Sample records for abundant organic matter

  1. Influence of Soil Organic Matter Content on Abundance and Biomass of Earthworm (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Valchovski


    Full Text Available The current study explores the influence of soil organic matter content on abundance and biomass of earthworm communities. The observation was carried out on three type of soils: PellicVertisols (very fine texture, Cromi-Vertic Luvisols (fine texture and Calcaric Fluvisols (mediumtexture from the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgaria. The field experiment was provided on uncultivatedplots. In the studied area earthworm fauna comprises of four species: Aporrectodea rosea,Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus terrestris and Octolasion lacteum. We found peregrine lumbricidtaxa, which are widely distributed in European soils. Our study demonstrated that soil organicmatter has a positive effect on lumbricid populations. It was revealed that augmentation of soilorganic matter favours characteristics of earthworm communities. The soil organic matter contentand earthworm abundance are in strong positive correlation (r > 0.981. The same relationship wasrevealed between the biomass of lumbricid fauna and amount of soil organic matter (r > 0.987. Insum, the soil organic matter could be used as an indicator for earthworm communities inuncultivated soils.

  2. Variations in abundance, composition and sources of dissolved organic matter in Green Bay, Lake Michigan (United States)

    Guo, L.; DeVilbiss, S. E.; Zhou, Z.; Klump, J. V.


    Green Bay is the largest freshwater estuary in the Great Lakes and receives disproportionately high terrestrial runoffs from surrounding watersheds. Although seasonal hypoxic conditions and the formation of "dead zones" in Green Bay have received increasing attention, dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the bay and its relation to hypoxia remain understudied. Water samples were collected during summer 2014 from Green Bay, covering stations from eutrophic lower Fox River to northern Green Bay for the measurements of bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV-vis absorbance, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) in addition to hydrographic parameters. DOM abundance, composition, mixing behavior, and sources were quantified for Green Bay in June and August 2014. DOC concentrations ranged from 202 - 571 µM-C with an average of 36173 µM-C, showing a south-to-north concentration gradient, with the highest concentration, more higher-molecular-weight and aromatic DOM components in the lower Fox River. Absorption coefficient (a254) was significantly correlated to DOC concentration and specific conductivity, showing an apparent conservative mixing behavior, especially in August. Non-chromophoric DOC comprised, on average, 33% of the bulk DOC in June and 47% in August, consistent with change in DOM sources between June and August and the lower optical active of autochthonous and more degraded DOM. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis on EEMs data gave rise to two terrestrial humic-like, one aquagenic humic-like, and one protein-like DOM components. Fluorescence indices (BIX and HIX) agreed well with the relative abundance of fluorescent DOM components, with more humified DOM in June and aquagenic DOM in August. Variations in DOM abundance and composition attested the dominance of terrestrial DOM and a dynamic changes in DOM quality along the river-bay transect and between June and August.

  3. Occurrence and abundance of carbohydrates and amino compounds in sequentially extracted labile soil organic matter fractions. (United States)

    This study aimed to investigate the content of carbohydrates and amino compounds in three labile fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). Soil samples were collected from two agricultural fields in southern Italy and the light fraction (LF), the 500–53-µm particulate organic matter (POM) and the mobil...

  4. Soil compaction and organic matter affect conifer seedling nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and diversity. (United States)

    Michael P. Amaranthus; Debbie Page-Dumroese; Al Harvey; Efren Cazares; Larry F. Bednar


    Three levels of organic matter removal (bole only; bole and crowns; and bole, crowns, and forest floor) and three levels of mechanical soil compaction (no compaction, moderate compaction, and severe soil compaction) were studied as they influence Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and western white...

  5. Lateral-delivered organic matter boosts hadal bacterial abundance in the Mariana Trench: A hypothesis (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Liu, H.; Lu, F.; Zou, L.; Tian, J.


    Hadal trenches are part of the least investigated biosphere on Earth due to the great challenge of sampling. Limited studies on microbiology by far have suggested that the hadalsphere hosts a heterotrophic microbial community that is likely fed by organic matter from surface-sinking biomass or re-suspended and laterally transported sediments. The uniqueness of trench environment and its potential role in global carbon sequestration entitle a detailed study on microbial-driven carbon cycle of the trench system. In this study, we conducted a vertical sampling of the microbial community and measured the environmental factors from the epipelagic zone down to the hadal zone at the Mariana Trench. 16S rRNA gene composition showed high stratification at the first 1000 meters below surface (mbs) but a nearly uniformed microbial community composition was observed at the abyssopelagic and the hadalpelagic water columns. The deep-sea bacteria were generally chemoheterotrophs and the majority of them were similar to those present at the ocean surface, suggesting influence of epipelagic primary production on deep sea bacterial communication at the trench location. Several deep-sea-enriched but surface-depleted bacteria could be characterized by potential degraders of polysaccharides and n-alkanes. Therefore, recalcitrant hydrocarbons or carbohydrates are likely important carbon sources supporting the deep-sea biosphere. In spite of consistent community composition, a remarkable increase in biomass of small-sized microbial aggregates was detected at 8727 mbs. Enhanced CDOM proportions in the trench imply intensified microbial activity in hadal water compared to the above water column, which agree with the notion of possible extra carbon input from lateral transportation of slope material. These observations extend our understanding in carbon cycle driven by metabolically diverse microorganisms at the trench and may shed light on the complexity of hadal biogeochemistry.

  6. Organic matter degradation drives benthic cyanobacterial mat abundance on caribbean coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocke, Hannah J.; Polerecky, Lubos; De Beer, Dirk; Weber, Miriam; Claudet, Joachim; Nugues, Maggy M.


    Benthic cyanobacterial mats (BCMs) are impacting coral reefs worldwide. However, the factors and mechanisms driving their proliferation are unclear. We conducted a multi-year survey around the Caribbean island of Curaçao, which revealed highest BCM abundance on sheltered reefs close to urbanised

  7. Molecular size-dependent abundance and composition of dissolved organic matter in river, lake and sea waters. (United States)

    Xu, Huacheng; Guo, Laodong


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is ubiquitous in natural waters. The ecological role and environmental fate of DOM are highly related to the chemical composition and size distribution. To evaluate size-dependent DOM quantity and quality, water samples were collected from river, lake, and coastal marine environments and size fractionated through a series of micro- and ultra-filtrations with different membranes having different pore-sizes/cutoffs, including 0.7, 0.4, and 0.2 μm and 100, 10, 3, and 1 kDa. Abundance of dissolved organic carbon, total carbohydrates, chromophoric and fluorescent components in the filtrates decreased consistently with decreasing filter/membrane cutoffs, but with a rapid decline when the filter cutoff reached 3 kDa, showing an evident size-dependent DOM abundance and composition. About 70% of carbohydrates and 90% of humic- and protein-like components were measured in the properties of DOM, such as specific ultraviolet absorbance, spectral slope, and biological and humification indices also varied significantly with membrane cutoffs. In addition, different ultrafiltration membranes with the same manufacture-rated cutoff also gave rise to different DOM retention efficiencies and thus different colloidal abundances and size spectra. Thus, the size-dependent DOM properties were related to both sample types and membranes used. Our results here provide not only baseline data for filter pore-size selection when exploring DOM ecological and environmental roles, but also new insights into better understanding the physical definition of DOM and its size continuum in quantity and quality in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Abundance of macroalgal organic matter in biofilms: Evidence from n-alkane biomarkers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Garg, A.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Biofilm development on titanium panels immersed in the surface waters of Dona Paula Bay, Goa, India was investigated using molecular biomarkers such as n-alkanes and other chemical and biological parameters. Biofilm biomass measured as organic...

  9. Prokaryotic abundance, activitiy and community composition in relation to the quality of dissoved organic matter in the deep waters off the Galician Coast (NW Spain)


    Guerrero-Feijóo, E. (Elisa); Nieto-Cid, M (Maria del Mar); álvarez-Salgado, X.A. (Xosé-Antón); et al.; Varela-Rozados, M. (Marta)


    We have simultaneously studied the abundance, activity and prokaryotic community structure in relation to the quality of oceanic dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the meso- and bathypelagic waters off the Galician Coast (NW Spain, from 43ºN, 9ºW to 43ºN, 15ºW).Distint water masses were identified based on their physical and chemical characteristics. While prokaryotic heterotrophic production decreased from the euphotic layer to the bathypelagic waters by two orders of magnitude, prokaryotic a...

  10. Suppression of Native Soil Organic Matter Decomposition by Post-Fermentation Sludge in Agriculture Soil as Assessed by 13C Natural Abundance (United States)

    Stelmach, W.; Bieganowski, A.; Kuzyakov, Y.


    Anaerobic digestion of organic wastes results in the production of biogas and post-fermentation sludge. Post-fermentation sludge, which is rich in nutrients and contains more easily accessible inorganic-N than comparable composts, can be used as an alternative fertilizer in organic agriculture systems. While the effects of post fermentation sludge application on crop health and productivity have been extensively studied, little is known about its effects on soil parameters and long-term soil health. Thus, the main aim of this study was to determine the effects of post-fermentation sludge fertilization on agriculture soil quality. Specifically, it examined the efficiency and sequence of sludge utilisation by microorganisms and its influence on the utilisation/stabilization of native soil organic matter (SOM).To determine changes in SOM turnover after the addition of sludge, we utilized a natural stable carbon isotope labelling approach. Sludge produced from C4 plant residues (e.g. maize) was applied to soil under C3 cropping, resulting in distinct stable isotope signatures of fertilizer and SOM. Measuring the carbon isotope composition of CO2 produced in this microcosm experiment permitted accurate determination of the proportion of CO2 fluxes arising from both C sources. The addition of post-fermentation sludge increased the CO2 emissions from the soil by 30%. δ13C analysis of the total CO2 efflux revealed that post-fermentation sludge decreased SOM decomposition by 42% compared to control. Only 34% of the post-fermentation sludge had been mineralized after two months of incubation in the soil.The collective results of our study reveal that application of post-fermentation sludge suppresses SOM decomposition, suggesting its use as a fertilizer could positively influence long-term soil quality. Finally, the success of the natural abundance microcosm labeling approach in our study supports its use as an effective method of analyzing the effects of various

  11. The effects of the 2010 flood on the composition and abundance of the terrestrial organic matter in sediments along the inner-shelf off the Changjiang Estuary, China (United States)

    Li, X.; Bianchi, T. S.; Allison, M. A.; Chapman, P.; Yang, G.


    Surface sediments were collected within the primary depositional pathway along the inner-shelf off the Changjiang Estuary in winter 2009 and fall 2010 - before and after the 2010 flood in the Changjiang River. Multiple proxies (stable isotopes, lignin-phenols, pigments, cutins) were analyzed to examine the influence of this flooding event on the composition and abundance of river-derived terrestrial organic matter in sediments off the Changjiang Estuary. Elemental and stable isotope analyses showed significantly higher molar C/N ratios and enriched δ13C signatures for 2010 samples, which likely reflected inputs of C4 vascular plant materials. Post-flood concentrations of lignin-phenols were significantly lower in concentration than pre-flood concentrations in 2009. Lignin-phenol acid/aldehyde (Ad/Al) ratios, the lignin degradation index, showed significantly more degraded lignin post-flood in 2010 than that in 2009, which suggests greater inputs of lignins that were likely associated more with degraded soils, due to enhanced erosion from the flood, than surface plant litter. This was also in good agreement with higher inputs of another lignin soil proxy, the 3,5-Bd (3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid) /V. Lignin-phenol source plots showed no significant differences in pre-and post flood sources, with sources largely consisting of a mixture of woody and non-woody gymnosperm and angiosperm inputs. Short lived radionuclides such as 7Be, 234Th analysis showed no apparent short-term sediment accumulation. The lack of evidence for new sediments deposited to the inner shelf after the flood was likely influenced in part, by the effects of extensive upstream damming on the Changjiang, especially the more recently constructed Three Gorges Dam.

  12. Agriculture Organic Matter and Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taban


    Full Text Available Undo ubtedly organic matter content of soils is one of theim portant factor for high quality and abundant crop production. In addition to improve the physical properties ofsoil, organic matter contributest ocrop production viabeing energy source formicro-organisms in soiland contained plantnutrients. Fiftypercent of theagri cultures oil contains 1-2 % organicmatter in Turkey.In addition to being a sourceof organic matter, organic poultry manurefertilizer isricherthan other organic fertilizerse specially nitrogen content. It is possible to eliminate poultry manure based salt stress and disease factors with composting process in proper conditions.

  13. Is old organic matter simple organic matter? (United States)

    Nunan, Naoise; Lerch, Thomas; Pouteau, Valérie; Mora, Philippe; Changey, Fréderique; Kätterer, Thomas; Herrmann, Anke


    Bare fallow soils that have been deprived of fresh carbon inputs for prolonged periods contain mostly old, stable organic carbon. In order to shed light on the nature of this carbon, the functional diversity profiles (MicroResp™, Biolog™ and enzyme activity spectra) of the microbial communities of long-term barefallow soils were analysed and compared with those of the microbial communities from their cultivated counterparts. The study was based on the idea that microbial communities adapt to their environment and that therefore the catabolic and enzymatic profiles would reflect the type of substrates available to the microbial communities. The catabolic profiles suggested that the microbial communities in the long-term bare-fallow soil were exposed to a less diverse range of substrates and that these substrates tended to be of simpler molecular forms. Both the catabolic and enzyme activity profiles suggested that the microbial communities from the long-term bare-fallow soils were less adapted to using polymers. These results do not fit with the traditional view of old, stable carbon being composed of complex, recalcitrant polymers. An energetics analysis of the substrate use of the microbial communities for the different soils suggested that the microbial communities from the long-term bare-fallow soils were better adapted to using readily oxidizable,although energetically less rewarding, substrates. Microbial communities appear to adapt to the deprivation of fresh organic matter by using substrates that require little investment.

  14. Axion: Mass -- Dark Matter Abundance Relation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The axion is a hypothetical particle which would explain why QCD is approximately T-conserving, and is also an excellent Cold Dark Matter candidate. It should be possible to make a clean theoretical prediction relating the dark matter density in axions and the axion mass (under reasonable assumptions about inflation). But the axion's early-Universe dynamics, which establish its density as dark matter, are unexpectedly rich in a way which is only starting to yield to quantitative numerical study.

  15. Relic abundance of mass-varying cold dark matter particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, Rogerio


    In models of coupled dark energy and dark matter the mass of the dark matter particle depends on the cosmological evolution of the dark energy field. In this Letter we exemplify in a simple model the effects of this mass variation on the relic abundance of cold dark matter

  16. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 40 are included in Volume I. A number of papers deal with the behaviour and functions of organic matter and make a contribution to increasing agricultural production by proposing improved management practices. Other papers discuss turnover of plant residues, release of plant nutrients through biodegradation of organic compounds, and nitrogen economy and the dynamics of transformation of organic forms of nitrogen. Separate entries have been prepared for those 8 papers which discuss the use of tracer techniques in soil studies

  17. Deuterium in organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straaten, C.M. van der.


    In order to obtain an insight in the processes governing the macroclimate on earth, a knowledge is required of the behaviour of climates in the past. It is well known that D/H ratio of rain varies with temperature determined by latitude as well as by season. Because land plants use this water during the assimilation process, it is expected that the D/H variations are propagated in the organic plant matter. The D/H palaeoclimatic method has therefore been applied to peat to distinguish between the chemical constituents and trace the stable hydrogen fraction in the organic matter. The relation between the hydrogen isotopic composition of precipitation and climatic factors such as the temperature have also been studied. (Auth.)

  18. Dilaton could affect abundance of dark matter particles

    CERN Multimedia


    "The amount of dark matter left over from the early universe may be less than previously believed. new research shows that the "relic abundance" of stable dark matter particles such as the neutralino may be reduced as compared to standard cosmology theories due to the effects of the "dilaton", a particle with zero spin in the gravitational sector of strings." (1 page)

  19. Correlation between Soil Organic Matter, Total Organic Matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    matter (TOC) and moisture. Burke et al. (1990) found that soil clay content and total soil organic matter was positively correlated across large regions of the Great. Plains. Soil texture have significant relation on SOM and TOC in many of decomposition models and organic matter formation (Rastetter et al., 1991; Raich et al.,.

  20. Changes in Soil Organic Matter Abundance, Molecular Composition, and Diversity in an Arid Ecosystem in Response to Long-term Elevated CO2 Manipulation. (United States)

    Hess, N. J.; Tfaily, M.; Evans, R. D.; Koyama, A.


    Little is known about how soils in arid ecosystems will respond to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration yet arid and semi-arid ecosystems cover more than 40% of Earth's land surface. Previous work in the Mojave Desert (Evans et al., 2014 Nature Climate Change) reported higher soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (N) concentrations following 10 years exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 at the Nevada Desert Free-Air-Carbon dioxide-Enrichment (FACE) Facility (NDFF). In this study, we investigated potential mechanisms that resulted in increased SOC and total N accumulation and stabilization using high resolution mass spectrometry at the NDFF site. Samples were collected from soil profiles to 1 m in depth with a 0.2 m a increment under the dominant evergreen shrub Larrea tridentata. The differences in the molecular composition and diversity of soil organic matter (SOM) were more evident in surface soils and declined with depth, and were consistent with higher SOC and total N concentrations under elevated than ambient CO2. Our molecular analysis also suggested increased root exudation and/or microbial necromass from stabilization of labile C and N contributed to SOM and N stocks. Increased microbial activity and metabolism under elevated CO2 compared to ambient plots suggested that elevated CO2 altered microbial carbon (C) use patterns, reflecting changes in the quality and quantity of SOC inputs. We found that plant-derived compounds were primary substrates for microbial activity under elevated CO2 and microbial products were the main constituents of stabilized SOM. Our results suggest that arid ecosystems are a potential large C sink under elevated CO2, give the extensive coverage of the land surface, and that labile compounds are transformed to stable SOM via microbial processes. Arid systems are limited by water, and thus may have a different C storage potential under changing climates than other ecosystems that are limited by nitrogen or phosphorus.

  1. Detection and structural identification of dissolved organic matter in Antarctic glacial ice at natural abundance by SPR-W5-WATERGATE 1H NMR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Pautler, Brent G; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J; Tseng, Li-Hong; Spraul, Manfred; Dubnick, Ashley; Sharp, Martin J; Fitzsimons, Sean J


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems and is derived from various inputs that control its turnover. Glaciers and ice sheets are the second largest water reservoir in the global hydrologic cycle, but little is known about glacial DOM composition or contributions to biogeochemical cycling. Here we employ SPR-W5-WATERGATE (1)H NMR spectroscopy to elucidate and quantify the chemical structures of DOM constituents in Antarctic glacial ice as they exist in their natural state (average DOC of 8 mg/L) without isolation or preconcentration. This Antarctic glacial DOM is predominantly composed of a mixture of small recognizable molecules differing from DOM in marine, lacustrine, and other terrestrial environments. The major constituents detected in three distinct types of glacial ice include lactic and formic acid, free amino acids, and a mixture of simple sugars and amino sugars with concentrations that vary between ice types. The detection of free amino acid and amino sugar monomer components of peptidoglycan within the ice suggests that Antarctic glacial DOM likely originates from in situ microbial activity. As these constituents are normally considered to be biologically labile (fast cycling) in nonglacial environments, accelerated glacier melt and runoff may result in a flux of nutrients into adjacent ecosystems.

  2. Dark matter relic abundance and light sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yi-Lei [Center for High Energy Physics,Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Shou-hua [Center for High Energy Physics,Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics & State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology,Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter,Beijing 100871 (China)


    In this paper, we calculate the relic abundance of the dark matter particles when they can annihilate into sterile neutrinos with the mass ≲100 GeV in a simple model. Unlike the usual standard calculations, the sterile neutrino may fall out of the thermal equilibrium with the thermal bath before the dark matter freezes out. In such a case, if the Yukawa coupling y{sub N} between the Higgs and the sterile neutrino is small, this process gives rise to a larger Ω{sub DM}h{sup 2} so we need a larger coupling between the dark matter and the sterile neutrino for a correct relic abundance.

  3. Extraterrestrial organic matter: a review. (United States)

    Irvine, W M


    We review the nature of the widespread organic material present in the Milky Way Galaxy and in the Solar System. Attention is given to the links between these environments and between primitive Solar System objects and the early Earth, indicating the preservation of organic material as an interstellar cloud collapsed to form the Solar System and as the Earth accreted such material from asteroids, comets and interplanetary dust particles. In the interstellar medium of the Milky Way Galaxy more than 100 molecular species, the bulk of them organic, have been securely identified, primarily through spectroscopy at the highest radio frequencies. There is considerable evidence for significantly heavier organic molecules, particularly polycyclic aromatics, although precise identification of individual species has not yet been obtained. The so-called diffuse interstellar bands are probably important in this context. The low temperature kinetics in interstellar clouds leads to very large isotopic fractionation, particularly for hydrogen, and this signature is present in organic components preserved in carbonaceous chondritic meteorites. Outer belt asteroids are the probable parent bodies of the carbonaceous chondrites, which may contain as much as 5% organic material, including a rich variety of amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, and other species of potential prebiotic interest. Richer in volatiles and hence less thermally processed are the comets, whose organic matter is abundant and poorly characterized. Cometary volatiles, observed after sublimation into the coma, include many species also present in the interstellar medium. There is evidence that most of the Earth's volatiles may have been supplied by a 'late' bombardment of comets and carbonaceous meteorites, scattered into the inner Solar System following the formation of the giant planets. How much in the way of intact organic molecules of potential prebiotic interest survived delivery to the Earth has become an

  4. The depth distribution functions of the natural abundances of carbon isotopes in Alfisols thoroughly sampled by thin-layer sampling, and their relation to the dynamics of organic matter in theses soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker-Heidmann, P.


    The aim of this study was to gain fundamental statements on the relationship between the depth distributions of the natural abundances of 13 C and 14 C isotopes and the dynamics of the organic matter in Alfisols. For this purpose, six Alfisols were investigated: four forest soils from Northern Germany, two of them developed in Loess and two in glacial loam, one West German Loess soil used for fruit-growing and one agricultural granite-gneiss soil from the semiarid part of India. The soil was sampled as succesive horizontal layers of 2 cm depth from an area of 0.5 to 1 m 2 size, starting from the organic down to the C horizon or the lower part of the Bt. This kind of completely thin-layer-wise sampling was applied here for the first time. The carbon content and the natural abundances of the 13 C and the 14 C isotopes of each sample were determined. The δ 13 C value was measured by mass spectrometry. A vacuum preparation line with an electronically controlled cooling unit was constructed thereto. For the determination of the 14 C content, the sample carbon was transferred into benzene, and its activity was measured by liquid scintillation spectrometry. From the combination of the depth distribution functions of the 14 C activity and the δ 13 C value, and with the aid of additional analyses like C/N ratio and particle size distribution, a conclusive interpretation as to the dynamics of the organic matter in the investigated Alfisols is given. (orig./BBR)

  5. The destruction of organic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsuch, T T


    International Series of Monographs in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 39: The Destruction of Organic Matter focuses on the identification of trace elements in organic compounds. The monograph first offers information on the processes involved in the determination of trace elements in organic matters, as well as the methods not involving complete destruction of these elements. The text surveys the sources of errors in the processes responsible in pinpointing elements in organic compounds. These processes include sampling, disruption of the samples, manipulation, and measurements. The book

  6. Correlation between Soil Organic Matter, Total Organic Matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of four sites distributed in different soils of Kelantan State, Malaysia was identified for the study. Soils were collected by depth interval of 0-10cm, 10-20cm and 20-30cm. The correlation of soil organic matter (SOM) content, total organic carbon (TOC) content, water content and soils texture for industrial area at ...

  7. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang


    originates from undigested feed, but also metabolic losses, mucus, dead tissue, feed waste and intake water may contribute. The nutrient composition of the feed affects the quantity and composition of the organic (undigested) waste, and including for example plant protein ingredients may affect......Organic waste from fish production is conventionally measured as BOD5 (biological oxygen demand measured during 5 days) and COD (chemical oxygen demand (includes BOD5)). Organic waste is of particular concern for several reasons. The easily degradable part (BOD5) may have an immediate, negative......, reduction of dissolved oxygen concentrations, etc.). In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), a high organic load caused by limited water exchange may affect biofilter performance by favouring heterotrophic bacteria at the expense of autotrophic, nitrifying bacteria. Organic waste in RAS primarily...

  8. Interstellar organic matter in meteorites (United States)

    Yang, J.; Epstein, S.


    Deuterium-enriched hydrogen is present in organic matter in such meteorites as noncarbonaceous chondrites. The majority of the unequilibrated primitive meteorites contain hydrogen whose D/H ratios are greater than 0.0003, requiring enrichment (relative to cosmic hydrogen) by isotope exchange reactions taking place below 150 K. The D/H values presented are the lower limits for the organic compounds derived from interstellar molecules, since all processes subsequent to their formation, including terrestrial contamination, decrease their D/H ratios. In contrast, the D/H ratios of hydrogen associated with hydrated silicates are relatively uniform for the meteorites analyzed. The C-13/C-12 ratios of organic matter, irrespective of D/H ratio, lie well within those observed for the earth. Present findings suggest that other interstellar material, in addition to organic matter, is preserved and is present in high D/H ratio meteorites.

  9. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars


    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  10. Organic matter in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, Sun


    Authored by an experienced writer and a well-known researcher of stellar evolution, interstellar matter and spectroscopy, this unique treatise on the formation and observation of organic compounds in space includes a spectroscopy refresher, as well as links to geological findings and finishes with the outlook for future astronomical facilities and solar system exploration missions. A whole section on laboratory simulations includes the Miller-Urey experiment and the ultraviolet photolysis of ices.

  11. Photodissolution of soil organic matter (United States)

    Mayer, L.M.; Thornton, K.R.; Schick, L.L.; Jastrow, J.D.; Harden, J.W.


    Sunlight has been shown to enhance loss of organic matter from aquatic sediments and terrestrial plant litter, so we tested for similar reactions in mineral soil horizons. Losses of up to a third of particulate organic carbon occurred after continuous exposure to full-strength sunlight for dozens of hours, with similar amounts appearing as photodissolved organic carbon. Nitrogen dissolved similarly, appearing partly as ammonium. Modified experiments with interruption of irradiation to include extended dark incubation periods increased loss of total organic carbon, implying remineralization by some combination of light and microbes. These photodissolution reactions respond strongly to water content, with reaction extent under air-dry to fully wet conditions increasing by a factor of 3-4 fold. Light limitation was explored using lamp intensity and soil depth experiments. Reaction extent varied linearly with lamp intensity. Depth experiments indicate that attenuation of reaction occurs within the top tens to hundreds of micrometers of soil depth. Our data allow only order-of-magnitude extrapolations to field conditions, but suggest that this type of reaction could induce loss of 10-20% of soil organic carbon in the top 10. cm horizon over a century. It may therefore have contributed to historical losses of soil carbon via agriculture, and should be considered in soil management on similar time scales. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  12. The contentious nature of soil organic matter. (United States)

    Lehmann, Johannes; Kleber, Markus


    The exchange of nutrients, energy and carbon between soil organic matter, the soil environment, aquatic systems and the atmosphere is important for agricultural productivity, water quality and climate. Long-standing theory suggests that soil organic matter is composed of inherently stable and chemically unique compounds. Here we argue that the available evidence does not support the formation of large-molecular-size and persistent 'humic substances' in soils. Instead, soil organic matter is a continuum of progressively decomposing organic compounds. We discuss implications of this view of the nature of soil organic matter for aquatic health, soil carbon-climate interactions and land management.

  13. Organic matter in central California radiation fogs. (United States)

    Herckes, Pierre; Lee, Taehyoung; Trenary, Laurie; Kang, Gongunn; Chang, Hui; Collett, Jeffrey L


    Organic matter was studied in radiation fogs in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the California Regional Particulate Air Quality Study (CRPAQS). Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations ranged from 2 to 40 ppm of C. While most organic carbon was found in solution as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 23% on average was not dissolved inside the fog drops. We observe a clear variation of organic matter concentration with droplet size. TOC concentrations in small fog drops (fogwater, consistent with the enrichment of the organic matter in smaller fog drops with lower terminal settling velocities.

  14. Podzolisation and soil organic matter dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.; Jongmans, A.G.


    Present models of podzolisation emphasize the mobilization and precipitation of dissolved organic matter. together with Al(-silicates) and Fe. Such models cannot explain the dominance of pellet-like organic matter in most boreal podzols and in well-drained podzols outside the boreal zone, and the

  15. When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaschke, Steffen


    Review of: James R. Taylor and Elizabeth J. Van Every / When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters. (New York: Routledge, 2014. 220 pp. ISBN: 978 0415741668)......Review of: James R. Taylor and Elizabeth J. Van Every / When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters. (New York: Routledge, 2014. 220 pp. ISBN: 978 0415741668)...

  16. 'Deficits Don’t Matter' : Abundance, Indebtedness and American Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, Rob


    If deficits, nor defaults, don't really matter anymore, what sign of our times is it? What has changed from the days that Franklin Delano Roosevelt risked the fragile economic recovery from the great depression by returning, in 1937, to the standard of his economic orthodoxy, a belief in fiscal

  17. Effects of organic matter content on earthworms and nitrogen mineralization in grassland soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van P.C.J.; Stelt, van der B.; Rietberg, P.I.; Goede, de R.G.M.


    Earthworms play an important role in the nitrogen cycle in the soil. Through their activities they affect the mineralization of organic matter directly and indirectly. However, the presence of organic matter also affects earthworm abundances. For this study, we selected 2 grasslands differing in

  18. "Deficits Don't Matter": Abundance, Indebtedness and American Culture. (United States)

    Kroes, Rob

    If deficits, nor defaults, don't really matter anymore, what sign of our times is it? What has changed from the days that Franklin Delano Roosevelt risked the fragile economic recovery from the great depression by returning, in 1937, to the standard of his economic orthodoxy, a belief in fiscal rectitude and anaversion to debts and deficits? If that was a sign of a certain American character, what has happened to it? A massive shift in public culture must have occurred, affecting people's views on public probity and political rectitude. The following is an attempt to trace some of the main shifts on the way to our present quandary.

  19. Interstellar and Solar System Organic Matter Preserved in Interplanetary Dust (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko


    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth's stratosphere derive from collisions among asteroids and by the disruption and outgassing of short-period comets. Chondritic porous (CP) IDPs are among the most primitive Solar System materials. CP-IDPs have been linked to cometary parent bodies by their mineralogy, textures, C-content, and dynamical histories. CP-IDPs are fragile, fine-grained (less than um) assemblages of anhydrous amorphous and crystalline silicates, oxides and sulfides bound together by abundant carbonaceous material. Ancient silicate, oxide, and SiC stardust grains exhibiting highly anomalous isotopic compositions are abundant in CP-IDPs, constituting 0.01 - 1 % of the mass of the particles. The organic matter in CP-IDPs is isotopically anomalous, with enrichments in D/H reaching 50x the terrestrial SMOW value and 15N/14N ratios up to 3x terrestrial standard compositions. These anomalies are indicative of low T (10-100 K) mass fractionation in cold molecular cloud or the outermost reaches of the protosolar disk. The organic matter shows distinct morphologies, including sub-um globules, bubbly textures, featureless, and with mineral inclusions. Infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry studies of organic matter in IDPs reveals diverse species including aliphatic and aromatic compounds. The organic matter with the highest isotopic anomalies appears to be richer in aliphatic compounds. These materials also bear similarities and differences with primitive, isotopically anomalous organic matter in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. The diversity of the organic chemistry, morphology, and isotopic properties in IDPs and meteorites reflects variable preservation of interstellar/primordial components and Solar System processing. One unifying feature is the presence of sub-um isotopically anomalous organic globules among all primitive materials, including IDPs, meteorites, and comet Wild-2 samples returned by the Stardust mission.

  20. Advanced characterization of algogenic organic matter, bacterial organic matter, humic acids and fulvic acids. (United States)

    Chon, Kangmin; Cho, Jaeweon; Shon, Ho Kyong


    Advanced characterization techniques of organic matter, including bulk organic characterization, size-exclusion chromatography, three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and fractionations using Amberlite XAD-8/4 resins, were used to investigate differences and similarities in the physicochemical properties of four different organic matter, namely algogenic organic matter (AOM), bacterial organic matter (BOM), Suwanee River humic acids (SRHA) and Suwanee River fulvic acids (SRFA). From the comparison of characteristics of the AOM, BOM, SRHA, and SRFA, it was identified that the specific UV absorbance, molar ratio of organic nitrogen to organic carbon, molecular weight, fluorescence characteristics, functional group compositions, and relative hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of all the tested organic matter were considerably different from their sources. The SRHA and SRFA were mainly composed of hydrophobic fractions while the AOM and BOM included more hydrophilic fractions than the SRHA and SRFA due to the alcohol and amide functional groups. This indicated that the origin of organic matter in natural waters can be predicted by their physicochemical characteristics, and the source identification of organic matter provides a better understanding of the interactions between the origin of organic matter and water treatment processes (e.g., coagulation and membrane filtration).

  1. Soil organic matter in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, J.G.; Lesschen, J.P.


    Soil organic matter (SOM) and especially decreasing SOM are since many decades on the agenda of different stakeholders due to the importance of SOM for various issues ranging from local crop profitability to global climate change. Globally large amounts of organic carbon are stored in the soil and

  2. Classification of organic matter of sedimentary rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pol' ster, L.A.; Sadykova, P.I.; Shustova, L.G.


    A series of organic matter classification is examined. Each of them is based on one or several signs: the composition of original biomass and conditions for its fossilization, molecular structures of organic compounds and their element composition, coal-petrographic characteristics and other indicators. An attempt is made to compare these classifications and to correlate them with the classification of sedikakhites of N.B. Vassoyevich based on the isolation of the three most characteristic molecular structures and groups of biopolymers (arkon, aline, and amikagin). The purpose of the conducted comparison was the possibility of using the indicators placed in each classification for unequivocal determination of the typw of organic matter. This is very important for separate predicting of oil content and gas content of large territories. For this purpose a characterization is provided of the paleogeographic and paleogeotectonic conditions for formation of basic types of organic matter.

  3. Organic carbon organic matter and bulk density relationships in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and soil organic carbon (SOC) constitute usually a small portion of soil, but they are one of the most important components of ecosystems. Bulk density (dB or BD) value is necessary to convert organic carbon (OC) content per unit area. Relationships between SOM, SOC and BD were established ...

  4. Priming of Native Soil Organic Matter by Pyrogenic Organic Matter (United States)

    DeCiucies, S.; Lehmann, J.; Woolf, D.; Whitman, T.


    Within the global carbon (C) cycle, soil C makes up a critical and active pool. Pyrogenic C, (PyC) or black C, contributes to this pool, and has been shown to change the turnover rate of the non-pyrogenic soil organic carbon (nSOC) associated with it. This change in rate of mineralization is referred to as priming, which can be negative or positive. There are many possible mechanisms that may be causing this priming effect, both biological and chemical. This study employs incubation experiments to identify and parse these potential mechanisms, focusing on negative priming mechanisms which may have importance in global carbon storage and carbon cycling models. Continuous respiration measurements of soil/char and soil/biomass incubations using isotopically labeled biomass (13C and 15N) indicate that priming interactions are more significant in soils with higher carbon contents, and that higher temperature chars induce more negative priming over time. Current incubations are exploring the effects of chars pyrolyzed at different temperatures, chars extracted of DOC versus non-extracted, soils with differing carbon contents, and the effects of pH and nutrient adjusting incubations. We will continue to examine the contribution of the different mechanisms by isolating variables such as nutrient addition, soil texture, char application rate, and mineral availability. We anticipate that sorption on PyOM surfaces are important in nSOM stabilization and will continue to study these effects using highly labeled substrates and nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (nano-SIMS).

  5. Spectral mapping of soil organic matter (United States)

    Kristof, S. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Johannsen, C. J.


    Multispectral remote sensing data were examined for use in the mapping of soil organic matter content. Computer-implemented pattern recognition techniques were used to analyze data collected in May 1969 and May 1970 by an airborne multispectral scanner over a 40-km flightline. Two fields within the flightline were selected for intensive study. Approximately 400 surface soil samples from these fields were obtained for organic matter analysis. The analytical data were used as training sets for computer-implemented analysis of the spectral data. It was found that within the geographical limitations included in this study, multispectral data and automatic data processing techniques could be used very effectively to delineate and map surface soils areas containing different levels of soil organic matter.

  6. Bone organic matter and radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance Haynes, C.


    Unsatisfactory results with the carbon-14 dating of bone organic matter have caused bone radiocarbon dates to be considered unreliable. Even the so-called collagen dates are commonly erroneous for samples more than a few thousand years old. Current efforts at the University of Arizona are directed towards understanding why bone yields erroneous results, what is the nature of the contaminants, and what can be done to obtain accurate dates from bone organic matter. Bone from extinct Pleistocene animals from stratified sites with adequate geochronological control was selected for analysis. From each sample four organic fractions (humic acids, fulvic acids, soluble bone organic matter, and insoluble bone organic matter) were chemically separated and analysed for carbon-14. The results were then compared to radiocarbon dates on associated wood or charcoal or age estimates based upon other data. Results suggest that collagen, free of humic acids, yields reliable results and is the only reliable organic fraction for dating fossil bone. Humic acids that are not removed by standard pre-treatment are a prime suspect in the contamination of 'collagen' and can lead to dates that are too old as well as too young. (author)

  7. Estimation of organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of stems and seeds of the Juncus acutus plant in ruminant nutrition. ... of Juncus acutus. Stem and seed samples were collected from Hamsiloz Bay in Sinop, Turkey, and the proximate analysis was carried on them.

  8. Soil architecture and distribution of organic matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, M.J.; Noordwijk, van M.


    The biological component of soil structure varies greatly in quality and quantity, occurs on different scales, and varies throughout the year. It is far less predictable than the physical part and human impact. The occurrence and distribution of organic matter depends on several processes, related

  9. Molecule Matters-Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 11. Molecule Matters - Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs). R Sarvanakumar S Sankararaman ... Author Affiliations. R Sarvanakumar1 S Sankararaman1. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai 600036, India.

  10. Effect of Fertilizer and Incorporated Organic Matter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    N,O occur shortly after the addition of fertilizer. 2 years, before which the site had been used or organic matter (Larsson et al., 1998; Weitz et for seed production. The site is characterized al., 2001), within 24 hours after rainfall events by low soil nutrient status (Table 1). Mean. (Dick et al., 2001) and are associated with soil.

  11. Physicochemical characterization of organic matter during co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    biodegradation of shea-nut cake, which is a food industry waste. The shea-nut ..... increase in the organic matter reserves of soil. The agro- nomic value of the compost (Table 3) shows that it can also contribute to the fertilization of the soil. DISCUSSION ... The evolution of this ratio means the decrease of carbon. (OM) and ...

  12. Transformation process for wastes containing organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, J.P.; Faup, G.


    Wastes containing organic matter are treated between 180 and 200/sup 0/C under atmospheric pressure by a hydroaromatic solvent (tetralines, naphtalenes, methylnaphtalenes, creosotes, anthracenes, chrysenes and their oils or mixtures) to obtain a fluid fuel of high calorific value (between 8500 and 9500 kcal/kg).

  13. Organic matter loading affects lodgepole pine seedling growth. (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M J; Armleder, H M


    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  14. Lability of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Giles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.


    Accurate simulations of the consenctrations of atmospheric organic particulate matter (PM) are needed for predicting energy flow in the Earth’s climate system. In the past, simulations of organic PM widely assume equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between the PM and surrounding vapor. Herein, we test this assumption by measuring evaporation rates and associated vapor mass concentration of organic films representative of atmospheric PM. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH), indicating equilibrium partitioning above a transition RH but not below. In contrast for films representing biogenic PM, no threshold was observed, indicating equilibrium partitioning at all RHs. The results suggest that the mass lability of atmospheric organic PM can differ in consequential ways among Earth’s natural biomes, polluted regions, and regions of land-use change, and these differences need to be considered when simulating atmospheric organic PM.

  15. Light element abundances in a matter-antimatter model of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, J.J.


    This paper is devoted to the problem of light element synthesis in a baryon symmetric Big-Bang cosmology, in which the universe is constituted at the end of the leptonic era by a nucleon-antinucleon emulsion. If the initial typical size of the matter or antimatter regions is sufficiently high to avoid significant neutron annihilation, nucleosynthesis can proceed in this kind of model in the same way as in the conventional Big-Bang. But the abundances of the created light elements can be modified at a later time by interaction of the nuclei with the high energy particles and photons resulting from annihilation. In this article, we consider two specific mechanisms able to change the abundances: a 4 He 'nucleodisruption' process (proposed by Combes et al., 1975), which leads to deuterium production, and 4 He photodisintegration by annihilation γ-rays, which leads to an increase of the 3 He and D production. General relations are established which allow one to compute the abundances of the so created elements when the size l of the matter or antimatter regions and the annihilation rate are given as function of time. These relations are applied to the Omnes model, in which the size l grows by a coalescence mechanism. It is shown that in this model the D and 3 He abundances are much greater than the limits on primordial abundances deduced from the present observations. (orig.) [de

  16. Soil Organic Matter (SOM): Molecular Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Amity


    Molecular simulation is a powerful tool used to gain an atomistic, molecular, and nanoscale level understanding of the structure, dynamics, and interactions from adsorption on minerals and assembly in aggregates of soil organic matter (SOM). Given the importance of SOM fate and persistence in soils and the current knowledge gaps, applications of atomistic scale simulations to study the complex compounds in SOM and their interactions in self-assembled aggregates composed of different organic matter compounds and with mineral surfaces of different types common in soils are few and far between. Here, we describe various molecular simulation methods that are currently in use in various areas and applicable to SOM research, followed by a brief survey of specific applications to SOM research and an illustration with our own recent efforts in this area. We conclude with an outlook and the challenges for future research in this area.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen molecular composition of soil organic matter fractions resistant to oxidation (United States)

    Katherine Heckman; Dorisel Torres; Christopher Swanston; Johannes Lehmann


    The methods used to isolate and characterise pyrogenic organic carbon (PyC) from soils vary widely, and there is little agreement in the literature as to which method truly isolates the most chemically recalcitrant (inferred from oxidative resistance) and persistent (inferred from radiocarbon abundance) fraction of soil organic matter. In addition, the roles of fire,...

  18. Organic sulphur in macromolecular sedimentary organic matter : I. Structure and origin of sulphur-containing moieties in kerogen, asphaltene and coal as revealed by flash pyrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Eglinton, T.I.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Schenk, P.A.


    The distributions of sulphur-containing compounds generated by flash pyrolysis of macromolecular sedimentary organic matter (kerogen, coal, asphaltenes) were studied by gas chromatography in combination with S-selective flame photometric detection or mass spectrometry. The abundance of

  19. Isolation and chemical characterization of dissolved and colloidal organic matter (United States)

    Aiken, G.; Leenheer, J.


    Commonly used techniques for the concentration and isolation of organic matter from water, such as preparative chromatography, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, and the methods used to analyze the organic matter obtained by these methods are reviewed. The development of methods to obtain organic matter that is associated with fractions of the dissolved organic carbon other than humic substances, such as organic bases, hydrophilic organic acids and colloidal organic matter are discussed. Methods specifically used to study dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorous are also discussed. -from Authors

  20. Age heterogeneity of soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rethemeyer, J.; Grootes, P.M.; Bruhn, F.; Andersen, N.; Nadeau, M.J.; Kramer, C.; Gleixner, G.


    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon measurements were used to investigate the heterogeneity of organic matter in soils of agricultural long-term trial sites in Germany and Great Britain. The strong age heterogeneity of the soil organic matter (SOM) is reflected by highly variable 14 C values of different organic components, ranging from modern (>100 pMC) to 7% modern carbon (pMC). At the field experiment in Halle (Germany), located in a heavily industrialized area, an increase of 14 C content with increasing depth was observed even though the input of modern plant debris should be highest in the topsoil. This is attributed to a significant contribution of old carbon (of up to 50% in the topsoil) to SOM. As a test to exclude the old carbon contamination, more specific SOM fractions were extracted. However, even a phospholipid fraction representing viable microbial biomass that is supposed to be short-lived in SOM, shows a strong influence of old, refractory carbon, when radiocarbon dated. In contrast, 14 C data of other field trials distant from industrial areas indicate that there inputs of old carbon to the soil are lower or even absent. Such locations are more favorable to study SOM stabilization and to quantify turnover of organic carbon in soils

  1. Abiotic Bromination of Soil Organic Matter. (United States)

    Leri, Alessandra C; Ravel, Bruce


    Biogeochemical transformations of plant-derived soil organic matter (SOM) involve complex abiotic and microbially mediated reactions. One such reaction is halogenation, which occurs naturally in the soil environment and has been associated with enzymatic activity of decomposer organisms. Building on a recent finding that naturally produced organobromine is ubiquitous in SOM, we hypothesized that inorganic bromide could be subject to abiotic oxidations resulting in bromination of SOM. Through lab-based degradation treatments of plant material and soil humus, we have shown that abiotic bromination of particulate organic matter occurs in the presence of a range of inorganic oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide and assorted forms of ferric iron, producing both aliphatic and aromatic forms of organobromine. Bromination of oak and pine litter is limited primarily by bromide concentration. Fresh plant material is more susceptible to bromination than decayed litter and soil humus, due to a labile pool of mainly aliphatic compounds that break down during early stages of SOM formation. As the first evidence of abiotic bromination of particulate SOM, this study identifies a mechanistic source of the natural organobromine in humic substances and the soil organic horizon. Formation of organobromine through oxidative treatments of plant material also provides insights into the relative stability of aromatic and aliphatic components of SOM.

  2. Effects of coral-derived organic matter on the growth of bacterioplankton and heterotrophic nanoflagellates (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryota; Tanaka, Yasuaki; Guillemette, Ryan; Kurihara, Haruko


    Exudates derived from hermatypic corals were incubated with organic matter (DOM). The addition of coral-derived DOM caused significantly higher growth rates and production of bacteria and HNF compared to those in control seawater without coral exudates. During the incubation, HNF exhibited their peak in abundance 24-48 h after the peak abundance of bacteria. The growth efficiencies of both bacteria and HNF were significantly higher with coral-derived DOM, suggesting higher transfer efficiency from bacteria that is fueled by coral organic matter to HNF. Therefore, trophic transfer of coral-derived DOM from bacteria to HNF can contribute to efficient carbon flow through the microbial food web.

  3. Clay-associated organic matter in kaolinitic and smectitic soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattel-Koekkoek, E.J.W.


    The primary source of soil organic matter is plant debris of all kinds, such as dead roots, leaves and branches that enter into the soil and are then biologically decomposed at variable rates. Organic matter has many different important functions on a local and global scale. Soil organic matter is

  4. Factors controlling the abundance of organic sulfur in flash pyrolyzates of Upper Cretaceous kerogens from Sergipe Basin, Brazil (United States)

    Carmo, A.M.; Stankiewicz, B.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Pratt, L.M.


    The molecular and elemental composition of immature kerogens isolated from Upper Cretaceous marine carbonates from Sergipe Basin, Brazil were investigated using combined pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and organic petrographic techniques. The kerogens are predominantly composed of reddish-fluorescing amorphous organic matter (AOM) and variable amounts of yellow-fluorescing alginite and liptodetrinite. The abundance of organic sulfur in the kerogens inferred from the ratio 2-ethyl-5-methylthiophene/(1,2-dimethylbenzene + dec-1-ene) in the pyrolyzates is variable and may be related to changes in the type of primary organic input and/or to variations in rates of bacterial sulfate reduction. A concomitant increase in S/C and O/C ratios determined in situ using the electron microprobe is observed in AOM and alginites and may be related to a progressive oxidation of the organic matter during sulfurization. The S/C ratio of the AOM is systematically higher than the S C ratio of the alginites. Combined with a thiophene distribution characteristic of pyrolyzates of Type II organic matter, the higher S/C of AOM in Sergipe kerogens suggests that sulfurization and incorporation of low-molecular weight lipids derived from normal marine organic matter into the kerogen structure predominated over direct sulfurization of highly aliphatic algal biomacromolecules.The molecular and elemental composition of immature kerogens isolated from Upper Cretaceous marine carbonates from Sergipe Basin, Brazil were investigated using combined pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and organic petrographic techniques. The kerogens are predominantly composed of reddish-fluorescing amorphous organic matter (AOM) and variable amounts of yellow-fluorescing alginite and liptodetrinite. The abundance of organic sulfur in the kerogens inferred from the ratio 2-ethyl-5-methylthiophene/(1,2-dimethylbenzene+dec-1-ene) in the pyrolyzates is variable and may be related to changes in

  5. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive (United States)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.


    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  6. Mapping Soil Organic Matter with Hyperspectral Imaging (United States)

    Moni, Christophe; Burud, Ingunn; Flø, Andreas; Rasse, Daniel


    Soil organic matter (SOM) plays a central role for both food security and the global environment. Soil organic matter is the 'glue' that binds soil particles together, leading to positive effects on soil water and nutrient availability for plant growth and helping to counteract the effects of erosion, runoff, compaction and crusting. Hyperspectral measurements of samples of soil profiles have been conducted with the aim of mapping soil organic matter on a macroscopic scale (millimeters and centimeters). Two soil profiles have been selected from the same experimental site, one from a plot amended with biochar and another one from a control plot, with the specific objective to quantify and map the distribution of biochar in the amended profile. The soil profiles were of size (30 x 10 x 10) cm3 and were scanned with two pushbroomtype hyperspectral cameras, one which is sensitive in the visible wavelength region (400 - 1000 nm) and one in the near infrared region (1000 - 2500 nm). The images from the two detectors were merged together into one full dataset covering the whole wavelength region. Layers of 15 mm were removed from the 10 cm high sample such that a total of 7 hyperspectral images were obtained from the samples. Each layer was analyzed with multivariate statistical techniques in order to map the different components in the soil profile. Moreover, a 3-dimensional visalization of the components through the depth of the sample was also obtained by combining the hyperspectral images from all the layers. Mid-infrared spectroscopy of selected samples of the measured soil profiles was conducted in order to correlate the chemical constituents with the hyperspectral results. The results show that hyperspectral imaging is a fast, non-destructive technique, well suited to characterize soil profiles on a macroscopic scale and hence to map elements and different organic matter quality present in a complete pedon. As such, we were able to map and quantify biochar in our

  7. Comprehensive characterization of atmospheric organic matter in Fresno, California fog water. (United States)

    Herckes, Pierre; Leenheer, Jerry A; Collett, Jeffrey L


    Fogwater collected during winter in Fresno (CA) was characterized by isolating several distinct fractions and characterizing them by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. More than 80% of the organic matter in the fogwater was recovered and characterized. The most abundant isolated fractions were those comprised of volatile acids (24% of isolated carbon) and hydrophilic acids plus neutrals (28%). Volatile acids, including formic and acetic acid, have been previously identified as among the most abundant individual species in fogwater. Recovered hydrophobic acids exhibited some properties similar to aquatic fulvic acids. An insoluble particulate organic matter fraction contained a substantial amount of biological material, while hydrophilic and transphilic fractions also contained material suggestive of biotic origin. Together, these fractions illustrate the important contribution biological sources make to organic matter in atmospheric fog droplets. The fogwater also was notable for containing a large amount of organic nitrogen present in a variety of species, including amines, nitrate esters, peptides, and nitroso compounds.

  8. Organic Matter in Extraterrestrial Water-Bearing Salt Crystals (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Kebukwa, Y.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.


    Introduction: Direct samples of early Solar System fluids are present in two thermally-metamorphosed ordinary chondrite regolith breccias (Monahans (1998) [H5] and Zag [H3-6]), which were found to contain brine-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals that have been added to the regolith of an S-type asteroid following asteroidal metamorphism [1, 2]. The brine-bearing halite grains were proposed to be formed on an icy C-type asteroids (possibly Ceres), and transferred to an S-type asteroid via cryovolcanic event(s) [3]. A unique aspect of these halites is that they contain abundant organic rich solid inclusions hosted within the halites alongside the water inclusions. Methods: We analyzed in detail the compositions of the organic solids and the amino acid content of the halite crystals with two-step laser desorption/laser ionization mass spectrometry (L(sup 2) MS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), and ultra-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection and quadrupole time of flight hybrid mass spectrometry (UPLC-FD/QToF-MS). Results and Discussion: The L(sup 2) MS results show signatures of low-mass polyaromatic hydro-carbons (PAHs) indicated by sequences of peaks separated by 14 atomic mass units (amu) due to successive addition of methylene (CH2) groups to the PAH skeletons [4]. Raman spectra of the micron-sized solid inclusions of the halites indicate the presence of abundant and highly variable organic matter that include a mixture of short-chain aliphatic compounds and macromolecular carbon. C-XANES analysis identified C-rich areas with peaks at 285.0 eV (aromatic C=C) and 286.6 eV (vinyl-keto C=O). However, there is no 1s-sigma* exciton peak (291.7 eV) that is indicative of the development of graphene structure [5], which suggests the organics were synthesized cold. Na-noSIMS analyses show C-rich and N-rich areas that exhibit similar isotopic values with that of the IOM in

  9. An Enhanced Cosmological Li6 Abundance as a Potential Signature of Residual Dark Matter Annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Luo, Feng; Olive, Keith A; Spanos, Vassilis C


    Residual late-time dark matter particle annihilations during and after Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) may alter the predicted cosmological abundances of the light elements. Within the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (the CMSSM) with a neutralino LSP, we find negligible effects on the abundances of Deuterium, He3, He4 and Li7 predicted by homogeneous BBN, but potentially a large enhancement in the predicted abundance of Li6. This enhancement may be as much as two orders of magnitude in the focus-point WMAP strip and in the coannihilation and funnel regions for large tan beta for small m_{1/2}, and the effect is still significant at large m_{1/2}. However, the potential Li6 enhancement is negligible in the part of the coannihilation strip for tan beta = 10 that survives the latest LHC constraints. A similar enhancement of the \\li6 abundance may also be found in a model with common, non-universal Higgs masses (the NUHM1).

  10. Controlled experimental soil organic matter modification for study of organic pollutant interactions in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Ashour A.; Kühn, Oliver; Leinweber, Peter


    Interactions of organic pollutants with soil organic matter can be studied by adsorption of the pollutants on well-characterized soil samples with constant mineralogy but different organic matter compositions. Therefore, the objectives of the current study are establishing a set of different, well-characterized soil samples by systematic modifications of their organic matter content and molecular composition and prove these modifications by advanced complementary analytical techniques. Modifications were done by off-line pyrolysis and removal/addition of hot-water extracted organic fraction (HWE) from/to the original soil sample. Both pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS) and synchrotron-based C- and N- X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) were applied to investigate the composition of the soil organic matter. These complementary analytical methods in addition to elemental analysis agreed in showing the following order of organic matter contents: pyrolyzed soil < soil residue < original soil < soil + 3 HWE < soil + 6 HWE < HWE. The addition of HWE to the soil sample increases the relative proportions of carbohydrates, N-containing heterocyclic compounds and peptides, and decreases the relative proportions of phenols, lignin monomers and dimers, and lipids. The most abundant organic compound classes in the pyrolyzed sample are aromatics, aliphatic nitriles, aldehydes, five- and six-membered N-containing heterocyclic compounds, and aliphatic carboxylic acids. It can be expected that removal or addition of HWE, that mimic biomass inputs to soil or soil amendments, change the binding capacity for organic pollutants less intensively than heat impact, e.g. from vegetation burning. It will be possible to interpret kinetic data on the pollutants adsorption by these original and modified soil samples on the basis of the bond- and element-specific speciation data through C-XANES and N-XANES and the molecular-level characterization

  11. An original data treatment for infrared spectra of organic matter, application to extracted soil organic matter (United States)

    Gomes Rossin, Bruna; Redon, Roland; Raynaud, Michel; Nascimento, Nadia Regina; Mounier, Stéphane


    Infrared spectra of extracted organic matter are easy and rapid to do, but generally hard to interpreted over the presence or not of certain organic functions. Indeed, the organic matter is a complex mixture of molecules often having absorption overlapping and it is also difficult to have a well calibrated or normalised spectra due to the difficulty to have a well known solid content or homogeneity for a sample (Monakhova et al. 2015, Tadini et al. 2015, Bardy et al. 2008). In this work, the IRTF (InfraRed Fourier Transform) spectra were treated by an original algorithm developed to obtain the principal components of the IRTF spectra and their contributions for each sample. This bilinear decomposition used a PCA initialisation and the principal components were estimated from vectors calculated by PCA and linearly combined to provide non-negative signals minimizing a criterion based on cross-correlation. Hence, using this decomposition, it is possible to define IRTF signal of organic matter fractions like humic acid or fulvic acid depending on their origin like surface of depth of soil profiles. The method was used on a set of sample from Upper Negro River Basin (Amazon, Brazil) (Bueno,2009), where three soils sequences from surface to two meter depth containing 10 slices each. The sequences were sampled on a podzol well drain, a hydromorphic podzol and a cryptopodzol. From the IRTF data five representative component spectra were defined for all the extracted organic matter , and using other chemical composition information, a mechanism of organic matter fate is proposed to explain the observed results. Bardy, M., E. Fritsch, S. Derenne, T. Allard, N. R. do Nascimento, and G. T. Bueno. 2008. "Micromorphology and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Organic Matter in Waterlogged Podzols of the Upper Amazon Basin." Geoderma 145 (3-4): 222-30. Bueno, G.T. Appauvrissement et podzolisation des latérites du baissin du Rio Negro et gênese dês Podzols dans le haut bassin

  12. Relationships of shredders, leaf processing and organic matter along a canopy cover gradient in tropical streams


    Anna C.F. Aguiar; Vinicius Neres-Lima; Timothy P. Moulton


    Terrestrial allochthonous organic matter represents a structuring element and an important source of energy and carbon to fauna in small forested streams. However, the role of this matter as a food resource for benthic macroinvertebrates, and consequently, for shredders and their performance in riverine processes, is not clear in low-order tropical streams. Aiming to investigate the relationship between shredders and leaves, we analyzed along a gradient of 8-93% canopy cover biomass and abund...

  13. Investigating the use of organic biomarkers as tracers of organic matter on hillslopes (United States)

    Lloyd, C. E. M.; Michaelides, K.; Evershed, R. P.; Chadwick, D. R.; Dungait, J. A. J.


    We present the results of using different organic biomarker compounds as tracers for components of slurry-derived organic matter in water and on eroded soil using small- and large-scale laboratory experiments. The small-scale experiment consisted of a 30 cm3 soil lysimeter set up with an application of bovine slurry on the surface with rainfall simulated until the system reached hydrological equilibrium. Analysis of lysimeter soil cores and the leachates from the base of the soil were used to identify the most suitable biomarkers to trace organic matter which is: 1) particulate and bound to soil, 2) free particulates, 3) colloidal and 4) dissolved. For example, the biomarker compounds, 5β-stigmastanol and 5β-epistigmastanol, are widely used to trace the fate of faecal contamination of soils and water courses, and their abundance was used to track the movement of the hydrophobic component of the slurry. The findings from the lysimeter experiment are applied to a large-scale erosion experiment on the University of Bristol's TRACE experimental hillslope facility where the soluble and sediment-bound organics are traced through different hydrological pathways and on transported sediment. The organic biomarker compounds are being used to determine: (a) organic matter sources, (b) selectivity, (c) transport processes, and (d) mineralization, as affected by hydrological processes and erosion and deposition. This information will be used to answer questions concerning how particular components of organic matter behave under specific hydrological and erosion/deposition conditions and determine how this relates to carbon-cycling in soils.

  14. Effects of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control on Collembolan populations (United States)

    Robert J. Eaton; Mary Barbercheck; William D. Smith


    Collembola can be among the most numerous meso-invertebrates in the forest floor and, through their interaction with primary decomposers in the decomposition food web, may affect litter decomposition and consequently site productivity. This study was conducted to determine whether Collembolan abundance could be impacted by organic matter removal, compaction, and...

  15. Soil texture analysis revisited: Removal of organic matter matters more than ever. (United States)

    Jensen, Johannes Lund; Schjønning, Per; Watts, Christopher W; Christensen, Bent T; Munkholm, Lars J


    Exact estimates of soil clay (soil functions, and as pedotransfer concepts based on clay and silt contents are becoming increasingly abundant. We examined the effect of removing soil organic matter (SOM) by H2O2 before soil dispersion and determination of clay and silt. Soil samples with gradients in SOM were retrieved from three long-term field experiments each with uniform soil mineralogy and texture. For soils with less than 2 g C 100 g-1 minerals, clay estimates were little affected by SOM. Above this threshold, underestimation of clay increased dramatically with increasing SOM content. Silt contents were systematically overestimated when SOM was not removed; no lower SOM threshold was found for silt, but the overestimation was more pronounced for finer textured soils. When exact estimates of soil particles soil dispersion.

  16. Interactions of diuron with dissolved organic matter from organic amendments. (United States)

    Thevenot, Mathieu; Dousset, Sylvie; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Andreux, Francis


    Diuron is frequently detected in some drinking water reservoirs under the Burgundy vineyards, where organic amendments are applied. The environmental effect of these amendments on pesticide transport is ambiguous: on the one hand it could enhance their retention by increasing soil organic carbon content; on the other hand, dissolved organic matter (DOM) could facilitate their transport. Elutions were performed using columns packed with glass beads in order to investigate DOM-diuron interactions, and the possible co-transport of diuron and DOM. Four organic amendments (A, B, C and D) were tested; C and D were sampled at fresh (F) and mature (M) stages. An increase in diuron leaching was observed only for A and D(F) amendments (up to 16% compared to the DOM-free blank samples), suggesting a DOM effect on diuron transport. These results could be explained by the higher DOM leaching for A and D(F) compared to B, C(F), C(M) and D(M) increasing diuron-DOM interactions. These interactions seem to be related to the aromatic and aliphatic content of the DOM, determining formation of hydrogen and non-covalent bonds. The degree of organic matter maturity does not seem to have any effect with amendment C, while a reduction in diuron leaching is observed between D(F) and D(M). After equilibrium dialysis measurement of diuron-DOM complexes, it appeared that less than 3% of the diuron applied corresponded to complexes with a molecular weight >1000 Da. Complexes <1000 Da could also take part in this facilitated transport.

  17. Repeated application of organic waste affects soil organic matter composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Gregorich, Edward G.; Bruun, Sander


    of different types of carbon compounds in soil. The objective of this study was to identify and characterise changes in soil organic matter (SOM) composition after repeated applications of organic waste. Soil from the CRUCIAL field experiment in Denmark was sampled after 12 years of annual application...... of household waste compost, cattle manure and sewage sludge, and was compared to a control treatment that had received NPK fertilisation. Soils were characterised using CO2-evolved gas analysis (CO2-EGA) during ramped thermal analysis, mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) and analysis of amino...... of oxidation and a greater contribution of bacterial amino sugars relative to fungal amino sugars compared to soils from the NPK treatment. The high soil C accumulation rate combined with low amino sugar C in SOM from the compost treatment suggested less stimulation of microbial activity, while the cattle...

  18. Dissolved organic matter photolysis in Canadian arctic thaw ponds (United States)

    Laurion, Isabelle; Mladenov, Natalie


    The abundant thaw lakes and ponds in the circumarctic receive a new pool of organic carbon as permafrost peat soils degrade, which can be exposed to significant irradiance that potentially increases as climate warms and ice cover shortens. Exposure to sunlight is known to accelerate the transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into molecules that can be more readily used by microbes. We sampled the water from two common classes of ponds found in the ice-wedge system of continuous permafrost regions of Canada, polygonal and runnel ponds, and followed the transformation of DOM over 12 days by looking at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and DOM absorption and fluorescence properties. The results indicate a relatively fast decay of color (3.4 and 1.6% loss d-1 of absorption at 320 nm for the polygonal and runnel pond, respectively) and fluorescence (6.1 and 8.3% loss d-1 of total fluorescent components, respectively) at the pond surface, faster in the case of humic-like components, but insignificant losses of DOC over the observed period. This result indicates that direct DOM mineralization (photochemical production of CO2) is apparently minor in thaw ponds compared to the photochemical transformation of DOM into less chromophoric and likely more labile molecules with a greater potential for microbial mineralization. Therefore, DOM photolysis in arctic thaw ponds can be considered as a catalytic mechanism, accelerating the microbial turnover of mobilized organic matter from thawing permafrost and the production of greenhouse gases, especially in the most shallow ponds. Under a warming climate, this mechanism will intensify as summers lengthen.

  19. Dissolved organic matter photolysis in Canadian arctic thaw ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurion, Isabelle; Mladenov, Natalie


    The abundant thaw lakes and ponds in the circumarctic receive a new pool of organic carbon as permafrost peat soils degrade, which can be exposed to significant irradiance that potentially increases as climate warms and ice cover shortens. Exposure to sunlight is known to accelerate the transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into molecules that can be more readily used by microbes. We sampled the water from two common classes of ponds found in the ice-wedge system of continuous permafrost regions of Canada, polygonal and runnel ponds, and followed the transformation of DOM over 12 days by looking at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and DOM absorption and fluorescence properties. The results indicate a relatively fast decay of color (3.4 and 1.6% loss d −1 of absorption at 320 nm for the polygonal and runnel pond, respectively) and fluorescence (6.1 and 8.3% loss d −1 of total fluorescent components, respectively) at the pond surface, faster in the case of humic-like components, but insignificant losses of DOC over the observed period. This result indicates that direct DOM mineralization (photochemical production of CO 2 ) is apparently minor in thaw ponds compared to the photochemical transformation of DOM into less chromophoric and likely more labile molecules with a greater potential for microbial mineralization. Therefore, DOM photolysis in arctic thaw ponds can be considered as a catalytic mechanism, accelerating the microbial turnover of mobilized organic matter from thawing permafrost and the production of greenhouse gases, especially in the most shallow ponds. Under a warming climate, this mechanism will intensify as summers lengthen. (letter)

  20. Analytic study of organic matters in Lodeve uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campuzano, E.J.


    Exploitation of uranium in the Permian basin of Lodeve is difficult because of simultaneous extraction of organic matters which are found, in small proportion, in ammonium diuranate and a supplementary purification is required. Available information on natural organic matters are briefly reviewed. Natural organic matters contained in the Lodeve uranium ore processing fluid is separated and fractionated. Physicochemical properties of ligands in each fraction are studied. The existence of bonds between these ligands and dissolved uranium is experimentally demonstrated [fr

  1. Investigating Photosensitized Properties of Natural Organic Matter and Effluent Organic Matter

    KAUST Repository

    Niu, Xi-Zhi


    The photosensitized processes significantly enhance photolysis of various chemicals in the aqueous system with dissolved organic matter (DOM) as sensitizer. The excitation of chromophores on the DOM molecule further generates reactive species as triplet states DOM, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, carbonate radical etc. We investigated the photosensitization properties of Beaufort Fulvic Acid, Suwannee River Fulvic Acid, South Platte River Fulvic Acid, and Jeddah wastewater treatment plant effluent organic matter with a sunlight simulator. DOM photochemical properties were characterized by observing their performances in 3DOM*, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical production with indirect probing protocols. Sensitized degradation of 0.1 μM and 0.02 μM 2, 4, 6- Trimethylphenol exhibited higher pseudo-first-order rate constant than that of 10 μM. Pre-irradiated DOMs were found to be depressed in photochemical properties. Photolysis of 5 different contaminants: ibuprofen, bisphenol A, acetaminophen, cimetidine, and caffeine were found to be enhanced in the presence of sensitizers. The possible reaction pathways were revealed. Long time irradiance induced change in contaminants degradation kinetics in some DOM solutions, which was proposed to be due to the irradiation initiated indirect transformation of DOMs. Key Words: Photolysis Dissolved Organic Matter, Triplet State DOM, Singlet Oxygen, Hydroxyl Radical, Contaminants Degradation.

  2. Sensitivity of soil organic matter in anthropogenically disturbed organic soils (United States)

    Säurich, Annelie; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Bechtold, Michel; Don, Axel; Freibauer, Annette


    Drained peatlands are hotspots of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from agriculture. However, the variability of CO2 emissions increases with disturbance, and little is known on the soil properties causing differences between seemingly similar sites. Furthermore the driving factors for carbon cycling are well studied for both genuine peat and mineral soil, but there is a lack of information concerning soils at the boundary between organic and mineral soils. Examples for such soils are both soils naturally relatively high in soil organic matter (SOM) such as Humic Gleysols and former peat soils with a relative low SOM content due to intensive mineralization or mixing with underlying or applied mineral soil. The study aims to identify drivers for the sensitivity of soil organic matter and therefore for respiration rates of anthropogenically disturbed organic soils, especially those near the boundary to mineral soils. Furthermore, we would like to answer the question whether there are any critical thresholds of soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations beyond which the carbon-specific respiration rates change. The German agricultural soil inventory samples all agricultural soils in Germany in an 8x8 km² grid following standardized protocols. From this data and sample base, we selected 120 different soil samples from more than 80 sites. As reference sites, three anthropogenically undisturbed peatlands were sampled as well. We chose samples from the soil inventory a) 72 g kg-1 SOC and b) representing the whole range of basic soil properties: SOC (72 to 568 g kg-1), total nitrogen (2 to 29 g kg-1), C-N-ratio (10 to 80) bulk density (0.06 to 1.41 g/cm³), pH (2.5 to 7.4), sand (0 to 95 %) and clay (2 to 70 %) content (only determined for samples with less than 190 g kg-1 SOC) as well as the botanical origin of the peat (if determinable). Additionally, iron oxides were determined for all samples. All samples were sieved (2 mm) and incubated at standardized water content and

  3. Pyrene sorption by natural organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chefetz, B.; Deshmukh, A.P.; Hatcher, P.G.; Guthrie, E.A. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (USA). Dept. of Chemistry


    Sorption of pyrene on various types of natural organic matter (NOM) varying in chemical composition (e.g. high aliphaticity or aromaticity) was examined in batch sorption studies. The NOM samples (cuticle, humin, humic acid, degraded lignin, peat and lignite) were characterized by elemental analyses and solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectra. Previous studies on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) sorption on soils and sediments led to the conclusion that aromatic component of the NOM determines the binding of nonionic compounds and that the polarity of the NOM reduces the binding coefficient of the aromatic NOM moieties. In this study the hypothesis that aliphatic moieties of NOM derived from soils or sediments can contribute significantly to the binding of PAHs in aqueous media was tested. Cuticle and a humin sample from an hnalgal deposit exhibited the highest distribution coefficients (K{sub oc}). Both samples were rich in aliphatic structures and had very low aromaticity (4.6 and 8.8% for cuticle and humin samples, respectively). A positive trend was observed between the K{sub oc} level and the aliphaticity of the NOM, calculated from the {sup 13}C NMR spectra. This study demonstrates that aliphatic NOM compounds significantly sorb pyrene in aqueous solution, thus leading to the conclusion that the contribution of these groups to the sorption of aromatic nonionic pollutants in complex NOM matrices can be significant. 32 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Natural organic matters removal efficiency by coagulation (United States)

    Sapingi, Mohd Sharizal Mohd; Pishal, Munirah; Murshed, Mohamad Fared


    The presence of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) in surface water results in unwanted characteristics in terms of color, odor, and taste. NOM content reaction with free chlorine in treated water lowers the water quality further. Chlorine is added for disinfection and produces undesirable disinfection by-products (DPBs). DBPs in drinking water are carcinogenic to consumers and may promote cancerous cell development in the human body. This study was performed to compare the coagulant efficiency of aluminum sulfate (Alum) and ferric chloride (FeCl3) on NOM removal (as in UV254 absorbance) and turbidity removal under three pH conditions (pH 6, pH 7, and sample actual pH). The three sampling points for these studies were Jalan Baru River, Kerian River, and Redac Pond. Additional sampling points, such as Lubuk Buntar and a tubewell located in the Civil Engineering School, were included to observe differences in characteristics. DOC, UV absorbance, and full wavelength were tested, after which samples treated with alum were also tested to further analyze the NOM content. Based on UV254 absorbance and DOC data, specific UV value was calculated to obtain vital synopsis of the characteristics of NOM content, as well as coagulation efficiency.

  5. Aerobic methane production from organic matter (United States)

    Vigano, I.


    Methane, together with H2O, CO2 and N2O, is an important greenhouse gas in th e Earth’s atmosphere playing a key role in the radiative budget. It has be en known for decades that the production of the reduced compound CH4 is possible almost exclusively in anoxic environments per opera of one of the most importan t class of microorganisms which form the Archaea reign. Methane can be produced also from incomplete combustion of organic material. The generation of CH4 in an oxygenated environment under near-ambient conditions is a new discovery made in 2006 by Keppler et. al where surprisingly they measured emissions of this green house gas from plants incubated in chambers with air containing 20% of oxygen. A lthough the estimates on a global scale are still object of an intensive debate, the results presented in this thesis clearly show the existence of methane prod uction under oxic conditions for non living plant material. Temperature and UV l ight are key factors that drive the generation of CH4 from plant matter in a wel l oxygenated environment.

  6. Microbially-mediated fluorescent organic matter transformations in the deep ocean. Do the chemical precursors matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran L. Aparicio


    Full Text Available The refractory nature of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM increases while it travels from surface waters to the deep ocean. This resistant fraction is in part composed of fluorescent humic-like material, which is relatively difficult to metabolize by deep water prokaryotes, and it can also be generated by microbial activity. It has been recently argued that microbial production of new fluorescent DOM (FDOM requires the presence of humic precursors in the surrounding environment. In order to experimentally test how the chemical quality of the available organic compounds influences the production of new FDOM, three experiments were performed with bathypelagic Atlantic waters. Microbial communities were incubated in three treatments which differed in the quality of the organic compounds added: i glucose and acetate; ii glucose, acetate, essential amino acids and humic acids; and iii humic acids alone. The response of the prokaryotes and the production of FDOM were simultaneously monitored. Prokaryotic abundance was highest in treatments where labile compounds were added. The rate of humic-like fluorescence production scaled to prokaryotic abundance varied depending on the quality of the additions. The precursor compounds affected the generation of new humic-like FDOM, and the cell-specific production of this material was higher in the incubations amended with humic precursors. Furthermore, we observed that the protein-like fluorescence decreased only when fresh amino acids were added. These findings contribute to the understanding of FDOM variability in deep waters and provide valuable information for studies where fluorescent compounds are used in order to track water masses and/or microbial processes.

  7. effects of organic matter removal and adsorbate solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    (negative adsorption) of one or more chemical species in the region of an interface (Sposito, 1989). The effects of organic matter removal and adsorbate solution composition on phosphate sorption by selected soils of Kwara State were studied. Organic matter was removed by treating the soils with hydrogen peroxide.

  8. Organic matter mineralization in intertidal sediments along an estuarine gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Klaver, G.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Wielemaker, A.; De Haas, W.; Vlug, T.; Van der Nat, J.W.A.


    A seasonal study of organic matter mineralization rates was made at 8 intertidal stations in the Westerschelde Estuary (The Netherlands). Organic matter mineralization rates, based on the gaseous emission of carbon dioxide and methane, showed significant dynamic temporal and spatial variability at

  9. Organic Matter Dynamics in Soils Regenerating from Degraded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The area of secondary forest (SF) regenerating from degraded abandoned rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation is increasing in the rainforest zone of south southern Nigeria; however, the build-up of soil organic matter following abandonment is not well understood. This study examined the build-up of soil organic matter in ...

  10. Seasonal distribution of organic matter in mangrove environment of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    Water and sediments were studied for the distribution of suspended matter, organic carbon and nitrogen Suspended matter ranged from 3-373 mg.l-1 while particulate organic carbon (POC) from 0.03-9.94 mg.l-1 POC value showed significant correlation...

  11. Mapping forest soil organic matter on New Jersey's coastal plain (United States)

    Brian J. Clough; Edwin J. Green; Richard B. Lathrop


    Managing forest soil organic matter (SOM) stocks is a vital strategy for reducing the impact of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. However, the SOM pool is highly variable, and developing accurate estimates to guide management decisions has remained a difficult task. We present the results of a spatial model designed to map soil organic matter for all forested...

  12. Impacts of benthic coarse particulate organic matter variations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation to assess the relationship between coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) and macroinvertebrate communities was undertaken in the Njoro River, Kenya during 2010. Significantly lower macroinvertebrate densities and diversities were observed in study sites with low Coarse Particulate Organic Matter ...

  13. The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to oxalic acid (United States)

    Studenroth, Sabine; Huber, Stefan; Schöler, H. F.


    The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to volatile organic compounds was studied intensely over the last years (Keppler et al., 2000; Huber et al., 2009). It was shown that soil organic matter is oxidised due to the presence of iron (III), hydrogen peroxide and chloride and thereby produces diverse alkyl halides, which are emitted into the atmosphere. The formation of polar halogenated compounds like chlorinated acetic acids which are relevant toxic environmental substances was also found in soils and sediments (Kilian et al., 2002). The investigation of the formation of other polar halogenated and non-halogenated compounds like diverse mono- and dicarboxylic acids is going to attain more and more importance. Due to its high acidity oxalic acid might have impacts on the environment e.g., nutrient leaching, plant diseases and negative influence on microbial growth. In this study, the abiotic formation of oxalic acid in soil is examined. For a better understanding of natural degradation processes mechanistic studies were conducted using the model compound catechol as representative for structural elements of the humic substances and its reaction with iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide. Iron is one of the most abundant elements on earth and hydrogen peroxide is produced by bacteria or through incomplete reduction of oxygen. To find suitable parameters for an optimal reaction and a qualitative and quantitative analysis method the following reaction parameters are varied: concentration of iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide, time dependence, pH-value and influence of chloride. Analysis of oxalic acid was performed employing an ion chromatograph equipped with a conductivity detector. The time dependent reaction shows a relatively fast formation of oxalic acid, the optimum yield is achieved after 60 minutes. Compared to the concentration of catechol an excess of hydrogen peroxide as well as a low concentration of iron (III) are required. In absence of chloride the

  14. Subcritical water extraction of organic matter from sedimentary rocks. (United States)

    Luong, Duy; Sephton, Mark A; Watson, Jonathan S


    Subcritical water extraction of organic matter containing sedimentary rocks at 300°C and 1500 psi produces extracts comparable to conventional solvent extraction. Subcritical water extraction of previously solvent extracted samples confirms that high molecular weight organic matter (kerogen) degradation is not occurring and that only low molecular weight organic matter (free compounds) are being accessed in analogy to solvent extraction procedures. The sedimentary rocks chosen for extraction span the classic geochemical organic matter types. A type I organic matter-containing sedimentary rock produces n-alkanes and isoprenoidal hydrocarbons at 300°C and 1500 psi that indicate an algal source for the organic matter. Extraction of a rock containing type II organic matter at the same temperature and pressure produces aliphatic hydrocarbons but also aromatic compounds reflecting the increased contributions from terrestrial organic matter in this sample. A type III organic matter-containing sample produces a range of non-polar and polar compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygenated aromatic compounds at 300°C and 1500 psi reflecting a dominantly terrestrial origin for the organic materials. Although extraction at 300°C and 1500 psi produces extracts that are comparable to solvent extraction, lower temperature steps display differences related to organic solubility. The type I organic matter produces no products below 300°C and 1500 psi, reflecting its dominantly aliphatic character, while type II and type III organic matter contribute some polar components to the lower temperature steps, reflecting the chemical heterogeneity of their organic inventory. The separation of polar and non-polar organic compounds by using different temperatures provides the potential for selective extraction that may obviate the need for subsequent preparative chromatography steps. Our results indicate that subcritical water extraction can act as a suitable

  15. Anthropogenic N deposition increases soil organic matter accumulation without altering its biochemical composition. (United States)

    Zak, Donald R; Freedman, Zachary B; Upchurch, Rima A; Steffens, Markus; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid


    Accumulating evidence indicates that future rates of atmospheric N deposition have the potential to increase soil C storage by reducing the decay of plant litter and soil organic matter (SOM). Although the microbial mechanism underlying this response is not well understood, a decline in decay could alter the amount, as well as biochemical composition of SOM. Here, we used size-density fractionation and solid-state 13 C-NMR spectroscopy to explore the extent to which declines in microbial decay in a long-term (ca. 20 yrs.) N deposition experiment have altered the biochemical composition of forest floor, bulk mineral soil, as well as free and occluded particulate organic matter. Significant amounts of organic matter have accumulated in occluded particulate organic matter (~20%; oPOM); however, experimental N deposition had not altered the abundance of carboxyl, aryl, alkyl, or O/N-alkyl C in forest floor, bulk mineral soil, or any soil fraction. These observations suggest that biochemically equivalent organic matter has accumulated in oPOM at a greater rate under experimental N deposition, relative to the ambient treatment. Although we do not understand the process by which experimental N deposition has fostered the occlusion of organic matter by mineral soil particles, our results highlight the importance of interactions among the products of microbial decay and the chemical and physical properties of silt and clay particles that occlude organic matter from microbial attack. Because oPOM can reside in soils for decades to centuries, organic matter accumulating under future rates of anthropogenic N deposition could remain in soil for long periods of time. If temperate forest soils in the Northern Hemisphere respond like those in our experiment, then unabated deposition of anthropogenic N from the atmosphere has the potential to foster greater soil C storage, especially in fine-texture forest soils. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Reduction in the exchange of coastal dissolved organic matter and microgels by inputs of extra riverine organic matter. (United States)

    Shiu, Ruei-Feng; Lee, Chon-Lin; Chin, Wei-Chun


    Rivers drive large amounts of terrestrial and riverine organic matter into oceans. These organic materials may alter the self-assembly of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) polymers into microgels and can even affect the behavior of existing natural microgels. We used Suwannee River humic acid, fulvic acid, and natural organic matter as a model of riverine organic matter (ROM) to investigate the impacts of ROM input on DOM polymer and microgel conversion. Our results indicated that the release of extra ROM, even at low concentrations (0.1-10 mg L -1 ), into the marine organic matter pool decreased the size of self-assembled DOM polymers (from 4-5 μm to organic matter, such as negative surface charge stabilization and Ca 2+ cross-linking bridges. These findings reveal that ROM inputs may therefore impede the self-assembly of DOM polymers into particulate organic matter and reduce the sedimentation flux of organic carbon and other elements from surface water to the deep ocean, thereby disturbing the biological pump, the downward transportation of nutrients, and the marine organic carbon cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methods for Determining Organic Matter and Colour in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramunė Albrektienė


    Full Text Available The article examines different methods for determining organic matter and colour in water. Most of organic compounds in water have a humic substance. These substances frequently form complexes with iron. Humic matter gives water a yellow-brownish colour. Water filtration through conventional sand filters does not remove colour and organic compounds, and therefore complicated water treatment methods shall be applied. The methods utilized for organic matter determination in water included research on total organic carbon, permanganate index and the bichromate number of UV absorption of 254 nm wave length. The obtained results showed the greatest dependence between water colour and permanganate index. However, UV adsorption could be used for organic matter determination during the operation of a water treatment plant and the start-up of plants as easy and fast methods.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Pyrogenic organic matter can alter microbial communication (United States)

    Masiello, Caroline; Gao, Xiaodong; Cheng, Hsiao-Ying; Silberg, Jonathan


    Soil microbes communicate with each other to manage a large range of processes that occur more efficiently when microbes are able to act simultaneously. This coordination occurs through the continuous production of signaling compounds that are easily diffused into and out of cells. As the number of microbes in a localized environment increases, the internal cellular concentration of these signaling compounds increases, and when a threshold concentration is reached, gene expression shifts, leading to altered (and coordinated) microbial behaviors. Many of these coordinated behaviors have biogeochemically important outcomes. For example, methanogenesis, denitrification, biofilm formation, and the development of plant-rhizobial symbioses are all regulated by a simple class of cell-cell signaling molecules known as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Pyrogenic organic matter in soils can act to disrupt microbial communication through multiple pathways. In the case of AHLs, charcoal's very high surface area can sorb these signaling compounds, preventing microbes from detecting each others' presence (Masiello et al., 2014). In addition, the lactone ring in AHLs is vulnerable to pH increases accompanying PyOM inputs, with soil pH values higher than 7-8 leading to ring opening and compound destabilization. Different microbes use different classes of signaling compounds, and not all microbial signaling compounds are pH-vulnerable. This implies that PyOM-driven pH increases may trigger differential outcomes for Gram negative bacteria vs fungi, for example. A charcoal-driven reduction in microbes' ability to detect cell-cell communication compounds may lead to a shift in the ability of microbes to participate in key steps of C and N cycling. For example, an increase in an archaeon-specific AHL has been shown to lead to a cascade of metabolic processes that eventually results in the upregulation of CH4 production (Zhang et al., 2012). Alterations in similar AHL compounds leads to

  19. Biologically Active Organic Matter in Soils of European Russia (United States)

    Semenov, V. M.; Kogut, B. M.; Zinyakova, N. B.; Masyutenko, N. P.; Malyukova, L. S.; Lebedeva, T. N.; Tulina, A. S.


    Experimental and literature data on the contents and stocks of active organic matter in 200 soil samples from the forest-tundra, southern-taiga, deciduous-forest, forest-steppe, dry-steppe, semidesert, and subtropical zones have been generalized. Natural lands, agrocenoses, treatments of long-term field experiments (bare fallow, unfertilized and fertilized crop rotations, perennial plantations), and different layers of soil profile are presented. Sphagnum peat and humus-peat soil in the tundra and forest-tundra zones are characterized by a very high content of active organic matter (300-600 mg C/100 g). Among the zonal soils, the content of active organic matter increases from the medium (75-150 mg C/100 g) to the high (150-300 mg C/100 g) level when going from soddy-podzolic soil to gray forest and dark-gray forest soils and then to leached chernozem. In the series from typical chernozem to ordinary and southern chernozem and chestnut and brown semidesert soils, a decrease in the content of active organic matter to the low (35-75 mg C/100 g) and very low (<35 mg C/100 g) levels is observed. Acid brown forest soil in the subtropical zone is characterized by a medium supply with active organic matter. Most arable soils are mainly characterized by low or very low contents of active organic matter. In the upper layers of soils, active organic matter makes up 1.2-11.1% of total Corg. The profile distribution of active organic matter in the studied soils coincides with that of Corg: their contents appreciably decrease with depth, except for brown semidesert soil. The stocks of active organic matter vary from 0.4 to 5.4 t/ha in the layer of 0-20 cm and from 1.0 to 12.4/ha in the layer of 0-50 cm of different soil types.

  20. Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Organic Matter in a Pristine Collection IDP (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Nguyen, A. N.; Walker, Robert M.


    Anhydrous chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) are probable cometary materials that show primitive characteristics, such as unequilibrated mineralogy, fragile structure, and abundant presolar grains and organic matter [1-3]. CP IDPs are richer in aliphatic species and N-bearing aromatic hydrocarbons than meteoritic organics and commonly exhibit highly anomalous H and N isotopic compositions [4,5]. Cometary organic matter is of interest in part because it has escaped the hydrothermal processing experienced by meteorites. However, IDPs are collected using silicon oil that must be removed with strong organic solvents such as hexane. This procedure is likely to have removed some fraction of soluble organic phases in IDPs. We recently reported the first stratospheric collection of IDPs without the use of silicone oil [6]. Here we present initial studies of the carbonaceous material in an IDP from this collection.

  1. Spectral band selection for classification of soil organic matter content (United States)

    Henderson, Tracey L.; Szilagyi, Andrea; Baumgardner, Marion F.; Chen, Chih-Chien Thomas; Landgrebe, David A.


    This paper describes the spectral-band-selection (SBS) algorithm of Chen and Landgrebe (1987, 1988, and 1989) and uses the algorithm to classify the organic matter content in the earth's surface soil. The effectiveness of the algorithm was evaluated comparing the results of classification of the soil organic matter using SBS bands with those obtained using Landsat MSS bands and TM bands, showing that the algorithm was successful in finding important spectral bands for classification of organic matter content. Using the calculated bands, the probabilities of correct classification for climate-stratified data were found to range from 0.910 to 0.980.

  2. Big-bang nucleosynthesis and the relic abundance of dark matter in a stau-neutralino coannihilation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jittoh, Toshifumi; Koike, Masafumi; Sato, Joe; Yamanaka, Masato; Kohri, Kazunori; Shimomura, Takashi


    A scenario of the big-bang nucleosynthesis is analyzed within the minimal supersymmetric standard model, which is consistent with a stau-neutralino coannihilation scenario to explain the relic abundance of dark matter. We find that we can account for the possible discrepancy of the abundance of 7 Li between the observation and the prediction of the big-bang nucleosynthesis by taking the mass of the neutralino as 300 GeV and the mass difference between the stau and the neutralino as (100-120) MeV. We can therefore simultaneously explain the abundance of the dark matter and that of 7 Li by these values of parameters. The lifetime of staus in this scenario is predicted to be O(100-1000) sec.

  3. Nutrient Effects on Belowground Organic Matter in a ... (United States)

    Belowground structure and carbon dioxide emission rates were examined in minerogenic marshes of the North Inlet estuary, a system dominated by depositional processes and typical of the southeastern USA. Three areas were sampled: a long-term nutrient enrichment experiment (Goat Island); a fringing marsh that only receives drainage from an entirely forested watershed (upper Crab Haul Creek); and three locations along a creek basin that receives drainage from a residential and golf course development situated at its headwaters (Debidue Creek). Responses to fertilization at Goat Island were an increase in soil organic matter, an increase in number of rhizomes, enlarged rhizome diameters, decreased fine root mass, and increased carbon dioxide emission rates. At the Crab Haul Creek, the greatest abundances of coarse roots and rhizomes were observed in the high marsh compared to the low marsh and creekbank. The upper and mid Debidue Creek, which may be influenced by nutrient inputs associated with land development, had significantly fewer rhizomes compared to the mouth, which was dominated by exchange with bay waters. Carbon dioxide emission rates at the fertilized Goat Island plots were similar in magnitude to the upper Debidue Creek and significantly greater than the Goat Island control plots and the Crab Haul Creek. Inputs of sediment and particulates in marshes dominated by depositional processes such as the North Inlet may buffer the system from adverse effects of

  4. Pyrolysis-combustion 14C dating of soil organic matter (United States)

    Wang, Hongfang; Hackley, Keith C.; Panno, S.V.; Coleman, D.D.; Liu, J.C.-L.; Brown, J.


    Radiocarbon (14C) dating of total soil organic matter (SOM) often yields results inconsistent with the stratigraphic sequence. The onerous chemical extractions for SOM fractions do not always produce satisfactory 14C dates. In an effort to develop an alternative method, the pyrolysis-combustion technique was investigated to partition SOM into pyrolysis volatile (Py-V) and pyrolysis residue (Py-R) fractions. The Py-V fractions obtained from a thick glacigenic loess succession in Illinois yielded 14C dates much younger but more reasonable than the counterpart Py-R fractions for the soil residence time. Carbon isotopic composition (??13C) was heavier in the Py-V fractions, suggesting a greater abundance of carbohydrate- and protein-related constituents, and ??13C was lighter in the Py-R fractions, suggesting more lignin- and lipid-related constituents. The combination of 14C dates and ??13C values indicates that the Py-V fractions are less biodegradation resistant and the Py-R fractions are more biodegradation resistant. The pyrolysis-combustion method provides a less cumbersome approach for 14C dating of SOM fractions. With further study, this method may become a useful tool for analyzing unlithified terrestrial sediments when macrofossils are absent. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.


    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes

  6. Seasonal Changes in Arctic Dissolved Organic Matter (United States)

    Boot, C. M.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Schimel, J.


    The Arctic is a landscape in flux. Temperatures are shifting upward and plant communities are transitioning from tussock to shrub tundra in some regions. Decomposition processes sensitive to temperature, moisture, and plant inputs are controls on the source/sink dynamics of the Arctic C pool. The response of decomposition to warming will, in part, determine if the Arctic C pool feeds back positively or negatively to climate change. The portion of the C pool immediately available to decomposers is dissolved organic matter (DOM). The aim of this is study is to examine the molecular composition of DOM to determine which components vary seasonally in soil pore water among three vegetation types at Toolik Field Station in Alaska. Vegetation types include wet sedge (Carex aquatilis and Eriophorum angustifolium), moist acidic tussock (E. vaginatum) and shrub tundra (Betula nana and Salix sp.). These sites were sampled during winter/summer transitions in 2010 in order to capture both growing season and winter dynamics. We expected the chemical composition of DOM in pore water to be distinct among plant communities due to differences in root exudates, litter chemistry and microbial community; and vary seasonally due to shifting temperature and water availability and their impacts on decomposition of DOM. Soil pore water was isolated through centrifugation and is being characterized with ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) in line with a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer (QTOF-MS) as well as with specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA), and excitation emission matrices (EEMs) generated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The DOM concentrations across vegetation types show consistent seasonal patterns, spiking at thaw, and declining through late summer. As soils freeze these patterns diverge-in tussock soils DOM concentration decreases slightly, while in shrub and wet sedge sites it increases. SUVA values (indicator of aromaticity) were consistent among

  7. Soil organic matter dynamics and the global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, W.M.; Emanuel, W.R.; King, A.W.


    The large size and potentially long residence time of the soil organic matter pool make it an important component of the global carbon cycle. Net terrestrial primary production of about 60 Pg C·yr -1 is, over a several-year period of time, balanced by an equivalent flux of litter production and subsequent decomposition of detritus and soil organic matter. We will review many of the major factors that influence soil organic matter dynamics that need to be explicitly considered in development of global estimates of carbon turnover in the world's soils. We will also discuss current decomposition models that are general enough to be used to develop a representation of global soil organic matter dynamics

  8. Extending the analytical window for water-soluble organic matter in sediments by aqueous Soxhlet extraction (United States)

    Schmidt, Frauke; Koch, Boris P.; Witt, Matthias; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in marine sediments is a complex mixture of thousands of individual constituents that participate in biogeochemical reactions and serve as substrates for benthic microbes. Knowledge of the molecular composition of DOM is a prerequisite for a comprehensive understanding of the biogeochemical processes in sediments. In this study, interstitial water DOM was extracted with Rhizon samplers from a sediment core from the Black Sea and compared to the corresponding water-extractable organic matter fraction (Soxhlet extraction, which mobilizes labile particulate organic matter and DOM. After solid phase extraction (SPE) of DOM, samples were analyzed for the molecular composition by Fourier Transform Ion-Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode. The average SPE extraction yield of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in interstitial water was 63%, whereas less than 30% of the DOC in Soxhlet-extracted organic matter was recovered. Nevertheless, Soxhlet extraction yielded up to 4.35% of the total sedimentary organic carbon, which is more than 30-times the organic carbon content of the interstitial water. While interstitial water DOM consisted primarily of carbon-, hydrogen- and oxygen-bearing compounds, Soxhlet extracts yielded more complex FT-ICR mass spectra with more peaks and higher abundances of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing compounds. The molecular composition of both sample types was affected by the geochemical conditions in the sediment; elevated concentrations of HS- promoted the early diagenetic sulfurization of organic matter. The Soxhlet extracts from shallow sediment contained specific three- and four-nitrogen-bearing molecular formulas that were also detected in bacterial cell extracts and presumably represent proteinaceous molecules. These compounds decreased with increasing sediment depth while one- and two-nitrogen-bearing molecules increased, resulting in a higher

  9. Soil texture analysis revisited: Removal of organic matter matters more than ever (United States)

    Schjønning, Per; Watts, Christopher W.; Christensen, Bent T.; Munkholm, Lars J.


    Exact estimates of soil clay (<2 μm) and silt (2–20 μm) contents are crucial as these size fractions impact key soil functions, and as pedotransfer concepts based on clay and silt contents are becoming increasingly abundant. We examined the effect of removing soil organic matter (SOM) by H2O2 before soil dispersion and determination of clay and silt. Soil samples with gradients in SOM were retrieved from three long-term field experiments each with uniform soil mineralogy and texture. For soils with less than 2 g C 100 g-1 minerals, clay estimates were little affected by SOM. Above this threshold, underestimation of clay increased dramatically with increasing SOM content. Silt contents were systematically overestimated when SOM was not removed; no lower SOM threshold was found for silt, but the overestimation was more pronounced for finer textured soils. When exact estimates of soil particles <20 μm are needed, SOM should always be removed before soil dispersion. PMID:28542416

  10. Machine for Importing Organic Matter in the Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Dimitrov


    Full Text Available Increasing the organic matter in the soil leads to both a rise in biodiversity and productivity of ecosystems in general. This increase results in improvements of quality and productivity of soils, too. This can be done by introducing organic matter with the help of specialized equipment. With reference to this, the present paper outlines the technical parameters and performance capacity of such a device developed at Ruse University “Angel Kanchev”.

  11. Molybdenum isotope fractionation during adsorption to organic matter (United States)

    King, Elizabeth K.; Perakis, Steven; Pett-Ridge, Julie C.


    Organic matter is of emerging interest as a control on molybdenum (Mo) biogeochemistry, and information on isotope fractionation during adsorption to organic matter can improve interpretations of Mo isotope variations in natural settings. Molybdenum isotope fractionation was investigated during adsorption onto insolubilized humic acid (IHA), a surrogate for organic matter, as a function of time (2–170 h) and pH (2–7). For the time series experiment performed at pH 4.2, the average Mo isotope fractionation between the solution and the IHA (Δ98Mosolution-IHA) was 1.39‰ (± 0.16‰, 2σ, based on 98Mo/95Mo relative to the NIST 3134 standard) at steady state. For the pH series experiment, Mo adsorption decreased as pH increased from 2.0 to 6.9, and the Δ98Mosolution-IHA increased from 0.82‰ to 1.79‰. We also evaluated natural Mo isotope patterns in precipitation, foliage, organic horizon, surface mineral soil, and bedrock from 12 forested sites in the Oregon Coast Range. The average Mo isotope offset observed between precipitation and organic (O) horizon soil was 2.1‰, with light Mo isotopes adsorbing preferentially to organic matter. Fractionation during adsorption to organic matter is similar in magnitude and direction to prior observations of Mo fractionation during adsorption to Fe- and Mn- (oxyhydr)oxides. Our finding that organic matter influences Mo isotope composition has important implications for the role of organic matter as a driver of trace metal retention and isotopic fractionation.

  12. Organic matter degradation in Lake Baikal - a sediment trap study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Carsten J.; Niggemann, Jutta; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard

    Lake Baikal offers a unique opportunity to study water column processes in a freshwater system with conditions similar to oceanic systems, e. g. great water depth and oxygenated water column. Investigations on sediment trap material provide information on the early stages of organic matter...... degradation in the water column. Sediment trap material from 18 different water depths has been analysed for bulk organic matter parameters, including organic carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions, chlorin concentrations, and Chlorin Indices [1]. Detailed studies focused on the concentration...... and composition of amino acids and fatty acids. The extent of organic matter degradation in the water column of Lake Baikal is reflected in the fluxes of total organic carbon, chlorins, amino acids, and fatty acids at different water depths. In line with earlier studies in marine systems, the labile compounds...

  13. High dimensional reflectance analysis of soil organic matter (United States)

    Henderson, T. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Franzmeier, D. P.; Stott, D. E.; Coster, D. C.


    Recent breakthroughs in remote-sensing technology have led to the development of high spectral resolution imaging sensors for observation of earth surface features. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic matter content and composition on narrowband soil reflectance across the visible and reflective infrared spectral ranges. Organic matter from four Indiana agricultural soils, ranging in organic C content from 0.99 to 1.72 percent, was extracted, fractionated, and purified. Six components of each soil were isolated and prepared for spectral analysis. Reflectance was measured in 210 narrow bands in the 400- to 2500-nm wavelength range. Statistical analysis of reflectance values indicated the potential of high dimensional reflectance data in specific visible, near-infrared, and middle-infrared bands to provide information about soil organic C content, but not organic matter composition. These bands also responded significantly to Fe- and Mn-oxide content.

  14. Organic matter composition and macrofaunal diversity in sediments of the Condor Seamount (Azores, NE Atlantic) (United States)

    Bongiorni, Lucia; Ravara, Ascensão; Parretti, Paola; Santos, Ricardo S.; Rodrigues, Clara F.; Amaro, Teresa; Cunha, Marina R.


    In recent years increasing knowledge has been accumulated on seamounts ecology; however their sedimentary environments and associated biological communities remain largely understudied. In this study we investigated quantity and biochemical composition of organic matter and macrofaunal diversity in sediments of the Condor Seamount (NE Atlantic, Azores). In order to test the effect of the seamount on organic matter distribution, sediment samples were collected in 6 areas: the summit, the northern and southern flanks and bases, and in an external far field site. Macrofauna abundance and diversity were investigated on the summit, the southern flank and in the far field site. The organic matter distribution reflected the complex hydrodynamic conditions occurring on the Condor. Concentrations of organic matter compounds were generally lower on the whole seamount than in the far field site and on the seamount summit compared to flanks and bases. A clear difference was also evident between the northern and southern slopes of the Condor, suggesting a role of the seamount in conditioning sedimentation processes and distribution of food resources for benthic consumers. Macrofauna assemblages changed significantly among the three sampling sites. High abundance and dominance, accompanied by low biodiversity, characterized the macrofauna community on the Condor summit, while low dominance and high biodiversity were observed at the flank. Our results, although limited to five samples on the seamount and two off the seamount, do not necessarily support the paradigm that seamounts are more biodiverse than the surrounding seafloor. However, the abundance (and biomass), functional diversity and taxonomical distinctiveness of the macrofaunal assemblages from the Condor Seamount suggest that seamounts habitats may play a relevant role in adding to the regional biodiversity.

  15. Pedogenesis evolution of mine technosols: focus onto organic matter implication (United States)

    Grégoire, Pascaud; Marilyne, Soubrand; Laurent, Lemee; Husseini Amelène, El-Mufleh Al; Marion, Rabiet; Emmanuel, Joussein


    Keywords: Mine technosols, pedogenesis, organic matter, environmental impact, pyr-GC-MS Technosols include soils subject to strong anthropogenic pressure and particularly to soil influenced by human transformed materials. In this context, abandoned mine sites contain a large amount of transformed waste materials often enriched with metals and/or metalloids. The natural evolution of technosols (pedogenesis) may induces the change in contaminants behaviour in term of stability of bearing phases, modification of pH oxydo-reduction conditions, organic matter turnover, change in permeability, or influence of vegetation cover. The fate of these elements in the soil can induce major environmental problems (contamination of biosphere and water resource). This will contribute to a limited potential use of these soils, which represent yet a large area around the world. The initial contamination of the parental material suggests that the pedological cover would stabilize the soil; however, the chemical reactivity must be taken in consideration particularly with respect to potential metal leachings. In this case, it is quite important to understand the development of soil in this specific context. Consequently, the global aims of this study are to understand the functioning of mine Technosols focusing onto the organic matter implication in their pedogenesis. Indeed, soil organic matter constitutes an heterogeneous fraction of organic compounds that plays an important role in the fate and the transport of metals and metalloids in soils. Three different soil profiles were collected representative to various mining context (contamination, time, climat), respectively to Pb-Ag, Sn and Au exploitations. Several pedological parameters were determined like CEC, pH, %Corg, %Ntot, C/N ratio, grain size distribution and chemical composition. The evolution of the nature of organic matter in Technosol was studied by elemental analyses and thermochemolysis was realized on the total and

  16. Fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the continental shelf waters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    organic matter (Benner 2002). This major fraction of DOM has been a subject of characterization by optical methods, e.g., absorption and fluores- cence. The fraction exhibiting strong absorption of short wavelength (ultraviolet to blue) radiation, is termed as chromophoric dissolved organic mat- ter (CDOM) (Coble 2007).

  17. Effects of organic matter, calcium carbonates and moisture content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When the organic matter was removed, reactive calcium carbonate concentrations in dry sediment became several times greater than those in the wet sediment. In other way, when calcium carbonates were removed, organic carbon concentrations decreased especially in B horizon of the wet sediment. On the opposite, OC ...

  18. Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants (United States)

    Campbell, Brian


    Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…

  19. (Tropical) soil organic matter modelling: problems and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van H.


    Soil organic matter plays an important role in many physical, chemical and biological processes. However, the quantitative relations between the mineral and organic components of the soil and the relations with the vegetation are poorly understood. In such situations, the use of models is an

  20. The post-Paleozoic chronology and mechanism of 13C depletion in primary marine organic matter (United States)

    Popp, B. N.; Takigiku, R.; Hayes, J. M.; Louda, J. W.; Baker, E. W.


    Carbon-isotopic compositions of geoporphyrins have been measured from marine sediments of Mesozoic and Cenozoic age in order to elucidate the timing and extent of depletion of 13C in marine primary producers. These results indicate that the difference in isotopic composition of coeval marine carbonates and marine primary photosynthate was approximately 5 to 7 permil greater during the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic than at present. In contrast to the isotopic record of marine primary producers, isotopic compositions of terrestrial organic materials have remained approximately constant for this same interval of time. This difference in the isotopic records of marine and terrestrial organic matter is considered in terms of the mechanisms controlling the isotopic fractionation associated with photosynthetic fixation of carbon. We show that the decreased isotopic fractionation between marine carbonates and organic matter from the Early to mid-Cenozoic may record variations in the abundance of atmospheric CO2.

  1. Transplanting an organization: how does culture matter. (United States)

    Munich, Richard L


    Cultural differences are often cited as a major obstacle to the successful transition/integration into new situations of organizations. In this contribution, the author details the changing cultural factors impacting the operation and move of the Menninger Clinic from autonomous status to an affiliation with and first year of operation in the Baylor College of Medicine and Methodist Hospital Health Care System. Both functional and dysfunctional consequences are outlined, and specific examples illustrate how the organization's leadership and staff struggled to adapt during this complicated process. Based on the experience within the Clinic, general recommendations for managing such an acculturation are provided.

  2. Tracing the source of soil organic matter eroded from temperate forest catchments using carbon and nitrogen isotopes (United States)

    Emma P. McCorkle; Asmeret Asefaw Berhe; Carolyn T. Hunsaker; Dale W. Johnson; Karis J. McFarlane; Marilyn L. Fogel; Stephen C. Hart


    Soil erosion continuously redistributes soil and associated soil organic matter (SOM) on the Earth's surface, with important implications for biogeochemical cycling of essential elements and terrestrial carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of soil erosion, surprisingly few studies have evaluated the sources of eroded carbon (C). We used natural abundance...

  3. Black carbon and organic matter stabilization in soil (United States)

    Lehmann, J.; Liang, B.; Sohi, S.; Gaunt, J.


    Interaction with minerals is key to stabilization of organic matter in soils. Stabilization is commonly perceived to occur due to entrapment in pore spaces, encapsulation within aggregates or interaction with mineral surfaces. Typically only interactions between organic matter and minerals are considered in such a model. Here we demonstrate that black carbon may act very similar to minerals in soil in that it enhances the stabilization of organic matter. Mineralization of added organic matter was slower and incorporation into intra-aggregate fractions more rapid in the presence of black carbon. Added double-labeled organic matter was recovered in fractions with high amounts of black carbon. Synchrotron-based near-edge x-ray fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy coupled to scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) suggested a possible interaction of microorganisms with black carbon surfaces and metabolization of residues. These findings suggest a conceptual model that includes carbon-carbon interactions and by-passing for more rapid stabilization of litter into what is commonly interpreted as stable carbon pools.

  4. Temperature sensitivity of respiration scales with organic matter recalcitrance (United States)

    Craine, J. M.; Fierer, N.; McLauchlan, K. K.


    Microbial decomposition of soil organic matter is a key process in determining the carbon sequestration potential of ecosystems and carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. Since microbial decomposition is highly sensitive to short-term changes in temperature, predicting the temperature sensitivity of microbial decomposition is critical to predicting future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and feedbacks to anthropogenic warming. Fundamental principles of enzyme kinetics, embodied in the carbon-quality temperature hypothesis, predict that the temperature sensitivity of microbial decomposition should increase with increasing biochemical recalcitrance of a substrate. To test the generality of this principle, we measured the temperature sensitivity of microbial respiration of soil organic matter with serial short-term temperature manipulations over 365 days for 28 North American soils. When joined with data from similar studies that represent a wide variety of contrasts, we show that the temperature sensitivity of organic matter decomposition scales with biochemical recalcitrance. With physico-chemical protection likely an important covariate for relating plant and soil organic matter decomposition scalars, biochemically recalcitrant organic matter is highly susceptible to short-term increases in temperature, a key link in predicting the effects of warming on carbon cycling.

  5. Organic matter decomposition in simulated aquaculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Beristain, B.


    Different kinds of organic and inorganic compounds (e.g. formulated food, manures, fertilizers) are added to aquaculture ponds to increase fish production. However, a large part of these inputs are not utilized by the fish and are decomposed inside the pond. The microbiological decomposition of the

  6. Dissolved organic matter uptake by temperate macrophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Engeland, T.; Bouma, T.J.; Morris, E.P.; Brun, F.G.; Peralta, G.; Lara, M.; Hendriks, I.E.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Veuger, B.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J.


    Ecosystems dominated by seagrasses often exhibit low inorganic nitrogen concentrations. Given the high productivity in these systems, recycling of nitrogen is expected to be high. We investigated the use of inorganic and organic nitrogen compounds by co-occuring primary producers in a temperate

  7. Consequences of organic farming and landscape heterogeneity for species richness and abundance of farmland birds. (United States)

    Smith, Henrik G; Dänhardt, Juliana; Lindström, Ake; Rundlöf, Maj


    It has been suggested that organic farming may benefit farmland biodiversity more in landscapes that have lost a significant part of its former landscape heterogeneity. We tested this hypothesis by comparing bird species richness and abundance during the breeding season in organic and conventional farms, matched to eliminate all differences not directly linked to the farming practice, situated in either homogeneous plains with only a little semi-natural habitat or in heterogeneous farmland landscapes with abundant field borders and semi-natural grasslands. The effect of farm management on species richness interacted with landscape structure, such that there was a positive relationship between organic farming and diversity only in homogeneous landscapes. This pattern was mainly dependent on the species richness of passerine birds, in particular those that were invertebrate feeders. Species richness of non-passerines was positively related to organic farming independent of the landscape context. Bird abundance was positively related to landscape heterogeneity but not to farm management. This was mainly because the abundance of passerines, particularly invertebrate feeders, was positively related to landscape heterogeneity. We suggest that invertebrate feeders particularly benefit from organic farming because of improved foraging conditions through increased invertebrate abundances in otherwise depauperate homogeneous landscapes. Although many seed-eaters also benefit from increased insect abundance, they may also utilize crop seed resources in homogeneous landscapes and conventional farms. The occurrence of an interactive effect of organic farming and landscape heterogeneity on bird diversity will have consequences for the optimal allocation of resources to restore the diversity of farmland birds.

  8. Degradation Mechanisms of Colloidal Organic Matter in Biofilm Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tove; Harremoës, Poul


    The degradation mechanisms of colloidal organic matter in biofilm reactors have been studied in an idealized laboratory reactor system with soluble starch as a model substrate. Batch tests and experiments with different reactor configurations have shown that for this specific substrate, bulk liquid...... hydrolysis is the mechanism for transforming non-diffusible organic matter into biofilm diffusible substrate. A simplified mathematical description has led to the identification of the degree of hydrolysis, DH, as the parameter expressing the major difference between degradation of diffusible and non......-diffusible organic matter in a biofilm reactor. DH depends on the combined volumetric and surface hydraulic loading rate, Q2/(AV). In full-scale wastewater treatment plants, the degradation mechanism presented in this paper can explain important differences between the performance of trickling filters and RBC...

  9. Securing decommissioning funds. Why organization matters?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchapga, F.


    Full text: Securing decommissioning funds requires that the financial resources set aside for the purpose of decommissioning be managed prudently. Decommissioning of nuclear power plant is prescribed by National Atomic Laws or by other nuclear legislation. It is a mandatory operation. The operators of nuclear power plants set money aside for that purpose. This is known as 'Decommissioning reserve fund'. Decommissioning implies costs very distant in time. Thus, it is obvious, from an economic point of view, that the funds set aside should be managed. As decommissioning is mandatory, the funds accumulated should be secured. In others words, they should be available when needed. Availability of funds is influenced by endogenous and exogenous factors. Endogenous factors are a matter of design of the reserve funds. They include the management of the funds, its monitoring and control... Availability of funds is influenced by these factors, depending on the rules to which the behaviour of the manager of the funds is subjected. In contrast, exogenous factors deal with the energy context. These factors are mainly the electricity sector organisation and/or the overall economic situation. They are decisive factors of the economic performance of the reserve fund for a given design. Therefore, the requirement of availability of funds, when needed, is a matter of compatibility between the design of the decommissioning funds and the electricity context. Put differently, reserve fund's design need to be consistent with the electricity context's features in respect of the availability of funds. Current reserve funds were designed in a context of monopoly regime. In this context, availability of decommissioning funds was not questionable. At least, as far as the design of the reserve funds is concerned. This is because nuclear generator didn't confront any competition pressure. Electricity prices were set trough rate base mechanism, and all the business risks were borne by the

  10. Organic Matter Controls of Iron Incorporation in Growing Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Janssens


    Full Text Available This study presents the first laboratory-controlled sea-ice growth experiment conducted under trace metal clean conditions. The role played by organic matter in the incorporation of iron (Fe into sea ice was investigated by means of laboratory ice-growth experiments using a titanium cold-finger apparatus. Experiments were also conducted to understand the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS in the enrichment of ammonium in sea ice. Sea ice was grown from several seawater solutions containing different quantities and qualities of particulate Fe (PFe, dissolved Fe (DFe and organic matter. Sea ice and seawater were analyzed for particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, macro-nutrients, EPS, PFe, and DFe, and particulate aluminum. The experiments showed that biogenic PFe is preferentially incorporated into sea ice compared to lithogenic PFe. Furthermore, sea ice grown from ultra-violet (UV and non-UV treated seawaters exhibits contrasting incorporation rates of organic matter and Fe. Whereas, the effects of UV-treatments were not always significant, we do find indications that the type or organic matter controls the enrichment of Fe in forming sea ice. Specifically, we come to the conclusion that the incorporation of DFe is favored by the presence of organic ligands in the source solution.

  11. Radionuclide fractionation in organic matter-enriched soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigol, A.; Vidal, M.; Rauret, G.


    Sequential extraction scheme was proposed in order to obtain radionuclide distribution and predict its mobility in soil-plant system. This scheme is useful to be able to explain changes of the radionuclide behaviour over time, i.e., decrease in exchangeable-available fraction and increase in fixed-mineral-fraction. A sequential extraction scheme which considers the different interactions between organic matter in radionuclide may give information about the role of organic matter in radionuclide retention. Such scheme has been designed and it defines a series of fractions from the sequential use of different extractant reagents. The extraction scheme allows to estimate, in a operational way, the fraction of radionuclide associated with exchangeable sites (Fraction 1), with humic and fulvic acids (Fraction 2 and 3), the amount of radionuclide related to passive organic matter like humine, non-humic substances or mineral organic matter (Fraction 4) and the radionuclide highly fixed to soil mineral matter (residual fraction). The results allowing to ascertain which are sites responsible for radiocesium retention

  12. Applicability of FTIR-spectroscopy for characterizing waste organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, E.


    State and development of waste organic matter were characterized by means of FTIR-spectroscopy. Due to the interaction of infrared light with matter energy is absorbed by chemical functional groups. Chemical preparation steps are not necessary and therefore this method offers a more holistic information about the material. The first part of experiments was focussed on spectra of different waste materials representing various stages of decomposition. Due to characteristics in the fingerprint- region the identity of wastes is provable. Heights of significant bands in the spectrum were measured and relative absorbances were calculated. Changes of relative absorbances indicate the development of organic matter during decomposition. Organic matter of waste samples was compared to organic matter originating from natural analogous processes (peat, soil). The second part of experiments concentrated on a composting process for a period of 260 days. Spectral characteristics of the samples were compared to their chemical, physical and biological data. The change of relative absorbances was reflected by conventional parameters. According to the development of the entire sample humic acids underwent a change as well. For practical use the method offers several possibilities: monitoring of a process, comparison of different processes, quality control of products originating from waste materials and the proof of their identity. (author)

  13. Role of sedimentary organic matter in bacterial sulfate reduction: the G model tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westrich, J.T.; Berner, R.A.


    Laboratory study of the bacterial decomposition of Long Island Sound plankton in oxygenated seawater over a period of 2 years shows that the organic material undergoes decomposition via first-order kinetics and can be divided into two decomposable fractions, of considerably different reactivity, and a nonmetabolized fraction. This planktonic material, after undergoing varying degrees of oxic degradation, was added in the laboratory to anoxic sediment taken from a depth of 1 m at the NWC site of Long Island Sound and the rate of bacterial sulfate reduction in the sediment measured by the 35 S radiotracer technique. The stimulated rate of sulfate reduction was in direct proportion to the amount of planktonic carbon added. This provides direct confirmation of the first-order decomposition, or G model, for marine sediments and proves that the in situ rate of sulfate reduction is organic-matter limited. Slower sulfate reduction rates resulted when oxically degraded plankton rather than fresh plankton was added, and the results confirm the presence of the same two fractions of organic matter deduced from the oxic degradation studies. Near-surface Long Island Sound sediment, which already contains abundant readily decomposable organic matter, was also subjected to anoxic decomposition by bacterial sulfate reduction. The decrease in sulfate reduction rate with time parallels decreases in the amount of organic matter, and these results also indicate the presence of two fractions of organic carbon of distinctly different reactivity. From plots of the log of reduction rate vs. time two first-order rate constants were obtained that agree well with those derived from the plankton addition experiment. Together, the two experiments confirm the use of a simple multi-first-order rate law for organic matter decomposition in marine sediments

  14. Assessment of the unidentified organic matter fraction in fogwater using fluorescence spectroscopy (United States)

    Valsaraj, K.; Birdwell, J.


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in fogwaters from southeastern Louisiana and central-eastern China has been characterized using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that fluorescence spectroscopy can be used to obtain a qualitative assessment of the large fraction of fogwater organic carbon (~40 - 80% by weight) that cannot be identified in terms of specific chemical compounds. The method has the principle advantage that it can be applied at natural abundance concentrations, thus eliminating the need for large sample volumes required to isolate DOM for characterization by other spectroscopic (NMR, FTIR) and chemical (elemental) analyses. It was anticipated that the fogwater organic matter fluorescence spectra would resemble those of surface and rain waters, containing peaks indicative of both humic substances and fluorescent amino acids. Humic- and protein-like fluorophores were observed in the fogwater spectra and fluorescence-derived indices had values comparable to other natural waters. Biological character (intensity of tyrosine and tryptophan peaks) was found to increase with organic carbon concentration. Fogwater organic matter appears to contain a mixture of terrestrially- and microbially-derived material. The fluorescence results show that most of the unidentified fogwater organic carbon can be represented by humic-like and biologically-derived substances similar to those present in other aquatic systems.

  15. The organic matter of the different ages fallow Luvisols (United States)

    Giniyatullin, K. G.; Valeeva, A. A.; Smirnova, E. V.; Okunev, R. V.; Latipova, L. I.


    The study of the change in the humus state of the fallow Luvisols of different ages under the influence of weeds and meadow vegetation was carried out in dynamics (after 5 years). It is shown that both under weedy and meadow vegetation there is a statistically significant accumulation of organic matter in the upper part of the long-arable horizon. Based on the study of composition and spectral properties of soil organic matter in fallow soils of different ages concluded that the significant qualitative change of the humus state of fallow soils requires significant time, measured at least decades.

  16. Degradation Mechanisms of Colloidal Organic Matter in Biofilm Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tove; Harremoës, Poul


    The degradation mechanisms of colloidal organic matter in biofilm reactors have been studied in an idealized laboratory reactor system with soluble starch as a model substrate. Batch tests and experiments with different reactor configurations have shown that for this specific substrate, bulk liquid...... hydrolysis is the mechanism for transforming non-diffusible organic matter into biofilm diffusible substrate. A simplified mathematical description has led to the identification of the degree of hydrolysis, DH, as the parameter expressing the major difference between degradation of diffusible and non...

  17. Separating the effects of organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry on the sorption of diuron and phenanthrene. (United States)

    Ahangar, Ahmad Gholamalizadeh; Smernik, Ronald J; Kookana, Rai S; Chittleborough, David J


    Even though it is well established that soil C content is the primary determinant of the sorption affinity of soils for non-ionic compounds, it is also clear that organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (K(OC)) vary considerably between soils. Two factors that may contribute to K(OC) variability are variations in organic matter chemistry between soils and interactions between organic matter and soil minerals. Here, we quantify these effects for two non-ionic sorbates-diuron and phenanthrene. The effect of organic matter-mineral interactions were evaluated by comparing K(OC) for demineralized (HF-treated) soils, with K(OC) for the corresponding whole soils. For diuron and phenanthrene, average ratios of K(OC) of the HF-treated soils to K(OC) of the whole soils were 2.5 and 2.3, respectively, indicating a substantial depression of K(OC) due to the presence of minerals in the whole soils. The effect of organic matter chemistry was determined by correlating K(OC) against distributions of C types determined using solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy. For diuron, K(OC) was positively correlated with aryl C and negatively correlated with O-alkyl C, for both whole and HF-treated soils, whereas for phenanthrene, these correlations were only present for the HF-treated soils. We suggest that the lack of a clear effect of organic matter chemistry on whole soil K(OC) for phenanthrene is due to an over-riding influence of organic matter-mineral interactions in this case. This hypothesis is supported by a correlation between the increase in K(OC) on HF-treatment and the soil clay content for phenanthrene, but not for diuron.

  18. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X.; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Wenbin (UC)


    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C–H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  19. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework nodes. (United States)

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C; Lin, Wenbin


    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C-H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  20. Abundance of invertebrate prey for birds on organic and conventional arable farms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, S.; Tamis, W.L.M.; Gentenaar, E.; Midcap Ramiro, S.M.; Poll, van der R.J.; Wang, J.; Snoo, de G.R.


    As a result of agricultural intensification, populations of farmland birds have been in steep decline for several decades. Reduction in food abundance has been mentioned as one factor behind these declines. Extensive farm management, such as use of organic methods, is expected to provide more food

  1. Crown-of-Thorns Starfish Larvae Can Feed on Organic Matter Released from Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Nakajima


    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that Crown-of-Thorns starfish (COTS larvae may be able to survive in the absence of abundant phytoplankton resources suggesting that they may be able to utilize alternative food sources. Here, we tested the hypothesis that COTS larvae are able to feed on coral-derived organic matter using labeled stable isotope tracers (13C and 15N. Our results show that coral-derived organic matter (coral mucus and associated microorganisms can be assimilated by COTS larvae and may be an important alternative or additional food resource for COTS larvae through periods of low phytoplankton biomass. This additional food resource could potentially facilitate COTS outbreaks by reducing resource limitation.

  2. Microbial response to different phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter sources in the Ross Sea, Antarctica (United States)

    Sipler, R. E.; Spackeen, J.; McQuaid, J.; Bertrand, E. M.; Roberts, Q. N.; Baer, S. E.; Hutchins, D. A.; Allen, A. E.; Bronk, D. A.


    Western Antarctic shelves are highly productive regions that play an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles, specifically serving as a critical sink for carbon dioxide. Fixed carbon is stored within the phytoplankton cell as particulate organic matter or released into the surrounding water as dissolved organic matter (DOM). These phytoplankton-derived sources of organic matter support higher trophic levels as well as heterotrophic bacterial growth and respiration. The composition of the phytoplankton-derived organic matter is a function of the taxa as well as the environmental conditions under which it is produced. Phytoplankton community composition within western Antarctic Seas changes throughout Austral spring and summer with early production dominated by ice algae, switching to pelagic diatoms and flagellates later in the season. The goal of this study was to compare the response of Ross Sea microbial communities to DOM produced by ice algae or late season diatoms, specifically recent isolates of Pseudo nitzschia obtained from the Ross Sea. During 5-day bioassay studies, exudates from a natural ice algal community and from Pseudo nitzschia sp. isolates were added to natural microbial communities collected from two different Ross Sea locations, an ice-edge and an ice-covered site. The bacterial response to the DOM additions was greatest in the ice-covered community with a 5 and 3-fold higher bacterial abundance in the ice algae DOM and Pseudo nitzschia DOM treatments, respectively, relative to the control. The ice edge bacterial community responded similarly to both sources with a 2-fold increase in bacterial abundance compared to the control. Unlike the bacterial response, there was little difference in chlorophyll a concentrations between treatments, indicating that phytoplankton growth was not stimulated or inhibited by our additions.

  3. Microbial Nitrogen Cycling Associated with the Early Diagenesis of Organic Matter in Subseafloor Sediments (United States)

    Zhao, R.


    The early diagenesis of organic matter is the major energy source of marine sedimentary biosphere and thus controls its population size; however, the vertical distribution of any functional groups along with the diagenesis of organic matter is remained unclear, especially for those microbes involved in nitrogen transformation which serve as a major control on the nitrogen flux between reservoirs. Here we investigated the vertical distributions of various functional groups in five sediment cores retrieved from Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR), with emphasis on the nitrifiers, denitrifiers and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (anammox). We observed the clear geochemical zonation associated with organic matter diagenesis in the sediments based on the pore water profiles of oxygen, nitrate, ammonium, manganese and sulfate, with distinct geochemical transition zones at the boundaries of geochemical zones, including oxic-anoxic transition zone (OATZ) and nitrate-manganese reduction zone (NMTZ). Nitrate was produced in surface oxygenated sediments and nitrate consumption mainly took place at the NMTZ, splitted between re-oxidation of ammonium and manganese (II). Abundances of ammonia oxidizers, nitrite oxidizers, and denitrifiers, estimated through quantitative PCR targeting their respective functional genes, generally decrease with depth, but constantly elevated around the OATZ, NMTZ, and manganese-reduction zone as well. Anammox bacteria were only detected around the NMTZ where both nitrate/nitrite and ammonium are available. These depth profiles of functional groups were also confirmed by the community structure profiling by prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Cell-specific rates of nitrification and denitrification, calculated from the bulk net reaction rates divided by functional group abundances, were similar to those values from oligotrophic sediments like North Pond and thus suggested that nitrifiers and denitirifiers populations were in maintenance

  4. Organic matter and containment of uranium and fissiogenic isotopes at the Oklo natural reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, B.; Rigali, M.J.; Davis, D.W.; Parnell, J.


    Some of the Precambrian natural fission reactors at Oklo in Gabon contain abundant organic matter, part of which was liquefied at the time of criticality and subsequently converted to a graphitic solid. The liquid organic matter helps to reduce U(VI) to U(IV) from aqueous solutions, resulting in the precipitation of uraninite. It is known that in the prevailing reactor environments, precipitated uraninite grains incorporated fission products. We report here observations which show that these uraninite crystals were held immobile within the re-solidified, graphitic bituminous organics at Oklo thus enhanced radionuclide containment. Uraninite encased in solid graphitic matter in the organic-rich reactor zones lost virtually no fissiogenic lanthanide isotopes. The first major episode of uranium and lead migration was caused by the intrusion of a swarm of adjacent dolerite dykes about 1,100 Myr after the reactors went critical. Our results from Oklo imply that the use of organic, hydrophobic solids such as graphitic bitumen as a means of immobilizing radionuclides in pre-treated nuclear waste warrants further investigation. (author)

  5. Can particulate organic matter reveal emerging changes in soil organic carbon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsson, Magnus; Kirchmann, Holger; Magid, Jakob


    This study assessed whether particulate organic matter (POM) in sand fractions, isolated by wet sieving after treatment with Na hexametaphosphate, can be a sensitive indicator of incipient changes in the content and composition of soil organic matter. In five long-term field experiments including....... Although organic matter in Fraction B had a higher intrinsic sensitivity to soil management, which was partly able to overcome the larger errors, we concluded that an observer would be more likely to detect changes by measuring total organic C and N, when monitoring decadal changes in C and N pools....... This makes the investigated POM fractions less suitable as indicators for changes in soil C stocks. However, the C/N ratio of Fraction B showed a distinct signature of the history of organic matter input to the soil, which was absent in the C/N ratio of the total fine earth....

  6. Vertical transport of organic matter in the various oceanic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handa, Nobuhiko; Hayakawa, Kazuhide


    Organic matter produced by the photosynthesis of the phytoplankton is removed from the euphotic layer to the underlying waters by sinking of the particles consisting of both marine snow and fecal pellet. Phytoplankton bloom always enhances the vertical flux of organic matter from the subsurface to deep waters. Turbidity current is another factor to govern the vertical flux of organic carbon especially in the continental shelf to its slope areas. However, no information are available to distinguish the organic materials from these two sources. Stable carbon isotope ratio and fatty acid composition give most promising informations to diagnose the physiological state of the phytoplankton which is one of the source of the organic materials of the sinking particle, because of the extensive variations of the δ 13 C of the phytoplankton cellular organic matter and fatty acid composition due to the phytoplankton growth rate (O'Leary, 1981; Morris et al., 1985). Δ 14 C of the organic matter of the sinking particle will provide an information as to how much organic materials are derived from the phytoplankton growing in the surface and subsurface waters and/or from the resuspended particles of the surface sediment in the continental shelf and its slope areas. Recently we analyzed various samples of the sinking particles collected from the coastal areas of the Antarctica and off Hokkaido, Japan for fatty acids and found that ratios as biomarker to diagnose these growth phases of the phytoplankton growing in the surface to subsurface waters. Thus, we intend to report here these data obtained. (J.P.N.)

  7. Organic matter and heavy metals in grey-water sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 8, 2010 ... Grey-water intended for non-potable reuse is being intensively studied, but little attention has been given to the associ- ated solid fraction, the grey-water sludge. In this study grey-water sludge originating from bathroom grey-water has been screened with respect to organic matter; particles; short-chain fatty ...

  8. The Effect of Organic Matter Content and Turning Cycle on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composting is an old technology and farmers have applied it in sustainable agriculture. In municipal solid waste management, composting can form part of an integrated system in handling waste for disposal. This study investigated the effect of organic matter content and turning cycle on the composting process of ...

  9. Ammonia and nitrous oxide interactions - importance of organic matter management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Sommer, Sven G.

    Intensification of livestock production in many parts of the world has led to increasing atmospheric losses of N in connection with storage and field application of manure. Both types of emissions are influenced by manure organic matter content via mechanisms such as composting, crust formation, ...

  10. Estimation of colored dissolved organic matter and salinity fields in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Estimates of water quality variables such as chlorophyll concentration (Chl), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), or salinity from satellite sensors are of great interest to resource managers monitoring coastal regions such as the Florida Bay and the Florida Shelf. However, accurate stimates of these variables using ...

  11. Organic matter fractions and microarthropod population in soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sites included: Calathea plantation, cement factory area, phosphate rock and sand quarry areas, experimental farm, heavily manured vegetable site, and cocoa plantation, all in southwestern Nigeria. In both experiments, the different fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) signifiantly varied among the soils. Population ...

  12. Fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the continental shelf waters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) of southwestern Bay of Bengal surface water during southwest monsoon consisted five fluorophores, three humic-like and two protein-like. The humification index (HIX) and humic fluorophores, viz., visible (C), marine (M) and UV (A) humic-likes indicated, better than ...

  13. Fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the continental shelf waters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    shelf waters of western Bay of Bengal. N V H K Chari, P Sudarsana Rao and Nittala S Sarma. ∗. Marine Chemistry Laboratory, School of Chemistry, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India. ∗. Corresponding author. e-mail: Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) of southwestern ...

  14. Light fraction of soil organic matter under different management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on light fraction organic matter was carried out on the soil from three different management systems namely; Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis and Leucaena leucocephala plantations in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria. Soil samples were collected in each of the three management site at five auger ...

  15. Soil organic matter reduces the sorption of arsenate and phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeck, M.; Hiemstra, T.; Thiry, Y.; Smolders, E.


    The arsenate (AsO4) and phosphate (PO4) mobility in aerobic soil is affected by soil organic matter (OM). This study was set up to quantify the interaction between OM and AsO4 with an observational, experimental and computational approach. The adsorption of

  16. Estimation of colored dissolved organic matter and salinity fields in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    e-mail: Estimates of water quality variables such as chlorophyll a concentration (Chl), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), or salinity from satellite sensors are of great interest to resource man- agers monitoring coastal regions such as the Florida Bay and the Florida ...

  17. Molecular Trickery in Soil Organic Matter: Hidden Lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernes, P.J.; Kaiser, K.; Dyda, R.Y.; Cerli, C.


    Binding to minerals is one mechanism crucial toward the accumulation and stabilization of organic matter (OM) in soils. Of the various biochemicals produced by plants, lignin-derived phenols are among the most surface-reactive compounds. However, it is not known to what extent mineral-bound

  18. Non-pharmacological modulation of cerebral white matter organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tina D; Mandl, Rene C W; Jepsen, Jens R M


    OBJECTIVE: Neuroplasticity is a well-described phenomenon, but effects of non-pharmacological interventions on white matter (WM) are unclear. Here we review associations between active non-pharmacological interventions and WM organization in healthy subjects and in psychiatric patients. METHOD: A...

  19. Lyophilization and Reconstitution of Reverse Osmosis Concentrated Natural Organic Matter (United States)

    Disinfection by-product (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and changing natural organic matter (NOM) characteristics over time. To overcome these issues, it is advantageous to have a reliable method for concentrating and preservin...

  20. Natural organic matter (NOM) in South African waters: NOM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to remove natural organic matter (NOM) from water in a water treatment train, the composition of the NOM in the source water must be taken into account, especially as it may not necessarily be uniform since the composition is dependent on the local environment. The main thrust of this study was to ascertain ...

  1. Effect of four herbicides on microbial population, soil organic matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of four herbicides (atrazine, primeextra, paraquat and glyphosate) on soil microbial population, soil organic matter and dehydrogenase activity was assessed over a period of six weeks. Soil samples from cassava farms were treated with herbicides at company recommended rates. Soil dehydrogenase activity was ...

  2. Organic matter and heavy metals in grey-water sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 1816-7950 (On-line) = Water SA Vol. 36 No. 1 January 2010. 139. * To whom all correspondence should be addressed. ☎ (+45) 45 25 16 00; fax: (+45) 45 93 28 50; e-mail: Received 30 October2009; accepted in revised form 8 January 2010. Rapid communication. Organic matter and heavy metals ...

  3. Trihalomethanes in drinking water: Effect of natural organic matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of distribution of natural organic matter (NOM) on formation and distribution of trihalomethanes (THMs) in municipal water were investigated. Water samples were fractionated using serial ultrafiltration with membranes of molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) values of 500, 1 000 and 3 000 Da. The resulting 4 fractions of ...

  4. White matter microstructural organization and gait stability in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, S.M.; Impe, A. Van; Duysens, J.E.J.; Swinnen, S.P.


    Understanding age-related decline in gait stability and the role of alterations in brain structure is crucial. Here, we studied the relationship between white matter microstructural organization using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and advanced gait stability measures in 15 healthy young adults

  5. White matter microstructural organization and gait stability in older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, S.M.; Van Impe, A.; Duysens, J.; Swinnen, S.P.


    Understanding age-related decline in gait stability and the role of alterations in brain structure is crucial. Here, we studied the relationship between white matter microstructural organization using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and advanced gait stability measures in 15 healthy young adults

  6. Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemst, J.D.H. van


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle (chapter 1). However, not much is known about the molecular composition and the origin of DOM. The study described in this thesis was conducted to gain more knowledge on the molecular composition and the origin of

  7. Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heemst, J.D.H.


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle (chapter 1). However, not much is known about the molecular composition and the origin of DOM. The study described in this thesis was conducted to gain more knowledge on the molecular composition and the origin of DOM.

  8. Characterisation of natural organic matter (NOM) and its removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural organic matter (NOM) occurs in all natural water sources when animal and plant material breaks down. NOM in water may react with chlorine and other disinfectants to produce disinfection by-products (DBPs), many of which are either carcinogenic or mutagenic. In this study the NOM content of the raw water from ...

  9. Degradation of riverine dissolved organic matter by seawater bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochelle-Newall, E.J.; Pizay, M-D.; Middelburg, J.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Gattuso, J.P.


    The functional response of a seawater bacterial community transplanted into freshwater dissolved organic matter (DOM) was investigated together with the response of natural populations of bacteria to size-fractioned natural source water. Seawater bacteria were incubated over a period of 8 d in

  10. Terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter in the chesapeake bay and the middle atlantic bight (United States)

    Mitra, Siddhartha; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Guo, Laodong; Santschi, Peter H.


    Concentrations of lignin-phenols were analyzed in high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (0.2 μm > HMW DOM > 1 kDa) isolated from surface waters of the Chesapeake Bay (C. Bay), and surface and bottom waters of the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB). The abundance of lignin-phenols in HMW DOM was higher in the C. Bay (0.128 ± 0.06 μg L -1) compared to MAB surface waters (0.016 ± 0.004 μg L -1) and MAB bottom waters (0.005 ± 0.003 μg L -1). On an organic carbon-normalized basis, lignin-phenol abundances in the HMW DOM (i.e., Λ 6), were significantly higher ( p vanillin (Ad/Al) V in HMW DOM, indicative of lignin decay, ranged from 0.611 to 1.37 in C. Bay, 0.534 to 2.62 in MAB surface waters, and 0.435 to 1.96 in MAB bottom water. Ratios of S/V and (Ad/Al) V showed no significant differences between each environment, providing no evidence of any compositionally distinct input of terrestrial organic matter into each environment. When considering depth profiles of suspended particulate matter in the MAB, with C:N ratios, and bulk radiocarbon ages and stable carbon isotopic values in HMW DOM isolated from these areas, two scenarios present themselves regarding the sources and transport of terrestrially derived HMW DOM in the MAB. Scenario #1 assumes that a low amount of refractory terrestrial organic matter and old DOC are uniformly distributed in the oceans, both in surface and bottom waters, and that primary production in surface waters increases DOC with low lignin and younger DOC which degrades easily. In this case, many of the trends in age and biomarker composition likely reflect general patterns of Atlantic Ocean surface and bottom water circulation in the area of the MAB. Scenario 2 assumes terrestrial organic matter in bottom waters of the MAB may have originated from weathered shelf and slope sediments in nearshore areas via a combination of mechanisms (e.g., diffusion, recent resuspension events, and/or desorption of DOM from riverine POM buried deep

  11. Organic richness and organic matter quality studies of source rocks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrocarbon potential of the Upper Cretaceous units (Maastrichtian Mamu Formation) exposed at Imiegba and environs of the Benin Flank, Western Anambra Basin was assessed by Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Rock-Eval Pyrolysis Analyses. The investigated sections of the Mamu Formation consist of dark grey to ...

  12. Organic compounds in the particulate matter from burning organic soils (United States)

    Charles K. McMahon; Jerry D. White; Skevos N. Tsoukalas


    This paper is directed to people interested in the environmental impact of natural emissions. Natural emissions are common and contribute significantly to tropospheric background levels. Several million hectares of the United States are covered by organic soils. During droughts, these soils can ignite and support slow combustion which often persists for weeks causing...

  13. Physicochemical Factors Influence the Abundance and Culturability of Human Enteric Pathogens and Fecal Indicator Organisms in Estuarine Water and Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Hassard


    Full Text Available To assess fecal pollution in coastal waters, current monitoring is reliant on culture-based enumeration of bacterial indicators, which does not account for the presence of viable but non-culturable or sediment-associated micro-organisms, preventing effective quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA. Seasonal variability in viable but non-culturable or sediment-associated bacteria challenge the use of fecal indicator organisms (FIOs for water monitoring. We evaluated seasonal changes in FIOs and human enteric pathogen abundance in water and sediments from the Ribble and Conwy estuaries in the UK. Sediments possessed greater bacterial abundance than the overlying water column, however, key pathogenic species (Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., hepatitis A virus, hepatitis E virus and norovirus GI and GII were not detected in sediments. Salmonella was detected in low levels in the Conwy water in spring/summer and norovirus GII was detected in the Ribble water in winter. The abundance of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. quantified by culture-based methods, rarely matched the abundance of these species when measured by qPCR. The discrepancy between these methods was greatest in winter at both estuaries, due to low CFU's, coupled with higher gene copies (GC. Temperature accounted for 60% the variability in bacterial abundance in water in autumn, whilst in winter salinity explained 15% of the variance. Relationships between bacterial indicators/pathogens and physicochemical variables were inconsistent in sediments, no single indicator adequately described occurrence of all bacterial indicators/pathogens. However, important variables included grain size, porosity, clay content and concentrations of Zn, K, and Al. Sediments with greater organic matter content and lower porosity harbored a greater proportion of non-culturable bacteria (including dead cells and extracellular DNA in winter. Here, we show the link between physicochemical

  14. Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stability in Agricultural Systems by Using Natural Abundance Signals of Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Clercq, Tim; Heiling, Maria; Aigner, Martina


    Information on the stability and age of soil organic matter (SOM) pools is of vital importance for assessing the impact of soil management and environmental factors on SOM, an important part of the global carbon (C) cycle. The terrestrial soil organic C pool, up to a depth of 1 m, contains about 1500 Pg C (Batjes, 1996). This is about 2.5 times more organic C than the vegetation (650 Pg C) and about twice as much as in the atmosphere (750 Pg C) (Batjes, 1998), but the assessment of the stability and age of SOM using 14 C radio carbon technique are expensive. Conen et al. (2008) developed a model to estimate the SOM stability based on the isotopic discrimination of 15 N natural abundance by soil micro-organisms and the change in C/N ratio during organic matter decomposition, for steady state, Alpine and permanent grasslands. In the framework of the IAEA funded coordinated research project (CRP) on Soil Quality and Nutrient Management for Sustainable Food Production in Mulch based Cropping Systems in sub-Saharan Africa, research was initiated to use this model in agricultural systems for developing a cost effective and affordable technique for Member States to determine the stability of SOM. As part of this research, soil samples were taken and analysed in four long term field experiments, established on soils with low and high SOM, in Austria and Belgium. The participating institutions are the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna (BOKU), the University of Leuven (KUL), the Soil Service of Belgium (BDB) and the Centre Wallon de Recherches Agronomiques (CRA-W)

  15. Preservation of organic matter on Mars by sulfur (United States)

    Eigenbrode, J. L.; Steele, A.; Summons, R. E.; McAdam, A.; Sutter, B.; Franz, H. B.; Freissinet, C.; Millan, M.; Glavin, D. P.; Szopa, C.; Conrad, P. G.; Mahaffy, P. R.


    Deltaic-lacustrine mudstones at Pahrump Hills, Gale Crater, Mars yielded a variety of sulfur-containing volatiles upon heating to 500-860°C, as detected by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover. The detection of organosulfur compounds comprising thiophenes, dimethylsulfide and thiols by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and evolved gas analyses, together with aromatic and other hydrocarbon molecules with distributions specific to the sample (i.e., not from the SAM background) indicate that some or all of these organic fragments released at high temperatures are indigenous to the mudstones. The organosulfur compounds are most likely derived from sulfur organics in the sediments. However, there is a possibility that sulfurization of some organic fragments occurred in the oven. On Earth, sulfurization of organic matter is a key process that aids preservation over geological time-scales. This is because it reduces reactive functional groups and adds cross links between small unstable molecules thereby converting them into recalcitrant macromolecules. Sulfurization of organic materials prior to deposition and during early diagenesis may have been a key mechanism responsible for organic matter preservation in the Murray formation mudstones. Sulfur-bearing organics have also been observed in carbonaceous meteorites and there is indication of their presence in the Tissint martian meteorite. A quantitative assessment of organosulfur compounds relative to their non-organic counterparts will be presented for the Murray formation mudstones analyzed by SAM and meteorites analyzed in the laboratory under similar analytical conditions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the organic matter changes in quantity and quality, particularly of the humic fraction in the surface layer (0–20 cm, of a Typic Plinthustalf soil under different management of plant mixtures used as green manure for mango (Mangifera indica L. crops. The plant mixtures, which were seeded between rows of mango trees, were formed by two groups of leguminous and non-leguminous plants. Prior to sowing, seeds were combined in different proportions and compositions constituting the following treatments: 100% non-leguminous species (NL; 100% leguminous species (L; 75% L and 25% NL; 50% L and 50% NL; 25% L and 75% NL; and 100% spontaneous vegetation, considered a control. The plant mixtures that grew between rows of mango trees caused changes in the chemical composition of the soil organic matter, especially for the treatments 50% L and 50% NL and 25% L and 75% NL, which increased the content of humic substances in the soil organic matter. However, the treatment 25% L and 75% NL was best at minimising loss of total organic carbon from the soil. The humic acids studied have mostly aliphatic characteristics, showing large amounts of carboxylic and nitrogen groups and indicating that most of the organic carbon was formed by humic substances, with fulvic acid dominating among the alkali soluble fractions.

  17. Soil Organic Matter Content Effects on Dermal Pesticide ... (United States)

    Agricultural landscapes serve as active amphibian breeding grounds despite their seemingly poor habitat value. Activity of adults and dispersal of metamorphs to and from agricultural ponds occurs in most species from spring through late summer or early fall, a time that coincides with pesticide applications on farm fields and crops. In terrestrial landscapes, dermal contact with contaminated soil and plant matter may lead to bioconcentration as well as lethal and sublethal effects in amphibians.Although the physiological structure of the amphibian dermis may facilitate pesticide uptake, soil properties may ultimately dictate bioavailability of pesticides in terrestrial habitats. The organic matter fraction of soil readily binds to pesticides, potentially decreasing the availability of pesticides adhering to biological matter. Soil partition coefficient soils. A basic understanding of soil organic carbon content and soil-specific Koc values may be important to indicating pesticide bioavailability and potential bioconcentration in amphibians. Our study was designed to evaluate dermal uptake of five pesticide active ingredients on either high or low organic matter soils. We predicted that amphibian body burdens would be a function of soil carbon content or Koc. with greater bioconcentration in individuals exposed to pesticides on sa

  18. Characterization and Phenanthrene Sorption of Natural and Pyrogenic Organic Matter Fractions. (United States)

    Jin, Jie; Sun, Ke; Wang, Ziying; Yang, Yan; Han, Lanfang; Xing, Baoshan


    Pyrogenic humic acid (HA) is released into the environment during the large-scale application of biochar. However, the biogeochemistry of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) fractions and their sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) are poorly understood in comparison with natural organic matter (NOM) fractions. HA and humin (HM) fractions isolated from soils and the oxidized biochars were characterized. Sorption of phenanthrene (PHE) by these fractions was also examined. The characterization results demonstrate that pyrogenic HAs are different from natural HAs, with the former having lower atomic H/C ratios, more abundant aromatic C, and higher concentrations of surface carboxylic groups. Compared with the fresh biochars, the K oc of PHE on their oxidized biochars, pyrogenic HA, and HM fractions were undiminished, which is encouraging for the use of biochar in soil remediation. The PyOM fractions exhibited stronger nonlinear sorption than the NOM fractions. In addition, the PyOM fractions had higher sorption capacity than the NOM fractions due to their low polar C content and high aryl C content. The results obtained from this work will shed new light on the impact of the addition of biochar on the biogeochemistry of soil organic matter and on the fate of HOCs in biochar-amended soil.

  19. Application of Remote Sensing for Mapping Soil Organic Matter Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangun Muljo Sukojo


    Full Text Available Information organic content is important in monitoring and managing the environment as well as doing agricultural production activities. This research tried to map soil organic content in Malang using remote sensing technology. The research uses 6 bands of data captured by Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper satellite (band 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7. The research focuses on pixels having Normalized Difference Soil Index (NDSI more than 0.3. Ground-truth data were collected by analysing organic content of soil samples using Black-Walkey method. The result of analysis shows that digital number of original satellite image can be used to predict soil organic matter content. The implementation of regression equation in predicting soil organic content shows that 63.18% of research area contains of organic in a moderate category.

  20. The influence of algal organic matter produced by Microcystis aeruginosa on coagulation-ultrafiltration treatment of natural organic matter. (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Zhao, Yanxia; Gao, Baoyu; Han, Songlin; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Xiaoli


    Cyanobacterial bloom causes the release of algal organic matter (AOM), which inevitably affects the treatment processes of natural organic matter (NOM). This study works on treating micro-polluted surface water (SW) by emerging coagulant, namely titanium sulfate (Ti(SO 4 ) 2 ), followed by Low Pressure Ultrafiltration (LPUF) technology. In particular, we explored the respective influence of extracellular organic matter (EOM) and intracellular organic matter (IOM) on synergetic EOM-NOM/IOM-NOM removal, functional mechanisms and subsequent filtration performance. Results show that the IOM inclusion in surface water body facilitated synergic IOM-NOM composite pollutants removal by Ti(SO 4 ) 2 , wherein loosely-aggregated flocs were produced, resulting in floc cake layer with rich porosity and permeability during LPUF. On the contrary, the surface water invaded by EOM pollutants increased Ti(SO 4 ) 2 coagulation burden, with substantially deteriorated both UV 254 -represented and dissolved organic matter (DOC) removal. Corresponded with the weak Ti(SO 4 ) 2 coagulation for EOM-NOM removal was the resultant serious membrane fouling during LPUF procedure, wherein dense cake layer was formed due to the compact structure of flocs. Although the IOM enhanced NOM removal with reduced Ti(SO 4 ) 2 dose and yielded mitigated membrane fouling, larger percentage of irreversible fouling was seen than NOM and EOM-NOM cases, which was most likely due to the substances with small molecular weight, such as microcystin, adhering in membrane pores. This research would provide theoretical basis for dose selection and process design during AOM-NOM water treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct Evidence Linking Soil Organic Matter Development to Microbial Communities (United States)

    Kallenbach, C.; Grandy, S.


    Despite increasing recognition of microbial contributions to soil organic matter (SOM) formation there is little experimental evidence linking microbial processes to SOM development and the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Specifically, if stable SOM is largely comprised of microbial products, we need to better understand the soil conditions that influence microbial biomass production and ultimately its stability. Microbial physiology, such as microbial growth efficiency (MGE) and rate (MGR) have direct influences on microbial biomass production and are highly sensitive to resource quality. Therefore, the importance of resource quality on SOM is not necessarily a function of resistance to decay but the degree to which it optimizes microbial biomass production. While resource quality may have an indirect effect on SOM abundance via its influence on microbial physiology, SOM stabilization of labile microbial products may rely heavily on a soil's capacity to form organo-mineral interactions. To examine the relative importance of soil microbial community function, resource quality and mineralogy on direct microbial contributions to SOM formation and stability, an ongoing 15-mo incubation experiment was set up using artificial, initially C- and microbial-free soils. Soil microcosms were constructed by mixing sand with either kaolinite or montmorillonite clays followed with a natural soil microbial inoculum. For both soil mineral treatments, weekly additions of glucose, cellobiose, or syringol are carried out, with an additional treatment of plant leachate to serve as a reference. This simplified system allows us to determine if, in the absence of plant-derived C, microbial products using simple substrates can result in chemically complex SOM similar to natural soils. Over the course of the incubation, MGE, MGR, microbial activity, and SOM accumulation rates are monitored. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) is used to track the microbial

  2. Microbially-mediated fluorescent organic matter transformations in the deep ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aparicio, Fran L.; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Borrull, Encarna


    The refractory nature of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) increases while it travels from surface waters to the deep ocean. This resistant fraction is in part composed of fluorescent humic-like material, which is relatively difficult to metabolize by deep water prokaryotes, and it can also...... alone. The response of the prokaryotes and the production of FDOM were simultaneously monitored. Prokaryotic abundance was highest in treatments where labile compounds were added. The rate of humic-like fluorescence production scaled to prokaryotic abundance varied depending on the quality...... of the additions. The precursor compounds affected the generation of new humic-like FDOM, and the cell-specific production of this material was higher in the incubations amended with humic precursors. Furthermore, we observed that the protein-like fluorescence decreased only when fresh amino acids were added...

  3. Factors influencing the characteristics and distribution or surface organic matter in the Pacific-Atlantic connection (United States)

    Barrera, Facundo; Lara, Rubén J.; Krock, Bernd; Garzón-Cardona, John Edison; Fabro, Elena; Koch, Boris P.


    The present work reports the first data set on particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON), and the high-resolution modelling of their stable isotope variability in the Patagonian Cold Estuarine System (PCES), with focus on particulate organic matter (POM) origin and distribution in dependence on physical, chemical and biological parameters. POC, PON, stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen isotopes (δ15N), dissolved organic nitrogen, phaeopigments, diatom, dinoflagellate and heterotrophic bacteria (HB) abundance are reported for 17 stations in different waters masses in the southern end of the Argentine shelf in late summer 2012. Most parameters denote clear differences between Beagle - Magellan Water (BMW), Subantarctic Shelf Water (SSW) and Subantarctic Water (SAW). POC and PON decreased from maxima in BMW to intermediate values in SSW and minima in SAW. There was a highly significant correlation among POC, PON and fluorescence indicators of diagenetic maturity of dissolved humic matter. This, together with the inverse correlations of salinity with POC and PON, and the wide range of C:N ratios indicate that POM in the study area is partly derived from terrestrial runoff, superimposed by autochthonous components from plankton of different life stages. HB abundance was significantly correlated with POC and dissolved organic matter (DOM), likely reflecting a resource control of HB and a significant contribution of bacterial biomass to POM in the nanoparticle fraction. The direct relationship between HB and dissolved humics suggests bacterial uptake of DOM fractions otherwise considered refractory. POM complexity was reflected in a wide variation of δ13C, despite the narrow temperature range of this region. The variability of stable isotopes of POC could be accounted for by a model with a degree of detail hitherto not reported in the literature. A multiple regression including C:N ratio, ammonium and the quotient between log abundance of diatoms

  4. Microbial abundance in rhizosphere of medicinal and aromatic plant species in conventional and organic growing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamović Dušan


    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the abundance of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of four different medicinal and aromatic plant species (basil, mint, dill and marigold grown under both conventional and organic management on the chernozem soil at the experimental field of Bački Petrovac (Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. Two sampling terms (June 1 and July 18, 2012 were performed to collect samples for microbiological analyses. The microbial abundance was higher in organic than in conventional system while at the same time significant differences were obtained only with dill rhizosphere. The differences in number of microorganisms belonging to different groups relied upon both plant species and sampling term. Thus, in mint, the recorded number of azotobacters and fungi was significantly higher whereas the number of ammonifiers was significantly lower. The present results indicate that organic growing system affected the abundance of microorganisms in rhizosphere of species investigated, especially in the second term of sampling.

  5. Characterization of polar organics in airborne particulate matter (United States)

    Yokouchi, Y.; Ambe, Y.

    The methanol-extractable highly polar organics in atmospheric aerosol were characterized using GC-MS. Dicarboxylic acids having 2-16 carbon numbers were detected with a total concentration of 172 ng m -3. Azelaic acid ( C9) was the most abundant diacid and it possibly originated from the ozonolysis of unsaturated carboxylic acids such as oleic acid and linoleic acid, which mainly originate from terrestrial plants. A compound, which was tentatively identified as tetrahydrofuroic acid, contributed to about 10% of the highly polar organics. Other polyfunctional compounds found in the samples included some ketocarboxylic acids and aromatic acids such as phthalic acids, anisic acid and vanillic acid.

  6. Organic matter determination for street dust in Delhi. (United States)

    Shandilya, Kaushik K; Khare, Mukesh; Gupta, A B


    The organic matter of street dust is considered as one of the causes for high human mortality rate. To understand the association, the street dust samples were collected from four different localities (industrial, residential, residential-commercial, and commercial) situated in the greater Delhi area of India. The loss-on-ignition method was used to determine the organic matter (OM) content in street dust. The OM content, potassium, calcium, sulfate, and nitrate concentrations of street dust in Delhi, India is measured to understand the spatial variation. Correlation analysis, analysis of variance, and factor analysis were performed to define the sources. The dust OM level ranges from 2.63 to 10.22 %. It is found through correlation and factor analysis that OM is primarily contributed from secondary aerosol and vehicular exhaust. The OM levels suggest that the use of a residential-commercial site for commercial purposes is polluting the street dust and creating the environmental and human health problems.

  7. Cool oxygen plasma oxidation of the organic matter of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Nazimov, S.A.; Romanchuk, V.V. [COAL-C Ltd., Kemerovo (Russian Federation)


    Oxidation of the sapropelitic coals has been carried out by cool oxygen plasma. The changes in concentration of oxygen- and hydrogen-containing groups of organic matter were observed by photoacoustic FTIR-spectroscopy during the cool oxygen plasma oxidation (COPO). The accumulation of oxygen-containing bands, such as C-O and O-H, during COPO was shown. The complete elimination of aromatic and aliphatic structure occurred in first two hours of oxidation. (orig.)

  8. Chloroacetic acids - Degradation intermediates of organic matter in forest soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matucha, Miroslav; Gryndler, Milan; Schröder, P.; Forczek, Sándor; Uhlířová, H.; Fuksová, Květoslava; Rohlenová, Jana


    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2007), s. 382-385 ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0874; GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : trichloroacetic acid * dichloroacetic acid * chlorination * soil organic matter Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.580, year: 2007

  9. Peatland Organic Matter Chemistry Trends Over a Global Latitudinal Gradient (United States)

    Verbeke, B. A.; Hodgkins, S. B.; Carson, M. A.; Lamit, L. J.; Lilleskov, E.; Chanton, J.


    Peatlands contain a significant amount of the global soil carbon, and the climate feedback of carbon cycling within these peatland systems is still relatively unknown. Organic matter composition of peatlands plays a major role in determining carbon storage, and while high latitude peatlands seem to be the most sensitive to climate change, a global picture of peat organic matter chemistry is required to improve predictions and models of greenhouse gas emissions fueled by peatland decomposition. The objective of this research is to test the hypothesis that carbohydrate content of peatlands near the equator will be lower than high latitude peatlands, while aromatic content will be higher. As a part of the Global Peatland Microbiome Project (GPMP), around 2000 samples of peat from 10 to 70 cm across a latitudinal gradient of 79 N to 53 S were measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to examine the organic matter functional groups of peat. Carbohydrate and aromatic content, as determined by FTIR, are useful proxies of decomposition potential and recalcitrance, respectively. We found a highly significant relationship between carbohydrate and aromatic content, latitude, and depth. Carbohydrate content of high latitude sites were significantly greater than at sites near the equator, in contrast to aromatic content which showed the opposite trend. It is also clear that carbohydrate content decreases with depth while aromatic content increases with depth. Higher carbohydrate content at higher latitudes indicates a greater potential for lability and resultant mineralization to form the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and methane, whereas the composition of low latitude peatlands is consistent with their apparent stability. We speculate that the combination of low carbohydrates and high aromatics at warmer locations near the equator could foreshadow the organic matter composition of high latitude peat transitioning to a more recalcitrant form with a

  10. Proceedings of the Regional Colloquium on Soil Organic Matter Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerri, C.C.; Athie, D.; Sodrzeieski, D.


    Isotope techniques are applied to soil organic matter studies, with special emphasis to decomposition studies. The effect of N fertilizers on the development of wheat and soybean crops is studied, as well as N-fixation. 14 C and 15 N are used as tracers; 13 C/ 12 C ratios are determined in humic horizons of soils. The influence of carbon sources addition on the degradation of the pesticide carbaril in soils is evaluated. (M.A.) [pt

  11. Production of Dissolved Organic Matter During Doliolid Feeding (United States)

    Castellane, N. J.; Paffenhofer, G. A.; Stubbins, A.


    The biological carbon pump (BCP) draws carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and buries it at the seafloor. The efficiency of the BCP is determined in part by the sinking rates of particulate organic carbon (POC) from ocean surface waters. Zooplankton can package POC into fecal pellets with higher sinking rates than their food source (e.g. phytoplankton), increasing the efficiency of the BCP. However, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is also produced as zooplankton ingest and egest food, reducing the efficiency of BCP. The pelagic tunicate Dolioletta gegenbauri (doliolid) is a gelatinous zooplankton found at high concentrations in shelf waters, including our study site: the South Atlantic Bight. Doliolids are efficient grazers capable of stripping large quantities of phytoplankton from the water column. To determine the balance between pellet formation and DOC production during feeding, doliolids (6-7 mm gonozooids) were placed in natural seawater amended with a live phytoplankton food source and incubated on a plankton wheel. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) released directly to the water as well as the water soluble fraction of pellet organic matter were quantified and optically characterized. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorbance and fluorescence spectra revealed that doliolid feeding produces DOM with optical properties that are commonly indicative of newly produced, highly biolabile DOM of microbial origin. Based upon these optical characteristics, doliolid-produced DOM is expected to be highly bio-labile in the environment and therefore rapidly degraded by surface ocean microbes shunting phytoplankton-derived organic carbon out of the BCP and back to dissolved inorganic carbon.

  12. Soil organic matter and nitrogen interaction in a tropical agrosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feller, C.; Guiraud, G.; Ganry, F.


    The effects of chemical and organic fertilization were studied in a pot experiment with 15 N-urea and 14 C 15 N maize crop residues (straw and composted straw). Distribution of isotopes and organic matter within soil fractions were recorded by a particle size fractionation with sieves. 5 size fractions were obtained:3 fractions superior to 50 μm where organic matter corresponded to plant residues at different humification stages, an organo-mineral fraction 0-50 μm (humus s.s.) and a watersoluble fraction. High plant productivity, high N-urea utilization, low N-urea losses and increase in soil C and N contents were only recorded with the composting treatment (PC) as compared to the control without amendment (T) and to the straw amendment (P). In PC treatment nitrogen derived from urea (N-urea) was mainly present as fractions superior to 50μm (indicating a nitrogen reorganization by root system); for P and T, N-urea was more important in the watersoluble fraction, which is susceptible to losses by leaching. Humification processes were mainly due to 'residual' pathway as the remaining C and N organic amendment were located in fraction superior to 50 μm. C and N straw distribution in soil were significantly different and might be correlated with the initial straw composition. In conclusion the size fractionation of soil organic matter associated with tracer technics was a powerfull method for studying plant residues decomposion and interactions between organic mater and chemical mitrogen in the soil-plant system. (Author) [pt

  13. Major structural components in freshwater dissolved organic matter. (United States)

    Lam, Buuan; Baer, Andrew; Alaee, Mehran; Lefebvre, Brent; Moser, Arvin; Williams, Antony; Simpson, André J


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains a complex array of chemical components that are intimately linked to many environmental processes, including the global carbon cycle, and the fate and transport of chemical pollutants. Despite its importance, fundamental aspects, such as the structural components in DOM remain elusive, due in part to the molecular complexity of the material. Here, we utilize multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to demonstrate the major structural components in Lake Ontario DOM. These include carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM), heteropolysaccharides, and aromatic compounds, which are consistent with components recently identified in marine dissolved organic matter. In addition, long-range proton-carbon correlations are obtained for DOM, which support the existence of material derived from linear terpenoids (MDLT). It is tentatively suggested that the bulk of freshwater dissolved organic matter is aliphatic in nature, with CRAM derived from cyclic terpenoids, and MDLT derived from linear terpenoids. This is in agreement with previous reports which indicate terpenoids as major precursors of DOM. At this time it is not clear in Lake Ontario whether these precursors are of terrestrial or aquatic origin or whether transformations proceed via biological and/ or photochemical processes.

  14. Temperature sensitivity of organic-matter decay in tidal marshes (United States)

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Langley, J.A.


    Approximately half of marine carbon sequestration takes place in coastal wetlands, including tidal marshes, where organic matter contributes to soil elevation and ecosystem persistence in the face of sea-level rise. The long-term viability of marshes and their carbon pools depends, in part, on how the balance between productivity and decay responds to climate change. Here, we report the sensitivity of labile soil organic-matter decay in tidal marshes to seasonal and latitudinal variations in temperature measured over a 3-year period. We find a moderate increase in decay rate at warmer temperatures (3-6% per °C, Q10 = 1.3-1.5). Despite the profound differences between microbial metabolism in wetlands and uplands, our results indicate a strong conservation of temperature sensitivity. Moreover, simple comparisons with organic-matter production suggest that elevated atmospheric CO2 and warmer temperatures will accelerate carbon accumulation in marsh soils, and potentially enhance their ability to survive sea-level rise.

  15. Plutonium Immobilization and Mobilization by Soil Organic Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santschi, Peter H. [Texas A& M University, Galveston, TX (United States); Schwehr, Kathleen A. [Texas A& M University, Galveston, TX (United States); Xu, Chen [Texas A& M University, Galveston, TX (United States); Athon, Matthew [Texas A& M University, Galveston, TX (United States); Ho, Yi-Fang [Texas A& M University, Galveston, TX (United States); Hatcher, Patrick G. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Didonato, Nicole [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The human and environmental risks associated with Pu disposal, remediation, and nuclear accidents scenarios stems mainly from the very long half-lives of several of its isotopes. The SRS, holding one-third of the nation’s Pu inventory, has a long-term stewardship commitment to investigation of Pu behavior in the groundwater and downgradient vast wetlands. Pu is believed to be essentially immobile due to its low solubility and high particle reactivity to mineral phase or natural organic matter (NOM). For example, in sediments collected from a region of SRS, close to a wetland and a groundwater plume, 239,240Pu concentrations suggest immobilization by NOM compounds, as Pu correlate with NOM contents. Micro-SXRF data indicate, however, that Pu does not correlate with Fe. However, previous studies reported Pu can be transported several kilometers in surface water systems, in the form of a colloidal organic matter carrier, through wind/water interactions. The role of NOM in both immobilizing or re-mobilizing Pu thus has been demonstrated. Our results indicate that more Pu (IV) than (V) was bound to soil colloidal organic matter (COM), amended at far-field concentrations. Contrary to expectations, the presence of NOM in the F-Area soil did not enhance Pu fixation to the organic-rich soil, when compared to the organic-poor soil or the mineral phase from the same soil source, due to the formation of COM-bound Pu. Most importantly, Pu uptake by organic-rich soil decreased with increasing pH because more NOM in the colloidal size desorbed from the particulate fraction at elevated pH, resulting in greater amounts of Pu associated with the COM fraction. This is in contrast to previous observations with low-NOM sediments or minerals, which showed increased Pu uptake with increasing pH levels. This demonstrates that despite Pu immobilization by NOM, COM can convert Pu into a more mobile form. Sediment Pu concentrations in the SRS F-Area wetland were correlated to total organic

  16. Integrated observations of CO2 fluxes in vineyards to support the management of soil organic matter (United States)

    Vendrame, Nadia; Tezza, Luca; Meggio, Franco; Pitacco, Andrea


    Vineyard soils are subjected to a substantial depletion of the organic fraction due to the transition to intensive farming systems, the reduction of row spacing and the fast evolution of vineyard mechanization. The use of cover crops, grassed inter-rows and organic fertilization can all contribute to the increase, stabilization and protection of soil organic matter. However, a clear picture of carbon fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system is still lacking, especially in vineyards. A detailed knowledge of these processes is also of primary importance to correctly predict the impact of future climate scenarios on viticulture and understand whether these ecosystems can act as source or sink of greenhouse gases. Even if it is commonly believed that agricultural crops cannot be net carbon sinks, woody perennials can behave differently. In fact, they grow a permanent structure, stand undisturbed in the same field for decades, originate abundant pruning debris, and are often grass-covered. Within the framework of the LIFE project VITISOM (VITiculture Innovative Soil Organic Matter management: variable-rate distribution system and monitoring of impacts, LIFE15 ENV/IT/000392) two integrated observatories of ecosystem CO2 fluxes have been established in Northern Italy, to disentangle the vineyard carbon budget in the mid-term. This knowledge can be of great value to better manage organic fertilization and soil fertility in vineyards.

  17. Why dissolved organic matter (DOM) enhances photodegradation of methylmercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Yun [ORNL; Yin, Xiangping Lisa [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL


    Methylmercury (MeHg) is known to degrade photochemically, but it remains unclear what roles naturally dissolved organic matter (DOM) and complexing organic ligands play in MeHg photodegradation. Here we investigate the rates and mechanisms of MeHg photodegradation using DOM samples with varying oxidation states and origins as well as organic ligands with known molecular structures. All DOM and organic ligands increased MeHg photodegradation under solar irradiation, but the first-order rate constants varied depending on the oxidation state of DOM and the type and concentration of the ligands. Compounds containing both thiols and aromatics (e.g., thiosalicylate and reduced DOM) increased MeHg degradation rates far greater than those containing only aromatic or thiol functional groups (e.g., salicylate or glutathione). Our results suggest that, among other factors, the synergistic effects of thiolate and aromatic moieties in DOM greatly enhance MeHg photodegradation.

  18. Organic nitrogen-driven stimulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal hyphae correlates with abundance of ammonia oxidizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eBukovská


    Full Text Available Large fraction of mineral nutrients in natural soil environments is recycled from complex and heterogeneously distributed organic sources. These sources are explored by both roots and associated mycorrhizal fungi. However, the mechanisms behind the responses of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM hyphal networks to soil organic patches of different qualities remain little understood. Therefore, we conducted a multiple-choice experiment examining hyphal responses to different soil patches within the root-free zone by two AM fungal species (Rhizophagus irregularis and Claroideoglomus claroideum associated with Medicago truncatula, a legume forming nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Hyphal colonization of the patches was assessed microscopically and by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR using AM taxon-specific markers, and the prokaryotic and fungal communities in the patches (pooled per organic amendment treatment were profiled by 454-amplicon sequencing. Specific qPCR markers were then designed and used to quantify the abundance of prokaryotic taxa showing the strongest correlation with the pattern of AM hyphal proliferation in the organic patches as per the 454-sequencing. The hyphal density of both AM fungi increased due to nitrogen (N-containing organic amendments (i.e., chitin, DNA, albumin, and clover biomass, while no responses as compared to the non-amended soil patch were recorded for cellulose, phytate, or inorganic phosphate amendments. Abundances of several prokaryotes, including Nitrosospira sp. (an ammonium oxidizer and an unknown prokaryote with affiliation to Acanthamoeba endosymbiont, which were frequently recorded in the 454-sequencing profiles, correlated positively with the hyphal responses of R. irregularis to the soil amendments. Strong correlation between abundance of these two prokaryotes and the hyphal responses to organic soil amendments by both AM fungi was then confirmed by qPCR analyses using all individual replicate patch samples

  19. Terrestrial dissolved organic matter distribution in the North Sea. (United States)

    Painter, Stuart C; Lapworth, Dan J; Woodward, E Malcolm S; Kroeger, Silke; Evans, Chris D; Mayor, Daniel J; Sanders, Richard J


    The flow of terrestrial carbon to rivers and inland waters is a major term in the global carbon cycle. The organic fraction of this flux may be buried, remineralized or ultimately stored in the deep ocean. The latter can only occur if terrestrial organic carbon can pass through the coastal and estuarine filter, a process of unknown efficiency. Here, data are presented on the spatial distribution of terrestrial fluorescent and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (FDOM and CDOM, respectively) throughout the North Sea, which receives organic matter from multiple distinct sources. We use FDOM and CDOM as proxies for terrestrial dissolved organic matter (tDOM) to test the hypothesis that tDOM is quantitatively transferred through the North Sea to the open North Atlantic Ocean. Excitation emission matrix fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) revealed a single terrestrial humic-like class of compounds whose distribution was restricted to the coastal margins and, via an inverse salinity relationship, to major riverine inputs. Two distinct sources of fluorescent humic-like material were observed associated with the combined outflows of the Rhine, Weser and Elbe rivers in the south-eastern North Sea and the Baltic Sea outflow to the eastern central North Sea. The flux of tDOM from the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean appears insignificant, although tDOM export may occur through Norwegian coastal waters unsampled in our study. Our analysis suggests that the bulk of tDOM exported from the Northwest European and Scandinavian landmasses is buried or remineralized internally, with potential losses to the atmosphere. This interpretation implies that the residence time in estuarine and coastal systems exerts an important control over the fate of tDOM and needs to be considered when evaluating the role of terrestrial carbon losses in the global carbon cycle. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Soil organic matter regulates molybdenum storage and mobility in forests (United States)

    Marks, Jade A; Perakis, Steven; King, Elizabeth K.; Pett-Ridge, Julie


    The trace element molybdenum (Mo) is essential to a suite of nitrogen (N) cycling processes in ecosystems, but there is limited information on its distribution within soils and relationship to plant and bedrock pools. We examined soil, bedrock, and plant Mo variation across 24 forests spanning wide soil pH gradients on both basaltic and sedimentary lithologies in the Oregon Coast Range. We found that the oxidizable organic fraction of surface mineral soil accounted for an average of 33 %of bulk soil Mo across all sites, followed by 1.4 % associated with reducible Fe, Al, and Mn-oxides, and 1.4 % in exchangeable ion form. Exchangeable Mo was greatest at low pH, and its positive correlation with soil carbon (C) suggests organic matter as the source of readily exchangeable Mo. Molybdenum accumulation integrated over soil profiles to 1 m depth (τMoNb) increased with soil C, indicating that soil organic matter regulates long-term Mo retention and loss from soil. Foliar Mo concentrations displayed no relationship with bulk soil Mo, and were not correlated with organic horizon Mo or soil extractable Mo, suggesting active plant regulation of Mo uptake and/or poor fidelity of extractable pools to bioavailability. We estimate from precipitation sampling that atmospheric deposition supplies, on average, over 10 times more Mo annually than does litterfall to soil. In contrast, bedrock lithology had negligible effects on foliar and soil Mo concentrations and on Mo distribution among soil fractions. We conclude that atmospheric inputs may be a significant source of Mo to forest ecosystems, and that strong Mo retention by soil organic matter limits ecosystem Mo loss via dissolution and leaching pathways.

  1. Radiocarbon Dating of Soil Organic Matter Fractions in Andosols in Northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, Femke H.; Plicht, Johannes van der; Jansen, Boris; Verstraten, Jacobus M.; Hooghiemstra, Henry


    Volcanic ash soils (Andosols) may offer great opportunities for paleoecological studies, as suggested by their characteristic accumulation of organic matter (OM). However, understanding of the chronostratigraphy of soil organic matter (SOM) is required. Therefore, radiocarbon dating of SOM is

  2. Radiocarbon dating of soil organic matter fractions in Andosols in Northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, F.H.; van der Plicht, J.; Jansen, B.; Verstraten, J.M.; Hooghiemstra, H.


    Volcanic ash soils (Andosols) may offer great opportunities for paleoecological studies, as suggested by their characteristic accumulation of organic matter (OM). However, understanding of the chronostratigraphy of soil organic matter (SOM) is required. Therefore, radiocarbon dating of SOM is

  3. Test procedure for determining organic matter content in soils : UV-VIS method. (United States)


    The Texas Department of Transportation has been having problems with organic matter in soils that they : stabilize for use as subgrade layers in road construction. The organic matter reduces the effectiveness of : common soil additives (lime/cement) ...

  4. Nature and sources of suspended particulate organic matter in a tropical estuary during the monsoon and pre-monsoon: Insights from stable isotopes (delta 13C POC, delta 15 N TPN) and carbohydrate signature compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B.; Bhosle, N.B.

    during the monsoon than the pre-monsoon. Conversely, during the pre-monsoon, monosaccharide composition did not vary much and was mostly dominated by glucose. Monosaccharide abundance and ratios suggest that organic matter was subjected to extensive...

  5. Dynamics of microbial community composition and soil organic carbon mineralization in soil following addition of pyrogenic and fresh organic matter. (United States)

    Whitman, Thea; Pepe-Ranney, Charles; Enders, Akio; Koechli, Chantal; Campbell, Ashley; Buckley, Daniel H; Lehmann, Johannes


    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) additions to soils can have large impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) cycling. As the soil microbial community drives SOC fluxes, understanding how PyOM additions affect soil microbes is essential to understanding how PyOM affects SOC. We studied SOC dynamics and surveyed soil bacterial communities after OM additions in a field experiment. We produced and mixed in either 350 °C corn stover PyOM or an equivalent initial amount of dried corn stover to a Typic Fragiudept soil. Stover increased SOC-derived and total CO 2 fluxes (up to 6x), and caused rapid and persistent changes in bacterial community composition over 82 days. In contrast, PyOM only temporarily increased total soil CO 2 fluxes (up to 2x) and caused fewer changes in bacterial community composition. Of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that increased in response to PyOM additions, 70% also responded to stover additions. These OTUs likely thrive on easily mineralizable carbon (C) that is found both in stover and, to a lesser extent, in PyOM. In contrast, we also identified unique PyOM responders, which may respond to substrates such as polyaromatic C. In particular, members of Gemmatimonadetes tended to increase in relative abundance in response to PyOM but not to fresh organic matter. We identify taxa to target for future investigations of the mechanistic underpinnings of ecological phenomena associated with PyOM additions to soil.

  6. Organic matter and soil structure in the Everglades Agricultural Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Alan L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    This publication pertains to management of organic soils (Histosols) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). These former wetland soils are a major resource for efficient agricultural production and are important globally for their high organic matter content. Recognition of global warming has led to considerable interest in soils as a repository for carbon. Soils rich in organic matter essentially sequester or retain carbon in the profile and can contribute directly to keeping that sequestered carbon from entering the atmosphere. Identification and utilization of management practices that minimize the loss of carbon from organic soils to the atmosphere can minimize effects on global warming and increase the longevity of subsiding Histosols for agricultural use. Understanding and predicting how these muck soils will respond to current and changing land uses will help to manage soil carbon. The objectives of this document are to: a. Discuss organic soil oxidation relative to storing or releasing carbon and nitrogen b. Evaluate effects of cultivation (compare structure for sugarcane vs. uncultivated soil) Based upon the findings from the land-use comparison (sugarcane or uncultivated), organic carbon was higher with cultivation in the lower depths. There is considerable potential for minimum tillage and residue management to further enhance carbon sequestration in the sugarcane system. Carbon sequestration is improved and soil subsidence is slowed with sugarcane production, and both of these are positive outcomes. Taking action to increase or maintain carbon sequestration appears to be appropriate but may introduce some risk to farming operations. Additional management methods are needed to reduce this risk. For both the longevity of these organic soils and from a global perspective, slowing subsidence through BMP implementation makes sense. Since these BMPs also have considerable societal benefit, it remains to be seen if society will help to offset a part or all

  7. Experimental Evidence for Abiotic Sulfurization of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika M. Pohlabeln


    Full Text Available Dissolved organic sulfur (DOS is the largest pool of organic sulfur in the oceans, and as such it is an important component of the global sulfur cycle. DOS in the ocean is resistant against microbial degradation and turns over on a millennium time scale. However, sources and mechanisms behind its stability are largely unknown. Here, we hypothesize that in sulfate-reducing sediments sulfur is abiotically incorporated into dissolved organic matter (DOM and released to the ocean. We exposed natural seawater and the filtrate of a plankton culture to sulfidic conditions. Already after 1-h at 20°C, DOS concentrations had increased 4-fold in these experiments, and 14-fold after 4 weeks at 50°C, indicating that organic matter does not need long residence times in natural sulfidic environments to be affected by sulfurization. Molecular analysis via ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry showed that sulfur was covalently and unselectively bound to DOM. Experimentally produced and natural DOS from sediments were highly similar on a molecular and structural level. By combining our data with published benthic DOC fluxes we estimate that 30–200 Tg DOS are annually transported from anaerobic and sulfate reducing sediments to the oceans. Uncertainties in this first speculative assessment are large. However, this first attempt illustrates that benthic DOS flux is potentially one order of magnitude larger than that via rivers indicating that this could balance the estimated global net removal of refractory DOS.

  8. White matter microstructural organization and gait stability in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd M. Bruijn


    Full Text Available Understanding age-related decline in gait stability and the role of alterations in brain structure is crucial. Here, we studied the relationship between white matter microstructural organization using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI and advanced gait stability measures in 15 healthy young adults (range 18-30 years and 25 healthy older adults (range 62-82 years.Among the different gait stability measures, only stride time and the maximum Lyapunov exponent (which quantifies how well participants are able to attenuate small perturbations were found to decline with age. White matter microstructural organization (FA was lower throughout the brain in older adults. We found a strong correlation between FA in the left anterior thalamic radiation and left corticospinal tract on the one hand, and step width and safety margin (indicative of how close participants are to falling over on the other. These findings suggest that white matter FA in tracts connecting subcortical and prefrontal areas is associated with the implementation of an effective stabilization strategy during gait.

  9. NMR spectrometry to study aging processes in soil organic matter (United States)

    Bertmer, M.; Jaeger, A.; Schwarz, J.; Schaumann, G. E.


    One of the most valuable ecological potentials of soil organic matter (SOM) is based on its highly dynamic nature, which enables flexible reactions to a variety of environmental conditions. SOM controls a large part of the processes occurring at biogeochemical interfaces in soil and may contribute to sequestration of organic chemicals. This contribution focuses weak intermolecular interactions in soil organic matter studied by NMR spectroscopy. Our central hypothesis is that SOM undergoes physicochemical matrix aging, driven by dynamics in intermolecular cross-linking via bridges of water molecules. In this contribution, aging processes occurring in soil organic matter in heating-cooling cycles are monitored with proton NMR relaxation, proton and deuterium wideline NMR with and without Hahn-Echoes and wideline separation techniques. Furthermore, spin-diffusion experiments, multidimensional 13C-1H experiments including the 2D WISE technique and 2D correlation experiments have been employed to deduce connectivities in SOM structure especially in connection with bridging of functional groups, e. g. carboxyl groups and bound water and the hypothesized water bridges. The results indicate changes in NMR behavior induced by manipulations of thermal history, and they suggest an increase in side-chain mobility upon heating that remains after cooling. Side-chain mobility slowly decreases again within at least one to two weeks. Our current results strongly suggest even longer aging periods. This observation supports the hypothesis that water molecules bridge molecular segments of SOM. The bridges may be easily disrupted, while re-formation is slow due to diffusion limitation in the SOM matrix.

  10. Biotoxicity of nanoparticles: effect of natural organic matter (United States)

    Lee, Sungyun; Kim, Kitae; Shon, H. K.; Kim, Sang Don; Cho, Jaeweon


    Various natural organic matters (NOM) with different characteristics in aquatic environment may affect toxicity of leased nanoparticles, owing to interactions between NOM and nanoparticles. This study investigated the effect of NOM and physical characteristics of the effluent organic matter (EfOM) on the ecotoxicity of quantum dots (QD) using Daphnia magna. Organic matter samples were obtained from: Yeongsan River (YR-NOM), Dongbuk Lake (DL-NOM), Damyang wastewater treatment plant (EfOM), and Suwannee River NOM (SR-NOM). The QD was composed of a CdSe core, ZnS shell, and polyethylene glycol coating. The average size of the investigated QD was 4.8, 56.5, and 25.0 nm determined by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation, respectively. The relative hydrophobicity of NOM was investigated using both specific UV absorbance at 254 nm and XAD-8/4 resins. The sorption of NOM on the QD was measured using a fluorescence quenching method. The highest hydrophobicity was exhibited by the SR-NOM, while the lowest was recorded for the DL-NOM. All tested NOMs significantly reduced the acute toxicity of D. magna when adsorbed to QD, and the order of effectiveness for each NOM was as follows: SR-NOM > EfOM > YS-NOM > DL-NOM. The sorption of NOM on the QD surface caused a decrease in the fluorescence intensity of QD at increasing NOM concentration. This suggests that the NOM coating influenced the physicochemical characteristics of QD in the internal organs of D. magna by inducing a reduced bioavailability . Results from this study revealed that NOM with relatively high hydrophobicity had a greater capability of inducing toxicity mitigation.

  11. Organic speciation of size-segregated atmospheric particulate matter (United States)

    Tremblay, Raphael

    Particle size and composition are key factors controlling the impacts of particulate matter (PM) on human health and the environment. A comprehensive method to characterize size-segregated PM organic content was developed, and evaluated during two field campaigns. Size-segregated particles were collected using a cascade impactor (Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor) and a PM2.5 large volume sampler. A series of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were solvent extracted and quantified using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Large volume injections were performed using a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet to lower detection limits. The developed analysis method was evaluated during the 2001 and 2002 Intercomparison Exercise Program on Organic Contaminants in PM2.5 Air Particulate Matter led by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Ambient samples were collected in May 2002 as part of the Tampa Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) in Florida, USA and in July and August 2004 as part of the New England Air Quality Study - Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (NEAQS - ITCT) in New Hampshire, USA. Morphology of the collected particles was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Smaller particles (one micrometer or less) appeared to consist of solid cores surrounded by a liquid layer which is consistent with combustion particles and also possibly with particles formed and/or coated by secondary material like sulfate, nitrate and secondary organic aerosols. Source apportionment studies demonstrated the importance of stationary sources on the organic particulate matter observed at these two rural sites. Coal burning and biomass burning were found to be responsible for a large part of the observed PAHs during the field campaigns. Most of the measured PAHs were concentrated in particles smaller than one micrometer and linked to combustion sources

  12. Organic matter content of soil after logging of fir and redwood forests (United States)

    Philip B. Durgin


    Organic matter in soil controls a variety of soil properties. A study in Humboldt County, California, evaluated changes in percentages of organic matter in soil as a function of time after timber harvest and soil depth in fir and redwood forests. To assess organic matter content, samples were taken from cutblocks of various ages in soil to depths of 1.33 m. Results...

  13. Organic matter in extraterrestrial water-bearing salt crystals (United States)

    Chan, Queenie H. S.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Kebukawa, Yoko; Fries, Marc; Ito, Motoo; Steele, Andrew; Rahman, Zia; Nakato, Aiko; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Suga, Hiroki; Takahashi, Yoshio; Takeichi, Yasuo; Mase, Kazuhiko


    Direct evidence of complex prebiotic chemistry from a water-rich world in the outer solar system is provided by the 4.5-billion-year-old halite crystals hosted in the Zag and Monahans (1998) meteorites. This study offers the first comprehensive organic analysis of the soluble and insoluble organic compounds found in the millimeter-sized halite crystals containing brine inclusions and sheds light on the nature and activity of aqueous fluids on a primitive parent body. Associated with these trapped brines are organic compounds exhibiting wide chemical variations representing organic precursors, intermediates, and reaction products that make up life’s precursor molecules such as amino acids. The organic compounds also contain a mixture of C-, O-, and N-bearing macromolecular carbon materials exhibiting a wide range of structural order, as well as aromatic, ketone, imine, and/or imidazole compounds. The enrichment in 15N is comparable to the organic matter in pristine Renazzo-type carbonaceous chondrites, which reflects the sources of interstellar 15N, such as ammonia and amino acids. The amino acid content of the Zag halite deviates from the meteorite matrix, supporting an exogenic origin of the halite, and therefore, the Zag meteorite contains organics synthesized on two distinct parent bodies. Our study suggests that the asteroidal parent body where the halite precipitated, potentially asteroid 1 Ceres, shows evidence for a complex combination of biologically and prebiologically relevant molecules. PMID:29349297

  14. Lead sequestration and species redistribution during soil organic matter decomposition (United States)

    Schroth, A.W.; Bostick, B.C.; Kaste, J.M.; Friedland, A.J.


    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) maintains a dynamic chemical environment in the forest floor that can impact metal speciation on relatively short timescales. Here we measure the speciation of Pb in controlled and natural organic (O) soil horizons to quantify changes in metal partitioning during SOM decomposition in different forest litters. We provide a link between the sequestration of pollutant Pb in O-horizons, estimated by forest floor Pb inventories, and speciation using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. When Pb was introduced to fresh forest Oi samples, it adsorbed primarily to SOM surfaces, but as decomposition progressed over two years in controlled experiments, up to 60% of the Pb was redistributed to pedogenic birnessite and ferrihydrite surfaces. In addition, a significant fraction of pollutant Pb in natural soil profiles was associated with similar mineral phases (???20-35%) and SOM (???65-80%). Conifer forests have at least 2-fold higher Pb burdens in the forest floor relative to deciduous forests due to more efficient atmospheric scavenging and slower organic matter turnover. We demonstrate that pedogenic minerals play an important role in surface soil Pb sequestration, particularly in deciduous forests, and should be considered in any assessment of pollutant Pb mobility. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  15. Thallium and Silver binding to dissolved organic matter (United States)

    Benedetti, M. F.; Martin, L.; Simonucci, C.; Viollier, E.


    Silver (Ag) and thallium (Tl) are potential contaminants at the vicinity of mining sites and are harmful pollutants. Silver can be found in mine but also as released by the dissolution of Silver nanoparticles, a major new emerging contaminant. Tl is both lithophilic and calcophilic elements and found in sulphur ores (associated with lead, zinc, antimony…) or in rocks containing K-feldspar. Speciation of Ag and Tl is poorly known mainly due to their low concentrations in aquatic environments. Review of Ag and Tl geochemistry clearly shows a lack of quantitative information about interactions with natural organic matter. Organic ligands could play an important role in Ag or Tl bioavailability, chemical reactivity (adsorption or photo oxidation inhibition or catalysis) and hence geochemical transfers. Based on equilibrium between two solutions that are separated by a selectively permeable membrane, the so-called "Donnan membrane technique" (DMT) provides a measure of free ion concentrations. Analytes measurements are performed by HR-ICP-MS Element 2 (Thermo Scientific). Experimental setup allows the Donnan equilibrium to be reached after 100 and 120 hours for Tl. Experiments performed with purified natural organic matter allow calculating complexation constants in multiple pH conditions. With this work, we contribute new data and interpretations to an active debate on Ag and Tl geochemical modeling. In conclusion, this work brings a new view on risk assessment for mining activities.

  16. Complexation of lead by organic matter in Luanda Bay, Angola. (United States)

    Leitão, Anabela; Santos, Ana Maria; Boaventura, Rui A R


    Speciation is defined as the distribution of an element among different chemical species. Although the relation between speciation and bioavailability is complex, the metal present as free hydrated ion, or as weak complexes able to dissociate, is usually more bioavailable than the metal incorporated in strong complexes or adsorbed on colloidal or particulate matter. Among the analytical techniques currently available, anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) has been one of the most used in the identification and quantification of several heavy metal species in aquatic systems. This work concerns the speciation study of lead, in original (natural, non-filtered) and filtered water samples and in suspensions of particulate matter and sediments from Luanda Bay (Angola). Complexes of lead with organics were identified and quantified by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry technique. Each sample was progressively titrated with a Pb(II) standard solution until complete saturation of the organic ligands. After each addition of Pb(II), the intensity, potential and peak width of the voltammetric signal were measured. The results obtained in this work show that more than 95 % of the lead in the aquatic environment is bound in inert organic complexes, considering all samples from different sampling sites. In sediment samples, the lead is totally (100 %) complexed with ligands adsorbed on the particles surface. Two kinds of dominant lead complexes, very strong (logK >11) and strong to moderately strong (8< logK <11), were found, revealing the lead affinity for the stronger ligands.

  17. Chemical exergy assessment of organic matter in a water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Amaya; Uche, Javier


    In recent years, exergy analysis has been successfully applied to natural resources assessment. The consumption of any natural resource is unavoidably joined to dispersion and degradation. Therefore, exergy analysis can be applied to study the depletion of natural resources and, particularly, to water resources. Different studies range from global fresh water resources evaluation to specific water bodies' detailed analysis. Physical Hydronomics is a new approach based on the specific application of Thermodynamics to physically characterize the state of a river and to help in the Governance of water bodies. The core task in the methodology is the construction of the exergy profiles of the river and it requires the calculation of the different specific exergy components in the water body: potential, thermal, mechanical, kinetic and chemical exergy. This paper is focused on the exergy assessment for the organic chemical matter present in water bodies. Different parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) or total organic carbon (TOC), among others, can be used as raw data for the calculation. Starting from available sampling data, previous approaches are analyzed, completed and compared. The well-known and most simple average molecule representing the organic matter in the river (CH 2 O) is proposed. Results show that, considering surface waters, TOC parameter is the most convenient one, but also that the BOD and COD can be reasonably useful.

  18. Soft X-Ray Photoionizing Organic Matter from Comet Wild 2: Evidence for the Production of Organic Matter by Impact Processes (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Jacobsen, C.; Na


    The Stardust mission collected both mineral and organic matter from Comet Wild 2 [1,2,3,4]. The organic matter discovered in Comet Wild 2 ranges from aromatic hydrocarbons to simple aliphatic chains and is as diverse and complex as organic matter found in carbonaceous chondrites and interplanetary dust particles.[3,5,6,7,8,9]. Compared to insoluble organic matter from carbonaceous chondrites the organic matter in Comet Wild 2 more closely resembles organic matter found in the IDPS both hydrous and anhydrous. Common processes for the formation of organic matter in space include: Fischer-Tropsch, included with this aqueous large body and moderate heating alterations; UV irradiation of ices; and; plasma formation and collisions. The Fischer-Tropsch could only occur on large bodies processes, and the production of organic matter by UV radiation is limited by the penetration depth of UV photons, on the order of a few microns or less for most organic matter, so once organic matter coats the ices it is formed from, the organic production process would stop. Also, the organic matter formed by UV irradiation would, by the nature of the process, be in-sensitive to photodissocation from UV light. The energy of soft X-rays, 280-300 eV occur within the range of extreme ultraviolet photons. During the preliminary examination period we found a particle that nearly completely photoionized when exposed to photons in the energy range 280-310eV. This particle experienced a long exposure time to the soft x-ray beam which caused almost complete mass loss so little chemical information was obtain. During the analysis of our second allocation we have discovered another particle that photoionized at these energies but the exposure time was limited and more chemical information was obtained.

  19. Fungal community composition in soils subjected to long-term chemical fertilization is most influenced by the type of organic matter. (United States)

    Sun, Ruibo; Dsouza, Melissa; Gilbert, Jack A; Guo, Xisheng; Wang, Daozhong; Guo, Zhibin; Ni, Yingying; Chu, Haiyan


    Organic matter application is a widely used practice to increase soil carbon content and maintain soil fertility. However, little is known about the effect of different types of organic matter, or the input of exogenous species from these materials, on soil fungal communities. In this study, fungal community composition was characterized from soils amended with three types of organic matter over a 30-year fertilization experiment. Chemical fertilization significantly changed soil fungal community composition and structure, which was exacerbated by the addition of organic matter, with the direction of change influenced by the type of organic matter used. The addition of organic matter significantly increased soil fungal richness, with the greatest richness achieved in soils amended with pig manure. Importantly, following addition of cow and pig manure, fungal taxa associated with these materials could be found in the soil, suggesting that these exogenous species can augment soil fungal composition. Moreover, the addition of organic matter decreased the relative abundance of potential pathogenic fungi. Overall, these results indicate that organic matter addition influences the composition and structure of soil fungal communities in predictable ways. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Seasonal changes in particulate and dissolved organic matter composition and quality in the Lena River Delta (United States)

    Mollenhauer, G.; Winterfeld, M.; Hefter, J.; Bodenstab, L.; Morgenstern, A.; Eulenburg, A.; Heim, B.; Koch, B.; Schefuss, E.; Moerth, C. M.; Rethemeyer, J.


    Arctic rivers are known to export large quantities of carbon by discharge of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), and in a warming and progressively moister Arctic, these exports may increase resulting in a reduction of arctic continental carbon stocks. These rivers have highly variable discharge rates with a pronounced maximum during the spring freshet associated with highest concentrations of DOC and POC. Most studies investigating the isotopic composition and quality of carbon exported by Arctic rivers rely on samples taken in summer during base flow, which is due to the logistical challenges associated with sampling in the remote Arctic permafrost regions. Here we present a record of δ13C and Δ14C of DOC and POC collected between late May during the freshet and late August 2014 in the Lena River Delta. POC Δ14C shows an initial trend towards older values in the spring samples, which is reversed in summer, associated with a shift towards more depleted δ13C values. We interpret this aging trend as reflecting progressive thawing throughout the ice-free season, resulting in mobilization of progressively older carbon from deeper thawed layers. The summer reversal indicates admixture of aquatic organic matter. DOC Δ14C, in contrast, remains at relatively modern levels with rather constant δ13C values throughout the sampling period. We furthermore analysed the biomarker composition of Lena Delta particulate OM collected in spring and summer. From spring to summer, we observe trends in abundance of individual leaf-wax derived biomarkers indicating higher abundance of algal biomass in the summer particles. Trends in soil microbial biomarkers and compound-specific δD of leaf-wax lipids suggest a shift in sources towards higher contributions from the southern catchment in summer. DOC composition investigated with FT-ICR-MS changes from spring with higher abundances of compounds with high H/C and low O/C ratios to late summer, when fewer compounds

  1. Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Sarah L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL


    The soil environment remains one of the most complex and poorly understood research frontiers in ecology. Soil organic matter (SOM), which spans a continuum from fresh detritus to highly processed, mineral-associated organic matter, is the foundation of sustainable terrestrial ecosystems. Heterogeneous SOM pools are fueled by inputs from living and dead plants, driven by the activity of micro- and mesofauna, and are shaped by a multitude of abiotic factors. The specialization required to measure unseen processes that occur on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales has led to the partitioning of soil ecology research across several disciplines. In the organized oral session 'Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum' at the annual Ecological Society of America meeting in Albuquerque, NM, USA, we joined the call for greater communication and collaboration among ecologists who work at the root-soil interface (e.g. Coleman, 2008). Our goal was to bridge the gap between scientific disciplines and to synthesize disconnected pieces of knowledge from root-centric and soil-centric studies into an integrated understanding of belowground ecosystem processes. We focused this report around three compelling themes that arose from the session: (1) the influence of the rhizosphere on SOM cycling, (2) the role of soil heterotrophs in driving the transformation of root detritus to SOM, and (3) the controlling influence of the soil environment on SOM dynamics. We conclude with a discussion of new approaches for gathering data to bridge gaps in the root-SOM continuum and to inform the next generation of ecosystem models. Although leaf litter has often been considered to be the main source of organic inputs to soil, Ann Russell synthesized a convincing body of work demonstrating that roots, rather than surface residues, control the accumulation of SOM in a variety of ecosystems. Living roots, which are chemically diverse and highly dynamic, also influence a

  2. Formation and Stability of Microbially Derived Soil Organic Matter (United States)

    Waldrop, M. P.; Creamer, C.; Foster, A. L.; Lawrence, C. R.; Mcfarland, J. W.; Schulz, M. S.


    Soil carbon is vital to soil health, food security, and climate change mitigation, but the underlying mechanisms controlling the stabilization and destabilization of soil carbon are still poorly understood. There has been a conceptual paradigm shift in how soil organic matter is formed which now emphasizes the importance of microbial activity to build stable (i.e. long-lived) and mineral-associated soil organic matter. In this conceptual model, the consumption of plant carbon by microorganisms, followed by subsequent turnover of microbial bodies closely associated with mineral particles, produces a layering of amino acid and lipid residues on the surfaces of soil minerals that remains protected from destabilization by mineral-association and aggregation processes. We tested this new model by examining how isotopically labeled plant and microbial C differ in their fundamental stabilization and destabilization processes on soil minerals through a soil profile. We used a combination of laboratory and field-based approaches to bridge multiple spatial scales, and used soil depth as well as synthetic minerals to create gradients of soil mineralogy. We used Raman microscopy as a tool to probe organic matter association with mineral surfaces, as it allows for the simultaneous quantification and identification of living microbes, carbon, minerals, and isotopes through time. As expected, we found that the type of minerals present had a strong influence on the amount of C retained, but the stabilization of new C critically depends on growth, death, and turnover of microbial cells. Additionally, the destabilization of microbial residue C on mineral surfaces was little affected by flushes of DOC relative to wet-dry cycles alone. We believe this new insight into microbial mechanisms of C stabilization in soils will eventually lead to new avenues for measuring and modeling SOM dynamics in soils, and aid in the management of soil C to mediate global challenges.

  3. Mercury dilution by autochthonous organic matter in a fertilized mangrove wetland. (United States)

    Machado, Wilson; Sanders, Christian J; Santos, Isaac R; Sanders, Luciana M; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson


    A dated sediment core from a highly-fertilized mangrove wetland located in Cubatão (SE Brazil) presented a negative correlation between mercury (Hg) and organic carbon contents. This is an unusual result for a metal with well-known affinity to organic matter. A dilution of Hg concentrations by autochthonous organic matter explained this observation, as revealed by carbon stable isotopes signatures (δ(13)C). Mercury dilution by the predominant mangrove-derived organic matter counterbalanced the positive influences of algal-derived organic matter and clay contents on Hg levels, suggesting that deleterious effects of Hg may be attenuated. Considering the current paradigm on the positive effect of organic matter on Hg concentrations in coastal sediments and the expected increase in mangrove organic matter burial due to natural and anthropogenic stimulations of primary production, predictions on the influences of organic matter on Hg accumulation in mangrove wetlands deserve caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aquatic Organic Matter Fluorescence - from phenomenon to application (United States)

    Reynolds, Darren


    The use of fluorescence to quantify and characterise aquatic organic matter in river, ocean, ground water and drinking and waste waters has come along way since its discovery as a phenomenon in the early 20th century. For example, there are over 100 papers published each year in international peer reviewed journals, an order of magnitude increase since a decade ago (see Figure taken from ISI database from 1989 to 2007 for publications in the fields of river water and waste water). Since then it has been extensively used as a research tool since the 1990's by scientists and is currently used for a wide variety of applications within a number of sectors. Universities, organisations and companies that research into aquatic organic matter have either recently readily use appropriate fluorescence based techniques and instrumentation. In industry and government, the technology is being taken up by environmental regulators and water and wastewater companies. This keynote presentation will give an overview of aquatic organic matter fluorescence from its conception as a phenomenon through to its current use in a variety of emerging applications within the sectors concerned with understanding, managing and monitoring the aquatic environment. About the Speaker Darren Reynolds pioneered the use of fluorescence spectroscopy for the analysis of wastewaters in the 1990's. He currently leads a research group within the Centre for Research in Biosciences and sits on the Scientific Advisory Board for the Institute of Bio-Sensing Technology at the University of the West of England, Bristol. He is a multidisciplinary scientist concerned with the development of technology platforms for applications in the fields of environment/agri-food and health. His current research interests include the development of optical technologies and techniques for environmental and biological sensing and bio-prospecting applications. He is currently involved in the development and use of synthetic biology

  5. Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.W.; Torn, M. S.; Abiven, S.; Dittmar, T.; Guggenberger, G.; Janssens, I.A.; Kleber, M.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Lehmann, J.; Manning, D.A.C.; Nannipieri, P.; Rasse, D.P.; Weiner, S.; Trumbore, S.E.


    Globally, soil organic matter (SOM) contains more than three times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or terrestrial vegetation. Yet it remains largely unknown why some SOM persists for millennia whereas other SOM decomposes readily—and this limits our ability to predict how soils will respond to climate change. Recent analytical and experimental advances have demonstrated that molecular structure alone does not control SOM stability: in fact, environmental and biological controls predominate. Here we propose ways to include this understanding in a new generation of experiments and soil carbon models, thereby improving predictions of the SOM response to global warming.

  6. Fluorescence and dissolved organic matter properties in a connected aquifer river system (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Reza; Baker, Andy; Andersen, Martin S.; Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Fogwill, Christopher


    There have been limited investigations on the sources, distribution, and transformation of dissolved organic carbon in groundwater systems that are connected to streams and rivers. The role of such landscape settings in the terrestrial carbon cycle is therefore not well understood. We used optical methods to study dissolved organic matter (DOM) in groundwater in a connected river/aquifer reach adjacent to a limestone karst landscape near Wellington, NSW, Australia. Optical properties of water samples and their relation to DOM structure and source enables prompt evaluation of the relative abundance of organic matter components, and fingerprints the sources of DOM. We collected surface water samples along the river, and groundwater samples from alluvial and karst monitoring bores and from caves where they intercepted the groundwater table. Absorbance values were measured at wavelengths of 254, 340 and 350 nm and fluorescence properties were characterised by obtaining excitation (400 nm to 240 nm) - emission matrices (210 to 620 nm). The absorbance data were processed to provide the specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) and spectral slopes. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was applied to discriminate fluorescent DOM components and to assess their dynamics in river and groundwater. Our groundwater DOM data show lower spectral slope, high SUVA values, and lower fluorescence/absorbance ratio, compared to the river. This is indicating a greater amount of relatively high molecular weight, chromophoric, and hydrophobic groundwater DOM is present in the groundwater compared to the river, which had relatively low molecular weight and hydrophilic DOM. PARAFAC modelling revealed different models were necessary for river and groundwater samples, with component one of the groundwater PARAFAC model in the 'peak T' region, and component one of the river model in the 'peak C' region. These results suggest that sedimentary organic matter in the alluvial and karstic aquifer is a

  7. Comparison of the chemical composition of dissolved organic matter in three lakes in Minnesota (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Aiken, George R.; Butler, Kenna D.; Mao, Jingdong; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus


    New information on the chemical composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in three lakes in Minnesota has been gained from spectral editing and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, indicating the effects of lake hydrological settings on DOM composition. Williams Lake (WL), Shingobee Lake (SL), and Manganika Lake (ML) had different source inputs, and the lake water residence time (WRT) of WL was markedly longer than that of SL and ML. The hydrophobic organic acid (HPOA) and transphilic organic acid (TPIA) fractions combined comprised >50% of total DOM in these lakes, and contained carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM), aromatics, carbohydrates, and N-containing compounds. The previously understudied TPIA fractions contained fewer aromatics, more oxygen-rich CRAM, and more N-containing compounds compared to the corresponding HPOA. CRAM represented the predominant component in DOM from all lakes studied, and more so in WL than in SL and ML. Aromatics including lignin residues and phenols decreased in relative abundances from ML to SL and WL. Carbohydrates and N-containing compounds were minor components in both HPOA and TPIA and did not show large variations among the three lakes. The increased relative abundances of CRAM in DOM from ML, SL to WL suggested the selective preservation of CRAM with increased residence time.

  8. Use of commercial organic fertilizer increases the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics in soil. (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Qiao, Min; Wang, Feng-Hua; Zhu, Yong-Guan


    The application of manure-based commercial organic fertilizers (COFs) is becoming increasingly extensive because of the expanding market for organic food. The present study examined the effects of repeated applications of chicken or swine manure-based COFs on the fate of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil by conducting a soil microcosm experiment. Application of COFs significantly increased antibiotics residues, as well as the relative abundance of ARGs and the integrase gene of class 1 integrons (intΙ1) in soil. Two months after each application, antibiotics and ARGs dissipated in amended soils, but they still remained at an elevated level, compared with the control. And, the accumulation of antibiotics was found due to repeated COF applications. However, the relative abundance of ARGs in most COF-amended soils did not differ significantly between the first application and the repeated application. The results imply that 2 months are not sufficient for ARGs to approach background levels, and that animal manure must be treated more effectively prior to using it in agriculture ecosystems.

  9. Variation in some chemical parameters and organic matter in soils regenerated by the addition of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, C.; Hernandez, T.; Costa, F. (Centro de Edafologia y Biologia, Murcia (Spain))

    The organic fraction of a municipal solid waste was added in different doses to an eroded soil formed of loam and with no vegetal cover. After three years, the changes in macronutrient content and the chemical-structural composition of its organic matter were studied. The addition of the organic fraction from a municipal solid waste had a positive effect on soil regeneration, the treated soils being covered with spontaneous vegetation from 1 yr onwards. An increase in electrical conductivity and a fall in pH were noted in the treated soils as were increases in macronutrients, particularly N and available P and the different carbon fractions. Optical density measurements of the organic matter extracted with sodium pyrophosphate showed that the treated soils contained an organic matter with less condensed compounds and with a greater tendency to evolve than the control. A pyrolysis-gas chromatography study of the organic matter extracted with pyrophosphate showed large quantities of benzene both in the treated soils and control; pyrrole was also relatively abundant, although this fragment decreased as the dose rose. Xylenes and pyridine were present in greater quantities in the control and furfural in the treated soils.

  10. Stabilization of C and N from Decomposing Fine Roots and Needles in Soil Organic Matter Fractions (United States)

    Bird, J. A.; Kleber, M.; Torn, M.


    We investigated the contributions of Pinus ponderosa needles and fine roots to forest soil organic matter C and N storage. The fates of dual-labeled (13C/15N) ponderosa pine fine roots (soil organic matter (SOM) fractions (light, fulvic, humic, and humin). The C turnover times (defined by natural abundance 14C) of these SOM fractions were distinct and ranged from 5 years (light fraction) to 260 years (insoluble humin). Overall, input of C as roots resulted in much more C retained in soil (70.5 ± 2.2 % of applied was retained) compared with needle C (42.9 ± 1.3 % of applied was retained) after 1.5 years. Greater complex C compounds in fine roots likely contributed to the longer initial C residence time and lower degree of transformation in the soil. In contrast, litter N recovery in soil was similar between above- and belowground substrates. During the first 1.5 years in situ, more of the needle 13C retained in soil was in humic and humin fractions and less as light fraction than for 13C from fine roots. The 13C:15N ratios of the SOM fractions suggest that the types of organic molecules stabilized differed fundamentally between needle and fine root sources. Predominately nitrogen-rich biomolecules from fine roots were stabilized in humic, fulvic and humin fractions. In contrast, carbon-rich biomolecules from needles were preferentially stabilized, especially initially, in the humin fraction.

  11. Interfacial interactions between Skeletonema costatum extracellular organic matter and metal oxides: Implications for ceramic membrane filtration

    KAUST Repository

    Zaouri, Noor A


    In the current study, the interfacial interactions between the high molecular weight (HMW) compounds of Skeletonema costatum (SKC) extracellular organic matter (EOM) and ZrO2 or Al2O3, were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). HMW SKC-EOM was rigorously characterized and described as a hydrophilic organic compound mainly comprised of polysaccharide-like structures. Lipids and proteins were also observed, although in lower abundance. HMW SKC-EOM displayed attractive forces during approaching (i.e., leading to jump-to-contact events) and adhesion forces during retracting regime to both metal oxides at all solution conditions tested, where electrostatics and hydrogen bonding were suggested as dominant interacting mechanisms. However, the magnitude of these forces was significantly higher on ZrO2 surfaces, irrespective of cation type (Na+ or Ca2+) or concentration. Interestingly, while HMW SKC-EOM interacting forces to Al2O3 were practically insensitive to solution chemistry, the interactions between ZrO2 and HMW SKC-EOM increased with increasing cation concentration in solution. The structure, and lower charge, hydrophilicity, and density of hydroxyl groups on ZrO2 surface would play a key role on favoring zirconia associations with HMW SKC-EOM. The current results contribute to advance our fundamental understanding of Algogenic Organic Matter (AOM) interfacial interactions with metal oxides (i.e., AOM membrane fouling), and would highly assist in the proper selection of membrane material during episodic algal blooms.

  12. Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Degradation Modeled Through Microbial Incubations of Vascular Plant Leachates (United States)

    Harfmann, J.; Hernes, P.; Chuang, C. Y.


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as is in the atmosphere, provides the main link between terrestrial and marine carbon reservoirs, and fuels the microbial food web. The fate and removal of DOM is a result of several complex conditions and processes, including photodegradation, sorption/desorption, dominant vascular plant sources, and microbial abundance. In order to better constrain factors affecting microbial degradation, laboratory incubations were performed using Sacramento River water for microbial inoculums and vascular plant leachates. Four vascular plant sources were chosen based on their dominance in the Sacramento River Valley: gymnosperm needles from Pinus sabiniana (foothill pine), angiosperm dicot leaves from Quercus douglassi (blue oak), angiosperm monocot mixed annual grasses, and angiosperm monocot mixed Schoenoplectus acutus (tule) and Typha spp. (cattails). Three concentrations of microbial inoculum were used for each plant material, ranging from 0.2% to 10%. Degradation was monitored as a function of time using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV-Vis absorbance, and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and was compared across vascular plant type and inoculum concentration.

  13. Sea cucumbers reduce chromophoric dissolved organic matter in aquaculture tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Sadeghi-Nassaj


    Full Text Available Background Mono-specific aquaculture effluents contain high concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which affect negatively the water quality of the recipient ecosystems. A fundamental feature of water quality is its transparency. The fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs light is named chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM. A sustainable alternative to mono-specific aquaculture is the multitrophic aquaculture that includes species trophically complementary named “extractive” species that uptake the waste byproducts. Sea cucumbers are recognized as efficient extractive species due to the consumption of particulate organic matter (POM. However, the effects of sea cucumbers on CDOM are still unknown. Methods During more than one year, we monitored CDOM in two big-volume tanks with different trophic structure. One of the tanks (−holothurian only contained around 810 individuals of Anemonia sulcata, whereas the other tank (+holothurian also included 90 individuals of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria forskali. We routinely analyzed CDOM absorption spectra and determined quantitative (absorption coefficients at 325 nm and qualitative (spectral slopes optical parameters in the inlet waters, within the tanks, and in their corresponding effluents. To confirm the time-series results, we also performed three experiments. Each experiment consisted of two treatments: +holothurians (+H and –holothurians (−H. We set up three +H tanks with 80 individuals of A. sulcata and 10 individuals of H. tubulosa in each tank and four –H tanks that contained only 80 individuals of A. sulcata. Results In the time-series, absorption coefficients at 325 nm (a325 and spectral slopes from 275 to 295 nm (S275−295 were significantly lower in the effluent of the +holothurian tank (average: 0.33 m−1 and 16 µm−1, respectively than in the effluent of the −holothurian tank (average: 0.69 m−1 and 34 µm−1, respectively, the former

  14. The Preservation and Detection of Organic Matter within Jarosite (United States)

    Lewis, J. M. T.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; McAdam, A.; Andrejkovicova, S. C.; Knudson, C. A.; Wong, G. M.; Millan, M.; Freissinet, C.; Szopa, C.; Li, X.; Bower, D. M.


    Since its arrival at Mt. Sharp in 2014 the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover has been examining the mountain's lower stratigraphy, which shows a progression from clay-bearing to sulfate-bearing strata. Clay minerals are known to be effective long-term preservers of organic matter [1], but it is important to also consider the potential for Martian sulfate minerals to host organic molecules. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on board the rover uses pyrolysis to liberate organic fragments from sampled materials [2]. However, the surface of Mars hosts widespread oxychlorine phases, which thermally decompose to release oxygen and chlorine that can degrade and destroy organic signals [3]. Francois et al. (2016) demonstrated that synthetic magnesium sulfate can incorporate phthalic acid and protect it from oxychlorine phases during pyrolysis [4]. Magnesium sulfate as well as calcium sulfate and jarosite have all been observed by instruments on the rover. The addition of organic standards to the starting materials in jarosite synthesis reactions has conclusively demonstrated that jarosite can incorporate organic molecules. The samples were analyzed by SAM-like evolved gas analysis (EGA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the influence of perchlorates assessed. Jarosite has been observed by multiple missions to the Martian surface and from orbit, thus the probability of future organic detection missions encountering the mineral is high. Samples from this study were examined by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy, which will be utilized by the ExoMars rover and Mars 2020 rover respectively. The data inform the sampling and analysis strategies for sulfate-rich regions of Mars for present and future organic-detection missions. [1] Farmer & Des Marais (1999) JGR: Planets 104, [2] Mahaffy et al., (2012) Space Science Reviews 170 [3] Glavin et al., (2013) JGR: Planets 118 [4] Francois et al., (2016) JGR

  15. Influence of dissolved organic carbon content on modelling natural organic matter acid-base properties. (United States)

    Garnier, Cédric; Mounier, Stéphane; Benaïm, Jean Yves


    Natural organic matter (NOM) behaviour towards proton is an important parameter to understand NOM fate in the environment. Moreover, it is necessary to determine NOM acid-base properties before investigating trace metals complexation by natural organic matter. This work focuses on the possibility to determine these acid-base properties by accurate and simple titrations, even at low organic matter concentrations. So, the experiments were conducted on concentrated and diluted solutions of extracted humic and fulvic acid from Laurentian River, on concentrated and diluted model solutions of well-known simple molecules (acetic and phenolic acids), and on natural samples from the Seine river (France) which are not pre-concentrated. Titration experiments were modelled by a 6 acidic-sites discrete model, except for the model solutions. The modelling software used, called PROSECE (Programme d'Optimisation et de SpEciation Chimique dans l'Environnement), has been developed in our laboratory, is based on the mass balance equilibrium resolution. The results obtained on extracted organic matter and model solutions point out a threshold value for a confident determination of the studied organic matter acid-base properties. They also show an aberrant decreasing carboxylic/phenolic ratio with increasing sample dilution. This shift is neither due to any conformational effect, since it is also observed on model solutions, nor to ionic strength variations which is controlled during all experiments. On the other hand, it could be the result of an electrode troubleshooting occurring at basic pH values, which effect is amplified at low total concentration of acidic sites. So, in our conditions, the limit for a correct modelling of NOM acid-base properties is defined as 0.04 meq of total analysed acidic sites concentration. As for the analysed natural samples, due to their high acidic sites content, it is possible to model their behaviour despite the low organic carbon concentration.

  16. Coarse Particulate Organic Matter: Storage, Transport, and Retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, Scott [Oakland University, Rochester, MI; Lamberti, Gary A. [University of Notre Dame, IN; Entrekin, Sally A. [University of Central Arkansas; Griffiths, Natalie A. [ORNL


    Coarse particulate organic matter, or CPOM, is a basal energy and nutrient resource in many stream ecosystems and is provided by inputs from the riparian zone, incoming tributaries, and to a lesser extent from in-stream production. The ability of a stream to retain CPOM or slow its transport is critical to its consumption and assimilation by stream biota. In this chapter, we describe basic exercises to measure (1) the amount of CPOM in the streambed and (2) the retention of CPOM from standardized particle releases. We further describe advanced exercises that (1) experimentally enhance the retentiveness of a stream reach and (2) measure organic carbon transport and turnover (i.e., spiraling) in the channel.

  17. Coarse Particulate Organic Matter: Storage, Transport, and Retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, Scott [Oakland University, Rochester, MI; Lamberti, Gary A. [University of Notre Dame, IN; Entrekin, Sally A. [University of Central Arkansas; Griffiths, Natalie A. [ORNL


    Coarse particulate organic matter, or CPOM, is a basal energy and nutrient resource in many stream ecosystems and is provided by inputs from the riparian zone, incoming tributaries, and to a lesser extent from in-stream production. The ability of a stream to retain CPOM or slow its transport is critical to its consumption and assimilation by stream biota. In this chapter, we describe basic exercises to measure (1) the amount of CPOM in the streambed and (2) the retention of CPOM from standardized particle releases. We further describe advanced exercises that (1) experimentally enhance the retentiveness of a stream reach and (2) measure organic carbon transport and turnover (i.e., spiraling) in the channel.

  18. Nanoscale geochemical and geomechanical characterization of organic matter in shale. (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Hatcherian, Javin; Hackley, Paul C; Pomerantz, Andrew E


    Solid organic matter (OM) plays an essential role in the generation, migration, storage, and production of hydrocarbons from economically important shale rock formations. Electron microscopy images have documented spatial heterogeneity in the porosity of OM at nanoscale, and bulk spectroscopy measurements have documented large variation in the chemical composition of OM during petroleum generation. However, information regarding the heterogeneity of OM chemical composition at the nanoscale has been lacking. Here we demonstrate the first application of atomic force microscopy-based infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR) to measure the chemical and mechanical heterogeneity of OM in shale at the nanoscale, orders of magnitude finer than achievable by traditional chemical imaging tools such as infrared microscopy. We present a combination of optical microscopy and AFM-IR imaging to characterize OM heterogeneity in an artificially matured series of New Albany Shales. The results document the evolution of individual organic macerals with maturation, providing a microscopic picture of the heterogeneous process of petroleum generation.

  19. Literature review of organic matter transport from marshes (United States)

    Dow, D. D.


    A conceptual model for estimating a transport coefficient for the movement of nonliving organic matter from wetlands to the adjacent embayments was developed in a manner that makes it compatible with the Earth Resources Laboratory's Productive Capacity Model. The model, which envisages detritus movement from wetland pixels to the nearest land-water boundary followed by movement within the water column from tidal creeks to the adjacent embayment, can be transposed to deal with only the interaction between tidal water and the marsh or to estimate the transport from embayments to the adjacent coastal waters. The outwelling hypothesis postulated wetlands as supporting coastal fisheries either by exporting nutrients, such as inorganic nitrogen, which stimulated the plankton-based grazing food chain in the water column, or through the export of dissolved and particulate organic carbon which provided a benthic, detritus-based food web which provides the food source for the grazing food chain in a more indirect fashion.

  20. Global effects of agriculture on fluvial dissolved organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Boëchat, Iola; Encina, Francisco


    DOM across climate zones of the northern and southern hemispheres. Both extensive and intensive farming altered fluvial DOM towards a more microbial and less plant-derived composition. Moreover, intensive farming significantly increased dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations. The DOM......Agricultural land covers approximately 40% of Earth’s land surface and affects hydromorphological, biogeochemical and ecological characteristics of fluvial networks. In the northern temperate region, agriculture also strongly affects the amount and molecular composition of dissolved organic matter...... composition change and DON concentration increase differed among climate zones and could be related to the intensity of current and historical nitrogen fertilizer use. As a result of agriculture intensification, increased DON concentrations and a more microbial-like DOM composition likely will enhance...

  1. Carbon in Humic Fractions of Organic Matter in Soil Treated with Organic Composts under Mango Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Reis Silva


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil organic matter (SOM plays a key role in maintaining the productivity of tropical soils, providing energy and substrate for the biological activity and modifying the physical and chemical characteristics that ensure the maintenance of soil quality and the sustainability of ecosystems. This study assessed the medium-term effect (six years of the application of five organic composts, produced by combining different agro-industrial residues, on accumulation and chemical characteristics of soil organic matter. Treatments were applied in a long-term experiment of organic management of mango (OMM initiated in 2005 with a randomized block design with four replications. Two external areas, one with conventional mango cultivation (CMM and the other a fragment of regenerating Caatinga vegetation (RCF, were used as reference areas. Soil samples were collected in the three management systems from the 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.20 m layers, and the total organic carbon content and chemical fractions of organic matter were evaluated by determining the C contents of humin and humic and fulvic acids. Organic compost application significantly increased the contents of total C and C in humic substances in the experimental plots, mainly in the surface layer. However, compost 3 (50 % coconut bagasse, 40 % goat manure, 10 % castor bean residues significantly increased the level of the non-humic fraction, probably due to the higher contents of recalcitrant material in the initial composition. The highest increases from application of the composts were in the humin, followed by the fulvic fraction. Compost application increased the proportion of higher molecular weight components, indicating higher stability of the organic matter.

  2. Preservation of organic matter in nontronite against iron redox cycling. (United States)

    Zeng, Q.


    It is generally believed that clay minerals can protect organic matter from degradation in redox active environments, but both biotic and abiotic factors can influence the redox process and thus potentially change the clay-organic associations. However, the specific mechanisms involved in this process remain poorly understood. In this study, a model organic compound, 12-Aminolauric acid (ALA) was selected to intercalate into the structural interlayer of nontronite (an iron-rich smectite, NAu-2) to form an ALA-intercalated NAu-2 composite (ALA-NAu-2). Shawanella putrefaciens CN32 and sodium dithionite were used to reduce structural Fe(III) to Fe(II) in NAu-2 and ALA-NAu-2. The bioreduced ALA-NAu-2 was subsequently re-oxidized by air. The rates and extents of bioreduction and air re-oxidation were determined with wet chemistry methods. ALA release from ALA-NAu-2 via redox process was monitored. Mineralogical changes after iron redox cycle were investigated with X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. At the beginning stage of bioreduction, S. putrefaciens CN32 reduced Fe(III) from the edges of nontronite and preferentially reduced and dissolved small and poorly crystalline particles, and released ALA, resulting a positive correlation between ALA release and iron reduction extent (selectivity in reducing ALA-NAu-2 particles, and a considerable amount of reductive dissolution was responsible for a large amount of ALA release (>80%). Because bacteria are the principal agent for mediating redox process in natural environments, our results demonstrated that the structural interlayer of smectite can serve as a potential shelter to protect organic matter from oxidation.

  3. Analysis of the organic matter which are present in solid organic wastes from urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canellas, Luciano Pasqualoto; Santos, Gabriel de Araujo; Amarai Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil do; Mazur, Nelson; Moraes, Anselmo Alpande


    This study analyses the organic matter which are present in the solid wastes from the Rio de Janeiro city - Brazil. The humic acids were extracted and purified. After the purification, the humic acids were dried by lyophilization. Visible UV, infrared and NMR spectra were obtained for the humic acids extracted

  4. Soil Organic Matter Map of Europe. Estimates of soil organic matter content of the topsoil of FAO-Unesco soil units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; Bouwman AF; Thewessen TJM


    One of the threats to groundwater is the leaching of pesticides. A major factor determining the migration of most pesticides in soil is their organic matter content. Using classification criteria, data on organic matter content in European and American soil profiles are described, and common

  5. CO2 Losses from Terrestrial Organic Matter through Photodegradation (United States)

    Rutledge, S.; Campbell, D. I.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Schipper, L. A.


    Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is the sum of CO2 uptake by plants and CO2 losses from both living plants and dead organic matter. In all but a few ecosystem scale studies on terrestrial carbon cycling, losses of CO2 from dead organic matter are assumed to be the result of microbial respiration alone. Here we provide evidence for an alternative, previously largely underestimated mechanism for ecosystem-scale CO2 emissions. The process of photodegradation, the direct breakdown of organic matter by solar radiation, was found to contribute substantially to the ecosystem scale CO2 losses at both a bare peatland in New Zealand, and a summer-dead grassland in California. Comparisons of daytime eddy covariance (EC) data with data collected at the same time using an opaque chamber and the CO2 soil gradient technique, or with night-time EC data collected during similar moisture and temperature conditions were used to quantify the direct effect of exposure of organic matter to solar radiation. At a daily scale, photodegradation contributed up to 62% and 92% of summer mid-day CO2 fluxes at the de-vegetated peatland and at the grassland during the dry season, respectively. Irradiance-induced CO2 losses were estimated to be 19% of the total annual CO2 loss at the peatland, and almost 60% of the dry season CO2 loss at the grassland. Small-scale measurements using a transparent chamber confirmed that CO2 emissions from air-dried peat and grass occurred within seconds of exposure to light when microbial activity was inhibited. Our findings imply that photodegradation could be important for many ecosystems with exposed soil organic matter, litter and/or standing dead material. Potentially affected ecosystems include sparsely vegetated arid and semi-arid ecosystems (e.g. shrublands, savannahs and other grasslands), bare burnt areas, agricultural sites after harvest or cultivation (especially if crop residues are left on the surface), deciduous forests after leaf fall, or ecosystems

  6. Relating hygroscopicity and composition of organic aerosol particulate matter

    CERN Document Server

    Duplissy, J; Prevot, A S H; Barmpadimos, I; Jimenez, J L; Gysel, M; Worsnop, D R; Aiken, A C; Tritscher, T; Canagaratna, M R; Collins, D R; Alfarra, M R; Metzger, A; Tomlinson, J; DeCarlo, P F; Weingartner, E; Baltensperger, U


    A hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) was used to measure the water uptake (hygroscopicity) of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed during the chemical and photochemical oxidation of several organic precursors in a smog chamber. Electron ionization mass spectra of the non-refractory submicron aerosol were simultaneously determined with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), and correlations between the two different signals were investigated. SOA hygroscopicity was found to strongly correlate with the relative abundance of the ion signal m/z 44 expressed as a fraction of total organic signal (f(44)). m/z 44 is due mostly to the ion fragment CO(2)(+) for all types of SOA systems studied, and has been previously shown to strongly correlate with organic O/C for ambient and chamber OA. The analysis was also performed on ambient OA from two field experiments at the remote site Jungfrau-joch, and the megacity Mexico City, where similar results were found. A simple empirical linear relation b...

  7. In-depth variations of the quality of organic matter in a gypsiferous forest soil under controlled burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. González-Pérez


    Full Text Available Forest fires exert changes in soil organic matter quality and quantity mainly in the organic top soil and first centimetres in the mineral horizon. These effects are highly variable and among other factors depend on fire and soil characteristics. In this work the changes caused by fire to the soil organic matter in a gypseous soil (Hypergypsic Gypsisol. Undisturbed soil blocks were sampled in the field and burned in the laboratory. The burning treatment finished when the temperature reached 250 °C at 1cm depth in the Ah-horizon. In the burned blocks a decrease in soil organic carbon (CO was observed in the soil O horizon (75% and down till the 1st cm in the mineral Ah horizon. Under the conditions of our burning experiment no appreciable neat differences were observed in the inorganic C content (CI. Soil organic matter alteration caused by fire was assessed at a molecular level using direct analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS. Fire severely modified soil organic matter molecular structure. In the organic soil layer (O horizon an almost complete disappearance of chromatographic peaks is apparent. In the mineral Ah horizon the effect of fire is still apparent (0-1 cm depth affecting the chromatograms both qualitative and quantitative with a complete disappearance of some biogenic compounds, a reduction in the relative abundance of typical vegetation markers and neat deviations of the natural distribution of the alkylic series i.e. shifts in parity and increase in the relative abundance of low molecular weight homologues.

  8. Mesopelagic N2 Fixation Related to Organic Matter Composition in the Solomon and Bismarck Seas (Southwest Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Benavides

    Full Text Available Dinitrogen (N2 fixation was investigated together with organic matter composition in the mesopelagic zone of the Bismarck (Transect 1 and Solomon (Transect 2 Seas (Southwest Pacific. Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP and the presence of compounds sharing molecular formulae with saturated fatty acids and sugars, as well as dissolved organic matter (DOM compounds containing nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P were higher on Transect 1 than on Transect 2, while oxygen concentrations showed an opposite pattern. N2 fixation rates (up to ~1 nmol N L-1 d-1 were higher in Transect 1 than in Transect 2, and correlated positively with TEP, suggesting a dependence of diazotroph activity on organic matter. The scores of the multivariate ordination of DOM molecular formulae and their relative abundance correlated negatively with bacterial abundances and positively with N2 fixation rates, suggesting an active bacterial exploitation of DOM and its use to sustain diazotrophic activity. Sequences of the nifH gene clustered with Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, and included representatives from Clusters I, III and IV. A third of the clone library included sequences close to the potentially anaerobic Cluster III, suggesting that N2 fixation was partially supported by presumably particle-attached diazotrophs. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR primer-probe sets were designed for three phylotypes and showed low abundances, with a phylotype within Cluster III at up to 103 nifH gene copies L-1. These results provide new insights into the ecology of non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs and suggest that organic matter sustains their activity in the mesopelagic ocean.

  9. Influence of land use on soil organic matter (United States)

    Rogeon, H.; Lemée, L.; Chabbi, A.; Ambles, A.


    Soil organic matter (SOM) is actually of great environmental interest as the amount of organic matter stored in soils represents one of the largest reservoirs of organic carbon on the global scale [1]. Indeed, soil carbon storage capacity represents 1500 to 2000 Gt for the first meter depth, which is twice the concentration of atmospheric CO2 [2]. Furthermore, human activities, such as deforestation (which represents a flux of 1.3 Gt C/year), contribute to the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration for about one percent a year [3]. Therefore, carbon dioxide sequestration in plant and carbon storage in soil and biomass could be considered as a complementary solution against climate change. The stock of carbon in soils is greatly influenced by land use (ca 70 Gt for a forest soil or a grassland against 40 Gt for an arable land). Furthermore the molecular composition of SOM should be also influenced by vegetation. In this context, four horizons taken between 0-120 cm from the same profile of a soil under grassland and forest located in the vicinity of Poitiers (INRA Lusignan, ORE Prairie) were compared. For the surface horizon, the study is improved with the results from the cultivated soil from INRA Versailles. Soil organic matter was characterized using IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and thermal analysis. Granulometric fractionation into sand (50-2000 μm), silt (2-50 μm) and clay (humin is less present in the arable soil (60%of the sample) than in the other soils (90%). In the case of the forest and the grassland, the increase in this refractory pool of OM with depth indicates that SOM become more resistant to biodegradation in deepest horizons. Furthermore, humic acids and humin were characterized by thermochemolysis using TMAH as alkylating agent. The major pyrolysis products of humic acids and humin are short chained (

  10. Kinetics of Organic Matter Biodegradation in Leachate from Tobacco Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briški, F.


    Full Text Available Treatment of wastes and leachate evolved in landfills is today an imperative due to rigorous environmental protection legislation. In this work, biodegradation of the organic fraction in tobaccowaste leachate was studied. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor at initial concentra tion of activated sludge of 3.03 g dm–3 and different initial concentrations of organic matter in leachate, expressed as COD, which ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 g dm–3 . The working volume of the reactor (Fig. 1 was 7 dm3 within the cylindrical porous liner and it was filled with the suspension of leachate and activated sludge . The liner was designed such that it did not allow activated sludge to pass through. Continuous up-flow aeration was provided by a membrane pump. The temperature during the biodegradation process was 23 ± 2 °C. Dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature in reactor were monitored continuously by probes connected to a remote meter. Toxicity of leachate was performed by toxicity test using marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri before starting with the biodegradation in the batch reactor. The obtained results showed that effective concentration of leachate is EC 50 = 1.6 g dm–3 and toxicity impact index is TII50 = 9.99, meaning that untreated leachate must not be discharged into the environment before treatment. The results of the biodegradation process of leachate in batch reactor are presented in Table 1 and Fig. 2. The ratio γXv/γX was almost constant throughout the experiments and ranged from 0.69 do 0.73. This implies that the concentration of biomass remained unchanged during the experiments, and average yield was 5.26 %. The important kinetic and stoichiometric parameters required for performance of the biological removal process, namely the Y, Ks, Kd, and μmax were calculated from the batch experiments (Table 2. The experimental results of the influence of initial substrate concentrations on substrate degradation rate, and influence of

  11. Hydrogen and carbon isotopes of petroleum and related organic matter (United States)

    Yeh, Hsueh-Wen; Epstein, Samuel


    D/H and 13C /12C ratios were measured for 114 petroleum samples and for several samples of related organic matter. δD of crude oil ranges from -85 to -181‰, except for one distillate (-250‰) from the Kenai gas field; δ13C of crude oil ranges from -23.3 to -32.5‰, Variation in δD and δ13C values of compound-grouped fractions of a crude oil is small, 3 and 1.1%., respectively, and the difference in δD and δ13C between oil and coeval wax is slight. Gas fractions are 53-70 and 22.6-23.2‰ depleted in D and 13C, respectively, relative to the coexisting oil fractions. The δD and δ13C values of the crude oils appear to be largely determined by the isotopic compositions of their organic precursors. The contribution of terrestrial organic debris to the organic precursors of most marine crude oils may be significant.

  12. Predators alter community organization of coral reef cryptofauna and reduce abundance of coral mutualists (United States)

    Stier, A. C.; Leray, M.


    Coral reefs are the most diverse marine systems in the world, yet our understanding of the processes that maintain such extraordinary diversity remains limited and taxonomically biased toward the most conspicuous species. Cryptofauna that live deeply embedded within the interstitial spaces of coral reefs make up the majority of reef diversity, and many of these species provide important protective services to their coral hosts. However, we know very little about the processes governing the diversity and composition of these less conspicuous but functionally important species. Here, we experimentally quantify the role of predation in driving the community organization of small fishes and decapods that live embedded within Pocillopora eydouxi, a structurally complex, reef-building coral found widely across the Indo-Pacific. We use surveys to describe the natural distribution of predators, and then, factorially manipulate two focal predator species to quantify the independent and combined effects of predator density and identity on P. eydouxi-dwelling cryptofauna. Predators reduced abundance (34 %), species richness (20 %), and modified species composition. Rarefaction revealed that observed reductions in species richness were primarily driven by changes in abundance. Additionally, the two predator species uniquely affected the beta diversity and composition of the prey assemblage. Predators reduced the abundance and modified the composition of a number of mutualist fishes and decapods, whose benefit to the coral is known to be both diversity- and density-dependent. We predict that the density and identity of predators present within P. eydouxi may substantially alter coral performance in the face of an increased frequency and intensity of natural and anthropogenic stressors.

  13. Organic matter loss from cultivated peat soils in Sweden (United States)

    Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin


    The degradation of drained peat soils in agricultural use is an underestimated source of loss of organic matter. Oxidation (biological degradation) of agricultural peat soils causes a loss of organic matter (OM) of 11 - 22 t ha-1 y-1 causing a CO2 emission of 20 - 40 t ha-1 y-1. Together with the associated N2O emissions from mineralized N this totals in the EU to about 98.5 Mton CO2 eq per year. Peat soils are very prone to climate change and it is expected that at the end of this century these values are doubled. The degradation products pollute surface waters. Wind erosion of peat soils in arable agriculture can cause losses of 3 - 30 t ha-1 y-1 peat also causing air pollution (fine organic particles). Subsidence rates are 1 - 2 cm per year which leads to deteriorating drainage effect and make peat soils below sea or inland water levels prone to flooding. Flooding agricultural peat soils is in many cases not possible without high costs, high GHG emissions and severe water pollution. Moreover sometimes cultural and historic landscapes are lost and meadow birds areas are lost. In areas where the possibility to regulate the water table is limited the mitigation options are either to increase biomass production that can be used as bioenergy to substitute some fossil fuel, try to slow down the break-down of the peat by different amendments that inhibit microbial activity, or permanent flooding. The negative effects of wind erosion can be mitigated by reducing wind speed or different ways to protect the soil by crops or fiber sheets. In a newly started project in Sweden a typical peat soil with and without amendment of foundry sand is cropped with reed canary grass, tall fescue and timothy to investigate the yield and greenhouse gas emissions from the different crops and how the sand effect the trafficability and GHG emissions.

  14. PHYS: Division of Physical Chemistry 258 - Properties and Origins of Cometary and Asteroidal Organic Matter Delivered to the Early Earth (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Nguyen, Ann


    Comets and asteroids may have contributed much of the Earth's water and organic matter. The Earth accretes approximately 4x10(exp 7) Kg of dust and meteorites from these sources every year. The least altered meteorites contain complex assemblages of organic compounds and abundant hydrated minerals. These carbonaceous chondrite meteorites probably derive from asteroids that underwent hydrothermal processing within the first few million years after their accretion. Meteorite organics show isotopic and chemical signatures of low-T ion-molecule and grain-surface chemistry and photolysis of icy grains that occurred in cold molecular clouds and the outer protoplanetary disk. These signatures have been overprinted by aqueously mediated chemistry in asteroid parent bodies, forming amino acids and other prebiotic molecules. Comets are much richer in organic matter but it is less well characterized. Comet dust collected in the stratosphere shows larger H and N isotopic anomalies than most meteorites, suggesting better preservation of primordial organics. Rosetta studies of comet 67P coma dust find complex organic matter that may be related to the macromolecular material that dominates the organic inventory of primitive meteorites. The exogenous organic material accreting on Earth throughout its history is made up of thousands of molecular species formed in diverse processes ranging from circumstellar outflows to chemistry at near absolute zero in dark cloud cores and the formative environment within minor planets. NASA and JAXA are currently flying sample return missions to primitive, potentially organic-rich asteroids. The OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa2 missions will map their target asteroids, Bennu and Ryugu, in detail and return regolith samples to Earth. Laboratory analyses of these pristine asteroid samples will provide unprecedented views of asteroidal organic matter relatively free of terrestrial contamination within well determined geological context. Studies of

  15. Quality of fresh organic matter affects priming of soil organic matter and substrate utilization patterns of microbes (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Boutton, Thomas W.; Xu, Wenhua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Ping; Bai, Edith


    Changes in biogeochemical cycles and the climate system due to human activities are expected to change the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs to soils. How changing quality of fresh organic matter (FOM) might influence the priming effect (PE) on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization is still under debate. Here we determined the PE induced by two 13C-labeled FOMs with contrasting nutritional quality (leaf vs. stalk of Zea mays L.). Soils from two different forest types yielded consistent results: soils amended with leaf tissue switched faster from negative PE to positive PE due to greater microbial growth compared to soils amended with stalks. However, after 16 d of incubation, soils amended with stalks had a higher PE than those amended with leaf. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) results suggested that microbial demand for carbon and other nutrients was one of the major determinants of the PE observed. Therefore, consideration of both microbial demands for nutrients and FOM supply simultaneously is essential to understand the underlying mechanisms of PE. Our study provided evidence that changes in FOM quality could affect microbial utilization of substrate and PE on SOM mineralization, which may exacerbate global warming problems under future climate change. PMID:25960162

  16. Evaluation of forest disturbance legacy effects on dissolved organic matter characteristics in streams at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire (United States)

    Kaelin M. Cawley; John Campbell; Melissa Zwilling; Rudolf. Jaffé


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) source and composition are critical drivers of its reactivity, impact microbial food webs and influence ecosystem functions. It is believed that DOM composition and abundance represent an integrated signal derived from the surrounding watershed. Recent studies have shown that land-use may have a long-term effect on DOM composition....

  17. Comparing NaOH-extractable organic matter of acid forest soils that differ in their pedogenic trends: a pyrolysis-GC/MS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez Abelenda, M.; Buurman, P.; Camps Arbestain, M.; Kaal, J.; Martinez-Cortizas, A.; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, N.; Macias, F.


    Soil organic matter (SOM) in Alu-andic Andosols and Alu-humic Umbrisols is believed to accumulate because of the protection caused by binding to aluminium (Al). We investigated soils that differed in the abundance of organo-Al complexes to determine the effect of such binding on SOM chemistry. For

  18. Arsenic and selenium mobilisation from organic matter treated mine spoil with and without inorganic fertilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Clemente, Rafael; Mestrot, Adrien; Meharg, Andrew A.


    Organic matter amendments are applied to contaminated soil to provide a better habitat for re-vegetation and remediation, and olive mill waste compost (OMWC) has been described as a promising material for this aim. We report here the results of an incubation experiment carried out in flooded conditions to study its influence in As and metal solubility in a trace elements contaminated soil. NPK fertilisation and especially organic amendment application resulted in increased As, Se and Cu concentrations in pore water. Independent of the amendment, dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) was the most abundant As species in solution. The application of OMWC increased pore water dissolved organic-carbon (DOC) concentrations, which may explain the observed mobilisation of As, Cu and Se; phosphate added in NPK could also be in part responsible of the mobilisation caused in As. Therefore, the application of soil amendments in mine soils may be particularly problematic in flooded systems. Highlights: ► Organic and inorganic amendments were added to a mine soil in flooding conditions. ► Olive mill waste compost (OMWC) provoked As, Se and Cu solubilisation. ► Dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) was the predominant As species in pore water. ► Selenium volatilisation from soils was intense. - The addition of organic amendment and/or inorganic fertiliser to a trace element contaminated soil in flooded conditions led to As, Cu and Se solubilisation.

  19. Storage and turnover of organic matter in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torn, M.S.; Swanston, C.W.; Castanha, C.; Trumbore, S.E.


    Historically, attention on soil organic matter (SOM) has focused on the central role that it plays in ecosystem fertility and soil properties, but in the past two decades the role of soil organic carbon in moderating atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations has emerged as a critical research area. This chapter will focus on the storage and turnover of natural organic matter in soil (SOM), in the context of the global carbon cycle. Organic matter in soils is the largest carbon reservoir in rapid exchange with atmospheric CO{sub 2}, and is thus important as a potential source and sink of greenhouse gases over time scales of human concern (Fischlin and Gyalistras 1997). SOM is also an important human resource under active management in agricultural and range lands worldwide. Questions driving present research on the soil C cycle include: Are soils now acting as a net source or sink of carbon to the atmosphere? What role will soils play as a natural modulator or amplifier of climatic warming? How is C stabilized and sequestered, and what are effective management techniques to foster these processes? Answering these questions will require a mechanistic understanding of how and where C is stored in soils. The quantity and composition of organic matter in soil reflect the long-term balance between plant carbon inputs and microbial decomposition, as well as other loss processes such as fire, erosion, and leaching. The processes driving soil carbon storage and turnover are complex and involve influences at molecular to global scales. Moreover, the relative importance of these processes varies according to the temporal and spatial scales being considered; a process that is important at the regional scale may not be critical at the pedon scale. At the regional scale, SOM cycling is influenced by factors such as climate and parent material, which affect plant productivity and soil development. More locally, factors such as plant tissue quality and soil mineralogy affect

  20. Significance of Isotopically Labile Organic Hydrogen in Thermal Maturation of Organic Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt Schimmelmann; Maria Mastalerz


    Isotopically labile organic hydrogen in fossil fuels occupies chemical positions that participate in isotopic exchange and in chemical reactions during thermal maturation from kerogen to bitumen, oil and gas. Carbon-bound organic hydrogen is isotopically far less exchangeable than hydrogen bound to nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. We explore why organic hydrogen isotope ratios express a relationship with organic nitrogen isotope ratios in kerogen at low to moderate maturity. We develop and apply new techniques to utilize organic D/H ratios in organic matter fractions and on a molecular level as tools for exploration for fossil fuels and for paleoenvironmental research. The scope of our samples includes naturally and artificially matured substrates, such as coal, shale, oil and gas.

  1. Seasonal and spatial distribution of particulate organic matter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.; Bhosle, N.B.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhushan, R.

    The temporal, spatial and depth related variation of suspended particulate organic matter (POM) in the Bay of Bengal are assessed in this paper. For this purpose, suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples were collected from eight depths (2 to 1000...

  2. Sources, distribution and preservation of organic matter in a tropical estuary (Godavari, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, M.S.; Naidu, S.A.; Subbaiah, Ch.V.; Gawade, L.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.

    Major sources and distribution of organic matter (OM) were examined in a tropical monsoonal estuary, the Godavari, using content and isotopic signatures in suspended particulate matter and surface sediments during no-discharge period. The lower (<10...

  3. Picocyanobacteria and deep-ocean fluorescent dissolved organic matter share similar optical properties (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Gonsior, Michael; Luek, Jenna; Timko, Stephen; Ianiri, Hope; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Fang, Xiaoting; Zeng, Qinglu; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng


    Marine chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and its related fluorescent components (FDOM), which are widely distributed but highly photobleached in the surface ocean, are critical in regulating light attenuation in the ocean. However, the origins of marine FDOM are still under investigation. Here we show that cultured picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, release FDOM that closely match the typical fluorescent signals found in oceanic environments. Picocyanobacterial FDOM also shows comparable apparent fluorescent quantum yields and undergoes similar photo-degradation behaviour when compared with deep-ocean FDOM, further strengthening the similarity between them. Ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveal abundant nitrogen-containing compounds in Synechococcus DOM, which may originate from degradation products of the fluorescent phycobilin pigments. Given the importance of picocyanobacteria in the global carbon cycle, our results indicate that picocyanobacteria are likely to be important sources of marine autochthonous FDOM, which may accumulate in the deep ocean.

  4. cyclostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and organic matter accumulation mechanism (United States)

    Cong, F.; Li, J.


    The first member of Maokou Formation of Sichuan basin is composed of well preserved carbonate ramp couplets of limestone and marlstone/shale. It acts as one of the potential shale gas source rock, and is suitable for time-series analysis. We conducted time-series analysis to identify high-frequency sequences, reconstruct high-resolution sedimentation rate, estimate detailed primary productivity for the first time in the study intervals and discuss organic matter accumulation mechanism of source rock under sequence stratigraphic framework.Using the theory of cyclostratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy, the high-frequency sequences of one outcrop profile and one drilling well are identified. Two third-order sequences and eight fourth-order sequences are distinguished on outcrop profile based on the cycle stacking patterns. For drilling well, sequence boundary and four system tracts is distinguished by "integrated prediction error filter analysis" (INPEFA) of Gamma-ray logging data, and eight fourth-order sequences is identified by 405ka long eccentricity curve in depth domain which is quantified and filtered by integrated analysis of MTM spectral analysis, evolutive harmonic analysis (EHA), evolutive average spectral misfit (eASM) and band-pass filtering. It suggests that high-frequency sequences correlate well with Milankovitch orbital signals recorded in sediments, and it is applicable to use cyclostratigraphy theory in dividing high-frequency(4-6 orders) sequence stratigraphy.High-resolution sedimentation rate is reconstructed through the study interval by tracking the highly statistically significant short eccentricity component (123ka) revealed by EHA. Based on sedimentation rate, measured TOC and density data, the burial flux, delivery flux and primary productivity of organic carbon was estimated. By integrating redox proxies, we can discuss the controls on organic matter accumulation by primary production and preservation under the high-resolution sequence

  5. Organic matter recycling in a shallow coastal zone (NW Mediterranean): The influence of local and global climatic forcing and organic matter lability on hydrolytic enzyme activity (United States)

    Misic, Cristina; Harriague, Anabella Covazzi


    Seawater and sediment were collected on a monthly basis from a shallow (10.5 m depth) coastal site in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean) from November 1993 to December 1994 to determine the main environmental forces that influenced the biogeochemical processes and to study the relationships between the availability and lability of the organic matter (OM) and hydrolytic enzymatic activity. The current direction throughout the sampling year was influenced by the climatic conditions, which showed significant correlations with north atlantic oscillation (NAO) index values. The current generally flowed northwards in spring. This could cause significantly lower transparency values than in the summer, when an eastward current probably reduced the allochthonous input of material from the main local watercourse and contributed to turning the conditions from mesotrophic to oligotrophic. Spring and summer were separated by transitional periods more than by the canonical autumn and winter seasons. These transitions were characterised by a reduction in salinity values and by resuspension caused by water column mixing and a current flowing towards the southwest. The significant inverse correlations of the chlorophyll- a and protein concentrations, bacterial abundance and proteolysis of the bottom seawater and transparency showed the direct influence of resuspension on the organic matter dynamics. Moreover, OM trophic quality influenced the bacterial parameters and the enzymatic activities. The glycolytic β glucosidase and chitinase activities and their bacterial cell-specific hydrolytic rates were higher when substrates such as hydrolysable proteins were available, while they decreased when refractory compounds were abundant. The low leucine aminopeptidase: β glucosidase ratio values observed in the water column were presumably related to the potential ease with which microbes obtained protein-derived materials and energy, the protein hydrolysable fraction being estimated at

  6. Bacterial degradation of dissolved organic matter released by Planktothrix agardhii (Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Tessarolli


    Full Text Available Abstract Although Planktothrix agardhii often produces toxic blooms in eutrophic water bodies around the world, little is known about the fate of the organic matter released by these abundant Cyanobacteria. Thus, this study focused in estimating the bacterial consumption of the DOC and DON (dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen, respectively produced by axenic P. agardhii cultures and identifying some of the bacterial OTUs (operational taxonomic units involved in the process. Both P. agardhii and bacterial inocula were sampled from the eutrophic Barra Bonita Reservoir (SP, Brazil. Two distinct carbon degradation phases were observed: during the first three days, higher degradation coefficients were calculated, which were followed by a slower degradation phase. The maximum value observed for particulate bacterial carbon (POC was 11.9 mg L-1, which consisted of 62.5% of the total available DOC, and its mineralization coefficient was 0.477 day-1 (t½ = 1.45 days. A similar pattern of degradation was observed for DON, although the coefficients were slightly different. Changes in the OTUs patterns were observed during the different steps of the degradation. The main OTUs were related to the classes Alphaproteobacteria (8 OTUs, Betaproteobacteria (2 OTUs and Gammaproteobacteria (3 OTUs. The genus Acinetobacter was the only identified organism that occurred during the whole process. Bacterial richness was higher at the slower degradation phase, which could be related to the small amounts of DOM (dissolved organic matter available, particularly carbon. The kinetics of the bacterial degradation of P. agardhii-originated DOM suggests minimal loss of DOM from the Barra Bonita reservoir.

  7. Organic carbon determination in histosols and soil horizons with high organic matter content from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Marcos Gervasio


    Full Text Available Soil taxonomy systems distinguish mineral soils from organic soils based on the amount of soil organic carbon. Procedures adopted in soil surveys for organic carbon measurement are therefore of major importance to classify the soils, and to correlate their properties with data from other studies. To evaluate different methods for measuring organic carbon and organic matter content in Histosols and soils with histic horizons, from different regions of Brazil, 53 soil samples were comparatively analyzed by the methods of Walkley & Black (modified, Embrapa, Yeomans & Bremner, modified Yeomans & Bremner, muffle furnace, and CHN. The modified Walkley & Black (C-W & B md and the combustion of organic matter in the muffle furnace (OM-Muffle were the most suitable for the samples with high organic carbon content. Based on regression analysis data, the OM-muffle may be estimated from C-W & B md by applying a factor that ranges from 2.00 to 2.19 with 95% of probability. The factor 2.10, the average value, is suggested to convert results obtained by these methods.

  8. Transformation of organic matters in animal wastes during composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ke, E-mail: [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWER), Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China); He, Chao [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); You, Shijie, E-mail: [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWER), Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China); Liu, Weijie [School of Life Science, The Key Laboratory of Biotechnology for Medicinal Plant of Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruijun [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWER), Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China); Qi, Huanhuan; Ren, Nanqi [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637141 (Singapore)


    Highlights: • Transformation of swine, cow and chicken manures during composting was compared. • Evolution of organics was analyzed by element analysis, FTIR, {sup 13}C NMR and Py/GC/MS. • Microbial utilization capacity on various substrates in the manures was evaluated. • Spatial difference of degradation rate inside the manure particle was investigated. - Abstract: The transformation of organic matters in swine, cow and chicken manures was compared and evaluated using elemental analysis, FTIR, {sup 13}C NMR, pyrolysis/GC/MS, Biolog and multiple fluorochrome over 60 days composting. The results revealed that cow manure exhibited the greatest C/N and aromaticity, whereas chicken manure exhibited the highest nitrogen and sulfur contents. O-alkyl-C was predominant carbon structure in the three manures. Alkyl-C and carboxyl-C were decomposed dramatically in initial 10 days, and mineralization of O-alkyl-C dominated the curing stage. During pyrolysis of chicken, cow, and swine manures, the majority products were fatty acids, phenols and cholestene derivatives, respectively, however, phenols and cholestene derivatives were strongly reduced in the mature manures. Furthermore, microorganisms in the raw cow, chicken and swine manure demonstrated the highest degradation capabilities for carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids, respectively. Spatial differences in the contents of solid organics in the manure particles were negligible through detection by multiple staining methods during composting.

  9. Acid-base properties of Baltic Sea dissolved organic matter (United States)

    Hammer, Karoline; Schneider, Bernd; Kuliński, Karol; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.


    Calculations related to the marine CO2 system that are based on alkalinity data may be strongly biased if the contributions of organic compounds are ignored. In coastal seas, concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are frequently high and alkalinity from inorganic compounds is low. In this study, based on measurements of total alkalinity, total CO2, and pH, we determined the organic alkalinity, Aorg, in water from the central Baltic Sea. The maximum Aorg measured in the surface mixed layer during the spring bloom was > 50 μmol/kg-SW but the Aorg decreased with depth and approached zero below the permanent halocline. This behavior could be attributed to the decreased pH of deeper water layers. The data were used to calculate the bulk dissociation constant, KDOM, for marine DOM and the fraction f of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that acts as a carrier for acid-base functional groups. The p KDOM (7.27) agreed well with the value (7.34) previously estimated in a preliminary study of organic alkalinity in the Baltic Sea. The fraction of carbon atoms carrying acid-base groups was 17% and was somewhat higher than previously reported (12%). Spike experiments performed using artificial seawater and three different humic/fulvic substances tested whether the acid-base properties of these substances explain the results of our field study. Specifically, Aorg was determined at different concentrations (DOC) of the added humic/fulvic substances. The relationship between Aorg and the DOC concentrations indicated that humic/fulvic substances are more acidic (p KDOM < 6.5) than the bulk DOC natural occurring in the Baltic Sea.

  10. Effect of organic matter on 125I diffusion in bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Wu; Qing Zheng


    Through-diffusion method was conducted to investigate the diffusion behavior of 125 I in bentonite in present of organic matter, such as polyaminopolycarboxylate EDTA, oxalic acid, hydrazine and humic acid HA. The effective diffusion coefficient D e value and rock capacity factor α were (2.32.6) × 10 -11 m 2 /s and 0.040-0.052, respectively. The small difference showed that iodine was preferentially associated with silicoaluminate mineral as an inorganic form. In present of HA, the D a value of 125 I was almost two orders of magnitude higher than that of HA and humic substances HS. The D e and α derived from the experiments were used to simulate its diffusion in the designed bentonite obstacle of high-level radioactive waste repository and the results showed that 125 I can be transported from 30 to 50 cm thickness of bentonite to the far-field of repository in several years. (author)

  11. Editorial: Integrative Research on Organic Matter Cycling across Aquatic Gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Nicholas D.


    The interface between freshwater and marine ecosystems provides a unique setting to examine the evolution of biogeochemical components derived from the landscape, inland waters, estuaries, and the ocean across distinct physiochemical gradients. A diverse body of work exploring this research topic is highlighted here with the goal of integrating our understanding of how organic matter (OM) is transported and transformed along the terrestrial-aquatic continuum and sparking interdisciplinary discussions on future research needs. The movement of water ultimately controls the transport and transformation of geochemical components as they move from land to sea, and, as such, contributions to this research topic will be described within the context of the hydrological cycle, starting with rainfall.

  12. The energetic and chemical signatures of persistent soil organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barré, Pierre; Plante, Alain F.; Cecillon, Lauric


    A large fraction of soil organic matter (OM) resists decomposition over decades to centuries as indicated by long radiocarbon residence times, but the mechanisms responsible for the long-term (multi-decadal) persistence are debated. The current lack of mechanistic understanding limits our ability...... chemical composition. From an energetic point of view, thermal analyses revealed that combustion of persistent OM occurred at higher temperature and provided less energy than combustion of more labile OM. In terms of chemical composition, persistent OM was H-depleted compared to OM present at the start...... of bare fallow, but spectroscopic analyses of OM functional groups did not reflect a consistent chemical composition of OM across sites, nor substantial modifications with bare fallow duration. The low energy content of persistent OM may be attributed to a combination of reduced content of energetic C...

  13. Development of Alternative Methods for Determining Soil Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mendes de Souza


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil organic matter (SOM is important to fertility, since it performs several functions such as cycling, water and nutrient retention and soil aggregation, in addition to being an energy requirement for biological activity. This study proposes new trends to the Embrapa, Walkley-Black, and Mebius methods that allowed the determination of SOM by spectrophotometry, increasing functionality. The mass of 500 mg was reduced to 200 mg, generating a mean of 60 % saving of reagents and a decrease of 91 % in the volume of residue generated for the three methods without compromising accuracy and precision. We were able to optimize conditions for the Mebius method and establish the digestion time of maximum recovery of SOM by factorial design and response surface. The methods were validated by the estimate of figures of merits. Between the methods investigated, the optimized Mebius method was best suited for determining SOM, showing near 100 % recovery.

  14. New monoaromatic steroids in organic matter of the apocatagenesis zone (United States)

    Kashirtsev, V. A.; Fomin, A. N.; Shevchenko, N. P.; Dolzhenko, K. V.


    According to the materials of geochemical study in the core of the ultradeep hole SV-27 of aromatic fractions of bitumoids of the Vilyui syneclise (East Siberia) by the method of chromatography-mass spectrometry, starting from the depth of >5000 m, four diastereomers of previously unknown hydrocarbons, which become predominant in the fraction at a depth of ˜6500 m, were distinguished. Similar hydrocarbons were found in organic matter of Upper Paleozoic rocks of the Kharaulakh anticlinorium in the Verkhoyansk folded area. According to the intense molecular ion m/z 366 and the character of the basic fragmental ions (m/z 238, 309, and 323), the major structure of the compounds studied was determined as 17-desmethyl-23-methylmonoaromatic steroid C27. The absence of such steroids in oil of the Vilyui syneclise shows that deep micro-oils did not participate in the formation of oil fringes of gas condensate deposits of the region.

  15. Organic-matter retention and macroinvertebrate utilization of seasonally inundated bryophytes in a mid-order Piedmont River (United States)

    Wood, James; Pattillo, Meryom; Freeman, Mary C.


    There is increased understanding of the role of bryophytes in supporting invertebrate biomass and for their influence on nutrient cycling and carbon balance in aquatic systems, but the structural and functional role of bryophytes growing in seasonally inundated habitats is substantially less studied. We conducted a study on the Middle Oconee River, near Athens, GA, to assess invertebrate abundance and organic-matter retention in seasonally inundated patches of the liverwort Porella pinnata, a species that tends to be submerged only when water levels in rivers are substantially above base flow. Aquatic invertebrate utilization of these seasonally inundated habitats has rarely been investigated. Macroinvertebrate biomass, insect density, and organic-matter content were significantly greater in patches of P. pinnata than on adjacent bare rock. Bryophyte biomass explained additional variation in organic matter, insect biomass, and density. The most abundant insects in P. pinnata patches were Dipterans and Plecopterans. Our results suggest an important structural role of seasonally inundated bryophyte habitats in riverine ecosystems.

  16. Distribution of some organic components in two forest soils profiles with evidence of soil organic matter leaching. (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Marta; Papa, Stefania; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Coppola, Elio


    Soil stores organic carbon more often than we can find in living vegetation and atmosphere together. This reservoir is not inert, but it is constantly in a dynamic phase of inputs and losses. Soil organic carbon mainly depends on land cover, environment conditions and soil properties. After soil deposition, the organic residues of different origin and nature, the Soil Organic Matter (SOM) can be seen involved in two different processes during the pedogenesis: mineralization and humification. The transport process along profile happens under certain conditions such as deposition of high organic residues amount on the top soil, high porosity of the soil caused by sand or skeleton particles, that determine a water strong infiltrating capacity, also, extreme temperatures can slow or stop the mineralization and/or humification process in one intermediate step of the degradation process releasing organic metabolites with high or medium solubility and high loads of water percolating in relation to intense rainfall. The transport process along soil profile can take many forms that can end in the formation of Bh horizons (h means accumulation of SOM in depth). The forest cover nature influence to the quantity and quality of the organic materials deposited with marked differences between coniferous and deciduous especially in relation to resistance to degradation. Two soils in the Campania region, located in Lago Laceno (Avellino - Italy) with different forest cover (Pinus sp. and Fagus sp.) and that meets the requirements of the place and pedological formation suitable for the formation and accumulation of SOM in depth (Bh horizon) were studied. The different soil C fractions were determinated and were assessed (Ciavatta C. et al. 1990; Dell'Abate M.T. et al. 2002) for each soil profile the Total Extractable Lipids (TEL). Furthermore, the lignin were considered as a major component of soil organic matter (SOM), influencing its pool-size and its turnover, due to the high

  17. Ocean warming-acidification synergism undermines dissolved organic matter assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Shuo Chen

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of synergisms on natural processes is a critical step toward determining the full-extent of anthropogenic stressors. As carbon emissions continue unabated, two major stressors--warming and acidification--threaten marine systems on several scales. Here, we report that a moderate temperature increase (from 30°C to 32°C is sufficient to slow--even hinder--the ability of dissolved organic matter, a major carbon pool, to self-assemble to form marine microgels, which contribute to the particulate organic matter pool. Moreover, acidification lowers the temperature threshold at which we observe our results. These findings carry implications for the marine carbon cycle, as self-assembled marine microgels generate an estimated global seawater budget of ~1016 g C. We used laser scattering spectroscopy to test the influence of temperature and pH on spontaneous marine gel assembly. The results of independent experiments revealed that at a particular point, both pH and temperature block microgel formation (32°C, pH 8.2, and disperse existing gels (35°C. We then tested the hypothesis that temperature and pH have a synergistic influence on marine gel dispersion. We found that the dispersion temperature decreases concurrently with pH: from 32°C at pH 8.2, to 28°C at pH 7.5. If our laboratory observations can be extrapolated to complex marine environments, our results suggest that a warming-acidification synergism can decrease carbon and nutrient fluxes, disturbing marine trophic and trace element cycles, at rates faster than projected.

  18. Priming-induced Changes in Permafrost Soil Organic Matter Decomposition (United States)

    Pegoraro, E.; Schuur, E.; Bracho, R. G.


    Warming of tundra ecosystems due to climate change is predicted to thaw permafrost and increase plant biomass and litter input to soil. Additional input of easily decomposable carbon can alter microbial activity by providing a much needed energy source, thereby accelerating soil organic matter decomposition. This phenomenon, known as the priming effect, can increase CO2 flux from soil to the atmosphere. However, the extent to which this mechanism can decrease soil carbon stocks in the Arctic is unknown. This project assessed priming effects on permafrost soil collected from a moist acidic tundra site in Healy, Alaska. We hypothesized that priming would increase microbial activity by providing microbes with a fresh source of carbon, thereby increasing decomposition of old and slowly decomposing carbon. Soil from surface and deep layers were amended with multiple pulses of uniformly 13C labeled glucose and cellulose, and samples were incubated at 15° C to quantify whether labile substrate addition increased carbon mineralization. We quantified the proportion of old carbon mineralization by measuring 14CO2. Data shows that substrate addition resulted in higher respiration rates in amended soils; however, priming was only observed in deep layers, where 30% more soil-derived carbon was respired compared to control samples. This suggests that microbes in deep layers are limited in energy, and the addition of labile carbon increases native soil organic matter decomposition, especially in soil with greater fractions of slowly decomposing carbon. Priming in permafrost could exacerbate the effects of climate change by increasing mineralization rates of carbon accumulated over the long-term in deep layers. Therefore, quantifying priming effect in permafrost soils is imperative to understanding the dynamics of carbon turnover in a warmer world.

  19. Biochar effect on the mineralization of soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Bruun


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify whether the addition of biochar to the soil affects the degradation of litter and of soil organic matter (SOM. In order to investigate the effect of biochar on the mineralization of barley straw, soil was incubated with 14C-labelled barley straw with or without unlabelled biochar. To investigate the effect of straw on the mineralization of biochar, soil was incubated with 14C-labelled biochar with or without straw. In addition, to investigate the effect of biochar on old SOM, a soil labelled by applying labelled straw 40 years ago was incubated with different levels of biochar. All experiments had a control treatment, without any soil amendment. The effect of biochar on the straw mineralization was small and nonsignificant. Without biochar, 48±0.2% of the straw carbon was mineralized within the 451 days of the experiment. In comparison, 45±1.6% of C was mineralized after biochar addition of 1.5 g kg-1. In the SOM-labelled soil, the organic matter mineralized more slowly with the increasing doses of biochar. Biochar addition at 7.7 g kg-1 reduced SOM mineralization from 6.6 to 6.3%, during the experimental period. The addition of 15.5 g kg-1 of biochar reduced the mineralized SOM to 5.7%. There is no evidence of increased degradation of either litter or SOM due to biochar addition; consequently, there is no evidence of decreased stability of SOM.

  20. Effect of organic matter amendment, arsenic amendment and water management regime on rice grain arsenic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, Gareth J.; Adomako, Eureka E.; Deacon, Claire M.; Carey, Anne-Marie; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.


    Arsenic accumulation in rice grain has been identified as a major problem in some regions of Asia. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increased organic matter in the soil on the release of arsenic into soil pore water and accumulation of arsenic species within rice grain. It was observed that high concentrations of soil arsenic and organic matter caused a reduction in plant growth and delayed flowering time. Total grain arsenic accumulation was higher in the plants grown in high soil arsenic in combination with high organic matter, with an increase in the percentage of organic arsenic species observed. The results indicate that the application of organic matter should be done with caution in paddy soils which have high soil arsenic, as this may lead to an increase in accumulation of arsenic within rice grains. Results also confirm that flooding conditions substantially increase grain arsenic. -- Highlights: ► High soil arsenic and organic matter caused a reduction in plant growth. ► A delayed flowering time was observed in high arsenic and organic matter soil. ► Total grain arsenic increased in high arsenic and organic matter soil. ► Percentage organic arsenic in the grain altered in arsenic and organic matter soil. -- The addition of high amounts of organic matter to soils led to an increase in total rice grain arsenic, as well as alteration in the percentage arsenic species in the rice grains

  1. Riverine organic matter composition and fluxes to Hudson Bay (United States)

    Kuzyk, Z. Z. A.; Macdonald, R. W.; Goni, M. A.; Godin, P.; Stern, G. A.


    With warming in northern regions, many changes including permafrost degradation, vegetation alteration, and wildfire incidence will impact the carbon cycle. Organic carbon (OC) carried by river runoff to northern oceans has the potential to provide integrated evidence of these impacts. Here, concentrations of dissolved (DOC) and particulate (POC) OC are used to estimate terrestrial OC transport in 17 major rivers draining varied vegetative and permafrost conditions into Hudson Bay and compositional data (lignin and 14C) to infer OC sources. Hudson Bay lies just south of the Arctic Circle in Canada and is surrounded by a large drainage basin (3.9 × 106 km2) dominated by permafrost. Analysis of POC and DOC in the 17 rivers indicates that DOC dominates the total OC load. The southern rivers dominate. The Nelson and Churchill Rivers to the southwest are particularly important suppliers of OC partly because of large drainage basins but also perhaps because of impacts by hydroelectric development, as suggested by a 14C age of DOC in the Churchill River of 2800 years. Higher DOC and POC concentrations in the southern rivers, which have substantive areas only partially covered by permafrost, compared to northern rivers draining areas with complete permafrost cover, implies that warming - and hence permafrost thawing - will lead to progressively higher DOC and POC loads for these rivers. Lignin composition in the organic matter (S/V and C/V ratios) reveals mixed sources of OC consistent with the dominant vegetation in the river basins. This vegetation is organized by latitude with southern regions below the tree line enriched by woody gymnosperm sources (boreal forest) and northern regions enriched with organic matter from non-woody angiosperms (flowering shrubs, tundra). Acid/Aldehyde composition together with Δ14C data for selected DOC samples suggest that most of the lignin has undergone oxidative degradation, particularly the DOC component. However, high Δ14C ages

  2. Organic matter compositions and loadings in soils and sediments along the Fly River, Papua New Guinea (United States)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Moore, Eric; Kurtz, Andrew; Portier, Evan; Alleau, Yvan; Merrell, David


    The compositions and loadings of organic matter in soils and sediments from a diverse range of environments along the Fly River system were determined to investigate carbon transport and sequestration in this region. Soil horizons from highland sites representative of upland sources have organic carbon contents (%OC) that range from 0.3 to 25 wt%, carbon:nitrogen ratios (OC/N) that range from 7 to 25 mol/mol, highly negative stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13Corg active floodplains receive inputs of allochthonous materials by overbank deposition as well as autochthonous inputs from local vegetation. In the forested upper floodplain reaches, %OC contents are lower than upland soils (0.8-1.5 wt%) as are OC/N ratios (9-15 mol/mol) while δ13Corg (-25 to -28‰) and LP (2-6 mg/100 mg OC) values are comparable to upland soils. These results indicate that organic matter present in these active floodplain soils reflect local (primarily C3) vegetation inputs mixed with allochthonous organic matter derived from eroded bedrock. In the lower reaches of the floodplain, which are dominated by swamp grass vegetation, isotopic compositions were less negative (δ13Corg > -25‰) and non-woody vegetation biomarkers (cinnamyl phenols and cutin acids) more abundant relative to upper floodplain sites. Soils developed on relict Pleistocene floodplain terraces, which are typically not flooded and receive little sediment from the river, were characterized by low %OC contents (-21‰) and low LP concentrations (∼3 mg/100 mg OC). These relict floodplain soils contain modern carbon that reflects primarily local (C3 or C4) vegetation sources. Total suspended solids collected along the river varied widely in overall concentrations (1 active floodplain soils (0.2 and 0.5 mg C/m2) with previous studies of actively depositing sediments in the adjacent delta-clinoform system (0.4-0.7 mg C/m2) indicates that Fly River floodplain sediments are less effective at sequestering organic carbon

  3. Soil carbon dynamics inferred from carbon isotope compositions of soil organic matter and soil respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koarashi, Jun; Asano, Tomohiro; Iida, Takao; Moriizumi, Jun


    To better understand 14 C cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, 14 C abundances were evaluated for fractionated soil organic matter (SOM) and soil respiration in an urban forest. In 2001 soil profile, Δ 14 C values of litter and bulk SOM increased rapidly from litter surface (62.7 per mille) to uppermost mineral soil layer (244.9 per mille), and then decreased sharply to 6 cm depth of mineral soil (125.0 per mille). Carbon enriched in 14 C by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing had penetrated to at least 16 cm depth of mineral soil. The average Δ 14 C in atmospheric CO 2 was 58.8 per mille in August 2001, suggesting recent carbon input to the topmost litter layer. Although a similar depth distribution was observed for Δ 14 C values of residual SOM after acid hydrolysis, the Δ 14 C values were slightly lower than those in bulk SOM. This indicates input of 'bomb' C into this organic fraction and higher 14 C abundance in acid-soluble SOM. The most of CO 2 may be derived from the microbial decomposition of the acid-soluble, or labile, SOM. Therefore, the labile SOM may become most influential pool for soil carbon cycling. In contrast, carbon in base-insoluble SOM remained considerably low in 14 C abundance at all depths, suggesting no or little incorporation of 'bomb' C to this fraction. Values of Δ 14 C in soil respiration ranged from 91.9 to 146.4 per mille in August 2001, showing a significant contribution from decomposition of SOM fixed over past 2-40 years. These results indicate that the use of bulk SOM as a representative of soil carbon pool would lead to severe misunderstand of the soil C dynamics on decadal and shorter time scales. (author)

  4. Glacier inputs influence organic matter composition and prokaryotic distribution in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard)

    KAUST Repository

    Bourgeois, Solveig


    With climate change, the strong seasonality and tight pelagic-benthic coupling in the Arctic is expected to change in the next few decades. It is currently unclear how the benthos will be affected by changes of environmental conditions such as supplies of organic matter (OM) from the water column. In the last decade, Kongsfjorden (79°N), a high Arctic fjord in Svalbard influenced by several glaciers and Atlantic water inflow, has been a site of great interest owing to its high sensitivity to climate change, evidenced by a reduction in ice cover and an increase in melting freshwater. To investigate how spatial and seasonal changes in vertical fluxes can impact the benthic compartment of Kongsfjorden, we studied the organic matter characteristics (in terms of quantity and quality) and prokaryotic distribution in sediments from 3 stations along a transect extending from the glacier into the outer fjord in 4 different seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) in 2012–2013. The biochemical parameters used to describe the sedimentary organic matter were organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen, bulk stable isotope ratios, pigments (chorophyll-a and phaeopigments) and biopolymeric carbon (BPC), which is the sum of the main macromolecules, i.e. lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Prokaryotic abundance and distribution were estimated by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. This study identifies a well-marked quantitative gradient of biogenic compounds throughout all seasons and also highlights a discrepancy between the quantity and quality of sedimentary organic matter within the fjord. The sediments near the glacier were organic-poor (< 0.3%OC), however the high primary productivity in the water column displayed during spring was reflected in summer sediments, and exhibited higher freshness of material at the inner station compared to the outer basin (means C-chlorophyll-a/OC ~ 5 and 1.5%, respectively). However, sediments at the glacier front were depleted

  5. Enhanced anaerobic transformations of carbon tetrachloride by soil organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, R.; Picardal, F.


    Anaerobic, reductive dehalogenation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by Shewanella putrefaciens 200 is enhanced by the presence of a high-organic-carbon soil. In microbial incubations without soil, 29% of the initial 3 ppm CT was transformed after 33 h, whereas 64% was transformed after only 18 h when soil was present. In sterile, biomimetic systems using a chemical reductant, 20 mM dithiothreitol, similar results were observed, suggesting that abiotic electron-transfer mediators in the soil were catalyzing the reaction. Destruction of 62% of the soil organic carbon by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} resulted in a soil that was less effective in enhancing CT dechlorination. Following separation of the soil organic matter into three humic fractions, the humic acid (HA) fraction catalyzed the dechlorination reaction to a greater extent than did the fulvic acid (FA) fraction, and both were more effective than the fraction containing humin and inorganic minerals. The results are consistent with a mechanism involving humic functional groups that serve as electron-transfer mediators able to enhance the reductive transformation of CT in the presence of a microbial or chemical reductant. Humic functional group analyses showed that the FA contained more total acidity and carboxylic acidity than did the HA; however, both fractions contained similar amounts of total carbonyl groups and quinone carbonyls. Abiotic, HA-mediated CT transformation was observed regardless of whether dithiothreitol was present or not. At circumneutral pH, HA-mediated CT transformation required the presence of dithiothreitol. At pH 8.7, HA-mediated reductive CT transformation occurred both in the absence or presence of dithiothreitol although the transformation was greater in the presence of a reductant. Trichloromethane (chloroform [CF]) production at pH 8.7 was much lower than at circumneutral pH, and volatile organic compounds other than CF were not detected as products in any case.

  6. Turnover of intra- and extra-aggregate organic matter at the silt-size scale (United States)

    I. Virto; C. Moni; C. Swanston; C. Chenu


    Temperate silty soils are especially sensitive to organic matter losses associated to some agricultural management systems. Long-term preservation of organic C in these soils has been demonstrated to occur mainly in the silt- and clay-size fractions, although our knowledge about the mechanisms through which it happens remains unclear. Although organic matter in such...

  7. Earthworm Population Density in Sugarcane Cropping System Applied with Various Quality of Organic Matter


    Nurhidayati, Nurhidayati; Arisoesilaningsih, Endang; Suprayogo, Didik; Hairiah, Kurniatun


    Earthworms population in the soil are greatly impacted by agricultural management, yet little is known about how the quality and quantity of organic matter addition interact in sugarcane cropping system to earthworm population. This study describes the effect of various organic matter and application rates on earthworms in sugarcane cropping system. Earthworms were collected in April, July and December from 48 experimental plots under five kinds of organic matter application : (1) cattle manu...

  8. Evaluation of the production, composition and aluminum and iron complexation of algogenic organic matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Martin; Klouček, Ondřej; Pivokonská, Lenka


    Roč. 40, č. 16 (2006), s. 3045-3052 ISSN 0043-1354 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB200600501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : affinity chromatography * algogenic organic matter * aluminum and iron coagulants * extracellular organic matter * molecular weight fractionation * intracellular organic matter Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.459, year: 2006

  9. Organic matter and the cyclicity of petroleum and gas formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimov, S.P.; Botneva, T.A.; Eremenko, N.A.; Mekhtieva, V.L.; Pankina, R.G.


    A profound dialectic interconnection was shown to be present between the existence of the earth as a cosmic body and the development of nonliving and living nature, i.e., large tectonic movements, the evolution of the chemical and isotopic composition of the oceans' water, changes in the atmosphere, climate, and organic life, all of which are reflected in the megacyclic nature of petroleum and gas formation. The initial differences in the composition of the biomass and sedimentation conditions lead to the formation of matrix rock which differed in both the quality and composition of organic matter. The hydrocarbons generated from that rock were dissimilar with respect to chemical composition and structure as well as the isotope ratio of sulfur, hydrogen, and carbon. Therefore, the petroleums of various megacycles differ from one another in a number of parameters. The potential resources of petroleum and gas that are associated with the mesozoic megacycle of petroleum formation are thought to be greater than that of others. This is quite significant for planning exploratory-survey operations. 31 references, 3 figures.

  10. Contrasting fates of organic matter in locations having different organic matter inputs and bottom water O2 concentrations (United States)

    Mai-Thi, Ngoc-Nu; St-Onge, Guillaume; Tremblay, Luc


    The goals of this work were to study sedimentary organic matter (OM) composition and transformation since the end of the last deglaciation and to evaluate the influence of contrasting depositional conditions on these parameters. One station was located in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary (LSLE) where the current bottom waters are hypoxic and receive terrigenous and marine OM. The other station, located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL), has more oxygenated bottom waters and almost only marine OM inputs. Analyses included enantiomers of amino acids (L and D-AA) and muramic acid that provide different markers of OM alteration state and reactivity and of bacterial contribution to OM composition and diagenesis. The markers clearly indicated the increase in OM alteration state with depth in the sediments of the LSLE and the GSL. The steady decrease in AA yields with depth confirmed the preferential degradation of AA compared to the rest of the OM. The OM in the surface sediment of the LSLE was less altered than that of the GSL and was enriched in bacterial biomass as indicated by much higher muramic acid yields. Results indicated that an important degradation of particulate organic matter occurs in the water column in the GSL, while it takes place mostly in the sediments in the LSLE. The presence of heterogeneous OM and hypoxic conditions in the LSLE likely reduce OM degradation rate in its deep water layer. However, the zone near the water-sediment interface is responsible for large variations in AA composition at both locations. A relatively new redox index, based on AA composition, was tested and appeared robust. This study highlights the importance of ambient conditions in determining the fate of OM and in the biogeochemical cycles of vital elements.

  11. Little effects on soil organic matter chemistry of density fractions after seven years of forest soil warming. (United States)

    Schnecker, Jörg; Borken, Werner; Schindlbacher, Andreas; Wanek, Wolfgang


    Rising temperatures enhance microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thereby increase the soil CO 2 efflux. Elevated decomposition rates might differently affect distinct SOM pools, depending on their stability and accessibility. Soil fractions derived from density fractionation have been suggested to represent SOM pools with different turnover times and stability against microbial decomposition. To investigate the effect of soil warming on functionally different soil organic matter pools, we here investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of bulk soil and three density fractions (free particulate organic matter, fPOM; occluded particulate organic matter, oPOM; and mineral associated organic matter, MaOM) of a C-rich soil from a long-term warming experiment in a spruce forest in the Austrian Alps. At the time of sampling, the soil in this experiment had been warmed during the snow-free period for seven consecutive years. During that time no thermal adaptation of the microbial community could be identified and CO 2 release from the soil continued to be elevated by the warming treatment. Our results, which included organic carbon content, total nitrogen content, δ 13 C, Δ 14 C, δ 15 N and the chemical composition, identified by pyrolysis-GC/MS, showed no significant differences in bulk soil between warming treatment and control. Surprisingly, the differences in the three density fractions were mostly small and the direction of warming induced change was variable with fraction and soil depth. Warming led to reduced N content in topsoil oPOM and subsoil fPOM and to reduced relative abundance of N-bearing compounds in subsoil MaOM. Further, warming increased the δ 13 C of MaOM at both sampling depths, reduced the relative abundance of carbohydrates while it increased the relative abundance of lignins in subsoil oPOM. As the size of the functionally different SOM pools did not significantly change, we assume that the few and small

  12. Photoautotrophic organisms control microbial abundance and diversity in biological soil crusts (United States)

    Tamm, Alexandra; Maier, Stefanie; Wu, Dianming; Caesar, Jennifer; Hoffman, Timm; Grube, Martin; Weber, Bettina


    Vascular vegetation is typically quite sparse or even absent in dryland ecosystems all over the world, but the ground surface is not bare and largely covered by biological soil crusts (referred to as biocrusts hereafter). These biocrust communities generally comprise poikilohydric organisms. They are usually dominated by photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, lichens and mosses, growing together with heterotrophic fungi, bacteria and archaea in varying composition. Cyanobacteria-, lichen- and moss-dominated biocrusts are known to stabilize the soil and to influence the water budgets and plant establishment. The autotrophic organisms take up atmospheric CO2, and (cyano-)bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen. The intention of the present project was to study the relevance of the dominating photoautotrophic organisms for biocrust microbial composition and physiology. High-throughput sequencing revealed that soil microbiota of biocrusts largely differ from the bacterial community in bare soil. We observed that bacterial and fungal abundance (16S and 18S rRNA gene copy numbers) as well as alpha diversity was lowest in bare soil, and increasing from cyanobacteria-, and chlorolichen- to moss-dominated biocrusts. CO2 gas exchange measurements revealed large respiration rates of the soil in moss-dominated biocrusts, which was not observed for cyanobacteria- and chlorolichen-dominated biocrusts. Thus, soil respiration of moss-dominated biocrusts is mainly due to the activity of the microbial communities, whereas the microorganisms in the other biocrust types are either dormant or feature functionally different microbial communities. Our results indicate that biocrust type determines the pattern of microbial communities in the underlying soil layer.

  13. Opposing effects of different soil organic matter fractions on crop yields. (United States)

    Wood, Stephen A; Sokol, Noah; Bell, Colin W; Bradford, Mark A; Naeem, Shahid; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Palm, Cheryl A


    Soil organic matter is critical to sustainable agriculture because it provides nutrients to crops as it decomposes and increases nutrient- and water-holding capacity when built up. Fast- and slow-cycling fractions of soil organic matter can have different impacts on crop production because fast-cycling fractions rapidly release nutrients for short-term plant growth and slow-cycling fractions bind nutrients that mineralize slowly and build up water-holding capacity. We explored the controls on these fractions in a tropical agroecosystem and their relationship to crop yields. We performed physical fractionation of soil organic matter from 48 farms and plots in western Kenya. We found that fast-cycling, particulate organic matter was positively related to crop yields, but did not have a strong effect, while slower-cycling, mineral-associated organic matter was negatively related to yields. Our finding that slower-cycling organic matter was negatively related to yield points to a need to revise the view that stabilization of organic matter positively impacts food security. Our results support a new paradigm that different soil organic matter fractions are controlled by different mechanisms, potentially leading to different relationships with management outcomes, like crop yield. Effectively managing soils for sustainable agriculture requires quantifying the effects of specific organic matter fractions on these outcomes. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Insights in groundwater organic matter from Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection (United States)

    Rutlidge, H.; Oudone, P.; McDonough, L.; Andersen, M. S.; Baker, A.; Meredith, K.; O'Carroll, D. M.


    Understanding the processes that control the concentration and characteristics of organic matter in groundwater has important implications for the terrestrial global carbon budget. Liquid Chromatography - Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) is a size-exclusion based chromatography technique that separates the organic carbon into molecular weight size fractions of biopolymers, humic substances, building blocks (degradation products of humic substances), low molecular weight acids and low molecular weight neutrals. Groundwater and surface water samples were collected from a range of locations in Australia representing different surface soil, land cover, recharge type and hydrological properties. At one site hyporheic zone samples were also collected from beneath a stream. The results showed a general decrease in the aromaticity and molecular weight indices going from surface water, hyporheic downwelling and groundwater samples. The aquifer substrate also affected the organic composition. For example, groundwater samples collected from a zone of fractured rock showed a relative decrease in the proportion of humic substances, suggestive of sorption or degradation of humic substances. This work demonstrates the potential for using LC-OCD in elucidating the processes that control the concentration and characteristics of organic matter in groundwater.

  15. Earthworm Population Density in Sugarcane Cropping System Applied with Various Quality of Organic Matter

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    Nurhidayati Nurhidayati


    Full Text Available Earthworms population in the soil are greatly impacted by agricultural management, yet little is known about how the quality and quantity of organic matter addition interact in sugarcane cropping system to earthworm population. This study describes the effect of various organic matter and application rates on earthworms in sugarcane cropping system. Earthworms were collected in April, July and December from 48 experimental plots under five kinds of organic matter application : (1 cattle manure, (2 filter cake of sugar mill, (3 sugarcane trash, (4 mixture of cattle manure+filter cake, and (5 mixture of cattle manure+sugarcane trash. There were three application rates of the organic matter (5, 10, and 15 ton ha-1. The treatments were arranged in factorial block randomize design with three replications and one treatment as a control (no organic input. Earthworms were collected using monolith sampling methods and hand-sorted from each plot, and measured its density (D (indiv.m-2, biomass (B (g m-2 and B/D ratio (g/indiv.. All the plots receiving organic matter input had higher earthworm density, biomass, and B/D ratio than the control. The highest earthworm population density was found in the plot receiving application of sugarcane trash (78 indiv.m-2 and the mixture of cattle manure+sugarcane trash (84 indiv.m-2. The increase in application rates of organic matter could increase the earthworm density and biomass. Earthworm population density also appeared to be strongly influenced by the quality of organic matter, such as the C-organic, N, C/N ratio, lignin, polyphenols, and cellulose content. Earthworm preferred low quality organic matter. It was caused by the higher energy of low quality organic matter than high quality organic matter. Our findings suggest that the input of low quality organic matter with application rate as 10 ton ha-1 is important for maintaining earthworm population and soil health in sugarcane land.

  16. Orchid bees as bio-indicators for organic coffee farms in Costa Rica: Does farm size affect their abundance?

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    Ingemar Hedström


    Full Text Available The potential of Euglossini bees, especially Euglossa, as biological indicators of organic vs non-organic coffee farms was studied in Atenas and San Isidro, Alajuela, Costa Rica using 1.8-cineole as lure. Observations were made for three days at each of four farms and complemented with data from a year of observations. Orchid bees were in greater abundance in the organic farms (t-Student test. However, lower abundances suggest that an organic farm may be negatively affected by the proximity of non-organic farms, depending on its size and distance. Orchid bees may be indicators of organic coffee farms. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 965-969. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.

  17. Dynamics of soil organic matter pools after agricultural abandonment (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Rühl Rühl, Juliane; La Mantia, Tommaso; Badalucco, Luigi; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Laudicina, Vito Armando


    Changes of land use from croplands to natural vegetation usually increase Carbon (C) stocks in soil. However, the contribution of old and new C to various pools still is not clearly analyzed. We measured the δ13C signature of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools after vegetation change from vineyard (C3) to grassland (C4) under Mediterranean climate to assess the changes of old and new C in total SOC, microbial biomass (MB), dissolved organic C (DOC), and CO2 efflux from soil. Development of the perennial grass Hyparrhenia hirta (C4) on vineyard abandoned for 15 or 35 years ago increased C stocks for 13% and 16%, respectively (in the upper 15 cm). This increase was linked to the incorporation of new C in SOC and with exchange of 25% of old C by new C after 35 years. The maximal incorporation of new C was observed in MB, thus reflecting the maximal turnover and availability of this pool. The DOC was produced mainly from old C of soil organic matter (SOM), showing that under Mediterranean climate DOC will be mainly produced not from fresh litter but from old SOM sources. Decomposition of SOM during a 51 days laboratory incubation was higher in cultivated vineyard than H. hirta soils. Based on changes in δ13C values of SOM, MB, DOC and CO2 in C3 soil and in soils after 15 and 35 years of C4 plant colonization, we separated 13C fractionation in soil from changes of isotopic composition by preferential utilization of substrates with different availability. The utilization pattern in this soil under Mediterranean climate was different from that in temperate ecosystems.

  18. Microbial community structure affects marine dissolved organic matter composition

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    Elizabeth B Kujawinski


    Full Text Available Marine microbes are critical players in the global carbon cycle, affecting both the reduction of inorganic carbon and the remineralization of reduced organic compounds back to carbon dioxide. Members of microbial consortia all depend on marine dissolved organic matter (DOM and in turn, affect the molecules present in this heterogeneous pool. Our understanding of DOM produced by marine microbes is biased towards single species laboratory cultures or simplified field incubations, which exclude large phototrophs and protozoan grazers. Here we explore the interdependence of DOM composition and bacterial diversity in two mixed microbial consortia from coastal seawater: a whole water community and a <1.0-μm community dominated by heterotrophic bacteria. Each consortium was incubated with isotopically-labeled glucose for 9 days. Using stable-isotope probing techniques and electrospray ionization Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, we show that the presence of organisms larger than 1.0-μm is the dominant factor affecting bacterial diversity and low-molecular-weight (<1000 Da DOM composition over this experiment. In the <1.0-μm community, DOM composition was dominated by compounds with lipid and peptide character at all time points, confirmed by fragmentation spectra with peptide-containing neutral losses. In contrast, DOM composition in the whole water community was nearly identical to that in the initial coastal seawater. These differences in DOM composition persisted throughout the experiment despite shifts in bacterial diversity, underscoring an unappreciated role for larger microorganisms in constraining DOM composition in the marine environment.

  19. Relationships of shredders, leaf processing and organic matter along a canopy cover gradient in tropical streams

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    Anna C.F. Aguiar


    Full Text Available Terrestrial allochthonous organic matter represents a structuring element and an important source of energy and carbon to fauna in small forested streams. However, the role of this matter as a food resource for benthic macroinvertebrates, and consequently, for shredders and their performance in riverine processes, is not clear in low-order tropical streams. Aiming to investigate the relationship between shredders and leaves, we analyzed along a gradient of 8-93% canopy cover biomass and abundance of shredders, accumulated leaves and breakdown rates of local leaves to verify if these parameters were related to shade conditions and to each other. Three hypotheses were tested: i shredder biomass, accumulated leaves and breakdown rates are related to canopy cover and exhibit higher values in shaded sites; ii shredder biomass is positively related to accumulated leaves and breakdown rates; and iii due to the relatively large body size of the important shredders, the association of shredders with leaves and importance to leaf processing should be better expressed in terms of guild biomass than abundance. Shredder biomass varied between 846 and 1506 mg DM m‑2 and accumulated leaves varied between 479 and 1120 g AFDM m-2 across sites. Leaf breakdown rate (k, the only measured variable that varied significantly among sites, varied between -0.0015 and -0.0238 day-1. Neither shredder biomass nor leaf biomass were associated with the shading gradient.  On the other hand, shredder abundance and biomass, mainly represented by Triplectides (Trichoptera, Leptoceridae, was positively related to accumulated leaves within sites and to breakdown rates assessed by leaf packs. Leaf breakdown, as assessed by the experimental leaf packs, was associated with shredder biomass, but not with shredder abundance. This result suggests that macroinvertebrates are important for leaf detritus processing and that their biomass reflects their activity, presumably because it is

  20. Functional Molecular Diversity of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter Is Reduced during Degradation

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    Andrea Mentges


    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM is a highly diverse mixture of compounds, accounting for one of the world's largest active carbon pools. The surprising recalcitrance of some DOM compounds to bacterial degradation has recently been associated with its diversity. However, little is known about large-scale patterns of marine DOM diversity and its change through degradation, in particular considering the functional diversity of DOM. Here, we analyze the development of marine DOM diversity during degradation in two data sets comprising DOM of very different ages: a three-year mesocosm experiment and highly-resolved field samples from the Atlantic and Southern Ocean. The DOM molecular composition was determined using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. We quantify DOM diversity using three conceptually different diversity measures, namely richness of molecular formulas, abundance-based diversity, and functional molecular diversity. Using these measures we find stable molecular richness of DOM with age >1 year, systematic changes in the molecules' abundance distribution with degradation state, and increasing homogeneity with respect to chemical properties for more degraded DOM. Coinciding with differences in sea water density, the spatial field data separated clearly into regions of high and low diversity. The joint application of different diversity measures yields a comprehensive overview on temporal and spatial patterns of molecular diversity, valuable for general conclusions on drivers and consequences of marine DOM diversity.

  1. Dynamic changes of dissolved organic matter in membrane bioreactors at different organic loading rates: Evidence from spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. (United States)

    Maqbool, Tahir; Cho, Jinwoo; Hur, Jin


    Excitation emission matrix-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) were utilized to explore the dynamics in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), soluble microbial products (SMP), and effluent for the membrane bioreactors at two different organic loading rates (OLRs). Combination of three different fluorescent components explained the compositional changes of dissolved organic matter. The lower OLR resulted in a higher production of tryptophan-like component (C1) in EPS, while the opposite trends were found for the other two components (humic-like C2 and tyrosine-like C3), signifying the role of C1 in the endogenous condition. Larger sized molecules were more greatly produced in EPS at the lower OLR. Meanwhile, all the size fractions of SMP were more abundant at the higher OLR particular for the early phase of the operation. Irrespective of the OLR, the higher degrees of the membrane retention were found for relatively large sized and protein-like molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular Determinants of Dissolved Organic Matter Reactivity in Lake Water

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    Alina Mostovaya


    Full Text Available Lakes in the boreal region have been recognized as the biogeochemical hotspots, yet many questions regarding the regulators of organic matter processing in these systems remain open. Molecular composition can be an important determinant of dissolved organic matter (DOM fate in freshwater systems, but many aspects of this relationship remain unclear due to the complexity of DOM and its interactions in the natural environment. Here, we combine ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS with kinetic modeling of decay of >1,300 individual DOM molecular formulae identified by mass spectrometry, to evaluate the role of specific molecular characteristics in decomposition of lake water DOM. Our data is derived from a 4 months microbial decomposition experiment, carried out on water from three Swedish lakes, with the set-up including natural lake water, as well as the lake water pretreated with UV light. The relative decay rate of every molecular formula was estimated by fitting a single exponential model to the change in FT-ICR-MS signal intensities over decomposition time. We found a continuous range of exponential decay coefficients (kexp within different groups of compounds and show that for highly unsaturated and phenolic compounds the distribution of kexp was shifted toward the lowest values. Contrary to this general trend, plant-derived polyphenols and polycondensed aromatics were on average more reactive than compounds with an intermediate aromaticity. The decay rate of aromatic compounds increased with increasing nominal oxidation state of carbon, and molecular mass in some cases showed an inverse relationship with kexp in the UV-manipulated treatment. Further, we observe an increase in formulae-specific kexp as a result of the UV pretreatment. General trends in reactivity identified among major compound groups emphasize the importance of the intrinsic controllers of lake water DOM decay. However, we additionally indicate that each

  3. Bacteria and fluorescent organic matter: processing and production. (United States)

    Fox, B. G.; Thorn, R. M. S.; Reynolds, D. M.


    There is a need for a greater understanding of the importance of aquatic organic matter (OM) within global biogeochemical cycling. This need has prompted characterisation of OM using fluorescence spectroscopy. The origin, transformation and fate of fluorescent organic matter (FOM) is not fully understood within freshwater systems. This work demonstrates the importance of microbial processing in the creation and transformation of FOM, highlighting the dynamics of microbial-FOM interactions, using a model system. The FOM signature of different bacterial species common to surface freshwaters were analysed using a non-fluorescent media; Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By undertaking bacterial growth curves, alongside fluorescence spectroscopy, we have been able to determine FOM development in relation to population growth. Within this, we have identified that FOM peaks are associated with different species and driven by bacterial processes, such as cell multiplication or as metabolic by-products. The intracellular and extracellular fluorescence signature of each species has also been analysed to better understand how the microbial community structure may impact the FOM signal in aquatic systems. For example, Peak T develops within the growth curves of all the cultured species and has been identified as both intracellular and extracellular FOM. Whilst Peak T has been termed `microbially-derived' previously, other fluorescence peaks associated with terrestrial high molecular weight compounds, e.g. Peak C, have also been shown to be produced by bacteria throughout growth stages. Additionally, the notion that cell lysis is responsible for the presence of larger FOM compounds was also explored. Our work highlights the capacity of bacteria to not only utilise and process OM but to actively be a source of both labile and recalcitrant OM in situ. The bacteria fluorescence signatures seen are complex with comparable fluorescence peaks to those

  4. Measuring organic matter in Everglades wetlands and the Everglades Agricultural Area

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    Wright, Alan L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    Here, organic matter is a complex material that represents the long-term decay products from plants and other organisms in the soil. When organic matter is allowed to build up in a soil, the soil color at the surface usually turns a darker color, often with a red or brown hue. Typically in Florida mineral soils, organic matter content is quite low, within the range of 1 to 5%. However, in some soils that remain flooded for most of the year, organic matter can build up with time and actually become the soil. Such is the case for the organic soils, or histosols, found in southern Florida. These organic soils comprise much of the Water Conservation Areas, Everglades National Park (ENP), Big Cypress Basin, and the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). It is important to document organic matter accumulation in the Everglades to gauge the effectiveness of wetland creation and succession. For the EAA, the drained soils lose organic matter due to oxidation, so measurement of the organic matter content of these soils over the course of time indicates the oxidation potential and mineral incorporation from bedrock. Due to the wide diversity of soil types and methods of measuring soil organic matter, there is a need to devise a more universal method applicable to many types of histosols in south Florida. The intent of this publication is: 1.To describe a simple laboratory method for determining the organic matter content of the organic soils of southern Florida and demonstrate the importance of using this new procedure for improved accuracy and precision; 2.To utilize this updated laboratory procedure for field sites across Everglades wetlands and the EAA; and 3. To recommend this procedure be used by growers, state and federal agencies, and university and agency researchers dealing with the management of organic soils in southern Florida. Growers can use this improvement to organic matter measurement to keep lab testing costs low while getting a better, more quantitative

  5. DGGE with genomic DNA: suitable for detection of numerically important organisms but not for identification of the most abundant organisms. (United States)

    de Araújo, Juliana Calábria; Schneider, René Peter


    Identification of all important community members as well as of the numerically dominant members of a community are key aspects of microbial community analysis of bioreactor samples. A systematic study was conducted with artificial consortia to test whether denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is a reliable technique to obtain such community data under conditions where results would not be affected by differences in DNA extraction efficiency from cells. A total of 27 consortia were established by mixing DNA extracted from Escherichia coli K12, Burkholderia cepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in different proportions. Concentrations of DNA of single organisms in the consortia were either 0.04, 0.4 or 4ng/microl. DGGE-PCR of genomic DNA with primer sets targeted at the V3 and V6-V8 regions of the 16S rDNA failed to detect the three community members in only 7% of consortia, but provided incorrect information about dominance or co-dominance for 85% and 89% of consortia with the primer sets for the V6-V8 and V3 regions, respectively. The high failure rate in detection of dominant B. cepacia with the primers for the V6-V8 region was attributable to a single nucleotide primer mismatch in the target sequences of both, the forward and reverse primer. Amplification bias in PCR of E. coli and S. maltophilia for the V6-V8 region and for all three organisms for the V3 region occurred due to interference of genomic DNA in PCR-DGGE, since a nested PCR approach, where PCR-DGGE was started from mixtures of 16S rRNA genes of the organisms, provided correct information about the relative abundance of original DNA in the sample. Multiple bands were not observed in pure culture amplicons produced with the V6-V8 primer pair, but pure culture V3 DGGE profiles of E. coli, S. maltophilia and B. cepacia contained 5, 3 and 3 bands, respectively. These results demonstrate DGGE was suitable for identification of all important community members in the three-membered artificial

  6. Chemical structure of the Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) fluorescent matter. (United States)

    Blough, N. V.; Del Vecchio, R.; Cartisano, C. M.; Bianca, M.


    The structure(s), distribution and dynamics of CDOM have been investigated over the last several decades largely through optical spectroscopy (including both absorption and fluorescence) due to the fairly inexpensive instrumentation and the easy-to-gather data (over thousands published papers from 1990-2016). Yet, the chemical structure(s) of the light absorbing and emitting species or constituents within CDOM has only recently being proposed and tested through chemical manipulation of selected functional groups (such as carbonyl and carboxylic/phenolic containing molecules) naturally occurring within the organic matter pool. Similarly, fitting models (among which the PArallel FACtor analysis, PARAFAC) have been developed to better understand the nature of a subset of DOM, the CDOM fluorescent matter (FDOM). Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with chemical tests and PARAFAC analyses could potentially provide valuable insights on CDOM sources and chemical nature of the FDOM pool. However, despite that applications (and publications) of PARAFAC model to FDOM have grown exponentially since its first application/publication (2003), a large fraction of such publications has misinterpreted the chemical meaning of the delivered PARAFAC `components' leading to more confusion than clarification on the nature, distribution and dynamics of the FDOM pool. In this context, we employed chemical manipulation of selected functional groups to gain further insights on the chemical structure of the FDOM and we tested to what extent the PARAFAC `components' represent true fluorophores through a controlled chemical approach with the ultimate goal to provide insights on the chemical nature of such `components' (as well as on the chemical nature of the FDOM) along with the advantages and limitations of the PARAFAC application.

  7. Do aggregate stability and soil organic matter content increase following organic inputs? (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; van Leeuwen, Jeroen P.; Bloem, Jaap; Steffens, Markus; Vala Ragnarsdóttir, Kristin


    Agriculture is facing several challenges such as loss of soil organic matter (SOM); thus, sustainable farming management practices are needed. Organic farming is growing as an alternative to conventional farming; in Iceland approximately 1% and in Austria 16% of utilized agricultural area is under organic farming practice. We analyzed the effect of different farming practices (organic, and conventional) on soil physicochemical and microbiological properties in grassland soils in Iceland and cropland soils in Austria. Organic farms differed from conventional farms by absence of chemical fertilizers and pesticide use. At these farms, we investigated soil physicochemical (e.g. soil texture, pH, CAL-extractable P and K) and microbiological properties (fungal and bacterial biomass and activity). The effects of farming practices on soil macroaggregate stability and SOM quantity, quality and distribution between different fractions were studied following a density fractionation. In Iceland, we sampled six grassland sites on Brown (BA) and Histic (HA) Andosols; two sites on extensively managed grasslands, two sites under organic and two sites under conventional farming practice. In Austria, we sampled four cropland sites on Haplic Chernozems; two sites under organic and two sites under conventional farming practice. We found significantly higher macroaggregate stability in the organic compared to the conventional grasslands in Iceland. In contrast, slightly higher macroaggregation in conventional compared to the organic farming practice was found in croplands in Austria, although the difference was not significant. Macroaggregates were positively correlated with fungal biomass in Iceland, and with Feo and fungal activity in Austria. In Austria, SOM content and nutrient status (except for lower CAL-extractable P at one site) were similar between organic and conventional farms. Our results show that the organic inputs may have enhanced macroaggregation in organic farming

  8. Soil organic matter stability as indicated by compound-specific radiocarbon analyses (United States)

    van der Voort, Tessa Sophia; Zell, Claudia; Hagedorn, Frank; McIntyre, Cameron; Eglinton, Timothy Ian


    Carbon storage in soils is increasingly recognized as a key ecosystem function, and molecular-level analyses could be a valuable potential indicator of this storage potential. In this framework, radiocarbon constitutes a powerful tool for unraveling soil carbon dynamics on both decadal as well as centennial and millennial timescales. In this study, we look at the radiocarbon signature of specific compounds (fatty acids and n-alkanes) in two forested ecosystems (temperate and pre-alpine) with the aim of attaining a better understanding of soil organic carbon stability on a molecular level. Radiocarbon dating of the fatty acids and n-alkanes has been coupled to abundance data of these compounds and additionally lignin phenols. We hypothesize that potentially, these long-chain apolar compounds could be a representative indicator of the mineral-bound soil organic carbon pool. These well-studied sites are part of the Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research (LWF) program of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape research (WSL). Therefore, a wide suite of ancillary climatic and textural data is available for these sites. Initial results show a wide range of ages in the specific compounds which constitute a much larger range than the ages indicated by the density fractions done on the same samples. Overall, this study explores the use of molecular-level indicators to study soil organic matter dynamics, which could help assess the overall potential vulnerability of soil carbon in various ecosystems.

  9. Bismuth solubility through binding by various organic compounds and naturally occurring soil organic matter. (United States)

    Murata, Tomoyoshi


    The present study was performed to examine the effects of soluble organic matter and pH on the solubility of Bi in relation to inference with the behavior of metallic Bi dispersed in soil and water environments using EDTA, citric acid, tartaric acid, L-cysteine, soil humic acids (HA), and dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from the soil organic horizon. The solubility of Bi by citric acid, tartaric acid, L-cysteine, HA, and DOM showed pH dependence, while that by EDTA did not. Bi solubility by HA seemed to be related to the distribution of pKa (acid dissociation constant) values of acidic functional groups in their molecules. That is, HA extracted at pH 3.2 solubilized Bi preferentially in the acidic range, while HA extracted at pH 8.4 showed preferential solubilization at neutral and alkaline pH. This was related to the dissociation characteristics of functional groups, their binding capacity with Bi, and precipitation of Bi carbonate or hydroxides. In addition to the dissociation characteristics of functional groups, the unique structural configuration of the HA could also contribute to Bi-HA complex formation. The solubility of Bi by naturally occurring DOM derived from the soil organic horizon (Oi) and its pH dependence were different from those associated with HA and varied among tree species.

  10. Interfacial interactions between Skeletonema costatum extracellular organic matter and metal oxides: Implications for ceramic membrane filtration. (United States)

    Zaouri, Noor; Gutierrez, Leonardo; Dramas, Laure; Garces, Daniel; Croue, Jean-Philippe


    In the current study, the interfacial interactions between the high molecular weight (HMW) compounds of Skeletonema costatum (SKC) extracellular organic matter (EOM) and ZrO 2 or Al 2 O 3 , were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). HMW SKC-EOM was rigorously characterized and described as a hydrophilic organic compound mainly comprised of polysaccharide-like structures. Lipids and proteins were also observed, although in lower abundance. HMW SKC-EOM displayed attractive forces during approaching (i.e., leading to jump-to-contact events) and adhesion forces during retracting regime to both metal oxides at all solution conditions tested, where electrostatics and hydrogen bonding were suggested as dominant interacting mechanisms. However, the magnitude of these forces was significantly higher on ZrO 2 surfaces, irrespective of cation type (Na + or Ca 2+ ) or concentration. Interestingly, while HMW SKC-EOM interacting forces to Al 2 O 3 were practically insensitive to solution chemistry, the interactions between ZrO 2 and HMW SKC-EOM increased with increasing cation concentration in solution. The structure, and lower charge, hydrophilicity, and density of hydroxyl groups on ZrO 2 surface would play a key role on favoring zirconia associations with HMW SKC-EOM. The current results contribute to advance our fundamental understanding of Algogenic Organic Matter (AOM) interfacial interactions with metal oxides (i.e., AOM membrane fouling), and would highly assist in the proper selection of membrane material during episodic algal blooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Response of benthic foraminifera to organic matter quantity and quality and bioavailable concentrations of metals in Aveiro Lagoon (Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Virgínia Alves Martins

    Full Text Available This work analyses the distribution of living benthic foraminiferal assemblages of surface sediments in different intertidal areas of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal, a polihaline and anthropized coastal lagoon. The relationships among foraminiferal assemblages in association with environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, Eh and pH, grain size, the quantity and quality of organic matter (enrichment in carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, pollution caused by metals, and mineralogical data are studied in an attempt to identify indicators of adaptability to environmental stress. In particular, concentrations of selected metals in the surficial sediment are investigated to assess environmental pollution levels that are further synthetically parameterised by the Pollution Load Index (PLI. The PLI variations allowed the identification of five main polluted areas. Concentrations of metals were also analysed in three extracted phases to evaluate their possible mobility, bioavailability and toxicity in the surficial sediment. Polluted sediment in the form of both organic matter and metals can be found in the most confined zones. Whereas enrichment in organic matter and related biopolymers causes an increase in foraminifera density, pollution by metals leads to a decline in foraminiferal abundance and diversity in those zones. The first situation may be justified by the existence of opportunistic species (with high reproduction rate that can live in low oxic conditions. The second is explained by the sensitivity of some species to pressure caused by metals. The quality of the organic matter found in these places and the option of a different food source should also explain the tolerance of several species to pollution caused by metals, despite their low reproductive rate in the most polluted areas. In this study, species that are sensitive and tolerant to organic matter and metal enrichment are identified, as is the differential sensitivity/tolerance of

  12. Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance Gene Abundance and Microbiota Composition in Feces of Organic and Conventional Pigs from Four EU Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerzova, Lenka; Babak, Vladimir; Sedlar, Karel


    One of the recent trends in animal production is the revival of interest in organic farming. The increased consumer interest in organic animal farming is mainly due to concerns about animal welfare and the use of antibiotics in conventional farming. On the other hand, providing animals with a more...... natural lifestyle implies their increased exposure to environmental sources of different microorganisms including pathogens. To address these concerns, we determined the abundance of antibiotic resistance and diversity within fecal microbiota in pigs kept under conventional and organic farming systems...... to our expectations, there were no extensive differences between the abundance of tested antibiotic resistance genes in microbiota originating from organic or conventionally housed pigs within individual countries. There were also no differences in the microbiota composition of organic and conventional...

  13. Tracing estuarine organic matter sources into the southern North Sea using C and N isotopic signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bristow, Laura A.; Jickells, Timothy D.; Weston, Keith


    organic matter pool offshore out of the estuaries. These results indicate that estuarine derived organic matter from marsh plants, seagrasses and/or macroalgae contributes to the southern North Sea organic matter pool and is therefore likely to contribute to winter-time shelf sea carbon and nitrogen......Sources and distribution of particulate organic matter in surface waters of the Humber and Thames estuaries and in the East Anglian plume in the southern North Sea were investigated in winter 2006/2007. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotopes provided evidence for the presence of three......Euro degrees) and elevated C:N ratio (> 12.7). Particulate organic matter with enriched C-13 values were observed throughout the Humber estuary and at the marine end-member of the Thames estuary. While bacterial cycling of organic carbon undoubtedly takes place within these estuaries, these processes...

  14. Organic matter and salinity modify cadmium soil (phyto)availability. (United States)

    Filipović, Lana; Romić, Marija; Romić, Davor; Filipović, Vilim; Ondrašek, Gabrijel


    Although Cd availability depends on its total concentration in soil, it is ultimately defined by the processes which control its mobility, transformations and soil solution speciation. Cd mobility between different soil fractions can be significantly affected by certain pedovariables such as soil organic matter (SOM; over formation of metal-organic complexes) and/or soil salinity (over formation of metal-inorganic complexes). Phytoavailable Cd fraction may be described as the proportion of the available Cd in soil which is actually accessible by roots and available for plant uptake. Therefore, in a greenhouse pot experiment Cd availability was observed in the rhizosphere of faba bean exposed to different levels of SOM, NaCl salinity (50 and 100mM) and Cd contamination (5 and 10mgkg -1 ). Cd availability in soil does not linearly follow its total concentration. Still, increasing soil Cd concentration may lead to increased Cd phytoavailability if the proportion of Cd 2+ pool in soil solution is enhanced. Reduced Cd (phyto)availability by raised SOM was found, along with increased proportion of Cd-DOC complexes in soil solution. Data suggest decreased Cd soil (phyto)availability with the application of salts. NaCl salinity affected Cd speciation in soil solution by promoting the formation of CdCl n 2-n complexes. Results possibly suggest that increased Cd mobility in soil does not result in its increased availability if soil adsorption capacity for Cd has not been exceeded. Accordingly, chloro-complex possibly operated just as a Cd carrier between different soil fractions and resulted only in transfer between solid phases and not in increased (phyto)availability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anthropogenic inputs of dissolved organic matter in New York Harbor (United States)

    Gardner, G. B.; Chen, R. F.; Olavasen, J.; Peri, F.


    The Hudson River flows into the Atlantic Ocean through a highly urbanized region which includes New York City to the east and Newark, New Jersey to the west. As a result, the export of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from the Hudson to the Atlantic Ocean includes a significant anthropogenic component. A series of high resolution studies of the DOC dynamics of this system were conducted between 2003 and 2010. These included both the Hudson and adjacent large waterways (East River, Newark Bay, Kill Van Kull and Arthur Kill) using coastal research vessels and smaller tributaries (Hackensack, Pasaic and Raritan rivers) using a 25' boat. In both cases measurements were made using towed instrument packages which could be cycled from near surface to near bottom depths with horizontal resolution of approximately 20 to 200 meters depending on depth and deployment strategy. Sensors on the instrument packages included a CTD to provide depth and salinity information and a chromophoric dissolved organic matter(CDOM) fluorometer to measure the fluorescent fraction of the DOC. Discrete samples allowed calibration of the fluorometer and the CDOM data to be related to DOC. The combined data set from these cruises identified multiple scales of source and transport processes for DOC within the Hudson River/New York Harbor region. The Hudson carries a substantial amount of natural DOC from its 230 km inland stretch. Additional sources exist in fringing salt marshes adjacent to the Hackensack and Raritan rivers. However the lower Hudson/New Harbor region receives a large input of DOC from multiple publically owned treatment works (POTW) discharges. The high resolution surveys allowed us to elucidate the distribution of these sources and the manner in which they are rapidly mixed to create the total export. We estimate that anthropogenic sources account for up to 2.5 times the DOC flux contributed by natural processes.

  16. Origins and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter in groundwater (United States)

    Shen, Yuan; Chapelle, Francis H.; Strom, Eric W.; Benner, Ronald


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in groundwater influences water quality and fuels microbial metabolism, but its origins, bioavailability and chemical composition are poorly understood. The origins and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and bioavailable DOM were monitored during a long-term (2-year) study of groundwater in a fractured-rock aquifer in the Carolina slate belt. Surface precipitation was significantly correlated with groundwater concentrations of DOC, bioavailable DOM and chromophoric DOM, indicating strong hydrological connections between surface and ground waters. The physicochemical and biological processes shaping the concentrations and compositions of DOM during its passage through the soil column to the saturated zone are conceptualized in the regional chromatography model. The model provides a framework for linking hydrology with the processes affecting the transformation, remineralization and microbial production of DOM during passage through the soil column. Lignin-derived phenols were relatively depleted in groundwater DOM indicating substantial removal in the unsaturated zone, and optical properties of chromophoric DOM indicated lower molecular weight DOM in groundwater relative to surface water. The prevalence of glycine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and d-enantiomers of amino acids indicated the DOM was highly diagenetically altered. Bioassay experiments were used to establish DOC-normalized yields of amino acids as molecular indicators of DOM bioavailability in groundwater. A relatively small fraction (8 ± 4 %) of DOC in groundwater was bioavailable. The relatively high yields of specific d-enantiomers of amino acids indicated a substantial fraction (15–34 %) of groundwater DOC was of bacterial origin.

  17. The effects of organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry on diuron sorption across a diverse range of soils. (United States)

    Smernik, Ronald J; Kookana, Rai S


    Sorption of non-ionic organic compounds to soil is usually expressed as the carbon-normalized partition coefficient (KOC), because it is assumed that the main factor that influences the amount sorbed is the organic carbon content of the soil. However, KOC can vary by a factor of at least ten across a range of soils. We investigated two potential causes of variation in diuron KOC - organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry - for a diverse set of 34 soils from Sri Lanka, representing a wide range of soil types. Treatment with hydrofluoric acid (HF-treatment) was used to concentrate soil organic matter. HF-treatment increased KOC for the majority of soils (average factor 2.4). We attribute this increase to the blocking of organic matter sorption sites in the whole soils by minerals. There was no significant correlation between KOC for the whole soils and KOC for the HF-treated soils, indicating that the importance of organic matter-mineral interactions varied greatly amongst these soils. There was as much variation in KOC across the HF-treated soils as there was across the whole soils, indicating that the nature of soil organic matter is also an important contributor to KOC variability. Organic matter chemistry, determined by solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was correlated with KOC for the HF-treated soils. In particular, KOC increased with the aromatic C content (R=0.64, p=1×10(-6)), and decreased with O-alkyl C (R=-0.32, p=0.03) and alkyl C (R=-0.41, p=0.004) content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lindane sorption and desorption behaviour on sediment organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tričković Jelena S.


    Full Text Available The work is concerned with the sorption and desorption behaviour of lindane on four humic acid fractions (HAs and two humin fractions, sequentially extracted from Ludas lake sediment. All sorption isotherms, fitted to a Freundlich model, were nonlinear. The isotherm linearity increased from 0.757 for the first extracted HA to 0.944 for the ninth HA showing a positive correlation with atomic H/C ratio, while a negative correlation between sorption coefficient and aliphaticity of the isolated HAs was observed. It has been shown that the sorption processes may be strongly influenced by the physical conformation of and accessibility to sediment organic matter (SOM, as demonstrated by high Koc and low n values of humin samples. Despite exhibiting the most nonlinear sorption isotherms, humin samples did not show a pronounced sorption-desorption hysteresis, while the most significant hysteresis was observed for three HA samples. These results support the hypothesis that the aromatic domains in SOM influence strongly the sorption and desorption behaviour of lindane. Our findings may be helpful in understanding the distribution, transport and fate of lindane in soils and sediments.

  19. Dissolved organic matter reduces algal accumulation of methylmercury (United States)

    Luengen, Allison C.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) significantly decreased accumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) by the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana in laboratory experiments. Live diatom cells accumulated two to four times more MeHg than dead cells, indicating that accumulation may be partially an energy-requiring process. Methylmercury enrichment in diatoms relative to ambient water was measured by a volume concentration factor (VCF). Without added DOM, the maximum VCF was 32 x 104, and the average VCF (from 10 to 72 h) over all experiments was 12.6 x 104. At very low (1.5 mg/L) added DOM, VCFs dropped by approximately half. At very high (20 mg/L) added DOM, VCFs dropped 10-fold. Presumably, MeHg was bound to a variety of reduced sulfur sites on the DOM, making it unavailable for uptake. Diatoms accumulated significantly more MeHg when exposed to transphilic DOM extracts than hydrophobic ones. However, algal lysate, a labile type of DOM created by resuspending a marine diatom in freshwater, behaved similarly to a refractory DOM isolate from San Francisco Bay. Addition of 67 μM L-cysteine resulted in the largest drop in VCFs, to 0.28 x 104. Although the DOM composition influenced the availability of MeHg to some extent, total DOM concentration was the most important factor in determining algal bioaccumulation of MeHg.

  20. Emerging land use practices rapidly increase soil organic matter. (United States)

    Machmuller, Megan B; Kramer, Marc G; Cyle, Taylor K; Hill, Nick; Hancock, Dennis; Thompson, Aaron


    The loss of organic matter from agricultural lands constrains our ability to sustainably feed a growing population and mitigate the impacts of climate change. Addressing these challenges requires land use activities that accumulate soil carbon (C) while contributing to food production. In a region of extensive soil degradation in the southeastern United States, we evaluated soil C accumulation for 3 years across a 7-year chronosequence of three farms converted to management-intensive grazing. Here we show that these farms accumulated C at 8.0 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1), increasing cation exchange and water holding capacity by 95% and 34%, respectively. Thus, within a decade of management-intensive grazing practices soil C levels returned to those of native forest soils, and likely decreased fertilizer and irrigation demands. Emerging land uses, such as management-intensive grazing, may offer a rare win-win strategy combining profitable food production with rapid improvement of soil quality and short-term climate mitigation through soil C-accumulation.

  1. Sorption-desorption dynamics of radiocaesium in organic matter soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcke, E.; Cremers, A.


    A systematic study has been carried out on the radiocaesium sorption properties of 25 soils (forest, peat) covering organic matter (OM) contents in the range of 10-97%. Predictions are made for radiocaesium partitioning between micaceous Frayed Edge Sites (FES) and regular exchange sites (RES) on the basis of specific radiocaesium interception potentials of the soil and overall exchange capacity. It is shown that for soils with a very high OM content (>80%), significant fractions are present in a readily reversible form in the OM phase. In soils of low-medium OM content (<40%), only a very minor fraction is present in the OM exchange complex. Experimental findings, based on a desorption screening with a variety of desorption agents are in agreement with these predictions. On the basis of a study of sorption kinetics, some additional tools are available for identifying problem soils. In cases of very high OM content, radiocaesium adsorption is completed within hours demonstrating the involvement of the OM sites. In soils for which interception occurs in the FES, sorption continues to proceed for periods of 2-3 weeks. In conclusion, some examples are presented on radiocaesium desorption using ion exchangers as radiocaesium sinks in promoting desorption. For a peaty soil, near quantitative desorption is accomplished. For forest soils with OM contents in a range of 10-40%, fixation levels of 30-50% are demonstrated

  2. Mercury reduction and complexation by natural organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Baohua; Bian, Yongrong; Miller, Carrie L.; Dong, Wenming; Jiang, Xin; Liang, Liyuan


    Mercuric Hg(II) species form complexes with natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) such as humic acid (HA), and this binding is known to affect the chemical and biological transformation and cycling of mercury in aquatic environments. Dissolved elemental mercury, Hg(0), is also widely observed in sediments and water. However, reactions between Hg(0) and DOM have rarely been studied in anoxic environments. Here, under anoxic dark conditions we show strong interactions between reduced HA and Hg(0) through thiol-ligand induced oxidative complexation with an estimated binding capacity of about 3.5 umol Hg(0)/g HA and a partitioning coefficient greater than 10 6 mL/g. We further demonstrate that Hg(II) can be effectively reduced to Hg(0) in the presence of as little as 0.2 mg/L reduced HA, whereas production of purgeable Hg(0) is inhibited by complexation as HA concentration increases. This dual role played by DOM in the reduction and complexation of mercury is likely widespread in anoxic sediments and water and can be expected to significantly influence the mercury species transformations and biological uptake that leads to the formation of toxic methylmercury.

  3. Isotopic composition of pyrite: Relationship to organic matter type and iron availability in some North American cretaceous shales (United States)

    Gautier, D.L.


    The S isotope composition of pyrite in Cretaceous shales from the Western Interior of North America is related to organic C abundance, kerogen type and Fe availability. Both calcareous and noncalcareous rocks show a correlation between S and C, but noncalcareous rocks are relatively enriched in S with a higher S C ratio. This higher ratio probably shows that pyrite formation was Fe limited in the calcareous rocks. Organic-carbon-rich noncalcareous shales accumulated slowly beneath anoxic bottom waters. The anoxic bottom waters allowed hydrogen-rich organic matter to be preserved. Such shales have a narrow range of 34S-depleted sulfide and have Fe S ratios like stoichiometric pyrite, suggesting that pyrite formation in organic-rich shales was also limited by Fe availability. Conversely, organic-poor shales commonly accumulated at comparatively high rates, contain hydrogen-poor and refractory organic matter, and have a wide range of pyrite-S isotopic compositions. These organic-poor shales contain post-sulfidic authigenic minerals such as siderite and have excess reactive Fe rather than pyrite stoichiometry. Evidently Fe played a large role in early diagenesis and determined the course of post-sulfidic diagenesis. Fe availability was, however, mainly controlled by provenance, by the rates of sediment accumulation, and by the oxygen content of the depositional environment. ?? 1987.

  4. Investigating organic matter in Fanno Creek, Oregon, Part 2 of 3: sources, sinks, and transport of organic matter with fine sediment (United States)

    Keith, Mackenzie K.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Goldman, Jami H.; Rounds, Stewart A.


    Organic matter (OM) is abundant in Fanno Creek, Oregon, USA, and has been tied to a variety of water-quality concerns, including periods of low dissolved oxygen downstream in the Tualatin River, Oregon. The key sources of OM in Fanno Creek and other Tualatin River tributaries have not been fully identified, although isotopic analyses from previous studies indicated a predominantly terrestrial source. This study investigates the role of fine sediment erosion and deposition (mechanisms and spatial patterns) in relation to OM transport. Geomorphic mapping within the Fanno Creek floodplain shows that a large portion (approximately 70%) of the banks are eroding or subject to erosion, likely as a result of the imbalance caused by anthropogenic alteration. Field measurements of long- and short-term bank erosion average 4.2 cm/year and average measurements of deposition for the watershed are 4.8 cm/year. The balance between average annual erosion and deposition indicates an export of 3,250 metric tons (tonnes, t) of fine sediment to the Tualatin River—about twice the average annual export of 1,880 t of sediment at a location 2.4 km from the creek’s mouth calculated from suspended sediment load regressions from continuous turbidity data and suspended sediment samples. Carbon content from field samples of bank material, combined with fine sediment export rates, indicates that about 29–67 t of carbon, or about 49–116 t of OM, from bank sediment may be exported to the Tualatin River from Fanno Creek annually, an estimate that is a lower bound because it does not account for the mass wasting of organic-rich O and A soil horizons that enter the stream.

  5. Changes in functional organization and white matter integrity in the connectome in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Tinaz


    Our results suggest that despite subtle white matter connectivity changes, the overall structural organization of the PD connectome remains robust at relatively early disease stages. However, there is a breakdown in the functional modular organization of the PD connectome.

  6. Organic matter - A key factor in controlling mercury distribution in estuarine sediment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Sarkar, A.; Vudamala, K.; Naik, R.; Nath, B.N.

    Organic matter (OM) was found to play an important role in controlling mercury (Hg) distribution and speciation in estuarine sediment of the Vembanad Lake. The sedimentary organic carbon (OC) from the northern part of the lake was influenced mainly...

  7. Biochemical and stable carbon isotope records of mangrove derived organic matter in the sediment cores

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manju, M.N.; Resmi, P.; RatheeshKumar, C.S.; Gireeshkumar, T.R.; Chandramohanakumar, N.; Joseph, M.M.

    Core sediments from five mangrove ecosystems along northern Kerala Coast were collected to evaluate the nature and sources of organic matter in these ecosystems. General sedimentary parameters (pH, Eh, grain size and total organic carbon...

  8. Effects of management and pore characteristics on organic matter composition of macroaggregates: evidence from characterization of organic matter and imaging: Pore characteristics and OM composition of macroaggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toosi, E. R. [Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, 1066 Bogue St., East Lansing MI 48823 USA; Kravchenko, A. N. [Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, 1066 Bogue St., East Lansing MI 48823 USA; Mao, J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, 4541 Hampton Blvd, Norfolk VA 23529 USA; Quigley, M. Y. [Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, 1066 Bogue St., East Lansing MI 48823 USA; Rivers, M. L. [Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, Argonne National Laboratory, The University of Chicago, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne IL 60439 USA


    Macroaggregates are of interest because of their fast response to land management and their role in the loss or restoration of soil organic carbon (SOC). The study included two experiments. In Experiment I, we investigated the effect of long-term (27 years) land management on the chemical composition of organic matter (OM) of macroaggregates. Macroaggregates were sampled from topsoil under conventional cropping, cover cropping and natural succession systems. The OM of macroaggregates from conventional cropping was more decomposed than that of cover cropping and especially natural succession, based on larger δ15N values and decomposition indices determined by multiple magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CP/MAS NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Previous research at the sites studied suggested that this was mainly because of reduced diversity and activity of the decomposer community, change in nutrient stoichiometry from fertilization and contrasting formation pathways of macroaggregates in conventional cropping compared with cover cropping and, specifically, natural succession. In Experiment II, we investigated the relation between OM composition and pore characteristics of macroaggregates. Macroaggregates from the natural succession system only were studied. We determined 3-D pore-size distribution of macroaggregates with X-ray microtomography, for which we cut the macroaggregates into sections that had contrasting dominant pore sizes. Then, we characterized the OM of macroaggregate sections with FTIR and δ15N methods. The results showed that within a macroaggregate, the OM was less decomposed in areas where the small (13–32 µm) or large (136–260 µm) pores were abundant. This was attributed to the role of large pores in supplying fresh OM and small pores in the effective protection of OM in macroaggregates. Previous research at the site studied had shown increased abundance of large and small

  9. Compound-specific C- and H-isotope compositions of enclosed organic matter in carbonate rocks: Implications for source identification of sedimentary organic matter and paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong Yongqiang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail:; Wang Yanmei; Wang Yongquan; Xu Shiping [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)


    The Bohai Bay Basin is one of the most important oil-producing provinces in China. Molecular organic geochemical characteristics of Lower Paleozoic source rocks in this area have been investigated by analyzing chemical and isotopic compositions of solvent extracts and acid-released organic matter from the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Jiyang Sub-basin of the Bohai Bay Basin. The results indicate that enclosed organic matter in carbonate rocks has not been recognizably altered by post-depositional processes. Two end-member compositions are suggested for early organic matter trapped in the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks: (1) a source dominated by aquatic organisms and deposited in a relatively deep marine environment and (2) a relatively high saline, evaporative marine depositional environment. In contrast, chemical and isotopic compositions of solvent extracts from these Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks are relatively complicated, not only inheriting original characteristics of their precursors, but also overprinted by various post-depositional alterations, such as thermal maturation, biodegradation and mixing. Therefore, the integration of both organic matter characteristics can provide more useful information on the origin of organic matter present in carbonate rocks and the environments of their deposition.

  10. "Death in soil" or what can we learn from groundwater for the genesis of soil organic matter (United States)

    Kaestner, M.; Miltner, A.; Bombach, P.; Schmidt-Brücken, B.


    Soil microorganisms do not only catalyze the transformation of plant residues to soil organic matter, but also serve as considerable carbon source for the formation of refractory soil organic matter by providing cell fragments as structural interfacial surfaces in soil systems. After incubation of 13C-labeled Gram negative bacteria in soil for 224 days, we could show that 44% of the bulk carbon remained in soil. 30 - 35 % of the remaining bulk C from Gram negative microbial biomass was stabilized in non-living soil organic matter (SOM). Surprisingly, the added labeled biomass proteins remained in soil almost completely which clearly indicates the stabilization of proteins in cell aggregations being more resistant to biodegradation than free proteins and amino acids. Scanning electron micrographs of the soil showed very rarely intact cells but highly abundant patchy organic cover material of 20 to 50 nm2 size on the mineral surfaces. A possible mechanism for this stabilization and the observed material could be found by analyses of microbial communities and biofilms developing on Biosep? beads within in situ microcosms exposed to contaminated aquifers. Scanning electron micrographs of the developing biofilms on the beads showed the formation of such patchy material found in the soil by fragmentation of empty bacterial cell envelopes (cell walls) and all stages of decay. The fragmentation of these cell walls provided a mechanistic explanation for the observed stabilisation, the genesis of SOM derived from dead bacterial cells, and the enzyme activity always found associated to SOM.

  11. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo


    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais

  12. Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black spruce forest: Environmental and chemical controls (United States)

    Wickland, K.P.; Neff, J.C.


    Black spruce forests are a dominant covertype in the boreal forest region, and they inhabit landscapes that span a wide range of hydrologic and thermal conditions. These forests often have large stores of soil organic carbon. Recent increases in temperature at northern latitudes may be stimulating decomposition rates of this soil carbon. It is unclear, however, how changes in environmental conditions influence decomposition in these systems, and if substrate controls of decomposition vary with hydrologic and thermal regime. We addressed these issues by investigating the effects of temperature, moisture, and organic matter chemical characteristics on decomposition of fibric soil horizons from three black spruce forest sites. The sites varied in drainage and permafrost, and included a "Well Drained" site where permafrost was absent, and "Moderately well Drained" and "Poorly Drained" sites where permafrost was present at about 0.5 m depth. Samples collected from each site were incubated at five different moisture contents (2, 25, 50, 75, and 100% saturation) and two different temperatures (10??C and 20??C) in a full factorial design for two months. Organic matter chemistry was analyzed using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry prior to incubation, and after incubation on soils held at 20??C, 50% saturation. Mean cumulative mineralization, normalized to initial carbon content, ranged from 0.2% to 4.7%, and was dependent on temperature, moisture, and site. The effect of temperature on mineralization was significantly influenced by moisture content, as mineralization was greatest at 20??C and 50-75% saturation. While the relative effects of temperature and moisture were similar for all soils, mineralization rates were significantly greater for samples from the "Well Drained" site compared to the other sites. Variations in the relative abundances of polysaccharide-derivatives and compounds of undetermined source (such as toluene, phenol, 4-methyl phenol, and

  13. Variation of preserving organic matter bound in interlayer of montmorillonite induced by microbial metabolic process. (United States)

    Zhao, Yulian; Dong, Faqin; Dai, Qunwei; Li, Gang; Ma, Jie


    This paper aimed to investigate the variation of preserving organic matter bound in the interlayer space of montmorillonite (Mt) induced by a microbe metabolic process. We selected Bacillus pumilus as the common soil native bacteria. The alteration of d 001 value, functional group, and C,N organic matter contents caused by bacteria were analyzed by XRD, FTIR, and elementary analyzer, respectively. XRD results showed that the d 001 value of montmorillonite increased with the concentration decreasing and decreased with the culture time increasing after interacting with bacteria indicating the interlayer space of montmorillonite was connected with the organic matter. The findings of long-term interaction by resetting culture conditions implied that the montmorillonite buffered the organic matter when the nutrition was enough and released again when the nutrition was lacking. The results of the elementary analyzer declared the content of organic matter was according to the d 001 value of montmorillonite and N organic matter which played a major impact. FTIR results confirmed that the Si-O stretching vibrations of Mt were affected by the functional group of organic matter. Our results showed that the montmorillonite under the influence of soil bacteria has a strong buffering capacity for preserving organic matter into the interlayer space in a short-term. It might provide critical implications for understanding the evolution process and the preservation of fertilization which was in the over-fertilization or less-fertilization conditions on farmland.

  14. The role of aquatic fungi in transformations of organic matter mediated by nutrients (United States)

    Cynthia J. Tant; Amy D. Rosemond; Andrew S. Mehring; Kevin A. Kuehn; John M. Davis


    1. We assessed the key role of aquatic fungi in modifying coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) by affecting its breakdown rate, nutrient concentration and conversion to fine particulate organic matter (FPOM). Overall, we hypothesised that fungal-mediated conditioning and breakdown of CPOM would be accelerated when nutrient concentrations are increased and tested...

  15. Anthropogenic aerosols as a source of ancient dissolved organic matter in glaciers (United States)

    Stubbins, Aron; Hood, Eran; Raymond, Peter A.; Aiken, George R.; Sleighter, Rachel L.; Hernes, Peter J.; Butman, David; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Striegl, Robert G.; Schuster, Paul; Abdulla, Hussain A. N.; Vermilyea, Andrew W.; Scott, Durelle T.; Spencer, Robert G. M.


    Glacier-derived dissolved organic matter represents a quantitatively significant source of ancient, yet highly bioavailable carbon to downstream ecosystems. This finding runs counter to logical perceptions of age-reactivity relationships, in which the least reactive material withstands degradation the longest and is therefore the oldest. The remnants of ancient peatlands and forests overrun by glaciers have been invoked as the source of this organic matter. Here, we examine the radiocarbon age and chemical composition of dissolved organic matter in snow, glacier surface water, ice and glacier outflow samples from Alaska to determine the origin of the organic matter. Low levels of compounds derived from vascular plants indicate that the organic matter does not originate from forests or peatlands. Instead, we show that the organic matter on the surface of the glaciers is radiocarbon depleted, consistent with an anthropogenic aerosol source. Fluorescence spectrophotometry measurements reveal the presence of protein-like compounds of microbial or aerosol origin. In addition, ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry measurements document the presence of combustion products found in anthropogenic aerosols. Based on the presence of these compounds, we suggest that aerosols derived from fossil fuel burning are a source of pre-aged organic matter to glacier surfaces. Furthermore, we show that the molecular signature of the organic matter is conserved in snow, glacier water and outflow, suggesting that the anthropogenic carbon is exported relatively unchanged in glacier outflows.

  16. Stabilization of dissolved organic matter by aluminium: A toxic effect or stabilization through precipitation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheel, T.; Jansen, B.; van Wijk, A.J.; Verstraten, J.M.; Kalbitz, K.


    Carbon mineralization in acidic forest soils can be retarded by large concentrations of aluminium (Al). However, it is still unclear whether Al reduces C mineralization by direct toxicity to microorganisms or by decreased bioavailability of organic matter (OM) because dissolved organic matter (DOM)

  17. Urban infrastructure influences dissolved organic matter quality and bacterial metabolism in an urban stream network (United States)

    Urban streams are degraded by a suite of factors, including burial beneath urban infrastructure (i.e., roads, parking lots) that eliminates light and reduces direct organic matter inputs to streams, with likely consequences for organic matter metabolism by microbes and carbon lim...

  18. Organic Matter Decomposition following Harvesting and Site Preparation of a Forested Wetland (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin; M. Davidian; M.F. Jurgensen; R. Lea


    Organic matter accumulation is an important process that affects ecosystem function in many northern wetlands. The cotton strip assay (CSA)was used to measure the effect of harvesting and two different site preparation treatments, bedding and trenching, on organic matter decomposition in a forested wetland. A Latin square experimental design was used to determine the...

  19. Mean residence time of soil organic matter associated with kaolinite and smectite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattel-Koekkoek, E.J.W.; Buurman, P.; Plicht, van der J.; Wattel, J.T.; Breemen, van N.


    To gain insight into the effect of clay mineralogy on the turnover of organic matter, we analysed the C-14 activity of soil organic matter associated with clay in soils dominated by kaolinite and smectite in natural savanna systems in seven countries. Assuming that carbon inputs and outputs are in

  20. Effect of selective removal of organic matter and iron oxides on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of selective removal of organic matter and amorphous and crystalline iron oxides on N2-BET specific surface areas of some soil clays was evaluated. Clay fractions from 10 kaolinitic tropical soils were successively treated to remove organic matter by oxidation with Na hypochlorite, amorphous Fe oxide with acid ...

  1. Processes controlling the production of aromatic water-soluble organic matter during litter decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klotzbücher, T.; Kaiser, K.; Filley, T.R.; Kalbitz, K.


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a fundamental role for many soil processes. For instance, production, transport, and retention of DOM control properties and long-term storage of organic matter in mineral soils. Production of water-soluble compounds during the decomposition of plant litter is a

  2. Soil and plant responses to pyrogenic organic matter: carbon stability and symbiotic patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagrilo, E.


    Soil and plant responses to pyrogenic organic matter: carbon stability and symbiotic patterns Edvaldo Sagrilo Summary Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), also known as biochar, is the product of biomass combustion under low oxygen concentration. There

  3. Glaciers as a source of ancient and labile organic matter to the marine environment. (United States)

    Eran Hood; Jason Fellman; Robert G.M. Spencer; Peter J. Hernes; Rick Edwards; David D' Amore; Durelle Scott


    Riverine organic matter supports of the order of one-fifth of estuarine metabolism. Coastal ecosystems are therefore sensitive to alteration of both the quantity and lability of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (DOM) delivered by rivers. Here we characterize streamwater DOM from 11 coastal watersheds on the Gulf of Alaska that vary widely in glacier coverage. In...

  4. Bioavailability and export of dissolved organic matter from a tropical river during base- and stormflow conditions (United States)

    Tracy N. Wiegner; Randee L. Tubal; Richard A. MacKenzie


    Concentrations, bioavailability, and export of dissolved organic matter (DOM), particulate organic matter (POM), and nutrients from the Wailuku River, Hawai'i, U.S.A., were examined under base- and stormflow conditions. During storms, DOM and POM concentrations increased approximately by factors of 2 and 11, respectively, whereas NO3...

  5. Organic matter enrichment in the Whittard Channel; its origin and possible effects on benthic megafauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaro, T.; de Stigter, H.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Duineveld, G.C.A.


    The Whittard Canyon (NE Atlantic) is one of the largest canyon systems on the northern Bay of Biscay margin. It likely receives a high input of organic matter from the productive overlying surface waters, and part of this organic matter may eventually be transferred down the canyon into the Whittard

  6. Explaining the apparent resiliency of loblolly pine plantation to organic matter removal (United States)

    Jeff A. Hatten; Eric B. Surce; Zakiya Leggett; Jason Mack; Scott D. Roberts; Janet Dewey; Brian Strahm


    We utilized 15-year measurements from an organic matter manipulation experiment in a loblolly pine plantation in the Upper Coastal Plain of Alabama to examine the apparent resiliency of a loblolly pine stand to organic matter removal. Treatments included complete removal of harvest residues and forest floor (removed), doubling of harvest residues and forest floor (...

  7. Dissolved organic matter and lake metabolism. Technical progress report, 1 July 1975--30 June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, R. G.


    Progress is reported in the following areas of research: interactions of dissolved organic matter with inorganic nutrient cycling; regulation of the photosynthetic and decompositional metabolism of micro- and macroflora; regulatory mechanisms of growth and rates of carbon cycling; and fate of detrital dissolved and particulate organic matter. (HLW)

  8. Challenges in modelling dissolved organic matter dynamics in agricultural soil using DAISY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjettermann, Birgitte; Styczen, Merete; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun


    pedotransfer functions taking into account the soil content of organic matter, Al and Fe oxides. The turnover of several organic matter pools including one DOM pool are described by first-order kinetics. The DOM module was tested at field scale for three soil treatments applied after cultivating grass...

  9. Mean residence time of soil organic matter associated with kaolinite and smectite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattel-Koekkoek, E.J.W.; Buurman, P.; Plicht, J. van der; Wattel, E.; Breemen, N. van

    To gain insight into the effect of clay mineralogy on the turnover of organic matter, we analysed the C-14 activity of soil organic matter associated with clay in soils dominated by kaolinite and smectite in natural savanna systems in seven countries. Assuming that carbon inputs and outputs are in

  10. Soil Organic Matter and Soil Productivity: Searching for the Missing Link (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez


    Soil-organic matter (SOM) is a complex array of components including soil fauna and flora at different stages of decomposition (Berg et al., 1982). Its concentration in soils can vary from 0.5% in mineral soils to almost 100% in peat soils (Brady, 1974). Organic matter (OM) in the surface mineral soil is considered a major determinant of forest ecosystem productivity...

  11. The effect of change in soil volume on organic matter distribution in a volcanic ash soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, F.H.; Velthuis, M.; Bouten, W.; van Loon, E.E.; Sevink, J.; Verstraten, J.M.


    Volcanic ash soil contains large stocks of organic matter per unit area. A large proportion of organic matter is stored in the subsoil; therefore, a thorough understanding of its vertical distribution is needed to predict the effects of change in climate and land use. Faunal bioturbation is often

  12. Anthropogenic aerosols as a source of ancient dissolved organic matter in glaciers (United States)

    Stubbins, Aron; Hood, Eran; Raymond, Peter A.; Aiken, George R.; Sleighter, Rachel L.; Hernes, Peter J.; Butman, David; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Striegl, Robert G.; Schuster, Paul F.; Abdulla, Hussain A.N.; Vermilyea, Andrew W.; Scott, Durelle T.; Spencer, Robert G.M.


    Glacier-derived dissolved organic matter represents a quantitatively significant source of ancient, yet highly bioavailable carbon to downstream ecosystems. This finding runs counter to logical perceptions of age–reactivity relationships, in which the least reactive material withstands degradation the longest and is therefore the oldest. The remnants of ancient peatlands and forests overrun by glaciers have been invoked as the source of this organic matter. Here, we examine the radiocarbon age and chemical composition of dissolved organic matter in snow, glacier surface water, ice and glacier outflow samples from Alaska to determine the origin of the organic matter. Low levels of compounds derived from vascular plants indicate that the organic matter does not originate from forests or peatlands. Instead, we show that the organic matter on the surface of the glaciers is radiocarbon depleted, consistent with an anthropogenic aerosol source. Fluorescence spectrophotometry measurements reveal the presence of protein-like compounds of microbial or aerosol origin. In addition, ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry measurements document the presence of combustion products found in anthropogenic aerosols. Based on the presence of these compounds, we suggest that aerosols derived from fossil fuel burning are a source of pre-aged organic matter to glacier surfaces. Furthermore, we show that the molecular signature of the organic matter is conserved in snow, glacier water and outflow, suggesting that the anthropogenic carbon is exported relatively unchanged in glacier outflows.

  13. Where is DNA preserved in soil organic matter? (United States)

    Zaccone, Claudio; Beneduce, Luciano; Plaza, César


    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) consists of long chains of alternating sugar and phosphate residues twisted in the form of a helix. Upon decomposition of plant and animal debris, this nucleic acid is released into the soil, where its fate is still not completely understood. In fact, although DNA is one of the organic compounds from living cells that is apparently broken down rapidly in soils, it is also potentially capable of being incorporated in (or interact with) the precursors of humic molecules. In order to track DNA occurrence in soil organic matter (SOM) fractions, an experiment was set up as a randomized complete block design with two factors, namely biochar addition and organic amendment. In particular, biochar (BC), applied at a rate of 20 t/ha, was combined with municipal solid waste compost (BC+MC) at a rate equivalent to 75 kg/ha of potentially available N, and with sewage sludge (BC+SS) at a rate equivalent to 75 kg/ha of potentially available N. Using a physical fractionation method, free SOM located between aggregates (unprotected C pool; FR), SOM occluded within macroaggregates (C pool weakly protected by physical mechanisms; MA), SOM occluded within microaggregates (C pool strongly protected by physical mechanisms; MI), and SOM associated with the mineral fractions (chemically-protected C pool; MIN) were separated from soil samples. DNA was then isolated from each fraction of the two series, as well as from the unamended soil (C) and from the bulk soils (WS), using Powersoil DNA isolation kit (MoBio, CA, USA) with a modified protocol. Data clearly show that the DNA survived the SOM fractionation, thus suggesting that physical fractionation methods create less artifacts compared to the chemical ones. Moreover, in both BC+MC and BC+SS series, most of the isolated DNA was present in the FR fraction, followed by the MA and the MI fractions. No DNA was recovered from the MIN fraction. This finding supports the idea that most of the DNA occurring in the SOM

  14. Heat impact caused molecular level changes in solid and dissolved soil organic matter (United States)

    Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Leinweber, Peter


    The ubiquitous abundance of pyrolysed, highly aromatic organic matter, called "Black Carbon" (BC), in all environmental compartments became increasingly important in different fields of research beyond intensive investigated atmospheric aerosol due to climatic relevance. Its predominant high resistance to abiotic and biotic degradation resulted in turnover times from less than a century to several millennia. This recalcitrance led to the enrichment of BC in soils, accounting for 1-6% (European forest soils) to 60% (Chernozems) of total soil organic matter (SOM). Hence, soil BC acts an important sink in the global carbon cycle. In contrast, consequences for the nitrogen cycle up to date are rather inconsistently discussed. Soil related dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a major controlling factor in soil formation, an important pathway of organic matter transport and one of the largest active carbon reservoirs on earth, if considering oceans and other bodies of water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of artificially simulated wildfire by thermal treatment on the molecular composition of water extractable soil organic matter (DOM). Soils from two outdoor lysimeters with different management history were investigated. Soil samples, non-heated and heated up to 350°C were analyzed for elemental composition (carbon, nitrogen and sulfur) and for bulk molecular composition by Pyrolysis-Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Py-FIMS) and synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) at the C- and N K-edges. DOM-samples obtained by hot water extraction, desalting and concentration by solid phase extraction were subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T supra-conducting magnet (LTQ-FT Ultra, ThermoFisher Scientific). This technique is the key technique for the analysis of complex samples due to its outstanding mass

  15. Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance Gene Abundance and Microbiota Composition in Feces of Organic and Conventional Pigs from Four EU Countries. (United States)

    Gerzova, Lenka; Babak, Vladimir; Sedlar, Karel; Faldynova, Marcela; Videnska, Petra; Cejkova, Darina; Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Denis, Martine; Kerouanton, Annaelle; Ricci, Antonia; Cibin, Veronica; Österberg, Julia; Rychlik, Ivan


    One of the recent trends in animal production is the revival of interest in organic farming. The increased consumer interest in organic animal farming is mainly due to concerns about animal welfare and the use of antibiotics in conventional farming. On the other hand, providing animals with a more natural lifestyle implies their increased exposure to environmental sources of different microorganisms including pathogens. To address these concerns, we determined the abundance of antibiotic resistance and diversity within fecal microbiota in pigs kept under conventional and organic farming systems in Sweden, Denmark, France and Italy. The abundance of sul1, sul2, strA, tet(A), tet(B) and cat antibiotic resistance genes was determined in 468 samples by real-time PCR and the fecal microbiota diversity was characterized in 48 selected samples by pyrosequencing of V3/V4 regions of 16S rRNA. Contrary to our expectations, there were no extensive differences between the abundance of tested antibiotic resistance genes in microbiota originating from organic or conventionally housed pigs within individual countries. There were also no differences in the microbiota composition of organic and conventional pigs. The only significant difference was the difference in the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in the samples from different countries. Fecal microbiota in the samples originating from southern European countries (Italy, France) exhibited significantly higher antibiotic resistance gene abundance than those from northern parts of Europe (Denmark, Sweden). Therefore, the geographical location of the herd influenced the antibiotic resistance in the fecal microbiota more than farm's status as organic or conventional.

  16. 14C as a tracer of labile organic matter in Antarctic benthic food webs (United States)

    Purinton, Brett L.; DeMaster, David J.; Thomas, Carrie J.; Smith, Craig R.


    14C measurements were made on surface plankton, particle-trap material, surface sediment, benthic invertebrate gut contents, and body tissue samples to assess the effectiveness of this radioisotope as a tracer of labile organic carbon in Antarctic benthic food webs. Samples were collected on five cruises to the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) shelf between November 1999 and March 2001 as part of the Food for Benthos on the ANtarctic Continental-Shelf (FOODBANCS) Project. The 14C contents of the body tissues from a variety of deposit feeders (-126±13 per mil) were substantially enriched relative to the surface sediment (-234±13 per mil) and statistically similar to the organic matter collected in plankton tows (-135±10 per mil), indicating that recently produced marine plankton are the primary source of nutrition for these deposit feeders on the West Antarctic shelf. Selective ingestion was the primary feeding strategy used by echiuran worms and certain holothurians (i.e. Peniagone vignoni) for incorporating labile organic carbon into their tissues as demonstrated by the large differences (105±13 per mil) between surface sediment and gut content 14C activities. In contrast, digestive and/or assimilatory selection was the predominant strategy used by an irregular urchin ( Amphipneustes lorioli) and several other holothurians ( Protelpidia murrayi, Bathyplotes fuscivinculum and the head-down conveyor belt feeder, Molpadia musculus), as demonstrated by large differences (42±7 per mil) between the 14C activities of their foregut or whole-gut organic contents and their body tissues. Despite large fluctuations in carbon export from the euphotic zone, benthic feeding strategies remained essentially constant over the 15-month sampling period. No seasonal variation was evident in either the 14C abundance of the deposit-feeder body tissues, or in the 14C abundance of their gut contents. The mean 14C abundance in the body tissues of the two sub-surface deposit feeders ( A

  17. Transformations in occluded light fraction organic matter in a clayey oxisol: evidence from 13C-CPMAS-NMR and delta13C Signature Transformações na fração leve oclusa da matéria orgânica em um Latossolo argiloso: evidência a partir do 13C-RMN-PCAMR e abundância natural de 13C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Roscoe


    Full Text Available We hypothesised that, during occlusion inside granular aggregates of oxide-rich soils, the light fraction organic matter would undergo a strong process of decomposition, either due to the slow process of aggregate formation and stabilisation or due to digestion in the macro- and meso-fauna guts. This process would favour the accumulation of recalcitrant materials inside aggregates. The aim of this study was to compare the dynamics and the chemical composition of free and occluded light fraction organic matter in a natural cerrado vegetation (woodland savannah and a nearby pasture (Brachiaria spp. to elucidate the transformations during occlusion of light fraction in aggregates of a clayey Oxisol. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of the 13C, with Cross Polarisation and Magic Angle Spinning (13C-CPMAS-NMR, and 13C/12C isotopic ratio were combined to study organic matter composition and changes in carbon dynamics, respectively. The occluded light fraction had a slower turnover than the free light fraction and the heavy fraction. Organic matter in the occluded fraction also showed a higher degree of decomposition. The results confirm that processes of soil organic matter occlusion in the typical "very fine strong granular" structure of the studied oxide-rich soil led to an intense transformation, selectively preserving stable organic matter. The small amount of organic material stored as occluded light faction, as well as its stability, suggests that this is not an important or manageable sink for sequestration of atmospheric CO2.O presente estudo tomou, como referência, a hipótese de que, durante a oclusão dentro de agregados granulares de solos ricos em óxidos, a fração leve da matéria orgânica do solo passa por um intenso processo de decomposição, decorrente do lento processo de formação desses agregados ou da digestão no trato digestivo da meso e macrofauna. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a dinâmica e a composição química das

  18. Sulfurization of Dissolved Organic Matter Increases Hg-Sulfide-Dissolved Organic Matter Bioavailability to a Hg-Methylating Bacterium. (United States)

    Graham, Andrew M; Cameron-Burr, Keaton T; Hajic, Hayley A; Lee, Connie; Msekela, Deborah; Gilmour, Cynthia C


    Reactions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) with aqueous sulfide (termed sulfurization) in anoxic environments can substantially increase DOM's reduced sulfur functional group content. Sulfurization may affect DOM-trace metal interactions, including complexation and metal-containing particle precipitation, aggregation, and dissolution. Using a diverse suite of DOM samples, we found that susceptibility to additional sulfur incorporation via reaction with aqueous sulfide increased with increasing DOM aromatic-, carbonyl-, and carboxyl-C content. The role of DOM sulfurization in enhancing Hg bioavailability for microbial methylation was evaluated under conditions typical of Hg methylation environments (μM sulfide concentrations and low Hg-to-DOM molar ratios). Under the conditions of predicted metacinnabar supersaturation, microbial Hg methylation increased with increasing DOM sulfurization, likely reflecting either effective inhibition of metacinnabar growth and aggregation or the formation of Hg(II)-DOM thiol complexes with high bioavailability. Remarkably, Hg methylation efficiencies with the most sulfurized DOM samples were similar (>85% of total Hg methylated) to that observed in the presence of l-cysteine, a ligand facilitating rapid Hg(II) biouptake and methylation. This suggests that complexes of Hg(II) with DOM thiols have similar bioavailability to Hg(II) complexes with low-molecular-weight thiols. Overall, our results are a demonstration of the importance of DOM sulfurization to trace metal and metalloid (especially mercury) fate in the environment. DOM sulfurization likely represents another link between anthropogenic sulfate enrichment and MeHg production in the environment.

  19. Biomarkers of Canadian High Arctic Litoral Sediments for Assessment of Organic Matter Sources and Degradation (United States)

    Pautler, B. G.; Austin, J.; Otto, A.; Stewart, K.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Simpson, M. J.


    Carbon stocks in the High Arctic are particularly sensitive to global climate change, and investigation of variations in organic matter (OM) composition is beneficial for the understanding of the alteration of organic carbon under anticipated future elevated temperatures. Molecular-level characterization of solvent extractable compounds and CuO oxidation products of litoral sedimentary OM at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago was conducted to determine the OM sources and decomposition patterns. The solvent extracts contained a series of aliphatic lipids, steroids and one triterpenoid primarily of higher plant origin and new biomarkers, iso- and anteiso-alkanes originating from cerastium arcticum (Arctic mouse-ear chickweed, a native angiosperm) were discovered. Carbon preference index (CPI) values for the n-alkanes, n-alkanols and n-alkanoic acids suggests that the OM biomarkers result from fresh material input in early stage of degradation. The CuO oxidation products were comprised of benzyls, lignin phenols and short-chain diacids and hydroxyacids. High abundance of terrestrial OM biomarkers observed at sites close to the river inlet suggests fluvial inputs as an important pathway to deliver OM into the lake. The lignin phenol vegetation index (LPVI) also suggests that the OM origin is mostly from non-woody angiosperms. A relatively high degree of lignin alteration in the litoral sediments is evident from the abundant ratio of acids and aldehydes of the vanillyl and syringyl monomers. This suggests that the lignin contents have been diagenetically altered as the result of a long residence time in this ecosystem. The molecular-level characterization of litoral sedimentary OM in Canadian High Arctic region provides insight into current OM composition,potential responses to future disturbances and the biogeochemical cycling of carbon in the Arctic.

  20. Bacterial traits, organism mass, and numerical abundance in the detrital soil food web of Dutch agricultural grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.; Cohen, J.E.; Setälä, H.; Bloem, J.; Breure, A.M.


    This paper compares responses to environmental stress of the ecophysiological traits of organisms in the detrital soil food webs of grasslands in the Netherlands, using the relationship between average body mass M and numerical abundance N. The microbial biomass and biodiversity of belowground fauna

  1. Fluorescence quantum yields of natural organic matter and organic compounds: Implications for the fluorescence-based interpretation of organic matter composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wünsch, Urban; Murphy, Kathleen R.; Stedmon, Colin


    the likelihood that chromophores emit fluorescence after absorbing light. Compared to the number of studies investigating CDOM and FDOM, few studies have systematically investigated AQY spectra for DOM, and linked them to fluorescence quantum yields (Φ) of organic compounds. To offer a standardized approach......Absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy are economical tools for tracing the supply, turnover and fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM). The colored and fluorescent fractions of DOM (CDOM and FDOM, respectively) are linked by the apparent fluorescence quantum yield (AQY) of DOM, which reflects......, a MATLAB toolbox for the determination of apparent quantum yields of DOM (aquaDOM), featuring two calculation approaches, was developed and used to derive AQYs for samples from the Norwegian Sea. Φ of the organic compounds varied between 0.00079 and 0.35, whereas the average AQY for DOM samples at 350 nm...

  2. Transport of organic contaminants in subsoil horizons and effects of dissolved organic matter related to organic waste recycling practices. (United States)

    Chabauty, Florian; Pot, Valérie; Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Bernet, Nathalie; Labat, Christophe; Benoit, Pierre


    Compost amendment on agricultural soil is a current practice to compensate the loss of organic matter. As a consequence, dissolved organic carbon concentration in soil leachates can be increased and potentially modify the transport of other solutes. This study aims to characterize the processes controlling the mobility of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in deep soil layers and their potential impacts on the leaching of organic contaminants (pesticides and pharmaceutical compounds) potentially present in cultivated soils receiving organic waste composts. We sampled undisturbed soil cores in the illuviated horizon (60-90 cm depth) of an Albeluvisol. Percolation experiments were made in presence and absence of DOM with two different pesticides, isoproturon and epoxiconazole, and two pharmaceutical compounds, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole. Two types of DOM were extracted from two different soil surface horizons: one sampled in a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge applied once every 2 years since 1998 and one sampled in an unamended plot. Results show that DOM behaved as a highly reactive solute, which was continuously generated within the soil columns during flow and increased after flow interruption. DOM significantly increased the mobility of bromide and all pollutants, but the effects differed according the hydrophobic and the ionic character of the molecules. However, no clear effects of the origin of DOM on the mobility of the different contaminants were observed.

  3. Effects of temperature and UVR on organic matter fluxes and the metabolic activity of Acropora muricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Courtial


    Full Text Available Coral bleaching events are predicted to occur more frequently in the coming decades with global warming. The susceptibility of corals to bleaching during thermal stress episodes depends on many factors, including the magnitude of thermal stress and irradiance. The interactions among these two factors, and in particular with ultra-violet radiation (UVR, the most harmful component of light, are more complex than assumed, and are not yet well understood. This paper explores the individual and combined effects of temperature and UVR on the metabolism of Acropora muricata, one of the most abundant coral species worldwide. Particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM/DOM fluxes and organic matter (OM degradation by the mucus-associated bacteria were also monitored in all conditions. The results show that UVR exposure exacerbated the temperature-induced bleaching, but did not affect OM fluxes, which were only altered by seawater warming. Temperature increase induced a shift from POM release and DOM uptake in healthy corals to POM uptake and DOM release in stressed ones. POM uptake was linked to a significant grazing of pico- and nanoplankton particles during the incubation, to fulfil the energetic requirements of A. muricata in the absence of autotrophy. Finally, OM degradation by mucus-associated bacterial activity was unaffected by UVR exposure, but significantly increased under high temperature. Altogether, our results demonstrate that seawater warming and UVR not only affect coral physiology, but also the way corals interact with the surrounding seawater, with potential consequences for coral reef biogeochemical cycles and food webs.

  4. Photochemical Reactions of Particulate Organic Matter: Deciphering the Role of Direct and Indirect Processes (United States)

    Carrasquillo, A. J.; Gelfond, C. E.; Kocar, B. D.


    Photochemical reactions of natural organic matter (NOM) represent potentially important pathways for biologically recalcitrant material to be chemically altered in aquatic systems. Irradiation can alter the physical state of organic matter by facilitating the cycling between the particulate (POM) and dissolved (DOM) pools, however, a molecular level understanding of this chemically dynamic system is currently lacking. Photochemical reactions of a target molecule proceed by the direct absorption of a photon, or through reaction with a second photolytically generated species (i.e. the hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, excited triplet state NOM, hydrogen peroxide, etc.). Here, we isolate the major direct and indirect photochemical reactions of a lignocellulose-rich POM material (Phragmites australis) to determine their relative importance in changing the the chemical structure of the parent POM, and in the production of DOM. We measured POM molecular structure using a combination of NMR and FTIR for bulk analyses and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) for spatially resolved chemistry, while the chemical composition of photo-produced DOM was measured using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. Results are discussed in the context of the differences in chemical composition of both NOM pools resulting from the isolated photochemical pathways. All treatments result in an increase in DOM with reaction time, indicating that the larger POM matrix is likely fragmenting into smaller more soluble species. Spectroscopic measurements, on the other hand, point to functionalization reactions which increase the abundance of alcohol, acid, and carbonyl moieties in both carbon pools. This unique dataset provides new insight into how photochemical reactions alter the chemical composition of NOM while highlighting the relative importance of indirect pathways.

  5. Limitations of fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize organic matter in engineered systems (United States)

    Korak, J.


    Fluorescence spectroscopy has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) in engineered systems, such as drinking water, municipal wastewater and industrial water treatment. While fluorescence data collected in water treatment applications has led to the development of strong empirical relationships between fluorescence responses and process performance, the use of fluorescence to infer changes in the underlying organic matter chemistry is often oversimplified and applied out of context. Fluorescence only measures a small fraction of DOM as fluorescence quantum yields are less than 5% for many DOM sources. Relying on fluorescence as a surrogate for DOM presence, character or reactivity may not be appropriate for systems where small molecular weight, hydrophilic constituents unlikely to fluoresce are important. In addition, some methods rely on interpreting fluorescence signals at different excitation wavelengths as a surrogate for operationally-defined humic- and fulvic-acids in lieu of traditional XAD fractionation techniques, but these approaches cannot be supported by other lines of evidence considering natural abundance and fluorescence quantum yields of these fractions. These approaches also conflict with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), a statistical approach that routinely identifies fluorescence components with dual excitation behavior. Lastly, methods developed for natural systems are often applied out of context to engineered systems. Fluorescence signals characteristic of phenols or indoles are often interpreted as indicators for biological activity in natural systems due to fluorescent amino acids and peptides, but this interpretation is may not be appropriate in engineering applications where non-biological sources of phenolic functional groups may be present. This presentation explores common fluorescence interpretation approaches, discusses the limitations and provides recommendations related to engineered systems.

  6. Ultraviolet irradiation effects incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter (United States)

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.


    One of the concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of ultraviolet radiation for treatment of drinking water and wastewater is the fate of nitrate, particularly its photolysis to nitrite. In this study, 15N NMR was used to establish for the first time that UV irradiation effects the incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter (NOM). Irradiation of 15N-labeled nitrate in aqueous solution with an unfiltered medium pressure mercury lamp resulted in the incorporation of nitrogen into Suwannee River NOM (SRNOM) via nitrosation and other reactions over a range of pH from approximately 3.2 to 8.0, both in the presence and absence of bicarbonate, confirming photonitrosation of the NOM. The major forms of the incorporated label include nitrosophenol, oxime/nitro, pyridine, nitrile, and amide nitrogens. Natural organic matter also catalyzed the reduction of nitrate to ammonia on irradiation. The nitrosophenol and oxime/nitro nitrogens were found to be susceptible to photodegradation on further irradiation when nitrate was removed from the system. At pH 7.5, unfiltered irradiation resulted in the incorporation of 15N-labeled nitrite into SRNOM in the form of amide, nitrile, and pyridine nitrogen. In the presence of bicarbonate at pH 7.4, Pyrex filtered (cutoff below 290–300 nm) irradiation also effected incorporation of nitrite into SRNOM as amide nitrogen. We speculate that nitrosation of NOM from the UV irradiation of nitrate also leads to production of nitrogen gas and nitrous oxide, a process that may be termed photo-chemodenitrification. Irradiation of SRNOM alone resulted in transformation or loss of naturally abundant heterocyclic nitrogens.

  7. Transport of dissolved organic matter in Boom Clay: Size effects (United States)

    Durce, D.; Aertsens, M.; Jacques, D.; Maes, N.; Van Gompel, M.


    A coupled experimental-modelling approach was developed to evaluate the effects of molecular weight (MW) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on its transport through intact Boom Clay (BC) samples. Natural DOM was sampled in-situ in the BC layer. Transport was investigated with percolation experiments on 1.5 cm BC samples by measuring the outflow MW distribution (MWD) by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). A one-dimensional reactive transport model was developed to account for retardation, diffusion and entrapment (attachment and/or straining) of DOM. These parameters were determined along the MWD by implementing a discretisation of DOM into several MW points and modelling the breakthrough of each point. The pore throat diameter of BC was determined as 6.6-7.6 nm. Below this critical size, transport of DOM is MW dependent and two major types of transport were identified. Below MW of 2 kDa, DOM was neither strongly trapped nor strongly retarded. This fraction had an averaged capacity factor of 1.19 ± 0.24 and an apparent dispersion coefficient ranging from 7.5 × 10- 11 to 1.7 × 10- 11 m2/s with increasing MW. DOM with MW > 2 kDa was affected by both retardation and straining that increased significantly with increasing MW while apparent dispersion coefficients decreased. Values ranging from 1.36 to 19.6 were determined for the capacity factor and 3.2 × 10- 11 to 1.0 × 10- 11 m2/s for the apparent dispersion coefficient for species with 2.2 kDa < MW < 9.3 kDa. Straining resulted in an immobilisation of in average 49 ± 6% of the injected 9.3 kDa species. Our findings show that an accurate description of DOM transport requires the consideration of the size effects.

  8. Dissolved organic matter enhances microbial mercury methylation under sulfidic conditions (United States)

    Graham, Andrew M.; Aiken, George R.; Gilmour, Cynthia


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is generally thought to lower metal bioavailability in aquatic systems due to the formation of metal–DOM complexes that reduce free metal ion concentrations. However, this model may not be pertinent for metal nanoparticles, which are now understood to be ubiquitous, sometimes dominant, metal species in the environment. The influence of DOM on Hg bioavailability to microorganisms was examined under conditions (0.5–5.0 nM Hg and 2–10 μM sulfide) that favor the formation of β-HgS(s) (metacinnabar) nanoparticles. We used the methylation of stable-isotope enriched 201HgCl2 by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 in short-term washed cell assays as a sensitive, environmentally significant proxy for Hg uptake. Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) and Williams Lake hydrophobic acid (WLHPoA) substantially enhanced (2- to 38-fold) the bioavailability of Hg to ND132 over a wide range of Hg/DOM ratios (9.4 pmol/mg DOM to 9.4 nmol/mg DOM), including environmentally relevant ratios. Methylmercury (MeHg) production by ND132 increased linearly with either SRHA or WLHPoA concentration, but SRHA, a terrestrially derived DOM, was far more effective at enhancing Hg-methylation than WLHPoA, an aquatic DOM dominated by autochthonous sources. No DOM-dependent enhancement in Hg methylation was observed in Hg–DOM–sulfide solutions amended with sufficient l-cysteine to prevent β-HgS(s) formation. We hypothesize that small HgS particles, stabilized against aggregation by DOM, are bioavailable to Hg-methylating bacteria. Our laboratory experiments provide a mechanism for the positive correlations between DOC and MeHg production observed in many aquatic sediments and wetland soils.

  9. Soil organic matter as sole indicator of soil degradation. (United States)

    Obalum, S E; Chibuike, G U; Peth, S; Ouyang, Y


    Soil organic matter (SOM) is known to play vital roles in the maintenance and improvement of many soil properties and processes. These roles, which largely influence soil functions, are a pool of specific contributions of different components of SOM. The soil functions, in turn, normally define the level of soil degradation, viewed as quantifiable temporal changes in a soil that impairs its quality. This paper aims at providing a generalized assessment of the current state of knowledge on the usefulness of SOM in monitoring soil degradation, based on its influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties and processes of soils. Emphasis is placed particularly on the effect of SOM on soil structure and availability of plant nutrients. Although these properties are discussed separately, the soil system is of dynamic and interactive nature, and changes in one property will likely affect other soil properties as well. Thus, functions of SOM almost always affect various soil properties and processes and engage in multiple reactions. In view of its role in soil aggregation and erosion control, in availability of plant nutrients and in ameliorating other forms of soil degradation than erosion, SOM has proven to be an important indicator of soil degradation. It has been suggested, however, that rather than the absolute amount, temporal change and potential amount of SOM be considered in its use as indicator of soil degradation, and that SOM may not be an all-purpose indicator. Whilst SOM remains a candidate without substitute as long as a one-parameter indicator of soil degradation is needed, narrowing down to the use of its labile and microbial components could be more appropriate, since early detection is important in the control and management of soil degradation.

  10. The regulation by phenolic compounds of soil organic matter dynamics under a changing environment. (United States)

    Min, Kyungjin; Freeman, Chris; Kang, Hojeong; Choi, Sung-Uk


    Phenolics are the most abundant plant metabolites and are believed to decompose slowly in soils compared to other soil organic matter (SOM). Thus, they have often been considered as a slow carbon (C) pool in soil dynamics models. Here, however, we review changes in our concept about the turnover rate of phenolics and quantification of different types of phenolics in soils. Also, we synthesize current research on the degradation of phenolics and their regulatory effects on decomposition. Environmental changes, such as elevated CO2, warming, nitrogen (N) deposition, and drought, could influence the production and form of phenolics, leading to a change in SOM dynamics, and thus we also review the fate of phenolics under environmental disturbances. Finally, we propose the use of phenolics as a tool to control rates of SOM decomposition to stabilize organic carbon in ecosystems. Further studies to clarify the role of phenolics in SOM dynamics should include improving quantification methods, elucidating the relationship between phenolics and soil microorganisms, and determining the interactive effects of combinations of environmental changes on the phenolics production and degradation and subsequent impact on SOM processing.

  11. Characterization and phenanthrene sorption of organic matter fractions isolated from organic and mineral soils. (United States)

    Shi, Huilan; Zhu, Shihai; Qiao, Youming; Wang, Wei; Shi, Jianjun; Li, Xilai; Pang, Wenhao


    Sorption of phenanthrene (PHE) to humic acid (HA) and humin (HM) fractions isolated from organic and mineral soils was investigated to better understand sorption processes in varying soil types. Samples were characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance, and CO 2 adsorption. No clear correlation was found between the distribution coefficient (K d ) and the bulk polarity of the soil organic matters (SOMs). By contrast, PHE K d values generally increased with increasing surface polarity of the tested SOMs, implying that surface polarity may play a more important role in PHE sorption than the bulk one. The organic carbon (OC)-normalized K d values (K oc ) of HMs were higher than those of HAs as a result of the higher aliphatic C contents of HMs. For SOMs isolated from mineral soil (MI-SOMs), part of the aliphatic domains may be tightly associated with minerals and were not accessible to PHE molecules, resulting in lower PHE K oc values of MI-SOMs than the corresponding fractions extracted from the organic soil. This study implies that both chemical characteristics and physical conformation of SOMs are paramount considerations when investigating sorption process of hydrophobic organic compounds in soils.

  12. Microbially derived inputs to soil organic matter: are current estimates too low? (United States)

    Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J; Smith, Emma; Kelleher, Brian P


    Soil microbes are central to many soil processes, but due to the structural complexity of soil organic matter, the accurate quantification of microbial biomass contributions continues to pose a significant analytical challenge. In this study, microbes from a range of soils were cultured such that their molecular profile could be compared to that of soil organic matter and native vegetation. With the use of modern NMR spectroscopy, the contributions from microbial species can be discerned in soil organic matter and quantified. On the basis of these studies, the contributions of microbial biomass to soil organic matter appear to be much higher than the 1-5% reported by other researchers. In some soils, microbial biomass was found to contribute >50% of the extractable soil organic matter fractions and approximately 45% of the humin fraction and accounted for >80% of the soil nitrogen. These findings are significant because organic matter is intimately linked to nutrient release and transport in soils, nitrogen turnover rates, contaminant fate, soil quality, and fertility. Therefore, if in some cases soil organic matter and soil organic nitrogen are predominately of microbial origin, it is likely that this fraction, whether in the form of preserved material or living cells, plays an underestimated role in several soil processes.

  13. Occurrence of biomarkers and straight-chain biopolymers in humin: implication for the origin of soil organic matter.


    Lichtfouse, Eric; Leblond, Claudette; Da Silva, Martine; Béhar, Françoise


    International audience; Soil organic matter is a very complex mixture of compounds derived from the decay of living organisms such as plants, fungi and bacteria. The mechanisms that control the preservation of soil organic matter are poorly known. This is notably due to our scarce knowledge of the molecular structure of humin, the insoluble part of soil organic matter. Three major hypotheses have been proposed to explain the formation of soil organic matter: the plant alteration hypothesis, t...

  14. Geochemical evidence for enhanced preservation of organic matter in the oxygen minimum zone of the continental margin of northern California during the Late Pleistocene (United States)

    Dean, Walter E.; Gardner, James V.; Anderson, Roger Y.


    The present upper water mass of the northeastern Pacific Ocean off California has a well-developed oxygen minimum zone between 600 and 1200 m wherein concentrations of dissolved oxygen are less than 0.5 mL/L. Even at such low concentrations of dissolved oxygen, benthic burrowing organisms are abundant enough to thoroughly bioturbate the surface and near-surface sediments. These macro organisms, together with micro organisms, also consume large quantities of organic carbon produced by large seasonal stocks of plankton in the overlying surface waters, which are supported by high concentrations of nutrients within the California Current upwelling system. In contrast to modern conditions of bioturbation, laminated sediments are preserved in upper Pleistocene sections of cores collected on the continental slope at water depths within the present oxygen minimum zone from at least as far north as the California-Oregon border and as far south as Point Conception. Comparison of sediment components in the laminae with those delivered to sediment traps as pelagic marine “snow” demonstrates that the dark-light lamination couplets are indeed annual (varves). These upper Pleistocene varved sediments contain more abundant lipid-rich “sapropelic” (type II) organic matter than the overlying bioturbated, oxidized Holocene sediments. The baseline of stable carbon isotopic composition of the organic matter in these slope cores does not change with time, indicating that the higher concentrations of type II organic matter in the varved sediments represent better preservation of organic matter rather than any change in the source of organic matter.

  15. Long-term citrus organic farming strategy results in soil organic matter recovery (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Pereira, Paulo; Barone, Ettore; Giménez Morera, Antonio; Keesstra, Saskia; Gristina, Luciano; Jordán, Antonio; Parras-Alcantara, Luis; Cerdà, Artemi


    ABSTRACT Soils play a key role in the Earth System (Keesstra et al., 2012; Brevick et al., 2015). Soils are a key resource for the human societies (Mol and Keesstra, 2012) and they are relevant to achieve the sustainability such as the United Nations Goals highlight (Keesstra et al., 2016). Agriculture soils, especially those under conventional tillage, are prone to organic matter mineralization, soil erosion, compaction and increase of greenhouse gases emission (Novara et al., 2011; Bruun et al., 2015; de Moraes et al., 2015; Choudhury et al., 2016; del Mar et al., 2016). The adoption of organic farming and sustainable management practices may provide a sustainable crop productivity, and in the meanwhile mitigate the negative impact of agriculture on ecosystem services benefits (Laudicina et al., 2015; Parras-Alcantara et al., 2015; 2016). The aim of this study was to examine, under field conditions, the long-term changes of soil organic matter under organic farming management in citrus orchards in Mediterranean environment and evaluate the ecosystem service on C sequestration in terms of economic benefits. The research was carried out at the Alcoleja Experimental Station located in the Cànyoles river watershed in the Eastern Spain on 45year old citrus plantation. Soil Organic Matter (SOM) content was monitored for 20 years at 6 different soil depth. The profitability of citrus plantation was estimated under conventional and organic management. Results showed that SOM in the 0-30 cm soil depth was the double after 20 years of organic farming management, ranging from 0.8 g kg-1 in 1995 to 1.5 g kg-1 in 2006. The highest SOM increase was in the top soil layer (368% of SOM increase in comparison to the initial SOM content) and decreased with soil depth. The effect of organic farming was relevant after 5 years since land management change, indicating that in Mediterranean environment the duration of long term studies should be higher than five years and proper policy

  16. Nitrogen and carbon isotopes in soil with special reference to the diagnosis of organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Eitaro; Nakamura, Koichi.


    Distributions of nitrogen and carbon isotopes in terrestrial ecosystems are described based on available data and our recent findings for soil organic matters. Major processes regulating N-isotope and C-isotope ratios in biogenic substances are discussed. The biological di-nitrogen fixation and the precipitation are major sources which lower the delta 15 N value for forested soil organic matters. Denitrification enhances delta 15 N value for soil in cultivated fields. An addition of chemical fertilizer lowers 15 N content in soils. The permiation of soil water is an important factor controlling vertical profiles of delta 15 N in soil systems. Among soil organic matters, non-hydrolizable fraction seems to give unique low delta 15 N value, suggesting the utility of delta 15 N analysis in studying the nature of the fractions. delta 13 C of soil organic matter is significantly lower than that for marine sediments. delta 13 C for soil humus varies with respect to chemical forms as well as an age of soil organic matters. The variation is large in paddy fields. It is, thus, probable that delta 13 C is an useful parameter in studying the early epidiagenesis of soil organic matters. Based on the known delta 15 N-delta 13 C relationships, a two-source mixing model has been applied to assess sources of organic matters in coastal sediment. (author)

  17. Catchment scale molecular composition of hydrologically mobilized dissolved organic matter (United States)

    Raeke, Julia; Lechtenfeld, Oliver J.; Oosterwoud, Marieke R.; Bornmann, Katrin; Tittel, Jörg; Reemtsma, Thorsten


    Increasing concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in rivers of temperate catchments in Europe and North Amerika impose new technical challenges for drinking water production. The driving factors for this decadal increase in DOM concentration are not conclusive and changes in annual temperatures, precipitation and atmospheric deposition are intensely discussed. It is known that the majority of DOM is released by few but large hydrologic events, mobilizing DOM from riparian wetlands for export by rivers and streams. The mechanisms of this mobilization and the resulting molecular composition of the released DOM may be used to infer long-term changes in the biogeochemistry of the respective catchment. Event-based samples collected over two years from streams in three temperate catchments in the German mid-range mountains were analyzed after solid-phase extraction of DOM for their molecular composition by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Hydrologic conditions, land use and water chemistry parameters were used to complement the molecular analysis. The molecular composition of the riverine DOM was strongly dependent on the magnitude of the hydrologic events, with unsaturated, oxygen-enriched compounds being preferentially mobilized by large events. This pattern is consistent with an increase in dissolved iron and aluminum concentrations. In contrast, the relative proportions of nitrogen and sulfur bearing compounds increased with an increased agricultural land use but were less affected by the mobilization events. Co-precipitation experiments with colloidal aluminum showed that unsaturated and oxygen-rich compounds are preferentially removed from the dissolved phase. The precipitated compounds thus had similar chemical characteristics as compared to the mobilized DOM from heavy rain events. Radiocarbon analyses also indicated that this precipitated fraction of DOM was of comparably young radiocarbon age. DOM radiocarbon from field samples

  18. Dissolved organic carbon and chromophoric dissolved organic matter properties of rivers in the USA (United States)

    Spencer, Robert G. M.; Butler, Kenna D.; Aiken, George R.


    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) parameters were measured over a range of discharge in 30 U.S. rivers, covering a diverse assortment of fluvial ecosystems in terms of watershed size and landscape drained. Relationships between CDOM absorption at a range of wavelengths (a254, a350, a440) and DOC in the 30 watersheds were found to correlate strongly and positively for the majority of U.S. rivers. However, four rivers (Colorado, Colombia, Rio Grande and St. Lawrence) exhibited statistically weak relationships between CDOM absorption and DOC. These four rivers are atypical, as they either drain from the Great Lakes or experience significant impoundment of water within their watersheds, and they exhibited values for dissolved organic matter (DOM) parameters indicative of autochthonous or anthropogenic sources or photochemically degraded allochthonous DOM and thus a decoupling between CDOM and DOC. CDOM quality parameters in the 30 rivers were found to be strongly correlated to DOM compositional metrics derived via XAD fractionation, highlighting the potential for examining DOM biochemical quality from CDOM measurements. This study establishes the ability to derive DOC concentration from CDOM absorption for the majority of U.S. rivers, describes characteristics of riverine systems where such an approach is not valid, and emphasizes the possibility of examining DOM composition and thus biogeochemical function via CDOM parameters. Therefore, the usefulness of CDOM measurements, both laboratory-based analyses and in situ instrumentation, for improving spatial and temporal resolution of DOC fluxes and DOM dynamics in future studies is considerable in a range of biogeochemical studies.

  19. Photochemical Alternation of Phragmites australis Plant Litter: New Insight into the Chemical Evolution of Particulate Organic Matter (United States)

    Carrasquillo, A. J.; Gelfond, C. E.; Kocar, B. D.


    The photolysis of natural organic matter (NOM) is a potential pathway for the alteration of material that is not easily biodegraded. Irradiation can alter the physical state of organic matter by facilitating the cycling between the particulate (POM) and dissolved (DOM) pools. However, a detailed understanding of the underlying chemical changes to the material in both phases is lacking. Here, we use a suspension of particles derived from Phragmites australis, a common marsh reed with high lignin content, as our model "recalcitrant" POM substrate. The solution was irradiated for three weeks with regular sampling, and the composition of the POM and the photo-produced DOM were measured separately using a suite of mass spectrometric and spectroscopic techniques. The chemical composition of individual molecules was measured by coupling soft ionization techniques (electrospray (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption (MALDI) to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Structural information, including the distribution of the major carbon containing functional groups, was obtained using a combination of FTIR for bulk analyses and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) for spatially resolved chemistry. Results are discussed in the context of differences in chemical composition and structure with increased irradiation time for both organic matter pools. We observed a general shift in the mass spectra of POM towards lower molecular weight masses and an increase in the abundance of ions in DOM as a function of irradiation time- hence the larger POM matrix is likely fragmenting into smaller species that are more soluble. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that the abundance of acidic and alcohol functionalities increased with irradiation in both carbon pools. These complementary approaches provide new detailed information about how the chemical composition of recalcitrant NOM evolves as it is exposed to sunlight.

  20. Microbial activity and soil organic matter decay in roadside soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons (United States)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Fischer, Thomas; Iurchenko, Valentina


    positively correlated with the carbohydrate fraction and negatively correlated with the aliphatic fraction of the soil C, while carbohydrate-C and alkyl-C increased and decreased with distance from the road, respectively. It is proposed that petroleum hydrocarbons supress soil biological activity at concentrations above 1500 mg kg-1, and that soil organic matter priming primarily affects the carbohydrate fraction of soil organic matter. It can be concluded that the abundance of solid carbohydrates (O-alkyl C) is of paramount importance for the hydrocarbon mineralization under natural conditions, compared to more recalcitrant SOM fractions (mainly aromatic and alkyl C). References Mykhailova, L., Fischer, T., Iurchenko, V. (2013) Distribution and fractional composition of petroleum hydrocarbons in roadside soils. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, vol. 2013, Article ID 938703, 6 pages, DOI 10.1155/2013/938703 Mykhailova, L., Fischer, T., Iurchenko, V. (2014) Deposition of petroleum hydrocarbons with sediment trapped in snow in roadside areas. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 22(3):237-244, DOI 10.3846/16486897.2014.889698 Nelson P.N. and Baldock J.A. (2005) Estimating the molecular composition of a diverse range of natural organic materials from solid-state 13C NMR and elemental analyses, 2005, Biogeochemistry (2005) 72: 1-34, DOI 10.1007/s10533-004-0076-3 Zyakun, A., Nii-Annang, S., Franke, G., Fischer, T., Buegger, F., Dilly, O. (2011) Microbial Actvity and 13C/12C Ratio as Evidence of N-Hexadecane and N-Hexadecanoic Acid Biodegradation in Agricultural and Forest Soils. Geomicrobiology Journal 28:632-647, DOI 10.1080/01490451.2010.489922

  1. Evaluation of the symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean by labelling of soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschel, A.P.; Freitas, J.R. de; Vose, P.B.


    An experiment was carried out using the isotopic dilution method to evaluate symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean grown in soil labelled with 15 N enriched organic matter. Symbiotic N 2 -fixed was 71-76% of total N in the plant. Non nodulated soybean utilized 56-59% N from organic matter and 40% from soil. Roots of nodulated plants had lower NdN 2 than aereal plant parts. The advantage of using labelled organic matter as compared with 15 N-fertilizer addition in evaluating N 2 -fixation is discussed. (Author) [pt

  2. Distribution and nature of sedimentary organic matter in a tropical estuary: An indicator of human intervention on environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, Arindam; Chakraborty, P.; Nath, B.N.

    Sediment texture controls the spatial distribution of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) in the Vembanad Lake. Influences of marine derived organic matter (OM) on SOM decreased inner-wards in the northern part of the lake. However, SOM from...

  3. Dissolved Organic Matter Transformations: Implications for Catchment-Scale Processes (United States)

    Robinson, A.; Hernes, P.; Montanez, I.; Eustis, B.


    Particulate and dissolved phase lignin parameters are used to understand sources and dynamics of terrigenous organic matter (OM) in freshwater and marine systems. Impacts of catchment properties, such as soil type and mineralogy, vegetation distribution and hydrologic conditions on terrestrial dissolved and particulate biomarker compositions have not been addressed. Our experimental approach deciphers relative contributions of these parameters on bulk DOM compositions. Carbon-normalized lignin yields (Λ8) are one means to assess contributions of lignin phenols to bulk organic carbon. Ratios of syringyl (S), vanillyl (V) and cinnamyl (C) lignin phenols distinguish angiosperm and gymnosperm woody and nonwoody tissues. Ratios of acids:aldehydes (ad:ac) within vanillyl groups indicate diagenetic alteration of OM. Interpretation of these ratios relies on the fundamental assumption that each lignin compound behaves similarly, despite differences in solubility and sorption. Fractionation due to leaching impacts C:V, ac:al and (Λ8). C:V ranges from 1/2 to 4 times original plant compositions, increasing proportions of DOM ascribed to nonwoody tissues. Shifts in C:V and S:V due to leaching, suggest that source ratios from plant materials may not be appropriate endmembers for dissolved phases. An ~2-fold increase in ac:al ratios between litters and leachates suggest that dissolved phases are more diagenetically altered than litters, although this is simply due to solubilization. Λ8 values, tracking lignin and bulk carbon solubility differences, indicate greater loss of bulk OM relative to lignin for most plant litters. During sorption of leachates to mineral soils, lignin compositional trends are more variable compared to leaching data. Sorption of angiosperm leachates resulted in significant enrichment of S phenols on soils, which would increase the inferred contribution of angiosperms obtained for mixtures. C:V fractionation during sorption decreased in 3 of 4 plant

  4. Organic matter along longitudinal and vertical gradients in the Black Sea (United States)

    Kaiser, David; Konovalov, Sergey; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.; Waniek, Joanna J.


    We studied organic matter in the central Black Sea and its northeastern and northwestern shelf break within three weeks in November 2013 to test the hypothesis that in situ production could explain lateral and vertical variability in its composition and distribution. The wide spatial coverage over a short period of time achieved during this study revealed longitudinal variability in organic matter characteristics reflecting productivity at the Black Sea surface. Particulate organic matter was dominantly autochthonous in the central Black Sea. Allochthonous influence of river discharge was only traced on the northwestern shelf by high concentrations but low freshness of particulate organic matter. Compared to the NW shelf break and central Black Sea, primary production was high near the NE shelf break, likely fueled by input from the Azov Sea. Vertical patterns were similar throughout the deep Black Sea and appeared to also be governed by in situ processes rather than reflect variability in the surface water. As concentrations of organic matter decreased with depth, its elemental and isotopic composition indicated chemoautotrophic production at the oxic-anoxic interface and organic matter degradation in the benthic boundary layer. Though profiles of dissolved organic carbon indicated a minor source in anoxic deep water, likely linked to chemosynthesis and reflux from sediments, a negative deviation of concentrations from a conservative mixing line between two endmembers suggested net removal of labile dissolved organic carbon.

  5. Organic Matter Unstability (Ripening Evaluation in Histosolsof South-west Shahrekord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Givi


    Full Text Available Purpose of this research was evaluationof organic matter unstability (ripening of Histosolsof south-west Shahrekord,using humusunstability indices, including ratios of humic acid (HA to fulvic acid (FA, sum of organic material types, soluble in alkali (AE=FA+HA to humin fraction (HUM and also ratio of optical density at 465 (E4tooptical density at 665 nanometer (E6 of organic matter and its components.The studied area has cool and semi-arid climate. Some of the soils formed in the studied area are Histosols.Five soil profiles were described down to depth of 2 m and soil samples were collected from their different horizons. Chemical fractionation of organic matter to fulvic acid, humic acid and humin was done and the content of each of these three components and the amounts of E4and E6 were measured.In all of the soil profiles, variations of the fulvic acid, humic acid and humin contents are similar to variations of organic matter contents. More than 94 percent of the soil organic matter has changed to humus. Increase of HA/FA with increase of soil depth indicates high degree of polymerization and humification (stability of organic matter in underlying layers and higher rate of humic material decomposition (unstability in surface layers. Lower rate of humic material decomposition in underlying layers is due to increase of clay content with increase of soil depth and adsorption of humin by clay particles. E4/E6 of the whole soil also decreased regularly from soil surface towards soil depth. This decrease is another evidence for increase of organic matter stability. Highest organic matter unstability was observed in the profile 5. This profile contains hemic but the others have sapric organic material.

  6. Modelling decomposition, intermolecular protection and physical aggregation based on organic matter quality assessed by 13C-CPMAS-NMR (United States)

    Incerti, Guido; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Sarker, Tushar Chandra; Giannino, Francesco; Cartenì, Fabrizio; Peressotti, Alessandro; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro; Mazzoleni, Stefano


    Modelling organic matter decomposition is fundamental to predict biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Current models use C/N or Lignin/N ratios to describe susceptibility to decomposition, or implement separate C pools decaying with different rates, disregarding biomolecular transformations and interactions and their effect on decomposition dynamics. We present a new process-based model of decomposition that includes a description of biomolecular dynamics obtained by 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. Baseline decay rates for relevant molecular classes and intermolecular protection were calibrated by best fitting of experimental data from leaves of 20 plant species decomposing for 180 days in controlled optimal conditions. The model was validated against field data from leaves of 32 plant species decomposing for 1-year at four sites in Mediterranean ecosystems. Our innovative approach accurately predicted decomposition of a wide range of litters across different climates. Simulations correctly reproduced mass loss data and variations of selected molecular classes both in controlled conditions and in the field, across different plant molecular compositions and environmental conditions. Prediction accuracy emerged from the species-specific partitioning of molecular types and from the representation of intermolecular interactions. The ongoing model implementation and calibration are oriented at representing organic matter dynamics in soil, including processes of interaction between mineral and organic soil fractions as a function of soil texture, physical aggregation of soil organic particles, and physical protection of soil organic matter as a function of aggregate size and abundance. Prospectively, our model shall satisfactorily reproduce C sequestration as resulting from experimental data of soil amended with a range of organic materials with different biomolecular quality, ranging from biochar to crop residues. Further application is also planned based on


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The biotransformation during the 3 years of sludge landfilling was evaluated by physicochemical analysis and phytotoxicity test. The final product exhibited a high degree of decomposition rate (51.06 % than the controls as shown by a decrease of C/N ratio of about 19.67. The results showed that the lipid, surfactant and polyphenol as main compound of the sludge were breakdown over time. The concentrations decreased from 29.9 to 11.8 mg·g-1 and 3.4 to 0.6 mg·g-1, respectively for surfactant and polyphenols after 3 years of landfilling. This corresponds to a reduction of 80.2 % for polyphenols and 60.4 % for surfactant, due to the microorganisms activity. Total lipids decrease from 16.5 to 6.27 mg·g-1 of dry matter, representing an abatement rate of about 62 %. The evolution of organic matter reflects the progress of the humification process, which judging by the increase in the polymerization degree, is about 20 %. The landfilling efficiency to reduce phytotoxicity of sludge was confirmed by the germination index, which reached 52 and 59 %, respectively for alfalfa and cress after 3 years of landfilling. These results are promising and pave the way for agricultural spreading of sludge.

  8. Enhanced binding of hydrophobic organic contaminants by microwave-assisted humification of soil organic matter. (United States)

    Hur, Jin; Park, Sung-Won; Kim, Min Chan; Kim, Han S


    Enhanced binding of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) with soil organic matter (SOM) by microwave (MW) irradiation was investigated in this study. We used fluorescence excitation emission matrix, humification index (HIX), and organic carbon partitioning coefficient (Koc) to examine characteristic changes in SOM and its sorptive capacity for HOCs. When MW was irradiated to soils, protein-like fluorescence decreased but fulvic- and humic-like fluorescence increased. The addition of activated carbon in the presence of oxygen facilitated the humification-like alteration of SOM more significantly, evidenced by increases in fulvic- and humic-like fluorescence signals. The extent of SOM-phenanthrene binding also increased with MW treatment, supported by a notable increase in Koc value from 1.8×10(4) to 7.3×10(5)Lkg(-1). Various descriptors indicating the physical and chemical properties of SOM along with the relative percentage of humic-like fluorescence and HIX values demonstrated strong linear relationships with Koc values. These linear relationships indicated that the increased binding affinity of SOM for phenanthrene was attributed to enhanced SOM humification, which was stimulated by MW irradiation. Thus, our results demonstrate that MW irradiation could be effectively used for remediation or for assessing the environmental risks of HOC-contaminated soils and groundwater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reactive mineral removal relative to soil organic matter heterogeneity and implications for organic contaminant sorption. (United States)

    Li, Fangfang; Pan, Bo; Liang, Ni; Chang, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Yuwei; Wang, Lin; Li, Hao; Xing, Baoshan


    Soil organic matter (SOM) is generally treated as a static compartment of soil in pollutant fate studies. However, SOM might be altered or fractionated in soil systems, and the details of SOM property/composition changes when coupled with contaminant behavior are unknown. In this study, a mild acid treatment was adopted to remove reactive minerals and partially remove SOM components. After acid treatment, biomarker signatures showed that lignin-derived phenols were released and black carbon (as suggested by benzene-polycarboxylic acids) and lipids were enriched. The biomarker information was consistent with common bulk chemical characterization. The sorption coefficient K d for PHE was two times higher after acid treatment, whereas K d for OFL was three times lower. The organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient K OC values for PHE were higher for soils after acid treatment, indicating stronger interactions between PHE and SOM. The linear regression line between K d and f OC for OFL showed lower intercepts and slopes after reactive mineral removal, suggesting a decreased contribution of minerals and reduced dependence on SOM. These results were attributed to the release of polar compositions in SOM accompanied by reactive mineral removal. Our results suggest that the mobility of ionic organic contaminants increases, whereas that of hydrophobic organic contaminants decreases after acid treatment with respect to reactive mineral depletion. This study emphasized that new insights into the coupling of SOM dynamics should be incorporated into organic contaminant behavior studies. SOM molecular biomarkers offer a useful technique for correlating SOM composition and sorption property changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dissolved organic matter characteristics along sabo dammed streams based on ultraviolet visible and fluorescence spectral properties. (United States)

    Praise, Susan; Ito, Hiroaki; An, Ying; Watanabe, Kazuya; Watanabe, Toru


    Changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics were investigated in two mountainous streams with closed-type sabo dams. Surface water was collected from four stations along the two mountainous streams and analyzed using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and excitation-emission fluorescence matrix (EEM) methods. Optical properties of DOM indicated an increase in molecular weight and aromaticity at stations near the sabo dams. Average spectral ratio values were low before and after the dam (i.e., Specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA 254 ) increased in the vicinities of the dams. While chromophoric DOM characteristics from two sites were influenced by the dam, fluorescence components, however, did not show notable changes around dams. Instead, the three chromophoric components distinguished by EEM-parallel factor analysis, that is, humic-like (C1 and C2) and protein-like (C3) increase along the stream. Fulvic-like component (C1) had a high fluorescence intensity at all stations; all the three components were more abundant in the downstream section. Chromophoric DOM properties varied along the stream based on alterations in molecular size and aromaticity. Using multivariate analysis, the studied sites were grouped into three clusters related to sabo dams and other activities. We conclude that sabo dams modify DOM characteristics which influence the behavior of DOM transported along the stream.

  11. Graphical statistical approach to soil organic matter resilience using analytical pyrolysis data. (United States)

    Almendros, Gonzalo; Hernández, Zulimar; Sanz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Sonia; Jiménez-González, Marco A; González-Pérez, José A


    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) of humic acids (HAs) from 30 agricultural soils from a volcanic island (Tenerife, Spain) was used to discern the molecular characteristics of soil organic matter (SOM) associated to resilience. For faster perceptual identification of the results, the yields of the pyrolysis products in the form of surface density plots were compared in an update of the Van Krevelen graphical statistical method. This approach, with respect to data reduction and visualization, was also used to collectively represent statistical indices that were obtained after simple and partial least squares (PLS) regression. The resulting plots illustrate different SOM structural domains (for example, carbohydrate- and lignin-derived and condensed lipid). The content of SOM and total mineralization coefficient (TMC) values can be well estimated from the relative abundance of 57 major pyrolysis compounds: SOM content and composition parallels the accumulation of lignin- and carbohydrate-derived structures (lignocellulosic material) and the depletion of condensed polyalkyl structures. In other words, in the volcanic ash soils that were studied, we found that the higher the amount of SOM, the lower its quality in terms of resilience. Although no cause-and-effect is inferred from this fact, it is evident that the resistance to biodegradation of the SOM is related to its molecular composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in Dissolved Organic Matter Composition and Disinfection Byproduct Precursors in Advanced Drinking Water Treatment Processes. (United States)

    Phungsai, Phanwatt; Kurisu, Futoshi; Kasuga, Ikuro; Furumai, Hiroaki


    Molecular changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) from treatment processes at two drinking water treatment plants in Japan were investigated using unknown screening analysis by Orbitrap mass spectrometry. DOM formulas with carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CHO-DOM) were the most abundant class in water samples, and over half of them were commonly found at both plants. Among the treatment processes, ozonation induced the most drastic changes to DOM. Mass peak intensities of less saturated CHO-DOM (positive (oxygen subtracted double bond equivalent per carbon (DBE-O)/C)) decreased by ozonation, while more saturated oxidation byproducts (negative (DBE-O)/C) increased and new oxidation byproducts (OBPs) were detected. By Kendrick mass analysis, ozone reactions preferred less saturated CHO-DOM in the same alkylation families and produced more saturated alkylation families of OBPs. Following ozonation, biological activated carbon filtration effectively removed water samples where at least half were unknown. Putative precursors of these DBPs were determined based on electrophilic substitutions and addition reactions. Ozonation demonstrated better decomposition of addition reaction-type precursors than electrophilic substitution-type precursors; over half of both precursor types decreased during biological activated carbon filtration.

  13. Linking the Molecular Signature of Heteroatomic Dissolved Organic Matter to Watershed Characteristics in World Rivers. (United States)

    Wagner, Sasha; Riedel, Thomas; Niggemann, Jutta; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Dittmar, Thorsten; Jaffé, Rudolf


    Large world rivers are significant sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the oceans. Watershed geomorphology and land use can drive the quality and reactivity of DOM. Determining the molecular composition of riverine DOM is essential for understanding its source, mobility and fate across landscapes. In this study, DOM from the main stem of 10 global rivers covering a wide climatic range and land use features was molecularly characterized via ultrahigh-resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). FT-ICR mass spectral data revealed an overall similarity in molecular components among the rivers. However, when focusing specifically on the contribution of nonoxygen heteroatomic molecular formulas (CHON, CHOS, CHOP, etc.) to the bulk molecular signature, patterns relating DOM composition and watershed land use became apparent. Greater abundances of N- and S-containing molecular formulas were identified as unique to rivers influenced by anthropogenic inputs, whereas rivers with primarily forested watersheds had DOM signatures relatively depleted in heteroatomic content. A strong correlation between cropland cover and dissolved black nitrogen was established when focusing specifically on the pyrogenic class of compounds. This study demonstrated how changes in land use directly affect downstream DOM quality and could impact C and nutrient cycling on a global scale.

  14. A Robust Analysis Method For Δ13c Signal Of Bulk Organic Matter In Speleothems (United States)

    Bian, F.; Blyth, A. J.; Smith, C.; Baker, A.


    Speleothems preserve organic matter that is derived from both the surface soil and cave environments. This organic matter can be used to understand paleoclimate and paleoenvironments. However, a stable and quick micro-analysis method to measure the δ13C signals from speleothem organic matter separate from the total δ13C remains absent. And speleothem organic geochemistry is still relatively unexplored compared to inorganic geochemistry. In this research, for the organic matter analysis, bulk homogeneous power samples were obtained from one large stalagmite. These were dissolved by phosphoric acid to produce the aqueous solution. Then, the processed solution was degassed through a rotational vacuum concentrator. A liquid chromatograph was coupled to IRMS to control the oxidization and the measurement of analytes. This method is demonstrated to be robust for the analysis of speleothem d13C organic matter analysis under different preparation and instrumental settings, with the low standard deviation ( 0.2‰), and low sample consumption (environmental controls in other climatic and ecological contexts, including the determination of whether vegetation or soil microbial activity is the dominant control on speleothem d13C of organic matter.

  15. Experimental Study of Soil Organic Matter Loss From Cultivated Field Plots In The Venezuelan Andes. (United States)

    Bellanger, B.; Huon, S.; Velasquez, F.; Vallès, V.; Girardin A, C.; Mariotti, A. B.

    The question of discriminating sources of organic matter in suspended particles of stream flows can be addressed by using total organic carbon (TOC) concentration and stable isotope (13C, 15N) measurements when constant fluxes of organic matter supply can be assumed. However, little is known on the dynamics of organic matter release during soil erosion and on the temporal stability of its isotopic signature. In this study, we have monitored soil organic carbon loss and water runoff using natural rainfall events on three experimental field plots with different vegetation cover (bare soil, maize and coffee fields), set up on natural slopes of a tropical mountainous watershed in NW Venezuela (09°13'32'' ­ 09°10'00''N, 70°13'49'' ­ 70°18'34''W). Runoff and soil loss are markedly superior for the bare field plot than for the coffee field plot: by a factor 15 ­ 36, respectively, for the five-month experiment, and by a factor 30 ­ 120, respectively, during a single rainfall event experiment. Since runoff and soil organic matter loss are closely linked during most of the flow (at the time scales of this study), TOC concentration in suspended matter is constant. Furthermore, stable isotope compositions reflect those of top-soil organic matter from which they originate.

  16. Effect of physical forms of soil organic matter on phenanthrene sorption. (United States)

    Pan, Bo; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wenxin; Lin, Xiumei; Xiao, Yang; Dai, Hancheng; Zhang, Xianming; Zhang, Yanxv; Yuan, Huishi


    The sorption coefficient, K(OC), of phenanthrene (PHE) has been reported to vary with different types of organic matter, leading to uncertainties in predicting the environmental behavior of PHE. Among the studies that relate organic matter properties to their sorption characteristics, physical conformation of organic matter is often neglected. In this work, organic matter samples of different physical forms were examined for their sorption characteristics. Dissolved humic acids (DHA) showed significantly higher K(OC) than the corresponding solid humic acids (SHA) from which the DHAs were made. The K(OC) of DHAs was found to be related to polarity, whereas K(OC) of SHAs increased with aliphatic carbon content. Soil particles were treated with H(2)O(2) to remove organic matter, and humic acid was coated on H(2)O(2)-treated soil particles to make organo-mineral complexes at pH 4, 7 and 10. Although the nonlinear sorption was apparent for SHAs and H(2)O(2)-treated soil particles, the organo-mineral complexes formed using these two components at pH 4, 7 and 10 exhibited relatively linear sorption at organic carbon content, f(OC)>0.5%. These results indicate that organic matter of the same composition may have different sorption properties due to different physical forms (or conformations). Nonlinear sorption for the complexes formed at pH 4 with lower f(OC) (<0.5%) was also discussed.

  17. On the role of soil organic matter for crop production in European arable farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijbeek, Renske


    The aim of this thesis was to improve understanding of the role of organic inputs and soil organic matter (SOM) for crop production in contemporary arable farming in Europe. For this purpose, long-term experiments were analysed on the additional yield effect of organic inputs and savings in

  18. Management of organic matter in the tropics: Translating theory into practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, C.A.; Giller, K.E.; Mafongoya, P.L.; Swift, M.J.


    Inputs of organic materials play a central role in the productivity of many tropical farming systems by providing nutrients through decomposition and substrate for synthesis of soil organic matter (SOM). The organic inputs in many tropical farming systems such as crop residues, manures, and natural

  19. On the role of soil organic matter for crop production in European arable farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijbeek, Renske


    The aim of this thesis was to improve understanding of the role of organic inputs and soil organic matter (SOM) for crop production in contemporary arable farming in Europe. For this purpose, long-term experiments were analysed on the additional yield effect of organic inputs and savings in mineral

  20. Organic matter composition and substrate diversity under elevated CO2 in the Mojave Desert (United States)

    Tfaily, M. M.; Hess, N. J.; Koyama, A.; Evans, R. D.


    Little is known about how rising atmospheric CO2 concentration will impact long-term plant biomass or the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) in arid ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the change in the molecular composition of SOM by high resolution mass spectrometry after 10 years exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility. Samples were collected from soil profiles from 0 to 1m in 0.2m increments under the dominant evergreen shrub (Larrea tridentata). The differences in the composition of SOM were more evident in soils close to the surface and consistent with higher bulk soil organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) concentrations under elevated than ambient CO2, reflecting increased net productivity of shrubs under elevated CO2, which could be attributed to increased litter input from above-ground biomass and/or shallow roots, root exudation and/or microbial residues. This was further supported by the significant increase in the abundance of amino sugars-, protein- and carbohydrate-like compounds. These compounds are involved in diverse pathways ranging from sugars and amino-acid metabolism to lipid biosynthesis. This indicates increased activity and metabolism under elevated CO2 and suggests that elevated CO2 have altered microbial C use patterns, reflecting changes in the quality and quantity of soil C inputs. A significant increase in the mineral-bound soil organic C was also observed in the surface soils under elevated CO2. This was accompanied by increased microbial residues as identified by mass spectrometry that supports microbial lipid analysis, and reflecting accelerated microbial turnover under elevated CO2. Fungal neutral lipid fatty acids (NLFA) abundance doubled under elevated CO2. When provided with excess labile compounds, such as root exudates, and with limited supply of nutrients, fungi assimilate the excess labile C and store it as NLFA likely contributing to increased total N

  1. Origin of heat-induced structural changes in dissolved organic matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drastík, M.; Novák, František; Kučerík, J.


    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2013), s. 789-795 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : dissolved organic matter * humic substances * hydration * hysteresis Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 3.499, year: 2013

  2. Distinct optical chemistry of dissolved organic matter in urban pond ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McEnroe, N. A.; Williams, C. J.; Xenopoulos, M. A.; Porcal, Petr; Frost, P. C.


    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013), e80334 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : dissolved organic matter * photodegradation * fluorescence * PARAFAC Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  3. Photobleaching Kinetics of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Derived from Mangrove Leaf Litter and Floating Sargassum Colonies (United States)

    We examined the photoreactivity of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) derived from Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) leaf litter and floating Sargassum colonies as these marine plants can be important contributors to coastal and open ocean CDOM pools, respectively. Mangr...

  4. Characterising organic matter in recirculating aquaculture systems with fluorescence EEM spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hambly, Adam; Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming


    The potential of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in the aquaculture industry is increasingly being acknowledged. Along with intensified application, the need to better characterise and understand the accumulated dissolved organic matter (DOM) within these systems increases. Mature RASs...

  5. Phosphate, carbonate and organic matter distribution in sediment cores off Bombay-Saurashtra coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Rao, Ch.M.

    Phosphate, organic matter and calcium carbonate content in five sediment cores (three from the outer shelf one from the slope and one from the basin) from the Arabian Sea have been determined. The distribution pattern indicates their close genetic...

  6. Effects of clay mineral type and organic matter on the uptake of radiocesium by pasture plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.


    Studies were undertaken to examine the influence of interaction of clay minerals and organic matter on the uptake of radiocesium by two pasture plants, namely, ryegrass (Lolium italicum L) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L). The clay minerals used were bentonite (2.1 layer type) and kaolinite (1/1 layer type). Mixtures of clay and sand were prepared with 0.5, 10, 20 and 40 per cent clay and treated with organic matter (forest turf) at 0,5 and 10 per cent of the clay-sand mixtures. Results indicated that 134 Cs uptake by plants grown on the kaolinite-clay medium was greater than that on the bentonite-clay medium at a given organic matter level. Increasing the clay content of mixtures resulted in reduction in 134 Cs uptake by both plant species. The plant uptake of 134 Cs increased with additions of organic matter at a given clay content. (author)

  7. Microphytobenthos and benthic macroalgae determine sediment organic matter composition in shallow photic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardison, A.K.; Canuel, E.A/; Anderson, I.C.; Tobias, C.R.; Veuger, B.; Waters, M.N.


    Microphytobenthos and benthic macroalgae play an important role in system metabolism within shallow coastal bays. However, their independent and interactive influences on sediment organic matter (SOM) are not well understood. We investigated the influence of macroalgae and microphytobenthos on SOM

  8. Organic matter processing by microbial communities throughout the Atlantic water column as revealed by metaproteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergauer, K.; Fernàndez-Guerra, A.; Garcia, J.A.L.; Sprenger, R.R.; Stepanauskas, R.; Pachiadaki, M.G.; Jensen, O.N.; Herndl, G.


    The phylogenetic composition of the heterotrophic microbialcommunity is depth stratified in the oceanic water column downto abyssopelagic layers. In the layers below the euphotic zone, it hasbeen suggested that heterotrophic microbes rely largely on solubilizedparticulate organic matter as a carbon

  9. Lyophilization, Reconstitution, and DBP Formation in Reverse-Osmosis Concentrated Natural Organic Matter (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking w...

  10. Light-Induced Transformations of the C60 Derivative, Fullerenol: Interactions with Natural Organic Matter (United States)

    Recent studies have indicated that fullerenes, an important class of nanomaterials, are photodegraded by solar radiation and can sensitize the photoproduction of reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen. Because natural organic matter (NOM) can retard photoreactions that a...

  11. Seasonally varying nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry of particulate organic matter in Lake Kinneret, Israel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hadas, O.; Altabet, M.A.; Agnihotri, R.

    Large temporal variations in the nitrogen isotopic composition (delta sup(15) N) of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) species in Lake Kinneret occurred in response to seasonal phasing of dominant nitrogen cycle...

  12. Biodestructive processes occurring in the organic matter of lowland peat in the arctic zone (United States)

    Svarovskaya, L. I.; Altunina, L. K.; Serebrennikova, O. V.


    A model experiment was carried on in laboratory conditions. The biodestruction of organic matter was studied using lowland peat samples collected in Kolguev Island in Barents Sea. Here the purpose was to obtain information about the species range and the activity of bacterial complex involved in the destruction processes of lowland peat organic matter from the natural environment by simulating the Arctic zone climate. The species range is found to include bacteria dominant species, i.e. Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. In order to stimulate the biodestruction of organic matter, inoculate was added to the culture medium containing peat; its composition and dose were determined by the trial-and-error method. The catalytic activity of bacterial ferments was initiated in the presence of inoculate; hence, the desired effect was achieved. The composition of the organic matter of bacterial biomass and peat was analyzed by the method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  13. Characterizing natural organic matter in drinking water treatment processes and trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baghoth, S.A.


    Natural organic matter (NOM) generally influences water treatment processes such as coagulation, oxidation, adsorption, and membrane filtration. NOM contributes colour, taste and odour in drinking water, fouls membranes, serves as a precursor for disinfection by-products, increases the exhaustion

  14. Northern Gulf of Mexico estuarine coloured dissolved organic matter derived from MODIS data (United States)

    Coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is relevant for water quality management and may become an important measure to complement future water quality assessment programmes. An approach to derive CDOM using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed...

  15. Carbon isotope ratios of organic matter in Bering Sea settling particles. Extremely high remineralization of organic carbon derived from diatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Saki; Akagi, Tasuku; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Fumio; Takahashi, Kozo


    The carbon isotope ratios of organic carbon in settling particles collected in the highly-diatom-productive Bering Sea were determined. Wet decomposition was employed to oxidize relatively fresh organic matter. The amount of unoxidised organic carbon in the residue following wet decomposition was negligible. The δ 13 C of organic carbon in the settling particles showed a clear relationship against SiO 2 /CaCO 3 ratio of settling particles: approximately -26‰ and -19‰ at lower and higher SiO 2 /CaCO 3 ratios, respectively. The δ 13 C values were largely interpreted in terms of mixing of two major plankton sources. Both δ 13 C and compositional data can be explained consistently only by assuming that more than 98% of diatomaceous organic matter decays and that organic matter derived from carbonate-shelled plankton may remain much less remineralized. A greater amount of diatom-derived organic matter is discovered to be trapped with the increase of SiO 2 /CaCO 3 ratio of the settling particles. The ratio of organic carbon to inorganic carbon, known as the rain ratio, therefore, tends to increase proportionally with the SiO 2 /CaCO 3 ratio under an extremely diatom-productive condition. (author)

  16. Peat decomposability in managed organic soils in relation to land use, organic matter composition and temperature (United States)

    Bader, Cédric; Müller, Moritz; Schulin, Rainer; Leifeld, Jens


    Organic soils comprise a large yet fragile carbon (C) store in the global C cycle. Drainage, necessary for agriculture and forestry, triggers rapid decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM), typically increasing in the order forest temperatures (10 and 20 °C) and related them to various soil characteristics, including bulk density, pH, soil organic carbon (SOC) content and elemental ratios (C / N, H / C and O / C). CO2 release ranged from 6 to 195 mg CO2-C g-1 SOC at 10 °C and from 12 to 423 mg g-1 at 20 °C. This variation occurring under controlled conditions suggests that besides soil water regime, weather and management, SOM composition may be an underestimated factor that determines CO2 fluxes measured in field experiments. However, correlations between the investigated chemical SOM characteristics and CO2 emissions were weak. The latter also did not show a dependence on land-use type, although peat under forest was decomposed the least. High CO2 emissions in some topsoils were probably related to the accrual of labile crop residues. A comparison with published CO2 rates from incubated mineral soils indicated no difference in SOM decomposability between these soil classes, suggesting that accumulation of recent, labile plant materials that presumably account for most of the evolved CO2 is not systematically different between mineral and organic soils. In our data set, temperature sensitivity of decomposition (Q10 on average 2.57 ± 0.05) was the same for all land uses but lowest below 60 cm in croplands and grasslands. This, in turn, indicates a relative accumulation of recalcitrant peat in topsoils.

  17. New Approaches in Soil Organic Matter Fluorescence; A Solid Phase Fluorescence Approach (United States)

    Bowman, M. M.; Sanclements, M.; McKnight, D. M.


    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique to investigate the composition of organic matter in aquatic systems and is increasingly applied to soil organic matter (SOM). Current methods require that SOM be extracted into a liquid prior to analysis by fluorescence spectroscopy. Soil extractions introduce an additional layer of complexity as the composition of the organic matter dissolved into solution varies based upon the selected extractant. Water is one of the most commonly used extractant, but only extracts the water-soluble fraction of the SOM with the insoluble soil organic matter fluorescence remaining in the soil matrix. We propose the use of solid phase fluorescence on whole soils as a potential tool to look at the composition of organic matter without the extraction bias and gain a more complete understand of the potential for fluorescence as a tool in terrestrial studies. To date, the limited applications of solid phase fluorescence have ranged from food and agriculture to pharmaceutical with no clearly defined methods and limitations available. We are aware of no other studies that use solid phase fluorescence and thus no clear methods to look at SOM across a diverse set of soil types and ecosystems. With this new approach to fluorescence spectroscopy there are new challenges, such as blank correction, inner filter effect corrections, and sample preparation. This work outlines a novel method for analyzing soil organic matter using solid phase fluorescence across a wide range of soils collected from the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) eco-domains. This method has shown that organic matter content in soils must be diluted to 2% to reduce backscattering and oversaturation of the detector in forested soils. In mineral horizons (A) there is observed quenching of the humic-like organic matter, which is likely a result of organo-mineral complexation. Finally, we present preliminary comparisons between solid and liquid phase

  18. In Situ Mapping of the Organic Matter in Carbonaceous Chondrites and Mineral Relationships (United States)

    Clemett, Simon J.; Messenger, S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Ross, D. K.


    Carbonaceous chondrite organic matter represents a fossil record of reactions that occurred in a range of physically, spatially and temporally distinct environments, from the interstellar medium to asteroid parent bodies. While bulk chemical analysis has provided a detailed view of the nature and diversity of this organic matter, almost nothing is known about its spatial distribution and mineralogical relationships. Such information is nevertheless critical to deciphering its formation processes and evolutionary history.

  19. The effect of cellular organic matter produced by cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa on water purification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Martin; Pivokonská, Lenka; Bäumeltová, Jitka; Bubáková, Petra


    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2009), s. 121-129 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/07/0295 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : AOM (Algal Organic Matter) * COM (Cellular Organic Matter) * Destabilisation * Aggregation * Reaction conditions * Water treatment Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009

  20. Soil Water Content Sensor Response to Organic Matter Content under Laboratory Conditions (United States)

    Fares, Ali; Awal, Ripendra; Bayabil, Haimanote K.


    Studies show that the performance of soil water content monitoring (SWCM) sensors is affected by soil physical and chemical properties. However, the effect of organic matter on SWCM sensor responses remains less understood. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to (i) assess the effect of organic matter on the accuracy and precision of SWCM sensors using a commercially available soil water content monitoring sensor; and (ii) account for the organic matter effect on the sensor’s accuracy. Sand columns with seven rates of oven-dried sawdust (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% and 18% v/v, used as an organic matter amendment), thoroughly mixed with quartz sand, and a control without sawdust were prepared by packing quartz sand in two-liter glass containers. Sand was purposely chosen because of the absence of any organic matter or salinity, and also because sand has a relatively low cation exchange capacity that will not interfere with the treatment effect of the current work. Sensor readings (raw counts) were monitored at seven water content levels (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, and 0.30 cm3 cm−3) by uniformly adding the corresponding volumes of deionized water in addition to the oven-dry one. Sensor readings were significantly (p Sensor readings were strongly correlated with the organic matter level (R2 = 0.92). In addition, the default calibration equation underestimated the water content readings at the lower water content range (0.05 cm3 cm−3). A new polynomial calibration equation that uses raw count and organic matter content as covariates improved the accuracy of the sensor (RMSE = 0.01 cm3 cm−3). Overall, findings of this study highlight the need to account for the effect of soil organic matter content to improve the accuracy and precision of the tested sensor under different soils and environmental conditions. PMID:27527185

  1. Tracing sources of organic matter in adjacent urban streams having different degrees of channel modification. (United States)

    Duan, Shuiwang; Amon, Rainer M W; Brinkmeyer, Robin L


    Urbanization and stream-channel modifications affect organic matter concentrations and quality in streams, by altering allochthonous organic matter input and in-stream transformation. This study uses multiple tracers (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, C/N ratio, and chlorophyll-a) to track sources of organic matter in two highly urbanized bayous in Houston (Texas, USA). Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are located in headwaters of both bayous and contribute more than 75% to water flow. Low isotopic relatedness to natural end-members and enriched δ(15)N values suggest the influence of WWTPs on the composition of all organic matter fractions. The two bayous differ in degree of channel improvement resulting in different responses to hydrological conditions. During high flow conditions, the influence of terrestrial organic matter and sediment resuspension was much more pronounced in the Buffalo Bayou than in the concrete-lined White Oak Bayou. Particulate organic matter (POM) in White Oak Bayou had similar values of enriched δ(15)N in all subsegments, whereas in Buffalo Bayou, the degree of δ(15)N enrichment was less in the subsegments of the lower watershed. The difference in riparian zone contributions and interactions with sediments/soils was likely responsible for the compositional differences between the two bayous. Phytoplankton inputs were significantly higher in the bayous, especially in slow-flowing sections, relative to the reference sites, and elevated phytoplankton inputs accounted for the observed stable C isotope differences between FPOM and high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMW DOM). Relative to POM, HMW DOM in the bayous was similar to WWTP effluents and showed minor longitudinal variability in both streams suggesting that WWTPs contribute much of the DOM in the systems. Urbanization has a major influence on organic matter sources and quality in these urban water bodies and these changes seem further enhanced by stream channel modifications

  2. [Effects of Tillage on Distribution of Heavy Metals and Organic Matter Within Purple Paddy Soil Aggregates]. (United States)

    Shi, Qiong-bin; Zhao, Xiu-lan; Chang, Tong-ju; Lu, Ji-wen


    A long-term experiment was utilized to study the effects of tillage methods on the contents and distribution characteristics of organic matter and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe and Mn) in aggregates with different sizes (including 1-2, 0.25-1, 0.05-0.25 mm and soil under two tillage methods including flooded paddy field (FPF) and paddy-upland rotation (PR). The relationship between heavy metals and organic matter in soil aggregates was also analyzed. The results showed that the aggregates of two tillage methods were dominated by 0.05-0.25 mm and organic matter in each aggregate decreased with the decrease of aggregate sizes, however, compared to PR, FPF could significantly increase the contents of organic matter in soils and aggregates. The tillage methods did not significantly affect the contents of heavy metals in soils, but FPF could enhance the accumulation and distribution of aggregate, organic matter and heavy metals in aggregates with diameters of 1-2 mm and 0.25-1 mm. Correlation analysis found that there was a negative correlation between the contents of heavy metals and organic matter in soil aggregates, but a positive correlation between the amounts of heavy metal and organic matter accumulated in soil aggregates. From the slope of the correlation analysis equations, we could found that the sensitivities of heavy metals to the changes of soil organic matters followed the order of Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu > Fe > Cd under the same tillage. When it came to the same heavy metal, it was more sensitive in PR than in FPF.

  3. The fate or organic matter during planetary accretion - Preliminary studies of the organic chemistry of experimentally shocked Murchison meteorite (United States)

    Tingle, Tracy N.; Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.; Becker, Christopher H.


    The fate of organic matter in carbonaceous meteorites during hypervelocity (1-2 km/sec) impacts is investigated using results of experiments in which three samples of the Murchison (CM2) carbonaceous chondrite were shocked to 19, 20, and 36 GPa and analyzed by highly sensitive thermal-desorption photoionization mass spectrometry (SALI). The thermal-desorptive SALI mass spectra of unshocked CM2 material revealed presence of indigenous aliphatic, aromatic, sulfur, and organosulfur compounds, and samples shocked to about 20 GPa showed little or no loss of organic matter. On the other hand, samples shocked to 36 GPa exhibited about 70 percent loss of organic material and a lower alkene/alkane ratio than did the starting material. The results suggest that it is unlikely that the indigenous organic matter in carbonaceous chondritelike planetesimals could have survived the impact on the earth in the later stages of earth's accretion.

  4. Characterization of Soil Organic Matter in Peat Soil with Different Humification Levels using FTIR (United States)

    Teong, I. T.; Felix, N. L. L.; Mohd, S.; Sulaeman, A.


    Peat soil is defined as an accumulation of the debris and vegetative under the water logging condition. Soil organic matter of peat soil was affected by the environmental, weather, types of vegetative. Peat soil was normally classified based on its level of humification. Humification can be defined as the transformation of numerous group of substances (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, etc.) and individual molecules present in living organic matter into group of substances with similar properties (humic substances). During the peat transformation process, content of soil organic matter also will change. Hence, that is important to determine out the types of the organic compound. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) is a machine which is used to differential soil organic matter by using infrared. Infrared is a types of low energy which can determine the organic minerals. Hence, FTIR can be suitable as an indicator on its level of humification. The main objective of this study is to identify an optimized method to characterization of the soil organic content in different level of humification. The case study areas which had been chosen for this study are Parit Sulong, Batu Pahat and UCTS, Sibu. Peat soil samples were taken by every 0.5 m depth until it reached the clay layer. However, the soil organic matter in different humification levels is not significant. FTIR is an indicator which is used to determine the types of soil, but it is unable to differentiate the soil organic matter in peat soil FTIR can determine different types of the soil based on different wave length. Generally, soil organic matter was found that it is not significant to the level of humification.

  5. The change of organic matter in sewage sludge composting and its influence on the adsorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP). (United States)

    Liping, Lou; Defu, Liu; Huanyu, Chen; Fang, Chen; Yunfeng, He; Guangming, Tian


    Due to the abundance of organic matter in compost, the addition of compost to soil can promote the adsorption of pesticides. However, few studies have examined the influence of the composting duration on the organic matter (OM) transformation and adsorption capacity of the compost. In this study, a mixture of sewage sludge and straw was composted, and then the physicochemical properties of various OM were studied. Additionally, the sorption capacities of humic acid (HA), humin (HM), humic acid + humin, and fulvic acid (FA) + humic acid + humin extracted from composts of different stages toward pentachlorophenol (PCP) were compared. The sorption data can be well-described by the Freundlich model, and the sorption capacity of PCP on HM is the strongest of all organic components. After 120 days of composting, the sorption abilities of HA and HM increased by 54.76 and 36.73%, respectively, which corresponds with increases in the aromatization degree, BET specific area, and pore volume and with a decrease in acid functional groups. The sorption ability of HA and HM increased by 54.76 and 36.73% due to the increase of the aromatization degree. However, the sorption capacity of the compost decreased by 51.2%, which resulted from a decrease in total organic matter content and from the interaction between organic components in composts. This could be verified by the sequence of the sorption capacity: HM > HM + HA > HM + HA + FA > HA. The contribution of humus to the sorption of PCP onto compost is approximately 41 to 55%, and it increases with composting time. Therefore, it is possible that other components are present that affect the adsorption of PCP on composts.

  6. Temperature response of litter and soil organic matter decomposition is determined by chemical composition of organic material. (United States)

    Erhagen, Björn; Öquist, Mats; Sparrman, Tobias; Haei, Mahsa; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Hedenström, Mattias; Schleucher, Jürgen; Nilsson, Mats B


    The global soil carbon pool is approximately three times larger than the contemporary atmospheric pool, therefore even minor changes to its integrity may have major implications for atmospheric CO2 concentrations. While theory predicts that the chemical composition of organic matter should constitute a master control on the temperature response of its decomposition, this relationship has not yet been fully demonstrated. We used laboratory incubations of forest soil organic matter (SOM) and fresh litter material together with NMR spectroscopy to make this connection between organic chemical composition and temperature sensitivity of decomposition. Temperature response of decomposition in both fresh litter and SOM was directly related to the chemical composition of the constituent organic matter, explaining 90% and 70% of the variance in Q10 in litter and SOM, respectively. The Q10 of litter decreased with increasing proportions of aromatic and O-aromatic compounds, and increased with increased contents of alkyl- and O-alkyl carbons. In contrast, in SOM, decomposition was affected only by carbonyl compounds. To reveal why a certain group of organic chemical compounds affected the temperature sensitivity of organic matter decomposition in litter and SOM, a more detailed characterization of the (13) C aromatic region using Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence (HSQC) was conducted. The results revealed considerable differences in the aromatic region between litter and SOM. This suggests that the correlation between chemical composition of organic matter and the temperature response of decomposition differed between litter and SOM. The temperature response of soil decomposition processes can thus be described by the chemical composition of its constituent organic matter, this paves the way for improved ecosystem modeling of biosphere feedbacks under a changing climate. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Photochemical production of hydrogen peroxide from natural algicides: decomposition organic matter from straw. (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Zhang, Jie; Tong, Liyin; Yang, Jixiang


    The ability of decomposition organic matter from three natural algicides (barley, rice, and wheat straw) and natural organic matter (NOM) isolates to generate hydrogen peroxide under simulated solar irradiation was evaluated in order to understand the mechanism of indirect algae inhibition through a photochemical pathway. Specific optical properties (higher phenolic hydroxyl group contents and lower E2/E3) of barley straw organic matter (BSOM) reveal its outstanding ability to produce H2O2 as a photosensitizer. The appearance of a protein-like structure in BSOM indicated that bacteria or fungi probably transformed the structure of BSOM and brought other organic matter, which may account for its distinct optical properties. The ΦH2O2 of BSOM obtained through aerobic decomposition is 14.73 × 10(-5), which is three times the value of SRHA, whereas the ΦH2O2 value of BSOM obtained for non-aerobic decomposition was 5.30 × 10(-5), still higher than that of SRHA. The ΦH2O2 of rice straw organic matter was slightly lower than those of SRHA and SRFA, but much higher than that of wheat straw organic matter. The superior ability of BSOM to generate H2O2 was partly responsible for the outstanding potential and prior choice of barley straw for cyanobacteria or algae inhibition in various plant decomposition products.

  8. Effect of organic matter on CO(2) hydrate phase equilibrium in phyllosilicate suspensions. (United States)

    Park, Taehyung; Kyung, Daeseung; Lee, Woojin


    In this study, we examined various CO2 hydrate phase equilibria under diverse, heterogeneous conditions, to provide basic knowledge for successful ocean CO2 sequestration in offshore marine sediments. We investigated the effect of geochemical factors on CO2 hydrate phase equilibrium. The three-phase (liquid-hydrate-vapor) equilibrium of CO2 hydrate in the presence of (i) organic matter (glycine, glucose, and urea), (ii) phyllosilicates [illite, kaolinite, and Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT)], and (iii) mixtures of them was measured in the ranges of 274.5-277.0 K and 14-22 bar. Organic matter inhibited the phase equilibrium of CO2 hydrate by association with water molecules. The inhibition effect decreased in the order: urea equilibrium, while Na-MMT (expandable clay) affected the phase equilibrium because of its interlayer cations. The CO2 hydrate equilibrium conditions, in the illite and kaolinite suspensions with organic matter, were very similar to those in the aqueous organic matter solutions. However, the equilibrium condition in the Na-MMT suspension with organic matter changed because of reduction of its inhibition effect by intercalated organic matter associated with cations in the Na-MMT interlayer.

  9. Volatile organic matter emission trade. Pitfalls and chances. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind, M.H.A.


    The aim of this report is to provide policy makers non-specialist information on a system for tradeable emission rights (VER, abbreviated in Dutch) for volatile matter in the Netherlands in order to be able to choose the best trading system. The information is based on an environmental-economical theory of VER and the results of practical experiments, mainly from the USA. 18 refs [nl

  10. Peat decomposability in managed organic soils in relation to land use, organic matter composition and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bader


    Full Text Available Organic soils comprise a large yet fragile carbon (C store in the global C cycle. Drainage, necessary for agriculture and forestry, triggers rapid decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM, typically increasing in the order forest < grassland < cropland. However, there is also large variation in decomposition due to differences in hydrological conditions, climate and specific management. Here we studied the role of SOM composition on peat decomposability in a variety of differently managed drained organic soils. We collected a total of 560 samples from 21 organic cropland, grassland and forest soils in Switzerland, monitored their CO2 emission rates in lab incubation experiments over 6 months at two temperatures (10 and 20 °C and related them to various soil characteristics, including bulk density, pH, soil organic carbon (SOC content and elemental ratios (C / N, H / C and O / C. CO2 release ranged from 6 to 195 mg CO2-C g−1 SOC at 10 °C and from 12 to 423 mg g−1 at 20 °C. This variation occurring under controlled conditions suggests that besides soil water regime, weather and management, SOM composition may be an underestimated factor that determines CO2 fluxes measured in field experiments. However, correlations between the investigated chemical SOM characteristics and CO2 emissions were weak. The latter also did not show a dependence on land-use type, although peat under forest was decomposed the least. High CO2 emissions in some topsoils were probably related to the accrual of labile crop residues. A comparison with published CO2 rates from incubated mineral soils indicated no difference in SOM decomposability between these soil classes, suggesting that accumulation of recent, labile plant materials that presumably account for most of the evolved CO2 is not systematically different between mineral and organic soils. In our data set, temperature sensitivity of decomposition (Q10 on average 2.57

  11. The flux of organic matter through a peatland ecosystem - a molecular budget of C in peatlands (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Moody, Catherine; Clay, Gareth


    Carbon budgets of peatlands are now common and studies have considered nitrogen, oxygen and energy budgets, but no study has considered the whole composition of the organic matter as it transfers through a peatland. Organic matter samples were taken from each organic matter reservoir and fluvial transfer pathway and analysed the samples by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and thermogravimetric analysis. The samples analysed were: aboveground, belowground, heather, mosses and sedges, litter layer, a peat core, and monthly samples of particulate and dissolved organic matter. All organic matter samples were taken from a 100% peat catchment within Moor House National Nature Reserve in the North Pennines, UK, and collected samples were compared to standards of lignin, cellulose, humic acid and plant protein. Results showed that the thermogravimetric trace of the sampled organic matter were distinctive with the DOM traces being marked out by very low thermal stability relative other organic matter types. The peat profile shows a significant trend with depth from vegetation- to lignin-like composition. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the NMR data shows that the DOM was a mixture of plant and peat compositions reacting to form a highly evolved composition that perhaps represents autochthonous stream processes. When all traces are weighted according to the observed dry matter and carbon budgets for the catchment then it is possible to judge what has been lost in the transition through and into the ecosystem. By plotting this "lost" trace it possible to assess its composition which is either 97% cellulose and 3% humic acid or 92% and 8% lignin. The "lost" composition shows that peatland processes preferentially remove carbohydrates and retaining lignin compounds reflected. Similarly the NMR traces show that while O-alkyl functional groups were selectively lost in the transition while alkyl groups were selectively enriched.

  12. Organic farming enhances soil microbial abundance and activity-A meta-analysis and meta-regression. (United States)

    Lori, Martina; Symnaczik, Sarah; Mäder, Paul; De Deyn, Gerlinde; Gattinger, Andreas


    Population growth and climate change challenge our food and farming systems and provide arguments for an increased intensification of agriculture. A promising option is eco-functional intensification through organic farming, an approach based on using and enhancing internal natural resources and processes to secure and improve agricultural productivity, while minimizing negative environmental impacts. In this concept an active soil microbiota plays an important role for various soil based ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, erosion control and pest and disease regulation. Several studies have reported a positive effect of organic farming on soil health and quality including microbial community traits. However, so far no systematic quantification of whether organic farming systems comprise larger and more active soil microbial communities compared to conventional farming systems was performed on a global scale. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis on current literature to quantify possible differences in key indicators for soil microbial abundance and activity in organic and conventional cropping systems. All together we integrated data from 56 mainly peer-reviewed papers into our analysis, including 149 pairwise comparisons originating from different climatic zones and experimental duration ranging from 3 to more than 100 years. Overall, we found that organic systems had 32% to 84% greater microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, total phospholipid fatty-acids, and dehydrogenase, urease and protease activities than conventional systems. Exclusively the metabolic quotient as an indicator for stresses on microbial communities remained unaffected by the farming systems. Categorical subgroup analysis revealed that crop rotation, the inclusion of legumes in the crop rotation and organic inputs are important farming practices affecting soil microbial community size and activity. Furthermore, we show that differences in microbial size and activity

  13. Production and properties of atmospheric organic particulate matter


    Λούβαρης, Ευάγγελος


    Atmospheric aerosol contains a variety of both inorganic and organic species and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry and physics. Organic compounds are usually the dominant component of the submicrometer particles contributing around 50% of its mass. One of the most important physical properties of organic aerosol is volatility which determines its gas-to particle partitioning and provides both direct information about its origin and indirect information about its chemical compo...

  14. Lability of High Molecular Weight Dissolved Organic Matter Polysaccharides Increases with Mild Acid or Base Treatment. (United States)

    Pedler Sherwood, B.; Sosa, O.; Nelson, C. E.; Repeta, D.; DeLong, E.


    Approximately 662 Pg of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has accumulated in the global ocean, yet the biological and chemical constraints on DOC turnover remain poorly understood. High molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMWDOM) is largely comprised of semi-labile polysaccharides. These polysaccharides resist degradation even in the presence of nutrient amendments, suggesting unknown factors of polysaccharide composition affect microbial degradation. In a series of microcosm incubations conducted at station ALOHA in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, we tested the affect of mild base (KOH-DOM) and acid (HCl-DOM) treatments on polysaccharide lability. KOH-DOM, HCl-DOM, and untreated HMWDOM was added to seawater from the deep chlorophyll maximum and 200m. Microcosms amended with KOH-DOM and HCl-DOM yielded higher bacterial abundance and greater carbon drawdown relative to untreated HMWDOM and unamended controls. Microcosms amended with KOH-DOM and HCl-DOM also showed significant production of fluorescent DOM (fDOM), whereas untreated HMWDOM and unamended controls showed a net decrease in fDOM as measured by parallel factor analysis of DOM excitation-emission spectra. Metagenomic analyses revealed that microcosms amended with untreated HMWDOM and controls became dominated by Alteromonas genera ( 60% total sequence reads). In contrast, KOH-DOM and HCl-DOM amended microcosms yielded greater bacterial diversity; Alteromonas genera comprised 25% of sequence reads, with differences primarily accounted for by proportional increases in vibrio, roseobacter, rugeria and marinomonas clades. Transcriptomic analyses identified differential gene expression during growth on each DOM fraction. This study provides new insight into specific chemical moieties that may limit the bacterial degradation rate of semi-labile HMWDOM in the ocean.

  15. Feasibility analysis of organic Tea authentication using 15N natural abundance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Haiqiang; Pan Zhiqiang; Yu Cuiping; Wang Xiaochang


    Organic agricultural products were always adulterated by pollutant-free agricultural products in market because of lacking of available authentication technique. Organic tea was one of the largest organic agricultural products in China which are facing the same problem and can not be accepted by consumers. In this paper, based on the newest information of δ 15 N from soil-plant-fertilizer system, a new method was suggested to identify whether N fertilizer was applied to organic tea in producing processing. Meanwhile, the principle of this new method and its feasibility were discussed. (authors)

  16. Soil Organic Matter Stability and Soil Carbon Storage with Changes in Land Use Intensity in Uganda (United States)

    Tiemann, L. K.; Grandy, S.; Hartter, J.


    As the foundation of soil fertility, soil organic matter (SOM) formation and break-down is a critical factor of agroecosystem sustainability. In tropical systems where soils are quickly weathered, the link between SOM and soil fertility is particularly strong; however, the mechanisms controlling the stabilization and destabilization of SOM are not well characterized in tropical soils. In western Uganda, we collected soil samples under different levels of land use intensity including maize fields, banana plantations and inside an un-cultivated native tropical forest, Kibale National Park (KNP). To better understand the link between land use intensity and SOM stability we measured total soil C and N, and respiration rates during a 369 d soil incubation. In addition, we separated soils into particle size fractions, and mineral adsorbed SOM in the silt (2-50 μm ) and clay (fractions was dissociated, purified and chemically characterized via pyrolysis-GC/MS. Cultivated soil C and N have declined by 22 and 48%, respectively, in comparison to uncultivated KNP soils. Incubation data indicate that over the last decade, relatively accessible and labile soil organic carbon (SOC) pools have been depleted by 55-59% in cultivated soils. As a result of this depletion, the chemical composition of SOM has been altered such that clay and silt associated SOM differed significantly between agricultural fields and KNP. In particular, nitrogen containing compounds were in lower abundance in agricultural compared to KNP soils. This suggests that N depletion due to agriculture has advanced to pools of mineral associated organic N that are typically protected from break-down. In areas where land use intensity is relatively greater, increases in polysaccharides and lipids in maize fields compared to KNP indicate increases in microbial residues and decomposition by-products as microbes mine SOM for organic N. Chemical characterization of post-incubation SOM will help us better understand

  17. Effect of metal oxides on the stabilization of soil organic matter (United States)

    Stelmach, Wioleta


    Soil organic matter (SOM) is protected from decomposition by three mechanisms: 1) biochemical stabilization through the accumulation of recalcitrant SOM compounds, 2) physical stabilization, i.e. spatial inaccessibility of SOM for microbes, and 3) chemical protection of SOM through intimate interaction with minerals and metal oxides. The latter mechanisms suggest that added organic substances (i.e. post-fermentation sludge) can be stabilized by metal oxides to increase C sequestration in soil. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Fe2O3 - one of the dominant metal oxides in soil - on the sequestration of post-fermentation sludge C in soil by separately tracing the decomposition of sludge and of SOM to carbon dioxide (CO2). To determine changes in SOM turnover after the addition of post-fermentation sludge without/with Fe2O3, the isotopic signatures of both C sources (SOM and post-fermentation sludge) were used. Using differences in the 13C natural abundance of the soil (C3 originated, δ13C = -26) and the post-fermentation sludge (C4 originated, δ13C = -18), the CO2 fluxes arising from both C sources were tracked. Addition of post-fermentation sludge to the soil increased the CO2 production by 30% compared to soil without sludge. δ13C analysis of the total CO2 efflux revealed that post-fermentation sludge decreased SOM decomposition. Fe2O3 slightly suppressed sludge decomposition, and therefore increased C sequestration in soil. Only 30% of the post-fermentation sludge had been mineralized after one month of incubation in the soil. The collective results of my study reveal that application of post-fermentation sludge suppresses SOM decomposition, suggesting its use as a fertilizer could positively influence long-term soil quality. Finally, the success of the 13C natural abundance microcosm labeling approach in my study supports its use as an effective method of analyzing the effects of various fertilization techniques on soil nutrient retention

  18. Accounting for non-independent detection when estimating abundance of organisms with a Bayesian approach (United States)

    Martin, Julien; Royle, J. Andrew; MacKenzie, Darryl I.; Edwards, Holly H.; Kery, Marc; Gardner, Beth


    Summary 1. Binomial mixture models use repeated count data to estimate abundance. They are becoming increasingly popular because they provide a simple and cost-effective way to account for imperfect detection. However, these models assume that individuals are detected independently of each other. This assumption may often be violated in the field. For instance, manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) may surface in turbid water (i.e. become available for detection during aerial surveys) in a correlated manner (i.e. in groups). However, correlated behaviour, affecting the non-independence of individual detections, may also be relevant in other systems (e.g. correlated patterns of singing in birds and amphibians). 2. We extend binomial mixture models to account for correlated behaviour and therefore to account for non-independent detection of individuals. We simulated correlated behaviour using beta-binomial random variables. Our approach can be used to simultaneously estimate abundance, detection probability and a correlation parameter. 3. Fitting binomial mixture models to data that followed a beta-binomial distribution resulted in an overestimation of abundance even for moderate levels of correlation. In contrast, the beta-binomial mixture model performed considerably better in our simulation scenarios. We also present a goodness-of-fit procedure to evaluate the fit of beta-binomial mixture models. 4. We illustrate our approach by fitting both binomial and beta-binomial mixture models to aerial survey data of manatees in Florida. We found that the binomial mixture model did not fit the data, whereas there was no evidence of lack of fit for the beta-binomial mixture model. This example helps illustrate the importance of using simulations and assessing goodness-of-fit when analysing ecological data with N-mixture models. Indeed, both the simulations and the goodness-of-fit procedure highlighted the limitations of the standard binomial mixture model for aerial

  19. Phenanthrene sorption with heterogeneous organic matter in a landfill aquifer material (United States)

    Karapanagioti, H.K.; Sabatini, D.A.; Kleineidam, S.; Grathwohl, P.; Ligouis, B.


    Phenanthrene was used as a model chemical to study the sorption properties of Canadian River Alluvium aquifer material. Both equilibrium and kinetic sorption processes were evaluated through batch studies. The bulk sample was divided into subsamples with varying properties such as particle size, organic content, equilibration time, etc. in order to determine the effect of these properties on resulting sorption parameters. The data have been interpreted and the effect of experimental variables was quantified using the Freundlich isotherm model and a numerical solution of Fick's 2nd law in porous media. Microscopic organic matter characterization proved to be a valuable tool for explaining the results. Different organic matter properties and sorption mechanisms were observed for each soil subsample. Samples containing coal particles presented high Koc values. Samples with organic matter dominated by organic coatings on quartz grains presented low Koc values and contained a high percentage of fast sorption sites. The numerical solution of Fick's 2ndlaw requires the addition of two terms (fast and slow) in order to fit the kinetics of these heterogeneous samples properly. These results thus demonstrate the need for soil organic matter characterization in order to predict and explain the sorption properties of a soil sample containing heterogeneous organic matter and also the difficulty and complexity of modeling sorption in such samples.

  20. Detecting climate-change responses of plants and soil organic matter using isotopomers (United States)

    Schleucher, Jürgen; Ehlers, Ina; Segura, Javier; Haei, Mahsa; Augusti, Angela; Köhler, Iris; Zuidema, Pieter; Nilsson, Mats; Öquist, Mats


    Responses of vegetation and soils to environmental changes will strongly influence future climate, and responses on century time scales are most important for feedbacks on the carbon cycle, climate models, prediction of crop productivity, and for adaptation to climate change. That plants respond to increasing CO2 on century time scales has been proven by changes in stomatal index, but very little is known beyond this. In soil, the complexity of soil organic matter (SOM) has hampered a sufficient understanding of the temperature sensitivity of SOM turnover. Here we present new stable isotope methodology that allows detecting shifts in metabolism on long time scales, and elucidating SOM turnover on the molecular level. Compound-specific isotope analysis measures isotope ratios of defined metabolites, but as average of the entire molecule. Here we demonstrate how much more detailed information can be obtained from analyses of intramolecular distributions of stable isotopes, so-called isotopomer abundances. As key tool, we use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which allows detecting isotope abundance with intramolecular resolution and without risk for isotope fractionation during analysis. Enzyme isotope fractionations create non-random isotopomer patterns in biochemical metabolites. At natural isotope abundance, these patterns continuously store metabolic information. We present a strategy how these patterns can be used as to extract signals on plant physiology, climate variables, and their interactions. Applied in retrospective analyses to herbarium samples and tree-ring series, we detect century-time-scale metabolic changes in response to increasing atmospheric CO2, with no evidence for acclimatory reactions by the plants. In trees, the increase in photosynthesis expected from increasing CO2 ("CO2 fertilization) was diminished by increasing temperatures, which resolves the discrepancy between expected increases in photosynthesis and commonly observed

  1. Soil aggregates, organic matter turnover and carbon balance in a Mediterranean eroded vineyard (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo; Gristina, Luciano; Cerdà, Artemi


    dispersion, were isolated by mechanical shaking of 100 g, air-dried fine earth on a column with sieves of 250 and 63 μm using a Shaker AS 200 Sieve (RETSCH analytical, Haan, Germany) (200-mm sieves, amplitude of 2 cm, frequency of 1.6 Hz and a water flux of 2 litres minute-1). After the physical fractionation, we discriminate three main aggregate-size fractions: >250, 63-250 and natural abundance. European Journal ofSoil science, 64, 466-475. DOI: 10.1111/ejss.12038 Novara, A., Gristina, L., Saladino, S., Santoro, A., Cerda, A. 2011. Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil & Tillage Research 117:140-147. Novara, A., La Mantia, T., Barbera V., Gristina, L. 2012. Paired-site approach for studying soil organic carbon dynamics in a Mediterranean semiarid environment. Catena, 89 (1): 1-7, Yan-Gui, S., Xin-Rong, L., Ying-Wu, C., Zhi-Shan, Z., and Yan, L. 2013. Carbon fixaton of cyanobacterial-algal crusts after desert fixation and its implication to soil organic matter accumulation in Desert. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 342- 349. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1131

  2. Characterisation of Organic Matter and Carbon Cycling in Rehabilitated Lignite-rich Mine Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpel, Cornelia; Koegel-Knabner, Ingrid


    Open-cast lignite mining in the Lusatian mining district resulted in rehabilitated mine soils containing up to four organic matter types: (1) recent plant litter, (2) lignite deposited by mining activity, (3) carbonaceous ash particles deposited during amelioration of the lignite-containing parent substrate and (4) airborne carbonaceous particles deposited during contamination. The influence of lignite-derived carbon types on the organic matter development and their role in the soil carbon cycle was unknown. This paper presents the findings obtained during a six year project concerning the impact of lignite on soil organic matter composition and the biogeochemical functioning of the ecosystem. The organic matter development after rehabilitation was followed in a chronosequence of rehabilitated mine soils afforested in 1966, 1981 and 1987. A differentiation of the organic matter types and an evaluation of their role within the ecosystem was achieved by the use of 14 C activity measurements, 13 C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and wet chemical analysis of plant litter compounds. The results showed that the amount and degree of decomposition of the recent organic matter derived from plant material of the 30 year old mine soil was similar to natural uncontaminated forest soil which suggests complete rehabilitation of the ecosystem. The decomposition and humification processes were not influenced by the presence of lignite. On the other hand it was shown that lignite, which was thought to be recalcitrant because of its chemical structure, was part of the carbon cycle in these soils. This demonstrates the need to elucidate further the stabilisation mechanisms of organic matter in soils

  3. Organic matter in carbonaceous meteorites: past, present and future research. (United States)

    Sephton, Mark A


    Carbonaceous meteorites are fragments of ancient asteroids that have remained relatively unprocessed since the formation of the Solar System. These carbon-rich objects provide a record of prebiotic chemical evolution and a window on the early Solar System. Many compound classes are present reflecting a rich organic chemical environment during the formation of the planets. Recent theories suggest that similar extraterrestrial organic mixtures may have acted as the starting materials for life on Earth.

  4. Transformations in soil organic matter and aggregate stability after conversion of Mediterranean forest to agriculture (United States)

    Recio Vázquez, Lorena; Almendros, Gonzalo; Carral, Pilar; Knicker, Heike; González Pérez, José Antonio; González Vila, Francisco Javier


    Conversion of forest ecosystems into croplands often leads to severe decrease of the soil organic matter (SOM) levels with the concomitant deterioration of soil structure. The present research focuses on the effects of cultivation on the stability of soil macroaggregates, as well as on the total quantity and quality of SOM. Three representative soils from central Spain (i.e., Petric Calcisol, Cutanic Luvisol and Calcic Vertisol) were sampled. Each site had natural vegetation (NV) dominated either by characteristic Mediterranean forest (dehesa) or cereal crops (CC) under conventional tillage. For each site, three spatial replicates of the NV and CC were sampled. Soil aggregate stability was measured by the wet sieving method. The structural stability index was then calculated as the mass of aggregated soil (>250 μm) remaining after wet sieving, as a percent of total aggregate weight. The analytical characterization of the SOM was carried out after chemical fractionation for quantifying the different organic pools: free organic matter (FOM), humic acids (HA), fulvic acids (FA) and humin (H). Furthermore, whole soil samples pretreated with 10 % HF solution were analyzed by CP-MAS 13C NMR and the purified HA fraction was characterized by elementary analysis, visible and infrared spectroscopies and Py-GC/MS. A marked reduction in the proportion of stable aggregates when the natural ecosystem was converted to agriculture was observed. Values of the structural stability index (%) changed over from 96.2 to 38.1, 95.1 to 83.7 and 98.5 to 60.6 for the Calcisol, Luvisol and Vertisol respectively. Comparatively higher contents of SOM were found in the soils under NV (11.69 to 0.93, 3.29 to 2.72 and 9.51 to 0.79 g C100 g-1soil) even though a quantitative rearrangement of the SOM pools was noticed. In all sites, the relative contribution of the labile C (FOM) to the total SOM content decreased when the forest soils were converted into croplands, whereas the proportion of both

  5. The utility of organic matter in the Ems-Dollard estuary (United States)

    Van Es, F. B.; Laane, R. W. P. M.

    To characterize the large amounts of organic matter in the Ems-Dollard estuary in terms of suitability as a food source for heterotrophic organisms, decomposition experiments were carried out. Water samples were taken at 6 weeks intervals from May 1979 to August 1980 and incubated for 4 weeks in the dark at field temperature. During incubation, changes in the concentration of dissolved and particulate organic matter, oxygen and inorganic nitrogen components were followed. The labile part of the investigated component was defined as the fraction that was decomposed during incubation. In the outer part of the estuary the labile fractions of particulate organic carbon (POC) and amino acids (PAC) were high in summer which could be ascribed to the local phytoplankton bloom. In the inner part the labile fractions of POC and PAC were much lower. The labile fractions of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and amino acids (DAC) were low though in the outer part higher percentages were observed during phytoplankton bloom. No significant decomposition of dissolved and particulate carbohydrates was observed. The labile fractions of all components investigated were smallest in the middle part of the estuary which was ascribed to the low local primary production and the long time needed for allochthonous organic matter to reach that part of the estuary. Large amounts of organic matter originating from waste water, were decomposed in the innermost part of the estuary, and had no effect on the labile fraction of organic matter in the other parts of the estuary. Ammonification was frequently observed in the outer part, nitrification generally at all stations. The relation between the low labile fractions of organic matter in the inner part, and the poor growth of filter-feeding macrofauna in that part of the estuary was discussed.

  6. Endogeic earthworms shape bacterial functional communities and affect organic matter mineralization in a tropical soil. (United States)

    Bernard, Laetitia; Chapuis-Lardy, Lydie; Razafimbelo, Tantely; Razafindrakoto, Malalatiana; Pablo, Anne-Laure; Legname, Elvire; Poulain, Julie; Brüls, Thomas; O'Donohue, Michael; Brauman, Alain; Chotte, Jean-Luc; Blanchart, Eric


    Priming effect (PE) is defined as a stimulation of the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) following a supply of fresh organic matter. This process can have important consequences on the fate of SOM and on the management of residues in agricultural soils, especially in tropical regions where soil fertility is essentially based on the management of organic matter. Earthworms are ecosystem engineers known to affect the dynamics of SOM. Endogeic earthworms ingest large amounts of soil and assimilate a part of organic matter it contains. During gut transit, microorganisms are transported to new substrates and their activity is stimulated by (i) the production of readily assimilable organic matter (mucus) and (ii) the possible presence of fresh organic residues in the ingested soil. The objective of our study was to see (i) whether earthworms impact the PE intensity when a fresh residue is added to a tropical soil and (ii) whether this impact is linked to a stimulation/inhibition of bacterial taxa, and which taxa are affected. A tropical soil from Madagascar was incubated in the laboratory, with a (13)C wheat straw residue, in the presence or absence of a peregrine endogeic tropical earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus. Emissions of (12)CO(2) and (13)CO(2) were followed during 16 days. The coupling between DNA-SIP (stable isotope probing) and pyrosequencing showed that stimulation of both the mineralization of wheat residues and the PE can be linked to the stimulation of several groups especially belonging to the Bacteroidetes phylum.

  7. Impact of vegetation on sedimentary organic matter composition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon attenuation. (United States)

    Gregory, Samuel T; Shea, Damian; Guthrie-Nichols, Elizabeth


    Results from natural and engineered phytoremediation systems provide strong evidencethatvegetated soils mitigate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination. However, the mechanisms by which PAH mitigation occurs and the impact of plant organic matter on PAH attenuation remain unclear. This study assessed the impact of plant organic matter on PAH attenuation in labile and refractory sediments fractions from a petroleum distillate waste pit that has naturally revegetated. Samples were collected in distinct zones of barren and vegetated areas to assess changes to organic matter composition and PAH content as vegetation colonized and became established in the waste pit. Sediments were fractionated into bulk sediment and humin fractions and analyzed for organic matter composition by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (delta (13)C), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR), delta 14C AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry), and percent organic carbon (%TOC). Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/ MS) of lipid extracts of SOM fractions provided data for PAH distribution histograms, compound weathering ratios, and alkylated and nonalkylated PAH concentrations. Inputs of biogenic plant carbon, PAH weathering, and declines in PAH concentrations are most evidentfor vegetated SOM fractions, particularly humin fractions. Sequestered PAH metabolites were also observed in vegetated humin. These results show that plant organic matter does impact PAH attenuation in both labile and refractory fractions of petroleum distillate waste.

  8. Enhanced dissolution of cinnabar (mercuric sulfide) by dissolved organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, M.; Ryan, J.N. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering; Aiken, G.R.; Reddy, M.M. [Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States)


    Organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades caused a dramatic increase in mercury release from cinnabar (HgS), a solid with limited solubility. Hydrophobic (a mixture of both humic and fulvic) acids dissolved more mercury than hydrophilic acids and other nonacid fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Cinnabar dissolution by isolated organic matter and natural water samples was inhibited by cations such as Ca{sup 2+}. Dissolution was independent of oxygen content in experimental solutions. Dissolution experiments conducted in Dl water had no detectable dissolved mercury. The presence of various inorganic (chloride, sulfate, or sulfide) and organic ligands (salicylic acid, acetic acid, EDTA, or cysteine) did not enhance the dissolution of mercury from the mineral. Aromatic carbon content in the isolates correlated positively with enhanced cinnabar dissolution. {zeta}-potential measurements indicated sorption of negatively charged organic matter to the negatively charged cinnabar at pH 6.0. Possible mechanisms of dissolution include surface complexation of mercury and oxidation of surface sulfur species by the organic matter.

  9. Endogeic earthworms shape bacterial functional communities and affect organic matter mineralization in a tropical soil (United States)

    Bernard, Laetitia; Chapuis-Lardy, Lydie; Razafimbelo, Tantely; Razafindrakoto, Malalatiana; Pablo, Anne-Laure; Legname, Elvire; Poulain, Julie; Brüls, Thomas; O'Donohue, Michael; Brauman, Alain; Chotte, Jean-Luc; Blanchart, Eric


    Priming effect (PE) is defined as a stimulation of the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) following a supply of fresh organic matter. This process can have important consequences on the fate of SOM and on the management of residues in agricultural soils, especially in tropical regions where soil fertility is essentially based on the management of organic matter. Earthworms are ecosystem engineers known to affect the dynamics of SOM. Endogeic earthworms ingest large amounts of soil and assimilate a part of organic matter it contains. During gut transit, microorganisms are transported to new substrates and their activity is stimulated by (i) the production of readily assimilable organic matter (mucus) and (ii) the possible presence of fresh organic residues in the ingested soil. The objective of our study was to see (i) whether earthworms impact the PE intensity when a fresh residue is added to a tropical soil and (ii) whether this impact is linked to a stimulation/inhibition of bacterial taxa, and which taxa are affected. A tropical soil from Madagascar was incubated in the laboratory, with a 13C wheat straw residue, in the presence or absence of a peregrine endogeic tropical earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus. Emissions of 12CO2 and 13CO2 were followed during 16 days. The coupling between DNA-SIP (stable isotope probing) and pyrosequencing showed that stimulation of both the mineralization of wheat residues and the PE can be linked to the stimulation of several groups especially belonging to the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:21753801

  10. On the nature of organic matter from natural and contaminated materials : isolation methods, characterisation and application to geochemical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.


    Natural organic matter (NOM) is the material that is formed after the natural decomposition and transformation of dead plant and animal matter. The fresh organic matter (e.g. plant leaves or animal debris) is decomposed and transformed by microbial activity. As such, NOM is found everywhere in

  11. On the nature of organic matter from natural and contaminated materials : isolation methods, characterisation and application to geochemical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.


    Natural organic matter (NOM) is the material that is formed after the natural
    decomposition and transformation of dead plant and animal matter. The fresh
    organic matter (e.g. plant leaves or animal debris) is decomposed and
    transformed by microbial activity. As such, NOM is found

  12. Composition, dynamics, and fate of leached dissolved organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems: Results from a decomposition experiment (United States)

    Cleveland, C.C.; Neff, J.C.; Townsend, A.R.; Hood, E.


    Fluxes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are an important vector for the movement of carbon (C) and nutrients both within and between ecosystems. However, although DOM fluxes from throughfall and through litterfall can be large, little is known about the fate of DOM leached from plant canopies, or from the litter layer into the soil horizon. In this study, our objectives were to determine the importance of plant-litter leachate as a vehicle for DOM movement, and to track DOM decomposition [including dissolve organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) fractions], as well as DOM chemical and isotopic dynamics, during a long-term laboratory incubation experiment using fresh leaves and litter from several ecosystem types. The water-extractable fraction of organic C was high for all five plant species, as was the biodegradable fraction; in most cases, more than 70% of the initial DOM was decomposed in the first 10 days of the experiment. The chemical composition of the DOM changed as decomposition proceeded, with humic (hydrophobic) fractions becoming relatively more abundant than nonhumic (hydrophilic) fractions over time. However, in spite of proportional changes in humic and nonhumic fractions over time, our data suggest that both fractions are readily decomposed in the absence of physicochemical reactions with soil surfaces. Our data also showed no changes in the ??13C signature of DOM during decomposition, suggesting that isotopic fractionation during DOM uptake is not a significant process. These results suggest that soil microorganisms preferentially decompose more labile organic molecules in the DOM pool, which also tend to be isotopically heavier than more recalcitrant DOM fractions. We believe that the interaction between DOM decomposition dynamics and soil sorption processes contribute to the ??13C enrichment of soil organic matter commonly observed with depth in soil profiles.

  13. Orchid bees as bio-indicators for organic coffee farms in Costa Rica: Does farm size affect their abundance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Hedström


    Full Text Available The potential of Euglossini bees, especially Euglossa, as biological indicators of organic vs non-organic coffee farms was studied in Atenas and San Isidro, Alajuela, Costa Rica using 1.8-cineole as lure. Observations were made for three days at each of four farms and complemented with data from a year of observations. Orchid bees were in greater abundance in the organic farms (t-Student test. However, lower abundances suggest that an organic farm may be negatively affected by the proximity of non-organic farms, depending on its size and distance. Orchid bees may be indicators of organic coffee farms. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 965-969. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.Por un año estudiamos las abejas de la tribu Euglossini (abejas de las orquídeas, especialmente el género Euglossa en Atenas y San Isidro, Alajuela, Costa Rica, para identificar su potencial como bioindicadoras de fincas orgánicas y fincas "convencionales" de café. Usamos como atrayente aceite de eucalipto (1.8-cineole. Las abejas son más abundantes en las fincas de café orgánico (t-Student. Sin embargo, el relativamente bajo número de abejas en la menor de las dos fincas orgánicas sugiere que el tamaño de una finca orgánica y la proximidad a las fincas convencionales, podrían tener efectos negativos en la orgánica. Estas abejas podrían servir como bioindicadores de fincas orgánicas.

  14. Uptake of allochthonous dissolved organic matter from soil and salmon in coastal temperate rainforest streams (United States)

    Jason B. Fellman; Eran Hood; Richard T. Edwards; Jeremy B. Jones


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important component of aquatic food webs. We compare the uptake kinetics for NH4-N and different fractions of DOM during soil and salmon leachate additions by evaluating the uptake of organic forms of carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON), and proteinaceous DOM, as measured by parallel factor (PARAFAC) modeling of...

  15. Effects of cattle and poultry manures on organic matter content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organic fertilizer showed significant effect on earthworms populations Hyperiodrilus africanus (Oligochaeta, Eudrilidae) in the soil, with 128 and 85% respectively about the poultry and cattle manures compared to the control (p < 0.01). Key words: Cattle manure, poultry manure, cassava, organic matter, cation exchange ...

  16. Fossil organic matter characteristics in permafrost deposits of the northeast Siberian Arctic (United States)

    Lutz Schirrmeister; Guido Grosse; Sebastian Wetterich; Pier Paul Overduin; Jens Straub; Edward A.G. Schuur; Hans-Wolfgang. Hubberton


    Permafrost deposits constitute a large organic carbon pool highly vulnerable to degradation and potential carbon release due to global warming. Permafrost sections along coastal and river bank exposures in NE Siberia were studied for organic matter (OM) characteristics and ice content. OM stored in Quaternary permafrost grew, accumulated, froze, partly decomposed, and...

  17. Mean residence time of kaolinite and smectite-bound organic matter in mozambiquan soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattel-Koekkoek, E.J.W.; Buurman, P.


    To gain understanding about the process of global warming, it is essential to study the global C cycle. In the global C cycle, soil organic matter (SOM) is a major source and sink of atmospheric C. Turnover times of C in these soil organic compounds vary from hours to thousands of years. Clay

  18. Dispersion of kaolinite by dissolved organic matter from Douglas-fir roots (United States)

    Philip B. Durgin; Jesse G. Chaney


    The organic constituents of water extracts from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var. menziesii) roots that cause kaolinite dispersion were investigated. The dissolved organic matter was fractionated according to molecular size and chemical characteristics into acids, neutrals, and bases of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups.

  19. Stream dissolved organic matter bioavailability and composition in watersheds underlain with discontinuous permafrost (United States)

    Kelly L. Balcarczyk; Jeremy B. Jones; Rudolf Jaffe; Nagamitsu Maie


    We examined the impact of permafrost on dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition in Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW), a watershed underlain with discontinuous permafrost, in interior Alaska. The stream draining the high permafrost watershed had higher DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations, higher DOCDON and greater specific...

  20. Origin and fate of organic matter in sandy soils along a primary vegetation succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierop, K.


    Until now little is known about the role vegetation plays in the organic matter formation, particularly at the molecular level. Most ecosystems have a long history, which is unknown or too complex to find distinct relations between vegetation and the chemical composition of soil organic

  1. A review of observations of organic matter in fogs and clouds: Origin, processing and fate (United States)

    Herckes, Pierre; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.; Collett, Jeffrey L.


    While fog and cloud composition has been studied for decades, most of the research was limited to inorganic species and fog acidity. Recently the focus has shifted towards organic matter in the atmospheric aqueous phase of fogs and clouds: its origin, reactivity and fate. An impressive number of fog and cloud chemistry observational studies have been performed over the last decade throughout the world. In the present work we will review the state of knowledge of atmospheric organic matter processing by fogs, with a focus on field observations. We start by reviewing observational studies in general and then discuss our knowledge on the occurrence of organic matter in fogs, its solubility, characterization and molecular speciation. Organic carbon concentrations can vary widely from approximately 1 mg C/L in remote marine environments to more than 100 mg C/L in polluted radiation fogs, accounting for a substantial part of fogwater solutes. The carbonaceous material can enter the droplets from the gas and particle phase and the scavenging behavior of fogs will be detailed. Observational studies showed evidence of aqueous phase transformation of organic material, in particular secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generation, in fog. Recent observations of biological material in fog suggest also an impact of biological processing within the droplets on fog organic matter. The review will end with a discussion of the impact of fog on the deposition fluxes of organic material and hence its atmospheric lifetime.

  2. Radiocarbon dating of fluvial organic matter reveals land-use impacts in boreal peatlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulatt, Chris J.; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Oinonen, Markku


    This study measured the effects of land use on organic matter released to surface waters in a boreal peat catchment using radiocarbon dating of particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC), DOC concentration, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition, and optical measurements...

  3. Hypoxia causes preservation of labile organic matter and changes seafloor microbial community composition (Black Sea) (United States)

    Jessen, Gerdhard L.; Lichtschlag, Anna; Ramette, Alban; Pantoja, Silvio; Rossel, Pamela E.; Schubert, Carsten J.; Struck, Ulrich; Boetius, Antje


    Bottom-water oxygen supply is a key factor governing the biogeochemistry and community composition of marine sediments. Whether it also determines carbon burial rates remains controversial. We investigated the effect of varying oxygen concentrations (170 to 0 μM O2) on microbial remineralization of organic matter in seafloor sediments and on community diversity of the northwestern Crimean shelf break. This study shows that 50% more organic matter is preserved in surface sediments exposed to hypoxia compared to oxic bottom waters. Hypoxic conditions inhibit bioturbation and decreased remineralization rates even within short periods of a few days. These conditions led to the accumulation of threefold more phytodetritus pigments within 40 years compared to the oxic zone. Bacterial community structure also differed between oxic, hypoxic, and anoxic zones. Functional groups relevant in the degradation of particulate organic matter, such as Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria, changed with decreasing oxygenation, and the microbial community of the hypoxic zone took longer to degrade similar amounts of deposited reactive matter. We conclude that hypoxic bottom-water conditions—even on short time scales—substantially increase the preservation potential of organic matter because of the negative effects on benthic fauna and particle mixing and by favoring anaerobic processes, including sulfurization of matter. PMID:28246637

  4. Soil Organic Matter Accumulation and Carbon Fractions along a Moisture Gradient of Forest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Błońska


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to present effects of soil properties, especially moisture, on the quantity and quality of soil organic matter. The investigation was performed in the Czarna Rózga Reserve in Central Poland. Forty circular test areas were located in a regular grid of points (100 × 300 m. Each plot was represented by one soil profile located at the plot’s center. Sample plots were located in the area with Gleysols, Cambisols and Podzols with the water table from 0 to 100 cm. In each soil sample, particle size, total carbon and nitrogen content, acidity, base cations content and fractions of soil organic matter were determined. The organic carbon stock (SOCs was calculated based on its total content at particular genetic soil horizons. A Carbon Distribution Index (CDI was calculated from the ratio of the carbon accumulation in organic horizons and the amount of organic carbon accumulation in the mineral horizons, up to 60 cm. In the soils under study, in the temperate zone, moisture is an important factor in the accumulation of organic carbon in the soil. The highest accumulation of carbon was observed in soils of swampy variant, while the lowest was in the soils of moist variant. Large accumulation of C in the soils with water table 80–100 cm results from the thick organic horizons that are characterized by lower organic matter decomposition and higher acidity. The proportion of carbon accumulation in the organic horizons to the total accumulation in the mineral horizons expresses the distribution of carbon accumulated in the soil profile, and is a measure of quality of the organic matter accumulated. Studies have confirmed the importance of moisture content in the formation of the fractional organic matter. With greater soil moisture, the ratio of humic to fulvic acids (HA/FA decreases, which may suggest an increase in carbon mobility in soils.

  5. Prediction of clay content from water vapour sorption isotherms considering hysteresis and soil organic matter content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, E.; Tuller, M.; Møldrup, Per


    for estimating clay content from hygroscopic water at different relative humidity (RH) levels while considering hysteresis and organic matter content. Continuous adsorption/desorption vapour sorption isotherm loops were measured for 150 differently textured soils with a state-of-the-art vapour sorption analyser...... vapour sorption, which can be measured within a shorter period of time, have recently been developed. Such models are often based on single-point measurements of water adsorption and do not account for sorption hysteresis or organic matter content. The present study introduces regression relationships...... model encompasses all 150 soils regardless of organic carbon (OC) content, the second model considers only soils with OC

  6. Effect of soil pH and organic matter on the adsorption and desorption of pentachlorophenol. (United States)

    Chien, Shui-Wen Chang; Chen, Shou-Hung; Li, Chi-Jui


    Various properties of soil affect the partition of organic contaminants within, and conversely, the properties of the organic contaminants also directly affect their partition behavior in soil. Therefore, understanding the effects of various properties of soil on the partition of organic contaminants favors subsequent assessment and provides soil remediation methods for policymakers. This study selected pentachlorophenol (PCP), a common hydrophobic ionizable organic compound in contaminated sites worldwide, as the target contaminant. The effects of pH, organic matter, and the combination of both, on PCP adsorption/desorption behavior in soil were investigated. Phosphoric acid and potassium hydroxide were used as buffer solutions to modify the soil pH by the batch and column extraction methods. A common retail organic fertilizer and fulvic acid were selected as additives to manipulate the soil organic content. Modifying the pH of the soil samples revealed that acidic soil exhibited a greater PCP adsorption rate than alkaline soil. The amount of PCP desorption increased regardless of pH of the in situ contaminated soil. The adsorption of PCP increased with increasing amount of organic additive. However, addition of fulvic acid yielded different results compared to the addition of organic fertilizer. Specifically, the organic fertilizer could not compete with the in situ contaminated soil in PCP adsorption, whereas fulvic acids increased the PCP dissolution to facilitate adsorbing contaminant adsorption. The combined effect of pH modification and organic matter addition provides additional PCP adsorption sites; therefore, adding the organic fertilizer to decrease the soil pH elevated the PCP adsorption rates of the laterite, alluvial, and in situ contaminated soil samples. The study results revealed that both pH and organic matter content are crucial to PCP adsorption/desorption in soil. Therefore, the effects of soil pH and organic matter should be considered in

  7. [Spatial Distribution of Stable Isotopes in Particle Organic Matters and Sediments from Baishi Reservoirs]. (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Shan; Dai, Yu-xin; Zhang, Rong-kun; Li, Dong-ming


    Water quality and spatial distribution of stable isotopes in particle organic matters and sediments from Baishi reservoirs were produced in October, 2013. The results revealed that the average concentration of POC, TP and TN were (1.76 ± 0.98), (0.04 ± 0.03) and (1.80 ± 0.08) mg · L⁻¹, respectively. In different water depths, the concentrations of POC and TN in surface were higher than those in deep layer, but the concentration of TP was opposite. The concentrations of POC and TP were reduced gradually from upstream to downstream, but the concentration of TN had no obvious change in horizontal distribution. The δ¹³C and δ ¹⁵N values of small particle organic matters were (-24.6 ± 0.9) per thousand and (4.8 ± 0.4) per thousand, the δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N values of large particle organic matters were (-22.5 ± 0.9) per thousand and (6.7 ± 0.5) per thousand, both of which exhibited significant fluctuations. With the δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N values in small particle organic matters were different between each other of 4.6 per thousand and 2.7 per thousand, and those in large particle organic matters were different between each other of 3.3 per thousand and 1.8 per thousand. The δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N values of sediments were (-24.2 ± 1.2) per thousand and (4.1 ± 0.7) per thousand. The results of correlation analysis indicated that there were positively significantly correlated relationships between the stable isotopes values of large particle organic matters with those of small particle organic matters (P stable isotopes values of particle organic matters with those of sediments (P < 0.05). The δ¹⁵N values of particle organic matters in water surface were higher than those in deep layer. The results of correlation analysis indicated that the δ¹⁵N values of large particle organic matters were positive significantly correlated with the concentration of TN (P < 0.05), and the δ¹⁵N values of particle organic matters were positively significantly

  8. methanization of organic matters. Guide for project developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document aims at informing potential project developers (farmers, local communities, industrials) all along the creation of a methanization unit. It precisely indicates administrative procedures required to complete a project. It first presents some generalities about methanization (matters and their performance, methanization cycle, biogas), describes methanization processes (dry and humid), and valorisation processes (co-generation, hot water production, gas injection into the public network), presents digestate characteristics, and discusses benefits and drawbacks of methanization. The different steps of a project management are then analysed. Additional procedures are indicated, and risks and traps of methanization projects are highlighted. The document comes along with a large number of appendices which can be documents released by professional or public bodies

  9. Thermophilic anaerobes in arctic marine sediments induced to mineralize complex organic matter at high temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubert, Casey; Arnosti, Carol; Brüchert, Volker


    temperature-induced food chain mirrors sediment microbial processes occurring at cold in situ temperatures (near 0°C), yet it is catalysed by a completely different set of microorganisms. Using sulfate reduction rates (SRR) as a proxy for organic matter mineralization showed that differences in organic matter......Marine sediments harbour diverse populations of dormant thermophilic bacterial spores that become active in sediment incubation experiments at much higher than in situ temperature. This response was investigated in the presence of natural complex organic matter in sediments of two Arctic fjords...... enzymatic capacities for organic polymer degradation could allow specific heterotrophic populations like these to play a role in sustaining microbial metabolism in the deep, warm, marine biosphere....

  10. The role of organic matter lost in kraft pulping material balances . (United States)

    Luonsi, A; Lento, S; Halttunen, S; Ala-Kaila, K


    Efficiency improvement in a pulp mill includes minimisation of environmental discharges simultaneously with the development of pulp quality and production economy. Material balances in production processes, including fate of sidestreams, are key in proceeding these matters. Different approaches of determining the material balances increase understanding of process behaviour. We have focused on measuring sidestream (carryovers, washing water, filtrate) dissolved organic matter (DOM) in fibreline unit process blocks of softwood ECF bleached kraft production. The DOM was analysed by traditional wastewater methods (volatile solids, organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand). The measured data was combined with primarily simulated water balances and routine operational mill data in a simulation model. From this balance, yield estimate included, lost organic matter through complete degradation (CD) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) can be calculated throughout the fibreline. The sensitivity of this considerable amount (23-35 kgDVS/adt in total) to various factors is discussed in this paper.

  11. Organic matter iron and nutrient transport and nature of dissolved organic matter in the drainage basin of a boreal humic river in northern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, K.


    Organic carbon and iron transport into the Gulf of Bothnia and the seasonal changes in the nature of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were studied in 1983 and 1984 at the mouth of the River Kiiminkijoki, which crosses an area of minerotrophic mires in northern Finland. Organic and inorganic transport within the drainage basin was studied in the summer and autumn of 1985 and 1986. The results indicate that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is mainly of terrestrial origin, leaching mostly from peatlands. The DOC concentrations decrease under low flow conditions. The proportion of drifting algae as a particulate organic carbon (POC) source seems to increase in summer. The changes in the ratio of Fe/DOC, the colour of the DOM and the ratio of Fe/DOC, the colour of the DOM and the ratio of fluorescence to DOC with discharge give indications of the origin, formation, nature and fate of the DOM in the river water. Temperature-dependent microbiological processes in the formation and sedimentation of Fe-organic colloids seem to be important. Estimates are given for the amounts and transport rates of organic carbon and Fe discharged into the Gulf of Bothnia by river. High apparent molecular weight (HAMW) organic colloids are important for the organic, Fe and P transport in the basin. The DOM in the water consists mainly of fulvic acids, although humic acids are also important. The results indicate an increase in the mobilization of HAMW Fe-organic colloids in the peatlands following drainage and peat mining. The transport of inorganic nitrogen from the peatlands in the area and in the river is increasing due to peat mining. The changes in the transport of organic matter, Fe and P are less marked

  12. Effect of crop management and sample year on abundance of soil bacterial communities in organic and conventional cropping systems. (United States)

    Orr, C H; Stewart, C J; Leifert, C; Cooper, J M; Cummings, S P


    To identify changes in the bacterial community, at the phylum level brought about by varied crop management. Next-generation sequencing methods were used to compare the taxonomic structure of the bacterial community within 24 agricultural soils managed with either organic or conventional methods, over a 3-year period. Relative abundance of the proportionately larger phyla (e.g. Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria) was primarily affected by sample year rather than crop management. Changes of abundance in these phyla were correlated with changes in pH, organic nitrogen and soil basal respiration. Crop management affected some of the less dominant phyla (Chloroflexi, Nitrospirae, Gemmatimonadetes) which also correlated with pH and organic N. Soil diversity can vary with changing environmental variables and soil chemistry. If these factors remain constant, soil diversity can also remain constant even under changing land use. The impact of crop management on environmental variables must be considered when interpreting bacterial diversity studies in agricultural soils. Impact of land use change should always be monitored across different sampling time points. Further studies at the functional group level are necessary to assess whether management-induced changes in bacterial community structure are of biological and agronomic relevance. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Tracing organic matter sources in a tropical lagoon of the Caribbean Sea (United States)

    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M.; Garcia-Moya, Alejandro; Tolosa, Imma; Diaz-Asencio, Misael; Corcho-Alvarado, Jose Antonio; Morera-Gomez, Yasser; Fanelli, Emanuela


    The natural protected lagoon of Guanaroca, located between Cienfuegos Bay and the Arimao River, Cuba, has been heavily impacted by human-induced environmental changes over the past century. Sources of organic matter in the Guanaroca lagoon and concentrations of radioisotopes (210Pb, 226Ra, 137Cs and 239,240Pu), as tracers of anthropogenic impacts, were investigated in a 78 cm sediment core. Variations in total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), stable isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N) and ratio of total organic carbon to total nitrogen (C/N) were analysed. On such a basis, environmental changes in the lagoon were revealed. Down core variation patterns of the parameters representing sources of organic matter were predominantly related to the impacts of human activities. Up to the nineteenth century, the principal sources of organic matter to sediments (more than 80%) were a mixing of terrestrial vascular plants ( 48%) and freshwater phytoplankton ( 8%), with minimal contribution from the marine component ( 16%). In the period 1900-1980, due to the strong influence of human activities in the catchment area, the water exchange capacity of the lagoon declined substantially, as indicated by the relatively high proportion of organic matter originated from human activities (58%). Since 1980, as a result of management actions in the protected area, the lagoon has regained gradually its capability to exchange freshwater, showing sources of organic matter similar to the natural conditions recorded previous to 1900, although an indication of human impact (treated sewage contributed for 26% to the organic matter in sediments) was still observed and further management measures would be required.

  14. The impact of sea-level rise on organic matter decay rates in Chesapeake Bay brackish tidal marshes


    Kirwan, M. L.; Langley, J. A.; Guntenspergen, G. R.; Megonigal, J. P.


    The balance between organic matter production and decay determines how fast coastal wetlands accumulate soil organic matter. Despite the importance of soil organic matter accumulation rates in influencing marsh elevation and resistance to sea-level rise, relatively little is known about how decomposition rates will respond to sea-level rise. Here, we estimate the sensitivity of decomposition to flooding by measuring rates of decay in 87 bags filled with milled sedge peat, including soil organ...

  15. How Decisions Can Be Organized - and Why It Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael; Knudsen, Thorbjørn


    Recent theoretical advances allow organizational designers and managers to better understand how decision processes can be improved. These advances allow managers to address a number of critical questions about the structure and process of decision making, issues that are relevant for any kind...... of organization be it social, political, or economic. Can we add another employee somewhere in the decision process to increase economic performance? Can we add or eliminate a channel of communication to raise the quality of decisions? What level of skill is worth paying for when we hire a decision maker...... guidelines that managers can use to improve decision making in their organizations....

  16. Role of microgel formation in scavenging of chromophoric dissolved organic matter and heavy metals in a river-sea system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, Ruei-Feng; Lee, Chon-Lin


    Highlights: • Different types of DOC polymers forming microgel were compared. • The assembly effectiveness of marine DOC was much higher than riverine DOC. • Types and sources of DOC polymers may control the aquatic microgel abundance. • An alternative route for CDOM and heavy metals removal is presented. • Ecological risk and fate assessments of pollutants may consider the microgel phase. - Abstract: We use riverine and marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) polymers to examine their aggregation behavior, and to evaluate the roles of microgel formation in scavenging of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and heavy metals in a river-sea system. Our results indicate that riverine and marine microgels did not exhibit very much difference in size and self-assembly curve; however, the assembly effectiveness ([microgel]/DOC) of marine samples was much higher than riverine. Instead of concentration of DOC, other factors such as types and sources of DOC polymers may control the microgel abundance in aquatic environments. After filtering water samples (microgels removed), the CDOM and selected metals (Cu, Ni, Mn) in the filtrate were quantified. CDOM and metals were concurrently removed to an extent via DOC polymer re-aggregation, which also suggested that the microgels had sequestering capability in CDOM and metals. This finding provides an alternative route for CDOM and heavy metals removal from the water column. As such the process of re-aggregation into microgels should then be considered besides traditional phase partitioning in the assessment of the ecological risk and fate of hazardous materials.

  17. Role of microgel formation in scavenging of chromophoric dissolved organic matter and heavy metals in a river-sea system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiu, Ruei-Feng [Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chon-Lin, E-mail: [Department of Marine Environment and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Health Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)


    Highlights: • Different types of DOC polymers forming microgel were compared. • The assembly effectiveness of marine DOC was much higher than riverine DOC. • Types and sources of DOC polymers may control the aquatic microgel abundance. • An alternative route for CDOM and heavy metals removal is presented. • Ecological risk and fate assessments of pollutants may consider the microgel phase. - Abstract: We use riverine and marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) polymers to examine their aggregation behavior, and to evaluate the roles of microgel formation in scavenging of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and heavy metals in a river-sea system. Our results indicate that riverine and marine microgels did not exhibit very much difference in size and self-assembly curve; however, the assembly effectiveness ([microgel]/DOC) of marine samples was much higher than riverine. Instead of concentration of DOC, other factors such as types and sources of DOC polymers may control the microgel abundance in aquatic environments. After filtering water samples (microgels removed), the CDOM and selected metals (Cu, Ni, Mn) in the filtrate were quantified. CDOM and metals were concurrently removed to an extent via DOC polymer re-aggregation, which also suggested that the microgels had sequestering capability in CDOM and metals. This finding provides an alternative route for CDOM and heavy metals removal from the water column. As such the process of re-aggregation into microgels should then be considered besides traditional phase partitioning in the assessment of the ecological risk and fate of hazardous materials.

  18. Export of Terrestrially-Derived Organic Matter from the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico Sediments as Determined by Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Hatcher, P.; Ware, S. A.; Vaughn, D.; Waggoner, D. C.; Bianchi, T. S.


    Sediment samples extending from the main channel of the Mississippi River to edge of the continental shelf of the Gulf of Mexico were extracted to recover humic acids from the organic matter and subjected to molecular level characterization by electrospray ionization coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS). The data show that sedimentary organic matter at the river mouth contains humic substances with a predominantly terrestrial signature resembling those obtained from soils. Condensed aromatic molecules and carboxyl rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM) typify the major structures observed. The CRAM-like molecules persist progressing seaward into the Gulf while the condensed aromatic molecules diminish in relative abundance. This trend is characteristic of traditional mixing of allochthonous terrestrial with autochthonous source materials, consistent with published isotope and lignin phenol biomarker data. Alternatively, the trend could also be explained by oxidative degradation of mainly terrestrial organic matter whereby the condensed aromatic molecules would be selectively oxidized. CRAM molecules would then become selectively enriched as one progresses from the channel to the continental shelf. Laboratory studies show that aromatic molecules (like those in lignin) subjected to oxidative degradation mainly by hydroxyl radical attack, either biologically or non-biologically, undergo molecular rearrangement via ring-opening to form reactive species. These can interact with nucleophilic molecules such as peptides and sulfur-containing species and/or can undergo cycloaddition reactions to produce CRAM-like species. This latter explanation suggests that the main source of organic matter in this coastal depocenter is terrestrial and that autochthonous organic matter contributes little to sedimentary organic matter.

  19. A model-based comparison of organic matter dynamics between riparian-forested and open-canopy streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenroth Karolina


    Full Text Available The food webs of forest streams are primarily based upon inputs of organic matter from adjacent terrestrial ecosystems. However, streams that run through open landscapes generally lack closed riparian canopies, and an increasing number of studies indicate that terrestrial organic matter may be an important resource in these systems as well. Combining key abiotically-controlled factors (stream discharge, water temperature, and litter input rate with relevant biotic processes (e.g. macroinvertebrate CPOM consumption, microbial processing, we constructed a model to predict and contrast organic matter dynamics (including temporal variation in CPOM standing crop, CPOM processing rate, FPOM production, and detritivore biomass in small riparian-forested and open-canopy streams. Our modeled results showed that the standing crop of CPOM was similar between riparian-forested and open-canopy streams, despite considerable differences in litter input rate. This unexpected result was partly due to linkages between CPOM supply and consumer abundance that produced higher detritivore biomass in the forest stream than the open-canopy stream. CPOM standing crop in the forest stream was mainly regulated by top-down consumer control, depressing it to a level similar to that of the open-canopy stream. In contrast, CPOM standing crop in the open-canopy stream was primarily controlled by physical factors (litter input rates and discharge, not consumption. This suggests that abiotic processes (e.g. discharge may play a greater role in limiting detrital resource availability and consumer biomass in open-canopy streams than in forest streams. These model results give insight on functional differences that exists among streams and they can be used to predict effects of anthropogenic influences such as forestry, agriculture, urbanization, and climate change on streams and how riparian management and conservation tools can be employed to mitigate undesirable effects.

  20. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy study of mineral-organic matter associations in pasture soil clay fractions. (United States)

    Chen, Chunmei; Dynes, James J; Wang, Jian; Karunakaran, Chithra; Sparks, Donald L


    There is a growing acceptance that associations with soil minerals may be the most important overarching stabilization mechanism for soil organic matter. However, direct investigation of organo-mineral associations has been hampered by a lack of methods that can simultaneously characterize organic matter (OM) and soil minerals. In this study, STXM-NEXAFS spectroscopy at the C 1s, Ca 2p, Fe 2p, Al 1s, and Si 1s edges was used to investigate C associations with Ca, Fe, Al, and Si species in soil clay fractions from an upland pasture hillslope. Bulk techniques including C and N NEXAFS, Fe K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy, and XRD were applied to provide additional information. Results demonstrated that C was associated with Ca, Fe, Al, and Si with no separate phase in soil clay particles. In soil clay particles, the pervasive C forms were aromatic C, carboxyl C, and polysaccharides with the relative abundance of carboxyl C and polysaccharides varying spatially at the submicrometer scale. Only limited regions in the soil clay particles had aliphatic C. Good C-Ca spatial correlations were found for soil clay particles with no CaCO3, suggesting a strong role of Ca in organo-mineral assemblage formation. Fe EXAFS showed that about 50% of the total Fe in soils was contained in Fe oxides, whereas Fe-bearing aluminosilicates (vermiculite and Illite) accounted for another 50%. Fe oxides in the soil were mainly crystalline goethite and hematite, with lesser amounts of poorly crystalline ferrihydrite. XRD revealed that soil clay aluminosilicates were hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite, Illite, and kaolinite. C showed similar correlation with Fe to Al and Si, implying a similar association of Fe oxides and aluminosilicates with organic matter in organo-mineral associations. These direct microscopic determinations can help improve understanding of organo-mineral interactions in soils.

  1. Contribution to physico-chemical study of Timahdit bituminous schists (Morocco): Organic matters and metalloporphyrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saoiabi, A.


    The Timahdit bituminous schists have been analysed by different methods. The experimental results obtained using these methods concern the behaviour of the schists and the Kerogen facing the pyrolysis, as well as the separation of the hydrocarbons and the metalloporphyrins. For this purpose the techniques used are: 'Rock Eval' pyrolysis, thermogravimetric analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance (E.P.R.) for the raw rock and the Kerogen; infrared (I.R.), gas chromatography and E.P.R. for the extracted organic matters; E.P.R., I.R., nuclear magnetic resonance (N.M.R.), ultraviolet (U.V.) and mass spectrometry for the metalloporphyrins identification and characterization. The analysis of these schists has shown that: We can extract per solvent only 1% of organic matters, ferric oxide hasn't any effect neither on the pyrolysis nor on the organic matters extraction and that the Kerogen of these schists are relatively rich in hydrocarbonic compounds. The gas chromatography reveal the presence of alkanes with odd number of carbons and isoprenoids. All these criteria indicate an immature, little developped organic matter which having probably a marine origin but possessing a good oil potential. It has also been observed that a part of Iron, Nickel and Vanadium in the schists are incorporated into the organic matters. Nickel and Vanadium are into macrocycles which are porphyrins. A method for extracting and separating these porphyrins has been developped. 43 figs., 21 tabs., 58 refs. (author)

  2. Composition of structural fragments and the mineralization rate of organic matter in zonal soils (United States)

    Larionova, A. A.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Kolyagin, Yu. G.; Kvitkina, A. K.; Kaganov, V. V.; Kudeyarov, V. N.


    Comparative analysis of the climatic characteristics and the recalcitrance against decomposition of organic matter in the zonal soil series of European Russia, from peat surface-gley tundra soil to brown semidesert soil, has assessed the relationships between the period of biological activity, the content of chemically stable functional groups, and the mineralization of humus. The stability of organic matter has been determined from the ratio of functional groups using the solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy of soil samples and the direct measurements of organic matter mineralization from CO2 emission. A statistically significant correlation has been found between the period of biological activity and the humification indices: the CHA/CFA ratio, the aromaticity, and the alkyl/ O-alkyl ratio in organic matter. The closest correlation has been observed between the period of biological activity and the alkyl/ O-alkyl ratio; therefore, this parameter can be an important indicator of the soil humus status. A poor correlation between the mineralization rate and the content of chemically stable functional groups in soil organic matter has been revealed for the studied soil series. At the same time, the lowest rate of carbon mineralization has been observed in southern chernozem characterized by the maximum content of aromatic groups (21% Corg) and surface-gley peat tundra soil, where an extremely high content of unsubstituted CH2 and CH3 alkyl groups (41% Corg) has been noted.

  3. Enhanced dissolution of cinnabar (mercuric sulfide) by dissolved organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades (United States)

    Ravichandran, Mahalingam; Aiken, George R.; Reddy, Michael M.; Ryan, Joseph N.


    Organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades caused a dramatic increase in mercury release (up to 35 μM total dissolved mercury) from cinnabar (HgS), a solid with limited solubility. Hydrophobic (a mixture of both humic and fulvic) acids dissolved more mercury than hydrophilic acids and other nonacid fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Cinnabar dissolution by isolated organic matter and natural water samples was inhibited by cations such as Ca2+. Dissolution was independent of oxygen content in experimental solutions. Dissolution experiments conducted in DI water (pH = 6.0) had no detectable (salicylic acid, acetic acid, EDTA, or cysteine) did not enhance the dissolution of mercury from the mineral. Aromatic carbon content in the isolates (determined by 13C NMR) correlated positively with enhanced cinnabar dissolution. ζ-potential measurements indicated sorption of negatively charged organic matter to the negatively charged cinnabar (pHpzc = 4.0) at pH 6.0. Possible mechanisms of dissolution include surface complexation of mercury and oxidation of surface sulfur species by the organic matter.

  4. Degradation of Non-Diffusible Organic Matter in Biofilm Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohold, Lars Erik; Harremoës, Poul


    A simple laboratory test has been developed in order to demonstrate qualitatively, that the removal of non-diffusible organics in a biofilm reactor requires hydrolysis by extracellular enzymes in the bulk water of the reactor. The results demonstrate the effect of changing volume of bulk water...


    This paper presents a summary of fireplace particle size and organic speciation data gathered to date in an on-going project. Tests are being conducted in a residential wood combustion (RWC) laboratory on three factory-built fireplaces. RWC wood smoke particles <10?m (PM10) con...

  6. Distribution of particulate organic matter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.C.; Rao, T.S.S.

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) of 161 water samples collected from 8 depths (surface to 1000 m) at 21 stations was measured The POC concentrations ranged from 154 to 554 mu g per litre at the surface and decreased in the upper 300 m water column...

  7. Rethinking the Dutch Innovation Agenda: Management and Organization Matter Most

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.W. Volberda (Henk); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans)


    textabstractIn this essay, we challenge the present dominant emphasis in the Dutch Innovation Debate on the creation of technological innovations, the focus on a few core technologies, and the allocation of more financial resources. We argue that managerial capabilities and organizing principles for

  8. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in an urbanized estuary located in Northeastern Brazil. (United States)

    Arguelho, Maria de Lara Palmeira de Macedo; Alves, José do Patrocínio Hora; Monteiro, Adnívia Santos Costa; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges


    The Sal River estuary, which is located in the state of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil, stands out as an urban estuary, anthropogenically impacted by untreated and treated wastewater discharge. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and measurement of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were used for characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the estuarine water. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations ranged from 7.5 to 19.0 mg L -1 and, in general, the highest values were recorded during dry season. For both seasons (dry and rainy), DOC presented an inverse linear relationship with salinity, which indicates a conservative dilution of organic matter coming into the estuary. During rainy season, anthropogenic organic constituents and humic substances from land-based sources predominated in DOM composition, carried by river flow. Whereas during the dry season, it has been observed a significant increase of products generated by microbial degradation of anthropogenic organic matter. The relationships between fluorescence intensity and salinity suggest a conservative behavior during rainy season and a non-conservative behavior during dry season, with addition of fluorescent organic matter into the intermediate zone of the estuary. Photodegradation by action of sunlight caused a decrease in fluorescence intensity of humic and tryptophan-like constituents and the release of photoproducts, resulting in an increase in fluorescence intensity of protein-like constituents.

  9. Effects of salinity and organic matter on the partitioning of perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAs) to clay particles. (United States)

    Jeon, Junho; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Lim, Byung J; An, Kwang Guk; Kim, Sang Don


    The influence of salinity and organic matter on the distribution coefficient (K(d)) for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in a brackish water-clay system was studied. The distribution coefficients (K(d)) for PFAs onto inorganic clay surfaces increased with salinity, providing evidence for electrostatic interaction for the sorption of PFAs, whereas the relationship between K(d) and organic carbon content (f(oc)) suggested that hydrophobic interaction is the primary driving force for the sorption of PFAs onto organic matter. The organic carbon normalized adsorption coefficient (K(oc)) of PFAs can be slightly overestimated due to the electrostatic interaction within uncoated inorganic surfaces. In addition, the dissolved organic matter released from coated clay particles seemed to solvate PFA molecules in solution, which contributed to a decrease in K(d). A positive relationship between K(d) and salinity was apparent, but an empirical relationship for the 'salting-out' effect was not evident. The K(d) values of PFAs are relatively small compared with those reported for persistent organic pollutants. Thus, sorption may not be a significant route of mass transfer of PFAs from water columns in estuarine environments. However, enhancement of sorption of PFAs to particulate matter at high salinity values could evoke potential risks to benthic organisms in estuarine areas.

  10. Biodegradation of Kupferschiefer black shale organic matter (Fore-Sudetic Monocline, Poland) by indigenous microorganisms. (United States)

    Matlakowska, Renata; Sklodowska, Aleksandra


    This study provides the first evidence for the direct biodegradation of persistent organic matter extracted from the organic-rich polymetallic black shale ore Kupferschiefer, one of the most important sources of metals in the world. It was demonstrated that an enriched community of indigenous heterotrophic microorganisms isolated from black shale grown under aerobic conditions could utilize shale organic matter as the sole carbon and energy source. Colonization of shale organic matter was observed. The main biodegradation intermediates and products such as phosphonic acid dioctadecyl ester and isoindole-1,3 were detected in the aqueous phase of cultures. The bacterial community showed the ability to PAH biodegradation, assimilation of organic acids and esters as well as lipase activity. The intracellular accumulation of phosphorus by bacteria during growth on organic matter was confirmed. Strains within the genus Pseudomonas were found to dominate the bacterial population at the end of the experiment. The results of this study confirm that indigenous bacteria are likely to play a role in the biotransformation of black shale and can influence the geochemical cycles of ancient organic carbon in the deep terrestrial subsurface. This process may also occur in tailings ponds containing black shale, and cause the mobilization of potentially toxic compounds to the soil and groundwater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organic Matter Responses to Radiation under Lunar Conditions. (United States)

    Matthewman, Richard; Crawford, Ian A; Jones, Adrian P; Joy, Katherine H; Sephton, Mark A


    Large bodies, such as the Moon, that have remained relatively unaltered for long periods of time have the potential to preserve a record of organic chemical processes from early in the history of the Solar System. A record of volatiles and impactors may be preserved in buried lunar regolith layers that have been capped by protective lava flows. Of particular interest is the possible preservation of prebiotic organic materials delivered by ejected fragments of other bodies, including those originating from the surface of early Earth. Lava flow layers would shield the underlying regolith and any carbon-bearing materials within them from most of the effects of space weathering, but the encapsulated organic materials would still be subject to irradiation before they were buried by regolith formation and capped with lava. We have performed a study to simulate the effects of solar radiation on a variety of organic materials mixed with lunar and meteorite analog substrates. A fluence of ∼3 × 10 13 protons cm -2 at 4-13 MeV, intended to be representative of solar energetic particles, has little detectable effect on low-molecular-weight (≤C 30 ) hydrocarbon structures that can be used to indicate biological activity (biomarkers) or the high-molecular-weight hydrocarbon polymer poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene), and has little apparent effect on a selection of amino acids (≤C 9 ). Inevitably, more lengthy durations of exposure to solar energetic particles may have more deleterious effects, and rapid burial and encapsulation will always be more favorable to