in a relationship and it relates to the non-heterosexual and the hetero-sexual’s possibilities for positioning themselves e.g. as professional employee and unprejudiced colleague....

  15. Abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics in the management of chronic noncancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Martin E; Moe, Derek; Bond, Mary; Gasior, Maciej; Malamut, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Misuse, abuse and diversion of prescription opioid analgesics represent a global public health concern. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) of prescription opioid analgesics is an important step toward reducing abuse and diversion of these medications, as well as potentially limiting medical consequences when misused or administered in error. ADFs aim to hinder extraction of the active ingredient, prevent administration through alternative routes and/or make abuse of the manipulated product less attractive, less rewarding or aversive. However, opioid ADFs may still be abused via the intended route of administration by increasing the dose and/or dosing frequency. The science of abuse deterrence and the regulatory landscape are still relatively new and evolving. This paper reviews the current status of opioid ADFs, with particular focus on different approaches that can be used to deter abuse, regulatory considerations and implications for clinical management.

  16. Green electricity: Tracking systems for environmental disclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biewald, B.E.; Ramey, J.A. [Synapse Energy Economics, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    For the first time, electricity consumers in the US are beginning to choose their generation providers. One of the opportunities created by the introduction of retail choice in electricity is the chance for customers to influence the mix of generating resources through their purchasing decisions. Some environmentally aware consumers will want {open_quotes}clean,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}green,{close_quotes} or renewable power. While some suppliers will attempt to differentiate themselves according to their environmental performance, such claims for green electricity can be particularly difficult to verify given the complexity of the interconnected electric system. Because electricity is delivered over an integrated transmission grid and kilowatt-hours at the point of retail sale are indistinguishable from each other; disclosure requires tracking protocols to attribute generation at power plants to sales at the customers` meters. Fortunately, it is possible to implement a workable disclosure system. Some states have already included disclosure requirements in their electric industry restructuring orders and legislation. In this paper, a set of design criteria for an environmental disclosure system are presented along with two methods for disclosure: the company approach and the product approach. In addition, the authors discuss of power pools, data availability issues, and propose a company-based disclosure system using a {open_quotes}wholesale sales first{close_quotes} approach to transaction accounting.

  17. Domestic abuse as a transgressive practice: understanding nurses' responses through the lens of abjection

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Domestic abuse is a worldwide public health issue with long-term health and social consequences. Nurses play a key role in recognising and responding to domestic abuse. Yet there is considerable evidence that their responses are often inappropriate and unhelpful, such as trivialising or ignoring the abuse. Empirical studies have identified several reasons why nurses’ responses are sometimes wanting. These include organisational constraints, e.g. lack of time and privacy; and interpersonal fac...

  18. Officially Reported Characteristics of Spouse Abuse Victims Seeking Assistance in Utah, 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Kevin D.

    1994-01-01

    Spouse abuse is a significant social problem that has recently received considerable attention by family researchers. National studies have estimated the incidence of spouse abuse in the United States, but few studies have been conducted at the state or local level Data were obtained from the Utah Division of Family Services Domestic Violence Client Record (Fonn 741 -S) reporting system. A total of 1,363 primary victims of spouse abuse was identified for the calendar year 1992 It is pos...

  19. Capital Market Implications of Corporate Disclosure: German Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Grüning

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between annual report disclosure, market liquidity, and capital cost for firms registered on the Deutsche Börse. Disclosure is comprehensively measured using the innovative Artificial Intelligence Measurement of Disclosure (AIMD. Results show that annual report disclosure enhances market liquidity by changing investors’ expectations and inducing portfolio adjustments. Trading frictions are negatively associated with disclosure. The study provides evidence for a capital-costreduction effect of disclosure based on the analysis of investors’ return requirements and market values. Altogether, no evidence is found that the information processing at the German capital market is structurally different from other markets.

  20. Ethical, Legal, and Clinical Considerations when Disclosing a High-Risk Syndrome for Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vijay A; Dean, Derek J; Mittal, Jyoti; Saks, Elyn R

    2015-10-01

    There are complex considerations when planning to disclose an attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS) diagnosis. In this review, we evaluate ethical, legal, and clinical perspectives as well as caveats related to full, non- and partial disclosure strategies, discuss societal implications, and provide clinical suggestions. Each of the disclosure strategies is associated with benefits as well as costs/considerations. Full disclosure promotes autonomy, allows for the clearest psychoeducation about additional risk factors, helps to clarify and/or correct previous diagnoses/treatments, facilitates early intervention and bolsters communication between providers but there are important considerations involving heritability, comorbidity, culture, and stigma. Non-disclosure advances nonmaleficence by limiting stigma and stress (which may inadvertently exacerbate the condition), and confusion (related to the rapidly evolving diagnosis) in a sensitive developmental period but is complicated by varying patient preferences and the possibility that, as new treatments without adverse effects become available, the risk with false positives no longer justifies the accompanying loss of autonomy. Partial disclosure balances ethical considerations by focusing on symptoms instead of labels, but evidence that laypersons may interpret this information as a pseudo-diagnosis and that symptoms alone also contribute to stigma limits the efficacy of this approach. In addition, there are notable societal considerations relating to disclosure involving conservatorship, the reach of insurance companies, and discrimination. We advocate a hybrid approach to disclosure and recommend future research aimed at understanding the effects of stigma on clinical course and a renewed focus on those help-seeking cases that do not transition but remain clinically relevant. PMID:25689542

  1. The complexities of elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Rethinking the Routine Provision of Psychotherapy to Children/Adolescents Labeled "Sexually Abused"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellerich, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Whether symptomatic or asymptomatic, children labeled sexually abused are routinely offered treatment at considerable financial cost. One result of this is that mental health professionals are being charged with exploiting the problem of child sexual abuse (CSA). Is the routine provision of psychotherapy for children and adolescents labeled…

  3. Theoretical Perspectives of Male Sexual Abuse: Conceptualization of a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanduros, Terry; Cosentino, Clare E.; Tysinger, P. Dawn; Tysinger, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the traumatic impact that sexual abuse can have on a young male's development by addressing mediating dispositions that can render a child vulnerable to the effects of sexual abuse. Consideration is given to three different theoretical perspectives that are not exclusive to male victims but shed light…

  4. Use of Brief Interventions for Drug Abusing Teenagers within a Middle and High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Ken C.; Leitten, Willa; Wagner, Eric; Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary

    2007-01-01

    Background: Promising and encouraging results have been recently reported on the use of briefer interventions for adolescent drug abusers. Because middle- and high-school-based drug abuse intervention programs have grown in popularity over the past several decades, the use of brief interventions (BIs) in school settings merits consideration.…

  5. Why Do Teachers Choose to Implement or Reject Drug Abuse Prevention Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James Reed; Swanchak, John

    State and local school systems have developed comprehensive drug abuse prevention programs that appear to have little influence on the rising tide of teenage drug abuse. Classroom teachers, as implementors of such programs, frequently veto them or change them considerably. Forty secondary teachers were selected as research subjects to examine this…

  6. Alienation and Domestic Abuse: How Abused Women Cope with Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokach, Ami

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the manner in which abused women cope with loneliness. Eighty women, victims of domestic abuse, were compared to 84 women from the general population who have had no history of abusive relationships. A 34-item yes/no loneliness questionnaire was utilized in order to compare the "beneficial" ways of coping with loneliness in the…

  7. Corporate compliance and voluntary disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, A B

    1995-09-01

    In any event, the decision to institute a corporate compliance program is a relatively simple one. In view of the ambiguity surrounding certain fraud and abuse provisions, and the corporate "death sentence" that may result from program exclusion, a compliance program is always sound corporate policy. To be sure, if the compliance program is administered improperly, it can actually increase the likelihood of whistleblower actions and create a body of potentially hurtful documentation. But these dangers can be minimized by structuring the program to protect the self-evaluative process through relevant privileges. The risks also pale in comparison to the exposure to criminal or exclusionary sanctions when improper conduct goes undetected by an organization.

  8. Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Related Topics » Medical Consequences Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Drug addiction is a brain ... and lung disease can all be affected by drug abuse. Some of these effects occur when drugs are ...

  9. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Update Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  10. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises Quick Links Facts For Families ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  11. Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adolescent Relationship Abuse (ARA) Toolkit provides information and strategies on how to: incorporate abuse prevention into programming; conduct staff...

  12. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  13. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abused and controlling for other adversities. 1 o Victims of child sexual abuse were more likely to report having a psychiatric disorder in the last 12 months, which puts victims at a higher risk of a suicide attempt ...

  15. Substance Abuse and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Drugs and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Abuse and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you ... related topics from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Free Resources for parents and ...

  16. Substance abuse in later life.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Archangelo, E.

    1993-01-01

    Substance abuse affects an appreciable portion of the elderly population. Elderly people have characteristics that could hinder identification, diagnosis, intervention, and treatment of substance abuse. If physicians use strategies specific to the elderly, management is often successful.

  17. Examining Risk Management and Risk Disclosures Practices in UK Public Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Nan

    2008-01-01

    Although the concepts of risk and risk management are not new in literature and managerial practice, it has only draw considerable attention recently. Linsley and Shrives (2006) suggest, "these attention has yet to be reflected in empirical research examining firms' risk reporting practices". This dissertation examines and discusses risk management and risk disclosures practices of fifteen UK listed companies from three different industries, over a period of five years from financial year 200...

  18. Geriatric forensics - Part 2 "Prevalence of elder abuse and their potential forensic markers among medical and dental patients"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurshid A Mattoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This study is a continuation of the earlier studies and has been extended to investigate the potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Aims: To determine the prevalence of elder abuse in various outpatient departments (OPDs. To study the associated parameters related to the abuser and the abused. To determine the existence of potential forensic markers of elder abuse. Settings and Design: The subjects were randomly selected from the medical and the dental OPDs of the university. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and thirty two elderly subjects in the age range 40-60 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine the existence of elder abuse. The subjects were investigated and examined for weight, nutrition and hydration, vital signs, habits, existing visual and auditory capabilities, medications, disclosure of wills/deeds, signs of depression, and documented cleanliness. The mini-mental state examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Clock drawing test, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were used to determine the potential forensic markers. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values in percentage were determined by dividing the number of determined subjects by the total number of subjects for that parameter. Results: About 37% in medical and 41% in dental OPDs were found to have suffered from abuse, mostly in the age group 60-70 years. Females received more abuse and a combination of son and daughter-in-law constituted most abusers. Various potential markers of elder abuse and neglect investigated among the elder abuse victims included depression (89%, signs of improper feeding (83%, changes in personal hygiene (69%, need for medical/dental treatment (78%, medication misuse (67%, changes in wills/deeds (26%, decubiti (10%, bruises (17%, skin tears (27%, and confusion (23%. Conclusions: Elder abuse exists in one or more forms in both medical and dental OPDs among both males and females in all age groups.

  19. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capriola M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Capriola Thomasville Medical Center, Thomasville, NC, USA Abstract: The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. Keywords: designer drugs/chemistry, street drugs/pharmacology, substance-related disorders/epidemiology, alkaloids/poisoning

  20. Substance abuse and criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Motayne, G G

    1992-09-01

    As forensic psychiatry develops as a clinical subspecialty, clinical skill in understanding, treating, and predicting violent behavior will become more important. This article addresses the importance of understanding the relationship between substance abuse and violent behavior. This article also discusses morbidity and mortality in substance abuse, the demographics of substance abuse and criminality, and the clinical aspects of the forensic psychiatric evaluation.

  1. Working with the Abused Camper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca Cowan

    1990-01-01

    Describes forms of and reasons behind child abuse. Describes camp staff's role as reporters of suspected abuse. Describes techniques for identifying and dealing with abuse victims. Recommends offering victims respect, support, advocacy, and unconditional love. Describes steps staff might take to maximize camp's effectiveness in helping abuse…

  2. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  3. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  4. Commentary: Gender, Disability, and Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldson, Edward J.

    1997-01-01

    This commentary discusses the research article "Gender Differences in Abused Children with and without Disabilities" (Sobsey and others) that follows, which found that children with disabilities are at greater risk for being maltreated, that boys are more frequently abused, and that boys with disabilities are sexually abused more frequently than…

  5. 77 FR 67329 - Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection: Agricultural Foreign Investment... collection associated with the Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act (AFIDA) of 1978. DATES: We will... Foreign Investment Disclosure Act (AFIDA) Program Manager, Natural Resources Analysis Group, Economic...

  6. 15 CFR 30.74 - Voluntary self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CBP, ICE, and the OEE of the voluntary disclosure, acknowledge the disclosure by letter, provide the... forth corrective measures required. (3) Refer the matter, if necessary, to the OEE for the...

  7. Explaining Pension Fund Product and Governance Disclosure in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Guo-Sze Tan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fund disclosure is an important communication tool between trustees and fund members for product comparison and credibility verification. We examine what drives Australian not-forprofit superannuation funds to disclose their fund product information to the market. Our research derives a model that shows how the proprietary costs of disclosure and fund governance drive the disclosure of information about trustee, investment agents, fees, and overall practices. The research findings indicate that disclosure costs have a significant negative influence on voluntary disclosure, while board size has a weak positive relation with disclosure. Board independence is an unreliable and insignificant explanatory variable for voluntary disclosure. We discuss how the multi-layer agency relationship and institutional factors in the superannuation funds industry influence the power of these factors and their effects on voluntary disclosure.

  8. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  9. Acute Subdural Hematoma in Infants with Abusive Head Trauma: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    KARIBE, Hiroshi; KAMEYAMA, Motonobu; Hayashi, Toshiaki; NARISAWA, Ayumi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    The number of cases with child abuse is increasing in Japan, and abusive head trauma (AHT) is a major cause of death in abused children. Child abuse has been recognized by the late 19th century, and widely accepted as battered child syndrome in the middle of the 20th century. As terms, there had been considerable mechanistic controversies between shaken-baby and -impact syndrome until the beginning of the 21st century. In recent years, AHT has been utilized as a less mechanistic term. Most of...

  10. Essays on the value of accounting disclosure on capital markets

    OpenAIRE

    Platikanova, Petya

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze how capital markets interpret accounting disclosure. In three empirical studies, I evaluate the role that accounting disclosure plays in evaluating financial prospects and facilitating pricing decisions. The present thesis contains three essays that analyze the market response to changes in accounting disclosure. I examine the relationship between financial disclosure and stock market reaction in three event studies, after: (1) a company's inclusion in...

  11. Medical confidentiality versus disclosure: Ethical and legal dilemmas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, V I O

    2009-02-01

    A case is described of a fifty year old single man who made disclosures about criminal sexual practices during a psychiatric assessment. In common practice with other professional men, a doctor is under a duty not to disclose, without the consent of his patient, information which he has gained in his professional capacity other than in exceptional circumstances. We discuss the ethical and legal considerations surrounding issues of medical confidentiality and the dilemma that sometimes face clinicians, when they feel obliged, in the public interest, to disclose information they have gained in confidence. Breach of confidences can have deleterious consequences; particularly for the doctor-patient relationship, but failure to disclose in some situations could have serious implications for the well-being of the wider society. Doctors should be aware of the basic principles of confidentiality and the ethical and legal framework around which they are built.

  12. Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers: a comparison with drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J A; Mayr, S

    1990-07-01

    Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers were examined with Calsyn, Roszell, and Anderson's (1988) nine-type system for classifying FIRO-B profiles. The frequencies of the nine FIRO-B types among a sample of 135 male veteran alcohol abusers were compared with Calsyn et al.'s (1988) previously published data for a sample of male veteran drug abusers, a normative veteran sample, and a general population sample. The alcohol abusers, like Calsyn et al.'s sample of drug abusers, were more likely to be categorized as "loners," "rebels," and "pessimists" than was the general population sample. While exhibiting preferences for interpersonal types that emphasized social withdrawal, avoidance of responsibility, and mistrust of others, both the alcohol abusers and the drug abusers were heterogeneous groups whose members demonstrated a variety of interpersonal types.

  13. Treatment for Child Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James J.; Clark, Elizabeth H.

    1974-01-01

    Staff of a child abuse program in a Philadelphia hospital worked with parents in their own homes to help them develop greater competence as adults and as parents. This article describes the use of social learning theory, with some techniques of behavior therapy, as the basis for treatment. (Author)

  14. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  15. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; van der Wal, M.F.; Brugman, E.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  16. 25 CFR 700.267 - Disclosure of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Information Act, reasonable efforts shall be made to assure that the records are accurate, complete, timely... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of records. 700.267 Section 700.267 Indians... Privacy Act § 700.267 Disclosure of records. (a) Prohibition of disclosure. No record contained in...

  17. 20 CFR 401.125 - Disclosures prohibited by law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 401.125 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.125 Disclosures prohibited by law. We do not disclose information when a law specifically prohibits it. The Internal Revenue...

  18. 31 CFR 50.12 - Clear and conspicuous disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.12 Clear and conspicuous disclosure. (a... circumstances of the disclosure. See § 50.17 for model forms. (b)(1) Description of premium. An insurer may..., consistent with the definition of an act of terrorism as amended by the Terrorism Risk Insurance...

  19. 22 CFR 308.11 - Accounting for disclosure of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accounting for disclosure of records. 308.11... subsection (b) of the Act. (e) For the purpose of this part, the system of accounting for disclosure is not a system of records under the definitions hereof and no accounting need be maintained for the disclosure...

  20. 22 CFR 1507.5 - Accounting for disclosure of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accounting for disclosure of records. 1507.5... § 1507.5 Accounting for disclosure of records. (a) With respect to each system of records under ADF... life of the record, whichever is longer, after the disclosure for which the accounting is made....

  1. 12 CFR 792.61 - Accounting for disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for disclosures. 792.61 Section 792... Accounting for disclosures. (a) Each system manager identified in the “Notice of Systems of Records” must establish a system of accounting for all disclosures of information or records under the Privacy Act...

  2. 22 CFR 1101.10 - Accounting for disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... address of the person or agency to whom the disclosure was made. Accounting records shall be maintained... Information Act. (d) If an accounting of the disclosure was made, the PA Officer shall inform any person or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Accounting for disclosures. 1101.10 Section...

  3. 12 CFR 792.62 - Requests for accounting for disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requests for accounting for disclosures. 792.62... § 792.62 Requests for accounting for disclosures. At the time of the request for access or correction or at any other time, an individual may request an accounting of disclosures made of the...

  4. 5 CFR 2606.207 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ethics in Government Act, 18 U.S.C. 208(d) and 5 CFR parts 2634 and 2640 of OGE's executive branch... of disclosures for these records. (d) Except for the accounting of a disclosure made under subsection... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting of disclosures....

  5. 48 CFR 9903.303 - Effect of filing Disclosure Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Disclosure Statement. 9903.303 Section 9903.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING... AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Rules and Regulations 9903.303 Effect of filing Disclosure Statement. (a) A disclosure of a cost accounting practice by a contractor does not determine...

  6. 36 CFR 1121.11 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an accurate accounting of— (1) The date, nature and purpose of each disclosure of a record to any... to whom the disclosure is made. (b) This accounting shall be retained for at least five years or the life of the record, whichever is longer, after the disclosure for which the accounting is made; (c)...

  7. 34 CFR 682.205 - Disclosure requirements for lenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... loan to another party and, if it does, that the address and identity of the party to which... section; or (ii) The plain language disclosure approved by the Secretary under paragraph (g) of this... or electronic means. (g) Plain language disclosure. The plain language disclosure text, as...

  8. 12 CFR 998.2 - Registration and periodic disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Registration and periodic disclosures. 998.2 Section 998.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DISCLOSURES REGISTRATION OF FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK EQUITY SECURITIES § 998.2 Registration and periodic disclosures....

  9. 46 CFR 503.62 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting of disclosures. 503.62 Section 503.62... Record of Identifiable Personal Information § 503.62 Accounting of disclosures. (a) The Secretary shall make an accounting of each disclosure of any record contained in a system of records in accordance...

  10. 5 CFR 293.406 - Disclosure of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Performance File System Records § 293.406 Disclosure of records. Disclosure as used here... of official duties. Disclosure of information from this file system shall be made only as permitted..., only under a routine use published by the Office for the system of records covering these...

  11. 40 CFR 350.40 - Disclosure to health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Disclosure of Trade Secret Information to Health Professionals § 350.40 Disclosure to health professionals. (a) Definitions. Medical emergency means any unforeseen condition which a health professional would judge...

  12. 45 CFR 503.4 - Accounting of certain disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting of certain disclosures. 503.4 Section... SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.4 Accounting of certain disclosures. (a) Except for disclosures under § 503.3(a) and (b) of this part, the Administrative Officer will keep an accurate...

  13. 49 CFR 10.23 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting of disclosures. 10.23 Section 10.23... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.23 Accounting of disclosures. Each operating administration, the... accurate accounting of: (1) The date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure of a record to any person...

  14. 8 CFR 103.30 - Accounting for disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for disclosures. 103.30 Section... DUTIES; AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 103.30 Accounting for disclosures. (a) An accounting of each disclosure of information for which accounting is required (see § 103.24 of this part) shall be attached to...

  15. 31 CFR 1.25 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounting of disclosures. 1.25... Privacy Act § 1.25 Accounting of disclosures. (a) Accounting of certain disclosures. Each component, with respect to each system of records under its control, shall: (1) Keep an accurate accounting of: (i)...

  16. 4 CFR 83.6 - Accounting of certain disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting of certain disclosures. 83.6 Section 83.6... Accounting of certain disclosures. (a) With respect to each system of personnel records, GAO shall, except for disclosures made under §§ 83.4(a) and 83.4(b), keep an accurate accounting of— (1) The...

  17. Drug abuse in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanwela, C; Poshyachinda, V

    1986-01-01

    The article focuses on countries and areas of South-East Asia, which are seriously affected by drug abuse and the problems associated with it. Opium has traditionally been used for treating illnesses and alleviating physical and mental stress, as well as for recreational and social purposes. The prohibition of the sale and use of opium in Burma, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand forced many habitual opium users to switch to heroin. Over the past two decades there has been an increasing trend towards drug use, often involving experimentation with more than one substance, among youth in and out of school. For example, a survey of students at teachers' colleges in northern Thailand showed that at some time in their lives 30-40 per cent of the male respondents and 3-6 per cent of the female respondents had used cannabis, and that 18-20 per cent of the males and 12-27 per cent of the females had sniffed volatile solvents. The same survey showed that 5-10 per cent of both the males and females had used stimulants and nearly 2 per cent had used heroin. During the 1970s the abuse of heroin and other opiates emerged as a serious problem of epidemic nature, predominantly affecting young people in many countries of South-East Asia. While opiates, including heroin, have been abused by inhaling and by smoking, there has recently been an increasing trend towards injecting heroin of high purity (80-90 per cent pure heroin). Heroin addiction spread first to the populations of capital cities and then to other cities and towns and even to the hill tribes, as studies in Thailand have revealed. Most recent studies have shown that heroin abuse has spread further in Asia, both socially and geographically, involving such countries as India and Sri Lanka, which had no previous experience with the problem. Studies have also shown that the abuse of manufactured psychotropic substances has been increasing and that heroin addicts resort to these substances when heroin is difficult

  18. Emotion Regulation in Sexually Abused Preschoolers: The Contribution of Parental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Rachel; Hébert, Martine; Allard-Dansereau, Claire; Bernard-Bonnin, Anne-Claude

    2016-04-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with emotion regulation deficits in childhood. Parents play a crucial role in the development of emotion regulation in their children, especially at younger ages. Close to 50% of mothers of sexually abused children report having been sexually victimized themselves as children. They are consequently at risk of experiencing significant distress following the disclosure of sexual abuse of their child. Parents' distress could interfere with their ability to provide support and to foster development of emotion regulation in their children. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship of parental factors (history of sexual victimization in childhood and the current level of distress) to sexually abused preschoolers' emotion regulation competencies. Emotion regulation was assessed in 153 preschoolers by their parents with the Emotion Regulation Checklist; 75 of these children were abused (14 boys); 78 were not abused (21 boys) and were part of a comparison group. Parents reported their level of distress using the Psychiatric Symptom Index. Results indicated that parental factors contributed to some dimensions of preschoolers' emotion regulation (namely displays of underregulation of emotion) above and beyond children's victimization status and gender (Cohen's ƒ(2) = .15). Identifying parental distress and history of sexual victimization as positively associated with emotional dysregulation in preschool children victims of CSA has important research and clinical implications. PMID:26915665

  19. The disclosure of the diagnosis of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, L J; Pamies, R J

    1992-12-01

    In summary, the consensus today is that full disclosure of the diagnosis of cancer to competent individuals (including children) is morally, ethically, legally, and therapeutically the appropriate policy. Unfortunately, this task is one that most physicians still find awkward, in part because of the continued de-emphasis of "soft" clinical skills in the medical education. Thus, doctors have little opportunity to address their own beliefs and emotions. By being cognizant of clinician unease and using well-described communication skills, however, disclosure can be satisfactorily accomplished. As American health care becomes increasingly ambulatory in nature, primary care physicians will have even more need to hone this skill. PMID:1465481

  20. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  1. Reflective Practice and Supervision in Child Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Barbara; Whitaker, Kate; Traylor, Diane; Yeider, Sheri; Hyden, Vivian C.; Weigand, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The contributors to this article reflect on the process and value of participating together in a monthly reflective supervision group for supervisors in a child abuse prevention program. Some of them joined the group with considerable interest in and experience with reflective supervision. For others this was an entirely new experience that they…

  2. The Comparison of Identity Formation Styles in Teenagers with/without Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frarid Ahmadi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this research was the study of the role of identity formation styles on substance abuse behavior of referred people to addiction withdrawal and DIC centers of Tehran city and its comparison with non addicted people. Method: The research design was causal effect research method, which 100 substance abusers compared with 100 non substance abusers. The sampling method was cluster random sampling and both groups were matched in consideration of age. Bersinesky’s identity making questionnaire administered in two samples. Results: The results showed that substance abusers were scored higher on normative and confused/avoidant identity formation also the non substance abusers were scored higher on information identity formation style. Conclusion: With different kind of intervention-training trials the parents and people who are effective on children’s identity formation can be mobilized, in order to prevention of identity formation styles which can planning teenagers’ substance abusing.

  3. 19 CFR 201.29 - Commission disclosure of individual records, accounting of record disclosures, and requests for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disclosure required by 5 U.S.C. 552, the Privacy Act Officer shall keep an accurate accounting of: (1) The... individual requesting an accounting of disclosure of his or her records should make the request in writing to... and in the letter that it is a Privacy Act request for an accounting of disclosure of records....

  4. Factors Associated with Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence among Women in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Jansson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Though the prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV remains high in less developed countries, data suggest that these figures may represent an underestimation considering that many women are unwilling to disclose abuse. This paper aims to determine women’s willingness to report abuse, factors determining willingness to disclose IPV, and to whom such disclosure is made.Methods:A total of 911 women visiting reproductive health facility responded to the questionnaire, and the collected data was analyzed using multivariate analysis. Results: About 54% (n=443 of the participating women reported that would not disclose IPV. Among those willing to disclose abuse, 68% (n=221 would opt to disclose to close relatives in contrast to 32% (n=103 who would disclose to some form of institutions (i.e. religious leaders, law enforcement officers. Ethnicity, woman’s own use of alcohol and autonomy in decision making such as having a say on household purchases, money use and visitation, independently predicted willingness to disclose IPV. Conclusions:The role of family is still important in the Nigeria context and the implications for research and intervention are discussed.

  5. Problems in Universities' Financial Information Disclosure and Countermeasures%高校财务信息公开所面临的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云; 兰莹

    2012-01-01

    Financial information disclosure in universities is an important component in universities' information disclosure.In this article,the necessity and some problems in universities' financial information disclosure are analyzed.Taking the actual financial situation in universities into consideration,it puts forward some suggestions which aim to improve financial information disclosure.%高校财务公开是高等学校信息公开的重要组成部分,在信息公开中处于重要地位。分析了高校财务信息公开的必要性,存在的问题,以及提出结合各自高校实际,推进财务信息公开的建议。

  6. A Method of Eliminating Information Disclosure in View Publishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guohua; GAO Shihong

    2006-01-01

    Although it is convenient to exchange data by publishing view, but it may disclose sensitive information. The problem of how to eliminate information disclosure becomes a core problem in the view publishing process. In order to eliminate information disclosure, deciding view security algorithm and eliminating information disclosure algorithm are proposed, and the validity of the algorithms are proved by experiment. The experimental results showing, deciding view security algorithm can decide the safety of a set of views under prior knowledge, and eliminating information disclosure algorithm can eliminate disclosure efficiently.

  7. Disclosure of price-sensitive information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Peer; Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    “on its own responsibility” in order not to damage the company’s legitimate interests – cf. on this Article 6(2) of Directive 2003/6/EC, which provides that “An issuer may, on his own responsibility, delay the public disclosure of inside information … so as not to prejudice his legitimate interests...

  8. Voluntary Disclosure Programs for Tax Evaders

    OpenAIRE

    Schmittdiel, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model that can explain why governments may want to choose to offer a voluntary disclosure program that allows people who withheld taxes to turn themselves in without punishment. We find that such a leniency rule not only increases government revenue when it comes as a surprise, but even when taxpayers anticipate it.

  9. 78 FR 60559 - Pay Ratio Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... email to rule-comments@sec.gov . Please include File Number S7-07-13 on the subject line; or Use the..., 100 F Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-1090. All submissions should refer to File Number S7-07-13...) [57 FR 48126]; Executive Compensation Disclosure; Securityholder Lists and Mailing Requests,...

  10. 77 FR 30928 - Target Date Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    .../comments/s7-12-10/s71210-58.pdf . \\5\\ See 77 FR 20749 (April 6, 2012). As the results of this research also... amendments.\\2\\ \\1\\ See 75 FR 73987 (Nov. 30, 2010), proposing to amend the Department's qualified default investment alternative regulation, 72 FR 60452 (Oct. 24, 2007), and participant-level disclosure...

  11. A Note on Quality Disclosure and Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos

    Competitive pressure is lower in markets where goods are more differentiated. I analyze how a change in the degree of horizontal product differentiation affects the incentives of duopolists to disclose quality information. If disclosure is costly, then a firm discloses high qualities but conceals...

  12. The Truth behind Higher Education Disclosure Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kevin; Kelly, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing that higher education is a market driven by consumer choice and reluctant to regulate college behavior directly, state and federal policymakers have created a host of college information disclosure and reporting requirements. Armed with better data, the theory goes, students and parents will vote with their wallets, putting pressure on…

  13. 76 FR 81761 - Mine Safety Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...-9164, 34-63548 (December 15, 2010) [75 FR 80374] (the ``Proposing Release''). \\12\\ Public Law 111-203... existing XBRL rules is to facilitate financial analysis by investors, and therefore asserted that requiring... that the disclosure be tagged in XBRL.\\72\\ \\69\\ See letters from AngloGold, Chevron, Cleary, DGS...

  14. Corporate Risk Disclosure and Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaouthar Lajili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, research which integrates corporate governance and risk management has been limited. Yet, risk exposure and management are increasingly becoming the core function of modern business enterprises in various sectors and industries domestically and globally. Risk identification and management are crucial in any business strategy design and implementation. From the investors’ point of view, knowledge of the risk profile, risk appetite and risk management are key elements in making sound portfolio investment decisions. This paper examines the relationships between corporate governance mechanisms and risk disclosure behavior using a sample of Canadian publicly-traded companies (TSX 230. Results show that Canadian public companies are more likely to disclose risk management information over and above the mandatory risk disclosures, if they are larger in size and if their boards of directors have more independent members. Minority voting control ownership structures appear to negatively impact risk disclosure and CEO incentive compensation shows mixed results. The paper concludes that more research is needed to further assess the impact of various governance mechanisms on corporate risk management and disclosure behavior.

  15. Strategic Disclosure of Demand Information by Duopolists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos; Pollak, Andreas

    . Subsequently, we analyze the firms' behavior in a laboratory experiment. We find that subjects often use selective disclosure strategies, and this finding appears to be robust to changes in the information structure, the mode of competition, and the degree of product-market conduct that is largely consistent...

  16. 75 FR 9100 - Proxy Disclosure Enhancements; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... allows certain wholly-owned subsidiaries to omit the disclosure of shareholder voting results. We also... the Federal Register on December 23, 2009 (74 FR 68334). Specifically, we are correcting Forms 10-Q... following corrections to Release No. 33-9089 (December 16, 2009), which was published in FR Doc....

  17. The many faces of information disclosure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W.A. Boot; A.V. Thakor

    1998-01-01

    In this article we ask: what kind of information and how much of it should firms voluntarily disclose? Three types of disclosures are considered. One is information that complements the information available only to informed investors (to-be-processed complementary information). The second is inform

  18. 28 CFR 80.14 - Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Disclosure. (a) Any document or other material which is provided to, received by, or prepared in the... the identity of the requesting issuer or domestic concern, the identity of the foreign country in... release shall not disclose either the identity of any foreign sales agents or other types of...

  19. 75 FR 9725 - Free Annual File Disclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... maintain the file disclosure for future reference. 74 FR at 52917- 918. Cf. Franchise Rule, 16 CFR 436.6(b... bulk of the advertising for ``free credit reports'' now takes advantage of consumers' general knowledge... - such as `` FreeCreditReport.com '' first.\\11\\ \\10\\ 74 FR 52915 (Oct. 15, 2009). \\11\\ ``...

  20. Some Effects of Similarity Self-Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin C.; Strong, Stanley R.

    1972-01-01

    College males were interviewed about how college had altered their friendships, values, and plans. The interviewers diclosed experiences and feelings similar to those revealed by the students. Results support Byrne's Law of Similarity in generating interpersonal attraction in the interview and suggest that the timing of self-disclosures is…

  1. Intellectual capital disclosure and dividend policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Farooq, Omar

    2015-01-01

    not only have high payout ratios, but also have a greater likelihood of increasing and paying dividends. Our findings are consistent with our hypothesis that lower information asymmetries of firms with high intellectual capital disclosure lead to more favourable dividend policies. In opposition...

  2. Carbon Disclosures: Comparability, the Carbon Disclosure Project and the Greenhouse Gas Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate carbon disclosures have become increasingly commonplace and are often presented as a useful voluntary mechanism for internal and external decision making. The production of the data is said to assistcorporations position themselves strategically in terms of the carbon risks and opportunities they may face. External to the firm, carbon disclosures hold the promise of assisting capital allocation decisions that are ‘carbon responsible’. It is claimed that the process of disclosure can sensitise the market to globalenvironmental problems such as climate change. In order to consider these claims, the broad purpose of this paper is to question whether the voluntary information that is produced can live up to its expectations and provide a meaningful basis for climate change related decision making. To that end, this exploratory studyexamines the carbon disclosures of Australasian mining companies over three years in compliance with a voluntary carbon disclosure regime – the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP – and assesses those disclosureswith respect to comparability, an important criterion for information usefulness.

  3. Interpersonal attraction and rewarding aspects of disclosure content and level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, D M; Banikiotes, P G

    1976-04-01

    The relationship between self-disclosure and interpersonal attraction was viewed within the context of theories of social penetration and social exchange. The effects of similarity of disclosure level and similarity in content of disclosure on interpersonal attraction were assessed. Specifically, 24 high-self-disclosing subjects and 24 low-self-disclosing subjects were presented with four bogus inventories manipulated on the variables of agreement in content and amount of disclosure. The reward potential of various factors within the disclosure process were measured by the subject's attraction to these four hypothetical strangers. Results indicated that along with amount of disclosure, similarity in the content of the disclosed material and similarity between the subject's and another's level of disclosure had a positive influence on attraction. PMID:1271221

  4. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  5. Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Lacher, Simone; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann

    2016-01-01

    PRINCIPLES Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. METHODS Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to...

  6. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD. PMID:27613348

  7. Dental treatment abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalakkal, Paul; Ataide, Ida De Noronha De; Krishnan, Ramesh; Pavaskar, Rajdeep

    2014-07-01

    These case reports highlight dental treatment abuse performed by a quack on children. The anterior teeth of these children were metal capped using cement, which were otherwise healthy. The treatment was done on children without parental consent by a quack from Denmark who gave the reason as for resolving proclination of upper permanent incisors. The unanatomic, unaesthetic metal caps were removed after the child reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. PMID:25177645

  8. Drug abuse in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with "advances" in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  9. Child Abuse and Neglect in Indian Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, M. B.

    Conditions in India that contribute to child abuse and neglect are discussed. Sections focus on child rearing practices, discipline of children at home and in school, the nation's six million abandoned children, child sexual abuse, causes of abuse, poverty, lack of education, characteristics of abused children and their abusers, situational…

  10. Medical Diagnosis of the Sexually Abused Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Jan; Chadwick, David

    1993-01-01

    This article on medical diagnosis of the sexually abused child summarizes clinical research on physical findings in nonabused children, abused children, and abused children with independent confirmation of abuse. A classification of physical findings is proposed along a continuum of certainty that sexual abuse has occurred. (Author/JDD)

  11. Intimacy as an interpersonal process: the importance of self-disclosure, partner disclosure, and perceived partner responsiveness in interpersonal exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenceau, J P; Barrett, L F; Pietromonaco, P R

    1998-05-01

    H. T. Reis and P. Shaver's (1988) interpersonal process model of intimacy suggests that both self-disclosure and partner responsiveness contribute to the experience of intimacy in interactions. Two studies tested this model using an event-contingent diary methodology in which participants provided information immediately after their social interactions over 1 (Study 1) or 2 (Study 2) weeks. For each interaction, participants reported on their self-disclosures, partner disclosures, perceived partner responsiveness, and degree of intimacy experienced in the interaction. Overall, the findings strongly supported the conceptualization of intimacy as a combination of self-disclosure and partner disclosure at the level of individual interactions with partner responsiveness as a partial mediator in this process. Additionally, in Study 2, self-disclosure of emotion emerged as a more important predictor of intimacy than did self-disclosure of facts and information. PMID:9599440

  12. Breaking the cycle of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, B; Jacobvitz, D; Sroufe, L A

    1988-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify variables that distinguish mothers who broke the cycle of abuse from mothers who were abused as children and who also abused their own children. Based on maternal interviews and questionnaires completed over a 64-month period, measures of mothers' past and current relationship experiences, stressful life events, and personality characteristics were obtained. Abused mothers who were able to break the abusive cycle were significantly more likely to have received emotional support from a nonabusive adult during childhood, participated in therapy during any period of their lives, and to have had a nonabusive and more stable, emotionally supportive, and satisfying relationship with a mate. Abused mothers who reenacted their maltreatment with their own children experienced significantly more life stress and were more anxious, dependent, immature, and depressed. PMID:3168615

  13. Drug abuse in Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresanek, Jaroslav; Plackova, Silvia; Caganova, Blazena; Klobusicka, Zora

    2005-01-01

    The drug abusing structure has dramatically changed since 1989. While in 1989 the sniffing of the fluid drugs represented 98% of the global drug abuse, the most abused drugs were: heroin, marijuana, cocaine, amphetamine and its derivatives. During last 10 years situation with drug abuse has changed. Currently the most abused drugs: cannabinoides, amphetamines. The plant drugs (Datura stramonium, hallucinogenic mushrooms Psilocybe semilanceata, nutmeg--the seed of Myristica fragrans) combined with the alcohol are popular among the young abusers. According to an analysis of the phone consultations in our Toxicological Information Centre (TIC) we found out, that the number of intoxications with the plant drugs has increased five times during the last year (comparing with the year 2000), because of their easy availability, low price and quick spreading of information.

  14. Self-Reported Childhood Physical Abuse and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence: The Moderating Role of Psychopathic Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Swogger, Marc T.; Walsh, Zach; Kosson, David S.; Cashman-Brown, Sarah; CAINE, ERIC D.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas considerable evidence links childhood physical abuse with later perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV), research to identify moderators of this relationship will increase our understanding of which victims of childhood abuse are at risk for later IPV. The present study examined dimensions of psychopathy as moderators of the relationship between physical abuse in childhood and perpetration of IPV in a sample of criminal offenders. Results indicated that, among individuals with...

  15. Lead - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... Markowitz M. Lead poisoning. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, ... Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

  16. Child Physical Abuse : Characteristics, Prevalence, Health and Risk‐taking

    OpenAIRE

    Annerbäck, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    The home is supposed to provide support and safety for children but can also be the place where children suffer abuse and other adverse treatment by their parents. Violence against children in homes has been banned in Sweden for more than 30 years but it is still a considerable problem in the society and a threat to public health. The overall aim of this thesis was to create comprehensive knowledge of the phenomenon Child Physical Abuse (CPA) in Sweden after the ban on corporal punishment. Th...

  17. Therapeutic approach to sexual abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Furniss, T; Bingley-Miller, L; Bentovim, A

    1984-01-01

    An account is given of the development of a treatment project for sexually abused children and their families. We review incidence data which indicate that sexual abuse of children is likely to be a far more frequent problem than has been recognised and cause an appreciable degree of psychological damage. Professional responses to this are confused and treatment facilities limited. Sexual abuse is seen as an expression of severe relationship problems in the family and therapeutic provision is...

  18. Child abuse in panic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bonevski Dimitar; Novotni Antoni

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering...

  19. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-01-01

    According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS) is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports and widespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem. Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, ...

  20. Chylothorax associated with child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Sato, Atsuo; Sato, Kodai; Nakamura, Kaori; Kitagawa, Norihiko; Tanoue, Koji; Shiro, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    We report a case of right chylothorax associated with physical abuse in a 10-month-old boy who presented with respiratory decompensation. Chylothorax was improved by thoracic drainage and nutrition management, such as fasting followed by medium-chain triglyceride milk. Chest computed tomography on admission showed bilateral old rib fractures. Accordingly, physical abuse was suspected. Chylothorax of unknown cause in infancy, especially in those with coexisting rib fractures, must be scrutinized for child abuse. PMID:26388541

  1. Early Detection of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Shearman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

  2. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  3. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  4. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  5. Sexual Grooming of Children: Review of Literature and Theoretical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Samantha; Brown, Sarah; Gilchrist, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The current review aims to outline the existing understanding of sexual grooming. Issues of poor definition, the adoption of the term "grooming" and the prevalence of sexual grooming will be discussed. Consideration will be given to how prominent theories of child sexual abuse often neglect sexual grooming. This will be followed by a detailed…

  6. Views of sexual abuse professionals about sex offender notification policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Jill S; Fortney, Timothy; Baker, Juanita N

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the views of 261 sexual abuse professionals regarding sex crime policies. Few participants believe that community notification is very effective in reducing sex offenses, but about half believe that all sex offenders should be subject to public disclosure. About one quarter of respondents opine that sex offenders should not be allowed to live in their communities, but a majority do not view residential housing restrictions for sex offenders as effective at reducing recidivism. Most believe in the helpfulness of therapeutic intervention. More than half say that they will support sex offender policies even without scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Criminal justice professionals are more likely to approve of these laws compared to mental health professionals. Those with more conservative political leanings also favor more restrictive policies. There are few differences attributable to gender, parenting status, or victimization experiences. PMID:19131567

  7. 45 CFR 705.95 - Accounting of the disclosures of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and purpose of the disclosure. (b) No accounting is required for disclosures of records to those... need be maintained for disclosure of the accounting of disclosures. (e) Upon request of an individual... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting of the disclosures of records....

  8. 32 CFR 701.121 - Processing “routine use” disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and maintain a disclosure accounting of the information released. (See § 701.111.) (b) Failure to cite...” disclosures. (a) “Routine use” disclosure. Individuals or organizations may seek a “routine use” disclosure of information from a DON PA system of records if the system provides for such a disclosure. (1) The request...

  9. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and drug abuse Alcohol ... Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites Consequences of the ...

  10. Fostering the Battered and Abused Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    1980-01-01

    This article describes a 20-hour, eight-week course for experienced foster parents. Goals include understanding the causes of child abuse, understanding the consequences of child abuse, and understanding the interaction patterns which provoke child abuse. (Author/DB)

  11. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome) KidsHealth > For Parents > Abusive Head ... babies tend to cry the most. How These Injuries Happen Abusive head trauma results from injuries caused ...

  12. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), alcohol abuse and other substance abuse ...

  13. Problems of substance abuse: exploitation and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, L

    1985-01-01

    The notion of substance abuse is highly problematic. There is considerable disagreement amongst 'experts' as to the relative hazards and addictive properties of both legally and illegally available substances. There are also widely divergent sub-cultural attitudes to the harmfulness or benefit of drug use. One can assume no social consensus as to the nature of the contemporary 'drug problem', nor about the most appropriate means of dealing with it. There is, however, considerable evidence that criminalization of drug use, and harsh penalties against users and suppliers, are ineffective and counter-productive. Other models of control need to be considered, and in particular the merits and de-merits of the medicalization of drug abuse require examination. However, this is only one aspect of the problem. On the other side are the national and international corporations and syndicates, both legitimate and criminal, that earn vast profits from trade in toxic substances. Tobacco is legally available in every country in the world, and the industry is rarely subject to strict control. Thus the issue of substance abuse and control should be seen in a global context, in which account is taken of both legitimate and underworld operations. In attempts to control international trade in toxic substances, the limited success and the problems of already existing legal controls should be acknowledged. Local awareness and regulation of trade in substances is essential, but not sufficient. Amongst other avenues to be explored is the possibility of diverting presently illicitly grown narcotics into indigenous pharmaceutical industries in the Third World. Some problems with this strategy are noted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Early childhood sexual abuse increases suicidal intent

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Melhem, Nadine; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Garcia-Nieto, Rebeca; Burke, Ainsley K.; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse has been consistently associated with suicidal behavior. We studied suicide attempt features in depressed individuals sexually abused as children. On average, sexual abuse started before age 9. It frequently coexisted with physical abuse. Suicide attempters more often had personality disorders and had endured abuse for longer, but did not differ in terms of other clinical characteristics from non-attempters. Earlier onset of sexual abuse and its duration were associated...

  15. Avoiding Disclosure of Individually Identifiable Health Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio I. Prada

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Achieving data and information dissemination without harming anyone is a central task of any entity in charge of collecting data. In this article, the authors examine the literature on data and statistical confidentiality. Rather than comparing the theoretical properties of specific methods, they emphasize the main themes that emerge from the ongoing discussion among scientists regarding how best to achieve the appropriate balance between data protection, data utility, and data dissemination. They cover the literature on de-identification and reidentification methods with emphasis on health care data. The authors also discuss the benefits and limitations for the most common access methods. Although there is abundant theoretical and empirical research, their review reveals lack of consensus on fundamental questions for empirical practice: How to assess disclosure risk, how to choose among disclosure methods, how to assess reidentification risk, and how to measure utility loss.

  16. Carbon disclosure project report 2009 : Canada 200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon disclosure project conducts an annual survey to determine the strategies and actions of major cap companies in relation to climate change. This report discussed initiatives implemented by Canada's largest companies to prepare for a carbon-constrained future. The report documented results from 97 companies. The aim of the report was to help companies make use of the disclosures as reference points for future carbon markets and regulations relating to reporting requirements. Results of the survey demonstrated that Canada's low-carbon and high-carbon impact sectors have implemented several significant initiatives and best practices for operations. However, widespread engagement in a comprehensive manner has yet to be achieved. Many respondents were in the process of developing a more balanced risk-opportunity agenda in relation to climate change, and nearly half of all respondents have implemented governance arrangements or personal incentives in both both the high-carbon and low-carbon impact sectors. 5 tabs., 26 figs.

  17. Abusing National Privilege

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As U.S. mortgage finance giants-Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac-try to sell their huge backlog of foreclosed homes, they face foreclosures themselves as the U.S. Government contemplates cutting their government-backed support as indicated by a white paper issued by the Obama administration in February. Zhang Monan, an associate research fellow with the State Information Center, said the downfall of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac is the result of abuses of privileges the two companies have enjoyed since their inception.

  18. Loperamide dependence and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Ryan; Heiner, Jason; Villarreal, Joshua; Strote, Jared

    2015-05-02

    Loperamide is a common over-the-counter antidiarrheal considered safe in a broad range of dosages and thought devoid of abuse potential. We describe the first case of a patient with loperamide dependence due to misuse of its opiate-like effects achieved by chronic massive oral ingestions. A 26-year-old man who was taking 800 mg of loperamide per day presented requesting detoxification referral. Loperamide has potential for euphoric effects and information on how to facilitate such effects is easily available. It is important for physicians to be aware of the potential for misuse of and dependence on loperamide, with symptoms mimicking opiate use.

  19. Disclosure, venture capital and entrepreneurial spawning

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Cumming; April Knill

    2012-01-01

    Venture capital (VC) funds have been facing increasing regulatory scrutiny since the 2007 financial crisis, particularly with respect to calls for increased disclosure requirements. In this paper, we examine the effect of more stringent securities regulation on the supply and performance of VC, as well as on new business creation (i.e., entrepreneurial spawning). Using country-level and investment-level data from 34 countries over the years 2000–2008, we find that more stringent securities re...

  20. Is the environmental disclosure profitable for agrofirms?

    OpenAIRE

    Riviere-Giordano, Géraldine

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to question the environmental reporting relevance, or in other wise its usefulness in the financial decisions taking. Considering that the investors trust depends on the demonstration of the disclosure reliability, this paper proposes the audit of the environmental reporting as a way to solve the problem of the reporting quality, which is regularly accused to be partial, convenient and focalised on good actions. As the financial audit, this new audit mission is then p...

  1. Risk Behavior Disclosure During HIV Test Counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Torrone, Elizabeth Ann; Thomas, James C.; Maman, Suzanne; Pettifor, Audrey E; Kaufman, Jay S.; Sena, Arlene C.; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.

    2010-01-01

    Individualized risk assessments during HIV testing are an integral component of prevention counseling, a currently recommended behavioral intervention for patients in high-risk settings. Additionally, aggregate risk assessment data are the source of aggregate behavioral statistics that inform prevention programs and allocation of resources. Consequently, inaccurate or incomplete risk behavior disclosure during test counseling may impact the efficacy of the counseling intervention, as well as ...

  2. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruite...

  3. OPERATIONAL RISK DISCLOSURE IN ROMANIAN COMMERCIAL BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana HERGHILIGIU

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the actual operational risk disclosure in Romanian banks. Therefore we focus on the operational risk information that Romanian banks reveal and if they conform to the requirements of the National Bank of Romania. The study methodology consists in testing the annual financial reports for Romanian commercial banks. The analysis shows that the financial reports of Romanian banks are not in consonance with the requirements of the National Bank of Romania relating to oper...

  4. Operational Risk Disclosures in Hungarian Commercial Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Herghiligiu Roxana

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the current operational risk disclosure in Hungarian banks. Therefore, we focus on the operational risk items that Hungarian banks disclose and if they comply with the requirements of the International Bank of Settlements. The survey methodology was adopted by testing the annual financial reports for Hungarian commercial banks. The analysis shows that Hungarian banks, primarily, do not meet the requirements of the International Bank of Settlement, relating to operati...

  5. Conference Proceedings: Public disclosure in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal aspects and issues regarding public disclosure by Canadian and U.S. enterprises, including the petroleum industry, were the themes of this conference. Proper and complete transaction disclosure is mandatory to provide shareholders, investment advisors and other interested persons with the necessary information to make informed and reasoned investment decisions. Among the issues dealt with were disclosure of information about reserves, finding and development costs, disclosure requirements for merger and acquisition transactions, disclosure on the Internet, market making and market manipulation, insider trading, and the consequences of incomplete disclosure. Discussion of relevant Canadian and U.S. corporate and securities laws, regulations, rules and policies are featured as appropriate. The conference attracted 13 contributions. refs

  6. Disclosure: What is the point and for whom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbek, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Today mental health is embedded in a discourse of disclosure. Many people with lived experience of mental illness have decided to move out of the closet to talk about their personal experiences. Aims To look at the context of disclosure and on the questions of why disclose and for whom...... aware of different disclosure strategies and respond to the dilemmas. It is also crucial to emphasise that the planning and patterns of disclosure belong to the person with lived experience of mental illness and nobody else........ How much do we know and how does our knowledge correspond with today's discourse of disclosure in mental health? Methods Narrative reviewing today's discourse of disclosure on the basis of both scientific and experience-based knowledge as well as from my personal experience. Results The scientific...

  7. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  8. Marijuana abuse and bullous emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Harsh Golwala

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana abuse has been on an increasing trend worldwide in the last decade. We hereby report a case of severe bullous emphysema resulting in pneumothorax in a patient with few years of marijuana abuse. We also review the major conditions in the differential diagnosis of bullous emphysema in adults.

  9. Caregiver Stress and Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how to report it: The National Center on Elder Abuse 1225 I Street, N.W., Suite 725 Phone: (202) 898-2586 Washington, D.C. 20005 Email: NCEA@nasua.org http://www.elderabusecenter.org National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse 1101 Vermont Ave. NW, Suite 1000 Phone: ( ...

  10. Elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inger Plaisier; Mirjam de Klerk

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Ouderenmishandeling in Nederland It is twenty years since the last study was carried out on the number of older persons in the Netherlands who are deliberate or accidental victims of abuse in the form of verbal, physical or sexual violence, financial abuse and/or neglect by those o

  11. Personality Development Following Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Liz; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The follow-up study evaluated 37 girls and 12 boys (aged 5-19 years) who had been sexually abused an average of 2.6 years previously. Results found that, compared to control children, abused children had less confidence, fewer friends, more aggression, increased sexual awareness, and more behavior and academic problems. (Author/JDD)

  12. The abuse of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different aspects of possible abuse of nuclear power by countries or individuals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the advantage of nuclear power, despite the risk of weapon proliferation or terrorism. The concepts of some nuclear power critics, concerning health risks in the nuclear sector are rejected as untrue and abusive

  13. Optimal bid disclosure in license auctions with downstream interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Cuihong; Jun, Byoung Heon; Wolfstetter, Elmar G.

    2014-01-01

    The literature on license auctions for process innovations in oligopoly assumed that the auctioneer reveals the winning bid and stressed that this gives firms an incentive to signal strength through their bids, to the benefit of the innovator. In the present paper we examine whether revealing the winning bid is optimal. We consider three disclosure rules: full, partial, and no disclosure of bids, which correspond to standard auctions. We show that more information disclosure increases the tot...

  14. Risk Disclosure and Risk Management of UK Real Estate Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chen

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation aims to research on the different approaches of risk disclosure and risk management currently adopted by the UK real estate companies. Literature review has been done on topics such as information disclosure, Corporate governance and risk disclosure in the UK, risk reporting debates, risk management and the Enterprise Risk Management. In the past years, we have witnessed many enterprise scandals due to careless risk management practice. The needs for more efficient corpo...

  15. Determinants of voluntary CSR disclosure: Empirical evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Gamerschlag, Ramin; Möller, Klaus; Verbeeten, Frank

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, companies spend a great deal of effort on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosures. CSR disclosure relates to the provision of information on companies' environmental and social performance. From an economic perspective, companies might disclose this information to avoid or decrease potential political costs. We construct a CSR disclosure index based on the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. Using content analysis, we analyze 130 listed German compan...

  16. Disclosure on corporate governance in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Vander Bauwhede, Heidi; Willekens, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    Disclosure on Corporate Governance in the European Union Heidi Vander Bauwhede and Marleen Willekens* ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: In this paper, we examine the determinants of the level of disclosure on corporate governance practices among European listed companies in the time period preceding the adoption of the European Union recommendations and Action Plan. Research Findings/Results: Using ratings on corporate governance disclosure i...

  17. Child abuse by drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griest, K J; Zumwalt, R E

    1989-01-01

    Drowning as a form of subtle fatal child abuse is difficult to distinguish from accidental immersion or from sudden unexpected natural death when the circumstances of immersion are concealed. Homicidal drownings are unwitnessed, usually occurring in the home, and the victims are young, either infants or toddlers. Accidental drownings are more likely to involve toddlers or older children in public areas such as swimming pools, drainage ditches, lakes, and rivers. This is especially true in rural areas. In cities, bathtubs remain a major site of accidental childhood drownings. Perpetrators of deliberate drownings often fit the sociopathologic profile of a child abuser. Because there is often a survival interval between immersion and death, pathologic findings consistent with postimmersion syndrome suggest the cause of death. Foreign material in the lungs, if immersion was other than in clear tap water, and injuries of the face are other positive correlating factors. A thorough investigation of the circumstances and cooperation between the investigating agency and the pathologist are essential to determine the correct manner of death in these cases.

  18. Child abuse in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonevski Dimitar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering from panic disorder, diagnosed in accordance with the 10th International Classification of Disorders diagnostic criteria, compared with the control group of 40 healthy test subjects without a history of psychiatric disorders, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder was assessed using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. Results and Discussion There were no significant differences between the groups as to the level of sexual abuse and physical neglect, whereas in the group of patients with panic disorder, the level of physical and emotional abuse was significantly higher, with emphasis on emotional neglect. With regards to the correlation between the severity of the clinical manifestation in patients with panic disorder and the severity of suffered abuse and neglect in childhood age, significant correlation was found in the physical and emotional abuse as well as emotional neglect. There was no significant correlation in the aspect of the physical neglect and sexual abuse. Conclusion Our research underlines the importance of childhood physical abuse, and especially emotional abuse and emotional neglect in the occurrence of panic disorder later in life.

  19. Drug abuse among the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.

  20. [Child abuse in the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  1. [Child abuse in the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  2. Spiritual abuse: an additional dimension of abuse experienced by abused Haredi (ultraorthodox) Jewish wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehan, Nicole; Levi, Zipi

    2009-11-01

    This article aims to conceptualize spiritual abuse as an additional dimension to physical, psychological, sexual, and economic abuse. Growing out of an interpretivist participatory action research study in a therapeutic Haredi (Jewish ultraorthodox) group of eight abused women, spiritual abuse has been defined as any attempt to impair the woman's spiritual life, spiritual self, or spiritual well-being, with three levels of intensity: (a) belittling her spiritual worth, beliefs, or deeds; (b) preventing her from performing spiritual acts; and (c) causing her to transgress spiritual obligations or prohibitions. The concept and its typology are illustrated by means of examples from the women's abusive experiences and may be of theoretical and therapeutic worldwide relevance. PMID:19809096

  3. The Impact of High-Profile Sexual Abuse Cases in the Media on a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Dustin D; Stephens, Clare L; Thompson, Amy D

    2016-01-01

    High-profile media cases of sexual abuse may encourage disclosures of abuse from victims of unrelated assaults and also influence parental concerns, leading to increased emergency department visits. In the region of the study authors' institution, there are two recent high-profile sexual abuse cases with media coverage: Earl Bradley, a Delaware pediatrician, and Jerry Sandusky, a Pennsylvania college football coach. This is a retrospective cohort study of children evaluated for sexual abuse at a pediatric emergency department. Patients were classified as either presenting during a media period or non-media period. The media periods were one-month periods immediately following breaking news reports, when the cases were highly publicized in the media. The non-media periods were the 12-month periods directly preceding the first reports. The median number of emergency department visits per month during a non-media period was 9 visits (interquartile range 6-10). There were 11 visits in the month following the Sandusky case and 13 visits following the Bradley case. There was no statistical difference in number of emergency department visits for sexual abuse between the periods (p = .09). These finding have implications regarding use of resources in pediatric EDs after high-profile sexual abuse cases.

  4. The Impact of High-Profile Sexual Abuse Cases in the Media on a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Dustin D; Stephens, Clare L; Thompson, Amy D

    2016-01-01

    High-profile media cases of sexual abuse may encourage disclosures of abuse from victims of unrelated assaults and also influence parental concerns, leading to increased emergency department visits. In the region of the study authors' institution, there are two recent high-profile sexual abuse cases with media coverage: Earl Bradley, a Delaware pediatrician, and Jerry Sandusky, a Pennsylvania college football coach. This is a retrospective cohort study of children evaluated for sexual abuse at a pediatric emergency department. Patients were classified as either presenting during a media period or non-media period. The media periods were one-month periods immediately following breaking news reports, when the cases were highly publicized in the media. The non-media periods were the 12-month periods directly preceding the first reports. The median number of emergency department visits per month during a non-media period was 9 visits (interquartile range 6-10). There were 11 visits in the month following the Sandusky case and 13 visits following the Bradley case. There was no statistical difference in number of emergency department visits for sexual abuse between the periods (p = .09). These finding have implications regarding use of resources in pediatric EDs after high-profile sexual abuse cases. PMID:27561119

  5. What natural capital disclosure for integrated reporting? Designing & modelling an Integrated Financial - Natural Capital Accounting and Reporting Framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Houdet, Joel; Burritt, Roger; N. Farrell, Katharine; Martin-Ortega, Julia; Ramin, Kurt; Spurgeon, James; Atkins, Jill; Steuerman, David; Jones, Michael; Maleganos, John; Ding, Helen; Ochieng, Cosmas; Naicker, Kiruben; Chikozho, Claudious; Finisdore, John

    2014-01-01

    Business and government leaders from around the world are increasingly sounding the alarm about the need for effective management of business dependencies and impacts on ecosystems. As a consequence, financial institutions have recently made a formal commitment to work towards integrating natural capital considerations into their decision-making processes, including helping improve the accounting and disclosure practices of reporting organisations. Though various frameworks and standards have...

  6. Familial Influences on Recantation in Substantiated Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Lindsay C; Mugno, Allison P; Rivard, Jillian R; Lyon, Thomas D; Quas, Jodi A

    2016-08-01

    The underlying reasons for recantation in children's disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA) have been debated in recent years. In the present study, we examined the largest sample of substantiated CSA cases involving recantations to date (n = 58 cases). We specifically matched those cases to 58 nonrecanters on key variables found to predict recantation in prior research (i.e., child age, alleged parent figure perpetrator, and caregiver unsupportiveness). Bivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when they were (1) initially removed from home postdisclosure and (2) initially separated from siblings postdisclosure. Multivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed belief in the children's allegations and more likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed disbelief in the allegations and when visitations with the alleged perpetrator were recommended at their first hearing. Results have implications for understanding the complex ways in which social processes may motivate some children to retract previous reports of sexual abuse. PMID:27234520

  7. Child abuse, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri M.T. Lubis

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  8. The influence of child sexual abuse on the self from adult narrative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayer, Anne; Seddon, Diane; Robinson, Catherine A; Gwilym, Hefin

    2015-01-01

    The impact of child sexual abuse on the adult self is not yet clearly understood. We explored adult perspectives through the use of narrative interviews (N = 30). Three key themes or views of self were identified in all narratives to varying degrees: the worthless self, the self as unknown, and the potential/developing self. Ambivalence and tension were present in all narratives. Individuals were challenged to integrate the sexual abuse experience in a constructive way and develop a more coherent perception of the self. The narrative method highlighted the dynamic nature of peoples' experiences at the same time recognizing that the narratives themselves are in progress. Reactions to disclosure, social support, and interpersonal connections are crucial at every turn.

  9. Genetic differentials of child abuse: Is your case rare or real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Natasha; Carey, John C

    2015-12-01

    The clinical geneticist can be called upon to play a role in the medical evaluation of children with clinical findings concerning for child abuse. This Introduction describes a case of suspected child abuse in an 8-month-old baby referred to clinical genetics to exclude osteogenesis imperfecta. The experience from this case raised medical and ethical considerations and prompted consideration of the role of the clinical geneticist in distinguishing rare mimics of child abuse from real cases. From this single case, and a discussion regarding similar cases, arose the idea of this issue in Seminars in Medical Genetics, Genetic Differentials of Child Abuse: Is Your Case Rare or Real? In thinking about child abuse from a clinical genetics perspective, we categorize clinical presentations into fractures, skin lesions, hemorrhage, growth disturbances, and concern for caregiver-fabricated illness (previously known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy). In this Introduction, we also discuss recent questions regarding Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and infantile fractures and concerns about caregiver-fabricated illness in the context of mitochondrial or other rare diseases. The goal is that this issue on child abuse and genetics will serve as a resource to help distinguish the rare causes from the real cases of child abuse, and those critical distinctions and correct diagnoses may be life-saving for some infants and children. PMID:26513547

  10. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  11. CUTANEOUS COMPLICATIONS OF INJECTION DRUG ABUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Bimal; De, Anuradha; Sandeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse is a worldwide problem with disastrous consequences for the patient, family and society at large. The case of injection drug abusers seems a little different as cutaneous complications may occur. Considering these complications the present article attempts to review the adverse effects of parenteral drug abuse on the skin including the common skin and soft tissue infections secondary to the drug abuse.

  12. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Melanie

    1992-01-01

    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

  13. Perceived Benefit from Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Curtis; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies adult perceptions of benefit from child sexual abuse in 154 low-income women who were sexually abused as children. Almost half reported some perceived benefit. Benefits fell into four main categories: protecting children from abuse, self-protection, increased knowledge of child sexual abuse, and having a stronger personality. Degree of…

  14. Childhood history of abuse and child abuse potential: the role of parent’s gender and timing of childhood abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Martínez, Angel; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that being physically abused leads to someone becoming a perpetrator of abuse which could be associated to parents' gender, timing of the physical abuse and specific socio-demographic variables. This study aims to investigate the role the parents' gender, timing of childhood abuse and socio-demographic variables on the relationship between parents' history of childhood physical abuse and current risk for children. The sample consisted of 920 parents (414 fathers, 506 mot...

  15. The dark side of family communication: a communication model of elder abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei-Chen; Giles, Howard

    2013-08-01

    To further address the potential factors that lead up to elder abuse in domestic settings, this paper proposes a model from a communication approach to explain dyadic influences between the family caregiver and the elderly care receiver that give rise to the abuse. That is, dysfunctional communication between the caregivers and care receivers may, therefore, increase the likelihood of elder abuse. Grounded in Bugental and her colleagues' work (1993, 1999, 2002) on child abuse, we propose a power-oriented communication model based, in part, on research in the fields of family violence and intergenerational communication to explain the likelihood of occurrence of elder abuse in family caregiving situations. We argue that certain risk factors pertaining to caregivers' characteristics--those who perceive high stress in caregiving, have mental health issues, have a history of substance abuse, and/or display verbal aggressiveness--may be more likely to attribute considerable power to those elderly under their custodianship. At the same time, such caregivers tend to feel powerless and experience loss of control when interacting with their elderly counterparts. When an elderly care receiver displays noncompliant behaviors, caregivers may be prone to employ abusive behaviors (in our model, it refers to physical abuse, verbal abuse, or communication neglect) to seek such compliance. Consequences of such abuse may result in lower self-esteem or lower confidence in one's ability to manage his/her life. It is suggested that researchers and practitioners investigate both parties' interactions closely and the role of elderly care receivers in order to detect, intervene, and prevent elder abuse. PMID:23388449

  16. Outcome measures of interventions in the study of children of substance-abusing parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpfer, K L

    1999-05-01

    Children of substance-abusing parents, including children of alcoholics (COAs), are one of the highest risk groups of youth for substance-abuse problems. For both genetic and family environmental reasons, COAs and children of drug abusers are very vulnerable to becoming alcohol or other drug abusers.1,2 With drug use rates increasing in the past 7 years,3 prevention practitioners must work harder to identify and evaluate effective ways to prevent future substance abuse in these at-risk children. Most prevention programs designed specifically for COAs or children of drug abusers have struggled with identifying, attracting, maintaining, and measuring outcomes. This article focuses on general and unique measurement methods and instrument problems in prevention interventions for children of substance-abusing parents. Part I covers the need for improved measurement in research and practice with children of substance-abusing parents and recommended measures for different hypothesized outcome variables. Part II covers considerations in selecting measures, and Part III covers how to select measures. This article concludes with recommendations to improve measurement in research and practice. PMID:10224200

  17. Alcohol Advertising Bans and Alcohol Abuse: An International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the effect on alcohol abuse of banning broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages. The effect of a ban cannot be studied using data from one country because the adoption of new advertising bans is an infrequent event and requires many years for adjustment. However, an international data set can be used since there is considerable variation in the use of advertising bans across countries. The data used in this study are a pooled time series...

  18. Child abuse and neglect: Training needs of student teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Kee, Bronagh Mc; Dillenburger, Karola

    2009-01-01

    Increasing awareness of child abuse and neglect (CAN) raises questions about how well teachers are prepared for their role in child protection. This paper assesses and differentiates training needs of first-year students (n = 216) in Northern Ireland. Multiplechoice tests were used to assess knowledge of CAN statistics; recognising and reporting; policies, procedures, and legislative frameworks; and direct work with children. Considerable gaps in knowledge were found. Results between student ...

  19. Disclosing HIV diagnosis to children in Odi district, South Africa: Reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M. Mahloko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART and survival of HIV- infected children has posed challenges to caregivers on disclosing the HIV diagnosis to children. Objectives: The objectives of this study was to determine the reasons of caregivers for the disclosure and non-disclosure of the HIV diagnosis to children on ART and to determine the caregivers’ perceptions of children’s reaction to disclosure. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 149 caregivers of children between 4–17 years who receive ART from a district hospital in South Africa. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis of data. Results: The prevalence of disclosure was 40% and the mean age of disclosure was 9.3 years. Reasons for disclosure included that the child was not adhering to treatment (n = 59; 39%; the child was consistently asking questions about the treatment and nature of the disease (n = 59; 39%. Reasons for non-disclosure were that the child was too young (n = 90; 72%; the child would tell others about diagnosis (n = 90; 21.1%; the child would be socially rejected (n = 90; 18.6%; fear of negative consequences for the child (n = 90; 13.3%; and caregivers do not know how to tell or approach disclosure (n = 90; 8.9%. Conclusion: Caregivers disclosed the diagnosis so that their child would adhere to ART medication; non-disclosing caregivers delayed disclosure because their children were too young to understand the HIV diagnosis. Disclosure of HIV to children should be integrated into regular discussions with caregivers of children in ART settings to improve their knowledge and skills to manage disclosure.

  20. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329

  1. 77 FR 20011 - Fair Credit Reporting Act Disclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... PROTECTION RIN 3170-AA06 Fair Credit Reporting Act Disclosures AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice regarding charges for certain disclosures under the Fair Credit Reporting Act... charges under Section 612(f) of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (``FCRA'') will increase from $11.00 to...

  2. 77 FR 74831 - Fair Credit Reporting Act Disclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... PROTECTION Fair Credit Reporting Act Disclosures AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice regarding charges for certain disclosures under the Fair Credit Reporting Act. SUMMARY: The Bureau... Section 612(f) of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) will remain unchanged at $11.50 for 2013....

  3. Ownership Structure and Voluntary Disclosure in Annual Reports of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdur Rouf (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the association between ownership structure and voluntary disclosure levels in the 2007 annual report of 94 samples of Bangladeshi listed companies. Ownership structure is provided by management ownership and institutional ownership. Using agency theory, it is argued that firms with higher management ofownership structure may disclose less information and higher institutional of ownership structure may disclose more information to shareholders through voluntary disclosure. It is because the determined ownership structure provides firms lower incentives tovoluntarily disclose information to meet the needs of non-dispersed shareholders .Agency theory is utilized as the underlying theoretical framework of voluntary disclosure. Using a unweighted relative disclosure index for measuring voluntary disclosure. The extent of voluntary disclosure level is measured using 68 items recommended by those who have professional qualifications. The result shows that the extent of corporate voluntary disclosures is negatively associated with a higher management of ownership structure and the extent of corporate voluntary disclosures is positively associated with a higher institutional ownership structure.

  4. 21 CFR 1304.45 - Internet Web site disclosure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internet Web site disclosure requirements. 1304.45... OF REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.45 Internet Web site disclosure requirements. (a) Each online... the following information on the homepage of each Internet site it operates, or on a page...

  5. The value relevance of voluntary disclosure in the annual report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banghøj, Jesper; Plenborg, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines if the level of voluntary disclosure affects the association between current returns and future earnings. Economic theory suggests that firms might find it advantageous to provide additional pieces of information (i.e., voluntary disclosure) to investors and analysts (Verrecchia...

  6. 29 CFR 2520.104b-1 - Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of this chapter, and section 414(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 and 26 CFR 1.414(f) (40 FR... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure. 2520.104b-1 Section 2520.104b-1 Labor... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 RULES AND REGULATIONS...

  7. 26 CFR 1.707-8 - Disclosure of certain information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of certain information. 1.707-8 Section 1.707-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Partners and Partnerships § 1.707-8 Disclosure of certain information....

  8. 18 CFR 3b.226 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting of... IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Disclosure of Records § 3b.226 Accounting of disclosures. (a) The....225(b) (5) and (7). (b) Each system manager will retain the accounting made under paragraph (a)...

  9. 25 CFR 700.269 - Accounting for disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for disclosures. 700.269 Section 700.269... Privacy Act § 700.269 Accounting for disclosures. (a) Maintenance of an accounting. (1) Where a record is...), an accounting shall be made. (2) The accounting shall record (i) the date, nature, and purpose...

  10. 12 CFR 560.210 - Disclosures for variable rate transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... A savings association must provide the initial disclosures described at 12 CFR 226.19(b) and the adjustment notices described at 12 CFR 226.20(c) for variable rate transactions, as described in those... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosures for variable rate transactions....

  11. Factors Assisting Female Clients' Disclosure of Incest during Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Gilda S.; Fong-Beyette, Margaret L.

    1987-01-01

    Explored specific behaviors and characteristics of counselors that relate to adult, female clients' disclosure of incest during counseling. Suggests that factors related to initial disclosure and exploration of incest are client readiness, direct questioning by the counselor, specific counselor characteristics, and positive counselor reactions to…

  12. 48 CFR 30.202-8 - Subcontractor disclosure statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subcontractor's Disclosure Statement must be made in accordance with 48 CFR 9903.202-2 (FAR appendix). ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontractor disclosure... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements...

  13. 48 CFR 9903.202-6 - Adequacy of Disclosure Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Program Requirements 9903.202-6 Adequacy of Disclosure... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adequacy of Disclosure Statement. 9903.202-6 Section 9903.202-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING...

  14. 48 CFR 430.202-8 - Subcontractor Disclosure Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subcontractor Disclosure... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements 430.202-8 Subcontractor Disclosure Statements. (a) The Secretary, without the power to redelegate,...

  15. 48 CFR 9903.202-5 - Filing Disclosure Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Program Requirements 9903.202-5 Filing Disclosure... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing Disclosure Statements. 9903.202-5 Section 9903.202-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING...

  16. Disclosure regulation in duopoly markets : Proprietary costs and social welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable argu

  17. 36 CFR 1008.10 - Accounting for disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounting for disclosures... ACT § 1008.10 Accounting for disclosures. (a) Maintenance of an accounting. (1) Where a record is...), an accounting shall be made. (2) The accounting shall record: (i) The date, nature, and purpose...

  18. Going-Public and the Influence of Disclosure Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, T.A.; Suijs, J.P.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes how differences in disclosure environments affect the firms choice between private and public capital. Disclosure regulations prescribe to what extent the firm has to release confidential information that may lead to the firm incurring proprietary cost. We examine which firms go

  19. 34 CFR 82.110 - Certification and disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification and disclosure. 82.110 Section 82.110 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING General § 82.110... representation is forwarded. Submitting an erroneous certification or disclosure constitutes a failure to...

  20. 5 CFR 185.121 - Disclosure of documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of documents. 185.121 Section 185.121 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.121 Disclosure of documents. (a) Upon written request to the...

  1. 4 CFR 200.11 - Maintaining records of disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining records of disclosure. 200.11 Section 200.11 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.11 Maintaining records of disclosure. (a) The Board shall maintain a log containing the date, nature, and purposes of each...

  2. 43 CFR 2.57 - Accounting for disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting for disclosures. 2.57 Section 2... INFORMATION ACT Privacy Act § 2.57 Accounting for disclosures. (a) Maintenance of an accounting. (1) Where a... § 2.56 (c), an accounting shall be made. (2) The accounting shall record (i) the date, nature,...

  3. 76 FR 1542 - Disclosure of Records or Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... matter of policy, ACUS makes discretionary disclosures of records or information exempt from disclosure... management, it will promptly identify such records in its ``Freedom of Information Reference Guide'' and... and the Privacy Act. (b) Definitions. As used in this subpart: (1) ``Request for access to a...

  4. 12 CFR 615.5250 - Disclosure requirements for borrower stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure requirements for borrower stock. 615.5250 Section 615.5250 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND... Disclosure requirements for borrower stock. (a) For sales of borrower stock, which for this subpart...

  5. Going-public and the influence of disclosure environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, T.; Suijs, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes how differences in disclosure environments affect the firm's choice between private and public capital. Disclosure requirements prescribe to what extent the firm has to release private information that may lead to the firm incurring proprietary costs. We examine which firm types

  6. Determinants of voluntary CSR disclosure: Empirical evidence from Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gamerschlag (Ramin); K. Möller (Klaus); F.H.M. Verbeeten (Frank)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, companies spend a great deal of effort on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosures. CSR disclosure relates to the provision of information on companies' environmental and social performance. From an economic perspective, companies might disclose this information to av

  7. 46 CFR 14.105 - Disclosure and privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF MERCHANT MARINERS General § 14.105 Disclosure and privacy. The Coast Guard makes information available to the public in accordance with 49 CFR part 7, including appendix B. ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure and privacy. 14.105 Section 14.105...

  8. 77 FR 36149 - Disclosure Requirements and Prohibitions Concerning Franchising

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... CFR Part 436 Disclosure Requirements and Prohibitions Concerning Franchising AGENCY: Federal Trade... Regulation Rule entitled ``Disclosure Requirements and Prohibitions Concerning Franchising'' (Franchise Rule..., 2007, so that franchisors would have a one-year phase-in period within which to comply with the...

  9. 30 CFR 47.83 - Disclosure in a medical emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.83 Disclosure in a medical... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure in a medical emergency. 47.83... confidentiality agreement, the operator must immediately disclose the identity of a trade secret chemical to...

  10. 77 FR 8721 - Home Mortgage Disclosure (Regulation C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1003 RIN 3170-AA06 Home Mortgage Disclosure (Regulation C) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... requirements of Regulation C (Home Mortgage Disclosure) to reflect a change in the asset-size exemption... 1975, as amended (HMDA; 12 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.) requires most mortgage lenders located in...

  11. 36 CFR 703.5 - Records exempt from disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records exempt from disclosure. 703.5 Section 703.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS DISCLOSURE OR... disclosed without prejudice to the effective performance of a Library function, such as guidelines...

  12. 32 CFR 1901.51 - Limitations on disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on disclosure. 1901.51 Section 1901.51 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Prohibitions § 1901.51 Limitations on disclosure. No record which...

  13. 32 CFR 1801.51 - Limitations on disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on disclosure. 1801.51 Section 1801.51 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Prohibitions § 1801.51 Limitations on disclosure....

  14. 32 CFR 232.6 - Mandatory loan disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mandatory loan disclosures. 232.6 Section 232.6... Mandatory loan disclosures. (a) Required information. With respect to any extension of consumer credit (including any consumer credit originated or extended through the internet) to a covered borrower, a...

  15. 29 CFR 500.75 - Disclosure of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND... Migrant Agricultural Workers § 500.75 Disclosure of information. (a) Where disclosure is required... migrant agricultural worker shall ascertain to the best of his ability and disclose, in writing to...

  16. Ethical Dilemmas Associated with Self-Disclosure in Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Michelle R.

    2004-01-01

    Personal and reflective writing assignments in psychology courses may prompt self-disclosure that presents ethical dilemmas. The literature discusses responsibilities of the psychologist in instances such as disclosure of suicidal ideation or threats of harming others within the context of the therapist-client relationship, but significantly less…

  17. Ethical dilemma: is this elder abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoski, Beatrice B

    2003-08-01

    Elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation are major problems today (Marshall, Benton, & Brazier, 2000). Most elder abuse occurs at home and is committed by spouses, children, or other family members. Abuse may go undetected until observant professionals intervene ( AOA, 1998). Sometimes the abuse is a continuation of existing dysfunctional family dynamics. More often, however, the abuse is a result of changes brought about by an older person's growing dependency and need for increased care. PMID:12917522

  18. Modeling veterans healthcare administration disclosure processes : CY 2012 summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyeler, Walter Eugene; DeMenno, Mercy B.; Finley, Patrick D.

    2013-09-01

    As with other large healthcare organizations, medical adverse events at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities can expose patients to unforeseen negative risks. VHA leadership recognizes that properly handled disclosure of adverse events can minimize potential harm to patients and negative consequences for the effective functioning of the organization. The work documented here seeks to help improve the disclosure process by situating it within the broader theoretical framework of issues management, and to identify opportunities for process improvement through modeling disclosure and reactions to disclosure. The computational model will allow a variety of disclosure actions to be tested across a range of incident scenarios. Our conceptual model will be refined in collaboration with domain experts, especially by continuing to draw on insights from VA Study of the Communication of Adverse Large-Scale Events (SCALE) project researchers.

  19. Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as family disintegration, loss of employment, failure in school, domestic violence, and child abuse. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences ...

  20. The Prognosis of Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Margaret A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the prognosis for abused children in terms of death, re-injury, permanent physical damage, growth failure, intellectual retardation, and personality and behavior problems. Discusses problems of collecting data and inadequacies of intervention treatments. (JB)

  1. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  2. Modeling Risk for Child Abuse and Harsh Parenting in Families with Depressed and Substance-abusing Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Lawrence, Hannah R.; Milletich, Robert R.; Hollis, Brittany F.; Henson, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with substance abusing parents are at considerable risk for child maltreatment. The current study applied an actor-partner interdependence model to examine how father only (n = 52) and dual couple (n = 33) substance use disorder, as well as their depressive symptomology influenced parents’ own (actor effects) and the partner's (partner effects) overreactivity in disciplinary interactions with their children, as well as their risk for child maltreatment. Parents completed the Center f...

  3. The sexually abused battered child.

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, C J; Wynne, J M

    1990-01-01

    A total of 130 children were identified in whom both evidence of sexual abuse and non-accidental, non-genital physical injuries (bruises, fractures, scratches, burns and scalds, including failure to thrive) were found. There were 77 girls and 53 boys with mean ages 5.7 and 6.8 years respectively and the peak age between the second and seventh birthdays; this reflects previous reports indicating that physical and sexual abuse predominantly involves young children. Patterns of injury that sugge...

  4. Personality development after physical abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Oates, R K

    1984-01-01

    Personality development after child abuse was studied in 39 children who had, on average, been admitted to hospital five and a half years previously. In contrast to a control group, the abused children had fewer friends, lower ambitions, and lower self esteem. They were more serious, shy, and subdued on a personality assessment and were more likely than the control children to have behaviour disturbances recorded on a questionnaire for teachers. Their mothers also noted a higher incidence of ...

  5. Attitudes towards child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Tennfjord, Oddfrid Skorpe

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of the present thesis was to develop a measurement instrument aimed to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse, and to measure attitudes and associating personal, social and cultural factors among three different samples of Norwegian adults. Additional aims were to explore the relation between participants’ knowledge-seeking on the one hand, their experiences, attitudes and actual knowledge about abuse on the other hand.Three studies are presented based on the same data m...

  6. Child Abuse and Disabled Children

    OpenAIRE

    Obilade, Titilola T.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract for presentation given at the Annual General Scientific Meeting/Workshop of the Medical Women’s Association of Nigeria in Lagos, Nigeria, on December 28, 2004. Children with disabilities are a population at a higher risk of abuse and maltreatment. Studies have shown that children with disabilities are 3.4 times more likely to be abused than nondisabled peers. These disabilities include children who are visually-impaired, hearing-impaired, chronically-ill, developmentally ...

  7. Can disclosures lead consumers to resist covert persuasion? The important roles of disclosure timing and type of response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Campbell; G.S. Mohr; P.W.J. Verlegh

    2013-01-01

    While sponsorship disclosure is proposed as a remedy for covert marketing, i.e., tactics such that the persuasive nature of the communication is not clear to consumers, little is known about whether or when disclosures prompt consumers to correct for persuasion. Three experiments reveal that covert

  8. Ethical Considerations about EHR-Mediated Results Disclosure and Pathology Information Presented via Patient Portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristina A; Smith, Lauren B

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) now include patient portals where patients can obtain clinical reports, including notes, radiology reports, and laboratory/anatomic pathology results. Although portals increase patient access to information, no guidelines have been developed for hospitals about appropriate delays in posting different types of pathology reports to the EHR. Delays exist as a matter of policy to allow physicians time to answer questions and provide emotional support when discussing sensitive results with patients. Some types of results are more sensitive than others, however, including results of cancer, genetic, and HIV testing. Ethical questions about patient access to test results online are discussed. PMID:27550567

  9. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  10. Erythropoietin use and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Joseph John

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO is arguably the most successful therapeutic application of recombinant DNA technology till date. It was isolated in 1977 and the gene decoded in 1985. Since then, it has found varied applications, especially in stimulating erythropoiesis in anemia due to chronic conditions like renal failure, myelodysplasia, infections like HIV, in prematurity, and in reducing peri-operative blood transfusions. The discovery of erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R and its presence in non-erythroid cells has led to several areas of research. Various types of rhEPO are commercially available today with different dosage schedules and modes of delivery. Their efficacy in stimulating erythropoiesis is dose dependent and differs according to the patient′s disease and nutritional status. EPO should be used carefully according to guidelines as unsolicited use can result in serious adverse effects. Because of its capacity to improve oxygenation, it has been abused by athletes participating in endurance sports and detecting this has proved to be a challenge.

  11. Immunotherapy for Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders continue to be major medical and social problems worldwide. Current medications for substance use disorders have many limitations such as cost, availability, medication compliance, dependence, diversion of some to illicit use and relapse to addiction after discontinuing their use. Immunotherapies using either passive monoclonal antibodies or active vaccines have distinctly different mechanisms and therapeutic utility from small molecule approaches to treatment. They have great potential to help the patient achieve and sustain abstinence and have fewer of the above limitations. This review covers the cocaine vaccine development in detail and provides an overview of directions for developing anti-addiction vaccines against the abuse of other substances. The notable success of the first placebo-controlled clinical trial of a cocaine vaccine, TA-CD, has led to an ongoing multi-site, Phase IIb clinical trial in 300 subjects. The results from these trials are encouarging further development of the cocaine vacine as one of the first anti-addiction vaccines to go forward to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for review and approval for human use. PMID:22229313

  12. Erythropoietin use and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, M Joseph; Jaison, Vineeth; Jain, Kunal; Kakkar, Naveen; Jacob, Jubbin J

    2012-03-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is arguably the most successful therapeutic application of recombinant DNA technology till date. It was isolated in 1977 and the gene decoded in 1985. Since then, it has found varied applications, especially in stimulating erythropoiesis in anemia due to chronic conditions like renal failure, myelodysplasia, infections like HIV, in prematurity, and in reducing peri-operative blood transfusions. The discovery of erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) and its presence in non-erythroid cells has led to several areas of research. Various types of rhEPO are commercially available today with different dosage schedules and modes of delivery. Their efficacy in stimulating erythropoiesis is dose dependent and differs according to the patient's disease and nutritional status. EPO should be used carefully according to guidelines as unsolicited use can result in serious adverse effects. Because of its capacity to improve oxygenation, it has been abused by athletes participating in endurance sports and detecting this has proved to be a challenge. PMID:22470858

  13. 28 CFR 2.55 - Disclosure of file prior to parole hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 2.14 the Commission only considers information concerning significant developments or changes in... disclosure for interim hearings will be limited to such information. (c) Exemption to disclosure (18 U.S.C... of disclosure. When a timely request has been made for disclosure, if any document or summary of...

  14. 6 CFR 5.27 - Requests for an accounting of record disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.27 Requests for an accounting of record disclosures. (a... in paragraph (b) of this section), you may make a request for an accounting of any disclosure that.... This accounting contains the date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure, as well as the name...

  15. 49 CFR 15.17 - Consequences of unauthorized disclosure of SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consequences of unauthorized disclosure of SSI. 15... SECURITY INFORMATION § 15.17 Consequences of unauthorized disclosure of SSI. Violation of this part is... SSI to remedy unauthorized disclosure or an order to cease future unauthorized disclosure....

  16. 16 CFR 305.14 - Energy information disclosures for heating and cooling equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy information disclosures for heating... (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Required Disclosures § 305.14 Energy information disclosures for heating... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER...

  17. Information content of oil and gas reserve disclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, I.

    1984-01-01

    This empirical study is concerned with whether the oil and gas reserve value data reported by the oil and gas iundustry in their Form 10-K filings has any information content for the investors. These reserve disclosures were adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) as a first step towards developing Reserve Recognition Accounting (RRA). Although SEC has now scrapped the idea of use of RRA in primary finanical statements, similar disclosures are still required and are specified in Financial Accounting Standards Board Statement No. 69, Disclosures about Oil and Gas Producing Activities. This dissertation assumes capital market efficiency and addresses a specific question. Do the reserve value disclosures required by SEC have any information content. Information content of these disclosures are judged by their impact of the trading activity of the stock of the firm providing such disclosures. An absence of any significant change in the level of activity, either in price (and therefore returns) and/or volume, would suggest that the disclosures do not have any information content.

  18. An implementation assessment of China's Environmental Information Disclosure Decree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang; Arthur P.J Mol; Guizhen He; Yonglong Lu

    2010-01-01

    China's 2007 Open Government Information Regulations is widely considered as a milestone in the country's information policy history and is praised as a "sunshine program".The Environmental Information Disclosure Decree was the first to operationalize these general regulations into a sectoral information disclosure system on environment.This study assessed the implementation of the environmental information disclosure system about six months after the Decree took effect on May 1,2008.Through reviewing the websites of all 31 provincial Environmental Protection Bureaus and the Ministry of Environmental Protection,conducting an experiment with actual information disclosure request,and through interviews with all provincial Environmental Protection Bureaus,this article concluded that the implementation of the environmental information disclosure system still falls short.Future improvements should focus on further publicity of the regulations and decree to enhance public participation,the establishment of an independent evaluation and supervision system for information disclosure,the exchange of experiences and best practices among provincial Environmental Protection Bureaus,and on strengthening the legal status of environmental information disclosure.

  19. Abuse of elderly people by their carers.

    OpenAIRE

    Homer, A C; Gilleard, C

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence of abuse of elderly people by their carers and the characteristics of abusers and the abused. DESIGN--Information on abuse and risk factors was collected over six months from carers and patients. Risk factors were identified in the abused group and compared with those in a non-abused control group. SETTING--Carers were interviewed at home; patients were examined in the wards of Putney and Barnes geriatric hospitals, London. SUBJECTS--All patients referred f...

  20. Sexual abuse of children in Leeds

    OpenAIRE

    Turvill, P

    1986-01-01

    Temporal trends in physical and sexual abuse of children within a geographically defined area were examined, and cases of suspected sexual abuse referred to paediatricians during 1984 were studied in detail. After remaining static for four years referrals due to all types of abuse trebled between 1979 and 1984, and referrals due to sexual abuse increased from none to 50 a year. In 1984, 50 children (39 girls) aged 1-16 were referred because of possible sexual abuse. Abuse was confirmed or con...

  1. New challenges and opportunities in managing substance abuse in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mahmud; Schottenfeld, Richard S; Chawarski, Marek C

    2006-09-01

    Until recently, Malaysia has lagged behind in the treatment of drug addiction and related disorders, despite experiencing severe drug problems. By the end of 2004, 234,000 heroin users or heroin-dependent individuals had been registered in the official government registry, but other estimates exceed 500,000 for heroin abusers in the country. Amphetamine-type stimulant abuse is also increasing and of considerable public and government concern. Among the population of drug users, HIV and other infectious diseases rates are very high. In the Western Pacific regions, Malaysia has the second highest HIV prevalence (after Vietnam) among adult populations (0.62%) and the highest proportion of HIV cases resulting from injection drug use (76.3%). Drug use and related disorders exert a heavy burden on the country's health care and legal systems. Historically, drug abusers were rehabilitated involuntarily in correctional, rather than health-care, facilities. This primarily criminal treatment approach had limited effectiveness which led to widespread public dissatisfaction and the recent introduction of medical treatments for addiction. Naltrexone was introduced in 1999; buprenorphine was introduced in 2001 and methadone in 2003. Agonist maintenance programmes were embraced rapidly by the medical community in Malaysia. Currently, over 30,000 opiate-dependent patients are treated with agonist maintenance treatments by more than 500 medical practitioners in Malaysia. Despite these recent advances, treatments for amphetamine-type stimulant abuse or dependence are underdeveloped, and diversion of agonist medications is an emerging concern.

  2. Essays on information disclosure and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Koshy

    The essays in this dissertation study information disclosure and environmental policy. The first chapter challenges the longstanding result that firms will, in general, voluntarily disclose information about product quality, in light of the unrealism of the assumption, common to much of the literature, that consumers are identical. When this assumption is relaxed, an efficiency-enhancing role may emerge for disclosure regulation, insofar as it can improve information provision and thus help protect consumers with "moderately atypical" preferences. The paper also endogenizes firms's choice of quality and suggests that disclosure regulation may also raise welfare indirectly, by inducing firms to improve product quality. The second chapter explores the significance of policy-induced technological change (ITC) for the design of carbon-abatement policies. The paper considers both R&D-based and learning-by-doing-based knowledge accumulation, examining each specification under both a cost-effectiveness and a benefit-cost policy criterion. We show analytically that the presence of ITC generally implies a lower profile of optimal carbon taxes, a shifting of abatement effort into the future (in the R&D scenarios), and an increase in the scale of abatement (in the benefit-cost scenarios). Numerical simulations indicate that the impact of ITC on abatement timing is very slight, but the effects on costs, optimal carbon taxes, and cumulative abatement can be large. The third chapter uses a World Bank dataset on Chinese state-owned enterprises to estimate price elasticities of industrial coal demand. A simple coal-demand equation is estimated in many forms, and significant price sensitivity is almost always found: the own-price elasticity is estimated to be roughly -0.5. A cost-function/share-equation system is also estimated, and although the function is frequently ill-behaved, indicating that firms may not be minimizing costs, the elasticity estimates again are large and

  3. Strategic Information Disclosure and Competition for an Imperfectly Protected Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos

    2010-01-01

    The imperfect appropriability of revenues from innovation affects the incentives of firms to invest, and to disclose information about their innovative productivity. It creates a free-rider effect in the competition for the innovation that countervails the familiar business-stealing effect....... Moreover, it affects the disclosure incentives such that full disclosure emerges for extreme revenue spillovers (e.g., full protection and no protection of intellectual property), but either partial disclosure or full concealment emerges for intermediate spillovers. I analyze the implications of imperfect...

  4. Disclosure experience and associated factors among HIV positive men and women clinical service users in southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haile Amaha

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disclosing HIV test results to one's sexual partner allows the partner to engage in preventive behaviors as well as the access of necessary support for coping with serostatus or illness. It may motivate partners to seek testing or change behavior, and ultimately decrease the transmission of HIV. The present study was undertaken to determine the rate, outcomes and factors associated with HIV positive status disclosure in Southwest Ethiopia among HIV positive service users. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from January 15, 2007 to March 15, 2007 in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Results A total of 705 people (353 women and 352 men, participated in the study of which 71.6% were taking ART. The vast majority (94.5% disclosed their result to at least one person and 90.8% disclosed to their current main partner. However, 14.2% of disclosure was delayed and 20.6% did not know their partner's HIV status. Among those who did not disclose, 54% stated their reason as fear of negative reaction from their partner. Among those disclosures however, only 5% reported any negative reaction from the partner. Most (80.3% reported that their partners reacted supportively to disclosure of HIV status. Disclosure of HIV results to a sexual partner was associated with knowing the partner's HIV status, advanced disease stage, low negative self-image, residing in the same house with partner, and discussion about HIV testing prior to seeking services. Conclusion Although the majority of participants disclosed their test results, lack of disclosure by a minority resulted in a limited ability to engage in preventive behaviors and to access support. In addition, a considerable proportion of the participants did not know their partner's HIV status. Programmatic and counseling efforts should focus on mutual disclosure of HIV test results, by

  5. Prioritising Disclosures in the Annual Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riise Johansen, Thomas; Plenborg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    focus (n = 288) and preparers of annual reports (n = 89). Using cost-effectiveness analysis, an evaluation method widely used in healthcare economics, the balance between preparation costs and user satisfaction, relative to user demand is assessed. Our main findings show that corporate social...... to be a major concern. With regard to the notes, we find that business combinations (IFRS 3), financial instruments (IFRS 7) and impairment tests (IAS 36) are highly demanded but are also among the items most costly to prepare, and users are less satisfied with these notes. The findings have important......Drawing upon information economics, this paper presents a relative assessment of 24 of the most common disclosure items in the management commentary and notes sections of the annual report. We design and conduct an Internet survey using a large representative sample of users with an investment...

  6. Acute Subdural Hematoma in Infants with Abusive Head Trauma: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karibe, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Motonobu; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Narisawa, Ayumi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-05-15

    The number of cases with child abuse is increasing in Japan, and abusive head trauma (AHT) is a major cause of death in abused children. Child abuse has been recognized by the late 19th century, and widely accepted as battered child syndrome in the middle of the 20th century. As terms, there had been considerable mechanistic controversies between shaken-baby and -impact syndrome until the beginning of the 21st century. In recent years, AHT has been utilized as a less mechanistic term. Most of the characteristics of AHT in Japan have been similar to those in the United States as follows: infant is the most common victim, acute subdural hematoma (SDH) is the most common intracranial lesion, and retinal hemorrhage is often complicated. On the other hand, several characteristics have been different as follows: mother is the most common perpetrators, impact is a more common mechanism of trauma than shaking, and external trauma is more common reflecting the existence of impact. Since AHT as well as child abuse is a social pathological phenomenon influenced by victims, perpetrators, socioeconomic circumstances, and so on, various aspects of AHT as well as child abuse can be changed with times. Actually, a recent paper suggests such changes in infants with acute SDH due to AHT. In this review article, AHT, abusive infantile acute SDH in particular, are reviewed from the aspect of neurosurgical perspectives, including its mechanisms of trauma, biomechanics, clinical features, management, and prognosis, to update the trend in Japan. PMID:26960448

  7. Association between adolescents' self-perceived oral health and self-reported experiences of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Therese; Annerbäck, Eva-Maria; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Flodmark, Olof; Dahllöf, Göran

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the association between self-perceived oral health and self-reported exposure to different types of child abuse. It was hypothesized that self-perceived oral health is compromised in exposed adolescents. All Grade-9 compulsory school and second-year high-school pupils in Södermanland County, Sweden (n = 7,262) were invited to take part in a population-based survey; 5,940 adolescents responded. Survey items on health and social wellbeing included self-perceived oral health and exposure to abuse. The results showed that poor self-perceived oral health was associated with self-reported experience of physical abuse, intimate partner violence, forced sex, and bullying (adjusted OR = 2.3-14.7). The likelihood of reporting poor oral health increased from an adjusted OR of 2.1 for a single incident of abuse to an adjusted OR of 23.3 for multiple abuses. In conclusion, poor self-perceived oral health and previous exposure to child physical abuse, intimate partner violence, bullying, and forced sex is associated. It is important that dental professionals recognize adolescents with poor subjective oral health and take into consideration child abuse as a possible cause in order to prevent these adolescents from further victimization. These results further strengthen that dental professionals are an important resource in child protection. PMID:24206076

  8. SOME DISCLOSURE ASPECTS REGARDING CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirstea Andreea

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the current state of consolidated reporting practice harmonization concerning the choice of presenting the income statement, the changes in equity, the methods used for presenting the cash flow statement, the extant methods for evaluating and reporting goodwill, the extant methods in which jointly controlled entities are accounted in the consolidated financial statements, or the choice for recognizing investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates in the separate statements of the parent company. In order to achieve our goal we selected the first 10 groups, in order of their capitalization value, that were listed on each of the following capital markets: London Stock Exchange, NYSE Euronext (Paris Stock Exchange and Deutsche Börse (Frankfurt Stock Exchange and we analyzed, in a qualitative and in a quantitative manner, for a period of six years starting with 2007, their consolidated financial statements with the design to establish exactly which of the aspects stated in the International Financial Reporting Standards were being used for the items presented above. In order to complete the empirical research part of the paper that addresses from a comparative perspective the evaluation of the degree of material harmony between the reporting practices of groups listed on the three stock exchanges above-mentioned, we used statistical and mathematical methods represented by the I Index first described by Van der Tas. Taking into account the fact that since 2005 all listed companies on the European stock exchanges were required to adopt the international accounting standards for their consolidated financial disclosures, the degree of material harmony was studied only in reference to those requirements that presented two methods or possibilities of disclosure.Our findings suggest that the groups analyzed present a high degree of material harmonization with respect to the reporting

  9. Disclosure appraisal mediating the association between perceived stigma and HIV disclosure to casual sex partners among HIV+ MSM: a path model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haochu; Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin

    2016-06-01

    HIV stigma is widely believed to be related to HIV disclosure. However, there is a dearth of studies examining the mechanisms that link stigma to disclosure. This is a specific study to assess the relationship between perceived stigma and HIV disclosure to casual sex partners based on a social cognitive theory. HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM) from two US cities (N = 297) completed questionnaires administered using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing. Path modeling analysis was used to assess the theory-based structural relationships. Perceived stigma was negatively associated with attitudes, intention and behavior of HIV disclosure to casual sex partners. The association was fully mediated by disclosure appraisal, including disclosure outcome expectations, costs and self-efficacy. Findings of this study add new knowledge regarding HIV stigma and disclosure, and provide timely data supporting more effective behavioral interventions to encourage HIV disclosure among MSM. PMID:27009408

  10. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R;

    1994-01-01

    = 1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.8). Significantly increased incidences were found of cancer in the tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, liver, larynx, lung and pleura and secondary cancer. The women had significantly increased risk of cervical cancer (RR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.0). The men developed prostatic cancer...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers.......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...

  11. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  12. Misuse and abuse of quetiapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Piróg-Balcerzak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent, frequently used in psychiatry, often for symptomatic treatment against a number of mental disorders differing from the registration indications. One of the use is to soothe the clinical conditions caused by the use of various psychoactive substances. The paper presents and discusses the reports of quetiapine misuse, abuse, and even mental addiction, as well as symptoms similar to the so-called discontinuation syndrome, often mixed with withdrawal syndrome occurring in the course of addiction. Most reports concern males, and especially those with a history of other psychoactive substance abuse, and personality disorders, often in conflict with the law. Therefore, clinicians should be cautious when prescribing quetiapine to such patients. The article discusses potential mechanisms responsible for quetiapine abuse. This is probably related to its sedative and anxiolytic activity which results in the frequent use with stimulants. Also, high affinity for the H1 receptor, as antihistamines agents causes rewarding action.

  13. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article Body ... for a time when drugs may be offered. Drug abuse prevention starts with parents learning how to talk ...

  14. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

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    ... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  15. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form ... Health & Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current ...

  16. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder becoming more severe when that person abuses heroin during periods of mania. Either substance abuse or mental illness can develop first. A person experiencing a mental health condition may turn to drugs and alcohol as ...

  17. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other emotional difficulties” such as alcohol or drug abuse, depression, and other anxiety disorders. Symptoms My drinking was ... Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment ... Donate Now Get "Triumph," Our E-News Therapist ...

  18. Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160478.html Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives Extreme stress may ... 300 middle-aged U.S. adults, female survivors of child abuse were more likely to die over the next ...

  19. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  20. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment At around the age of 10, I ... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment End the Suffering: Triumph Over Anxiety and ...