WorldWideScience

Sample records for abundance mineral

  1. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  2. SPECTRAL UNMIXING BASED CONSTRUCTION OF LUNAR MINERAL ABUNDANCE MAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bernhardt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we apply a nonlinear spectral unmixing algorithm to a nearly global lunar spectral reflectance mosaic derived from hyper-spectral image data acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3 instrument. Corrections for topographic effects and for thermal emission were performed. A set of 19 laboratory-based reflectance spectra of lunar samples published by the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC were used as a catalog of potential endmember spectra. For a given spectrum, the multi-population population-based incremental learning (MPBIL algorithm was used to determine the subset of endmembers actually contained in it. However, as the MPBIL algorithm is computationally expensive, it cannot be applied to all pixels of the reflectance mosaic. Hence, the reflectance mosaic was clustered into a set of 64 prototype spectra, and the MPBIL algorithm was applied to each prototype spectrum. Each pixel of the mosaic was assigned to the most similar prototype, and the set of endmembers previously determined for that prototype was used for pixel-wise nonlinear spectral unmixing using the Hapke model, implemented as linear unmixing of the single-scattering albedo spectrum. This procedure yields maps of the fractional abundances of the 19 endmembers. Based on the known modal abundances of a variety of mineral species in the LSCC samples, a conversion from endmember abundances to mineral abundances was performed. We present maps of the fractional abundances of plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine and compare our results with previously published lunar mineral abundance maps.

  3. Spectral Unmixing Based Construction of Lunar Mineral Abundance Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, V.; Grumpe, A.; Wöhler, C.

    2017-07-01

    In this study we apply a nonlinear spectral unmixing algorithm to a nearly global lunar spectral reflectance mosaic derived from hyper-spectral image data acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument. Corrections for topographic effects and for thermal emission were performed. A set of 19 laboratory-based reflectance spectra of lunar samples published by the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) were used as a catalog of potential endmember spectra. For a given spectrum, the multi-population population-based incremental learning (MPBIL) algorithm was used to determine the subset of endmembers actually contained in it. However, as the MPBIL algorithm is computationally expensive, it cannot be applied to all pixels of the reflectance mosaic. Hence, the reflectance mosaic was clustered into a set of 64 prototype spectra, and the MPBIL algorithm was applied to each prototype spectrum. Each pixel of the mosaic was assigned to the most similar prototype, and the set of endmembers previously determined for that prototype was used for pixel-wise nonlinear spectral unmixing using the Hapke model, implemented as linear unmixing of the single-scattering albedo spectrum. This procedure yields maps of the fractional abundances of the 19 endmembers. Based on the known modal abundances of a variety of mineral species in the LSCC samples, a conversion from endmember abundances to mineral abundances was performed. We present maps of the fractional abundances of plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine and compare our results with previously published lunar mineral abundance maps.

  4. Implications of abundant hygroscopic minerals in the Martian regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.

    1978-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that a significant portion of the Martian surface fines may consist of salts and smectite clays. Salts can form stoichiometric hydrates as well as eutectic solutions with depressed freezing points; clays contain bound water of constitution and adsorb significant quantities of water from the vapor phase. The formation of ice may be suppressed by these minerals in some regions on Mars, and their presence in abundance would imply important consequences for atmospheric and geologic processes and the prospects for exobiology.

  5. RETRIEVAL OF MINERAL ABUNDANCES OF THE DELTA REGION IN EBERSWALDE, MARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eberswalde Crater, a hotspot of Mars exploration, possesses an unambiguous hydrological system. However, little research has been performed on the large-scale mineral abundances retrieval in this region. Hence, we employed hyperspectral unmixing technology to quantitatively retrieve mineral abundances of the delta region in Eberswalde. In this paper, the single-scattering albedos were calculated by the Hapke bidirectional reflectance function from Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM data (FRT000060DD and CRISM spectral library respectively, and a sparse unmixing algorithm was adopted to quantitatively retrieve mineral abundances. The abundance maps show that there are six kinds of minerals (pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, siderite, diaspore, and tremolite. By comparing minerals spectra obtained from images with corresponding spectra in spectral library, we found the similar trend in both curves. Besides, the mineral abundance maps derived in this study agree well spatially with CRISM parameter maps. From the perspective of mineralogy, the instability of pyroxene and olivine indicates the area in which they distribute is close to provenance, and the original provenance is ultrabasic rock (e.g. peridotite and basic rock (e.g. gabbro, respectively. And minerals, existing in the area of alluvial fan, also distribute in the outside of alluvial fan, which might be caused by fluid transportation.

  6. Retrieval of Mineral Abundances of the Delta Region in Eberswalde, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Zhang, X.; Lin, H.

    2017-07-01

    Eberswalde Crater, a hotspot of Mars exploration, possesses an unambiguous hydrological system. However, little research has been performed on the large-scale mineral abundances retrieval in this region. Hence, we employed hyperspectral unmixing technology to quantitatively retrieve mineral abundances of the delta region in Eberswalde. In this paper, the single-scattering albedos were calculated by the Hapke bidirectional reflectance function from Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) data (FRT000060DD) and CRISM spectral library respectively, and a sparse unmixing algorithm was adopted to quantitatively retrieve mineral abundances. The abundance maps show that there are six kinds of minerals (pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, siderite, diaspore, and tremolite). By comparing minerals spectra obtained from images with corresponding spectra in spectral library, we found the similar trend in both curves. Besides, the mineral abundance maps derived in this study agree well spatially with CRISM parameter maps. From the perspective of mineralogy, the instability of pyroxene and olivine indicates the area in which they distribute is close to provenance, and the original provenance is ultrabasic rock (e.g. peridotite) and basic rock (e.g. gabbro), respectively. And minerals, existing in the area of alluvial fan, also distribute in the outside of alluvial fan, which might be caused by fluid transportation.

  7. Mineralogy. Discovery of bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral in Earth, in a shocked meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschauner, Oliver; Ma, Chi; Beckett, John R; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B; Rossman, George R

    2014-11-28

    Meteorites exposed to high pressures and temperatures during impact-induced shock often contain minerals whose occurrence and stability normally confine them to the deeper portions of Earth's mantle. One exception has been MgSiO3 in the perovskite structure, which is the most abundant solid phase in Earth. Here we report the discovery of this important phase as a mineral in the Tenham L6 chondrite and approved by the International Mineralogical Association (specimen IMA 2014-017). MgSiO3-perovskite is now called bridgmanite. The associated phase assemblage constrains peak shock conditions to ~ 24 gigapascals and 2300 kelvin. The discovery concludes a half century of efforts to find, identify, and characterize a natural specimen of this important mineral. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Post-fire spatial patterns of soil nitrogen mineralization and microbial abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica A H Smithwick

    Full Text Available Stand-replacing fires influence soil nitrogen availability and microbial community composition, which may in turn mediate post-fire successional dynamics and nutrient cycling. However, fires create patchiness at both local and landscape scales and do not result in consistent patterns of ecological dynamics. The objectives of this study were to (1 quantify the spatial structure of microbial communities in forest stands recently affected by stand-replacing fire and (2 determine whether microbial variables aid predictions of in situ net nitrogen mineralization rates in recently burned stands. The study was conducted in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia and Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir (Picea engelmannii/Abies lasiocarpa forest stands that burned during summer 2000 in Greater Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA. Using a fully probabilistic spatial process model and Bayesian kriging, the spatial structure of microbial lipid abundance and fungi-to-bacteria ratios were found to be spatially structured within plots two years following fire (for most plots, autocorrelation range varied from 1.5 to 10.5 m. Congruence of spatial patterns among microbial variables, in situ net N mineralization, and cover variables was evident. Stepwise regression resulted in significant models of in situ net N mineralization and included variables describing fungal and bacterial abundance, although explained variance was low (R²<0.29. Unraveling complex spatial patterns of nutrient cycling and the biotic factors that regulate it remains challenging but is critical for explaining post-fire ecosystem function, especially in Greater Yellowstone, which is projected to experience increased fire frequencies by mid 21(st Century.

  9. Post-Fire Spatial Patterns of Soil Nitrogen Mineralization and Microbial Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithwick, Erica A. H.; Naithani, Kusum J.; Balser, Teri C.; Romme, William H.; Turner, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    Stand-replacing fires influence soil nitrogen availability and microbial community composition, which may in turn mediate post-fire successional dynamics and nutrient cycling. However, fires create patchiness at both local and landscape scales and do not result in consistent patterns of ecological dynamics. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the spatial structure of microbial communities in forest stands recently affected by stand-replacing fire and (2) determine whether microbial variables aid predictions of in situ net nitrogen mineralization rates in recently burned stands. The study was conducted in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir (Picea engelmannii/Abies lasiocarpa) forest stands that burned during summer 2000 in Greater Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA). Using a fully probabilistic spatial process model and Bayesian kriging, the spatial structure of microbial lipid abundance and fungi-to-bacteria ratios were found to be spatially structured within plots two years following fire (for most plots, autocorrelation range varied from 1.5 to 10.5 m). Congruence of spatial patterns among microbial variables, in situ net N mineralization, and cover variables was evident. Stepwise regression resulted in significant models of in situ net N mineralization and included variables describing fungal and bacterial abundance, although explained variance was low (R2<0.29). Unraveling complex spatial patterns of nutrient cycling and the biotic factors that regulate it remains challenging but is critical for explaining post-fire ecosystem function, especially in Greater Yellowstone, which is projected to experience increased fire frequencies by mid 21st Century. PMID:23226324

  10. Mineral abundances and different levels of alteration around Mawrth Vallis, Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Gou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spectral indices from OMEGA hyperspectral data show that there are two main phyllosilicates exposed in and around Mawrth Vallis: Al phyllosilicates and Fe/Mg phyllosilicates. Detailed analysis of CRISM spectra shows that Al phyllosilicates such as montmorillonite, hydrated silica, kaolinite; Fe/Mg phyllosilicates such as nontronite, saponite, serpentine are widespread on the light-toned outcrops. Though similar stratigraphical sequences, morphologies and textures are observed on both sides of Mawrth Vallis from HiRISE images, suggesting that the geological processes that formed these units must have operated at a regional scale; the multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA derived mineral abundance indicates that there is a higher level of alteration in the western side relative to the eastern side. We suggest that the observed phyllosilicates, stratigraphical sequences and different levels of alteration might have been caused by sedimentary deposition processes in which the composition of the external source sediment or the local solution was different, or by a pedogenic process closely related to the leaching of abundant liquid water with different chemical properties.

  11. The Study of Abundance of Soil Minerals on Micro Toposequen of Karst Gunungsewu Pegunungan Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Mulyanto

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Landform of Gunungsewu karst topography dominated by positive forms consists of hills and negative forms of dolines. On the micro toposequen of karst, most of dolines dominated by red soils which hue 2.5 YR – 5 YR, whereas on hills by soils which hue 5 YR – 7.5 YR. The aim of research was to study of soil minerals status on karst micro toposequent. Results showed that soil minerals of sand fraction on dolines dominated by quartz, opaque, and iron concretion, whereas on hills dominated by labradorite, and mafic minerals. Clay minerals on doline dominated by kaolinite whereas on hills by halloysite. The high concentration of kaolinite, quartz, opaque and iron concretions of soils on dolines appropriate with degree of soil weathering which in a line with decreasing of soil pH, silt/ clay ratio, and hue of soils on dolines redder than hue of soils on hills. The origin of soil parent material suggested come from volcanic materials.

  12. THE SCARCITY-ABUNDANCE RELATIONSHIP OF MINERAL RESOURCES INTRODUCING SOME SUSTAINTABLE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO ESPI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El Planeta posee un gran número de concentraciones de minerales. Sin embargo, el bajo precio asignado a estos recursos y los principios de la minería sostenible, a corto plazo, pueden producir limitaciones en la exploración y en la extracción de estos recursos, que en un futuro inmediato, sin duda, afectarán al suministro de los minerales. La verdadera contabilidad de los recursos naturales no renovables ha de hacerse introduciendo los valores sin mercado provocados por su explotación que hasta ahora no habían sido contabilizados. Las herramientas de gestión ambiental (fundamentalmente el Análisis Exergético y el Análisis de Ciclo de Vida, aplicados a la producción mineral son instrumentos para alcanzar este fin, tal como se expresa a continuación.

  13. Discharge of landfill leachate to streambed sediments impacts the mineralization potential of phenoxy acid herbicides depending on the initial abundance of tfdA gene classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazarbasi, Meric Batioglu; Milosevic, Nemanja; Malaguerra, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    faster mineralization. The observed difference in mineralization rates between discharge zones was simulated by a Monod-based kinetic model, which confirmed the role of abundance of tfdA gene classes. This study suggests presence of specific degraders adapted to slow growth rate and high yield strategy...

  14. Estimating bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) abundance using noninvasive sampling at a mineral lick within a National Park Wilderness Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Watry, Mary Kay; Ellison, Laura E.; Schwarz, Michael A.; Luikart, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of species requires accurate population estimates. We used genetic markers from feces to determine bighorn sheep abundance for a herd that was hypothesized to be declining and in need of population status monitoring. We sampled from a small but accessible portion of the population's range where animals naturally congregate at a natural mineral lick to test whether we could accurately estimate population size by sampling from an area where animals concentrate. We used mark-recapture analysis to derive population estimates, and compared estimates from this smaller spatial sampling to estimates from sampling of the entire bighorn sheep range. We found that estimates were somewhat comparable; in 2009, the mineral lick sample and entire range sample differed by 20 individuals, and in 2010 they differed by only one individual. However, we captured 13 individuals in the entire range sample that were not captured at the mineral lick, and thus violated a model assumption that all individuals had an equal opportunity of being captured. This eliminated the possibility of inferring a total population estimate from just animals visiting the mineral lick, but because estimates were relatively similar, monitoring at the mineral lick can provide a useful index for management and conservation. We compared our results to a radio-collar study conducted in 2003–2004 and confirmed that the population remained stable since 2004. Our population estimates were 78 (CI 62–114) in 2009 and 95 (CI 77–131) in 2010. Between 7 and 11 sampling dates were needed to achieve a CV of 20% for population estimates, assuming a capture probability between 0.09 and 0.13. We relied on citizen science volunteers to maximize data collection and reduce costs; 71% of all fecal samples were collected by volunteers, compared to 29% collected by paid staff. We conclude that our technique provides a useful monitoring tool for managers. The technique could be tested and applied in similar

  15. Mineral abundances of comet 17P/Holmes derived from the mid-infrared spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, MItsuru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Kawakita, Hideyo; Sakon, Itsuki; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Watanabe, Jun-ichi

    2017-10-01

    Dust grains of crystalline silicate, which is rarely presented in an interstellar space, were found in cometary nuclei (Messenger et al. 1996, LPI, 27, 867; Wooden et al. 1999, ApJ, 517, 1058, references therein). It is thought that these crystalline silicates had formed by annealing or condensations of amorphous grains near the Sun in the solar nebula, and incorporated into a cometary nucleus in a cold region (farther than formation regions of the crystalline silicates) by radial transportation in the solar nebula. It is considered that transportation mechanisms to outside of the solar nebula were turbulent and/or X-wind. An abundance of the crystalline dust grains was therefore expected to be smaller as far from the Sun (Gail, 2001, A&A, 378, 192; Bockelée-Morvan et al. 2002, A&A, 384, 1107). Namely, the abundance ratio of the crystalline silicate in cometary dust grains relates a degree of mass transportation and a distance from the Sun when cometary nucleus formed in the Solar nebula. The mass ratio of crystalline silicates of dust grains is determined from by Si-O stretching vibrational bands of silicate grains around 10 μm using difference of spectral band features between crystalline and amorphous grains. We present the crystalline-to-amorphous mass ratio of silicate grains in the comet 17P/Holmes by using the thermal emission mode of the dust grains (Ootsubo et al. 2007, P&SS, 55, 1044) applied to the mid-infrared spectra of the comet. These spectra were taken by the COMICS mounted on the Subaru Telescope on 2007 October 25, 26, 27 and 28 immediately after the great outburst of the comet (started on October 23). We discuss about formation conditions of the nucleus of the comet based on the derived mass ratio of silicate grains of the comet.

  16. Relative Abundances of Regional vs. Far Traveled Mineral Dust Deposited in the Alpine Zone of the Uinta Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Jeffrey

    2017-04-01

    An active dust sampler deployed above treeline at an elevation of 3700 m in the Uinta Mountains (Utah, USA) is illuminating the relative importance of regional and remote sources of mineral dust. The wind regime at this location is strongly bimodal, either from the NNW (winter dominant) and SSE (summer dominant). The sampler uses solar-powered fans to pull air through a 7.5-cm diameter tube packed with glass beads. A wind-actuated switch allows the collection of separate samples for the two primary directions when windspeeds are in excess of 5 m/sec. Over the long term, each fan runs an average of ˜2 hr/day. The sampler is emptied twice in most years, yielding summer (˜June-October) and winter (˜October-June) seasonal samples. Results indicate that the dust concentration (measured as μg/hr of fan time) is greater in air approaching from the SSE. The magnitude of enrichment varies seasonally, with values ˜1.6x in the summer, and >3x during the winter season. In a collection that spanned a full 12-month interval (early July 2014—late June 2015) the enrichment was also ˜2x (192 vs. 105 μg/hr) indicating that southerly direction dominates on an annual basis. Grain size analysis with laser scattering after peroxidation reveals that samples from both directions have similar means of 15-20 μm. Samples from the SSE exhibit a more focused distribution with a variance of ˜300 μm2 (s.d. 17 μm) compared with ˜1000 μm2 for the NNW sample (s.d. 31 μm). Both samples exhibit similar abundances of very fine (˜13%) and fine (˜24%) silt. In contrast, clay is twice as abundant in the SSE sample, whereas fine and very fine sand are more abundant in the NNW sample. XRD analysis reveals that all samples contain quartz, illite, K-spar, plagioclase, and amphibole. One sample from the NNW also contains poorly ordered smectite. ICP-MS reveals that many trace elements are more common in samples from opposing wind directions. For instance, Zr and Hf are notably more abundant

  17. Centimetre-scale vertical variability of phenoxy acid herbicide mineralization potential in aquifer sediment relates to the abundance of tfdA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batıoğlu-Pazarbaşı, Meriç; Bælum, Jacob; Johnsen, Anders R; Sørensen, Sebastian R; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Aamand, Jens

    2012-05-01

    Centimetre-scale vertical distribution of mineralization potential was determined for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (MCPP) by 96-well microplate radiorespirometric analysis in aquifer sediment sampled just below the groundwater table. Mineralization of 2,4-D and MCPA was fastest in sediment samples taken close to the groundwater table, whereas only minor mineralization of MCPP was seen. Considerable variability was exhibited at increasing aquifer depth, more so with 2,4-D than with MCPA. This suggests that the abundance of MCPA degraders was greater than that of 2,4-D degraders, possibly due to the fact that the overlying agricultural soil had long been treated with MCPA. Mineralization of 2,4-D and MCPA was followed by increased abundance of tfdA class I and class III catabolic genes, which are known to be involved in the metabolism of phenoxy acid herbicides. tfdA class III gene copy number was approximately 100-fold greater in samples able to mineralize MCPA than in samples able to mineralize 2,4-D, suggesting that tfdA class III gene plays a greater role in the metabolism of MCPA than of 2,4-D. Degradation rate was found to correlate positively with tfdA gene copy number, as well as with the total organic carbon content of the sediment.

  18. Low to Extremely Low Water Abundances Measured in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals in Mafic to Granitic Apollo Rock Clasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Christoffersen, R.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Mills, R. D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Lunar sample-based volatile studies have focused on assessing the inventory and distribution of water in the Moon. Some have focused on the relatively young mare basalts and pyroclastic glasses, which result from partial melting of the relatively young lunar mantle. Less certain is the water inventory for the oldest materials available, which have the greater potential to record the earliest history of volatiles in the Moon (and thus provide evidence for the "wet" vs. "dry" accretion hypotheses of the Earth-Moon system. Studies of volatiles in ancient lunar rocks have largely focused on apatite. One recent FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Radiometer) study of plagioclase reported a relatively "wet" (approximately 320 parts per million) magma for primordial ferroan anorthosites (FANs). Another, a NanoSIMS study of alkali feldspar, reported a "wet" (approximately 1 weight percentage) felsic magma, but due to the differentiation processes required for silicic magmatism in the lunar crust, predicted an essentially "dry" (less than 100 parts per million) bulk Moon. Thus, despite evidence that appears to complicate the early "dry" Moon paradigm, there is no apparent unanimity among the measurements, even those on apatite. This disparity is clearly seen by the order of magnitude different water estimates for lunar "alkali-rich suite rocks" (Fig. 1). Some of the apparent differences may be explained by recent improvements in the apatite-based water estimates that better account for relative compatibilities of OH-, Cl, and F. In the present work, we seek to expand our understanding of the volatile abundances in early formed lunar magmas, their source reservoirs, and to address the potential role that felsic magmas play on the lunar hydrogen budget over time by employing NanoSIMS analysis of nominally anhydrous minerals.

  19. MINERAL ABUNDANCE AND PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION DERIVED FROM IN-SITU SPECTRA MEASUREMENTS OF YUTU ROVER OF CHANG’E-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available From geologic perspective, understanding the types, abundance, and size distributions of minerals allows us to address what geologic processes have been active on the lunar and planetary surface. The imaging spectrometer which was carried by the Yutu Rover of Chinese Chang’E-3 mission collected the reflectance at four different sites at the height of ~ 1 m, providing a new insight to understand the lunar surface. The mineral composition and Particle Size Distribution (PSD of these four sites were derived in this study using a Radiative Transfer Model (RTM and Sparse Unmixing (SU algorithm. The endmembers used were clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, olivine, plagioclase and agglutinate collected from the lunar sample spectral dataset in RELAB. The results show that the agglutinate, clinopyroxene and olivine are the dominant minerals around the landing site. In location Node E, the abundance of agglutinate can reach up to 70 %, and the abundances of clinopyroxene and olivine are around 10 %. The mean particle sizes and the deviations of these endmembers were retrieved. PSDs of all these endmembers are close to normal distribution, and differences exist in the mean particle sizes, indicating the difference of space weathering rate of these endmembers.

  20. Mineral Abundance and Particle Size Distribution Derived from In-Situ Spectra Measurements of Yutu Rover of CHANG'E-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; Zhang, X.; Yang, Y.; Wu, X.; Guo, D.

    2017-07-01

    From geologic perspective, understanding the types, abundance, and size distributions of minerals allows us to address what geologic processes have been active on the lunar and planetary surface. The imaging spectrometer which was carried by the Yutu Rover of Chinese Chang'E-3 mission collected the reflectance at four different sites at the height of  1 m, providing a new insight to understand the lunar surface. The mineral composition and Particle Size Distribution (PSD) of these four sites were derived in this study using a Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) and Sparse Unmixing (SU) algorithm. The endmembers used were clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, olivine, plagioclase and agglutinate collected from the lunar sample spectral dataset in RELAB. The results show that the agglutinate, clinopyroxene and olivine are the dominant minerals around the landing site. In location Node E, the abundance of agglutinate can reach up to 70 %, and the abundances of clinopyroxene and olivine are around 10 %. The mean particle sizes and the deviations of these endmembers were retrieved. PSDs of all these endmembers are close to normal distribution, and differences exist in the mean particle sizes, indicating the difference of space weathering rate of these endmembers.

  1. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  2. Impact of Reed Canary Grass Cultivation and Mineral Fertilisation on the Microbial Abundance and Genetic Potential for Methane Production in Residual Peat of an Abandoned Peat Extraction Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikk Espenberg

    Full Text Available This study examined physiochemical conditions and prokaryotic community structure (the bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and mcrA gene abundances and proportions, and evaluated the effect of reed canary grass cultivation and mineral fertilisation on these factors, in the 60 cm thick residual peat layer of experimental plots located on an abandoned peat extraction area. The archaeal proportion was 0.67-39.56% in the prokaryotic community and the methanogens proportion was 0.01-1.77% in the archaeal community. When bacterial abundance was higher in the top 20 cm of peat, the archaea were more abundant in the 20-60 cm layer and methanogens in the 40-60 cm layer of the residual peat. The bacterial abundance was significantly increased, but archaeal abundance was not affected by cultivation. The fertiliser application had a slight effect on peat properties and on archaeal and methanogen abundances in the deeper layer of cultivated peat. The CH4 emission was positively related to mcrA abundance in the 20-60 cm of the bare peat, while in case of reed canary grass cultivation these two parameters were not correlated. Reed canary grass cultivation mitigated CH4 emission, although methanogen abundance remained approximately the same or even increased in different layers of residual peat under cultivated sites over time. This study supports the outlook of using abandoned peat extraction areas to produce reed canary grass for energy purposes as an advisable land-use practice from the perspective of atmospheric impact in peatland-rich Northern Europe.

  3. Impact of Reed Canary Grass Cultivation and Mineral Fertilisation on the Microbial Abundance and Genetic Potential for Methane Production in Residual Peat of an Abandoned Peat Extraction Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenberg, Mikk; Truu, Marika; Truu, Jaak; Maddison, Martin; Nõlvak, Hiie; Järveoja, Järvi; Mander, Ülo

    This study examined physiochemical conditions and prokaryotic community structure (the bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and mcrA gene abundances and proportions), and evaluated the effect of reed canary grass cultivation and mineral fertilisation on these factors, in the 60 cm thick residual peat layer of experimental plots located on an abandoned peat extraction area. The archaeal proportion was 0.67-39.56% in the prokaryotic community and the methanogens proportion was 0.01-1.77% in the archaeal community. When bacterial abundance was higher in the top 20 cm of peat, the archaea were more abundant in the 20-60 cm layer and methanogens in the 40-60 cm layer of the residual peat. The bacterial abundance was significantly increased, but archaeal abundance was not affected by cultivation. The fertiliser application had a slight effect on peat properties and on archaeal and methanogen abundances in the deeper layer of cultivated peat. The CH4 emission was positively related to mcrA abundance in the 20-60 cm of the bare peat, while in case of reed canary grass cultivation these two parameters were not correlated. Reed canary grass cultivation mitigated CH4 emission, although methanogen abundance remained approximately the same or even increased in different layers of residual peat under cultivated sites over time. This study supports the outlook of using abandoned peat extraction areas to produce reed canary grass for energy purposes as an advisable land-use practice from the perspective of atmospheric impact in peatland-rich Northern Europe.

  4. Rare earth element abundances in rocks and minerals from the Fiskenaesset Complex, West Greenland. [comparison with lunar anorthosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, P.; Fishlock, S. J.; Laul, J. C.; Cooper, T. D.; Conard, R. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports activation-analysis determinations of rare-earth-element (REE) and other trace-element concentrations in selected rocks, plagioclase, and mafic separates from the Fiskenaesset Complex. The REE abundances are found to be very low and atypical in comparison with other terrestrial anorthosites. The plagioclases are shown to be characterized by a deficiency in heavy RE elements relative to light ones and a positive Eu anomaly, while the mafic separates are enriched in heavy rare earths and have no Eu anomaly, except in one sample. It is found that the bulk and trace-element abundances of the plagioclases are similar to those observed in some lunar anorthosites, but the degree of Eu anomaly is less in the plagioclases. The data are taken as confirmation of the idea that fractionation processes were involved in the origin of the Complex, and it is concluded that the Complex may have been produced from a magma generated by partial melting of a garnet-bearing source.

  5. Mineral vs. organic amendments: microbial community structure, activity and abundance of agriculturally relevant microbes are driven by long-term fertilization strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Francioli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil management is fundamental to all agricultural systems and fertilization practices have contributed substantially to the impressive increases in food production. Despite the pivotal role of soil microorganisms in agro-ecosystems, we still have a limited understanding of the complex response of the soil microbiota to organic and mineral fertilization in the very long-term. Here we report the effects of different fertilization regimes (mineral, organic and combined mineral and organic fertilization, carried out for more than a century, on the structure and activity of the soil microbiome. Organic matter content, nutrient concentrations and microbial biomass carbon were significantly increased by mineral, and even more strongly by organic fertilization. Pyrosequencing revealed significant differences between the structures of bacterial and fungal soil communities associated to each fertilization regime. Organic fertilization increased bacterial diversity, and stimulated microbial groups (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Zygomycota that are known to prefer nutrient-rich environments, and that are involved in the degradation of complex organic compounds. In contrast, soils not receiving manure harbored distinct microbial communities enriched in oligotrophic organisms adapted to nutrient-limited environments, as Acidobacteria. The fertilization regime also affected the relative abundances of plant beneficial and detrimental microbial taxa, which may influence productivity and stability of the agroecosystem. As expected, the activity of microbial exoenzymes involved in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous mineralization were enhanced by both types of fertilization. However, in contrast to comparable studies, the highest chitinase and phosphatase activities were observed in the solely mineral fertilized soil. Interestingly, these two enzymes showed also a particular high biomass-specific activities and a strong negative relation with soil pH. As many soil

  6. Mineral Composition and Abundance of the Rocks and Soils at Gusev and Meridiani from the Mars Exploration Rover Mini-TES Instruments: Implications for Aqueous Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P.

    2004-12-01

    The Mini-TES instruments on Spirit and Opportunity have studied the mineral composition and abundance of the outcrops, rocks, spherules, and soils at Gusev Crater and the Meridiani Plains. At Gusev undisturbed soil spectra closely match MGS TES bright-region dust spectra, with features interpreted to be due to minor carbonates and bound water. Dark-toned soils observed on rover-disturbed surfaces are likely derived from rocks and has a derived mineralogy, with uncertainties of 5-10 percent, of 45 percent pyroxene (20 percent Ca-rich pyroxene, 25 percent pigeonite), 40 percent sodic/intermediate plagioclase, and 15 percent olivine (Fo45 ±~10). Rocks have complex spectra that are influenced by coatings and atmospheric downwelling radiance, as these high-thermal-inertia rocks are typically colder during the day than the atmosphere. Their Mini-TES spectra are consistent with olivine-rich basalts with varying degrees of dust and other coatings. Aeolian drift material has a unique spectral character with higher oxide abundances than disturbed soil. One (or possibly two) spectrally distinct coatings are observed on rocks, a possible indicator of the interaction of water, rock, and airfall dust. At Meridiani, the Mini-TES has identified coarse crystalline hematite and olivine basalt sands as predicted from orbital TES spectroscopy. Light-toned outcrops of aqueous origin exposed in crater walls are composed of 20 to 40 percent Mg and Ca sulfates, a high-silica component that is modeled as glass/feldspar/sheet silicates (~20-30 percent), and hematite. The Fe sulfate jarosite is not reliably identified in Mini-TES spectra. The mm-sized spherules appear from analysis of Mini-TES spectra to be dominated by hematite, with no other components detected. Basaltic materials have more plagioclase than pyroxene, contain olivine, and are similar in inferred mineral composition to basalt mapped by TES from orbit. Bounce Rock is dominated by clinopyroxene and is closer in inferred

  7. Mineral Composition and Abundance of the Rocks and Soils at Gusev and Meridiani from the Mars Exploration Rover Mini-TES Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P. R.

    2005-05-01

    The miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) has provided remote measurements of the mineralogy and thermophysical properties of outcrops, rocks, spherules, and soils surrounding the Spirit and Opportunity Rovers [1, 2]. The composition of surface materials provides insight into the origin and evolution of the martian crust and the nature of igneous and sedimentary processes. At Gusev, undisturbed soil spectra closely match MGS TES bright-regions dust spectra, with features interpreted to be due to minor carbonates and bound water. Dark-toned soils observed on rover-disturbed surfaces are likely derived from rocks and have a derived mineralogy, with uncertainties of 5-10 vol.%, of 45% pyroxene (20% high-Ca pyroxene, 25% pigeonite), 40% sodic/intermediate plagioclase, and 15% olivine (Fo35-Fo55). Aeolian drift material has a unique spectral character with higher oxide abundances than disturbed soil. Along the rover's traverse from the lander into the Columbia Hills, at least three distinct rock types have been recognized: olivine rich basalt, a volcaniclastic rock dominated by an amorphous component (possibly basaltic glass and/or shocked plagioclase), and a second volcaniclastic rock dominated by plagioclase of intermediate composition with lesser pyroxene and olivine components. One (or possibly two) spectrally distinct coatings are observed on rocks, a possible indicator of the interaction of water, rock, and airfall dust. At Meridiani, the Mini-TES has identified coarse crystalline hematite and olivine basaltic sands as predicted from orbital TES spectroscopy [3, 4]. Basaltic materials have more plagioclase than pyroxene, contain olivine, and are similar in inferred mineral composition to basalt mapped by TES from orbit. Light-toned outcrops of aqueous origin exposed in crater walls are composed of 20 to 40% Mg and Ca sulfates, a high-silica component that is modeled as glass/feldspar/sheet silicates (~20-30%), and hematite. The Fe-bearing sulfate

  8. Centimetre-scale vertical variability of phenoxy acid herbicide mineralization potential in aquifer sediment relates to the abundance of tfdA genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazarbasi, Meric Batioglu; Bælum, Jacob; Johnsen, Anders R.

    2012-01-01

    are known to be involved in the metabolism of phenoxy acid herbicides. tfdA class III gene copy number was approximately 100-fold greater in samples able to mineralize MCPA than in samples able to mineralize 2,4-D, suggesting that tfdA class III gene plays a greater role in the metabolism of MCPA than of 2...

  9. Trade in mineral resources

    OpenAIRE

    Graham A. Davis

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...

  10. Abundances and distribution of minerals and elements in high-alumina coal fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Zhao, L.; Peng, S.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, D.; Sun, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China, is unique because it is highly enriched in alumina (Al2O3>50%). The fly ash mainly consists of amorphous glass and mullite and trace amounts of corundum, quartz, char, calcite, K-feldspar, clay minerals, and Fe-bearing minerals. The mullite content in fly ash is as high as 37.4% because of high boehmite and kaolinite contents in feed coal. Corundum is a characteristic mineral formed during the combustion of boehmite-rich coal.Samples from the economizer were sieved into six size fractions (500 mesh) and separated into magnetic, mullite+corundum+quartz (MCQ) and glass phases for mineralogical and chemical analysis. The corundum content increases but amorphous glass decreases with decreasing particle size. Fractions of small particle sizes are relatively high in mullite, probably because mullite was formed from fine clay mineral particles under high-temperature combustion condition. Similarly, fine corundum crystals formed in the boiler from boehmite in feed coal. The magnetic phase consists of hematite, magnetite, magnesioferrite, and MgFeAlO4 crystals. The MCQ phase is composed of 89% mullite, 6.1% corundum, 4.5% quartz, and 0.5% K-feldspar.Overall, the fly ash from the power plant is significantly enriched in Al2O3 with an average of 51.9%, but poor in SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, P2O5, and As. Arsenic, TiO2, Th, Al2O3, Bi, La, Ga, Ni, and V are high in mullite, and the magnetic matter is enriched in Fe2O3, CaO, MnO, TiO2, Cs, Co, As, Cd, Ba, Ni, Sb, MgO, Zn, and V. The remaining elements are high in the glass fraction. The concentration of K2O, Na2O, P2O5, Nb, Cr, Ta, U, W, Rb, and Ni do not clearly vary with particle size, while SiO2 and Hg decrease and the remaining elements clearly increase with decreasing particle size. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Mineral Composition and Abundance of the Rocks and Soils at Gusev and Meridiani from the Mars Exploration Rover Mini-TES Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P. R.; Wyatt, M. B.; Glotch, T. D.; Rogers, A. D.; Anwar, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bandfield, J. L.; Blaney, D. L.; Budney, C.; Calvin, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) has provided remote measurements of mineralogy, thermophysical properties, and atmospheric temperature profile and composition of the outcrops, rocks, spherules, and soils surrounding the Spirit and Opportunity Rovers. The mineralogy of volcanic rocks provides insights into the composition of the source regions and the nature of martian igneous processes. Carbonates, sulfates, evaporites, and oxides provide information on the role of water in the surface evolution. Oxides, such as crystalline hematite, provide insight into aqueous weathering processes, as would the occurrence of clay minerals and other weathering products. Diurnal temperature measurements can be used to determine particle size and search for the effects of sub-surface layering, which in turn provide clues to the origin of surficial materials through rock disintegration, aeolian transport, atmospheric fallout, or induration. In addition to studying the surface properties, Mini-TES spectra have also been used to determine the temperature profile in the lower boundary layer, providing evidence for convective activity, and have determined the seasonal trends in atmospheric temperature and dust and cloud opacity.

  12. Effects of experimental acid precipitation and liming on vigor, species abundance, and mineral nutrition of ground vegetation in a Norway spruce stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenkirchen, H.

    1986-09-01

    The effects of simulated sulfuric acid rain and liming on ground vegetation of a 74-year-old Norway Spruce stand were analysed since summer of 1983. During the first two growing seasons no significant change in species composition had occurred on any plot. The frequently applied acid rain injured some constant moss species, this was reflected by chlorosis, necroses, and reduced average coverage or frequency. Damaged moss segments had decreased Ca-, Mg-, Mn-, Zn- and K-concentrations. Some secondary moss species, however were more tolerant to acid precipitation. Liming with dolomite at the beginning of the experiment improved the Ca- and Mg-nutrition of all investigated species (Thuidium tamariscinum, Oxalis acetosella, spruce seedlings), lowered the intensity of injury by acid rain with mosses, and reduced the Mn- (and Zn-)uptake of the vascular plant species. The combination of liming and irrigation with acid or 'normal' water strongly increased the abundance of the herb Oxalis acetosella. Without liming the same species responded to acid rain with lower Ca- (and Mg-)contents in leaves but no visible foliar damage occurred.

  13. EXTRATERRESTRIAL MINERALS AND FUTURE FRONTIERS IN MINERAL EXPLORATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    WILMER GIRALDO; JORGE IVÁN TOBÓN

    2013-01-01

    .... The mining of bodies of our solar system like the Moon, Mars and the asteroid belt can provide abundant energy resources such as helium 3 and minerals such as potassium, rare earth elements, iron...

  14. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    Marine minerals have been center of attraction to mankind since ancient times. The technological advances in the recent years show that the retrieval of underwater minerals from deep-sea can no longer be a dream. Marine minerals are terrigenous...

  15. Mineral of the month: indium

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Micheal W.

    2004-01-01

    Indium was discovered in Germany in 1863. Although it is a lustrous silver-white color, the finders named the new material for the “indigo” spectral lines the mineral created on the spectrograph. Indium ranks 61st in abundance in Earth’s crust and is about three times more abundant than silver or mercury.

  16. Mineral resource of the month: Strontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2014-01-01

    Strontium occurs commonly in nature, ranking as the 15th most abundant chemical element on Earth. Only two minerals contain sufficient strontium, however, to be used commercially to produce strontium compounds: Strontianite (strontium carbonate) has a higher strontium content, but celestite (strontium sulfate) is by far the most abundant strontium mineral.

  17. Adsorption of RNA on mineral surfaces and mineral precipitates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Biondi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The prebiotic significance of laboratory experiments that study the interactions between oligomeric RNA and mineral species is difficult to know. Natural exemplars of specific minerals can differ widely depending on their provenance. While laboratory-generated samples of synthetic minerals can have controlled compositions, they are often viewed as "unnatural". Here, we show how trends in the interaction of RNA with natural mineral specimens, synthetic mineral specimens, and co-precipitated pairs of synthetic minerals, can make a persuasive case that the observed interactions reflect the composition of the minerals themselves, rather than their being simply examples of large molecules associating nonspecifically with large surfaces. Using this approach, we have discovered Periodic Table trends in the binding of oligomeric RNA to alkaline earth carbonate minerals and alkaline earth sulfate minerals, where those trends are the same when measured in natural and synthetic minerals. They are also validated by comparison of co-precipitated synthetic minerals. We also show differential binding of RNA to polymorphic forms of calcium carbonate, and the stabilization of bound RNA on aragonite. These have relevance to the prebiotic stabilization of RNA, where such carbonate minerals are expected to have been abundant, as they appear to be today on Mars.

  18. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  19. Mineral resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Ierland, van E.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The extractable ores of the world's geologically scarcest mineral resources (e.g. antimony, molybdenum and zinc) may be exhausted within several decades to a century, if their extraction continues to increase. This paper explores the likelihood that these scarce mineral resources can be conserved

  20. Raccoon abundance inventory report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a raccoon abundance inventory on Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge in 2012. Determining raccoon abundance allows for...

  1. Estudo mineral de plantas medicinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Gomes Lopes

    Full Text Available Determinations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn were evaluated in five different samples of medicinal plant leaves. Atomic absorption spectrometry was applied to the metals quantification. Except for Fe in Artemisia vulgaris L, significant levels of these elements were found in all investigated plant as compared to other vegetables which are abundant concerning that mineral content.

  2. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    , radon etc. to locate active venting site 4. Seabed sampling for rocks and minerals looking for indications of hydrothermal mineralization 5. TV and still Photographic surveys with real- time imaging on board 6. Submersible/ROVs for direct... thriving in this unique environments. However, the study of hydrothermal systems is still relatively young, and there are many fundamental questions that remain to be addressed in the forthcoming years. Suggested reading 1. Seafloor hydrothermal...

  3. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  4. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  5. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral associat......The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...

  6. Mineral Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan’s natural resources are very limited: water is scarce, there is little arable land and the country has few sources of energy (fig. I.11). Jordan’s mineral industry has a long history: flint was used in prehistoric times and early copper mining started in Wadi Faynan during the Chalcolithic Period. The following is a brief presentation of Jordan’s resources. Mining and investments will be studied in Part 3. Figure I.11 — Jordan Mineral Resources. NRA 2012 Phosphates The Jordanian Natur...

  7. An Industrially Useful Mineral Abundantly Available in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Barytes An Industrially Useful ... Author Affiliations. V Raghu1. Project Scientist AP State Remote Sensing Applications Centre (APSRAC) Field Office, Office of the Desert Development Programme Anantpur 515 001 Andhra Pradesh, India ...

  8. Estimating abundance: Chapter 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a non-technical overview of ‘closed population capture–recapture’ models, a class of well-established models that are widely applied in ecology, such as removal sampling, covariate models, and distance sampling. These methods are regularly adopted for studies of reptiles, in order to estimate abundance from counts of marked individuals while accounting for imperfect detection. Thus, the chapter describes some classic closed population models for estimating abundance, with considerations for some recent extensions that provide a spatial context for the estimation of abundance, and therefore density. Finally, the chapter suggests some software for use in data analysis, such as the Windows-based program MARK, and provides an example of estimating abundance and density of reptiles using an artificial cover object survey of Slow Worms (Anguis fragilis).

  9. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V., E-mail: luck@fafnir.astr.cwru.edu, E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua, E-mail: val@deneb1.odessa.ua, E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua [Department of Astronomy and Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Odessa Branch, Shevchenko Park, 65014 Odessa (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  10. Mineral bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  11. Mineral evolution and Earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.

    2015-01-01

    The field of mineral evolution—a merger of mineralogy and Earth history—coalesced in 2008 with the first of several global syntheses by Robert Hazen and coworkers in the American Mineralogist. They showed that the cumulative abundance of mineral species has a stepwise trend with first appearances tied to various transitions in Earth history such as the end of planetary accretion at ca. 4.55 Ga and the onset of bio-mediated mineralogy at ca. >2.5 Ga. A global age distribution is best established for zircon. Observed abundance of zircon fluctuates through more than an order of magnitude during successive supercontinent cycles. The pulse of the Earth is also recorded, albeit imperfectly, by the 87Sr/86Sr composition of marine biogenic calcite; the Sr-isotopic ratio of this mineral reflects the balance of inputs of primitive strontium at mid-ocean ridges and evolved strontium that drains off the continents. A global mineral evolution database, currently in the works, will greatly facilitate the compilation and analysis of extant data and the expansion of research in mineralogy outside its traditional bounds and into more interdisciplinary realms.

  12. Magellanic Cloud Cepheids - Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, R. Earle; Moffett, Thomas J.; Barnes, Thomas G., III; Gieren, Wolfgang P.

    1998-02-01

    We have determined parameters and abundances for three SMC and nine LMC Cepheids that have not been previously studied spectroscopically for metallicity, as well as three SMC and one LMC Cepheids observed previously by Luck and Lambert. This work nearly doubles the number of Cepheids with spectroscopic metallicities in the SMC and triples the number in the LMC. For Galactic reference stars we have determined the abundances of 11 supergiants of spectral type F0 to K1. These abundances are used herein to examine the dispersion in cosmic (Fe/H) values found in LMC Cepheids by Luck and Lambert. The Magellanic Cloud Cepheids tend to be longer-period Cepheids, and thus have physical gravities that are 1.0 dex and lower. Spectroscopic gravities are even lower. Fortunately, the (Fe/H) content as determined from Fe I is not strongly dependent on gravity and is thus well determined. We combine our abundances with other published high-resolution spectroscopic results, deriving a mean (Fe/H) for the SMC of -0.68. The total range seen in the (Fe/H) ratios derived herein is -0.84 to -0.65. This result is in agreement with previous studies showing a small intrinsic range in the metallicities in the SMC. For the LMC, from the Cepheids studied here we obtain -0.30, with a range of -0.55 to -0.19. Combining all available data, we obtain a mean (Fe/H) of -0.34. From this analysis, there is little evidence for a significant metallicity dispersion in the LMC.

  13. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  14. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  15. Comparison of authigenic minerals in sandstones and interbedded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanically infiltrated clays, grain-coating clay/hematite, quartz and feldspar overgrowths, carbonate cements and pore-filling and pore-lining clay minerals that precipitated in the sandy facies also precipitated in the fine-grained sediments. The abundance of authigenic minerals in decreasing order include: sandstone ...

  16. ASEAN Mineral Database and Information System (AMDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Y.; Ohno, T.; Bandibas, J. C.; Wakita, K.; Oki, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    AMDIS has lunched officially since the Fourth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Minerals on 28 November 2013. In cooperation with Geological Survey of Japan, the web-based GIS was developed using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The system is composed of the local databases and the centralized GIS. The local databases created and updated using the centralized GIS are accessible from the portal site. The system introduces distinct advantages over traditional GIS. Those are a global reach, a large number of users, better cross-platform capability, charge free for users, charge free for provider, easy to use, and unified updates. Raising transparency of mineral information to mining companies and to the public, AMDIS shows that mineral resources are abundant throughout the ASEAN region; however, there are many datum vacancies. We understand that such problems occur because of insufficient governance of mineral resources. Mineral governance we refer to is a concept that enforces and maximizes the capacity and systems of government institutions that manages minerals sector. The elements of mineral governance include a) strengthening of information infrastructure facility, b) technological and legal capacities of state-owned mining companies to fully-engage with mining sponsors, c) government-led management of mining projects by supporting the project implementation units, d) government capacity in mineral management such as the control and monitoring of mining operations, and e) facilitation of regional and local development plans and its implementation with the private sector.

  17. Characterizing regional soil mineral composition using spectroscopyand geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, V.L.; de Bruin, S.; Weyermann, J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at improving the mapping of major mineral variability at regional scale using scale-dependent spatial variability observed in remote sensing data. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and statistical methods were combined with laboratory-based mineral characterization of field samples to create maps of the distributions of clay, mica and carbonate minerals and their abundances. The Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to identify the spectrally-dominant minerals in field samples; these results were combined with ASTER data using multinomial logistic regression to map mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction (XRD)was used to quantify mineral composition in field samples. XRD results were combined with ASTER data using multiple linear regression to map mineral abundances. We testedwhether smoothing of the ASTER data to match the scale of variability of the target sample would improve model correlations. Smoothing was donewith Fixed Rank Kriging (FRK) to represent the mediumand long-range spatial variability in the ASTER data. Stronger correlations resulted using the smoothed data compared to results obtained with the original data. Highest model accuracies came from using both medium and long-range scaled ASTER data as input to the statistical models. High correlation coefficients were obtained for the abundances of calcite and mica (R2 = 0.71 and 0.70, respectively). Moderately-high correlation coefficients were found for smectite and kaolinite (R2 = 0.57 and 0.45, respectively). Maps of mineral distributions, obtained by relating ASTER data to MICA analysis of field samples, were found to characterize major soil mineral variability (overall accuracies for mica, smectite and kaolinite were 76%, 89% and 86% respectively). The results of this study suggest that the distributions of minerals and their abundances derived using FRK-smoothed ASTER data more closely match the spatial

  18. Mineral Resources Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  19. Mineral matter in Spanish bituminous and brown coals. Part 2: mineral matter quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Martinez Alonso, A.; Tascon, J.M.D. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon y sus Derivados, Oviedo (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    A number of methods for mineral matter quantification were applied to a set of Spanish coals. Bituminous coals of different rank from the Asturian Central basin and brown coals from Galician basins were studied. Normative analysis was shown to be an adequate procedure for determining the concentrations of individual mineral species. It was found that mineral constituents of Asturian bituminous coals are, in decreasing abundance order, clay minerals (muscovite, kaolinite), quartz and carbonates. In the case of Galician brown coals kaolinite is the most abundant mineral, followed by quartz and pyrite. Extraction with ammonium acetate and oxidation with hydrogen peroxide yielded equivalent values for the concentrations of alkali and alkaline-earth elements bound to organic matter in brown coals. A series of direct and indirect procedures as well as numerical methods for determining the total mineral matter content of coals were compared. Optimum methods for determining the total mineral matter contents of bituminous coals were low-temperature ashing (LTA) and acid demineralisation. The sum of the LTA yield of ammonium acetate-extracted coal and the total concentration of ion-exchanged elements provided the most reliable results for brown coals. Correction formulae from ash yield previously derived for coals from other basins yielded only slightly satisfactory results for the Spanish coals under study. Results obtained evidence the importance of correctly establishing the nature and concentration of clay minerals present in coal. Also, the convenience of carrying out more comprehensive work to unequivocally establish the mineral matter/ash factors for the various types of Spanish coals is suggested. 65 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. Calderas and mineralization: volcanic geology and mineralization in the Chianti caldera complex, Trans-Pecos Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duex, T.W.; Henry, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes preliminary results of an ongoing study of the volcanic stratigraphy, caldera activity, and known and potential mineralization of the Chinati Mountains area of Trans-Pecos Texas. Many ore deposits are spatially associated with calderas and other volcanic centers. A genetic relationship between calderas and base and precious metal mineralization has been proposed by some and denied by others. Steven and others have demonstrated that calderas provide an important setting for mineralization in the San Juan volcanic field of Colorado. Mineralization is not found in all calderas but is apparently restricted to calderas that had complex, postsubsidence igneous activity. A comparison of volcanic setting, volcanic history, caldera evolution, and evidence of mineralization in Trans-Pecos to those of the San Juan volcanic field, a major mineral producer, indicates that Trans-Pecos Texas also could be an important mineralized region. The Chianti caldera complex in Trans-Pecos Texas contains at least two calderas that have had considerable postsubsidence activity and that display large areas of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Abundant prospects in Trans-Pecos and numerous producing mines immediately south of the Trans-Pecos volcanic field in Mexico are additional evidence that ore-grade deposits could occur in Texas.

  1. Dissolution Rates and Mineral Lifetimes of Phosphate Containing Minerals and Implications for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, C. T.; Hausrath, E.

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of NASA's Mars Exploration Program include exploring the planet's habitability and the possibility of past, present, or future life. This includes investigating "possible supplies of bioessential elements" [1]. Phosphate is one such bioessential element for life as we understand it. Phosphate is also abundant on Mars [2], and the phosphate rich minerals chlorapatite, fluorapatite, and merrillite have been observed in Martian meteorites [3]. Surface rock analyses from the MER Spirit also show the loss of a phosphate rich mineral from the rocks Wishstone and Watchtower at Gusev Crater [4,5], implying mineral dissolution. Dissolution rates of phosphate containing minerals are therefore important for characterizing phosphate mobility and bioavailability on Mars. Previous studies have measured dissolution rates of fluorapatite [6-8]. However, chlorapatite and merrillite (a non-terrestrial mineral similar to whitlockite) are more common phosphate minerals found in Martian meteorites [3], and few dissolution data exist for these minerals. We have begun batch dissolution experiments on chlorapatite, synthesized using methods of [9], and whitlockite, synthesized using a method modified from [10]. Additionally, we are dissolving Durango fluorapatite to compare to dissolution rates in literature, and natural Palermo whitlockite to compare to dissolution rates of our synthesized whitlockite. Batch dissolution experiments were performed after [8], using a 0.01 molar KNO3 solution with 0.1500g-0.3000g mineral powders and starting solution volumes of 180ml in LDPE reaction vessels. HNO3 or KOH were used to adjust initial pH as required. Dissolution rates are calculated from the rate of change of elemental concentration in solution as a function of time, and normalized to the mineral surface area as measured by BET. Resulting rates will be used to calculate mineral lifetimes for the different phosphate minerals under potential Mars-like aqueous conditions, and in

  2. Mineral resource of the month: indium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolcin, Amy C.

    2011-01-01

    Geologically, the occurrence of indium minerals is rare. The element most often occurs as a sulfide inclusion or substitutes in other base-metal minerals, including cassiterite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and stannite. Indium’s abundance in the crust is estimated to be 0.05 parts per million, which makes it more abundant than silver, but it is so widely disseminated that it does not occur in high enough concentrations to form mineable deposits. Therefore, indium is most often recovered from byproduct residues produced during the refining of lead and zinc. But only about one-quarter of the indium mined worldwide is refined into metal, as many indium-bearing concentrates are sent to refineries that do not have the capability of recovering the metal.

  3. Mineral resource of the month: aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E. Lee

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on aluminum, a mineral resource which is described as the third-most abundant element in Earth's crust. According to the article, aluminum is the second-most used metal. Hans Christian Oersted, a Danish chemist, was the first to isolate aluminum in the laboratory. Aluminum is described as lightweight, corrosion-resistant and an excellent conductor of electricity and heat.

  4. NEFSC Survey Indices of Abundance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Fisheries Survey Bottom trawl survey indices of abundance such as stratified mean number per tow or mean weight per tow by species stock. Includes indices...

  5. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  6. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Karen M.; Janos, David P.; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  7. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic versus mineral soil horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eBarry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer versus mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations.

  8. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations.

  9. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  10. Mineral Processing Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the nonmetallic mineral processing sector (NAICS 327), including NESHAPs for asbestos and hazardous waste, and wastewater permit information.

  11. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Allende Prieto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  12. The Miner's Canary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinier, Lani

    2005-01-01

    Miners used canaries as early warning signals: when a canary gasped for breath, the miners knew there was a problem with the atmosphere in the mine. The experience of people of color in higher education can be used similarly as a diagnostic tool.

  13. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  14. Minerals of Pohorje marbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Jeršek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Pohorje Mts, mostly outcrops of calcite marble can be found, which in places turn into dolomite marbles.The protolith carbonate rocks contained also detritical minerals, which remained unchanged or formed new mineralsduring metamorphosis. Minerals in the Pohorje marbles that can be seen as crystals with the naked eye or 10x magnifyingloupe and with binocular microscope were investigated. With the aid of Raman microspectroscopy, SEM-EDSanalysis and on the basis of morphological characteristics, the presence of 17 different minerals or group of mineralswas confirmed. The most numerous and also the most significant were, apart from calcite, tremolite, diopside, grossularand epidote. For the first time, vesuvianite and scapolite were described in the Pohorje Mts. Particularly rich, as faras crystal faces are concerned, were the crystals of quartz that contained needle-like amphiboles. Other minerals thatwell supplemented the mineral paragenesis were different minerals of mica and chlorite group, feldspars, magnetite,titanite, pyrite and graphite. The determined mineral association revealed the mineral diversity of Pohorje marbles,offering us a new challenge for the investigation of the characteristics and conditions during the origin of this noblerock, which was highly esteemed already by the Romans, while today it is regaining its value and recognisability.

  15. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2018-01-31

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2017 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  16. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  17. Estimating species abundance from occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    He, F.; Gaston, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    The number of individuals, or the abundance, of a species\\ud in an area is a fundamental ecological parameter and a\\ud critical consideration when making management and conservation decisions (Andrewartha and Birch 1954; Krebs\\ud 1978; Gaston 1994; Caughley and Gunn 1996). However,\\ud unless the scale is very fine or localized (e.g., in a measurable habitat or a forest stand), abundance is not readily determined. At coarse or regional scales for many species, information on commonness and rar...

  18. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    resources was negotiated by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III). A most important outcome of this conference was the establishment of an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of at least 200 nautical miles for all coastal states and the recognition of a deep-sea regime. Mineral deposits......The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...... in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration...

  19. Characterization of clay minerals; Caracterizacion de minerales arcillosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz N, C.; Olguin, M.T.; Solache R, M.; Alarcon H, T.; Aguilar E, A. [Gerencia de Ciencias Basicas, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The natural clays are the more abundant minerals on the crust. They are used for making diverse industrial products. Due to the adsorption and ion exchange properties of these, a great interest for developing research directed toward the use of natural clays for the waste water treatment has been aroused. As part of such researches it is very important to carry out previously the characterization of the interest materials. In this work the results of the mineral and elemental chemical composition are presented as well as the morphological characteristics of clay minerals from different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  20. Coho Abundance - Linear Features [ds183

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  1. Chinook Abundance - Point Features [ds180

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  2. Steelhead Abundance - Linear Features [ds185

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  3. Steelhead Abundance - Point Features [ds184

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  4. Coho Abundance - Point Features [ds182

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  5. Abundance estimation and Conservation Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichols, J. D.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001. The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959 and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965 open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992, and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993. However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001. The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004 is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004 emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004 also suggest that

  6. Abundance estimation and conservation biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; MacKenzie, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001). The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959) and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965) open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992), and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993). However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001). The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004) is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004) emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004) also suggest that our attention

  7. Transition Element Abundances in MORB Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Humayun, M.; Salters, V. J.; Fields, D.; Jefferson, G.; Perfit, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    primarily controls the partitioning of Fe, Zn, Ga and Ge; garnet dominates the Sc abundance; spinel exerts exceptionally strong control over Ga and Zn, and cannot be neglected as a source mineral for these elements. MORB FRTE, Ga and Ge abundances are consistent with partial melting of a spinel peridotite source (<1% garnet) similar to that estimated for DMM, although the abundances of many of these elements need to be better constrained in the model sources. [1] Davis et al. GCA (submitted)

  8. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  9. A materials science vision of extracellular matrix mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, N.; Steele, J. A. M.; Fratzl, P.; Stevens, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    From an engineering perspective, skeletal tissues are remarkable structures because they are lightweight, stiff and tough, yet produced at ambient conditions. The biomechanical success of skeletal tissues is largely attributable to the process of biomineralization — a tightly regulated, cell-driven formation of billions of inorganic nanocrystals formed from ions found abundantly in body fluids. In this Review, we discuss nature's strategies to produce and sustain appropriate biomechanical properties in mineralizing (by the promotion of mineralization) and non-mineralizing (by the inhibition of mineralization) tissues. We review how perturbations of biomineralization are controlled over a continuum that spans from the desirable (or defective in disease) mineralization of the skeleton to pathological cardiovascular mineralization, and to mineralization of bioengineered constructs. A materials science vision of mineralization is presented with an emphasis on the micro- and nanostructure of mineralized tissues recently revealed by state-of-the-art analytical methods, and on how biomineralization-inspired designs are influencing the field of synthetic materials.

  10. Hematite Abundance on Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This figure shows the concentration of hematite measured by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument. The abundance of hematite is shown in red, with increasing brightness indicating increasing hematite abundance. The location and size of the individual TES observations on the surface are indicated by the individual squares. Black squares indicate observations with no detectable hematite. Data from 11 separate orbits acquired between Nov. 22, 1997 and April 25, 1998 are shown in this image. The TES data are superimposed on a Viking photomosaic for context. The image extends from 10 S to 10 N latitude and 350 W to 15 W longitude, covering an area 1500 km (940 miles) in longitude by 1200 km (750 miles) in latitude.The TES instrument was built by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing and is operated by Philip R. Christensen, of Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ. The MGS mission is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena CA.

  11. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  12. Mineral spirits poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    These substances may be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some dry cleaning fluids White spirits Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  13. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Multivitamin/mineral ... Vitamin K lowers the drug's effectiveness and doctors base the medicine dose partly on the amount of ...

  14. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2009 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2008 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Because specific information concerning committed inventory was no longer available from the Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense Stockpile Center, that information, which was included in earlier Mineral Commodity Summaries publications, has been deleted from Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported

  15. [Synthetic mineral fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillat, M A

    1999-03-27

    The group of man-made mineral fibres includes slagwool, glasswool, rockwool, glass filaments and microfibres, as well as refractory ceramic fibres. The toxicity of mineral fibres is determined by several factors such as the diameter (< or = 3-3.5 microns) and the length of the fibres (< 100 microns), their biopersistence, which is much shorter for man-made mineral fibres than for asbestos fibres, their physicochemical structure and surface properties, and the exposure level. The chemical composition of the various types of man-made mineral fibres depends directly on the raw material used to manufacture them. While naturally occurring fibres are crystalline in structure, most man-made mineral fibres are amorphous silicates combined with various metal oxides and additives. Observations using intracavitary administration have provided evidence that some types of man-made mineral fibres are bioactive in cellular and animal experiments and may induce lung tumours and mesothelioma. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans since they bypass inhalation, deposition, clearance and translocation mechanisms. Inhalation studies show more realistic results but differences are observed between animal species regarding their sensibility to tumours. There is no firm evidence that exposure to various wools is associated with lung fibrosis, pleural lesions or nonspecific respiratory disease in humans. A possible exception may be mentioned for refractory ceramic fibres. A slightly elevated standard mortality ratio for lung cancer has been documented in large cohorts of workers (USA, Europe and Canada) exposed to man-made mineral fibres, especially in the early technological phase. It is not possible to determine from these data whether the risk of lung cancer is due to the man-made mineral fibres themselves, in particular due to the lack of data on smoking habits. No increased risk of mesothelioma has been demonstrated in these cohorts. Epidemiological data are

  16. Chlorine Abundances in Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, D.D.; Garrison, D.H.; Park, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine measurements made in martian surface rocks by robotic spacecraft typically give Chlorine (Cl) abundances of approximately 0.1-0.8%. In contrast, Cl abundances in martian meteorites appear lower, although data is limited, and martian nakhlites were also subjected to Cl contamination by Mars surface brines. Chlorine abundances reported by one lab for whole rock (WR) samples of Shergotty, ALH77005, and EET79001 range 108-14 ppm, whereas Cl in nakhlites range 73-1900 ppm. Measurements of Cl in various martian weathering phases of nakhlites varied 0.04-4.7% and reveal significant concentration of Cl by martian brines Martian meteorites contain much lower Chlorine than those measured in martian surface rocks and give further confirmation that Cl in these surface rocks was introduced by brines and weathering. It has been argued that Cl is twice as effective as water in lowering the melting point and promoting melting at shallower martian depths, and that significant Cl in the shergottite source region would negate any need for significant water. However, this conclusion was based on experiments that utilized Cl concentrations more analogous to martian surface rocks than to shergottite meteorites, and may not be applicable to shergottites.

  17. Mineral commodity profiles: nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- Nitrogen (N) is an essential element of life and a part of all animal and plant proteins. As a part of the DNA and RNA molecules, nitrogen is an essential constituent of each individual's genetic blueprint. As an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule, nitrogen is vital to a plant's ability to photosynthesize. Some crop plants, such as alfalfa, peas, peanuts, and soybeans, can convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form by a process referred to as 'fixation.' Most of the nitrogen that is available for crop production, however, comes from decomposing animal and plant waste or from commercially produced fertilizers. Commercial fertilizers contain nitrogen in the form of ammonium and/or nitrate or in a form that is quickly converted to the ammonium or nitrate form once the fertilizer is applied to the soil. Ammonia is generally the source of nitrogen in fertilizers. Anhydrous ammonia is commercially produced by reacting nitrogen with hydrogen under high temperatures and pressures. The source of nitrogen is the atmosphere, which is almost 80 percent nitrogen. Hydrogen is derived from a variety of raw materials, which include water, and crude oil, coal, and natural gas hydrocarbons. Nitrogen-based fertilizers are produced from ammonia feedstocks through a variety of chemical processes. Small quantities of nitrates are produced from mineral resources principally in Chile. In 2002, anhydrous ammonia and other nitrogen materials were produced in more than 70 countries. Global ammonia production was 108 million metric tons (Mt) of contained nitrogen. With 28 percent of this total, China was the largest producer of ammonia. Asia contributed 46 percent of total world ammonia production, and countries of the former U.S.S.R. represented 13 percent. North America also produced 13 percent of the total; Western Europe, 9 percent; the Middle East, 7 percent; Central America and South America, 5 percent; Eastern Europe, 3 percent; and Africa and Oceania

  18. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  19. Mineral resources of Peru's ancient societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.

  20. Identification of Oxide Compound in Dolomite Mineral From Aceh Tamiang Region

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmala Sari; Zulkarnain Jalil; Adi Rahwanto

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia has abundant mineral especially carbonate-based mineral, ike dolomite. Particularly in Aceh province's, the largest dolomite deposits is available in Aceh Tamiang district around 1.9 billion tons. Unfortunately, current use of dolomite in the industry and other applications is still limited. In this work we report the advanced preparation of dolomite using calcinations method. Whereas, with this method, the dolomite mineral can be processed into calcium and magnesium oxide which has...

  1. Minerals safeguarding areas and mineral consultation areas for West Sussex

    OpenAIRE

    Hannis, S.D.; Steadman, E. J.; Linley, K.A.; Newsham, R.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes work carried out by the British Geological Survey on behalf of West Sussex County Council to delineate its Minerals Safeguarding Areas and Mineral Consultation Areas. This is in accordance with the methodology outlined in “A guide to mineral safeguarding in England” (McEvoy et al., 2007), which is in line with the Communities and Local Government document, Mineral Policy Statement 1: Planning and Minerals. This was released in November 2006 and it introduc...

  2. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  3. Evaluation of accessible mineral surface areas for improved prediction of mineral reaction rates in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckingham, Lauren E.; Steefel, Carl I.; Swift, Alexander M.; Voltolini, Marco; Yang, Li; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Sheets, Julia M.; Cole, David R.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Mitnick, Elizabeth H.; Zhang, Shuo; Landrot, Gautier; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Mito, Saeko; Xue, Ziqiu

    2017-05-01

    The rates of mineral dissolution reactions in porous media are difficult to predict, in part because of a lack of understanding of mineral reactive surface area in natural porous media. Common estimates of mineral reactive surface area used in reactive transport models for porous media are typically ad hoc and often based on average grain size, increased to account for surface roughness or decreased by several orders of magnitude to account for reduced surface reactivity of field as opposed to laboratory samples. In this study, accessible mineral surface areas are determined for a sample from the reservoir formation at the Nagaoka pilot CO2 injection site (Japan) using a multi-scale image analysis based on synchrotron X-ray microCT, SEM QEMSCAN, XRD, SANS, and FIB-SEM. This analysis not only accounts for accessibility of mineral surfaces to macro-pores, but also accessibility through connected micro-pores in smectite, the most abundant clay mineral in this sample. While the imaging analysis reveals that most of the micro- and macro-pores are well connected, some pore regions are unconnected and thus inaccessible to fluid flow and diffusion. To evaluate whether mineral accessible surface area accurately reflects reactive surface area a flow-through core experiment is performed and modeled at the continuum scale. The core experiment is performed under conditions replicating the pilot site and the evolution of effluent solutes in the aqueous phase is tracked. Various reactive surface area models are evaluated for their ability to capture the observed effluent chemistry, beginning with parameter values determined as a best fit to a disaggregated sediment experiment (Beckingham et al., 2016) described previously. Simulations that assume that all mineral surfaces are accessible (as in the disaggregated sediment experiment) over-predict the observed mineral reaction rates, suggesting that a reduction of RSA by a factor of 10-20 is required to match the core flood

  4. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-01

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  5. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, F. [Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sezione Astrofisica, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  6. Minerals safeguarding areas for Warwickshire

    OpenAIRE

    Hannis, S.D.; Brown, T J

    2009-01-01

    This report describes work carried out by the British Geological Survey on behalf of Warwickshire County Council to delineate its Minerals Safeguarding Areas. This is in accordance with the methodology outlined in “A guide to mineral safeguarding in England” (McEvoy et al., 2007), which is in line with the Communities and Local Government document, Mineral Policy Statement 1: Planning and Minerals. This was released in November 2006 and it introduces the obligation on all Miner...

  7. Surface materials map of Afghanistan: iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Dudek, Kathleen B.; Livo, Keith E.

    2012-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of HyMap imaging spectrometer data of Afghanistan. Using a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) WB-57 aircraft flown at an altitude of ~15,240 meters or ~50,000 feet, 218 flight lines of data were collected over Afghanistan between August 22 and October 2, 2007. The HyMap data were converted to apparent surface reflectance, then further empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap data was compared to the spectral features of reference entries in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, ice, and snow. This map shows the spatial distribution of iron-bearing minerals and other materials having diagnostic absorptions at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. These absorptions result from electronic processes in the minerals. Several criteria, including (1) the reliability of detection and discrimination of minerals using the HyMap spectrometer data, (2) the relative abundance of minerals, and (3) the importance of particular minerals to studies of Afghanistan's natural resources, guided the selection of entries in the reference spectral library and, therefore, guided the selection of mineral classes shown on this map. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated. Minerals having similar spectral features were less easily discriminated, especially where the minerals were not particularly abundant and (or) where vegetation cover reduced the absorption strength of mineral features. Complications in reflectance calibration also affected the detection and identification of minerals.

  8. Minerals and Total Polyphenolic Content of Some Vegetal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana E. TUFEANU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The total polyphenolic content and minerals were determined for chia seeds, Psyllium husks and watermelon rind powder. The minerals content was performed by using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emissions Spectrometer and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, technique FIAS-Furnace (for Se. The sample with the highest content of polyphenols was chia (2.69 mg GAE/g s. followed by the watermelon rind powder. Reduced amounts of polyphenols were found in the Psyllium husks. Also, the total polyphenol concentration increased with the increase of the extraction time on the ultrasonic water bath. Minerals analysis indicated that powders obtained from chia seeds and watermelon rind contained large amounts of potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The most abundant mineral in the Psyllium husks powder was found potassium, followed by calcium. In conclusion, these powders can be used as ingredients for functional food and food supplements production due to the high nutritional content and bioactive properties.

  9. Hematite Abundance Map at Echo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the hematite abundance map for a portion of the Meridiani Planum rock outcrop near where the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity landed. It was acquired by the rover's miniature thermal emission spectrometer instrument from a spot called 'Echo.' Portions of the inner crater wall in this region appear rich in hematite (red). The sharp boundary from hematite-rich to hematite-poor (yellow and green) surfaces corresponds to a change in the surface texture and color. The hematite-rich surfaces have ripple-like forms suggesting wind transported hematite to these surfaces. The bounce marks produced during landing at the base of the slope on the left are low in hematite (blue). The hematite grains that originally covered the surface were pushed below the surface by the lander, exposing a soil that has less hematite.

  10. Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that they're packed with vitamins and minerals. Sports drinks claim they can rev up your flagging energy ... Vitamin D Figuring Out Fat and Calories Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? Vegan Food Guide Sports Supplements Food Labels Smart Snacking Calcium View more ...

  11. Internal Porosity of Mineral Coating Supports Microbial Activity in Rapid Sand Filters for Groundwater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Tatari, Karolina; Musovic, Sanin

    2014-01-01

    prokaryotes in filter material with various degrees of mineral coating. We also examined the physical and chemical characteristics of the mineral coating. The amount of mineral coating correlated positively with the internal porosity, the packed bulk density, and the biologically available surface area.......6 μm) of the mineral coating, which had a thickness of up to 600 ± 51 μm. Environmental scanning electron microscopic (E-SEM) observations suggested an extracellular polymeric substance-rich matrix and submicron-sized bacterial cells. Nitrifier diversity profiles were similar irrespective of the degree...... of mineral coating, as indicated by pyrosequencing analysis. Overall, our results demonstrate that mineral coating positively affects microbial colonization and activity in rapid sand filters, most likely due to increased volumetric cell abundances facilitated by the large surface area of internal mineral...

  12. Surface materials map of Afghanistan: carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Dudek, Kathleen B.; Livo, Keith E.

    2012-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of HyMap imaging spectrometer data of Afghanistan. Using a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) WB-57 aircraft flown at an altitude of ~15,240 meters or ~50,000 feet, 218 flight lines of data were collected over Afghanistan between August 22 and October 2, 2007. The HyMap data were converted to apparent surface reflectance, then further empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap data was compared to the spectral features of reference entries in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, ice, and snow. This map shows the spatial distribution of minerals that have diagnostic absorption features in the shortwave infrared wavelengths. These absorption features result primarily from characteristic chemical bonds and mineralogical vibrations. Several criteria, including (1) the reliability of detection and discrimination of minerals using the HyMap spectrometer data, (2) the relative abundance of minerals, and (3) the importance of particular minerals to studies of Afghanistan's natural resources, guided the selection of entries in the reference spectral library and, therefore, guided the selection of mineral classes shown on this map. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated. Minerals having similar spectral features were less easily discriminated, especially where the minerals were not particularly abundant and (or) where vegetation cover reduced the absorption strength of mineral features. Complications in reflectance calibration also affected the detection and identification of minerals.

  13. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  14. Species abundance and potential biological control services in shade vs. sun coffee in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkhataria, Rena R.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Groom, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    Birds, lizards and insects were surveyed in three sun and three shade coffee plantations in Puerto Rico to provide a comprehensive comparison of biodiversity between plantations types and to identify potential interrelationships (e.g., biological or natural control services) between members of each taxon and coffee pests. Abundance of avian species, including insectivorous species, was significantly higher in shade coffee. Anolis cristatellus and A. stratulus were significantly more abundant in sun plantations whereas A. gundlachi and A. evermanni were detected more frequently in shade plantations. Insects in the orders Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Neuroptera, and Psocoptera were significantly more abundant in shade coffee, while orthopterans were more abundant in sun. The coffee leaf miner (Leucoptera coffeela) and the flatid planthopper (Petrusa epilepsis) did not differ significantly between plantation types, nor did the abundance of the wasp complex that parasitizes the coffee leaf miner. These findings confirmed that shade plantations harbor a wide array of elements of biodiversity; but sun plantations may also harbor many elements of biodiversity, and in some cases, in higher abundance than in shade plantations.

  15. Heavy-mineral trends in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luepke, Gretchen

    1975-01-01

    Sediments of the Beaufort Sea, off the North Slope of Alaska contain a great variety of heavy minerals. These include garnet, chrome spinel, augite, pigionite, diopside, hornblende, enstatite, hypersthene, epidote, clinozoisite, zoisite, apatite, tourmaline, chloritoid, sphene, zircon, and opaque minerals. Much rarer constituents are glaucophane, lamprobolite, rutile, Kyanite, staurolite, and riebeckite. Garnet increases in abundance from east to west, which corresponds to a similar increase in garnet abundance in coastal outcrops of the Gubik Formation sands. Only garnet and iron-stained aggregates appear to have source-related distribution patterns. The other heavy minerals lack distinct distributive provinces, reflecting an environment dominated by intense mixing by ice-gouging and bioturbation and a homogenous source area. Waves and currents are not strong enough to sort sediments at depths greater than 10 m except during summer storms. The source of the Beaufort Sea heavy minerals is dominated by contributions from the Alaskan North Slope deposits of Tertiary and younger age. The Colville River, largest in the region, is probably the most influential in transporting sediments, but because of wave and current-mixing of sediments on the shelf, exact contributions from each river drainage cannot be ascertained. Coastal erosion of the Gubik Formation is probably at least as important as the Colville River in supplying heavy minerals to the Beaufort Sea. (Sinha-OEIS)

  16. Cave Biosignature Suites: Microbes, Minerals, and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, P. J.; Spilde, M. N.; Northup, D. E.; Melim, L. A.; Soroka, D. S.; Kleina, L. G.; Lavoie, K. H.; Hose, L. D.; Mallory, L. M.; Dahm, C. N.; Crossey, L. J.; Schelble, R. T.

    2001-03-01

    Earth's subsurface offers one of the best possible sites to search for microbial life and the characteristic lithologies that life leaves behind. The subterrain may be equally valuable for astrobiology. Where surface conditions are particularly hostile, like on Mars, the subsurface may offer the only habitat for extant lifeforms and access to recognizable biosignatures. We have identified numerous unequivocally biogenic macroscopic, microscopic, and chemical/geochemical cave biosignatures. However, to be especially useful for astrobiology, we are looking for suites of characteristics. Ideally, "biosignature suites" should be both macroscopically and microscopically detectable, independently verifiable by nonmorphological means, and as independent as possible of specific details of life chemistries - demanding (and sometimes conflicting) criteria. Working in fragile, legally protected environments, we developed noninvasive and minimal impact techniques for life and biosignature detection/characterization analogous to Planetary Protection Protocols. Our difficult field conditions have shared limitations common to extraterrestrial robotic and human missions. Thus, the cave/subsurface astrobiology model addresses the most important goals from both scientific and operational points of view. We present details of cave biosignature suites involving manganese and iron oxides, calcite, and sulfur minerals. Suites include morphological fossils, mineral-coated filaments, living microbial mats and preserved biofabrics, 13C and 34S values consistent with microbial metabolism, genetic data, unusual elemental abundances and ratios, and crystallographic mineral forms.

  17. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  18. Clay mineral distribution in the shelf sediments off the northern part of the east coast of india

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Rao, Ch.M.

    and kaolinite concentrations are higher in the clay fraction of the more sandy sediments and montmorillonite proportions are higher in the clays. The clay minerals present in the shelf sediments closely reflect their sources but their relative abundance depends...

  19. Evidence of mineral dust altering cloud microphysics and precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q.-L. Min

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-platform and multi-sensor observations are employed to investigate the impact of mineral dust on cloud microphysical and precipitation processes in mesoscale convective systems. For a given convective strength, small hydrometeors were more prevalent in the stratiform rain regions with dust than in those regions that were dust free. Evidence of abundant cloud ice particles in the dust sector, particularly at altitudes where heterogeneous nucleation of mineral dust prevails, further supports the observed changes of precipitation. The consequences of the microphysical effects of the dust aerosols were to shift the precipitation size spectrum from heavy precipitation to light precipitation and ultimately suppressing precipitation.

  20. Agricultural Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  1. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  2. Silicosis in barium miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, A; Ruckley, V A; Addison, J; Brown, W R

    1986-01-01

    Four men who mined barytes in Scotland and who developed pneumoconiosis are described. Three developed progressive massive fibrosis, from which two died; and one developed a nodular simple pneumoconiosis after leaving the industry. The radiological and pathological features of the men's lungs were those of silicosis and high proportions of quartz were found in two of them post mortem. The quartz was inhaled from rocks associated with the barytes in the mines. The features of silicosis in barium miners are contrasted with the benign pneumoconiosis, baritosis, that occurs in workers exposed to crushed and ground insoluble barium salts. Diagnostic difficulties arise when silicosis develops in workers mining minerals known to cause a separate and benign pneumoconiosis. These difficulties are compounded when, as not infrequently happens, the silicotic lesions develop or progress after exposure to quartz has ceased. Images PMID:3787542

  3. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  4. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  5. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    by mechanical concentration and natural gravity separation of mineral particles derived from weathered rocks. The formation of placers requires factors such as: climate, source rock, weathering, transport, deposition, concentration, high specific gravity... and transport of the rocks. For example, in cold and glaciated regions, there would be limited physical weathering and less concentration and more dispersion of the weathered material and placers would not FE AT U R E FE AT U R E A RT IC LE form...

  6. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  7. Stardust Abundance Variations among Interplanetary Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Walker, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Presolar grain abundances reflect the degree of processing primitive materials have experienced. This is evidenced by the wide range of silicate stardust abundances among primitive meteorites (10 to 300 ppm) [1], attributable to parent body hydrothermal processing. Stardust abundance variations are also pronounced in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (CPIDPs), that have not experienced parent body processing (300 to > 10,000 ppm) [2-4]. The large range in stardust abundances among CP IDPs thus reflect nebular processing. Here we present results of a systematic search for stardust among cluster CP IDPs. Our goals are to establish mineralogical trends among IDPs with different stardust abundances. This may shed light into the nature of isotopically normal presolar grains (GEMS grains?; 5) if their abundances vary similarly to that of isotopically exotic stardust grains.

  8. Low temperature CO2 mineralization into basalt: solution chemistry and secondary mineral assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysi, A.; Stefánsson, A.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 represents one of the most abundant acid supplies in nature and has an important impact on element fluxes and water chemistry on the Earth surface. CO2 emissions due to increased industrialization are causing an important imbalance in this surface system and affect the global climate. Therefore, different methods to trap CO2 are developed and studied in response to the CO2 increase. CO2 sequestration into secondary minerals is considered as one possible way of reducing those CO2 levels. The Carbfix project is a pilot study in SW Iceland aiming to inject CO2-loaded waters from the Hellisheidi geothermal powerplant into basaltic rock formations. The goal is to mineralize CO2 by reacting Ca+2, Mg+2 and Fe+2 ions released by the basalt into carbonates. We investigated the geochemical aspects of CO2-water-basalt interaction at pCO2 between 0-20 bar and temperatures of 25-40°C by combining experiments and numerical modelling. The aim of our studies are to gain a better understanding of the key reactions, mass fluxes and porosity changes associated to CO2-water-basalt interaction. Modelling results show that at low reaction progress (pH 8) the main stable minerals precipitating from solution are (Ca)-Mg-Fe clays, Ca-Mg carbonates and zeolites (Gysi and Stéfansson 2008). Laboratory experiments were performed by reacting basaltic glass with aqueous solutions initially saturated at pCO2 ranging between 0-10 bar at 40°C for 120 days. Results from solution chemistry show that there are three different element mobility behaviors: i) Si+4 and Al+3 dissolve non-stochiometrically and/or precipitate into secondary minerals independent of the intial pCO2 and the water/rock ratios used in the experiments, b) Ca+2 and Mg+2 dissolve stochiometrically independent of the initial pCO2, but precipitate into secondary minerals at high water/rock ratios and low initial pCO2 after about 100 days, c) elements like Fe show a mixed behavior from mobile to immobile depending on the

  9. Correlation between some environmental variables and abundance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation between some environmental variables and abundance of Almophrya mediovacuolata (Ciliophora: Anoplophryidae) endocommensal ciliate of an anecic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Annelida) in Bambui (North-West Cameroon)

  10. Adsorption of Nucleic Acid Bases, Ribose, and Phosphate by Some Clay Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Hashizume

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Besides having a large capacity for taking up organic molecules, clay minerals can catalyze a variety of organic reactions. Derived from rock weathering, clay minerals would have been abundant in the early Earth. As such, they might be expected to play a role in chemical evolution. The interactions of clay minerals with biopolymers, including RNA, have been the subject of many investigations. The behavior of RNA components at clay mineral surfaces needs to be assessed if we are to appreciate how clays might catalyze the formation of nucleosides, nucleotides and polynucleotides in the “RNA world”. The adsorption of purines, pyrimidines and nucleosides from aqueous solution to clay minerals is affected by suspension pH. With montmorillonite, adsorption is also influenced by the nature of the exchangeable cations. Here, we review the interactions of some clay minerals with RNA components.

  11. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - MO 2008 Industrial Mineral Mines (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set contains names, locations and additional data for active Industrial Mineral Mines permitted with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division...

  12. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - MO 2014 Industrial Mineral Mines (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set contains names, locations and additional data for active Industrial Mineral Mines permitted with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division...

  13. Taking species abundance distributions beyond individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morlon, Helene; White, Ethan P.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Green, Jessica L.; Ostling, Annette; Alonso, David; Enquist, Brian J.; He, Fangliang; Hurlbert, Allen; Magurran, Anne E.; Maurer, Brian A.; McGill, Brian J.; Olff, Han; Storch, David; Zillio, Tommaso; Chave, Jérôme

    The species abundance distribution (SAD) is one of the few universal patterns in ecology. Research on this fundamental distribution has primarily focused on the study of numerical counts, irrespective of the traits of individuals. Here we show that considering a set of Generalized Species Abundance

  14. Diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; Witte, H.; van Duyl, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    We analysed the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) and Bacteria (AOB) in the shallow warm-water sponge Halisarca caerulea and the deep cold-water sponges Higginsia thielei and Nodastrella nodastrella. The abundance of AOA and AOB was analysed using catalyzed reporter

  15. On the solar abundance of indium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitas, N.; Vince, I.; Lugaro, M.A.; Andriyenko, O.; Gosic, M.; Rutten, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    The generally adopted value for the solar abundance of indium is over six times higher than the meteoritic value. We address this discrepancy through numerical synthesis of the 451.13-nm line on which all indium abundance studies are based, both for the quiet Sun and the sunspot umbra spectrum,

  16. Seasonal variation in fish abundance and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a positive correlation between fish abundance and biomass for wet and dry seasons (r = 0.60 and 0.76 respectively). There was no significant difference between fish abundance in the two seasons. Variations occurred between physico-chemical parameters of water samples. Analysis of the lagoon waters showed ...

  17. Mars-relevant phosphate minerals and implications for Martian habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Christopher T.

    This dissertation is comprised of three studies focused on martian phosphate availability, with an introductory chapter introducing and linking the three studies. Chapter two is on the subject of merrillite synthesis. Merrillite is an extraterrestrial Ca-phosphate mineral similar to the mineral whitlockite and is found as a dominant primary phosphate mineral in martian meteorites. The chapter includes methods of whitlockite and merrillite synthesis as well as a detailed characterization of the produced minerals and a mechanism by which charge balance can be maintained when merrillite is synthesized through dehydrogenation of whitlockite. Chapter three presents the results of kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the Mars-relevant minerals chlorapatite and merrillite, as well as the more terrestrially-relevant minerals whitlockite and fluorapatite. The results of these studies indicate that the dominant primary Ca-phosphate minerals on Mars possess higher solubilities that could lead to more than twice the phosphate concentration in solution. Dissolution rates for the Mars-relevant minerals derived in the study, when combined with the higher martian phosphorus abundance, could result in phosphate release rates of up to 45x faster for a given set of aqueous conditions on Mars when compared to Earth. The implications of the results for past or present martian habitability are discussed. In Chapter four, reactive transport modeling was applied to investigate the transport and mobility of phosphate under martian conditions. The kinetic and thermodynamic data derived in Chapter three were combined with Mars mission data, results from an investigation of Mars analog basalts at Craters of the Moon National Monument in Idaho, and previously published data to inform a reactive transport code and model dissolution profiles measured by Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit in Wishstone class rocks. The modeling results suggest phosphate release into near-neutral waters occurred

  18. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Reddy, S.; Padma Suvarna, K.; Udayabhaska Reddy, G.; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals.

  19. Minerals, markets and open access

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2014-01-01

    Minerals, Markets and Open Access Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK Email: The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a world-leading geological survey that focuses on public-good science for government and research to understand earth and environmental processes. The BGS is the UK provider of spatial and statistical minerals information, in addition it carries out research in areas such as metallogenesis, land-use im...

  20. Mineral formation and organo-mineral controls on the bioavailability of carbon at the terrestrial-aquatic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, K. A.; Smith, A. P.; Renslow, R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence highlights the importance of organo-mineral interactions in regulating the source or sink capacity of soil. High surface area soils, such as allophane-rich or clay-rich soils, retain organic matter (OM) via sorption to mineral surfaces which can also contribute physical isolation in interlayer spaces. Despite the direct correlation between mineral surfaces and OM accumulation, the pedogenic processes controlling the abundance of reactive surface areas and their distribution in the mineral matrix remains unclear. As global soil temperatures rise, the dissolution of primary minerals and formation of new secondary minerals may be thermodynamically favored as part of soil weathering process. Newly formed minerals can supply surfaces for organo-metallic bonding and may, therefore, stabilize OM by surface bonding and physical exclusion. This is especially relevant in environments that intersect terrestrial and aquatic systems, such as the capillary fringe zone in riparian ecosystems. To test the mechanisms of mineral surface area protection of OM, we facilitated secondary precipitation of alumino-silicates in the presence of OM held at two different temperatures in natural Nisqually River sediments (Mt Rainier, WA). This was a three month reaction intended to simulate early pedogenesis. To tease out the influence of mineral surface area increase during pedogenesis, we incubated the sediments at two different soil moisture contents to induce biodegradation. We measured OM desorption, biodegradation, and the molecular composition of mineral-associated OM both prior to and following the temperature manipulation. To simulate the saturation of capillary fringe sediment and associated transport and reaction of OM, column experiments were conducted using the reacted sediments. More co-precipitation was observed in the 20°C solution compared to the 4°C reacted solution suggesting that warming trends alter mineral development and may remove more OM from solution

  1. Heavy mineral placers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.

    ThSiO 4 ; Cassiterite 6.8 - 7.0 6 1/2 SnO 2 ; Wolframite 7.1 - 7.5 4 1/2 (Fe,Mn)WO 4 ; Uraninite 7.5 - 10 5-6 UO 2 ; Cinnabar 8.0 - 8.2 2 1/2 HgS; Platinum 14 - 19 4 Pt Gold 15.6 - 19.3 2 1/2 Au 33 Amphibole Muscovite Quartz... Ca-plagioclose Ca-Na-plagioclose Pyroxene Na. Plagioclose K. Felspar Mineral Sp. Gravity Hardness Composition Tourmaline 3.1 7 NaMg 3 Al 6 B 3 Si 6 O 27 (OH, F) 4 ; Diamond 3.5 10 C; Topaz 3.6 8 Al 2 SiO 4 (P, OH) 2 ; Garnet 3.8 - 4.2 7...

  2. What shapes edaphic communities in mineral and ornithogenic soils of Cierva Point, Antarctic Peninsula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataloni, G.; Garraza, G. González; Bölter, M.; Convey, P.; Fermani, P.

    2010-08-01

    Three mineral soil and four ornithogenic soil sites were sampled during summer 2006 at Cierva Point (Antarctic Peninsula) to study their bacterial, microalgal and faunal communities in relation to abiotic and biotic features. Soil moisture, pH, conductivity, organic matter and nutrient contents were consistently lower and more homogeneous in mineral soils. Ornithogenic soils supported larger and more variable bacterial abundances than mineral ones. Algal communities from mineral soils were more diverse than those from ornithogenic soils, although chlorophyll- a concentrations were significantly higher in the latter. This parameter and bacterial abundance were correlated with nutrient and organic matter contents. The meiofauna obtained from mineral soils was homogeneous, with one nematode species dominating all samples. The fauna of ornithogenic soils varied widely in composition and abundance. Tardigrades and rotifers dominated the meiofauna at eutrophic O2, where they supported a large population of the predatory nematode Coomansus gerlachei. At site O3, high bacterial abundance was consistent with high densities of the bacterivorous nematodes Plectus spp. This study provides evidence that Antarctic soils are complex and diverse systems, and suggests that biotic interactions (e.g. competition and predation) may have a stronger and more direct influence on community variability in space and time than previously thought.

  3. The 'Delft' system for mineral identification. Vol. 1. 'Opaque minerals'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühnel, R.A.; Prins, J.J.; Roorda, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    University of Technology by the late Professor A.H. van der Veen, about half a century ago, and ever since it has been part of the curriculum for students in mining and mineral engineering. Teaching students to identify minerals by means of reflected-light microscopy has always been a matter of

  4. On protein abundance distributions in complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, Ja; Griffin, Nm; Long, F; Li, Y; Latterich, M; Schnitzer, Je

    2013-01-29

    Mass spectrometry, an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ionized atoms or molecules, dates back more than 100 years, and has both qualitative and quantitative uses for determining chemical and structural information. Quantitative proteomic mass spectrometry on biological samples focuses on identifying the proteins present in the samples, and establishing the relative abundances of those proteins. Such protein inventories create the opportunity to discover novel biomarkers and disease targets. We have previously introduced a normalized, label-free method for quantification of protein abundances under a shotgun proteomics platform (Griffin et al., 2010). The introduction of this method for quantifying and comparing protein levels leads naturally to the issue of modeling protein abundances in individual samples. We here report that protein abundance levels from two recent proteomics experiments conducted by the authors can be adequately represented by Sichel distributions. Mathematically, Sichel distributions are mixtures of Poisson distributions with a rather complex mixing distribution, and have been previously and successfully applied to linguistics and species abundance data. The Sichel model can provide a direct measure of the heterogeneity of protein abundances, and can reveal protein abundance differences that simpler models fail to show.

  5. Rock-colonizing plants: abundance of the endemic cactus Mammillaria fraileana related to rock type in the southern Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca R. Lopez; Yoav Bashan; Macario Bacilio; Gustavo. De la Cruz-Aguero

    2009-01-01

    Establishment, colonization, and permanence of plants affect biogenic and physical processes leading to development of soil. Rockiness, temperature, and humidity are accepted explanations to the influence and the presence of rock-dwelling plants, but the relationship between mineral and chemical composition of rocks with plant abundance is unknown in some regions. This...

  6. Interstellar Abundances Toward X Per, Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Smith, Randall K.

    2014-01-01

    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to measure elemental abundances in the local ISM. We examine absorption features of 0, Mg, and Si along this line of sight using spectra from the Chandra Observatory's LETG/ ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments. In general, we find that the abundances and their ratios are similar to those of young F and G stars and the most recent solar values. We compare our results with abundances required by dust grain models.

  7. Heavy-mineral suites in unconsolidated Paleocene and younger sands, western Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Reginald R.

    1956-01-01

    Heavy-mineral suites from unconsolidated sands of Wilcox and Claiborne age (Eocene) in the subsurface of western Tennessee were tabulated and compared with heavy-mineral suites obtained from outcropping sands known to be of Midway (Paleocene) and Wilcox age and younger. In the subsurface at Memphis, both pink and colorless garnet are relatively abundant in the Claiborne but rare in the Wilcox. Garnet, however, is very rare in both the Claiborne and the Wilcox in the subsurface 35 miles northeast of Memphis. The mineral is very rare also in the terrace sands of western Tennessee and in samples of the Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene deposits of the Tennessee River in eastern and western Tennessee. It is possible, therefore, that the relative abundance of the mineral garnet is related to the quantity of sediment received from differing source areas in Wilcox and Claiborne times, but that, owing to the shifting of the axis of the embayment, no one source area furnished all the sediment for any formation. Heavy-mineral suites from Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene terrace deposits of the Tennessee River in both eastern and western Tennessee, and heavy-mineral suites from Pliocene(?) deposits of the Mississippi River are much alike, and the only isotropic mineral noted in these sediments was a very rare green mineral. Heavy-mineral suites from Recent deposits of the Mississippi River at Memphis and reported heavy-mineral suites from Cambrian sandstones of Wisconsin and Minnesota differ greatly from heavy-mineral suites of Pliocene(?) terrace deposits of the Tennessee and Mississippi Rivers and include much pink and colorless garnet. The possibility, therefore, is suggested that the Pliocene(?) terrace deposits of the Mississippi River in western Tennessee were derived largely from the basin of the Tennessee River.

  8. Jujube honey from China: physicochemical characteristics and mineral contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juan; Suo, Zhirong; Zhao, Pinpin; Cheng, Ni; Gao, Hui; Zhao, Jing; Cao, Wei

    2013-03-01

    We investigated and compared the physicochemical properties (moisture, color, ash, pH, electrical conductivity, free acidity, lactonic acidity, total acidity, fructose, glucose, sucrose, diastase activity, and HMF) and mineral contents (Al, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn), as well as total proline and total protein contents of 23 jujube honey samples collected from different regions of China. The mineral content was determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The physicochemical values were in the range of approved limits (conforming to EU legislation) in all 23 samples. The physicochemical properties of jujube honey showed significant variations among samples. The mean pH value of the jujube honeys was 6.71. The most abundant minerals were potassium, calcium, sodium, and magnesium, ranging between 1081.4 and 2642.9, 97.1 and 194.2, 7.79 and 127.8, and 10.36 and 24.67 mg/kg, respectively, and potassium made up 71% of the total mineral content. This study demonstrated remarkable variation in physicochemical parameters and mineral contents of jujube honey, mainly depending on its geographic source. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. (MEPE) mineralization ability in vitro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    expression and bone mineralization after the addition of glycerophosphate to osteoblast culture medium. MEPE plays a significant role in osteoblast-mediated minera- lization. These dentin-specific proteins are expressed by fully differentiated odontoblasts prior to the onset of mineralization (D'Souza et al., 1992; Bronckers ...

  10. Geotechnical Description of Mineral Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasvári Tibor

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Performing various mineral deposits extraction methods requires thorough knowledge of the rock masses` geomechanical parameters. In the geotechnical description of mineral deposits there is proposed a methodical approarch at the collection, registration, and evaluation of rock masses` geological properties for geotechnics being applied within the mining industry.

  11. Mineral Resources and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings and recommendations of panels created by the Committee on Mineral Resources and the Environment (COMRATE) to study four topic areas of mineral resources and the environment. The topic areas studied by the panels were: technology, supply, the environment, and demand. Section I, the report of the technology panel,…

  12. From Mountain Men to Miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert L.; Fogel, Jared A.

    1999-01-01

    Examines three of the changes wrought by coal mining: (1) the miner's working conditions; (2) the establishment of company towns; and (3) the violence that ensued when miners from Harlan County, Kentucky, referred to as "Bloody Harlan," tried to better their lives by joining labor unions. (CMK)

  13. Bismuth mineral inclusions in gold-bearing magnetite from the giant Beiya gold deposit, SW China: insights into mineralization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haoyang; Sun, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    Bismuth minerals are commonly found in a wide range of gold deposits and could offer valuable information on the process of gold mineralization. This is because Bi minerals always show immediate association with gold and are sensitive to chemical-physical variations (Afifi et al., 1988). Specifically, native bismuth has a melting point of 271°C and could melt at lower temperatures when gold is added (Okamoto et al,, 1983). It has been verified that Bi melt could efficiently scavenge gold from hydrothermal fluids (Tooth et al., 2008, 2011). The Beiya deposit, situated in the Sanjiang Tethyan tectonic domain in the southwestern China, is one of the largest gold deposits in China 10.4 Moz Au @ 2.47g/t). Located along the contacts between a 36 Ma quartz syenite porphyry and the Triassic limestones, the deposit contains abundant massive Au-bearing magnetite ores, which are considered as a product of skarn mineralization. However, the pivotal processes accounting for the huge accumulation of gold resource at Beiya area are poorly constrained. In the massive magnetite ores, abundant native gold was observed to be present as submicron-scale inclusions hosted by magnetite (Zhou et al., 2017). We also noted that abundant Bi minerals occur within these ores (Zhou et al., 2016), which provide critical clues to reveal the processes of gold mineralization. An assemblage of Bi minerals, composed of native bismuth, maldonite and bismuthinite, is present as tiny inclusions in these Au-bearing magnetite grains. Mineralogical study illustrates the encapsulation of native bismuth and maldonite as melts during magnetite growth, which is also supported by the ore-forming temperatures over 300°C derived from previous fluid inclusions study (He et al., 2016). Our thermodynamic modeling demonstrates that Bi melts scavenged gold from hydrothermal fluids. Subsequently, sulfidation of Bi melts resulted in precipitation of gold, which was captured by growing magnetite. We thus propose that

  14. The solar system abundance of tin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loss, R.D.; Rosman, K.K.R.; De Laeter, J.R. (Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth (Australia))

    1989-04-01

    The elemental abundance of tin has been determined by the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique for four carbonaceous chondrites, including the Cl chondrites Orgueil and Ivuna. A solar system abundance of 3.98 (normalized to Si = 10{sup 6} atoms) can be derived from these data, which is in excellent agreement with the presently accepted value. Recently, a theoretical value of 2.82 {plus minus} 0.21 (Si = 10{sup 6} atoms) has been proposed for the abundance of tin based on an s-process nucleosynthesis model. This value is 26% lower than the presently accepted solar system abundance. The present data confirm the higher value for tin and indicate that a reexamination of the assumptions on which the nucleosynthetic value is based is required.

  15. Chinook Abundance - Linear Features [ds181

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The dataset 'ds181_Chinook_ln' is a product of the CalFish Adult Salmonid Abundance Database. Data in this shapefile are collected from stream sections or reaches...

  16. Abundance, composition and distribution of simple sequence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abundance, composition and distribution of simple sequence repeats and dinucleotide compositional bias within WSSV genomes. MALATHI SHEKAR, INDRANI KARUNASAGAR and IDDYA KARUNASAGAR*. Department of Fishery Microbiology, UNESCO Centre for Marine Biotechnology,. Karnataka Veterinary, Animal ...

  17. Estimating Squirrel Abundance From Live trapping Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A reprint of an article from the Journal of Wildlife Management entitled "Estimating Squirrel Abundance from Live Trapping Data" by Nixon, Edwards and Eberhardt. The...

  18. Stochastic species abundance models involving special copulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huillet, Thierry E.

    2018-01-01

    Copulas offer a very general tool to describe the dependence structure of random variables supported by the hypercube. Inspired by problems of species abundances in Biology, we study three distinct toy models where copulas play a key role. In a first one, a Marshall-Olkin copula arises in a species extinction model with catastrophe. In a second one, a quasi-copula problem arises in a flagged species abundance model. In a third model, we study completely random species abundance models in the hypercube as those, not of product type, with uniform margins and singular. These can be understood from a singular copula supported by an inflated simplex. An exchangeable singular Dirichlet copula is also introduced, together with its induced completely random species abundance vector.

  19. SWFSC/MMTD: Vaquita Abundance Survey 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1997, the Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC) conducted a survey designed to estimate the abundance of vaquita, the Gulf of California harbor porpoise...

  20. Sulfide Mineral Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.

    2006-08-01

    The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of sulfide mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main sulfide minerals organized by

  1. Coronae of Stars with Supersolar Elemental Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Uria; Behar, Ehud; Drake, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Coronal elemental abundances are known to deviate from the photospheric values of their parent star, with the degree of deviation depending on the first ionization potential (FIP). This study focuses on the coronal composition of stars with supersolar photospheric abundances. We present the coronal abundances of six such stars: 11 LMi, iota Hor, HR 7291, tau Boo, and alpha Cen A and B. These stars all have high-statistics X-ray spectra, three of which are presented for the first time. The abundances we measured were obtained using the line-resolved spectra of the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) in conjunction with the higher throughput EPIC-pn camera spectra onboard the XMM-Newton observatory. A collisionally ionized plasma model with two or three temperature components is found to represent the spectra well. All elements are found to be consistently depleted in the coronae compared to their respective photospheres. For 11 LMi and tau Boo no FIP effect is present, while iota Hor, HR 7291, and alpha Cen A and B show a clear FIP trend. These conclusions hold whether the comparison is made with solar abundances or the individual stellar abundances. Unlike the solar corona, where low-FIP elements are enriched, in these stars the FIP effect is consistently due to a depletion of high-FIP elements with respect to actual photospheric abundances. A comparison with solar (instead of stellar) abundances yields the same fractionation trend as on the Sun. In both cases, a similar FIP bias is inferred, but different fractionation mechanisms need to be invoked.

  2. Microbial Mineral Colonization Across a Subsurface Redox Transition Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon eConverse

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study employed 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing to examine the hypothesis that chemolithotrophic Fe(II-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB would preferentially colonize the Fe(II-bearing mineral biotite compared to quartz sand when the minerals were incubated in situ within a subsurface redox transition zone (RTZ at the Hanford 300 Area site in Richland, WA, USA. The work was motivated by the recently documented presence of neutral-pH chemolithotrophic FeOB capable of oxidizing structural Fe(II in primary silicate and secondary phyllosilicate minerals in 300 Area sediments and groundwater (Benzine et al., 2013. Sterilized portions of sand+biotite or sand alone were incubated in situ for five months within a multilevel sampling (MLS apparatus that spanned a ca. 2-m interval across the RTZ in two separate groundwater wells. Parallel MLS measurements of aqueous geochemical species were performed prior to deployment of the minerals. Contrary to expectations, the 16S rRNA gene libraries showed no significant difference in microbial communities that colonized the sand+biotite versus sand-only deployments. Both mineral-associated and groundwater communities were dominated by heterotrophic taxa, with organisms from the Pseudomonaceae accounting for up to 70% of all reads from the colonized minerals. These results are consistent with previous results indicating the capacity for heterotrophic metabolism (including anaerobic metabolism below the RTZ as well as the predominance of heterotrophic taxa within 300 Area sediments and groundwater. Although heterotrophic organisms clearly dominated the colonized minerals, several putative lithotrophic (NH4+, H2, Fe(II, and HS- oxidizing taxa were detected in significant abundance above and within the RTZ. Such organisms may play a role in the coupling of anaerobic microbial metabolism to oxidative pathways with attendant impacts on elemental cycling and redox-sensitive contaminant behavior in the vicinity of the

  3. TEA: A CODE CALCULATING THERMOCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM ABUNDANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver, E-mail: jasmina@physics.ucf.edu [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  4. Mineral Commodity Profiles: Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Brown, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- Selenium, which is one of the chalcogen elements in group 16 (or 6A) of the periodic table, is a semiconductor that is chemically similar to sulfur for which it substitutes in many minerals and synthetic compounds. It is a byproduct of copper refining and, to a much lesser extent, lead refining. It is used in many applications, the major ones being a decolorizer for glass, a metallurgical additive to free-machining varieties of ferrous and nonferrous alloys, a constituent in cadmium sulfoselenide pigments, a photoreceptor in xerographic copiers, and a semiconductor in electrical rectifiers and photocells. Refined selenium amounting to more than 1,800 metric tons (t) was produced by 14 countries in 2000. Japan, Canada, the United States, and Belgium, which were the four largest producers, accounted for nearly 85 percent of world production. An estimated 250 t of the world total is secondary selenium, which is recovered from scrapped xerographic copier drums and selenium rectifiers; the selenium in nearly all other uses is dissipated (not recoverable as waste or scrap). The present selenium reserve bases for the United States and the world (including the United States), which are associated with copper deposits, are expected to be able to satisfy demand for selenium for several decades without difficulty.

  5. Geochemistry, factor analysis and clay mineral distribution of the sediments and relationship with the associated ferromanganese nodules from the SW Carlsberg ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Ambre, N.V.

    and sediments suggest diagenetic supply of Mn sup(+2) through pore waters during early diagenesis. Distribution of clay minerals show that illite and smectite are more abundant than kaolinite and chlorite, whereas palygorskite and montmorillonite occur as poorly...

  6. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  7. Clustering in the stellar abundance space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesso, R.; Rocha-Pinto, H. J.

    2018-03-01

    We have studied the chemical enrichment history of the interstellar medium through an analysis of the n-dimensional stellar abundance space. This work is a non-parametric analysis of the stellar chemical abundance space. The main goal is to study the stars from their organization within this abundance space. Within this space, we seek to find clusters (in a statistical sense), that is, stars likely to share similar chemo-evolutionary history, using two methods: the hierarchical clustering and the principal component analysis. We analysed some selected abundance surveys available in the literature. For each sample, we labelled the group of stars according to its average abundance curve. In all samples, we identify the existence of a main enrichment pattern of the stars, which we call chemical enrichment flow. This flow is set by the structured and well-defined mean rate at which the abundances of the interstellar medium increase, resulting from the mixture of the material ejected from the stars and stellar mass-loss and interstellar medium gas. One of the main results of our analysis is the identification of subgroups of stars with peculiar chemistry. These stars are situated in regions outside of the enrichment flow in the abundance space. These peculiar stars show a mismatch in the enrichment rate of a few elements, such as Mg, Si, Sc and V, when compared to the mean enrichment rate of the other elements of the same stars. We believe that the existence of these groups of stars with peculiar chemistry may be related to the accretion of planetary material on to stellar surfaces or may be due to production of the same chemical element by different nucleosynthetic sites.

  8. Mineral induction by immobilized phosphoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, T.; Arsenault, A. L.; Yamauchi, M.; Kuboki, Y.; Crenshaw, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Dentin phosphoproteins are thought to have a primary role in the deposition of mineral on the collagen of dentin. In this study we determined the type of binding between collagen and phosphoproteins necessary for mineral formation onto collagen fibrils and whether the phosphate esters are required. Bovine dentin phosphophoryn or phosvitin from egg yolk were immobilized on reconstituted skin type I collagen fibrils by adsorption or by covalent cross-linking. In some samples the ester phosphate was removed from the covalently cross-linked phosphoproteins by treatment with acid phosphatase. All samples were incubated at 37 degrees C in metastable solutions that do not spontaneously precipitate. Reconstituted collagen fibrils alone did not induce mineral formation. The phosphoproteins adsorbed to the collagen fibrils desorbed when the mineralization medium was added, and mineral was not induced. The mineral induced by the cross-linked phosphoproteins was apatite, and the crystals were confined to the surface of the collagen fibrils. With decreasing medium saturation the time required for mineral induction increased. The interfacial tensions calculated for apatite formation by either phosphoprotein cross-linked to collagen were about the same as that for phosphatidic acid liposomes and hydroxyapatite. This similarity in values indicates that the nucleation potential of these highly phosphorylated surfaces is about the same. It is concluded that phosphoproteins must be irreversibly bound to collagen fibrils for the mineralization of the collagen network in solutions that do not spontaneously precipitate. The phosphate esters of phosphoproteins are required for mineral induction, and the carboxylate groups are not sufficient.

  9. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  10. [Vitamins and Minerals in Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holch, Julian Walter; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Erickson, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    The use of vitamins and minerals to prevent cancer as well as their supportive use in oncological patients is widespread and often occurs without the knowledge of the treating physician. Beyond general recommendations with regard to a balanced and healthy diet, no evidence exists supporting the use of vitamins and minerals in the prevention of cancer. Furthermore, the diet of oncological patients should contain vitamins and minerals of the same quantity as for healthy individuals. In particular, there is currently no rationale for a high-dosage administration of antioxidants. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print ... here’s what you need to know. What are vitamins and minerals? Vitamins and minerals are substances your ...

  12. Bracken: estimating species abundance in metagenomics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomic experiments attempt to characterize microbial communities using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Identification of the microorganisms in a sample provides information about the genetic profile, population structure, and role of microorganisms within an environment. Until recently, most metagenomics studies focused on high-level characterization at the level of phyla, or alternatively sequenced the 16S ribosomal RNA gene that is present in bacterial species. As the cost of sequencing has fallen, though, metagenomics experiments have increasingly used unbiased shotgun sequencing to capture all the organisms in a sample. This approach requires a method for estimating abundance directly from the raw read data. Here we describe a fast, accurate new method that computes the abundance at the species level using the reads collected in a metagenomics experiment. Bracken (Bayesian Reestimation of Abundance after Classification with KrakEN uses the taxonomic assignments made by Kraken, a very fast read-level classifier, along with information about the genomes themselves to estimate abundance at the species level, the genus level, or above. We demonstrate that Bracken can produce accurate species- and genus-level abundance estimates even when a sample contains multiple near-identical species.

  13. REVIEW: Can habitat selection predict abundance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Mark S; Johnson, Chris J; Merrill, Evelyn H; Nielsen, Scott E; Solberg, Erling J; van Moorter, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Habitats have substantial influence on the distribution and abundance of animals. Animals' selective movement yields their habitat use. Animals generally are more abundant in habitats that are selected most strongly. Models of habitat selection can be used to distribute animals on the landscape or their distribution can be modelled based on data of habitat use, occupancy, intensity of use or counts of animals. When the population is at carrying capacity or in an ideal-free distribution, habitat selection and related metrics of habitat use can be used to estimate abundance. If the population is not at equilibrium, models have the flexibility to incorporate density into models of habitat selection; but abundance might be influenced by factors influencing fitness that are not directly related to habitat thereby compromising the use of habitat-based models for predicting population size. Scale and domain of the sampling frame, both in time and space, are crucial considerations limiting application of these models. Ultimately, identifying reliable models for predicting abundance from habitat data requires an understanding of the mechanisms underlying population regulation and limitation. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  14. Geology, alteration, mineralization and geochemistry at south of Arghash (Neyshabour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Karimi Saeid Abadi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arghash area is located 45 km to southwest of Neyshabour. The subvolcanic rocks in the area consist of biotite hornblende quartz monzodiorite porphyry, hornblende biotite quartz monzodiorite porphyry, hornblende monzonite porphyry, biotite hornblende monzonite porphyry, monzodiorite porphyry and biotite quartz monzodiorite porphyry units. The volcanic rocks consist of hornblende biotite dacite, biotite hornblende dacite, and andesite and pillow lava. The plutonic rocks consist of hornblende monzodiorite, hornblende monzonite, quartz monzonite, hornblende quartz monzodiorite, biotite granodiorite, hornblende granodiorite, biotite hornblende granodiorite, biotite quartz diorite and pyroxene dolerite units. Five types of alteration including propylitic, carbonate, argillic, silicification and sericitic were recognized. Those are subdivided into twelve sub-zones based on the mineral abundances and intensity of alteration. Primary pyrite, 3-4%, is found mainly as disseminated. Secondary mineralization includes limonite, hematite and jarosite. Twenty rock chip and 8 stream sediment samples were collected for geochemical exploration. The samples were analysed for Cu, Zn, Pb, Ag and Sb using Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometric (AAS method. In stream sediment samples, Cu abundance is 34-58 ppm, Zn 45-422 ppm, Pb 28-42 ppm and Ag 2-12 ppm; whereas in rock chip samples, Cu abundance is 8-1137 ppm, Zn 13-411 ppm, Pb 15-97 ppm and Ag 3-32 ppm.

  15. Refractory, Abrasive and Other Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes refractory, abrasive, and other industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals...

  16. Infrared spectra of mineral species

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, Nikita V

    2014-01-01

    This book details more than 3,000 IR spectra of more than 2,000 mineral species collected during last 30 years. It features full descriptions and analytical data of each sample for which IR spectrum was obtained.

  17. BET measurements: Outgassing of minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    , stable BET values can be obtained by increasing the outgassing time without heating iron oxides. For quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite, stableBETvalues were obtained after outgassing the minerals at 100 to 250±C for 2 h. However, outgassing these minerals at room temperature (20±C) only resulted...... were outgassed at different temperatures and for different times. The studied minerals are 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite. The results demonstrate that measured specific surface areas of iron oxides are strongly dependent on outgassing conditions...... because the surface area increased by 170% with increasing temperature. In the poorly crystalline minerals, phase changes caused by heating were observed at temperatures lower than 100±C. Therefore low outgassing temperatures are preferable for minimizing phase changes. As demonstrated in this study...

  18. Hydrokinesitherapy in thermal mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendulić-Slivar Senka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of clients in health spa resorts entails various forms of hydrotherapy. Due to specific properties of water, especially thermal mineral waters, hydrokinesitherapy has a positive effect on the locomotor system, aerobic capabilities of organism and overall quality of human life. The effects of use of water in movement therapy are related to the physical and chemical properties of water. The application of hydrotherapy entails precautionary measures, with an individual approach in assessment and prescription. The benefits of treatment in thermal mineral water should be emphasized and protected, as all thermal mineral waters differ in composition. All physical properties of water are more pronounced in thermal mineral waters due to its mineralisation, hence its therapeutical efficiency is greater, as well.

  19. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  20. Mineral resources potential of Antarctica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Splettstoesser, John F; Dreschhoff, Gisela A. M

    1990-01-01

    .... This volume of the Antarctic Research Series results from an attempt to assemble a summary of current factual knowledge and scientific data related to issues of mineral resources in Antarctica...

  1. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... greater public awareness of the source of issuers' conflict minerals and to promote the exercise of due... directly relate to the manufacturing of the product); (2) the issuer affixes its brand, marks, logo, or...

  2. Chemical Abundances of Compact Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ting-Hui; Shaw, Richard A.; Stanghellini, letizia; Riley, Ben

    2015-08-01

    We present preliminary results from an optical spectroscopic survey of compact planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Galactic disk. This is an ongoing optical+infrared spectral survey of 150 compact PNe to build a deep sample of PN chemical abundances. We obtained optical spectra of PNe with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope and Goodman High-Throughput Spectrograph between 2012 and 2015. These data were used to calculate the nebulae diagnostics such as electron temperature and density for each PN, and to derive the elemental abundances of He, N, O Ne, S and Ar. These abundances are vital to understanding the nature of the PNe, and their low- to intermediate-mass progenitor stars.

  3. Estimating the relationship between abundance and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Lewy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies investigate the relationship between abundance and distribution using indices reflecting one of the three aspects of distribution: proportion of area occupied, aggregation, and geographical range. Using simulations and analytical derivations, we examine whether these indices...... based on Euclidean distance to the centre of gravity of the spatial distribution. Only the proportion of structurally empty areas, Lloyds index, and indices of the distance to the centre of gravity of the spatial distribution are unbiased at all levels of abundance. The remaining indices generate...... relationships between abundance and distribution even in cases where no underlying relationships exists, although the problem decreases for measures derived from Lorenz curves when samples contain more than four individuals on average. To illustrate the problem, the indices are applied to juvenile North Sea cod...

  4. Age-abundance relationships for neutral communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Matan; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-10-01

    Neutral models for the dynamics of a system of competing species are often used to describe a wide variety of empirical communities. These models are used in many situations, ranging from population genetics and ecological biodiversity to macroevolution and cancer tumors. One of the main issues discussed within this framework is the relationships between the abundance of a species and its age. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of the age-abundance relationships for fixed-size and growing communities. Explicit formulas for the average and the most likely age of a species with abundance n are given, together with the full probability distribution function. We further discuss the universality of these results and their applicability to the tropical forest community.

  5. Mineral resources of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnír Imrich

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam je bohatý na nerastné suroviny, ktoré sa nachádzajú prevažne na severe krajiny. Ložiská bauxitov, fosfátov, vzácnych zemín (REE, majú svetový význam. Ale i zásoby celého radu ïalších surovín (ropy, uhlia, zlata, železných rúd, chromitu, cínu, ilmenitu, medi, grafitu, atï. sú významné, ekonomicky ažite¾né a ich potenciál je obrovský. Za uvedené nerastné bohatstvo je „zodpovednᓠrozmanitá geologická stavba krajiny. Taktiež i morfológia a klíma (vlhká, tropická prispeli ku vytvoreniu niektorých ložísk (bauxity v krasových priehlbniach, atï.. Súèasná produkcia, okrem ropy (3,5 Mt/rok, zahròuje: 10,7 Mt uhlia, 3,5 Mt chromitu, asi 1 000 kg zlata, grafitu, kaolínu a mnohé iné minerály. Napriek tomu, je banícky priemysel v porovnaní so surovinovou základòou slabo vyvinutý. K jeho rozvoju urèite prispeje i úèas zahranièných spoloèností, odnedávna prítomných pri prieskume a ažbe surovín urèených pre export. Okrem struèného úvodu do geológie krajiny, obsahuje tento èlánok krátky popis nerastného bohatstva Vietnamu.

  6. Anharmonicity and its application in earth abundant thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Donald

    2013-03-01

    Recently very exciting improvements in the thermoelectric figure of merit have been reported in bulk nanostructured chalcogenides, mostly due to lattice thermal conductivity suppression by nanoscale-level interfaces. A critical issue in these types of structures is maintaining good electrical conductivity while blocking phonon transport. While so-called ``endotaxial'' nanostructuring, for example, can substantially maintain electron transport across interfaces, generally nanocomposite structures display reduced electrical conductivity which can counteract or in some cases overwhelm the improvements in figure of merit due to thermal conductivity reduction. Additionally, the thermal stability of nanostructured materials at operating temperatures at a significant fraction of the melting point is a concern. Here we describe another approach to reducing lattice thermal conductivity based on designing materials with large lattice anharmonicity. Anharmonic phonon vibrations are the source of intrinsic thermal resistivity in solids and manifest themselves in large Grüneisen parameters. We show that one class of compounds, those containing antimony atoms with a lone pair configuration, exhibits a strongly anharmonic phonon spectrum that leads to intrinsically small lattice thermal conductivity. We have applied this concept to ternary copper-antimony-chalcogenide semiconductors and find that the family of compounds based on the tetrahedrite crystal structure can exhibit thermoelectric figure of merit rivaling that of conventional materials like PbTe. The tetrahedrite family is the most widespread sulfosalt mineral on Earth and we show that the mineral itself can be used directly as a source material for earth abundant thermoelectrics. This may pave the way for many new, low cost applications of thermoelectrics in waste heat recovery and power generation.

  7. INTERSTELLAR ABUNDANCES TOWARD X Per, REVISITED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencic, Lynne A. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Smith, Randall K. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to examine dust grain types and measure elemental abundances in the local interstellar medium (ISM). The absorption features of O, Fe, Mg, and Si along this line of sight were measured using spectra from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory's LETG/ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments, and the Spex software package. The spectra were fit with dust analogs measured in the laboratory. The O, Mg, and Si abundances were compared to those from standard references, and the O abundance was compared to that along lines of sight toward other X-ray binaries. The results are as follows. First, it was found that a combination of MgSiO{sub 3} (enstatite) and Mg{sub 1.6}Fe{sub 0.4}SiO{sub 4} (olivine) provided the best fit to the O K edge, with N(MgSiO{sub 3})/N(Mg{sub 1.6}Fe{sub 0.4}SiO{sub 4}) = 3.4. Second, the Fe L edge could be fit with models that included metallic iron, but it was not well described by the laboratory spectra currently available. Third, the total abundances of O, Mg, and Si were in very good agreement with that of recently re-analyzed B stars, suggesting that they are good indicators of abundances in the local ISM, and the depletions were also in agreement with expected values for the diffuse ISM. Finally, the O abundances found from X-ray binary absorption spectra show a similar correlation with Galactocentric distances as seen in other objects.

  8. The Trouble With Tailings: How Alteration Mineralogy can Hinder Quantitative Phase Analysis of Mineral Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. A.; Mills, S. J.; Dipple, G. M.; Raudsepp, M.

    2009-05-01

    Quantitative phase analysis, using the Rietveld method and X-ray powder-diffraction data, has become a standard technique for analysis of mineral waste from mining operations. This method relies upon the availability of well defined crystal structures for all detectable mineral phases in a sample. An even more basic assumption, central to quantitative mineralogy, is that all significant mineral phases can be detected from X-ray diffraction data. This is not always the case, because X-ray amorphous and nanocrystalline mineral phases can develop within geological samples as a result of chemical weathering. The extent of mineral-water interaction to which mine tailings are exposed, during processing and storage, makes these materials particularly susceptible to weathering and alteration. We have used the Rietveld method and X-ray powder-diffraction data to quantify the uptake of atmospheric CO2 into secondary carbonate minerals at two operating mines: the Diavik Diamond Mine, Northwest Territories, Canada, and the Mount Keith Nickel Mine, Western Australia, Australia. At Diavik, nominally anhydrous minerals in kimberlitic mine tailings have been found to contain X-ray amorphous material and hydroxyl groups detectable by Raman spectroscopy. A series of weighed mixtures, prepared to simulate kimberlite mine tailings, has been used to assess the effects of X-ray amorphous material on quantitative phase analysis of Diavik tailings. At Mount Keith, hydrated sulphate minerals and halide minerals develop efflorescent crusts at the surface of the tailings storage facility. Hydrated sulphate minerals in these mine tailings commonly decompose to amorphous substances rather than dehydrating to produce minerals detectable from X-ray powder-diffraction patterns. Nanocrystalline and X-ray amorphous material in mine tailings can affect the accuracy of quantitative determinations of CO2 trapping and abundances of sulphur-bearing minerals associated with redox reactions. Here we

  9. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation: roles of phototrophy and heterotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Ian M; Wilson, Siobhan A; Small, Darcy P; Dipple, Gregory M; Wan, Wankei; Southam, Gordon

    2011-10-15

    Ultramafic mine tailings from the Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada and the Mount Keith Nickel Mine, Western Australia are valuable feedstocks for sequestering CO₂ via mineral carbonation. In microcosm experiments, tailings were leached using various dilute acids to produce subsaline solutions at circumneutral pH that were inoculated with a phototrophic consortium that is able to induce carbonate precipitation. Geochemical modeling of the experimental solutions indicates that up to 2.5% and 16.7% of the annual emissions for Diavik and Mount Keith mines, respectively, could be sequestered as carbonate minerals and phototrophic biomass. CO₂ sequestration rates are mainly limited by cation availability and the uptake of CO₂. Abundant carbonate mineral precipitation occurred when heterotrophic oxidation of acetate acted as an alternative pathway for CO₂ delivery. These experiments highlight the importance of heterotrophy in producing sufficient DIC concentrations while phototrophy causes alkalinization of waters and produces biomass (fatty acids = 7.6 wt.%), a potential feedstock for biofuel production. Tailings storage facilities could be redesigned to promote CO₂ sequestration by directing leachate waters from tailings piles into specially designed ponds where carbonate precipitation would be mediated by both chemical and biological processes, thereby storing carbon in stable carbonate minerals and potentially valuable biomass.

  10. Protozoan grazing increases mineralization of naphthalene in marine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Suk-Fong; Taghon, Gary L

    2006-05-01

    Bacterial decomposition of organic matter is frequently enhanced when protozoa are present. Various mechanisms have been proposed to account for this phenomenon, including effects associated with grazing by protozoa (such as increased recycling of limiting nutrients, removal of senescent cells, or reduction of competition among bacteria) and indirect effects of grazers (such as excretion of bacterial growth factors). Few studies have examined the role of protozoa in bacterial degradation of xenobiotic compounds in sediment containing a natural community of microbes. The effect of protozoa on mineralization of naphthalene was investigated in this study. Laboratory experiments were conducted using field-contaminated estuarine sediment, with the indigenous microbial populations. Mineralization of naphthalene was up to four times greater in treatments with actively grazing protozoa than in treatments containing the grazing inhibitor cytochalasin B. Control experiments confirmed that the grazing inhibitor was not toxic to ciliates but did prevent them from grazing. The grazing inhibitor did not affect growth rates of a mixed culture of sediment bacteria or a pure polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading strain. Once grazing had been inhibited, supplementing treatments with inorganic N and P, glucose, or additional protozoa failed to stimulate naphthalene mineralization. Naphthalene-degrading bacteria were four to nine times less abundant when protozoan grazing was suppressed. We suggest that protozoa enhance naphthalene mineralization by selectively grazing on those sediment bacteria that ordinarily would outcompete naphthalene-degrading bacteria.

  11. [Mineral water as a cure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  12. Abundances in planetary nebulae : NGC 6826

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surendiranath, R.; Pottasch, S. R.

    Aims. We determine the chemical abundances and other parameters of the nebula NGC 6826 and its central star. Methods. We present new ISO spectra and combine them with archival IUE and optical spectra from the literature to get a complete, extinction-corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of

  13. Abundances of planetary nebula NGC2392

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Roellig, T. L.

    The spectra of the planetary nebula NGC2392 is reanalysed using spectral measurements made in the mid-infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The aim is to determine the chemical composition of this object. We also make use of IUE and ground based spectra. Abundances determined from the

  14. Catch Composition, Abundance and Length- Weight Relationships ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loading Salter digital balance for small fish (<2.0 kg) or on a hanging Salter ... white- spotted grouper,. Epinephelus caeruleopunctatus, was numerically the most abundant (15.6%) in the catch followed by Cephalopholis boenak. (13%) and E. fasciatus ... Vanga, the commonly landed species were the white-spotted grouper,.

  15. A biogeographical perspective on species abundance distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; de Azevedo, Eduardo Brito

    2017-01-01

    the fit of different SAD models to data from a single site is to collect abundance data from a variety of sites, and then build models to analyse how different SAD properties (e.g. form, skewness) vary with different predictor variables. Such a biogeographical approach to SAD research is potentially very...

  16. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  17. SPECIES RICHNESS AND ABUNDANCE OF CLINID FISH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data analyses. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to determine which environmental factors. (independent variables) were significant predictors of number of clinid species, and clinid abundance and ... models to detect possible non-linear relations between dependent and independent variables. Sepkoski ...

  18. Palaeoceanographic implications of abundance and mean ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Temporal variation in abundance and mean proloculus diameter of the benthic foraminiferal species Epistominella exigua has been reconstructed over the last ∼ 50,000 yr BP,from a core collected from the distal Bay of Bengal fan,to assess its potential application in palaeoceanographic reconstruction studies.

  19. Electron Density and Temperature Measurements, and Abundance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using spectra obtained from the SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) spectrograph on the spacecraft SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), we investigate the height dependence of electron density, temperature and abundance anomalies in the solar atmosphere. In particular, we present ...

  20. Composition, abundance, distribution and seasonality of larval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composition, abundance, distribution and seasonality of larval fishes in the Sundays Estuary, South Africa. K. Sutherland, N.A. Strydom, T.H. Wooldridge. Abstract. The larval fish assemblage was studied in the permanently open Sundays Estuary on the southeast coast of South Africa. Seasonal samples were collected ...

  1. Composition, abundance, distribution and seasonality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composition, abundance, distribution and seasonality of zooplankton in the Sundays Estuary, South Africa. K Sutherland, TH Wooldridge, NA Strydom. Abstract. The zooplankton assemblage in the permanently open Sundays Estuary, on the south-east coast of South Africa, was studied seasonally. Samples were collected ...

  2. In Abundance: Networked Participatory Practices as Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bonnie E.

    2015-01-01

    In an era of knowledge abundance, scholars have the capacity to distribute and share ideas and artifacts via digital networks, yet networked scholarship often remains unrecognized within institutional spheres of influence. Using ethnographic methods including participant observation, interviews, and document analysis, this study investigates…

  3. Occurrence, abundance and distribution of benthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A baseline study was conducted of the occurrence of macroinvertebrates at 26 sites in the Nyando River catchment in 2005–2006. A total of 13 orders and 16 families of Arthropoda, Mollusca, Platyhelminthes and Annelida were collected, with the order Ephemeroptera being most abundant in the up- and mid-stream ...

  4. Short communication: Abundance, distribution and population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is an iconic or keystone species in many aquatic ecosystems. In order to understand the abundance, distribution, and population trends of Nile crocodiles in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeastern Zimbabwe, we carried out 4 annual aerial surveys, using a Super Cub aircraft ...

  5. Benthic macrofauna community composition, abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macroinvertebrate abundance was higher in the shallow nearshore waters than in the deep offshore waters. The communities of the shallow, intermediate and deep environments were composed mainly of molluscs, worms and insects. Gastropods (52.68%) and bivalves (40.18%) constituted the major part of the benthic ...

  6. Mineral Supertrumps: A new card game to assist learning of mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandler, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mineralogy is considered one of the cornerstone subjects of geoscience curriculum. It provides the basic information from which we can understand the composition and behaviour of Earth and planetary materials, yet many students struggle to obtain adequate comprehension and knowledge of mineralogy during tertiary degree programs. Here, I introduce a new card game called "Mineral Supertrumps" that can be used to assist teaching of mineralogy at secondary and tertiary level. The card game is easy to learn and play, and is designed to promote active learning in a group environment. The game involves 3 to 6 people, and is similar to the "Top Trumps™" card games. The pack consists of 54 mineral cards, and 6 supertrump cards. Each mineral card includes information about the mineral such as the generic chemical formula, the classification, crystal system, the geological environment where the mineral is commonly found or formed, as well as information in the five playing categories (or trumps) of Hardness, Specific Gravity, Cleavage, Crustal Abundance, and Economic Value. The first three playing categories relate to distinct physical properties of the mineral, while last two categories rate the importance of the mineral in terms of abundance in the Earth's crust and value to modern societies. Results of a formal evaluation of the game by students in the second year of a tertiary geology program indicate that the game has clear benefits for learning about mineralogy. The majority of students enjoyed playing the game and considered it to be effective for enhancing learning about mineral properties and their application to other Earth Science disciplines. Therefore, inclusion of "Mineral Supertrumps" into Earth Science curriculum at secondary or tertiary level has the potential to redress the difficulties students face in learning of mineralogy, while requiring little to no adjustment to existing teaching programs.

  7. Spatial variation of sediment mineralization supports differential CO2 emissions from a tropical hydroelectric reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Jaqueline Cardoso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Substantial amounts of organic matter (OM from terrestrial ecosystems are buried as sediments in inland waters. It is still unclear to what extent this OM constitutes a sink of carbon, and how much of it is returned to the atmosphere upon mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2. The construction of reservoirs affects the carbon cycle by increasing OM sedimentation at the regional scale. In this study we determine the OM mineralization in the sediment of three zones (river, transition and dam of a tropical hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil as well as identify the composition of the carbon pool available for mineralization. We measured sediment OC mineralization rates and related them to the composition of the OM, bacterial abundance and pCO2 of the surface water of the reservoir. Terrestrial OM was an important substrate for the mineralization. In the river and transition zones most of the OM was allochthonous (56 % and 48 %, respectively while the dam zone had the lowest allochthonous contribution (7 %. The highest mineralization rates were found in the transition zone (154.80 ± 33.50 mg C m-2 d-1 and the lowest in the dam (51.60 ± 26.80 mg C m-2 d-1. Moreover, mineralization rates were significantly related to bacterial abundance (r2 = 0.50, p < 0.001 and pCO2 in the surface water of the reservoir (r2 = 0.73, p < 0.001. The results indicate that allochthonous OM has different contributions to sediment mineralization in the three zones of the reservoir. Further, the sediment mineralization, mediated by heterotrophic bacteria metabolism, significantly contributes to CO2 supersaturation in the water column, resulting in higher pCO2 in the river and transition zones in comparison with the dam zone, affecting greenhouse gas emission estimations from hydroelectric reservoirs.

  8. Spatial variation of sediment mineralization supports differential CO2 emissions from a tropical hydroelectric reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Simone J; Vidal, Luciana O; Mendonça, Raquel F; Tranvik, Lars J; Sobek, Sebastian; Fábio, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Substantial amounts of organic matter (OM) from terrestrial ecosystems are buried as sediments in inland waters. It is still unclear to what extent this OM constitutes a sink of carbon, and how much of it is returned to the atmosphere upon mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2). The construction of reservoirs affects the carbon cycle by increasing OM sedimentation at the regional scale. In this study we determine the OM mineralization in the sediment of three zones (river, transition, and dam) of a tropical hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil as well as identify the composition of the carbon pool available for mineralization. We measured sediment organic carbon mineralization rates and related them to the composition of the OM, bacterial abundance and pCO2 of the surface water of the reservoir. Terrestrial OM was an important substrate for the mineralization. In the river and transition zones most of the OM was allochthonous (56 and 48%, respectively) while the dam zone had the lowest allochthonous contribution (7%). The highest mineralization rates were found in the transition zone (154.80 ± 33.50 mg C m(-) (2) d(-) (1)) and the lowest in the dam (51.60 ± 26.80 mg C m(-) (2) d(-) (1)). Moreover, mineralization rates were significantly related to bacterial abundance (r (2) = 0.50, p reservoir (r (2) = 0.73, p sediment mineralization in the three zones of the reservoir. Further, the sediment mineralization, mediated by heterotrophic bacteria metabolism, significantly contributes to CO2 supersaturation in the water column, resulting in higher pCO2 in the river and transition zones in comparison with the dam zone, affecting greenhouse gas emission estimations from hydroelectric reservoirs.

  9. Noble gases in presolar diamonds II: Component abundances reflect thermal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Gary R.; Lewis, Roy S.

    1994-01-01

    Using the isotopic compositions derived in Huss and Lewis, 1994a, abundances of the P3, HL, and P6 noble-gas components were determined for 15 diamonds separates from primitive chondrites of 8 chondrite classes. Within a meteorite class, the relative abundances of these components correlate with the petrologic subtype of the host meteorite, indicating that metamorphism is primarily responsible for the variations. Relative abundances of P3, HL, and P6 among diamond samples can be understood in terms of thermal processing of a single mixture of diamonds like those now found in CI and CM2 chondrites. With relatively gentle heating, primitive diamonds first lose their low-temperature P3 gases and a 'labile' fraction of the HL component. Mass loss associated with release of these components produces an increase in the HL and P6 content of the remaining diamond relative to unprocessed diamond. Higher temperatures initiate destruction of the main HL carrier, while the HL content of the surviving diamonds remains essentially constant. At the same time, the P6 carrier begins to preferentially lose light noble gases. Meteorites that have experienced metamorphic temperatures greater than or = 650 C have lost essentially all of their presolar diamond through chemical reactions with surrounding minerals. The P3 abundance seems to be a function only of the maximum temperature experienced by the diamonds and thus is independent of the nature of the surrounding environment. If all classes inherited the same mixture of primitive diamonds, then P3 abundances would tie together the metamorphic scales in different meteorite classes. However, if the P3 abundance indicates a higher temperature than do other thermometers applicable to the host meteorite, then the P3 abundance may contain information about heating prior to accretion. Diamonds in the least metamorphosed EH, CV, and CO chondrites seem to carry a record of pre-accretionary thermal processing.

  10. Non-Salmonid Abundance - Line Features [ds186

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. The "Other Fish" category contains data collected...

  11. Mineral carbonation of gaseous carbon dioxide using a clay-hosted cation exchange reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Il-Mo; Roh, Ki-Min

    2013-01-01

    The mineral carbonation method is still a challenge in practical application owing to: (1) slow reaction kinetics, (2) high reaction temperature, and (3) continuous mineral consumption. These constraints stem from the mode of supplying alkaline earth metals through mineral acidification and dissolution. Here, we attempt to mineralize gaseous carbon dioxide into calcium carbonate, using a cation exchange reaction of vermiculite (a species of expandable clay minerals). The mineralization is operated by draining NaCI solution through vermiculite powders and continuously dropping into the pool of NaOH solution with CO2 gas injected. The mineralization temperature is regulated here at 293 and 333 K for 15 min. As a result of characterization, using an X-ray powder diffractometer and a scanning electron microscopy, two types of pure CaCO3 polymorphs (vaterite and calcite) are identified as main reaction products. Their abundance and morphology are heavily dependent on the mineralization temperature. Noticeably, spindle-shaped vaterite, which is quite different from a typical vaterite morphology (polycrystalline spherulite), forms predominantly at 333 K (approximately 98 wt%).

  12. Mineral Classification of Makhtesh Ramon in Israel Using Hyperspectral Longwave Infrared (LWIR Remote-Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Notesco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient procedure for mineral mapping, with a unique hyperspectral remote-sensing fingerprint in the longwave infrared spectral region enabling identification of the most abundant minerals in the continental crust—quartz and feldspars. This ability was examined by acquiring airborne data with the AisaOWL sensor over the Makhtesh Ramon area in Israel. The at-sensor radiance measured from each pixel in a longwave infrared image represents the emissivity, expressing chemical and physical properties such as surface mineralogy, and the atmospheric contribution which is expressed differently during the day and at night. Therefore, identifying similar features in day and night radiance enabled identifying the major minerals in the surface—quartz, silicates (feldspars and clay minerals, gypsum and carbonates—and mapping their spatial distribution. Mineral identification was improved by applying the radiance of an in situ surface that is featureless for minerals but distinctive for the atmospheric contribution as a gain spectrum to each pixel in the image, reducing the atmospheric contribution and emphasizing the mineralogical features. The results were in agreement with the mineralogy of selected rock samples collected from the study area as derived from laboratory X-ray diffraction analysis. The resulting mineral map of the major minerals in the surface was in agreement with the geological map of the area.

  13. Applications of scanning electron microscopy to the study of mineral matter in peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Andrejko, M.J.; Bardin, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) have been used for in situ analysis of minerals in peats by combining methods for producing oriented microtome sections of peat with methods for critical point drying. The combined technique allows SEM analysis of the inorganic components and their associated botanical constituents, along with petrographic identification of the botanical constituents. In peat deposits with abundant fluvial- or marine-derived minerals, one may use the above technique and/or medium- or low-temperature ashing followed by x-ray diffraction to readily identify the various mineral components. However, in some freshwater environments the scarcity of non-silica minerals makes the above techniques impractical. By separating the inorganic residues from the peat, one can isolate the non-silica mineral matter in the SEM for analysis by EDS. Furthermore, such separation allows SEM analysis of features and textures of both silica and non-silica mineral particles that might otherwise be unidentifiable. Results indicate the occurrence of detritial minerals in both Okefenokee and Snuggedy Swamp peats, the presence of authigenic or diagenetic minerals growing within peats, and dissolution features on freshwater sponge spicules that may account for the absence of spicules in Tertiary lignites.

  14. Behavior of PAH/mineral associations during thermodesorption: impact for the determination of mineral retention properties towards PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biache, Coralie; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Saada, Alain; Faure, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with two minerals (silica sand and bentonite) presenting opposite retention properties were analyzed with a thermodesorption (Td)-GC-MS coupling in order to validate this technique as a new and rapid way to evaluate the solid sorption properties. Two analysis modes were used, evolved gas analysis (EGA) and Td with cryo-trap. EGA allowed a real-time monitoring of the compounds desorbed during a temperature program and gave a first screening of the samples while Td gave more precise indications on compound abundances for selected temperature ranges. When associated with silica sand, PAHs were released at relatively low temperatures (cracking at higher temperatures. The Td-GC-MS was proven to efficiently underline differences in retention properties of two minerals, and this study highlights the great potential of this technique to evaluate compound/matrix bond strength and interaction.

  15. Minerals transnationalism and economic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The efforts of developing countries to alter the prevailing presumptions and conditions under which their resources will become available for use in developed nations have fundamentally transformed the structure of international minerals political economy. This study attempts to contribute to an improved understanding of the complex issues that currently define the interactions among major participants in the international minerals equation. Its emphasis is directed toward an isolation and evaluation of policy options available to mineral-exporting developing nations. The study begins with a fairly detailed and comprehensive discussion of the historical and analytical issues that impose themselves on national deliberations. The intent of these chapters is to establish the major opportunities and constraints developing nations must confront in formulating appropriate minerals-sector policies. Thereafter, the core of analysis focuses upon a detailed, applied evaluation of policy options concerning ownership and control, fiscal regimes, and integrative linkage or spread-effect questions. The adduced evidence suggests the continued likelihood of instability and policy experimentation, but also indicates some hopeful avenues of establishing a more mutually beneficial and predictable structure of mineral relations.

  16. Soil nitrogen transformation responses to seasonal precipitation changes are regulated by changes in functional microbial abundance in a subtropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Xiao, Guoliang; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Jenerette, G. Darrel; Ma, Ying; Liu, Wei; Wang, Zhengfeng; Shen, Weijun

    2017-05-01

    The frequency of dry-season droughts and wet-season storms has been predicted to increase in subtropical areas in the coming decades. Since subtropical forest soils are significant sources of N2O and NO3-, it is important to understand the features and determinants of N transformation responses to the predicted precipitation changes. A precipitation manipulation field experiment was conducted in a subtropical forest to reduce dry-season precipitation and increase wet-season precipitation, with annual precipitation unchanged. Net N mineralization, net nitrification, N2O emission, nitrifying (bacterial and archaeal amoA) and denitrifying (nirK, nirS and nosZ) gene abundance, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), extractable organic carbon (EOC), NO3-, NH4+ and soil water content (SWC) were monitored to characterize and explain soil N transformation responses. Dry-season precipitation reduction decreased net nitrification and N mineralization rates by 13-20 %, while wet-season precipitation addition increased both rates by 50 %. More than 20 % of the total variation of net nitrification and N mineralization could be explained by microbial abundance and SWC. Notably, archaeal amoA abundance showed the strongest correlation with net N transformation rates (r ≥ 0.35), suggesting the critical role of archaeal amoA abundance in determining N transformations. Increased net nitrification in the wet season, together with large precipitation events, caused substantial NO3- losses via leaching. However, N2O emission decreased moderately in both dry and wet seasons due to changes in nosZ gene abundance, MBC, net nitrification and SWC (decreased by 10-21 %). We conclude that reducing dry-season precipitation and increasing wet-season precipitation affect soil N transformations through altering functional microbial abundance and MBC, which are further affected by changes in EOC and NH4+ availabilities.

  17. Chemical Cartography in the Milky Way with SDSS/APOGEE: Multi-element abundances and abundance ratio variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Jon A.; Hasselquist, Sten; Johnson, Jennifer; Bird, Jonathan C.; Majewski, Steven R.; SDSS/APOGEE Team

    2017-01-01

    The SDSS/APOGEE project is measuring abundances of multiple elements for several hundred thousand stars across the Milky Way. These allow the mapping of abundances and abundance ratio variations. Results will be presented for multiple abundance ratios across of the Galactic disk. The interpretation of mean abundance maps is complicated by variations in star formation history across the disk and by changing abundance ratios that result from an overall metallicity gradient. Variations in chemical abundance sequences, however, show the potential for using abundance ratios to track the movement of stars through the disk, and provide key information for constraining Galaxy formation and chemical evolution models.

  18. Deuterium Abundance in Consciousness and Current Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Elizabeth A.

    We utilize the deuterium-hydrogen abundances and their role in setting limits on the mass and other conditions of cosmogenesis and cosmological evolution. We calculate the dependence of a set of physical variables such as density, temperature, energy mass, entropy and other physical variable parameters through the evolution of the universe under the Schwarzschild conditions as a function from early to present time. Reconciliation with the 3°K and missing mass is made. We first examine the Schwarzschild condition; second, the geometrical constraints of a multidimensional Cartesian space on closed cosmologies, and third we will consider the cosmogenesis and evolution of the universe in a multidimensional Cartesian space, obeying the Schwarzschild condition. Implications of this model for matter creation are made. We also examine experimental evidence for closed versus open cosmologies; x-ray detection of the "missing mass" density. Also the interstellar deuterium abundance, along with the value of the Hubble constant set a general criterion on the value of the curvature constant, k. Once the value of the Hubble constant, H is determined, the deuterium abundance sets stringent restrictions on the value of the curvature constant k by an detailed discussion is presented. The experimental evidences for the determination of H and the primary set of coupled equations to determine D abundance is given. 'The value of k for an open, closed, or flat universe will be discussed in terms of the D abundance which will affect the interpretation of the Schwarzschild, black hole universe. We determine cosmology solutions to Einstein's field obeying the Schwarzschild solutions condition. With this model, we can form a reconciliation of the black hole, from galactic to cosmological scale. Continuous creation occurs at the dynamic blackhole plasma field. We term this new model the multiple big bang or "little whimper model". We utilize the deuteriumhydrogen abundances and their role in

  19. Preparation of synthetic standard minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, C.C.; Bustamante, S.J.; Charls, R.W.; Cowan, R.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Hull, D.E.; Olinger, B.W.; Roof, R.B.; Sheinberg, H.; Herrick, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A number of techniques for synthetic mineral preparations have been examined. These techniques include hot-pressing in graphite dies at moderate pressures, high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis in a piston and cylinder apparatus, isostatic pressing under helium gas pressures, hydrous mineral preparations using water as the pressure medium, explosion-generated shock waves, and radiofrequency heating. Minerals suitable for equation-of-state studies (three-inch, high-density discs), for thermodynamic property determinations (low-density powders) and for microprobe standards (fusion-cast microbeads) have been prepared. Mechanical stress-strain calculations in the piston-cylinder apparatus have been initiated and their integration with thermal stress calculations is currently under investigation.

  20. Proton induced luminescence of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Millan, A.; Calderon, T. [Depto. Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar, km. 15, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Beneitez, P. [Departamento Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [lFUNAM, Circuito de la lnvestigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of Ionoluminescence (IL) for several minerals commonly found in jewellery pieces and/or artefacts of historical interest. Samples including silicates and non-silicates (native elements, halide, oxide, carbonate and phosphate groups) have been excited with a 1.8 MeV proton beam, and IL spectra in the range of 200- 900 nm have been collected for each one using a fiber optic coupled spectrometer. Light emissions have been related to Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} ions, as well as intrinsic defects in these minerals. Results show the potential of IL for impurity characterization with high detection limits, local symmetry studies, and the study of the origin of minerals. (Author)

  1. Isolation and characterization of ancient hydrocarbon biomarkers from crystalline minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, R. E.; Carrasquillo, A.; Hallmann, C.; Sherman, L. S.; Waldbauer, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrocarbon biomarker analysis is conventionally conducted on bitumen (soluble fossilized organic matter) extracted from sedimentary rocks using organic solvents. Biomarkers can also be generated by pyrolysis of kerogen (insoluble organic matter) in the same rocks. These approaches have met with much success where the organic matter has not seen significant levels of thermal metamorphism but more limited success when applied to thermally mature Archean rocks. Biomarkers have also been isolated from fluid inclusions of crystalline minerals and this approach has found wide application in petroleum exploration because of the capability of minerals that form crystals in reservoir rocks to trap organics from different episodes of fluid migration. Lastly, biogenic crystalline minerals are well known to trap organics including amino acids, fatty acids or hydrocarbons from those organisms that laid down the minerals. In fact, recent observations suggest that hydrocarbon biomarkers can be abundantly preserved in crystalline minerals where they may be protected over long periods of time and also distinguished from more recent generations of organics from endolithic organisms (modern) or anthropogenic (fossil hydrocarbon) contaminants. Here we report analyses of biomarker lipids trapped in fluid inclusions or otherwise having a "tight association" with the minerals in sedimentary rocks from Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic successions in Australia and Southern Africa. In particular, cores recovered from the Agouron Griqualand Drilling Project contain over 2500m of well-preserved late Archean Transvaal Supergroup sediments, dating from ca. 2.67 to 2.46Ga. Bitumen extracts of samples from these strata were obtained using clean drilling, sampling and handling protocols and without overprinting with contaminant hydrocarbons. Dissolution of the mineral matrix of extracted sediments, followed by another solvent extraction, yielded a second bitumen that comprised hydrocarbons that

  2. Integral Field Spectroscopy Surveys: Oxygen Abundance Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.

    2017-07-01

    We present here the recent results on our understanding of oxygen abundance gradients derived using Integral Field Spectroscopic surveys. In particular we analyzed more than 2124 datacubes corresponding to individual objects observed by the CALIFA (˜ 734 objects) and the public data by MaNGA (˜ 1390 objects), deriving the oxygen abundance gradient for each galaxy. We confirm previous results that indicate that the shape of this gradient is very similar for all galaxies with masses above 109.5M⊙, presenting in average a very similar slope of ˜ -0.04 dex within 0.5-2.0 re, with a possible drop in the inner regions (r109.5M⊙) the gradient seems to be flatter than for more massive ones. All these results agree with an inside-out growth of massive galaxies and indicate that low mass ones may still be growing in an outside in phase.

  3. Diversity of bacterial iron mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konhauser, Kurt O.

    1998-05-01

    Bacterial cells, growing naturally in freshwater and marine environments or experimentally in culture, can precipitate a variety of authigenic iron minerals. With the vast majority of bacteria biomineralization is a two-step process: initially metals are electrostatically bound to the anionic surfaces of the cell wall and surrounding organic polymers, where they subsequently serve as nucleation sites for crystal growth. The biogenic minerals have crystal habits and chemical compositions similar to those produced by precipitation from inorganic solutions because they are governed by the same equilibrium principles that control mineralization of their inorganic counterparts. As the latter stages of mineralization are inorganically driven, the type of biomineral formed is inevitably dependent on the available counter-ions, and hence, the chemical composition of the waters in which the microorganisms are growing. In oxygenated waters, iron hydroxides are a common precipitate and can form passively through the binding of dissolved ferric species to negatively charged polymers or when soluble ferrous iron spontaneously reacts with dissolved oxygen to precipitate as ferric hydroxide on available nucleation sites (e.g. bacteria). Alternatively, the metabolic activity of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria can induce ferric hydroxide precipitation as a secondary by-product. Ferric hydroxide may then serve as a precursor for more stable iron oxides, such as goethite and hematite via dissolution-reprecipitation or dehydration, respectively, or it may react with dissolved silica, phosphate or sulphate to form other authigenic mineral phases. Under suboxic to anoxic conditions, ferric hydroxide may be converted to magnetite, siderite, and iron sulphides through various reductive processes associated with organic matter mineralization. Under biologically controlled conditions, where mineralization is completely regulated, magnetotactic bacteria form magnetite and greigite as navigational

  4. Alberta's mineral resource base: gaining momentum through diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccles, Roy [Energy Resources Conservation Board (Canada)], email: roy.eccles@ercb.ca; White, Gary [Alberta Energy (Canada)], email: gary.v.white@gov.ab.ca

    2011-07-01

    Mineral resources are abundant in Alberta and, as of December 2010, there were over 1000 active mineral permits, covering 9 million hectares, for working diamond, uranium, black shale, iron, magnetite, lithium and placer gold resources. In addition, Alberta is also a coal-rich province with 32 million tonnes having been produced in 2010 from 12 different mines. The aim of this paper is to present the status of all of these resources in Alberta. The resources, production and, most importantly, recent developments are presented for the following resources: coal, rare metals, uranium, titanium, polymetallic black shale, diamond, ferrous minerals, magnetite and industrial minerals. This paper pointed out that the mining industry in Alberta is very active, with many new projects developed or under development in all the different resources that are available in the province.

  5. Uranium mineralization in the two mica granite of gabal Ribdab area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M E; Saleh, G M; Abd El-Naby, H H

    2001-12-01

    Among the different rock units in the Gabal Ribdab area, the two-mica leucogranite and muscovite pegmatitic granite are the most favourable host rocks for uranium and thorium mineralization. The muscovite pegmatitic granite shows evidence of post-magmatic alteration, e.g. Na- and K-metasomatism, whereas the two-mica leucogranite could be regarded as being fresh. The spectrometric survey revealed the presence of three enriched zones with a maximum eU content of 140 ppm and the maximum eTh is 36 ppm. Uranophane, zippeite and becquerelite are the most abundant uranium minerals. The origin of these secondary minerals is mainly related to alteration of primary minerals by the action of oxidizing fluids, mobilization of uranium and then redeposition in other forms. Redistribution by circulating meteoric waters might have taken place.

  6. Angel lichen moth abundance and morphology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Anya; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Two unique datasets on the abundance and morphology of the angel lichen moth ( Cisthene angelus) in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA were compiled to describe the phenology and life history of this common, but poorly known, species. The abundance data were collected from 2012 to 2013 through a collaboration with river runners in Grand Canyon National Park. These citizen scientists deployed light traps from their campsites for one hour each night of their expedition. Insects were preserved in ethanol on site, and returned to the Southwest Biological Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona for analysis in the laboratory. A total of 2,437 light trap samples were sorted through, 903 of which contained C. angelus. In total, 73,841 C. angelus were identified and enumerated to create the abundance data set. The morphology dataset is based on a subset of 28 light trap samples from sampling year 2012 (14 from spring and 14 from fall.) It includes gender and forewing lengths for 2,674 individual moths and dry weights for 1,102 of those individuals.

  7. Abundance effects on the Cepheid distance scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1988-06-01

    A new investigation is made of the dependence of the period-luminosity (PL) and period-luminosity-color (PLC) relations on the helium (Y) and metal (Z) abundances in classical Cepheids. For consistency in overall approach and in error estimation, theoretical data alone have been used. These data come from stellar evolution, atmosphere, and pulsation theory. Composition dependences have been assigned to all quantities. A major quantitative result is that the PLC relation in B, V magnitudes is at least 5 times more sensitive to chemical composition than is the PL relation. If the PL relation is adopted and the helium abundance is held fixed, a Cepheid with Z = 0.005 should be fainter than one with Z = 0.02 by ≡0.04 mag. Since the slope of the predicted PL relation is independent of chemical composition, the PL relation can be considered to be effectively universal. Theoretical results are also presented for the bolometric PL relation, whose slope and dependence on metal abundance should be roughly applicable to infrared observations of Cepheids.

  8. A global database of ant species abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Heloise; Dunn, Rob R.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Grossman, Blair F.; Photakis, Manoli; Abril, Silvia; Agosti, Donat; Andersen, Alan N.; Angulo, Elena; Armbrecht, Ingre; Arnan, Xavier; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Bishop, Tom R.; Boulay, Raphael; Bruhl, Carsten; Castracani, Cristina; Cerda, Xim; Del Toro, Israel; Delsinne, Thibaut; Diaz, Mireia; Donoso, David A.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Enriquez, Martha L.; Fayle, Tom M.; Feener Jr., Donald H.; Fisher, Brian L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitpatrick, Matthew C.; Gomez, Cristanto; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Gove, Aaron; Grasso, Donato A.; Groc, Sarah; Guenard, Benoit; Gunawardene, Nihara; Heterick, Brian; Hoffmann, Benjamin; Janda, Milan; Jenkins, Clinton; Kaspari, Michael; Klimes, Petr; Lach, Lori; Laeger, Thomas; Lattke, John; Leponce, Maurice; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Longino, John; Lucky, Andrea; Luke, Sarah H.; Majer, Jonathan; McGlynn, Terrence P.; Menke, Sean; Mezger, Dirk; Mori, Alessandra; Moses, Jimmy; Munyai, Thinandavha Caswell; Pacheco, Renata; Paknia, Omid; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Pfeiffer, Martin; Philpott, Stacy M.; Resasco, Julian; Retana, Javier; Silva, Rogerio R.; Sorger, Magdalena D.; Souza, Jorge; Suarez, Andrew V.; Tista, Melanie; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Vonshak, Merav; Weiser, Michael D.; Yates, Michelle; Parr, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    What forces structure ecological assemblages? A key limitation to general insights about assemblage structure is the availability of data that are collected at a small spatial grain (local assemblages) and a large spatial extent (global coverage). Here, we present published and unpublished data from 51,388 ant abundance and occurrence records of more than 2693 species and 7953 morphospecies from local assemblages collected at 4212 locations around the world. Ants were selected because they are diverse and abundant globally, comprise a large fraction of animal biomass in most terrestrial communities, and are key contributors to a range of ecosystem functions. Data were collected between 1949 and 2014, and include, for each geo-referenced sampling site, both the identity of the ants collected and details of sampling design, habitat type and degree of disturbance. The aim of compiling this dataset was to provide comprehensive species abundance data in order to test relationships between assemblage structure and environmental and biogeographic factors. Data were collected using a variety of standardised methods, such as pitfall and Winkler traps, and will be valuable for studies investigating large-scale forces structuring local assemblages. Understanding such relationships is particularly critical under current rates of global change. We encourage authors holding additional data on systematically collected ant assemblages, especially those in dry and cold, and remote areas, to contact us and contribute their data to this growing dataset.

  9. 2015-2016 Palila abundance estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Banko, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    The palila (Loxioides bailleui) population was surveyed annually during 1998−2016 on Mauna Kea Volcano to determine abundance, population trend, and spatial distribution. In the latest surveys, the 2015 population was estimated at 852−1,406 birds (point estimate: 1,116) and the 2016 population was estimated at 1,494−2,385 (point estimate: 1,934). Similar numbers of palila were detected during the first and subsequent counts within each year during 2012−2016; the proportion of the total annual detections in each count ranged from 46% to 56%; and there was no difference in the detection probability due to count sequence. Furthermore, conducting repeat counts improved the abundance estimates by reducing the width of the confidence intervals between 9% and 32% annually. This suggests that multiple counts do not affect bird or observer behavior and can be continued in the future to improve the precision of abundance estimates. Five palila were detected on supplemental survey stations in the Ka‘ohe restoration area, outside the core survey area but still within Palila Critical Habitat (one in 2015 and four in 2016), suggesting that palila are present in habitat that is recovering from cattle grazing on the southwest slope. The average rate of decline during 1998−2016 was 150 birds per year. Over the 18-year monitoring period, the estimated rate of change equated to a 58% decline in the population.

  10. Abundant SAR11 viruses in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanlin; Temperton, Ben; Thrash, J Cameron; Schwalbach, Michael S; Vergin, Kevin L; Landry, Zachary C; Ellisman, Mark; Deerinck, Tom; Sullivan, Matthew B; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2013-02-21

    Several reports proposed that the extraordinary dominance of the SAR11 bacterial clade in ocean ecosystems could be a consequence of unusual mechanisms of resistance to bacteriophage infection, including 'cryptic escape' through reduced cell size and/or K-strategist defence specialism. Alternatively, the evolution of high surface-to-volume ratios coupled with minimal genomes containing high-affinity transporters enables unusually efficient metabolism for oxidizing dissolved organic matter in the world's oceans that could support vast population sizes despite phage susceptibility. These ideas are important for understanding plankton ecology because they emphasize the potentially important role of top-down mechanisms in predation, thus determining the size of SAR11 populations and their concomitant role in biogeochemical cycling. Here we report the isolation of diverse SAR11 viruses belonging to two virus families in culture, for which we propose the name 'pelagiphage', after their host. Notably, the pelagiphage genomes were highly represented in marine viral metagenomes, demonstrating their importance in nature. One of the new phages, HTVC010P, represents a new podovirus subfamily more abundant than any seen previously, in all data sets tested, and may represent one of the most abundant virus subfamilies in the biosphere. This discovery disproves the theory that SAR11 cells are immune to viral predation and is consistent with the interpretation that the success of this highly abundant microbial clade is the result of successfully evolved adaptation to resource competition.

  11. BOND: Bayesian Oxygen and Nitrogen abundance Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale Asari, N.; Stasinska, G.; Morisset, C.; Cid Fernandes, R.

    2018-01-01

    BOND determines oxygen and nitrogen abundances in giant H II regions by comparison with a large grid of photoionization models. The grid spans a wide range in O/H, N/O and ionization parameter U, and covers different starburst ages and nebular geometries. Unlike other statistical methods, BOND relies on the [Ar III]/[Ne III] emission line ratio to break the oxygen abundance bimodality. By doing so, it can measure oxygen and nitrogen abundances without assuming any a priori relation between N/O and O/H. BOND takes into account changes in the hardness of the ionizing radiation field, which can come about due to the ageing of H II regions or the stochastically sampling of the IMF. The emission line ratio He I/Hβ, in addition to commonly used strong lines, constrains the hardness of the ionizing radiation field. BOND relies on the emission line ratios [O III]/Hβ, [O II]/Hβ and [N II]/Hβ, [Ar III]/Hβ, [Ne III]/Hβ, He I/Hβ as its input parameters, while its output values are the measurements and uncertainties for O/H and N/O.

  12. Abundant Solar Nebula Solids in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Clemett, S.

    2016-01-01

    Comets have been proposed to consist of unprocessed interstellar materials together with a variable amount of thermally annealed interstellar grains. Recent studies of cometary solids in the laboratory have shown that comets instead consist of a wide range of materials from across the protoplanetary disk, in addition to a minor complement of interstellar materials. These advances were made possible by the return of direct samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 coma dust by the NASA Stardust mission and recent advances in microscale analytical techniques. Isotopic studies of 'cometary' chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and comet 81P/Wild 2 Stardust samples show that preserved interstellar materials are more abundant in comets than in any class of meteorite. Identified interstellar materials include sub-micron-sized presolar silicates, oxides, and SiC dust grains and some fraction of the organic material that binds the samples together. Presolar grain abundances reach 1 weight percentage in the most stardust-rich CP-IDPs, 50 times greater than in meteorites. Yet, order of magnitude variations in presolar grain abundances among CP-IDPs suggest cometary solids experienced significant variations in the degree of processing in the solar nebula. Comets contain a surprisingly high abundance of nebular solids formed or altered at high temperatures. Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples include 10-40 micron-sized, refractory Ca- Al-rich inclusion (CAI)-, chondrule-, and ameboid olivine aggregate (AOA)-like materials. The O isotopic compositions of these refractory materials are remarkably similar to their meteoritic counterparts, ranging from 5 percent enrichments in (sup 16) O to near-terrestrial values. Comet 81P/Wild 2 and CP-IDPs also contain abundant Mg-Fe crystalline and amorphous silicates whose O isotopic compositions are also consistent with Solar System origins. Unlike meteorites, that are dominated by locally-produced materials, comets appear to be composed of

  13. Geochemical Characterization of Trace MVT Mineralization in Paleozoic Sedimentary Rocks of Northeastern Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Luczaj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated Mississippi Valley-type (MVT mineralization occurs throughout northeastern Wisconsin, USA, and is recognized as the source of regionally extensive natural groundwater contamination in the form of dissolved arsenic, nickel, and other related metals. Although considerable attention has been given to arsenic contamination of groundwater in the region, limited attention has been focused on characterizing the bedrock sources of these and other metals. A better understanding of the potential sources of groundwater contamination is needed, especially in areas where groundwater is the dominant source of drinking water. This article describes the regional, stratigraphic, and petrographic distribution of MVT mineralization in Paleozoic rocks of northeastern Wisconsin, with a focus on sulfide minerals. Whole-rock geochemical analysis performed on 310 samples of dolomite, sandstone, and shale show detectable levels of arsenic, nickel, cobalt, copper, lead, zinc, and other metals related to various sulfide mineral phases identified using scanning electron microscopy. MVT minerals include pyrite, marcasite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, fluorite, celestine, barite, and others. We describe the first nickel- and cobalt-bearing sulfide mineral phases known from Paleozoic strata in the region. Arsenic, nickel, and cobalt are sometimes present as isomorphous substitutions in pyrite and marcasite, but discrete mineral phases containing nickel and cobalt elements are also observed, including bravoite and vaesite. Locally abundant stratigraphic zones of sulfide minerals occur across the region, especially in the highly enriched Sulfide Cement Horizon at the top of the Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone. Abundant quantities of sulfides also appear near the contact between the Silurian Mayville Formation and the underlying Maquoketa and Neda formations in certain areas along and east of the Niagara escarpment. This article illustrates how a detailed

  14. Dynamics of uranium vein mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosyan, R.V. (Ministerstvo Geologii SSR, Moscow)

    1981-01-01

    The formation of uraniun vein deposits and the essence of consanguinity of the mineralization and wall metasomatites are considered. The formation of uranium mineralization is analysed from the positions of Korzhinsky D. S. : the formation of metasomatite aureole and associated vein ores take place as a result of the development of one solution flow while the formation of mineral vein associations occurs on the background of continuous filtration of the solution during metasomato is due to a repeated (pulse) half-opening of fractures and their filling with a part of filtrating solution. The analysis of the available information on the example of two different uranium manifestations permits to reveal certain relations both in the character of wall rock alterations and between the metasomatosis and the formation of ore minerals in veins. The conclusion is made that spatial-time correlations of vein formations with wall metasomatites attest that the pulse formation of ores in veinlets occurs on the background and in interrelation with a consecutive precipitation of components in the aureole volume. The analysis of element migration dynamics in wall aureole carried out from the positions of the Korzhinsky hypothesis of the advance wave of acid components that takes into account the interaction of continuous and pulse mechanisms of solution movement permits to avoid contradictions when interpreting the processes of wall rock alterations and vein ore-forming, and permits to make a common scheme of vein ore-genesis.

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  16. Marine minerals: The Indian perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A; Nath, B.N.; Banerjee, R.

    the Konkan Coast, Maharashtra. The future demand for economic minerals and metals for the year 2000 vis-a-vis the production of material in the last twelve years has been calculated, and in light of the above, the importance and chances of offshore...

  17. Impact of mineral resource depletion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In a letter to the editor, the authors comment on BA Steen's article on "Abiotic Resource Depletion: different perceptions of the problem with mineral deposits" published in the special issue of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment...

  18. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breastfeeding. Source : National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Selenium Selenium is a mineral that the body needs ... or molecules that can damage cells) and infections. Selenium is present in many foods, and is ... Source : National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary ...

  19. Mineral of the month: titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambogi, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    From paint to airplanes, titanium is important in a number of applications. Commercial production comes from titanium-bearing ilmenite, rutile and leucoxene (altered ilmenite). These minerals are used to produce titanium dioxide pigment, as well as an assortment of metal and chemical products.

  20. Elastic Properties of Mantle Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, T. S.; Stan, C. V.

    2012-12-01

    The most direct information about the interior structure of the Earth comes from seismic wave velocities. Interpretation of seismic data requires an understanding of how sound velocities and elastic properties of minerals vary with pressure, temperature, crystal structure, and composition as well as the role of anelasticity, melts, etc. More generally, elastic moduli are important for understanding many solid-state phenomena including mechanical stability, interatomic interactions, material strength, compressibility, and phase transition mechanisms. The database of mineral elasticity measurements has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this work, we report initial results of an ongoing survey of our current knowledge of mineral elasticity at both ambient conditions and high pressures and temperatures. The analysis is selective, emphasizing single crystal measurements but also incorporating polycrystalline measurements and volume compression data as appropriate. The goal is to synthesize our current understanding of mineral elasticity in terms of structure and composition, and to identify the major remaining needs for experimental and theoretical work. Clinopyroxenes (Cpx) provide an example of our approach. A wide range of clinopyroxene compositions are found geologically and Mg-, Ca-, and Na-rich clinopyroxenes are expected to be important components in the upper mantle. The single-crystal elastic properties of a number of endmember Cpx compositions have been measured and these exhibit a range of ~25% in shear velocity. Those with monovalent cations (spodumene, jadeite) in the M2 site exhibit the highest velocities while Fe-rich (hendenbergit, acmite) compositions have the lowest velocities. The effects on velocity due to a wide range of chemical substitutions can be defined, but there are important discrepancies and omissions in the database. New measurements of omphacites, intermediate diopside-hedenbergite compositions, aegerine/acmite, augite, etc. are

  1. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-02-25

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized (White et al., 2008, GCA) and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisser and [2006] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [1994], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO{sub 2}(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total

  2. Proceedings of XXIV international mineral processing congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dianzuo; Sun Chuan Yao; Wang Fu Liang; Zhang Li Cheng; Han Long (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    Topics covered in volume 1 include applied mineralogy, comminution, classification, physical separation, flotation chemistry, sulphide flotation, non-sulphide flotation and reagent in mineral industry. Volume 2 covers processing of complex ores, processing of industrial minerals and coal, solid liquid separation, dispersion and aggregation, process simulation, expert systems and control of mineral processing, biohydrometallurgy, and mineral chemical processing. Volume 3 contains powder technology, mineral materials, treatment and recycling for solid wastes, waste water treatment, secondary resource recovery, soil remediation, concentrator engineering and process design, and application of mineral processing in related industry. It includes a CD-ROM of the proceedings.

  3. Clay mineralogy of weathering rinds and possible implications concerning the sources of clay minerals in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Steven M.

    1982-01-01

    Weathering rinds on volcanic clasts in Quaternary deposits in the western US contain only very fine-grained and poorly crystalline clay minerals. Rinds were sampled from soils containing well-developed argillic B horizons in deposits approx 105 yr old or more. The clay-size fraction of the rinds is dominated by allophane and iron hydroxy-oxides, whereas the B horizons contain abundant well-crystallized clay minerals. The contrast between the clay mineralogy of the weathering rinds, in which weathering is isolated from other soil processes, and that of the associated soil matrices suggests a need to reassess assumptions concerning the rates at which clay minerals form and the sources of clay minerals in argillic B horizons. It seems that crystalline clay minerals form more slowly in weathering rinds than is generally assumed for soil environments and that the weathering of primary minerals may not be the dominant source of crystalline clay minerals in Middle to Late Pleistocene soil.-A.P.

  4. Can occupancy-abundance models be used to monitor wolf abundance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cecilia Latham

    Full Text Available Estimating the abundance of wild carnivores is of foremost importance for conservation and management. However, given their elusive habits, direct observations of these animals are difficult to obtain, so abundance is more commonly estimated from sign surveys or radio-marked individuals. These methods can be costly and difficult, particularly in large areas with heavy forest cover. As an alternative, recent research has suggested that wolf abundance can be estimated from occupancy-abundance curves derived from "virtual" surveys of simulated wolf track networks. Although potentially more cost-effective, the utility of this approach hinges on its robustness to violations of its assumptions. We assessed the sensitivity of the occupancy-abundance approach to four assumptions: variation in wolf movement rates, changes in pack cohesion, presence of lone wolves, and size of survey units. Our simulations showed that occupancy rates and wolf pack abundances were biased high if track surveys were conducted when wolves made long compared to short movements, wolf packs were moving as multiple hunting units as opposed to a cohesive pack, and lone wolves were moving throughout the surveyed landscape. We also found that larger survey units (400 and 576 km2 were more robust to changes in these factors than smaller survey units (36 and 144 km2. However, occupancy rates derived from large survey units rapidly reached an asymptote at 100% occupancy, suggesting that these large units are inappropriate for areas with moderate to high wolf densities (>15 wolves/1,000 km2. Virtually-derived occupancy-abundance relationships can be a useful method for monitoring wolves and other elusive wildlife if applied within certain constraints, in particular biological knowledge of the surveyed species needs to be incorporated into the design of the occupancy surveys. Further, we suggest that the applicability of this method could be extended by directly incorporating some of its

  5. The primordial helium abundance from updated emissivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aver, Erik [Department of Physics, Gonzaga University, 502 E Boone Ave, Spokane, WA, 99258 (United States); Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Porter, R.L., E-mail: aver@gonzaga.edu, E-mail: olive@umn.edu, E-mail: ryanlporter@gmail.com, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Observations of metal-poor extragalactic H II regions allow the determination of the primordial helium abundance, Y{sub p}. The He I emissivities are the foundation of the model of the H II region's emission. Porter, Ferland, Storey, and Detisch (2012) have recently published updated He I emissivities based on improved photoionization cross-sections. We incorporate these new atomic data and update our recent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of the dataset published by Izotov, Thuan, and Stasi'nska (2007). As before, cuts are made to promote quality and reliability, and only solutions which fit the data within 95% confidence level are used to determine the primordial He abundance. The previously qualifying dataset is almost entirely retained and with strong concordance between the physical parameters. Overall, an upward bias from the new emissivities leads to a decrease in Y{sub p}. In addition, we find a general trend to larger uncertainties in individual objects (due to changes in the emissivities) and an increased variance (due to additional objects included). From a regression to zero metallicity, we determine Y{sub p} = 0.2465 ± 0.0097, in good agreement with the BBN result, Y{sub p} = 0.2485 ± 0.0002, based on the Planck determination of the baryon density. In the future, a better understanding of why a large fraction of spectra are not well fit by the model will be crucial to achieving an increase in the precision of the primordial helium abundance determination.

  6. Clustering dark energy and halo abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ronaldo C.; Marra, Valerio

    2017-11-01

    Within the standard paradigm, dark energy is taken as a homogeneous fluid that drives the accelerated expansion of the universe and does not contribute to the mass of collapsed objects such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. The abundance of galaxy clusters—measured through a variety of channels—has been extensively used to constrain the normalization of the power spectrum: it is an important probe as it allows us to test if the standard ΛCDM model can indeed accurately describe the evolution of structures across billions of years. It is then quite significant that the Planck satellite has detected, via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, less clusters than expected according to the primary CMB anisotropies. One of the simplest generalizations that could reconcile these observations is to consider models in which dark energy is allowed to cluster, i.e., allowing its sound speed to vary. In this case, however, the standard methods to compute the abundance of galaxy clusters need to be adapted to account for the contributions of dark energy. In particular, we examine the case of clustering dark energy—a dark energy fluid with negligible sound speed—with a redshift-dependent equation of state. We carefully study how the halo mass function is modified in this scenario, highlighting corrections that have not been considered before in the literature. We address modifications in the growth function, collapse threshold, virialization densities and also changes in the comoving scale of collapse and mass function normalization. Our results show that clustering dark energy can impact halo abundances at the level of 10%-30%, depending on the halo mass, and that cluster counts are modified by about 30% at a redshift of unity.

  7. Cosmic ray source abundance of calcium

    CERN Document Server

    Perron, C

    1978-01-01

    Re-examines the results of experiments in which ultra-high purity iron targets were irradiated by protons from the two CERN accelerators (600 MeV and 21 GeV); the spallation products were then chemically separated, and their isotopic composition determined by mass spectrometry. Ratios of cross-sections for calcium production by spallation of iron show that /sup 42/Ca, /sup 43/Ca and /sup 44/Ca have about the same abundance, about 10-15% that of iron, confirming earlier studies. (11 refs).

  8. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-06-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible.

  9. Microbial acquisition of iron from ferric iron bearing minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, L.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sposito, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Iron is a universal requirement for all life forms. Although the fourth most abundant element in the geosphere, iron is virtually insoluble at physiological pH in oxidizing environments, existing mainly as very insoluble oxides and hydroxides. Currently it is not understood how iron is solubilized and made available for biological use. This research project addressed this topic by conducting a series of experiments that utilized techniques from both soil microbiology and mineral surface geochemistry. Microbiological analysis consisted of the examination of metabolic and physiological responses to mineral iron supplements. At the same time mineral surfaces were examined for structural changes brought about by microbially mediated dissolution. The results of these experiments demonstrated that (1) bacterial siderophores were able to promote the dissolution of iron oxides, (2) that strict aerobic microorganisms may use anaerobic processes to promote iron oxide dissolution, and (3) that it is possible to image the surface of iron oxides undergoing microbial dissolution.

  10. Mineral nutrition and spatial concentrations of African ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, S J

    1988-07-28

    Africa's abundant large herbivores are very heterogeneously distributed, both geographically and regionally. Within a region, some localities contain dense animal concentrations although areas nearby may be virtually unoccupied. Mixed-species herds are a conspicuous feature of areas where animals concentrate. The prevailing explanations of local distributional concentrations are (1) that different herbivore species facilitate each other's foraging, and (2) that animals are protected from predation by both intraspecific and interspecific association. If facilitation of grazing were an overriding factor, mixed species herds should move extensively with localized rain showers to obtain the greatest forage yield. If predation were the major factor influencing animal densities and distributions, rapid, unpredictable spatial movements would further reduce predation. But because resident, non-migratory species tend to occupy home ranges that are stable over time, neither of these hypotheses is totally compelling. Because tropical forages are of lower quality than temperate ones and are often chronically deficient in mineral elements, I tested the hypothesis that areas where animals concentrate are localities supporting forages of higher mineral content. I report here that the mineral content of foods is an important determinant of the spatial distributions of animals within the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Based on ecological critieria, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus appear particularly important.

  11. Retrieving the hydrous minerals on Mars by sparse unmixing and the Hapke model using MRO/CRISM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Honglei; Zhang, Xia

    2017-05-01

    The hydrous minerals on Mars preserve records of potential past aqueous activity. Quantitative information regarding mineralogical composition would enable a better understanding of the formation processes of these hydrous minerals, and provide unique insights into ancient habitable environments and the geological evolution of Mars. The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) has the advantage of both a high spatial and spectral resolution, which makes it suitable for the quantitative analysis of minerals on Mars. However, few studies have attempted to quantitatively retrieve the mineralogical composition of hydrous minerals on Mars using visible-infrared (VISIR) hyperspectral data due to their distribution characteristics (relatively low concentrations, located primarily in Noachian terrain, and unclear or unknown background minerals) and limitations of the spectral unmixing algorithms. In this study, we developed a modified sparse unmixing (MSU) method, combining the Hapke model with sparse unmixing. The MSU method considers the nonlinear mixed effects of minerals and avoids the difficulty of determining the spectra and number of endmembers from the image. The proposed method was tested successfully using laboratory mixture spectra and an Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) image of the Cuprite site (Nevada, USA). Then it was applied to CRISM hyperspectral images over Gale crater. Areas of hydrous mineral distribution were first identified by spectral features of water and hydroxyl absorption. The MSU method was performed on these areas, and the abundances were retrieved. The results indicated that the hydrous minerals consisted mostly of hydrous silicates, with abundances of up to 35%, as well as hydrous sulfates, with abundances ≤10%. Several main subclasses of hydrous minerals (e.g., Fe/Mg phyllosilicate, prehnite, and kieserite) were retrieved. Among these, Fe/Mg- phyllosilicate was the most abundant, with abundances

  12. 3He Abundances in Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Ramirez, Lizette

    2017-10-01

    Determination of the 3He isotope is important to many fields of astrophysics, including stellar evolution, chemical evolution, and cosmology. The isotope is produced in stars which evolve through the planetary nebula phase. Planetary nebulae are the final evolutionary phase of low- and intermediate-mass stars, where the extensive mass lost by the star on the asymptotic giant branch is ionised by the emerging white dwarf. This ejecta quickly disperses and merges with the surrounding ISM. 3He abundances in planetary nebulae have been derived from the hyperfine transition of the ionised 3He, 3He+, at the radio rest frequency 8.665 GHz. 3He abundances in PNe can help test models of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Many hours have been put into trying to detect this line, using telescopes like the Effelsberg 100m dish of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) 140-foot telescope, the NRAO Very Large Array, the Arecibo antenna, the Green Bank Telescope, and only just recently, the Deep Space Station 63 antenna from the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex.

  13. Studies of mineralization in South African rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, GC

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available Several South African rivers are polluted by mineral salts of diffuse source. This pollution can be related to geological phenomena and to irrigation practices. Mineralization is problematic in that it can render surface waters unsuitable...

  14. ARC Code TI: sequenceMiner

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The sequenceMiner was developed to address the problem of detecting and describing anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences. sequenceMiner works...

  15. Miscellaneous Industrial Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  16. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  17. Mineral Resources, Economic Growth, and World Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, David B.; Andrews, P. W.

    1974-01-01

    World mineral supply and demand is discussed. The economics of future mineral availability in terms of effects on pollution, land use, energy consumption, human settlements, and the international distribution of income are emphasized. (DT)

  18. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  19. Mineral operations outside the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  20. Of US minerals and morals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrie, R.L.

    1997-10-01

    Mining is vital to the US economy, and to the standard of living of US citizens, but it is increasingly under threat from environmental activists and politicians. There is a widespread misunderstanding about the importance of mining in the maintenance of civilisation and of the high environmental standards of the modern American mining industry. Importing minerals which can be produced cheaply in the US will damage the economy, and since environmental standards in the US are high may cause more and not less, damage to the environment of the world. Importing vital minerals such as coal, molybdenum, and trona is also an unnecessary threat to national security. This is not to say that environmental standards should not be subject to constant improvement, but ceasing mining because of local objections or international greenhouse gas treaties is insanity.

  1. Martian rocks, minerals, and mantles

    OpenAIRE

    Albee, Arden

    2002-01-01

    The variable nature of Mars was first observed almost 400 years ago and modern observations began almost 40 years ago, culminating with the flotilla of spacecraft now at or heading for Mars. We now know that the atmosphere, which produced the visible variation of Mars, has also covered it with a mantle that makes difficult any detailed investigation of the rocks and minerals of Mars.

  2. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yogurt legumes, such as beans, split peas, and lentils Zinc Zinc helps your immune system, which is ... peanuts legumes, such as beans, split peas, and lentils When people don't get enough of these ...

  3. Is Struvite a Prebiotic Mineral?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Pasek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The prebiotic relevance of mineral struvite, MgNH4PO4·6H2O, was studied experimentally as a phosphorylating reagent and, theoretically, to understand the geochemical requirements for its formation. The effectiveness of phosphorylation by the phosphate mineral, monetite, CaHPO4, was also studied to compare to the efficiency of struvite. The experiments focused on the phosphorylation reactions of the minerals with organic compounds, such as nucleosides, glycerol and choline chloride, and heat at 75 °C for about 7–8 days and showed up to 28% phosphorylation of glycerol. In contrast, the compositional requirements for the precipitation of struvite are high ammonium and phosphate concentrations, as well as a little Ca2+ dissolved in the water. Combined, these requirements suggest that it is not likely that struvite was present in excess on the early Earth to carry out phosphorylation reactions. The present study focuses on the thermodynamic aspects of struvite formation, complementing the results given by Orgel and Handschuh (1973, which were based on the kinetic effects.

  4. MARINE MINERAL RESOURCES - AN UPDATE AND INTRODUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.; Siapno, William

    1985-01-01

    This article briefly traces the status of marine minerals development, and it describes papers presented in this special issue on the subject. Subjects covered include types of deposits, marine mining in Canada, Manganese nodules, metalliferous sulfides as seabed minerals, metallurgical processes for reducing sulfide minerals, U. S. phosphate industry, construction materials and placers, and industry problems.

  5. provenance studies through petrography and heavy mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    are few amounts of rock fragments. The rock fragments are mostly metamorphic in origin and are dominated by gneisses and quartzite. The dominant accessory heavy minerals are composed mainly of opaque minerals magnetite and hematite. The non-opaque minerals include rutile, zircon, and chloriteare also present.

  6. Contribution of the Minerals Industry towards Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is a leading producer of a number of mineral commodities, and the minerals industry is a key driver of the South African economy. Ensuring that this mineral wealth is exploited in a manner consistent with the principles of sustainable development requires policies and strategies that are underpinned by a ...

  7. Raising Environmental Awareness among Miners in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    Generation of waste is inevitable but controllable in minerals industry. The aim of this research is to find ways for raising environmental awareness among miners. Miners' attitude towards environmental mining has been investigated. A survey has been done collecting mine managers' point of view coupled with current trend on mine waste management…

  8. 25 CFR 215.25 - Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other minerals and deep-lying lead and zinc minerals. 215.25 Section 215.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.25 Other minerals and deep-lying lead...

  9. Dynamic mechanical properties and anisotropy of synthetic shales with different clay minerals under confining pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fei; Di, Bangrang; Wei, Jianxin; Ding, Pinbo; Shuai, Da

    2018-03-01

    The presence of clay minerals can alter the elastic behaviour of reservoir rocks significantly as the type of clay minerals, their volume and distribution, and their orientation control the shale's intrinsic anisotropic behaviours. Clay minerals are the most abundant materials in shale, and it has been proven extremely difficult to measure the elastic properties of natural shale by means of a single variable (in this case, the type of clay minerals), due to the influences of multiple factors, including water, TOC content and complex mineral compositions. We used quartz, clay (kaolinite, illite and smectite), carbonate and kerogen extract as the primary materials to construct synthetic shale with different clay minerals. Ultrasonic experiments were conducted to investigate the anisotropy of velocity and mechanical properties in dry synthetic and natural shale as a function of confining pressure. Velocities in synthetic shale are sensitive to the type of clay minerals, possibly due to the different structures of the clay minerals. The velocities increase with confining pressure and show higher rate of velocity increase at low pressures, and P-wave velocity is usually more sensitive than S-wave velocity to confining pressure according to our results. Similarly, the dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio increase with applied pressure, and the results also reveal that E11 is always larger than E33 and ν31 is smaller than ν12. Velocity and mechanical anisotropy decrease with increasing stress, and are sensitive to stress and the type of clay minerals. However, the changes of mechanical anisotropy with applied stress are larger compared with the velocity anisotropy, indicating that mechanical properties are more sensitive to the change of rock properties.

  10. Identifying provenance-specific features of detrital heavy mineral assemblages in sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Andrew C.; Hallsworth, Claire

    1994-05-01

    The composition of heavy mineral assemblages in sandstones may be heavily influenced by processes operating during transport, deposition and diagenesis. As a consequence, conventional heavy mineral data may not be a reliable guide to the nature of sediment source material. Certain features of heavy mineral suites, however, are inherited directly from the source area without significant modification, such as the varietal characteristics of individual mineral species. This paper describes an alternative approach to varietal studies that concentrates on relative abundances of minerals that are stable during diagenesis and have similar hydraulic behaviour. Ratios of apatite to tourmaline, TiO 2 minerals to zircon, monazite to zircon, and chrome spinel to zircon provide a good reflection of the source rock characteristics, because they are comparatively immune to alteration during the sedimentary cycle. These ratios are described as index values (ATi, RZi, MZi and CZi, respectively). This approach avoids some of the practical problems associated with varietal studies, such as the need to make subjective decisions about mineral properties or to use advanced analytical techniques that may not be accessible to the analyst. It also makes use of more components of the heavy mineral suite and thus provides a more balanced view of provenance characteristics. The use of these ratios is illustrated with examples from Upper Jurassic sandstones in the Outer Moray Firth area of the UK continental shelf and Triassic sandstones from onshore and offshore UK. Heavy mineral indices, notably ATi and MZi, show marked variations in Upper Jurassic Piper sandstones of the Outer Moray Firth. Main Piper sandstones have lower ATi and MZi values compared with Supra Piper sandstones, indicating significant stratigraphic evolution of provenance. The UK Triassic shows major regional variations in a number of index values, including ATi, MZi and CZi, demonstrating that sediment was supplied from

  11. Multiple modes in a coral species abundance distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Maria; Connolly, Sean R

    2008-10-01

    Species abundance distributions are an important measure of biodiversity and community structure. These distributions are affected by sampling, and alternative species-abundance models often make similar predictions for small sample sizes. Very large samples reveal the relative abundances of rare species, and thus provide information about species relative abundances that small samples cannot. Here, we present the species-abundance distribution for a sample of > 40,000 coral colonies at a single site, exceeding existing samples of coral local assemblages by over an order of magnitude. This abundance distribution is multimodal when examined on a logarithmic scale. Four different model selection procedures all indicate that the underlying community abundance distribution has at least three modes. We show that the multiple modes are not caused by mixtures of species with different habitat preferences. However, spatial aggregation partially explains our results. We inspect published work on species abundance distributions, and suggest that multimodality may be a common feature of large samples.

  12. Relation between grade and abundance of manganese nodules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sudhakar, M.

    Data from more than 1000 locations in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) where both bulk nodule chemistry and abundance were determined and utilized to study the relationship between grade and abundance of manganese nodule deposits. Grade...

  13. Species Composition, Relative Abundance and Distribution of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Composition, Relative Abundance and Distribution of the Avian Fauna of Entoto Natural ... A study on avian species composition, relative abundance, diversity and ... Eucalyptus plantation, soil erosion, deforestation, habitat fragmentation, ...

  14. Is the geographic pattern in the abundance of south African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two general, alternative hypotheses can explain the abundance pattern: either pre-recruitment factors, those affecting the abundance of larvae, settlers and juveniles (5 mm in basal diameter), are significantly different ...

  15. DAWN GRAND MAP VESTA HYDROGEN ABUNDANCE V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A global map of the abundance of hydrogen in micrograms/g within the regolith of asteroid 4 Vesta is provided for two-degree equal-angle pixels. Hydrogen abundances...

  16. An Update of the Primordial Helium Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimbert, Antonio; Peimbert, Manuel; Luridiana, Valentina

    2015-08-01

    Three of the best determinations of the primordial helium abundance (Yp) are those obtained from low metallicity HII regions by Aver, Olive, Porter, & Skillman (2013); Izotov, Thuan, & Guseva (2014); and Peimbert, Peimbert, & Luridiana (2007). In this poster we update the Yp determination by Peimbert et al. taking into account, among other aspects, recent advances in the determination of the He atomic physical parameters, the temperature structure, the collisional effects of high temperatures on the Balmer lines, as well as the effect of H and He bound-bound absorption.We compare our results with those of Aver et al. and Izotov et al. and point out possible explanations for the differences among the three determinations. We also compare our results with those obtained with the Plank satellite considering recent measurements of the neutron mean life; this comparison has implications on the determination of the number of light neutrino families.

  17. Forms and genesis of species abundance distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans O. Ochiaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species abundance distribution (SAD is one of the most important metrics in community ecology. SAD curves take a hollow or hyperbolic shape in a histogram plot with many rare species and only a few common species. In general, the shape of SAD is largely log-normally distributed, although the mechanism behind this particular SAD shape still remains elusive. Here, we aim to review four major parametric forms of SAD and three contending mechanisms that could potentially explain this highly skewed form of SAD. The parametric forms reviewed here include log series, negative binomial, lognormal and geometric distributions. The mechanisms reviewed here include the maximum entropy theory of ecology, neutral theory and the theory of proportionate effect.

  18. Nitrous Oxide Production by Abundant Benthic Macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    that do not ingest large quantities of microorganisms produced insignificant amounts of nitrous oxide. Ephemera danica, a very abundant mayfly larva, was monitored monthly in a nitrate-polluted stream. Nitrous oxide production by this filter-feeder was highly dependent on nitrate availability...... and temperature. Given the increasing nitrate pollution of freshwater ecosystems, the collective gut of benthic macrofauna might constitute an increasingly important yet hitherto overlooked link in the global nitrous oxide budget.......Detritivorous macrofauna species co-ingest large quantities of microorganisms some of which survive the gut passage. Denitrifying bacteria, in particular, become metabolically induced by anoxic conditions, nitrate, and labile organic compounds in the gut of invertebrates. A striking consequence...

  19. Effects of drought on nitrogen turnover and abundances of ammonia-oxidizers in mountain grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchslueger, L.; Kastl, E.-M.; Bauer, F.; Kienzl, S.; Hasibeder, R.; Ladreiter-Knauss, T.; Schmitt, M.; Bahn, M.; Schloter, M.; Richter, A.; Szukics, U.

    2014-11-01

    Future climate scenarios suggest an increased frequency of summer drought periods in the European Alpine Region. Drought can affect soil nitrogen (N) cycling, by altering N transformation rates, as well as the abundances of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. However, the extent to which drought affects N cycling under in situ conditions is still controversial. The goal of this study was to analyse effects of drought on soil N turnover and ammonia-oxidizer abundances in soil without drought history. To this end we conducted rain-exclusion experiments at two differently managed mountain grassland sites, an annually mown and occasionally fertilized meadow and an abandoned grassland. Soils were sampled before, during and after drought and were analysed for potential gross rates of N mineralization, microbial uptake of inorganic N, nitrification, and the abundances of bacterial and archaeal ammonia-oxidizers based on gene copy numbers of the amoA gene (AOB and AOA, respectively). Drought induced different responses at the two studied sites. At the managed meadow drought increased NH4+ immobilization rates and NH4+ concentrations in the soil water solution, but led to a reduction of AOA abundance compared to controls. At the abandoned site gross nitrification and NO3- immobilization rates decreased during drought, while AOB and AOA abundances remained stable. Rewetting had only minor, short-term effects on the parameters that had been affected by drought. Seven weeks after the end of drought no differences to control plots could be detected. Thus, our findings demonstrated that in mountain grasslands drought had distinct transient effects on soil nitrogen cycling and ammonia-oxidizers, which could have been related to a niche differentiation of AOB and AOA with increasing NH4+ levels. However, the effect strength of drought was modulated by grassland management.

  20. Temporal trends in arthropod abundances after the transition to organic farming in paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Masaru H; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2018-01-01

    Organic farming aims to reduce the effect on the ecosystem and enhance biodiversity in agricultural areas, but the long-term effectiveness of its application is unclear. Assessments have rarely included various taxonomic groups with different ecological and economic roles. In paddy fields with different numbers of years elapsed since the transition from conventional to organic farming, we investigated changes in the abundance of insect pests, generalist predators, and species of conservation concern. The abundance of various arthropods exhibited diverse trends with respect to years elapsed since the transition to organic farming. Larval lepidopterans, Tetragnatha spiders, and some planthoppers and stink bugs showed non-linear increases over time, eventually reaching saturation, such as the abundance increasing for several years and then becoming stable after 10 years. This pattern can be explained by the effects of residual pesticides, the lag time of soil mineralization, and dispersal limitation. A damselfly (Ischnura asiatica) did not show a particular trend over time, probably due to its rapid immigration from source habitats. Unexpectedly, both planthoppers and some leafhoppers exhibited gradual decreases over time. As their abundances were negatively related to the abundance of Tetragnatha spiders, increased predation by natural enemies might gradually decrease these insect populations. These results suggest that the consideration of time-dependent responses of organisms is essential for the evaluation of the costs and benefits of organic farming, and such evaluations could provide a basis for guidelines regarding the length of time for organic farming to restore biodiversity or the economic subsidy needed to compensate for pest damage.

  1. Temporal trends in arthropod abundances after the transition to organic farming in paddy fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Masaru H.; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    2018-01-01

    Organic farming aims to reduce the effect on the ecosystem and enhance biodiversity in agricultural areas, but the long-term effectiveness of its application is unclear. Assessments have rarely included various taxonomic groups with different ecological and economic roles. In paddy fields with different numbers of years elapsed since the transition from conventional to organic farming, we investigated changes in the abundance of insect pests, generalist predators, and species of conservation concern. The abundance of various arthropods exhibited diverse trends with respect to years elapsed since the transition to organic farming. Larval lepidopterans, Tetragnatha spiders, and some planthoppers and stink bugs showed non-linear increases over time, eventually reaching saturation, such as the abundance increasing for several years and then becoming stable after 10 years. This pattern can be explained by the effects of residual pesticides, the lag time of soil mineralization, and dispersal limitation. A damselfly (Ischnura asiatica) did not show a particular trend over time, probably due to its rapid immigration from source habitats. Unexpectedly, both planthoppers and some leafhoppers exhibited gradual decreases over time. As their abundances were negatively related to the abundance of Tetragnatha spiders, increased predation by natural enemies might gradually decrease these insect populations. These results suggest that the consideration of time-dependent responses of organisms is essential for the evaluation of the costs and benefits of organic farming, and such evaluations could provide a basis for guidelines regarding the length of time for organic farming to restore biodiversity or the economic subsidy needed to compensate for pest damage. PMID:29324809

  2. Estimating mineral requirements of Nellore beef bulls fed with or without inorganic mineral supplementation and the influence on mineral balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, D; Godoi, L A; Estrada, M M; Engle, T E; Silva, B C; Alhadas, H M; Chizzotti, M L; Prados, L F; Rennó, L N; Valadares Filho, S C

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the mineral balance of Nellore cattle fed with and without Ca, P, and micromineral (MM) supplementation and to estimate the net and dietary mineral requirement for cattle. Nellore cattle ( = 51; 270.4 ± 36.6 kg initial BW and 8 mo age) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: reference ( = 5), maintenance ( = 4), and performance ( = 42). The reference group was slaughtered prior to the experiment to estimate initial body composition. The maintenance group was used to collect values of animals at low gain and reduced mineral intake. The performance group was assigned to 1 of 6 treatments: sugarcane as the roughage source with a concentrate supplement composed of soybean meal and soybean hulls with and without Ca, P, and MM supplementation; sugarcane as the roughage source with a concentrate supplement composed of soybean meal and ground corn with and without Ca, P, and MM supplementation; and corn silage as the roughage source with a concentrate supplement composed of soybean meal and ground corn with and without Ca, P, and MM supplementation. Orthogonal contrasts were adopted to compare mineral intake, fecal and urinary excretion, and apparent retention among treatments. Maintenance requirements and true retention coefficients were generated with the aid of linear regression between mineral intake and mineral retention. Mineral composition of the body and gain requirements was assessed using nonlinear regression between body mineral content and mineral intake. Mineral intake and fecal and urinary excretion were measured. Intakes of Ca, P, S, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, and Fe were reduced in the absence of Ca, P, and MM supplementation ( requirements. Dietary mineral requirements were lower for P, Cu, and Zn and greater for Fe compared with previously published recommendations. This study provides useful information about mineral requirements and mineral supplementation to obtain adequate dietary mineral supply of Nellore cattle in

  3. VLT/UVES abundances in four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies. I. Nucleosynthesis and abundance ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetrone, M; Venn, KA; Tolstoy, E; Primas, F; Hill, [No Value; Kaufer, A

    We have used the Ultraviolet Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on Kueyen (UT2) of the Very Large Telescope to take spectra of 15 individual red giants in the Sculptor, Fornax, Carina, and Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph's). We measure the abundances of alpha-, iron peak, first s-process, second

  4. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Arnold O.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  5. Perencanaan Strategik SBU Mineral PT Sucofindo (Persero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprapto Suprapto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning requires an organization in the face of today's business competition and a more complex future. Likewise, Mineral Gas Station also requires this strategic planning as a newly formed business unit of 2015. Therefore, the company analyzed its internal and external factors as well as a future review of the mineral service industry to stay afloat, grow and develop. The objectives of this study were to identify the internal performance and core competencies of Mineral Gas Station, to identify the external macro environment condition and external micro intensity of mineral service industry competition, to map the current position of the company, to recommend appropriate business strategy in facing competition pressure, and to develop the objectives and program of the company. This research used descriptive and quantitative analysis methods with a purposive sampling technique. The results show that the position of Mineral Gas Station on the intensity of mineral service competition is 'moderate' and is in quadrant of 'grow and build'. Therefore, the appropriate strategy is intensive strategy (market penetration, market development and product development. Mineral Gas Station require to conduct customer satisfaction surveys related to customer perspectives which becomes the most important strategic factor with a focus on customer complaint factor. Further research is needed by involving all external parties so that the results will be more independent.Keywords: mineral services, strategic planning, competition, mineral gas station, SucofindoABSTRAKPerencanaan strategik dibutuhkan organisasi dalam menghadapi persaingan bisnis saat ini dan masa depan yang semakin komplek. Demikian juga yang dibutuhkan SBU Mineral sebagai unit bisnis yang baru terbentuk 2015, dengan menganalisis faktor internal dan ekternal perusahaan serta tinjauan masa depan industri jasa mineral untuk tetap bertahan, tumbuh dan berkembang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah

  6. VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION FOR CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Iozefovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins and minerals play a unique role in the human health maintaining. Children’s organisms are particularly sensitive to the deficiency of vitamins. Typically, the child receives all the necessary vitamins and minerals as a part of nutrition. But in a period of an intensive growth, in climatic conditions changing, increased physical and mental stress, during stress conditions or infectious diseases, as well as during the recovery period the child should receive vitamins, minerals in the mineral and vitamin complexes.Key words: vitamins, minerals, avitaminosis, hypovitaminosis, treatment, prevention, children.

  7. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite......, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral....

  8. Rare earth abundances in chondritic phosphates and their implications for early stage chronologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebihara, M.; Honda, M. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Solid State Physics)

    1983-06-01

    The abundances of nine rare earth elements (REE) in phosphate separates from three ordinary chondrites, Saint Severin (LL6), Bruderheim (L6) and Richardton (H5), were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. All REE except europium are enriched in the phosphate minerals (merrillite and chlorapatite) by factor of 200-300 relative to the chondritic average, whereas Eu is enriched by a factor of 40-50. Electron microprobe analysis showed no significant differences in phosphate mineral composition among the three chondrites studied, though the relative proportions of two minerals varied. According to our data, REE are enriched by almost the same factor in merrillite and chlorapatite in the Bruderheim and, with less certainty, in the other two chondrites. This behavior of REE contrast with that of the actinoid elements, Th, U and Pu, which are also enriched in phosphate but are fractionated between merrillite and chlorapatite. Since Pu and REE show different fractionation behavior in chondritic phosphates, it may be difficult to use REE as stand-ins for Pu in /sup 244/Pu chronology.

  9. Polyphosphates inhibit extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoac, Betty; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Millán, José Luis; McKee, Marc D

    2013-04-01

    Studies on various compounds of inorganic phosphate, as well as on organic phosphate added by post-translational phosphorylation of proteins, all demonstrate a central role for phosphate in biomineralization processes. Inorganic polyphosphates are chains of orthophosphates linked by phosphoanhydride bonds that can be up to hundreds of orthophosphates in length. The role of polyphosphates in mammalian systems, where they are ubiquitous in cells, tissues and bodily fluids, and are at particularly high levels in osteoblasts, is not well understood. In cell-free systems, polyphosphates inhibit hydroxyapatite nucleation, crystal formation and growth, and solubility. In animal studies, polyphosphate injections inhibit induced ectopic calcification. While recent work has proposed an integrated view of polyphosphate function in bone, little experimental data for bone are available. Here we demonstrate in osteoblast cultures producing an abundant collagenous matrix that normally show robust mineralization, that two polyphosphates (PolyP5 and PolyP65, polyphosphates of 5 and 65 phosphate residues in length) are potent mineralization inhibitors. Twelve-day MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures with added ascorbic acid (for collagen matrix assembly) and β-glycerophosphate (a source of phosphate for mineralization) were treated with either PolyP5 or PolyP65. Von Kossa staining and calcium quantification revealed that mineralization was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by both polyphosphates, with complete mineralization inhibition at 10μM. Cell proliferation and collagen assembly were unaffected by polyphosphate treatment, indicating that polyphosphate inhibition of mineralization results not from cell and matrix effects but from direct inhibition of mineralization. This was confirmed by showing that PolyP5 and PolyP65 bound to synthetic hydroxyapatite in a concentration-dependent manner. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP, ALPL) efficiently hydrolyzed the two PolyPs as

  10. The abundance and composition of crabs (Decapoda) in Uta Ewa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... abundant accounting for 46.6% of the percentage abundance. Station 2 had the highest Shannon diversity index of 1.22, while Station 1 had 1.15. The abundance and composition of crab species in the study areas is an indication that the area is an important ecological zone for benthos macroinvertebrates conservation.

  11. Li-7 abundances in halo stars: Testing stellar evolution models and the primordial Li-7 abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaboyer, Brian; Demarque, P.

    1994-01-01

    A large number of stellar evolution models with (Fe/H) = -2.3 and -3.3 have been calculated in order to determine the primordial Li-7 abundance and to test current stellar evolution models by a comparison to the extensive database of accurate Li abundances in extremely metal-poor halo stars observed by Thorburn (1994). Standard models with gray atmospheres do a very good job of fitting the observed Li abundances in stars hotter than approximately 5600 K. They predict a primordial. Li-7 abundance of log N(Li) = 2.24 +/- 0.03. Models which include microscopic diffusion predict a downward curvature in the Li-7 destruction isochrones at hot temperatures which is not present in the observations. Thus, the observations clearly rule out models which include uninhibited microscopic diffusion of Li-7 from the surface of the star. Rotational mixing inhibits the microscopic diffusion and the (Fe/H) = -2.28 stellar models which include both diffusion and rotational mixing provide an excellent match to the mean trend in T(sub eff) which is present in the observations. Both the plateau stars and the heavily depleted cool stars are well fit by these models. The rotational mixing leads to considerable Li-7 depletion in these models and the primordial Li-7 abundance inferred from these models is log N(Li) = 3.08 +/- 0.1. However, the (Fe/H) = -3.28 isochrones reveal problems with the combined models. These isochrones predict a trend of decreasing log N(Li) with increasing T(sub eff) which is not present in the observations. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  12. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O' Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  13. Ground Truthing Orbital Clay Mineral Observations with the APXS Onboard Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, C.; Gellert, R.; VanBommel, S.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. S.; Yen, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring approximately 22 km diameter Endeavour crater since 2011. Its rim segments predate the Hesperian-age Burns formation and expose Noachian-age material, which is associated with orbital Fe3+-Mg-rich clay mineral observations [1,2]. Moving to an orders of magnitude smaller instrumental field of view on the ground, the clay minerals were challenging to pinpoint on the basis of geochemical data because they appear to be the result of near-isochemical weathering of the local bedrock [3,4]. However, the APXS revealed a more complex mineral story as fracture fills and so-called red zones appear to contain more Al-rich clay minerals [5,6], which had not been observed from orbit. These observations are important to constrain clay mineral formation processes. More detail will be added as Opportunity is heading into her 10th extended mission, during which she will investigate Noachian bedrock that predates Endeavour crater, study sedimentary rocks inside Endeavour crater, and explore a fluid-carved gully. ESA's ExoMars rover will land on Noachian-age Oxia Planum where abundant Fe3+-Mg-rich clay minerals have been observed from orbit, but the story will undoubtedly become more complex once seen from the ground.

  14. Traditional foods from the Black Sea region as a potential source of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Tânia G; Costa, Helena S; Sanches-Silva, Ana; Santos, Mariana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; D'Antuono, Filippo; Alexieva, Iordanka; Boyko, Nadiya; Costea, Carmen; Fedosova, Katerina; Karpenko, Dmitry; Kilasonia, Zaza; Koçaoglu, Bike; Finglas, Paul

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, minerals have assumed great importance in public health. As a consequence, considerable research has been carried out to better understand their physiological role and the health consequences of mineral-deficient diets, to establish criteria for defining the degree of public health severity of malnutrition, and to develop prevention and control strategies. In most countries, there is limited information on the mineral content of traditional foods, and consequently it is very difficult to estimate mineral intake across these countries. Ten minerals were quantified in 33 traditional foods from Black Sea area countries. Our results indicate a considerable variability among the analysed traditional foods; nevertheless, the most abundant components were sodium (ranging from 40.0 to 619 mg 100 g(-1), for kvass southern and herbal dish, respectively), potassium (varied between 45.5 mg 100 g(-1) for millet ale and 938 mg 100 g(-1) for roasted sunflower seeds), and phosphorus (22.2 mg 100 g(-1) and 681 mg 100 g(-1) for sauerkraut and roasted sunflower seeds, respectively). This is the first study that provides validated data on the mineral content for 33 traditional foods from Black Sea area countries, which is important in order to elucidate their role in the dietary pattern of populations and to preserve and promote these foods. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Experimental Inhibition of Carbonate Mineral Precipitation by Sulfur Dioxide: Implications for Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, I.; Schrag, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is abundant in terrestrial volcanic emissions and was likely at least as abundant in early martian emissions. Recent photochemical studies indicate that during episodes of vigorous volcanic activity, the atmospheric lifetime of SO2 may have been sufficiently long for it to have helped maintain liquid water on the surface of Mars and perhaps to have regulated the climate through a negative feedback between the atmospheric abundance of SO2 and the rate of chemical weathering of silicate minerals. Here we show experimentally, that atmospheric SO2 concentrations three orders of magnitude lower than those required for it to have been of climatic importance would have had a major impact on the aqueous chemistry at the planet's surface and the precipitated mineral assemblage. Specifically, at near-neutral and even mildly alkaline pH, part-per-billion (ppb) concentrations of SO2 prevent the formation of calcium carbonate in favour of hannebachite - a hydrated calcium sulfite. Based on the results of recent photochemical studies, a volcanic outgassing flux ~300 times smaller than the modern terrestrial flux would have been enough to maintain such atmospheric concentrations. This implies that almost any period of active volcanism would have given rise to conditions under which carbonate precipitation is prevented at near-neutral pH. In the presence of ferrous iron, green rust, a possible precursor to phyllosilicate minerals, co-precipitates with hannebachite. This provides a possible explanation for the presence of phyllosilicates on early Noachian surfaces in the apparent absence of outcrop-scale carbonates. Finally, oxidation of the mineral assemblage precipitated in the experiments produces sulfates, iron oxides and acidity, consistent with observed mineral assemblages and with evidence for acid-sulfate dominated environments on late Noachian-early Hesperian surfaces.

  16. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M.; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg...... with BMD in the control group, whereas in the juvenile obese, only lean body mass was positively associated with BMD and smoking negatively associated with BMD. Our study supports that leptin is inversely associated with BMD and may play a direct role in the bone metabolism in nonobese and obese Danish...

  17. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service......We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression...

  18. Circular Economy in Mineral Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Pomykała Radosław; Tora Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The paper aims to implementation of Circular Economy in mineral processing in Poland. Circular economy represents a completely new approach to product life cycle, based on the departure from the linear model of “take – make – dispose” and turning to the circular or closed-circle model of economy. Challenges and opportunities of implementation of Circular Economy in Mining is presented. The VERAM project, financed by The European Union (by the EUR 1.4 million) to the project is described. The ...

  19. Mineral chemistry of lunar samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, K; Prinz, M; Bunch, T E

    1970-01-30

    Glass spherules, glass fragments, augite, ferroaugite, titanaugite, pyroxmangite, pigeonite, hypersthene, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, maskelynite, olivine, silica, ilmenite, TiO(2), "ferropseudobrookite," spinel, ulvöspinel, native iron, nickel-iron, troilite, and chlorapatite were analyzed with the electron microprobe. There are no indications of large-scale chemical differentiation, chemical weathering, or hydrous minerals. Contributions of meteoritic material to lunar surface rocks are small. Rocks with igneous textures originated from a melt that crystallized at or near the surface, and oxygen fugacities have been low. Shock features indicate that at least some surface material is impact-produced.

  20. Zeolite food supplementation reduces abundance of enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Tanka P; Walsh, Kerry B; Bhattarai, Surya P; Midmore, David J; Van, Thi T H; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2017-01-01

    According to the World Health Organisation, antibiotics are rapidly losing potency in every country of the world. Poultry are currently perceived as a major source of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need for new and natural ways to control pathogens in poultry and humans alike. Porous, cation rich, aluminosilicate minerals, zeolites can be used as a feed additive in poultry rations, demonstrating multiple productivity benefits. Next generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA marker gene was used to phylogenetically characterize the fecal microbiota and thus investigate the ability and dose dependency of zeolite in terms of anti-pathogenic effects. A natural zeolite was used as a feed additive in laying hens at 1, 2, and 4% w/w for a 23 week period. At the end of this period cloacal swabs were collected to sample faecal microbial communities. A significant reduction in carriage of bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria, especially in members of the pathogen-rich family Enterobacteriaceae, was noted across all three concentrations of zeolite. Zeolite supplementation of feed resulted in a reduction in the carriage of a number of poultry pathogens without disturbing beneficial bacteria. This effect was, in some phylotypes, correlated with the zeolite concentration. This result is relevant to zeolite feeding in other animal production systems, and for human pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Th.G. Sahama’s (1910–1983 volcanological and mineralogical studies in Africa: Part II. Minerals of granitic pegmatites and other mineral occurrences of eastern and southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilmari Haapala

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eight mineralogical expeditions during 1961–1974 to pegmatites and other mineral occurrences of eastern and southern Africa produced abundant research material. Dr. O. v. Knorring from University of Leeds, U.K., participated in some expeditions, and ProfessorsJ.M. Correia Neves and J.E. Lopes Nunes participated in the study the granite pegmatites of Zambezia, northeastern Mozambique, where in the 1960’s and 1970’s were active mining operations. From the Zambezian pegmatites, Sahama and his coworkers and assistants published studies on the Ta-Nb minerals (tantalite-columbite, wodginite, ixiolite,niobian wolframite, niobian rutile as well as the bismuth and antimony minerals, including a new mineral, “natural monoclinic bismuth vanadate”(later named clinobisvanite. As a result of a systematic research, based on geochemical deductions, a new mineral, hafnon, was found as the high hafnium member of the isomorphic zircon-hafnon series. From the Buranga pegmatite in Rwanda, several phosphate minerals, including a new mineral species, burangaite, were described. In connection with the mineralogical research ofthe tungsten deposits of Uganda and Rwanda, two new secondary tungsten minerals, mpororoite and cerotungstite, were found. From Madagascar, Sahama collected material for mineralogical studies of sapphirine and kornerupine, and from Namibia, a new mineralspecies, namibite, was described.

  2. Dynamics of biochemical properties associated with soil nitrogen mineralization following nitrification inhibitor and fungicide applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Manyun; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Jun; Teng, Ying; Xu, Zhihong

    2017-04-01

    Agrochemical applications may have side effects on soil biochemical properties related to soil nitrogen (N) mineralization and thus affect N cycling. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and fungicide iprodione on soil neutral protease (NPR), alkaline protease (APR), chitinase (CHI), and their functional genes (nprA, aprA, and chiA) related to soil N mineralization. The following four treatments were included: blank control (CK), single DMPP application (DAA), weekly iprodione applications (IPR), and the combined applications of DMPP and iprodione (DI). Compared with the CK treatment, DMPP application significantly inhibited the CHI activity in the first 14 days of incubation, and iprodione applications, particularly when applied alone, decreased the NPR, APR, and CHI activities. Relative to the IPR treatment, extra DMPP application had the potential to alleviate the inhibitory effects of iprodione on the activities of these enzymes. DMPP application significantly increased aprA gene abundances after 14 days of incubation. However, repeated iprodione applications, alone or with the DMPP, decreased nprA and chiA gene abundances. Relative to the CK treatment, DMPP application generated negligible effects on the positive/negative correlations between soil enzyme activities and the corresponding functional gene abundances. However, the positive correlation between the CHI activity and chiA gene abundance was changed to negative correlation by repeated iprodione applications, alone or together with the DMPP. Our results demonstrated that agrochemical applications, particularly repeated fungicide applications, can have inadvertent effects on enzyme activities and functional gene abundances associated with soil N mineralization.

  3. Wavelength feature mapping as a proxy to mineral chemistry for investigating geologic systems: An example from the Rodalquilar epithermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Freek; Kopačková, Veronika; Koucká, Lucie; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.; Bakker, Wim H.

    2018-02-01

    The final product of a geologic remote sensing data analysis using multi spectral and hyperspectral images is a mineral (abundance) map. Multispectral data, such as ASTER, Landsat, SPOT, Sentinel-2, typically allow to determine qualitative estimates of what minerals are in a pixel, while hyperspectral data allow to quantify this. As input to most image classification or spectral processing approach, endmembers are required. An alternative approach to classification is to derive absorption feature characteristics such as the wavelength position of the deepest absorption, depth of the absorption and symmetry of the absorption feature from hyperspectral data. Two approaches are presented, tested and compared in this paper: the 'Wavelength Mapper' and the 'QuanTools'. Although these algorithms use a different mathematical solution to derive absorption feature wavelength and depth, and use different image post-processing, the results are consistent, comparable and reproducible. The wavelength images can be directly linked to mineral type and abundance, but more importantly also to mineral chemical composition and subtle changes thereof. This in turn allows to interpret hyperspectral data in terms of mineral chemistry changes which is a proxy to pressure-temperature of formation of minerals. We show the case of the Rodalquilar epithermal system of the southern Spanish Gabo de Gata volcanic area using HyMAP airborne hyperspectral images.

  4. Mineralogy, paragenesis, and mineral zoning of the Bulldog Mountain vein system, Creede District, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Heald Whitehouse-Veaux, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    The Bulldog Mountain vein system, Creede district, Colorado, is one of four major epithermal vein systems from which the bulk of the district's historical Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu production has come. Ores deposited along the vein system were discovered in 1965 and were mined from 1969 to 1985.Six temporally gradational mineralization stages have been identified along the Bulldog Mountain vein system, each with a characteristic suite of minerals deposited or leached and a characteristic distribution within the vein system; some of these stages are also strongly zoned within the vein system. Stage A was dominated by deposition of rhodochrosite along the lower levels of the Bulldog Mountain ore zone. Stage B in the northern parts of the ore zone is characterized by abundant fine-grained sphalerite and galena, with lesser tetrahedrite and minor chlorite and hematite. With increasing elevation to the south, stage B ores become progressively more barite and silver rich, with alternating barite and fine-grained sphalerite + galena generations; native silver + or - acanthite assemblages are also locally abundant within southern stage B barite sulfide ores, whereas chalcopyrite and other Cu and Ag sulfides and sulfosalts are present erratically in minor amounts. Stage C in the upper and northern portions of the ore zone is characterized by abundant quartz and fluorite, minor adularia, hematite, Mn siderite, sphalerite, and galena, and major leaching of earlier barite; to the south, some barite and sulfides may have been deposited. Stage D sphalerite and galena were deposited in the upper and northern portions of the ore zone; a barite- and silver-rich facies of this stage may also be present in the southern portions of the vein system. Late in stage D, mineralogically complex assemblages containing chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, polybasite, bornite, pyrargyrite, and a variety of other sulfides and sulfosalts were deposited in modest amounts throughout the vein system. This complex

  5. Lunar mineral feedstocks from rocks and soils: X-ray digital imaging in resource evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, John G.; Patchen, Allan; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Higgins, Stefan J.; Mckay, David S.

    1994-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the Moon provide raw materials essential to the successful establishment of a lunar base. Efficient exploitation of these resources requires accurate characterization of mineral abundances, sizes/shapes, and association of 'ore' and 'gangue' phases, as well as the technology to generate high-yield/high-grade feedstocks. Only recently have x-ray mapping and digital imaging techniques been applied to lunar resource evaluation. The topics covered include inherent differences between lunar basalts and soils and quantitative comparison of rock-derived and soil-derived ilmenite concentrates. It is concluded that x-ray digital-imaging characterization of lunar raw materials provides a quantitative comparison that is unattainable by traditional petrographic techniques. These data are necessary for accurately determining mineral distributions of soil and crushed rock material. Application of these techniques will provide an important link to choosing the best raw material for mineral beneficiation.

  6. Resources for a lunar base: Rocks, minerals, and soil of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    The rocks and minerals of the Moon will be included among the raw materials used to construct a lunar base. The lunar regolith, the fragmental material present on the surface of the Moon, is composed mostly of disaggregated rocks and minerals, but also includes glassy fragments fused together by meteorite impacts. The finer fraction of the regolith (i.e., less than 1 cm) is informally referred to as soil. The soil is probably the most important portion of the regolith for use at a lunar base. For example, soil can be used as insulation against cosmic rays, for lunar ceramics and abodes, or for growing plants. The soil contains abundant solar-wind-implanted elements as well as various minerals, particularly oxide phases, that are of potential economic importance. For example, these components of the soil are sources of oxygen and hydrogen for rocket fuel, helium for nuclear energy, and metals such as Fe, Al, Si, and Ti.

  7. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  8. Nanofiltration renovation of mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodzek Michał

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is often a need to improve the taste of mineral water by reducing the sulphate ion content. It was found that for such an effect, nanofiltration (NF process can be used. In the case, the proposed formula was assumed obtaining a mineral water with reduction of H2S and SO42- content through the following processes: stripping - UF/MF or rapid fi ltration - nanofiltration - mixing with raw water or filtration through calcium bed. The paper shows the results of the tests, with use of mineral waters and nanofiltration. Commercial nanofiltration membranes NF-270 Dow Filmtec and NF-DK GE Infrastructure Water&Process Technologies were applied. NF was carried out for mixed water from both water intakes (1 and 2, recovery of 50%, at transmembrane pressure of 0.8-1.2 MPa in the dead-end fi ltration mode. In addition, the permeate obtained in NF was filtered through a column fi lled with 1.0-3.0 mm limestone rock, in order to improve the composition of mineral water. The tested mineral water is the sulphate-chloride-sodium-calcium-magnesium in nature and contains 991 mg/L of SO42- and 2398 mg/L of TDS, while the permeate after NF showed the chloride - sodium hydrogeochemical type (TDS: 780-1470 mg/L, sulfate 10-202.7 mg/L, calcium 23-39.7 mg/L, magnesium 11-28 mg/L. As a result of water treatment in the NF process, high reduction of SO42- ions was obtained (79-98.7%, while the TDS was reduced in 51-64%. Because the process of NF allows for relatively high reduction of bivalent ions, a significant reduction in calcium ion content (84-88% and magnesium (84-89% has been also obtained. Monovalent ions were reduced to a lesser extent, i.e. sodium in 46% and bicarbonates in 39-64.1%. Despite obtaining the positive effect of the sulphate ions content reduction, the NF process significantly changed the mineralogy composition of water. The permeate filtration (DK-NF membrane on the CaCO3 deposit led to a correction of the hydrogeochemical type of water from

  9. Climate change induced molting mismatch? Mountain hare abundance reduced by duration of snowcover and predator abundance

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Simen; Odden, Morten; Pedersen, Hans-Christian

    2017-01-01

    In northern latitudes, species that have adapted to snow cover by molting and changing pelage color will be particularly vulnerable to climate change, as predation levels may increase due to a mismatch with background coloration. Here, we investigated the synergistic effect of mammalian generalist predators (red fox Vulpes vulpes and pine marten Martes martes) and the duration of snow cover on the abundance of a winter-adapted species, the mountain hare (Lepus timidus). We analyzed 12 yr of d...

  10. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Galactic Neutron CaptureAbundance Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Melendez, Matthew; Cunha, Katia; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; APOGEE Team

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of elements, as a function or age, throughout the Milky Way disk provides a key constraint for galaxy evolution models. In an effort to provide these constraints, we have conducted an investigation into the r- and s- process elemental abundances for a large sample of open clusters as part of an optical follow-up to the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. Stars were identified as cluster members by the Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey, which culls member candidates by radial velocity, metallicity and proper motion from the observed APOGEE sample. To obtain data for neutron capture elements in these clusters, we conducted a long-term observing campaign covering three years (2013-2016) using the McDonald Observatory Otto Struve 2.1-m telescope and Sandiford Cass Echelle Spectrograph (R ~ 60,000). We present Galactic neutron capture abundance gradients using 30+ clusters, within 6 kpc of the Sun, covering a range of ages from ~80 Myr to ~10 Gyr .

  11. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  12. Mining and minerals policy: 1976 bicentennial edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The report is organized into three basic parts. The first part, the Executive Summary, provides a brief description of the major topics and lists the issues and recommendations. The report then is divided into two sections. Section I, Summary, is comprised of three chapters: Increased Energy Security; Metals and Nonmetallic Minerals; and Trends and Events. Section II, Issues in Energy and Minerals Policy, is comprised of seven chapters: Federal Leasing; The Federal Role in Reducing the Fiscal Impacts of Energy Development; Availability of Federal Lands for Mineral Exploration and Development; Environmental Issues and the Mineral Industry; Developments in International Minerals Trade and Investment; Ocean Mining; and The Development of New Tools for Energy and Minerals Policy Analysis. (MCW)

  13. Assessing the distribution and abundance of seabed minerals from seafloor photographic data in the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.; Khadge, N.H.; JaiSankar, S.

    , and sediment physical properties. The study shows that nodule populations are negatively correlated with the thickness of the acoustically transparent layer (ATL), which in turn is controlled by the topographic undulations. The variable burial of nodules under...

  14. Water mineralization and its importance for health

    OpenAIRE

    N. Babio; C. Ferreira-Pêgo; F. Maraver Eyzaguirre; I. Vitoria Miñana; J. Salas-Salvadó

    2016-01-01

    Water mineralization and its importance for health La mineralización del agua y su importancia para la salud. Water is essential for life, participating in the metabolism of all the living organisms. In recent years, the consumption of tap water has decreased and the consumption of bottled water has increased worldwide. The mineral quality and composition of natural mineral water is known and constantly over the year, and their potential effects on health must be determined. Only magnes...

  15. Patch testing with mineral wool (Rockwool).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnberg, A; Löwhagen, G B

    1977-01-01

    25% of 315 tested subjects exhibited skin reactions when patch tested with mineral wool. Coating of the mineral fibres with phenol-formaldehyde did not influence the skin reactions. The reactions seem to be induced mechanically, as the mineral without the fibres did not give any reactions. No allergic reactions to the chemical additives were demonstrated. Macroscopically, the reactions may simulate an allergic response; microscopically, they seem to be toxic, sometimes with prominent spongiosis.

  16. Role of minerals in animal health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All mineral matter, essential or non-essential, can have a significant influence on production results and the health of animals, if large quantities of them are present in a feed ration. A maximally tolerant content depends on the animal specie and category. Many factors, such as physiological status (growth, lactation, etc., nutritive status, content and ratio of nutritive matter in the ration, duration of exposure, and the biological level of utilization of elements, also affect the maximally tolerant content of mineral matter in feed. The content of certain mineral matter in plant feed significantly depends on the soil factor, as well as the content and level of utilization of mineral matter from the soil. Mn, Se and Mo can be present in plant feed in such quantities as to induce toxicosis. Industrial contaminants, Cd, Pb or F, can contaminate plants, in particular their leaves, in quantities which lead to the appearance of clinical signs of conventional toxicosis. Moreover, natural water can contain large quantities of S, F, Na, Mg, or Fe, and certain mineral matter can get into water through industrial waste. In addition to the above, it is possible to cause unwanted effects through the frequent, but primarily unprofessional use of mineral additives, since it is extremely important, besides meeting the mineral requirements of each individual element, to secure a ratio among the mineral matter themselves as well as with other nutritive matter. Mineral matter present in food are in mutual interference, and these relations can be synergistic or antagonistic. The sufficiency of a large number of mineral matter has a negative effect on the utilization of other matter (conditional and/or border deficiency, while certain elements cause the clinical appearance of toxic effects. The accidental intake of large quantities of certain mineral matter is revealed as clinical signs of acute toxicosis, which is very different from chronic effects caused by

  17. VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION FOR CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    O.V. Iozefovich

    2011-01-01

    Vitamins and minerals play a unique role in the human health maintaining. Children’s organisms are particularly sensitive to the deficiency of vitamins. Typically, the child receives all the necessary vitamins and minerals as a part of nutrition. But in a period of an intensive growth, in climatic conditions changing, increased physical and mental stress, during stress conditions or infectious diseases, as well as during the recovery period the child should receive vitamins, minerals in the m...

  18. Mineral distributions at the developing tendon enthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G Schwartz

    Full Text Available Tendon attaches to bone across a functionally graded interface, "the enthesis". A gradient of mineral content is believed to play an important role for dissipation of stress concentrations at mature fibrocartilaginous interfaces. Surgical repair of injured tendon to bone often fails, suggesting that the enthesis does not regenerate in a healing setting. Understanding the development and the micro/nano-meter structure of this unique interface may provide novel insights for the improvement of repair strategies. This study monitored the development of transitional tissue at the murine supraspinatus tendon enthesis, which begins postnatally and is completed by postnatal day 28. The micrometer-scale distribution of mineral across the developing enthesis was studied by X-ray micro-computed tomography and Raman microprobe spectroscopy. Analyzed regions were identified and further studied by histomorphometry. The nanometer-scale distribution of mineral and collagen fibrils at the developing interface was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A zone (∼20 µm exhibiting a gradient in mineral relative to collagen was detected at the leading edge of the hard-soft tissue interface as early as postnatal day 7. Nanocharacterization by TEM suggested that this mineral gradient arose from intrinsic surface roughness on the scale of tens of nanometers at the mineralized front. Microcomputed tomography measurements indicated increases in bone mineral density with time. Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the mineral-to-collagen ratio on the mineralized side of the interface was constant throughout postnatal development. An increase in the carbonate concentration of the apatite mineral phase over time suggested possible matrix remodeling during postnatal development. Comparison of Raman-based observations of localized mineral content with histomorphological features indicated that development of the graded mineralized interface is linked

  19. Sustainable Development of Mining Mineral Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Dubiński, Józef

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes mineral resources and the demand for them, taking into account the dynamics and global trends in the economy of raw materials. It presents the importance of mineral resources in the development of the world economy, and the importance of mineral resources that are critical for economic development. The main assumptions presented in this paper are the main assumptions that relate to the sustainable development of the mining sector, the ones that will significantly shape th...

  20. Raising environmental awareness among miners in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mozaffari, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    Generation of waste is inevitable but controllable in minerals industry. The aim of this research is to find ways for raising environmental awareness among miners.  Miners’ attitude towards environmental mining has been investigated. A survey has been done collecting mine managers’ point of view coupled with current trend on mine waste management in Iran. Their opinions on methods used for minerals extraction and waste production are sought in order to ...

  1. Dissolution of minerals and hydrometallurgical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashi, Fathi

    1983-08-01

    Physical, chemical, electrochemical, and electrolytic processes involved in the dissolution of minerals in aqueous solutions are identified and characterized. Their importance to hydrometallurgy is outlined.

  2. Biglycan Modulates Osteoblast Differentiation and Matrix Mineralization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parisuthiman, Duenpim; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Duarte, Wagner R; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2005-01-01

    .... The processes of cell differentiation and matrix mineralization were accelerated in S but delayed in AS, indicating that BGN modulates osteoblastic cell differentiation. Introduction : Biglycan (BGN...

  3. Mineral elements in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimun Zamberlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral elements occur in milk and dairy products as inorganic ions and salts, as well as part of organic molecules, such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. The chemical form of mineral elements is important because it determines their absorption in the intestine and their biological utilization. The mineral composition of milk is not constant because it depends on lactation phase, nutritional status of the animal, and environmental and genetic factors. The objective of this research is to point out the research results of chemical form, content and nutritional importance of individual mineral elements that are present in various milks and dairy products.

  4. Land use/mineral rights map series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineback, N.G.; Weaver, D.C.

    1982-09-01

    The ongoing Land Use/Mineral Rights Map Series was designed to map the existing land uses and mineral rights in and around the Warrior Coal Basin. The map series provides baseline data for monitoring all land use changes in the Warrior Basin and for establishing a record of mineral rights useful in classifying some record discrepancies and assisting the mining industry and its regulatory agencies in organizing mineral rights data. Ten additional maps were completed during this 1981-82 funding period. Virtually all large mining and leasing companies in the Basin now have standing orders for all new maps, and orders for existing maps are being received weekly.

  5. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  6. Geochemistry and mineralization of Novaky coal seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbich František

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The mineralization and geochemistry of the most important Slovak coal deposit in Novaky was intensively studied in the past. The favourable geological conditions create rich mineral association. There are different minerals in the deposit and they are responsible for the enhanced content of some elements in the coal. The summary of notions about geochemistry and mineralization of the coal seam with the emphasis on the main harmful elements – sulphur and arsenic – and their spacial distribution are studied in this paper.

  7. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  8. Mineralogical analyses of surface sediments in the Antarctic Dry Valleys: coordinated analyses of Raman spectra, reflectance spectra and elemental abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L; Englert, Peter A J; Patel, Shital; Tirsch, Daniela; Roy, Alex J; Koeberl, Christian; Böttger, Ute; Hanke, Franziska; Jaumann, Ralf

    2014-12-13

    Surface sediments at Lakes Fryxell, Vanda and Brownworth in the Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) were investigated as analogues for the cold, dry environment on Mars. Sediments were sampled from regions surrounding the lakes and from the ice cover on top of the lakes. The ADV sediments were studied using Raman spectra of individual grains and reflectance spectra of bulk particulate samples and compared with previous analyses of subsurface and lakebottom sediments. Elemental abundances were coordinated with the spectral data in order to assess trends in sediment alteration. The surface sediments in this study were compared with lakebottom sediments (Bishop JL et al. 2003 Int. J. Astrobiol. 2, 273-287 (doi:10.1017/S1473550403001654)) and samples from soil pits (Englert P et al. 2013 In European Planetary Science Congress, abstract no. 96; Englert P et al. 2014 In 45th Lunar and Planetary Science Conf., abstract no. 1707). Feldspar, quartz and pyroxene are common minerals found in all the sediments. Minor abundances of carbonate, chlorite, actinolite and allophane are also found in the surface sediments, and are similar to minerals found in greater abundance in the lakebottom sediments. Surface sediment formation is dominated by physical processes; a few centimetres below the surface chemical alteration sets in, whereas lakebottom sediments experience biomineralization. Characterizing the mineralogical variations in these samples provides insights into the alteration processes occurring in the ADV and supports understanding alteration in the cold and dry environment on Mars. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Clays, Nanoclays, and Montmorillonite Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Faheem

    2008-12-01

    The recent introduction of nanoclays as fillers or additives in polymers for various desired effects is a subject of an increased interest for research and development to establish various applications. An increased consumption is indicated by the wider applications of clay nanocomposites approaching to almost one-quarter (24 pct) in 2005 of the total nanocomposites used. However, an interesting concern, along with the studies addressing how nanoclays change the behavior of polymeric materials, is to discover what are clays, nanoclays and montmorillonite minerals. The various structures of montmorillonite available in nature and their modification for application are discussed. An attempt is made to review the origin of using clays when nanotechnology did not exist, coupled with the effects of montmorillonite-based nanoclays on commercially known polymers.

  10. Circular Economy in Mineral Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomykała Radosław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to implementation of Circular Economy in mineral processing in Poland. Circular economy represents a completely new approach to product life cycle, based on the departure from the linear model of “take – make – dispose” and turning to the circular or closed-circle model of economy. Challenges and opportunities of implementation of Circular Economy in Mining is presented. The VERAM project, financed by The European Union (by the EUR 1.4 million to the project is described. The examples of good practice in the area of implementation of circular economy in Poland is presented (Tauron Wydobycie - wasteless mine and ZGH Bolesław - waste management

  11. HIV and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Patrick W G

    2010-02-01

    This review details the clinical aspects and pathogenesis of low bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV, discusses broad management issues and outlines areas in which our understanding of this condition is incomplete. Low BMD is prevalent in HIV-infected patients, with traditional risk factors, HIV infection and exposure to antiretroviral therapy all contributing. The role of specific antiretrovirals in the development of low BMD remains controversial, but most changes arise at either antiretroviral therapy initiation or switch. Further research is needed to clarify mechanisms underlying low BMD in HIV, whether low BMD will translate to increased fractures and to determine the correct therapeutic approach to low BMD in HIV, particularly in younger HIV-infected patients.

  12. Minerals in the gut: scoping a Cambrian digestive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, K. M.; Armstrong, H. A.; Harper, D. A. T.

    2016-11-01

    The Sirius Passet Lagerstätte of North Greenland contains the first exceptionally preserved mat-ground community of the Cambrian, dominated, in terms of abundance, by trilobites but particularly characterized by iconic arthropods and lobopods, some also occurring in the Burgess shale. High-resolution photography, scanning electron imaging and elemental mapping have been carried out on a variety of specimens of the non-mineralized arthropod Campanamuta mantonae (Budd 2011 J. Syst. Palaeontol. 9, 217-260 (doi:10.1080/14772019.2010.492644)) which has three-dimensional gut and muscle preservation. Results show that the guts contain a high concentration of calcium phosphate (approximating to the mineral francolite), whereas the adjacent muscles are silicified. This indicates a unique, tissue-specific taphonomy for this Cambrian taxon. We hypothesize that the precipitation of calcium phosphate in the guts occurs rapidly after death by `crystal seed' processes in suboxic, slightly acidic conditions; critically, the gut wall remained intact during precipitation. We postulate that the calcium phosphate was derived from ingested cellular material. Silicification of the muscles followed as the localized water chemistry became saturated in silica, high in Fe2+, and low in oxygen and sulfate. We document here the unique occurrence of two distinct but mechanistically similar taphonomic pathways within a diverse suite of possibilities in an Early Cambrian Lagerstätte.

  13. Sugars, organic acids, minerals and lipids in jabuticaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annete de Jesus Boari Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the sugar, organic acid and mineral compositions of the whole fruit and fractions (skin, pulp and seed of the Paulista (Plinia cauliflora and Sabará (Plinia jaboticaba jabuticaba tree genotypes, as well as the oil compositions of their skin and seeds. High levels of sugar, especially fructose, followed by glucose and sucrose, were encountered in the fruit. In the Paulista genotype, higher levels of total and reducing sugars were found in the pulp and skin, which was not observed when comparing the whole fruit of both genotypes. Five organic acids were found in the whole fruit and in the fractions of the two jabuticaba genotypes in quantitative order: citric acid > succinic acid > malic acid > oxalic acid > acetic acid. Potassium was the most abundant mineral found. This fruit was also shown to be rich in magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and copper. The seed oil had nearly the same constitution as the oil extracted from the skin in both genotypes and the major compounds were an unidentified phytosterol, palmitic, linoleic and oleic acids, and squalene.

  14. Studies on abundance of zooplanktons in lakes of Mysore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, N; Yamakanamardi, Sadanand M

    2012-11-01

    This is the first comprehensive ecological study on the abundance of zooplankton in Kalale, Alanahalli and Dalvoy lakes of Mysore. The abundance of zooplankton as well as their relation with physico-chemical parameters was analyzed, every month in these lakes from June 2008-May 2010. The mean abundance of Rotifer (281 Org (l-1)), Cladocerans (27 Org l(-1)) and total abundance of zooplankton (343 Org l(-1)) were more and significantly different in Dalvoy lake; whereas, in Kalale lake the mean abundance of Rotifer (19 Org l(-1)), Cladocerans (3 Org l(-1)) and total abundance of zooplankton (79 Org l(-1)) and in Alanahalli lake the mean abundance of Rotifer (84 Org l(-1)), Cladocerans (9 Org l(-1)) and total abundance of zooplankton (149 Org l(-1)) were significantly less. However, the abundance of Copepods and Ostracods was similar in all the three lakes studied. The water bodies of Kalale lake were less polluted when compared toAlanahalli and Dalvoy lakes. The increases in conductivity, Chl a, turbidity, phosphate, carbon-di-oxide and total anions in Alanahalli and Dalvoy lakes may be attributed to the various anthropogenic activities in the catchment areas. Interrelationships between zooplankton variables and physico-chemical parameters were calculated using Pearson's correlation co-efficient (r) which revealed (25) significant (P lake and moderate (7) in Alanahalli and Kalale lakes). The stepwise multiple regression analysis (r2) showed out of 21 physico-chemical parameters studied, as many as 12 were positively controlling the abundance of zooplankton, where as the phosphate and chloride were negatively controlling the total abundance of zooplankton and the abundance of ostracods respectively. The results obtained have been discussed in the light of the present literature available in the field of aquatic microbial ecology.

  15. Bacterial community profiles in low microbial abundance sponges

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, Emily C; Kamke, Janine; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Taylor, Michael W.; Hentschel, Ute; Ravasi, Timothy; Schmitt, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    It has long been recognized that sponges differ in the abundance of associated microorganisms, and they are therefore termed either 'low microbial abundance' (LMA) or 'high microbial abundance' (HMA) sponges. Many previous studies concentrated on the dense microbial communities in HMA sponges, whereas little is known about microorganisms in LMA sponges. Here, two LMA sponges from the Red Sea, two from the Caribbean and one from the South Pacific were investigated. With up to only five bacteri...

  16. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism

  17. Coupled Serpentinsation and Carbonation Reaction in Ultrabasic Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufaud, F.; Martinez, I.; Shilobreeva, S.; Fiquet, G.

    2006-12-01

    Because of its significant atmospheric abundance compared with the other greenhouse gases, CO2 is by far the most important. One of the options to reduce the anthropogenic CO2 emission into the atmosphere is the mineral storage: the process that converts gaseous CO2 into a geologically stable phase, such as a carbonate. Such reactions, however, are characterized by slow kinetics, which have to be measured since it could be the most limiting factor of geochemical storage of CO2. We have carried out carbonation experiments on olivine, serpentine and orthopyroxene under various conditions in an hydraulic press (1-1.7kbar and 400-500°C). Powders (100-200μm grain size) of these minerals were kept in contact with oxalic acid used as a source of CO2 in platinum capsules and reacted at high pressure and temperature. Experiments conducted under such conditions provide large carbonation rates. The amounts of carbonate formed were measured by decarbonation of the reacted material. Chemical and carbon isotopic mass balance calculations were also done in order to provide precise monitoring of carbonation rates. Mineralogical study of the reacted samples using both SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) allowed the identification of the dissolution/precipitation carbonation mechanisms and the observation of nanometer sized magnesite crystals, systematically associated to protoserpentine phases. Strong differences in carbonate textures and carbonation rates were measured as a function of the initial mineral, water fugacity and NaCl concentrations. Similarities and differences of these results with experiments carried out under usual CO2 storage conditions in basic and ultrabasic rock will be discussed.

  18. European Mineral Statistics 2010-14: a product of the World Mineral statistics database

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, T. J.; Hobbs, S.F.; Idoine, N.E.; Mills, A. J.; Wrighton, C.E.; Raycraft, E.R.

    2016-01-01

    European Mineral Statistics provides statistical information about minerals and metals in Europe. It provides the essential background intelligence for any European minerals-related activities. Production, export and import tables are presented for all EU members and EU candidate countries, plus Norway and Switzerland, in two sections: •by individual country •by commodity, with bullets on salient features and graphics More than 70 different mineral commodities are included from ...

  19. Different supplementation of minerals in bats and the consequences on bone mineral density

    OpenAIRE

    Liesegang, A.; Firzlaff, U.; Kiefer, B.; Streich, W J; Clauss, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of mineral supplementation of mealworms at a facility where mustached bats (Pteronotus parnellii rubiginosus) from Trinidad were kept for experimental purposes. For 11 months after capture from the wild, the animals were constantly housed indoors and fed a diet of mealworms without mineral supplementation. After several animals died with skulls soft at palpation, this diet was suspected to be mineral deficient. From then on, mealworms were placed on a mineral ...

  20. Residence of silver in mineral deposits of the Thunder Mountain caldera complex, Central Idaho, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, B.F.; Christian, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Silver is an accessory element in gold, antimony, and tungsten deposits of the caldera complex. Most of the deposits are economically of low grade and genetically of xenothermal or epithermal character. Their gold- and silver-bearing minerals are usually disseminated, fine grained, and difficult to study. Sparsely disseminated pyrite and arsenoprite are common associates. Identified silver minerals are: native silver and electrum; the sulfides acanthite, argentite (the latter always inverted to acanthite), and members of the Silberkies group; the sulfosalts matildite, miargyrite, pyrargyrite, argentian tetrahedrite, and unnamed Ag-Sb-S and Ag-Fe-Sb-S minerals; the telluride hessite and the selenide naumannite; halides of the cerargyrite group; and the antimonate stetefeldtite. Suspected silver minerals include the sulfide uytenbogaardtite and the sulfosalts andorite, diaphorite, and polybasite. Electrum, acanthite, and argentian tetrahedrite are common, though nowhere abundant. The other silver minerals are rare. Silver is present as a minor element in the structure of some varieties of other minerals. These include arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, chalcostibite, covelline, digenite, galena, sphalerite, and stibnite. The search for adventitious Ag in most of these minerals has been cursory. The results merely indicate that elemental silver is not confined to discrete silver minerals and is, therefore, an additional complication for the recovery of silver-bearing material from some deposits. Silver occurs cryptically in some plants of the region. At Red Mountain, for example, the ashed sapwood of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) contains 2 to 300 ppm Ag. Silver in the ashed wood is roughly 100 times as abundant as it is in soil. The phenomenon, useful in biogeochemical exploration, deserves the attention of mineralogists. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Distribution and abundance of Pleuronectiformes larvae off Southeastern Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garbini, Camilla Nunes; Zani-Teixeira, Maria de Lourdes; Ohkawara, Márcio Hidekazu; Katsuragawa, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was the description of the composition, abundance and density in horizontal and vertical distribution of Pleuronectiformes larvae on the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf...

  2. Latitudinal patterns in the abundance of major marine bacterioplankton groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wietz, Matthias; Gram, Lone; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    ) and Gammaproteobacteria (polar stations) varied between major oceanic regions (biomes), as did absolute abundances of Roseobacter (peaking at temperate and polar stations). For almost all groups absolute abundances were positively correlated with nutrient concentrations in warmer oceans, and negatively with oxygen...... and higher latitudes. This was related to significantly different relative abundances of Bacteroidetes (peaking at higher latitudes), unclassified Bacteria and Vibrio (both peaking at lower latitudes) between warmer and colder oceans. Relative abundances of Alphaproteobacteria (peaking at subtropical...... oceans underlined the presence of biogeographical patterns among marine bacteria and the influence of environmental parameters on bacterial distribution....

  3. Modelling tick abundance using machine learning techniques and satellite imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Lene Jung; Korslund, L.; Kjelland, V.

    satellite images to run Boosted Regression Tree machine learning algorithms to predict overall distribution (presence/absence of ticks) and relative tick abundance of nymphs and larvae in southern Scandinavia. For nymphs, the predicted abundance had a positive correlation with observed abundance...... the predicted distribution of larvae was mostly even throughout Denmark, it was primarily around the coastlines in Norway and Sweden. Abundance was fairly low overall except in some fragmented patches corresponding to forested habitats in the region. Machine learning techniques allow us to predict for larger...... the collected ticks for pathogens and using the same machine learning techniques to develop prevalence maps of the ScandTick region....

  4. Characteristics of mineral dust impacting the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; McQueen, Kenneth G.; Mirnejad, Hassan

    2018-02-01

    It is generally assumed that severe dust events in western Iran could be responsible for elevated levels of toxic and radioactive elements in the region. Over a period of 5 months, from January 2012 to May 2012, dust particles in the size range PM10 (i.e. the Persian Gulf. The research aim was to compare chemical compositions of dust and aerosol samples collected during the non-dusty periods and during two severe dust events. Results of ICP-MS analysis of components indicate that during dust events the concentrations of major elements such as Ca, Mg, Al and K increase relative to ambient conditions when Fe and trace elements such as Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn are in higher proportions. Toxic trace elements that are generally ascribed to human activities, including industrial and urban pollution, are thus proportionately more abundant in the dust under calm conditions than during dust events, when their concentration is diluted by more abundant mineral particles of quartz, calcite and clay. The variability of chemical species during two dust events, noted by tracking the dust plumes in satellite images, was also assessed and the results relate to two different source areas, namely northern Iraq and northwestern Syria.

  5. Crystal-Chemical Analysis Martian Minerals in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity performed X-ray diffraction analyses on scooped soil at Rocknest and on drilled rock fines at Yellowknife Bay (John Klein and Cumberland samples), The Kimberley (Windjana sample), and Pahrump (Confidence Hills sample) in Gale crater, Mars. Samples were analyzed with the Rietveld method to determine the unit-cell parameters and abundance of each observed crystalline phase. Unit-cell parameters were used to estimate compositions of the major crystalline phases using crystal-chemical techniques. These phases include olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene minerals. Comparison of the CheMin sample unit-cell parameters with those in the literature provides an estimate of the chemical compositions of the major crystalline phases. Preliminary unit-cell parameters, abundances and compositions of crystalline phases found in Rocknest and Yellowknife Bay samples were reported in. Further instrument calibration, development of 2D-to- 1D pattern conversion corrections, and refinement of corrected data allows presentation of improved compositions for the above samples.

  6. Measurements of bone mineral density. Mineral density in metabolic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, M. [Klinicum Kassel, Kassel (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Raue, F. [Endocrine Practice, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    Bone metabolism and thus bone remodelling and bone mineral content are profoundly influenced by many hormonal and metabolic factors. This review presents the state of the art procedures for bone mineral absorptiometry and examines the interactions of endocrine and metabolic diseases and bone mineral content. Preventive and therapeutic modalities of osteoporosis are discusses in this context.

  7. EXTRATERRESTRIAL MINERALS AND FUTURE FRONTIERS IN MINERAL EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILMER GIRALDO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a las altas tasas de consumo de minerales y el alto crecimiento de la población humana, los recursos minerales en el planeta Tierra se encuentran en proceso de agotamiento, esta escasez crea la necesidad de encontrar nuevas alternativas para suplir las crecientes necesidades. Una alternativa adicional a la tradicional búsqueda de nuevos yacimientos en la tierra, es la búsqueda de yacimientos más allá de nuestro planeta, estos nuevos recursos se pueden buscar en la vecindad de nuestro planeta. La extracción en cuerpos de nuestro sistema solar como la Luna, Marte y el cinturón de asteroides puede proporcionar abundantes recursos energéticos como el helio 3 y minerales como el potasio, elementos de tierras raras, hierro y minerales del grupo del platino. Ahora, algunas compañías están planeando esta exploración y para los geólogos y profesionales de la minería en general, esto abre grandes posibilidades para la investigación científica, innovación tecnológica y desarrollo profesional en nuevos campos.

  8. Back-transformation of high-pressure minerals in shocked chondrites: Low-pressure mineral evidence for strong shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinping; Sharp, Thomas G.

    2017-10-01

    Post-shock annealing of meteorites can destroy their shock-induced features, particularly high-pressure minerals, and complicate the estimation of impact pressure-temperature conditions. However, distinguishing post-shock annealing features from thermal metamorphism effects can be practically difficult. Here we report results from Mbale, a highly shocked L chondrite, to investigate the mechanisms, kinetics and identification criteria for post-shock annealing of high-pressure signatures. Olivine fragments within shock-melt veins in Mbale occur as chemically heterogeneous nanocrystalline aggregates that contain trace wadsleyite and ringwoodite. Their strong variation in fayalite content provides evidence of iron partitioning during transformation of olivine to wadsleyite, followed by back-transformation to olivine after decompression. Experimental studies of transformation kinetics show that wadsleyite transforms to olivine in seconds at temperatures above ∼1200 K and in hours at temperatures between 900 and 1200 K. Thermal models of shock-melt cooling show that shock veins in Mbale cooled to 1200 K in 1 s. The shock pulse must have been shorter than ∼1 s to provide the high temperature conditions for post-shock back-transformation of wadsleyite. Many highly shocked L chondrites, which have abundant high-pressure minerals, must have experienced relatively long shock durations combined with rapid cooling of shock-melt regions to preserve high-pressure phases. The most highly shocked samples, such as impact melt breccias, lack high-pressure phases because of post-shock back-transformations.

  9. Mineral precipitation and dissolution at two slag-disposal sites in northwestern Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E.R.; Schulz, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Slag is a ubiquitous byproduct of the iron- and steel-refining industries. In northwestern Indiana and northeastern Illinois, slag has been deposited over more than 52 km2 of land surface. Despite the widespread use of slag for fill and construction purposes, little is known about its chemical effects on the environment. Two slagdisposal sites were examined in northwestern Indiana where slag was deposited over the native glacial deposits. At a third site, where slag was not present, background conditions were defined. Samples were collected from cores and drill cuttings and described with scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. Ground-water samples were collected and used to assess thermodynamic equilibria between authigenic minerals and existing conditions. Differences in the mineralogy at background and slag-affected sites were apparent. Calcite, dolomite, gypsum, iron oxides, and clay minerals were abundant in native sediments immediately beneath the slag. Mineral features indicated that these minerals precipitated rapidly from slag drainage and co-precipitated minor amounts of non-calcium metals and trace elements. Quartz fragments immediately beneath the slag showed extensive pitting that was not apparent in sediments from the background site, indicating chemical weathering by the hyperalkaline slag drainage. The environmental impacts of slag-related mineral precipitation include disruption of natural ground-water flow patterns and bed-sediment armoring in adjacent surface-water systems. Dissolution of native quartz by the hyperalkaline drainage may cause instability in structures situated over slag fill or in roadways comprised of slag aggregates.

  10. Statistical analysis of mineral relationships in a Witwatersrand gold placer at Randfontein Estates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, R.F.

    The Proterozoic 'Composite Reef' on the Randfontein Estates Gold Mine, is a proximal Witwatersrand braided-stream placer, in which pyrite, chromite, zircon, uraninite, and gold are the more common detrital minerals. They range in concentration from a few ppm to over 3 per cent. Optimum concentration of these minerals occurs on scour- and pebble-armoured surfaces, in conglomerate gravel bars, and in trough cross-bedded quartz-arenites. The distribution of gold is, however, complex and the relative proportions of the detrital minerals change from one depositional situation to another. The abundance of detrital and other related minerals was monitored geochemically and quantitatively indicates the prevalence of optimal placer concentration situations in preserved depositional subenvironments of the 'Composite Reef'. The relationships between 20 elements were determined by using an R-mode factor-analysis of the geochemical data. The elements load on to chalcophile, detrital oxide, hydrothermal and clay factors, suggesting the consanguinity of four subsets of elements. A multiple linear regression of gold against the other elements provides the framework for an improved prediction of gold where only very small or single samples are available. The method uses many elements in a single sample to achieve statistical reliability, as opposed to the geostatistical method where many samples of a single element are analysed. The regression equation demonstrates the geochemical validity of the geological-response model for optimum gold mineralization.

  11. Abundances of the heavy elements in the Magellanic Clouds. I. Metal abundances of F-type supergiants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, S.C.; Bessell, M.S. (Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Canberra (Australia))

    1989-08-01

    Metal abundances of eight F-type supergiants in each of the Magellanic Clouds were determined using the results of high-resolution spectroscopy analysis of these stars, together with new Stromgren uvby and Cousins (1980) BVRI photometry. It was found that the mean Fe abundance (Fe/H) for the SMC is -0.65 + or - 0.2 dex, and the mean Fe abundance for the LMC is -0.30 + or - 0.2 dex. The abundances of stars in both the SMC and LMC appear relatively uniform, and the abundances of the elements relative to Fe are very similar in both Magellanic Clouds and in Canopus (the carbon-to-iron abundances are the same for all three). It was also found that Nd and Sm are overabundant in both clouds, supporting the trends found by Spite et al. (1988) for the three SMC stars they studied. 140 refs.

  12. Quantitative interpretation of mineral hyperspectral images based on principal component analysis and independent component analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiping; Jiang, Yu; Wu, Fang; Wu, Fenghuang

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of mineral hyperspectral images provides large amounts of high-dimensional data, which is often complicated by mixed pixels. The quantitative interpretation of hyperspectral images is known to be extremely difficult when three types of information are unknown, namely, the number of pure pixels, the spectrum of pure pixels, and the mixing matrix. The problem is made even more complex by the disturbance of noise. The key to interpreting abstract mineral component information, i.e., pixel unmixing and abundance inversion, is how to effectively reduce noise, dimension, and redundancy. A three-step procedure is developed in this study for quantitative interpretation of hyperspectral images. First, the principal component analysis (PCA) method can be used to process the pixel spectrum matrix and keep characteristic vectors with larger eigenvalues. This can effectively reduce the noise and redundancy, which facilitates the abstraction of major component information. Second, the independent component analysis (ICA) method can be used to identify and unmix the pixels based on the linear mixed model. Third, the pure-pixel spectrums can be normalized for abundance inversion, which gives the abundance of each pure pixel. In numerical experiments, both simulation data and actual data were used to demonstrate the performance of our three-step procedure. Under simulation data, the results of our procedure were compared with theoretical values. Under the actual data measured from core hyperspectral images, the results obtained through our algorithm are compared with those of similar software (Mineral Spectral Analysis 1.0, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources). The comparisons show that our method is effective and can provide reference for quantitative interpretation of hyperspectral images.

  13. Current concepts in perinatal mineral metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Yasuhisa; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The serum levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphate are maintained higher in the fetus than in the pregnant mother, especially in late gestation, to meet the demands of fetal bone development. In order to maintain this fetal stage-specific mineral homeostasis, the placenta plays a critical role through active transcellular mineral transport. Although the molecular mechanism of transplacental Ca transport has been well studied, little is known about the transport mechanism of phosphate and magnesium. Maternal mineral homeostasis is also altered during pregnancy to supply minerals to the fetus. In the lactating mother, osteocytic osteolysis is suggested to be involved in the supply of minerals to the baby. The levels of some calcitropic and phosphotropic (Ca- and phosphate-regulating, respectively) hormones in the fetus are also different from those in the adult. The PTH level in the fetus is lower than that in the mother and nonpregnant adult. It is suggested, however, that low fetal PTH plays an important role in fetal mineral metabolism. The concentration of PTHrP in the fetus is much higher than that of PTH and plays a critical role in perinatal Ca homeostasis. Uncovering the molecular mechanisms for fetal stage-specific mineral metabolism will lead to better management of perinatal patients with mineral abnormalities. PMID:26865750

  14. Mineral resource of the month: tantalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The article offers information on a rare transition metal called tantalum. It says that the blue-gray mineral resource was discovered in 1801 or 1802 and was used for capacitors in 1940. It adds that the tantalite ore and other minerals in the ore should be separated in order to generate concentrates of tantalum. The use of tantalum are also cited.

  15. Minerals in fish: does the source matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.

    2015-01-01

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P. (2015). Minerals in fish: does the source matter? PhD thesis. Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Minerals are a group of micro-nutrients essential to fish. Meta-analysis of literature data was performed to identify the appropriate response criterion to

  16. Phytochemicals and selected mineral constituents of Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extract of Phaseolus vulgaris pods was screened for its phytochemical constituents. Selected mineral elements were also determined. Standard procedures were adopted for the phytochemical screening. Flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry was employed for mineral analysis. Alkaloids ...

  17. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  18. Mineral matter and ash in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorres, K.S. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    The ACS Division of Fuel Chemistry was responsible for the symposium, held in Philadelphia in 1984, that gave rise to the 38 typescript papers in this volume. They are concerned with the chemistry of coal mineral matter, coal ash properties and their prediction, coal ash deposition in boilers, and catalysis by ash and mineral matter in coal utilization.

  19. Strategic Minerals in the New World Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-30

    strategies on the part of mineral producers or consumers. They are unlikely to be undertaken without government incentives. Governmental incentives for the...these mineral products on the world markt can no longer be assured. Part of the problem is political, but economic malaise and environmental health

  20. Nitrogen Mineralization From Prunings Of Three Multipurpose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both mineralization and nitrification processes occurred more in the 0-30cm than 30-60cm soil depths. Among the legumes, low N mineralization, nitrification and ammonification were found in the Cajanus cajan alley treatments. Leaching was more pronounced in the fertilizer than in the alley treatments. However, nutrient ...

  1. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  2. Mineral resource of the month: Phosphate rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    As a mineral resource, “phosphate rock” is defined as unprocessed ore and processed concentrates that contain some form of apatite, a group of calcium phosphate minerals that is the primary source for phosphorus in phosphate fertilizers, which are vital to agriculture.

  3. Mineral resource of the month: potash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The article offers basic information about the mineral resource potash. According to the author, potash is the generic term for a variety of mined and manufactured salts that contain the mineral potassium in a water-soluble form. The author adds that potash is used in fertilizers, soaps and detergents, glass and ceramics, and alkaline batteries.

  4. Thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The knowledge of elasticity of the minerals is useful for interpreting the structure and composition of the lower mantle and also in seismic studies. The purpose of the present study is to discuss a simple and straightforward method for evaluating thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperatures. We have extended ...

  5. Predicting the Mineral Composition of Dust Aerosols. Part 2; Model Evaluation and Identification of Key Processes with Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Garcia-Pando, C. Perez; Miller, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    A global compilation of nearly sixty measurement studies is used to evaluate two methods of simulating the mineral composition of dust aerosols in an Earth system model. Both methods are based upon a Mean Mineralogical Table (MMT) that relates the soil mineral fractions to a global atlas of arid soil type. The Soil Mineral Fraction (SMF) method assumes that the aerosol mineral fractions match the fractions of the soil. The MMT is based upon soil measurements after wet sieving, a process that destroys aggregates of soil particles that would have been emitted from the original, undisturbed soil. The second method approximately reconstructs the emitted aggregates. This model is referred to as the Aerosol Mineral Fraction (AMF) method because the mineral fractions of the aerosols differ from those of the wet-sieved parent soil, partly due to reaggregation. The AMF method remedies some of the deficiencies of the SMF method in comparison to observations. Only the AMF method exhibits phyllosilicate mass at silt sizes, where they are abundant according to observations. In addition, the AMF quartz fraction of silt particles is in better agreement with measured values, in contrast to the overestimated SMF fraction. Measurements at distinct clay and silt particle sizes are shown to be more useful for evaluation of the models, in contrast to the sum over all particles sizes that is susceptible to compensating errors, as illustrated by the SMF experiment. Model errors suggest that allocation of the emitted silt fraction of each mineral into the corresponding transported size categories is an important remaining source of uncertainty. Evaluation of both models and the MMT is hindered by the limited number of size-resolved measurements of mineral content that sparsely sample aerosols from the major dust sources. The importance of climate processes dependent upon aerosol mineral composition shows the need for global and routine mineral measurements.

  6. Predicting the mineral composition of dust aerosols – Part 2: Model evaluation and identification of key processes with observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Perlwitz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A global compilation of nearly sixty measurement studies is used to evaluate two methods of simulating the mineral composition of dust aerosols in an Earth system model. Both methods are based upon a Mean Mineralogical Table (MMT that relates the soil mineral fractions to a global atlas of arid soil type. The Soil Mineral Fraction (SMF method assumes that the aerosol mineral fractions match the fractions of the soil. The MMT is based upon soil measurements after wet sieving, a process that destroys aggregates of soil particles that would have been emitted from the original, undisturbed soil. The second method approximately reconstructs the emitted aggregates. This model is referred to as the Aerosol Mineral Fraction (AMF method because the mineral fractions of the aerosols differ from those of the wet-sieved parent soil, partly due to reaggregation. The AMF method remedies some of the deficiencies of the SMF method in comparison to observations. Only the AMF method exhibits phyllosilicate mass at silt sizes, where they are abundant according to observations. In addition, the AMF quartz fraction of silt particles is in better agreement with measured values, in contrast to the overestimated SMF fraction. Measurements at distinct clay and silt particle sizes are shown to be more useful for evaluation of the models, in contrast to the sum over all particles sizes that is susceptible to compensating errors, as illustrated by the SMF experiment. Model errors suggest that allocation of the emitted silt fraction of each mineral into the corresponding transported size categories is an important remaining source of uncertainty. Evaluation of both models and the MMT is hindered by the limited number of size-resolved measurements of mineral content that sparsely sample aerosols from the major dust sources. The importance of climate processes dependent upon aerosol mineral composition shows the need for global and routine mineral measurements.

  7. Climatic effects on mosquito abundance in Mediterranean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2014-07-16

    The impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases is highly controversial. One of the principal points of debate is whether or not climate influences mosquito abundance, a key factor in disease transmission. To test this hypothesis, we analysed ten years of data (2003-2012) from biweekly surveys to assess inter-annual and seasonal relationships between the abundance of seven mosquito species known to be pathogen vectors (West Nile virus, Usutu virus, dirofilariasis and Plasmodium sp.) and several climatic variables in two wetlands in SW Spain. Within-season abundance patterns were related to climatic variables (i.e. temperature, rainfall, tide heights, relative humidity and photoperiod) that varied according to the mosquito species in question. Rainfall during winter months was positively related to Culex pipiens and Ochlerotatus detritus annual abundances. Annual maximum temperatures were non-linearly related to annual Cx. pipiens abundance, while annual mean temperatures were positively related to annual Ochlerotatus caspius abundance. Finally, we modelled shifts in mosquito abundances using the A2 and B2 temperature and rainfall climate change scenarios for the period 2011-2100. While Oc. caspius, an important anthropophilic species, may increase in abundance, no changes are expected for Cx. pipiens or the salt-marsh mosquito Oc. detritus. Our results highlight that the effects of climate are species-specific, place-specific and non-linear and that linear approaches will therefore overestimate the effect of climate change on mosquito abundances at high temperatures. Climate warming does not necessarily lead to an increase in mosquito abundance in natural Mediterranean wetlands and will affect, above all, species such as Oc. caspius whose numbers are not closely linked to rainfall and are influenced, rather, by local tidal patterns and temperatures. The final impact of changes in vector abundance on disease frequency will depend on the direct and indirect

  8. Measurement of clay surface areas by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) sorption and its use for quantifying illite and smectite abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, A.E.; Eberl, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    A new method has been developed for quantifying smectite abundance by sorbing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on smectite particles dispersed in aqueous solution. The sorption density of PVP-55K on a wide range of smectites, illites and kaolinites is ???0.99 mg/m2, which corresponds to ???0.72 g of PVP-55K per gram of montmorillonite. Polyvinylpyrrolidone sorption on smectites is independent of layer charge and solution pH. PVP sorption on Si02, Fe 2O3 and ZnO normalized to the BET surface area is similar to the sorption densities on smectites. ??-Al 2O3, amorphous Al(OH)3 and gibbsite have no PVP sorption over a wide range of pH, and sorption of PVP by organics is minimal. The insensitivity of PVP sorption densities to mineral layer charge, solution pH and mineral surface charge indicates that PVP sorption is not localized at charged sites, but is controlled by more broadly distributed sorption mechanisms such as Van der Waals' interactions and/or hydrogen bonding. Smectites have very large surface areas when dispersed as single unit-cell-thick particles (???725 m2/g) and usually dominate the total surface areas of natural samples in which smectites are present. In this case, smectite abundance is directly proportional to PVP sorption. In some cases, however, the accurate quantification of smectite abundance by PVP sorption may require minor corrections for PVP uptake by other phases, principally illite and kaolinite. Quantitative XRD can be combined with PVP uptake measurements to uniquely determine the smectite concentration in such sample. ?? 2004, The Clay Minerals Society.

  9. Underground coal miners' foot and boot problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, G; Marr, S; Berry, G; Nubé, V; Cole, J

    1999-11-01

    The New South Wales (NSW) Joint Coal Board Health and Safety Trust funded an investigation into foot problems reported by 400 randomly selected underground coal miners from 15 mines in NSW. Miners were interviewed and their responses were entered directly into laptop computers. Digital cameras were also used to take pictures of skin conditions and miners' posture. Observations of the skin results indicate that miners find gumboots to be hot, sweaty and uncomfortable. Skin breakdown and tinea, is frequent and disabling and responsible for absences from the workforce that are costly for both miner and employer. A more comfortable and better designed boot is needed, fabricated in waterproof leather together with socks that 'wick' the moisture away from the foot. Socks worn were of varying components and washed at irregular intervals, indicating a need for regular changes of socks and improved hygiene.

  10. Physical properties of evaporite minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Eugene C.

    1962-01-01

    The data in the following tables were abstracted from measurements of physical properties of evaporite minerals or of equivalent synthetic compounds. The compounds considered are the halide and sulfate salts which supposedly precipitated from evaporating ocean water and which form very extensive and thick "rock salt" beds. These beds are composed almost entirely of NaCl. In places where the beds are deeply buried and where fractures occur in the overlying rocks, the salt is plastically extruded upward as in a pipe to form the "salt domes". Most of the tables are for NaCl, both the natural (halite) and the synthetic salt, polycrystalline and single crystals. These measurements have been collected for use 1) in studies on storage of radioactive wastes in salt domes or beds, 2) in calculations concerned with nuclear tests in salt domes and beds, and 3) in studies of phenomena in salt of geologic interest. Rather than an exhaustive compilation of physical property measurements, there tables represent a summary of data from accessible sources. As limitations of time have presented making a more systematic and comprehensive selection, the data given may seem arbitrarily chosen. Some of the data listed are old, and newer, more accurate data are undoubtedly available. Halite (an synthetic NaCl) has been very thoroughly studied because of its relatively simple and highly symmetrical crystal structure, its easy availability naturally or synthetically, both in single crystals and polycrystalline, its useful and scientifically interesting properties, and its role as a compound of almost purely ionic bonding. The measurements of NaCl in the tables, however, represent only a small part of the total number of observations; discrimination was necessary to keep the size of the tabulations manageable. The physical properties of the evaporite minerals other than halite and sylvite have received only desultory attention of experiementalists, and appear in only a few tables. The

  11. Genetic types, mineralization styles, and geodynamic settings of Mesozoic tungsten deposits in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen Winston; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Li, Yan Hei Martin; Zhao, Zheng; Gao, Jian-Feng

    2017-04-01

    South China hosts the most abundant and largest tungsten (W) deposits in the world, being a famous W metallogenic region. Located at the eastern part of the South China Block, which was formed by amalgamation of the Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks during the Neoproterozoic, these W deposits were mainly formed during the Mesozoic. The W mineralization is dominanted by greisen, quartz-vein, skarn, and porphyry types, all of which are genetically related to the evolution of highly fractionated granitoids. Four episodes of W mineralization are recognized: (1) Late Triassic (230-210 Ma) in the central and western parts of South China; (2) Middle Jurassic (ca. 170 Ma) to Early Cretaceous (ca. 140 Ma) in the interior of South China, with the mineralization being concentrated in southern Jiangxi Province between 165 and 150 Ma; (3) Early Cretaceous (136-120 Ma) with deposits across South China; and (4) Late Cretaceous (100-80 Ma) mainly in the southwestern parts of South China. These four periods of mineralization are closely related to the closure of paleo-Tethys and subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate. In the Late Triassic, these two events caused local extensional environments, facilitating emplacement of the peraluminous granitoids, and formation of the W deposits. In the Middle Jurassic, break-off of the subducting oceanic plate resulted in emplacement of highly fractionated granites in the Nanling region. Later anticlockwise rotation of the paleo-Pacific plate created widespread S-type granitoids and associated Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous W mineralization in the interior of South China. Since 136 Ma, rollback of the subducting Pacific plate resulted in weak W mineralization across South China. Finally, a change of direction in the retreating plate from SE to ESE resulted in intensive mineralization of the southwestern part of South China.

  12. Temperature and redox effect on mineral colonization in Juan de Fuca Ridge flank subsurface crustal fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul eBaquiran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine microbe-mineral interactions in subsurface oceanic crust, we evaluated microbial colonization on crustal minerals that were incubated in borehole fluids for one year at the seafloor wellhead of a crustal borehole observatory (IODP Hole U1301A, Juan de Fuca Ridge flank as compared to an experiment that was not exposed to subsurface crustal fluids (at nearby IODP Hole U1301B. In comparison to previous studies at these same sites, this approach allowed assessment of the effects of temperature, fluid chemistry, and/or mineralogy on colonization patterns of different mineral substrates, and an opportunity to verify the approach of deploying colonization experiments at an observatory wellhead at the seafloor instead of within the borehole. The Hole U1301B deployment did not have biofilm growth, based on microscopy and DNA extraction, thereby confirming the integrity of the colonization design against bottom seawater intrusion. In contrast, the Hole U1301A deployment supported biofilms dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria (43.5% of 370 16S rRNA gene clone sequences and Gammaproteobacteria (29.3%. Sequence analysis revealed overlap in microbial communities between different minerals incubated at the Hole U1301A wellhead, indicating that mineralogy did not separate biofilm structure within the one-year colonization experiment. Differences in the Hole U1301A wellhead biofilm community composition relative to previous studies from within the borehole using similar mineral substrates suggest that temperature and the diffusion of dissolved oxygen through plastic components influenced the mineral colonization experiments positioned at the wellhead. This highlights the capacity of low abundance crustal fluid taxa to rapidly establish communities on diverse mineral substrates under changing environmental conditions such as from temperature and oxygen.

  13. A parallel analysis of hydrolithospheric beds geodata of Narzan mineral water Kislovodsk deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. А. Первухин

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The area of the Caucasus Mineral Waters – an environmental spa - occupies a special place among the other  spa regions of Russia due to richness, diversity, abundance and value of its mineral waters, landscape and climate conditions, and therapeutic muds. Lately the rate increased of developing its mineral water resources for both the local spa use and bottling for retail consumers. The growing number of mineral water bottling enterprises and sanatorium organizations affects significantly the amount of mineral water uptake. Irrational water uptake results in deterioration of underground water quality, change of its chemical composition and temperature. Expansion of the depression crater may eventually result in a collapse of seams roofing and vanishing of many water springs. It refers to all the waters underlying the area of Kavkazskie Mineralnye Vody. Due to that situation there is a potential threat of degradation of these deposits of mineral waters. Therefore, an important task consists in building forecast models of hydro-lithospheric processes in the region while the scope of water uptake changes in various parts of the deposit. it will be based on analyzing aerial photographs taken from board unmanned aerial vehicles. Currently such analysis is conducted using simple linear algorithms. The paper suggests to use the Nvidia CUDA technology for the purpose, adapting the mathematics used to ana- lyze aerial photographs to that technology. The initial data for processing were obtained by aerial photography in the course of remote sensing of the area by unmanned aerial vehicles belonging to OJSC «Narzan», Kislovodsk, an enterprise for mining mineral water. Presented in this paper have their Author’s Certificates issued by the Federal Institute of Industrial Property, the Russian Federation.

  14. Iron mineralization at the Songhu deposit, Chinese Western Tianshan: a type locality with regional metallogenic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Long; Wang, Yi-Tian; Dong, Lian-Hui; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Evans, Noreen J.; Zhang, Bing; Ren, Yi

    2017-06-01

    Hosted by volcaniclastics of the Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation, the Songhu iron deposit is located in the central segment of the Awulale metallogenic belt, Chinese Western Tianshan. Mineralization and alteration are structurally controlled by orogen-parallel NWW-striking faults. Integrating with mineralogical and stable isotopic analyses based on paragenetic relationships, two types of iron mineralization have been identified. The deuteric mineralization (Type I) represented by brecciated, banded, and disseminated-vein ores juxtaposed with potassic-calcic alteration in the inner zone, which was formed from a magmatic fluid generated during the late stages of regional volcanism. In contrast, the volcanic-hydrothermal mineralization (Type II) is characterized by hydrothermal features occurring in massive and agglomerated ores with abundant sulfides, and was generated from the magmatic fluid with seawater contamination. Two volcaniclastic samples from the hanging and footwall of the main orebody yield zircon U-Pb ages of 327.8 ± 3.1 and 332.0 ± 2.0 Ma, respectively, which indicate Middle Carboniferous volcanism. Timing for iron mineralization can be broadly placed in the same epoch. By reviewing geological, mineralogical, and geochemical features of the primary iron deposits in the Awulale metallogenic belt, we propose that the two types of iron mineralization in the Songhu iron deposit are representative regionally. A summary of available geochronological data reveals Middle-Late Carboniferous polycyclic ore-related volcanism, and nearly contemporaneous iron mineralization along the belt. Furthermore, petro-geochemistry of volcanic-volcaniclastic host rocks indicates that partial melting of a metasomatized mantle wedge under a continental arc setting could have triggered the continuous volcanic activities and associated metallogenesis.

  15. An overview of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxiang Chi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluid flow is an integral part of hydrothermal mineralization, and its analysis and characterization constitute an important part of a mineralization model. The hydrodynamic study of mineralization deals with analyzing the driving forces, fluid pressure regimes, fluid flow rate and direction, and their relationships with localization of mineralization. This paper reviews the principles and methods of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization, and discusses their significance and limitations for ore deposit studies and mineral exploration. The driving forces of fluid flow may be related to fluid overpressure, topographic relief, tectonic deformation, and fluid density change due to heating or salinity variation, depending on specific geologic environments and mineralization processes. The study methods may be classified into three types, megascopic (field observations, microscopic analyses, and numerical modeling. Megascopic features indicative of significantly overpressured (especially lithostatic or supralithostatic fluid systems include horizontal veins, sand injection dikes, and hydraulic breccias. Microscopic studies, especially microthermometry of fluid inclusions and combined stress analysis and microthermometry of fluid inclusion planes (FIPs can provide important information about fluid temperature, pressure, and fluid-structural relationships, thus constraining fluid flow models. Numerical modeling can be carried out to solve partial differential equations governing fluid flow, heat transfer, rock deformation and chemical reactions, in order to simulate the distribution of fluid pressure, temperature, fluid flow rate and direction, and mineral precipitation or dissolution in 2D or 3D space and through time. The results of hydrodynamic studies of mineralization can enhance our understanding of the formation processes of hydrothermal deposits, and can be used directly or indirectly in mineral exploration.

  16. Effects of heat-flow and hydrothermal fluids from volcanic intrusions on authigenic mineralization in sandstone formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolela Ahmed

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic intrusions and hydrothermal activity have modified the diagenetic minerals. In the Ulster Basin, UK, most of the authigenic mineralization in the Permo-Triassic sandstones pre-dated tertiary volcanic intrusions. The hydrothermal fluids and heat-flow from the volcanic intrusions did not affect quartz and feldspar overgrowths. However, clay mineral-transformation, illite-smectite to illite and chlorite was documented near the volcanic intrusions. Abundant actinolite, illite, chlorite, albite and laumontite cementation of the sand grains were also documented near the volcanic intrusions. The abundance of these cementing minerals decreases away from the volcanic intrusions.In the Hartford Basin, USA, the emplacement of the volcanic intrusions took place simultaneous with sedimentation. The heat-flow from the volcanic intrusions and hydrothermal activity related to the volcanics modified the texture of authigenic minerals. Microcrystalline mosaic albite and quartz developed rather than overgrowths and crystals near the intrusions. Chlorite clumps and masses were also documented with microcrystalline mosaic albite and quartz. These features are localized near the basaltic intrusions. Laumontite is also documented near the volcanic intrusions. The reservoir characteristics of the studied sandstone formations are highly affected by the volcanic and hydrothermal fluids in the Hartford and the Ulster Basin. The porosity dropped from 27.4 to zero percent and permeability from 1350 mD to 1 mD.

  17. Variation in rank abundance replicate samples and impact of clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuteboom, J.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Calculating a single-sample rank abundance curve by using the negative-binomial distribution provides a way to investigate the variability within rank abundance replicate samples and yields a measure of the degree of heterogeneity of the sampled community. The calculation of the single-sample rank

  18. Spatio-temporal Variations of Abundance, Biomass, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatio-seasonal variations of Pseudodiaptomus hessei abundance, biomass and reproductive parameters were investigated in the Grand-Lahou lagoon at five stations during the dry and wet (or rainy) seasons from September 2005 to August 2006. In all sampling stations, abundance and biomass of P. hessei in the dry ...

  19. Effect of Spent Lubricating Oil on the Composition and Abundance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that altogether, 476 specimens were collected and sorted into four arthropod groups, namely Acarina, Collembola, Hymenoptera and Myriapoda in successive order of abundance at both sites studied. Soil arthropod taxa and abundance were significantly lower (u(2) = 51, P<0.05) at the impacted sites ...

  20. Abundances and Habitat Sensitivities of Some River Fishes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abundances were largest for Channa gachua, Dermogenys pusillus and Mastacembelus armatus but for none of the 18 species were they large relative to the total numbers of fish captured. The importance of habitat characteristics to abundance was examined by multiple regression analysis for those species captured at ...

  1. Forager abundance and dietary relationships in a Namib Desert ant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forager abundance and dietary relationships in a Namib Desert ant community. A.C. Marsh. Abstract. Thirteen ant species coexist on a barren gravel plain habitat in the central Namib Desert. Numerical density of foragers of all species fluctuated considerably over a 17-month period. Peaks in abundance correlated to ...

  2. Influence of summer biogeography on wood warbler stopover abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Rob Smith; Deborah M. Finch; Frank R. Moore; Wang Yong

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of summer biogeography of migrant wood warblers (Parulidae) on their stopover abundance. To characterize abundance patterns, we used mist-net capture data from spring and fall migration in the Middle Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico, spring migration on the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, and fall migration on the Gulf Coast of Alabama. To describe the...

  3. The distribution and abundance of baboons ( Papio anubis ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Base line information on animal population distribution and abundance is crucial to planning and implementation of effective management strategies for the conservation of species. There is paucity of information on the distribution and abundance of papio anubis in Sambisa game reserve. Therefore, this study was carried ...

  4. Species Diversity and Relative Abundance of Fisheries Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative abundance of key organisms in the beach seine landings include Chloroscombrus chrysurus (26.0%) in 2007, Brachydeuterus auritus (22.8%) in 2008, Ilisha africana (14.7%) in 2008, Sardinella aurita (13.1%) in 2009 and Selene dorsalis (11.2%) in 2007. The organisms that were in low relative abundance ...

  5. Abundance of birds in six selected habitats | Ogunsusi | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected were subjected to t-test of independent variables with LSD in ANOVA for birds' use of habitats and linear regression for the dependence of birds' abundance on habitats' variables.88 bird species belonging to 31 families were associated with the study area. The abundance of birds was significantly affected ...

  6. Community structure and abundance of avian and non-avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, bird abundance between sites and between months differed significantly (p<0.05). An abundance of testudines was noted during the wet period of the study. Eight species of mammals were recorded during the survey. Other vertebrate taxa encountered included, reptiles (9 species) and amphibians (5 species).

  7. The Paradox of Water Abundance in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Schulz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While much effort has gone into studying the causes and consequences of water scarcity, the concept of water abundance has received considerably less attention in academic literature. Here, we aim to address this gap by providing a case study on the perceptions and political implications of water abundance in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. Combining a political ecology perspective on contemporary water governance (empirically based on stakeholder interviews with members of the state’s water sector with an overview of the environmental history of this hydrosocial territory, we argue, first, that water abundance has become a foundational element of Mato Grosso’s identity, situated in the wider context of natural resource abundance more generally and second, that water abundance today is a contested concept witnessing discursive struggles around its political implications and meaning. More specifically, there is a clash between the dominant conceptualisation of water abundance as a foundation for rich economic, ecological, social, and cultural values and benefits, often espoused by members of the political and economic elite, e.g., for marketing purposes, and a more critical but less widespread conceptualisation of water abundance as a source of carelessness, lack of awareness, and poor water governance, typically put forth by more informed technical staff of the public sector and civil society activists. By providing a distinct treatment and discussion of the concept of water abundance, our research has relevance for other water-rich regions beyond the immediate regional context.

  8. Fire and faunal abundance and diversity in the Natal Drakensberg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Natal Drakensberg the abundance and diversity of francolins, small mammals and antelope were related to time elapsed since the last fire. Greatest abundance and diversity occurred up to 3 years after fire, and on areas rarely or never burnt. Under an intermediate frequency of fire, the numbers of both species and ...

  9. Relative Abundance of Adult Mosquitoes in University of Abuja Main ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mosquito species abundance revealed that Anopheles species was higher in terms of abundance which are very important vectors of malaria in Nigeria. These results indicated that vectors of mosquito-borne diseases are breeding in the study area, most of which are encouraged by human activities. Keywords: Relative ...

  10. Distribution, abundance and ecology of the sponge Spheciospongia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution, abundance and physico-chemical parameters affecting the sponge Spheciospongia vagabunda were studied in a shallow lagoon (Albion) of Mauritius. Visual censuses were conducted along the 2 Km lagoon and GPS coordinates around sponge assemblages (patches) were noted. Sponge abundance ...

  11. Species Composition, Relative Abundance and Distribution of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no significant difference between seasons and habitats in the abundance of birds in these habitats. However, wet season had an effect on the avian abundance in eucalyptus plantation (t=2.952, P <0.05). Eucalyptus plantation, soil erosion, deforestation, habitat fragmentation, settlement and land degradation ...

  12. A protocol for sampling vascular epiphyte richness and abundance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.H.D.; Gradstein, S.R.; Nadkarni, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    The sampling of epiphytes is fraught with methodological difficulties. We present a protocol to sample and analyse vascular epiphyte richness and abundance in forests of different structure (SVERA). Epiphyte abundance is estimated as biomass by recording the number of plant components in a range of

  13. Spatial and temporal patterns of phytoplankton abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytoplankton abundance and composition in relation to physico-chemical parameters were investigated from September 2005 to October 2007 at 51 stations of various depths in the nearshore, intermediate and deep offshore waters of Lake Victoria. Shallow nearshore waters had the highest abundance of phytoplankton ...

  14. Spatial patterns of zooplankton distribution and abundance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial patterns and abundance of zooplankton in aquatic habitats are important determinants for production of fish species, invertebrates and availability of phytoplankton. Weekly monitoring for zooplankton abundance was conducted in Shirati Bay, Lake Victoria, to explore their spatial patterns in relation to phytoplankton, ...

  15. Abundance, length-weight relationship and condition factors of fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most abundant fish species recorded in Ogbomoso reservoir are O. niloticus, C. nigrodigitatus, S. galilaeus, S. mystus with percentage abundance of 24.8%, 23.9%, 18.2% and 13.3% respectively. The values of b in C. nigrodigitatus, C. gariepinus, P. obscura and O. niloticus showed a positive allometric growth pattern.

  16. Species diversity and abundance of Oligochaeta fauna in a tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species diversity and abundance of Oligochaeta fauna in a tropical rain forest lake in South-Southern, Nigeria. ... The impact of seasonal variations, human activities and environmental factors influencing the distribution and abundance of Oligochaeta are observed. There is a need for freshwater biologists to investigate the ...

  17. Symbiont abundance can affect host plant population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock-Blake, Rachel; McCormick, Melissa K; Brooks, Hope E A; Jones, Cynthia S; Whigham, Dennis F

    2017-01-01

    Symbioses are almost universal, but little is known about how symbiont abundance can affect host performance. Many orchids undergo vegetative dormancy and frequent and protracted dormancy have been associated with population declines. If mycorrhizal fungi affect host plant performance, those effects are likely to alter patterns of vegetative dormancy. The goal of this study was to determine whether the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi is related to the likelihood of entering dormancy and whether fungal abundance varied with dormancy duration in the federally listed threatened orchid Isotria medeoloides. We studied three populations of the threatened North American terrestrial orchid Isotria medeoloides using long-term emergence data and evaluated the relationship between the abundance of associated mycorrhizal fungi (Russulaceae) and orchid dormancy and emergence. Mycorrhizal fungi in soil adjacent to orchids were quantified in two ways. First, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi on adjacent root tips were identified using DNA sequencing to determine their phylogenetic relationship to fungi that are known to form mycorrhizae with I. medeoloides. Second, we extracted DNA from soil samples and used quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the abundance of Russulaceae hyphae adjacent to each orchid. We found that the abundance of Russulaceae, both in the soil and on nearby ECM root tips, was significantly related to orchid prior emergence. Both abundance and prior emergence history were predictive of future emergence. These results suggest that the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi can influence orchid population dynamics and is an essential component of orchid conservation. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  18. Mechanisms driving postfire abundance of a generalist mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Zwolak; D. E. Pearson; Y. K. Ortega; E. E. Crone

    2012-01-01

    Changes in vertebrate abundance following disturbance are commonly attributed to shifts in food resources or predation pressure, but underlying mechanisms have rarely been tested. We examined four hypotheses for the commonly reported increase in abundance of deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner, 1845)) following forest fires: source-sink dynamics, decreased...

  19. Dentin: structure, composition and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Michel; Kulkarni, Askok B; Young, Marian; Boskey, Adele

    2011-01-01

    We review firstly the specificities of the different types of dentin present in mammalian teeth. The outer layers include the mantle dentin, the Tomes' granular and the hyaline Hopewell-Smith's layers. Circumpulpal dentin forming the bulk of the tooth, comprises intertubular and peritubular dentin. In addition to physiological primary and secondary dentin formation, reactionary dentin is produced in response to pathological events. Secondly, we evaluate the role of odontoblasts in dentin formation, their implication in the synthesis and secretion of type I collagen fibrils and non-collagenous molecules. Thirdly, we study the composition and functions of dentin extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules implicated in dentinogenesis. As structural proteins they are mineralization promoters or inhibitors. They are also signaling molecules. Three different forms of dentinogenesis are identified: i) matrix vesicles are implicated in early dentin formation, ii) collagen and some proteoglycans are involved in the formation of predentin, further transformed into intertubular dentin, iii) the distal secretion of some non-collagenous ECM molecules and some serum proteins contribute to the formation of peritubular dentin.

  20. Metagenomics and single-cell genomics reveal high abundance of comammox Nitrospira in a rapid gravity sand filter treating groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palomo, Alejandro; Fowler, Jane; Gülay, Arda

    genus was recovered harboring metabolic capacity for complete ammonia oxidation. We developed a cell extraction strategy that enables the disruption of Nitrospira cell clusters attached to the mineral coating of the sand. Individual cells were identified via fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH......) with Nitrospira-specific 16S rRNA probes and sorted via fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Sorted cells were screened and selected Nitrospira spp. were subject to whole-genome sequencing. The single cell genomes confirmed the genomic presence of a complete ammonia oxidation pathway and revealed clear...... taxonomic differences with the recently described comammox Nitrospira genomes. The high abundance of comammox Nitrospira spp. together with the low abundance of canonical ammonia oxidizing prokaryotes in the investigated RSF system suggests the essential role of this novel comammox Nitrospira in the RSFs...

  1. Exploiting mineral data: applications to the diversity, distribution, and social networks of copper mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Golden, J. J.; Pires, A.; Fox, P. A.; Ma, X.; Zednik, S.; Eleish, A.; Prabhu, A.; Hummer, D. R.; Liu, C.; Meyer, M.; Ralph, J.; Hystad, G.; Hazen, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a comprehensive database of copper (Cu) mineral characteristics. These data include crystallographic, paragenetic, chemical, locality, age, structural complexity, and physical property information for the 689 Cu mineral species approved by the International Mineralogical Association (rruff.info/ima). Synthesis of this large, varied dataset allows for in-depth exploration of statistical trends and visualization techniques. With social network analysis (SNA) and cluster analysis of minerals, we create sociograms and chord diagrams. SNA visualizations illustrate the relationships and connectivity between mineral species, which often form cliques associated with rock type and/or geochemistry. Using mineral ecology statistics, we analyze mineral-locality frequency distribution and predict the number of missing mineral species, visualized with accumulation curves. By assembly of 2-dimensional KLEE diagrams of co-existing elements in minerals, we illustrate geochemical trends within a mineral system. To explore mineral age and chemical oxidation state, we create skyline diagrams and compare trends with varying chemistry. These trends illustrate mineral redox changes through geologic time and correlate with significant geologic occurrences, such as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) or Wilson Cycles.

  2. PMCR-Miner: parallel maximal confident association rules miner algorithm for microarray data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Wael; Kotb, Yasser; Ghaleb, Fayed F M

    2015-01-01

    The MCR-Miner algorithm is aimed to mine all maximal high confident association rules form the microarray up/down-expressed genes data set. This paper introduces two new algorithms: IMCR-Miner and PMCR-Miner. The IMCR-Miner algorithm is an extension of the MCR-Miner algorithm with some improvements. These improvements implement a novel way to store the samples of each gene into a list of unsigned integers in order to benefit using the bitwise operations. In addition, the IMCR-Miner algorithm overcomes the drawbacks faced by the MCR-Miner algorithm by setting some restrictions to ignore repeated comparisons. The PMCR-Miner algorithm is a parallel version of the new proposed IMCR-Miner algorithm. The PMCR-Miner algorithm is based on shared-memory systems and task parallelism, where no time is needed in the process of sharing and combining data between processors. The experimental results on real microarray data sets show that the PMCR-Miner algorithm is more efficient and scalable than the counterparts.

  3. Identifying and Quantifying Carbonate and Serpentine Textures and Abundances at Multiple Scales with VSWIR Imaging Spectroscopy, Samail Ophiolite, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leask, E.; Ehlmann, B. L.

    2016-12-01

    Visible-shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging reflectance spectroscopy is a technique that can be used to identify minerals, quantify abundances, and assess textural relationships at many scales, from microscopic(10m/pixel). Here, we assess microscopic-, outcrop-, and airborne-scale data of rocks from serpentine-hosted carbonate springs and veins within the Samail Ophiolite (Oman), a system of interest to terrestrial geologists and an analog for early Martian environments. Multi-scale VSWIR imaging spectroscopy enables study of the fracturing and mineralization processes of serpentinization at multiple spatial scales from sub-mm to meters, as it can be used to identify minerals (even if partially altered), trace veins and quantify their approximate volume, and directly compare active serpentine springs sites to their inactive equivalents. It also allows non-destructive estimation of carbonation. We tested the efficacy of microimaging spectroscopy to evaluate serpentinization textures while simultaneously quantifying abundances of different minerals, comparing values from linear spectral unmixing to traditional techniques (quantitative XRD, EDS/SEM). We find abundances derived typically agree to within 10%. At the microscopic scale, VSWIR imaging spectroscopy identifies spatially coherent rare phases missed by XRD as well as XRD `amorphous' component (partially serpentinized clasts) and can quickly differentiate between carbonates and different phyllosilicate minerals (e.g., serpentine vs. chlorite) through subtle wavelength shifts. While outcrop and landscape-scale data are noisier (and lack key wavelength regions around 1.4 and 1.9 μm due to atmospheric absorptions), for standoff distances 3-15 m it is possible to identify different types/generations of veining and track the specific wavelength of major absorptions as well as their depth/shape as a proxy for crystal size. Network scales of veining and fracturing are quantified and sites of biological activity in

  4. Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishihama, Y.; Schmidt, T.; Rappsilber, J.

    2008-01-01

    proteins. Proteins involved in energy metabolism as well as those with binding function were also found in high copy number while proteins annotated with the terms metabolism, transcription, transport, and cellular organization were rare. The barrel-sandwich fold was found to be the structural fold......Background: Knowledge about the abundance of molecular components is an important prerequisite for building quantitative predictive models of cellular behavior. Proteins are central components of these models, since they carry out most of the fundamental processes in the cell. Thus far, protein...... protein and mRNA abundance in E. coli cells. Conclusion: Abundance measurements for more than 1000 E. coli proteins presented in this work represent the most complete study of protein abundance in a bacterial cell so far. We show significant associations between the abundance of a protein and its...

  5. Predicting the abundance of clays and quartz in oil sands using hyperspectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezari, Iman; Rivard, Benoit; Geramian, Mirjavad; Lipsett, Michael G.

    2017-07-01

    Clay minerals play a crucial role in the processability of oil sands ores and in the management of tailings. An increase in fine content generally leads to a decrease in both bitumen recovery performance and tailings settling rate. It is thus important to identify clay types and their abundance in oil sands ores and tailings. This study made use of oil sands samples characterized for quantitative mineralogy by x-ray diffraction, to gain an understanding of changes in the reflectance spectra of oil sands. The sample suite included bitumen-removed oil sands ore samples and their different fine size fractions. Spectral metrics applicable to the prediction of quartz and clay contents in oil sands were then derived with a focus on metrics correlating with sample content in total 2:1 clays (total of illite and illite-smectite) and kaolinite. Metrics in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and longwave infrared (LWIR) were found to correlate with mineral contents. The best predictions of clays and quartz were achieved using LWIR metrics (R2 > 0.89). Results also demonstrated the applicability of LWIR metrics in the prediction of kaolinite and total 2:1 clays.

  6. Abundance of microbial genes associated with nitrogen cycling as indices of biogeochemical process rates across a vegetation gradient in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Dorthe Groth; Blazewicz, Steven J; Firestone, Mary; Herman, Donald J; Turetsky, Merritt; Waldrop, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Nitrification and denitrification processes are crucial to plant nutrient availability, eutrophication and greenhouse gas production both locally and globally. Unravelling the major environmental predictors for nitrification and denitrification is thus pivotal in order to understand and model environmental nitrogen (N) cycling. Here, we sampled five plant community types characteristic of interior Alaska, including black spruce, bog birch, tussock grass and two fens. We assessed abundance of functional genes affiliated with nitrification (bacterial and archaeal amoA) and denitrification (nirK/S and nosZ) using qPCR, soil characteristics, potential nitrification and denitrification rates (PNR and PDR) and gross mineralization rates. The main chemical and biological predictors for PNR and PDR were assigned through path analysis. The potential N cycling rates varied dramatically between sites, from some of the highest (in fens) to some of the lowest (in black spruce) measured globally. Based on path analysis, functional gene abundances were the most important variables to predict potential rates. PNR was best explained by bacterial amoA gene abundance followed by ammonium content, whereas PDR was best explained directly by nosZ gene abundance and indirectly by nirK/S gene abundance and nitrate. Hence, functional gene abundance is a valuable index that integrates recent environmental history and recent process activity, and therefore is a good predictor of potential rates. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the relative importance of different biological and chemical factors in driving the potential for nitrification and denitrification across terrestrial ecosystems. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Star formation and the interstellar medium in low surface brightness galaxies - I. Oxygen abundances and abundance gradients in low surface brightness disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blok, WJG; van der Hulst, JM

    We present measurements of the oxygen abundances in 64 HII regions in 12 LSB galaxies. We find that oxygen abundances are low. No regions with solar abundance have been found, and most have oxygen abundances similar to 0.5 to 0.1 solar. The oxygen abundance appears to be constant as a function of

  8. Metabolic potential of fatty acid oxidation and anaerobic respiration by abundant members of Thaumarchaeota and Thermoplasmata in deep anoxic peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xueju; Handley, Kim M; Gilbert, Jack A; Kostka, Joel E

    2015-12-01

    To probe the metabolic potential of abundant Archaea in boreal peats, we reconstructed two near-complete archaeal genomes, affiliated with Thaumarchaeota group 1.1c (bin Fn1, 8% abundance), which was a genomically unrepresented group, and Thermoplasmata (bin Bg1, 26% abundance), from metagenomic data acquired from deep anoxic peat layers. Each of the near-complete genomes encodes the potential to degrade long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) via β-oxidation. Fn1 has the potential to oxidize LCFA either by syntrophic interaction with methanogens or by coupling oxidation with anaerobic respiration using fumarate as a terminal electron acceptor (TEA). Fn1 is the first Thaumarchaeota genome without an identifiable carbon fixation pathway, indicating that this mesophilic phylum encompasses more diverse metabolisms than previously thought. Furthermore, we report genetic evidence suggestive of sulfite and/or organosulfonate reduction by Thermoplasmata Bg1. In deep peat, inorganic TEAs are often depleted to extremely low levels, yet the anaerobic respiration predicted for two abundant archaeal members suggests organic electron acceptors such as fumarate and organosulfonate (enriched in humic substances) may be important for respiration and C mineralization in peatlands.

  9. Mobility of hydrogen in minerals: Implications for diffusion and electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karato, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrogen is one of the important minor elements in minerals that have important effects on transport properties. However, experimental studies on the properties affected by hydrogen are tricky including their interpretations. Consequently, there have been some confusions in the community regarding the role of hydrogen on transport properties. In this talk, I will focus on the influence of hydrogen on electrical conductivity with the emphasis on the following two points: (1) different mobility of hydrogen in different minerals, and (2) the different mobility of different hydrogen-related species in a given mineral. A compilation of the experimental data on electrical conductivity in different minerals shows that even when their conductivities are compared at the same water content, conductivity of different classes of hydrogen-bearing minerals differ significantly. Hydrous minerals show the lowest (normalized) conductivity, and minerals with relatively low hydrogen solubility (e.g., olivine) show relatively high conductivity. This observations shows that the mobility of hydrogen in hydrous minerals is much lower than those in nominally anhydrous minerals. Also experimental studies show that even in a given mineral, several hydrogen-related species are present. And a comparison of a thermodynamic model with the observed IR absorption spectra and electrical conductivity suggests that electrical conductivity is due mostly to a hydrogen-related minority defect with high mobility. A model is developed to connect isotope diffusion coefficient to the diffusion coefficients of individual hydrogen-related defects. I show that, if the relative abundance of hydrogen-related defects is controlled by the local thermo-chemical equilibrium, then the isotopic diffusion coefficient is a harmonic average of diffusion coefficients of individual hydrogen-related species and is dominated by the slow moving species. In contrast, electrical conductivity is proportional to the arithmetic

  10. Carbonatites in China: A review for genesis and mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbonatites are commonly related to the accumulation of economically valuable substances such as REE, Cu, and P. The debate over the origin of carbonatites and their relationship to associated silicate rocks has been ongoing for about 45 years. Worldwide, the rocks characteristically display more geochemical enrichments in Ba, Sr and REE than sedimentary carbonate rocks. However, carbonatite’s geochemical features are disputed because of secondary mineral effects. Rock-forming carbonates from carbonatites at Qinling, Panxi region, and Bayan Obo in China show REE distribution patterns ranging from LREE enrichment to flat patterns. They are characterized by a Sr content more than 10 times higher than that of secondary carbonates. The coarse- and fine-grained dolomites from Bayan Obo H8 dolomite marbles also show similar high Sr abundance, indicating that they are of igneous origin. Some carbonates in Chinese carbonatites show REE (especially HREE contents and distribution patterns similar to those of the whole rocks. These intrusive carbonatites display lower platinum group elements and stronger fractionation between Pt and Ir relative to high-Si extrusive carbonatite. This indicates that most intrusive carbonatites may be carbonate cumulates. Maoniuping and Daluxiang in Panxi region are large REE deposits. Hydrothermal fluorite ore veins occur outside of the carbonatite bodies and are emplaced in wallrock syenite. The fluorite in Maoniuping has Sr and Nd isotopes similar to carbonatite. The Daluxiang fluorite shows Sr and REE compositions different from those in Maoniuping. The difference is reflected by both the carbonatites and rock-forming carbonates, indicating that REE mineralization is related to carbonatites. The cumulate processes of carbonate minerals make fractionated fluids rich in volatiles and LREE as a result of low partition coefficients for REE between carbonate and carbonatite melt and an increase from LREE to HREE. The

  11. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in characterization of rocks and minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valezi, D.F.; Mauro, E. di [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas. Lab. de Fluorescencia e Ressonaancia Paramagnetica Eletronica (LAFLURPE); Zaia, D.A.M.; Carneiro, C.E.A. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Costa, A.C.S. da [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Agronomia

    2011-07-01

    Full text. his work is based on the study of several stones and minerals from the Parana state, Brazil. They were analyzed by the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) technique. The measurements were made on a spectrometer JEOL (JES-PE-3X), operating on X-band and at room temperature, with the exception of the mineral Goethite, which was measured with temperature variation. In all the samples were determined spectroscopic factors (or g factor) and line widths of paramagnetic species. A great number of the samples showed in their spectra, the presence of iron complexes. Phyllite and shale showed a resonance signal with approximately g = 2, and line width with about 1000 Gauss, which indicates the presence of the hematite mineral hematite in these rocks. Shale and coal samples showed the presence of free radical, it was identified as a very intense signal, centered at about g = 2.003. Phyllite sample showed in its spectra a resonance signal between the third and fourth line of the g marker (Mg O:Mn{sup 2+}) used in the measurements, and also a signal at g = 4.3, these characteristics may indicate the presence of Kaolinite in the sample. Limestone showed a signal with line width of about 600 Gauss, centered around g = 2, this signal is probably due to a mixture of ferrihydrite and some other compound, besides the presence of manganese, displaying a spectra with its six peculiar lines, due to hyperfine splitting. The two different types of limestone presented a overlap of two distinct spectra lines for the manganese, in the first limestone sample, rich in calcite, the existence of these different spectra is a result of the manganese substitution in a single site with different orientations of the calcite; the other limestone sample, this one abundant in dolomite, the existence of these different spectra is the result of the manganese substitution in different dolomite sites, taking the place of calcium and or of the magnesium. Now, we are focusing our research in the

  12. Adsorption of dextrin on hydrophobic minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Beattie, David A

    2009-09-01

    The adsorption of dextrin on talc, molybdenite, and graphite (three naturally hydrophobic minerals) has been compared. Adsorption isotherms and in situ tapping mode atomic force microscope (TMAFM) imaging have enabled polymer adsorbed amount and morphology of the adsorbed layer (area coverage and polymer domain size) to be determined and also the amount of hydration water in the structure of the adsorbed layer. The effect of the polymer on the mineral contact angles, measured by the captive bubble method on cleaved mineral surfaces, indicates clear correlations between the hydrophobicity reduction of the minerals, the adsorbed amount, and the surface coverage of the adsorbed polymer. Predictions of the flotation recovery of the treated mineral phases have been confirmed by performing batch flotation experiments. The influence of the polymer surface coverage on flotation recovery has highlighted the importance of this key parameter in the predictions of depressant efficiency. The roles of the initial hydrophobicity and the surface structure of the mineral basal plane in determining adsorption parameters and flotation response of the polymer-treated minerals are also discussed.

  13. Mineral facilities of Northern and Central Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira

    2010-01-01

    This map displays almost 900 records of mineral facilities within the countries that formerly constituted the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2

  14. Mineral facilities of Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,500 records of mineral facilities throughout the continent of Asia and the countries of the Pacific Ocean. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook (Asia and the Pacific volume), (2) minerals statistics and information from the U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and (3) data collected by U.S. Geological Survey minerals information country specialists. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  15. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. ne model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  16. Surface Geochemistry of the Clay Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposito, Garrison; Skipper, Neal T.; Sutton, Rebecca; Park, Sung-Ho; Soper, Alan K.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.

    1999-03-01

    Clay minerals are layer type aluminosilicates that figure in terrestrial biogeochemical cycles, in the buffering capacity of the oceans, and in the containment of toxic waste materials. They are also used as lubricants in petroleum extraction and as industrial catalysts for the synthesis of many organic compounds. These applications derive fundamentally from the colloidal size and permanent structural charge of clay mineral particles, which endow them with significant surface reactivity. Unraveling the surface geochemistry of hydrated clay minerals is an abiding, if difficult, topic in earth sciences research. Recent experimental and computational studies that take advantage of new methodologies and basic insights derived from the study of concentrated ionic solutions have begun to clarify the structure of electrical double layers formed on hydrated clay mineral surfaces, particularly those in the interlayer region of swelling 2:1 layer type clay minerals. One emerging trend is that the coordination of interlayer cations with water molecules and clay mineral surface oxygens is governed largely by cation size and charge, similarly to a concentrated ionic solution, but the location of structural charge within a clay layer and the existence of hydrophobic patches on its surface provide important modulations. The larger the interlayer cation, the greater the influence of clay mineral structure and hydrophobicity on the configurations of adsorbed water molecules. This picture extends readily to hydrophobic molecules adsorbed within an interlayer region, with important implications for clay-hydrocarbon interactions and the design of catalysts for organic synthesis.

  17. Marketing mix of chosen Slovak mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhanová Silvia

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering its small area, Slovakia abounds in many sources of mineral waters and a considerable amount of them can be used for the commercial utilization. STN 86 8000 divides mineral waters in the natural mineral waters, natural mineral table waters and the natural mineral healing waters. Natural mineral water is, after the present norm, in effect water, which rises from natural trapped sources. This type of water contains more than 1 gram of dissolved substances or 1 gram of dissolved CO 2 in 1 litter. Natural mineral table water is water that, with its chemical composition as well as its physical and sensorial attributes is suitable as a refresher. It contains at least 1 gram of melted CO2 and up to 6 grams of dissolved illiquid substances in 1 litter. The mentioned substances are not characterised by any marked pharmacological effect. Natural mineral healing water is water, which with an eye to its chemical composition and physical properties, have a scientifically demonstrable effects to the human health and it is generally used for healing purposes. In the present contribution, an attention is orientated to the occurrence of listed types of waters in Slovakia, in connection with geological conditions of their circulation and accumulation and especially with possibilities of their use on the Slovak buyer’s market.The marketing mix is a complex of information, which can be regulated. Firms accumulate this information to satisfy a customer. Marketing mix of mineral waters includes information about four variables: product (characteristics of product, quality, packing, design..., prices, advertisement, distribution (the way how to get product to customer. Data listed in the contribution come from the sectional market research, which was performed between December 1st and December 22nd 2000 in twenty groceries in

  18. The abundance and food reserves of Oochoristica agamae isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agama agama) caught at Ekpoma, Nigeria and their food and mineral reserves were investigated in order to understand aspects the biological relationships existing between these tropical lizards and their common tape worm parasites. The overall ...

  19. Rheology of unstable mineral emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the rheology of mineral oils and their unstable water emulsion were investigated. The oil samples were domestic crude oil UA, its fractions UA1, UA4 and blend semi-product UP1, while the concentration of oil in water emulsions was in the range from 1 up to 30%. The results were analyzed based on shear stress. The oil samples UA, UA1 and UP1 are Newtonian fluids, while UA4 is pseudoplastic fluid. The samples UA and UA4 show higher value of shear stress (83.75 Pa, 297 Pa, then other two samples UA1 and UP1 (18.41 Pa, 17.52 Pa. Rheology of investigated oils due to its complex chemical composition should be analyzed as a simultaneous effect of all their components. Therefore, structural composition of the oils was determined, namely content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and asphaltenes. All samples contain paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics but only oils UA and UA4 contain asphaltenes as well. All investigated emulsions except 30% EUA4 are Newtonian fluids. The EUA4 30% emulsion shows pseudoplastic behaviour, and it is the only 30% emulsion among investigated ones that achieves lower shear stress then its oil. The characteristics of oil samples that could have an influence on their properties and their emulsion rheology, were determined. These characteristics are: neutralization number, interfacial tension, dielectric constant, and emulsivity. Oil samples UA and UA4 have significantly higher values of neutralization number, dielectric constants, and emulsivity. The sample UA has the lowest value of interface tension and the greatest emulsivity, indicating that this oil, among all investigated, has the highest preference for building emulsion. This could be the reason why 20% and 30% emulsions of the oil UA achieve the highest shear stress among all investigated emulsions.

  20. Minerals in nature and "on Paper": History of the commissions on new minerals in Russia and IMA and principles of classification and nomenclature of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakh, A. G.

    2010-12-01

    This paper reviews the history of the foundation of the Commission on New Minerals in Russia (1956) and the same Commission of the International Mineral Association (IMA). The terms mineral species, subspecies, and variety are considered. The nomenclature of mineral groups of lovozerite, eudialyte, and apatite is given as examples of using a root name and its suffixes.

  1. Ostwald ripening of clays and metamorphic minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.; Srodon, J.; Kralik, M.; Taylor, B.E.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of particle size distributions indicate that clay minerals and other diagenetic and metamorphic minerals commonly undergo recrystallization by Ostwald ripening. The shapes of their particle size distributions can yield the rate law for this process. One consequence of Ostwald ripening is that a record of the recrystallization process is preserved in the various particle sizes. Therefore, one can determine the detailed geologic history of clays and other recrystallized minerals by separating, from a single sample, the various particle sizes for independent chemical, structural, and isotopic analyses.

  2. Uranyl adsorption at clay mineral surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, N. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Fachgebiet Theoretische Chemie

    2016-11-01

    This first systematic survey of actinide adsorption at complex clay mineral surfaces, which provided new insights at the atomic level, is currently being extended to neptunyl NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and more complex minerals, like iron-substituted phyllosilicates. In this way we examine if the concepts developed so far can be applied more generally to support the interpretation of pertinent experiments. A further facet of these studies is to account also for the dynamic nature of the mineral/water interface by means of exemplary dynamic simulations.

  3. Characterization of minerals, metals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Bai, Chengguang; Carpenter, John; Cai, Mingdong; Firrao, Donato; Kim, Byoung-Gon

    2012-01-01

    This state-of-the-art reference contains chapters on all aspects of the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials. The title presents papers from one of the largest yearly gatherings of materials scientists in the world and thoroughly discusses the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials The scope includes current industrial applications and research and developments in the following areas:  Characterization of Ferrous Metals Characterization of Non-Ferrous Materials Characterization of Minerals and Ceramics Character

  4. Surface contamination artificially elevates initial sweat mineral concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    During exercise in the heat, sweat is initially concentrated in minerals, but serial sweat samples appear more dilute. Possible causes include reduced dermal mineral concentrations or flushing of surface contamination. PURPOSE: To simultaneously sample mineral concentrations in transdermal fluid (T...

  5. Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Abbas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006–2011 from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in “Desirable” variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids.

  6. Dam removal increases American eel abundance in distant headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Eyler, Sheila; Wofford, John E.B.

    2012-01-01

    American eel Anguilla rostrata abundances have undergone significant declines over the last 50 years, and migration barriers have been recognized as a contributing cause. We evaluated eel abundances in headwater streams of Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, to compare sites before and after the removal of a large downstream dam in 2004 (Embrey Dam, Rappahannock River). Eel abundances in headwater streams increased significantly after the removal of Embrey Dam. Observed eel abundances after dam removal exceeded predictions derived from autoregressive models parameterized with data prior to dam removal. Mann–Kendall analyses also revealed consistent increases in eel abundances from 2004 to 2010 but inconsistent temporal trends before dam removal. Increasing eel numbers could not be attributed to changes in local physical habitat (i.e., mean stream depth or substrate size) or regional population dynamics (i.e., abundances in Maryland streams or Virginia estuaries). Dam removal was associated with decreasing minimum eel lengths in headwater streams, suggesting that the dam previously impeded migration of many small-bodied individuals (<300 mm TL). We hypothesize that restoring connectivity to headwater streams could increase eel population growth rates by increasing female eel numbers and fecundity. This study demonstrated that dams may influence eel abundances in headwater streams up to 150 river kilometers distant, and that dam removal may provide benefits for eel management and conservation at the landscape scale.

  7. Stellar abundances in the solar neighborhood: The Hypatia Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Timmes, F.X.; Young, Patrick A.; Pagano, Michael D. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Turnbull, Margaret C. [Global Science Institute, P.O. Box 252, Antigo, WI 54409 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We compile spectroscopic abundance data from 84 literature sources for 50 elements across 3058 stars in the solar neighborhood, within 150 pc of the Sun, to produce the Hypatia Catalog. We evaluate the variability of the spread in abundance measurements reported for the same star by different surveys. We also explore the likely association of the star within the Galactic disk, the corresponding observation and abundance determination methods for all catalogs in Hypatia, the influence of specific catalogs on the overall abundance trends, and the effect of normalizing all abundances to the same solar scale. The resulting stellar abundance determinations in the Hypatia Catalog are analyzed only for thin-disk stars with observations that are consistent between literature sources. As a result of our large data set, we find that the stars in the solar neighborhood may reveal an asymmetric abundance distribution, such that a [Fe/H]-rich group near the midplane is deficient in Mg, Si, S, Ca, Sc II, Cr II, and Ni as compared to stars farther from the plane. The Hypatia Catalog has a wide number of applications, including exoplanet hosts, thick- and thin-disk stars, and stars with different kinematic properties.

  8. Positive interspecific relationship between temporal occurrence and abundance in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrosati, Ricardo A; Patten, Ruth D; Lauff, Randolph F

    2011-04-20

    One of the most studied macroecological patterns is the interspecific abundance-occupancy relationship, which relates species distribution and abundance across space. Interspecific relationships between temporal distribution and abundance, however, remain largely unexplored. Using data for a natural assemblage of tabanid flies measured daily during spring and summer in Nova Scotia, we found that temporal occurrence (proportion of sampling dates in which a species occurred in an experimental trap) was positively related to temporal mean abundance (number of individuals collected for a species during the study period divided by the total number of sampling dates). Moreover, two models that often describe spatial abundance-occupancy relationships well, the He-Gaston and negative binomial models, explained a high amount of the variation in our temporal data. As for the spatial abundance-occupancy relationship, the (temporal) aggregation parameter, k, emerged as an important component of the hereby named interspecific temporal abundance-occurrence relationship. This may be another case in which a macroecological pattern shows similarities across space and time, and it deserves further research because it may improve our ability to forecast colonization dynamics and biological impacts.

  9. Geographical range and local abundance of tree species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao Ren

    Full Text Available Most studies on the geographical distribution of species have utilized a few well-known taxa in Europe and North America, with little research in China and its wide range of climate and forest types. We assembled large datasets to quantify the geographic ranges of tree species in China and to test several biogeographic hypotheses: 1 whether locally abundant species tend to be geographically widespread; 2 whether species are more abundant towards their range-centers; and 3 how abundances are correlated between sites. Local abundances of 651 species were derived from four tree plots of 20-25 ha where all individuals ≥1 cm in stem diameter were mapped and identified taxonomically. Range sizes of these species across China were then estimated from over 460,000 geo-referenced records; a Bayesian approach was used, allowing careful measures of error of each range estimate. The log-transformed range sizes had a bell-shaped distribution with a median of 703,000 km(2, and >90% of 651 species had ranges >10(5 km(2. There was no relationship between local abundance and range size, and no evidence for species being more abundant towards their range-centers. Finally, species' abundances were positively correlated between sites. The widespread nature of most tree species in China suggests few are vulnerable to global extinction, and there is no indication of the double-peril that would result if rare species also had narrow ranges.

  10. Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, James D.; Karar, Haider; Abbas, Ghulam

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006–2011) from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in “Desirable” variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids. PMID:26466738

  11. Determinants of protein abundance and translation efficiency in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamir Tuller

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The translation efficiency of most Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes remains fairly constant across poor and rich growth media. This observation has led us to revisit the available data and to examine the potential utility of a protein abundance predictor in reinterpreting existing mRNA expression data. Our predictor is based on large-scale data of mRNA levels, the tRNA adaptation index, and the evolutionary rate. It attains a correlation of 0.76 with experimentally determined protein abundance levels on unseen data and successfully cross-predicts protein abundance levels in another yeast species (Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The predicted abundance levels of proteins in known S. cerevisiae complexes, and of interacting proteins, are significantly more coherent than their corresponding mRNA expression levels. Analysis of gene expression measurement experiments using the predicted protein abundance levels yields new insights that are not readily discernable when clustering the corresponding mRNA expression levels. Comparing protein abundance levels across poor and rich media, we find a general trend for homeostatic regulation where transcription and translation change in a reciprocal manner. This phenomenon is more prominent near origins of replications. Our analysis shows that in parallel to the adaptation occurring at the tRNA level via the codon bias, proteins do undergo a complementary adaptation at the amino acid level to further increase their abundance.

  12. ABUNDANCE AND DIVERSITY OF LEGUME NODULATING RHIZOBIA IN SOILS OF EMBU DISTRICT, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Mwenda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A major strategy towards addressing soil fertility depletion is the conservation and sustainable use of rhizobia that are able to fix nitrogen in the soil in association with legumes. The study assessed abundance and diversity of legume nodulating rhizobia (LNB in soils collected from six different land use systems in Embu District, Kenya. The populations were estimated by the most-probable-number (MPN plant infection technique using Macroptilium atropurpureum (DC. Urban (Siratro as the trap host species. Symbiotic effectiveness was measured for the isolates in association with Siratro. Isolated rhizobia were characterized morphologically and genetically by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The LNB populations in soils collected from the different land uses in Embu ranged from 0 to 2.3 ï‚´ 102 cells g-1 soil. There was apparent land use effect on abundance of LNB with fallow system giving high abundance. A total of 250 pure isolates were obtained from the root nodules of Siratro trap plants. The isolates were characterized on yeast extract mannitol mineral salts agar (YEMA media containing bromothymol blue and grouped into fast growers (acid-producing and slow growers (alkali-producing (70% and 30 % of isolates respectively. PCR-RFLP analysis categorised the rhizobia into five species in the genera Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Agrobacterium. Land use system under tea had four of the five species found in the area whereas natural forests had two species. Land use significantly impacted on the diversity of rhizobia (P

  13. Mineral resources of Slovakia, questions of classification and valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Baláž Peter; Tréger Milan

    1999-01-01

    According to the Constitution of Slovak Republic, mineral resources of Slovakia are in the ownership of Slovak Republic. In 1997, 721 exclusive mineral deposits of mineral fuels, metals and industrial minerals were registered in Slovakia. The classification for economic and uneconomic reserves/resources requires an annual updating, concerning changes of market mineral prices and mine production costs. In terms of economic valuation of mineral resources, a new United Nations international c...

  14. r-process abundances near the mass 130 peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Laeter, J.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.

    1983-07-15

    A recent article by Kaeppeler et al. has reevaluated r-process abundances in the light of new neutron-capture cross section and elemental abundance data. The height of the r-process peak near mass 130 is largely determined by the r-only process nuclides /sup 128/Te and /sup 130/Te. Recent work by Smith, De Laeter and Rosman has not been given due consideration is assessing the solar system abundance of tellurium. These data indicate a 25% reduction in the height of the mass 130 peak, in agreement with predictions from s-process systematics.

  15. Causality of the relationship between geographic distribution and species abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Rahbek, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    The positive relationship between a species' geographic distribution and its abundance is one of ecology's most well-documented patterns, yet the causes behind this relationship remain unclear. Although many hypotheses have been proposed to account for distribution-abundance relationships none have...... differences in terminology and ecological point of view. Realizing and accounting for these differences facilitates integration, so that the relative contributions of each mechanism may be evaluated. Here, we review all the mechanisms that have been proposed to account for distribution-abundance relationships...

  16. Abundance Estimation of Hyperspectral Data with Low Compressive Sampling Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongliang; Feng, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Hyperspectral data processing typically demands enormous computational resources in terms of storage, computation, and I/O throughputs. In this paper, a compressive sensing framework with low sampling rate is described for hyperspectral imagery. It is based on the widely used linear spectral mixture model. Abundance fractions can be calculated directly from compressively sensed data with no need to reconstruct original hyperspectral imagery. The proposed abundance estimation model is based on the sparsity of abundance fractions and an alternating direction method of multipliers is developed to solve this model. Experiments show that the proposed scheme has a high potential to unmix compressively sensed hyperspectral data with low sampling rate.

  17. On the abundance of Europium. [in Ap and Am stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoog, M. R.; Cowley, C. R.; Adelman, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    The inclusion of the effects of hyperfine splitting can significantly lower the abundance estimate of Eu from singly ionized lines which lie on the flat portion of the curve of growth. In the 21 cool Ap stars studied by Adelman and the five Am stars studied by Smith, the Eu abundance was reduced by 0.4 dex on the average. In individual cases, the reductions were as great as 0.9 dex. This makes the Eu abundance comparable to that of its neighboring rare earths Sm and Gd in the Ap stars and less than Sm and Gd in the Am stars, but still substantially overabundant with respect to solar values.

  18. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, K.; Steefel, Carl; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at

  19. Superficial mineral resources of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Gujar, A; Valsangkar, A

    The sea floor of the Indian Ocean and the continental margins bordering the ocean are covered by a wide variety of terrigenous, biogenous and anthigenic mineral deposits. The biogenous deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the corals on shallow...

  20. NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Minerals Geochemical Database was created by NGDC as a part of a project to construct a comprehensive computerized bibliography and geochemical database...

  1. Land use/mineral rights map series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineback, N.G.; Weaver, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    The ongoing Land Use/Mineral Rights Map Series was designed to map the existing land uses and mineral rights in and around the Warrior Coal Basin. The map series provides baseline data for monitoring all land use changes in the Warrior Basin. It also establishes a record of mineral rights useful in classifying some record discrepancies and assists the mining industry and its regulatory agencies in organizing mineral rights data. During the funded period, this was the only effort of this nature occurring in the United States. Ten additional maps were completed during this 1982-1983 funding period. Virtually all large mining and leasing companies operating in the Basin now have standing orders for all new maps, and orders for existing maps are regularly received. As a spinoff of this project, one additional major project has been completed during this funding period, a county-wide land use and land cover map of Cullman County, Alabama.

  2. Major mineral deposits of the world

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Regional locations and general geologic setting of known deposits of major nonfuel mineral commodities. Originally compiled in five parts by diverse authors,...

  3. The Minerals of Candor Chasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this image of sulfate- and pyroxene-containing deposits in the Candor Chasma region of Mars at 0747 UTC (2:47 a.m. EST) on December 2, 2006, near 6.7 degrees south latitude, 75.8 degrees west longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The image is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point. Candor Chasma is a deep, elongated, steep-sided depression some 813 kilometers (505 miles) long. It is one of two large chasmata that make up the northern end of the Valles Marineris system. The top panel in the montage above illustrates the location of CRISM data on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). CRISM data cover an area centered on the southwestern part of Candor Chasma, where highland crust was depressed by faulting and buried by a kilometers-thick stack of layered deposits. The bottom two images are views of CRISM data. The lower left image is an infrared false color image, while at lower right is a spectral image that illustrates the distribution of sulfates in the layered deposits, the olivine and pyroxene that make up the faulted highland crust, and high-calcium pyroxene in the highland crust. The northern part of CRISM's data swath covers interior deposits formed after the canyon floor was faulted and depressed. This lighter region in the infrared image at lower left exhibits the spectral signatures of sulfates (blues) in the CRISM spectral image at lower right. The southern end of CRISM's data reveals volcanic minerals (pyroxene and olivine) that make up the older, underlying highland crust. The strongest signature comes from the common diopside-hedenbergite series of pyroxenes a group of silicate materials rich in iron, magnesium, and calcium. CRISM is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The

  4. The Perils of Partition: Erroneous Results from Applying D Mineral/Magma to Rocks that Equilibrated Without Magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1995-09-01

    Compositions of extraterrestrial magmas are commonly derived from mineral compositions using, using experimentally determined mineral/basalt partition coefficients, Dmineral/basalt [1]. However, Dmineral/basalts cannot be applied to minerals which have experienced post-magmatic (subsolidus or metamorphic) chemical equilibration [2]. A failure to recognize post-magmatic equilibration can lead to wildly erroneous estimates of magma compositions and unrealistic scenarios of magmatic and planetary evolution [3]. To judge the effects of subsolidus chemical equilibration, consider REE distributions in a eucrite basalt, formed from a magma with CREE = 10 x CI. Let this magma crystallize and chemically equilibrate just below its solidus to a rock consisting of 49.5% plagioclase, 49.5% pigeonite, 0.1% whitlockite (a Ca phosphate), and 0.9% minor phases no REE content (silica, Fe metal, troilite); exact proportions are not critical. The total REE content ofthe rock is unchanged at 10 x CI, and distributions of REE among its minerals can be calculated from solidus-temperature Ds, e.g., Dpigeonite/plagioclase = Dpigeonite/basalt / Dplagioclase/basalt (where Dmineral/basalts are chosen to reflect the same magma compositions and temperature). REE abundances in minerals of this equilibrated rock (Figure 1 [5]) are significantly higher than they would be in the presence of magma. For instance, if this eucrite basalt system consisted of 50% magma, 25% pigeonite, and 25% plagioclase, one calculates C(La)Pigeonite = 0 04 x CI and C(La)Plagioclase = 0.8 x CI; with no magma present (Figure 1), C(La)Pigeonite = 0.4 x CI and CLaPIagioclase = 9 x CI! In the absence of magma, the incompatible REE must go somewhere!! If a mineral grain from this rock were used with Dmineral/basalts to derive a magma composition, that "Hparent basalt" would be rich in REE (130-200 x CI), enrichmed in light REE (La/Lu = 1.6 x CI), and strongly depleted in Eu. Compare this to the original eucrite, with REE at

  5. Robert oerley and Tuzla mineral springs

    OpenAIRE

    Ateş Can, Sevim

    2014-01-01

    In the Tuzla borough of İstanbul are located mineral springs of great importance which have been known and used since ancient times. Although the therapeutic value of Tuzla Mineral Springs has always been recognized, this value in terms of the history of architecture has not been very well understood. The current facilities in the springs were built in the Republican Period. The most important among them is the Spa Hotel, whose project was initiated by Robert Oerley. The oth...

  6. The Global Flows of Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogich, Donald G.; Matos, Grecia R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary review of the trends in worldwide metals and industrial minerals production and consumption based on newly developed global metals and minerals Material Flow Accounts (MFA). The MFA developed encompass data on extraction and consumption for 25 metal and mineral commodities, on a country-by-country and year-by-year basis, for the period 1970 to 2004. The data-base, jointly developed by the authors, resides with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as individual commodity Excel workbooks and within a Filemaker data management system for use in analysis. Numerous national MFA have been developed to provide information on the industrial metabolism of individual countries. These MFA include material flows associated with the four commodity categories of goods that are inputs to a country's economy, agriculture, forestry, metals and minerals, and nonrenewable organic material. In some cases, the material flows associated with the creation and maintenance of the built infrastructure (such as houses, buildings, roads, airports, dams, and so forth) were also examined. The creation of global metals and industrial minerals flows is viewed as a first step in the creation of comprehensive global MFA documenting the historical and current flows of all of the four categories of physical goods that support world economies. Metals and minerals represent a major category of nonrenewable resources that humans extract from and return to the natural ecosystem. As human populations and economies have increased, metals and industrial minerals use has increased concomitantly. This dramatic growth in metals and minerals use has serious implications for both the availability of future resources and the health of the environment, which is affected by the outputs associated with their use. This paper provides an overview of a number of the trends observed by examining the database and suggests areas for future study.

  7. Modern luminescence spectroscopy of minerals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gaft, Michael; Panczer, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials presents an overview of the general concepts in luminescence spectroscopy as well as experimental methods and their interpretation. Special emphasis is laid on the fluorescence lifetime and the determination of time-resolved spectra. This method enables the exposure of new luminescence in minerals previously hidden by more intensive centers. Specialists in the fields of solid state physics, chemistry and spectroscopy will find a wealth of new information in this unique book.

  8. Occupational asthma in a coal miner.

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa, P. M.; Jáuregui, I.; Urrutia, I.; Antépara, I.; González, G.; Múgica, V.

    1996-01-01

    Occupational asthma in coal miners is hardly recognised. A report is presented of a coal miner whose clinical picture suggested a respiratory allergy which occurred only in the mine where he worked. Serum specific IgE levels, skin tests, and bronchial provocation tests with different commercial extracts showed sensitisation to Rhizopus nigricans. Rhizopus spp were found inside the mine, as demonstrated by cultures on petri plates.

  9. Occupational asthma in a coal miner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, P. M.; Jáuregui, I.; Urrutia, I.; Antépara, I.; González, G.; Múgica, V.

    1996-01-01

    Occupational asthma in coal miners is hardly recognised. A report is presented of a coal miner whose clinical picture suggested a respiratory allergy which occurred only in the mine where he worked. Serum specific IgE levels, skin tests, and bronchial provocation tests with different commercial extracts showed sensitisation to Rhizopus nigricans. Rhizopus spp were found inside the mine, as demonstrated by cultures on petri plates. PMID:8795682

  10. Exploring data with RapidMiner

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial style using examples so that users of different levels will benefit from the facilities offered by RapidMiner.If you are a computer scientist or an engineer who has real data from which you want to extract value, this book is ideal for you. You will need to have at least a basic awareness of data mining techniques and some exposure to RapidMiner.

  11. Mineral resources of Novokuznetsk administrative district of Kemerovo region (metallic and non-metallic minerals)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutak, Ja M.

    2017-09-01

    The article summarizes data on metallic and non-metallic minerals of Novokuznetsk district of Kemerovo region. Consistently reviewed are iron deposits (Tersinskaya group of deposits), gold deposits (placer accumulations and vein gold deposits), mineral water deposits (Tersinskoe deposit), deposit of refractory clay (Barkinskoe) and wide spread mineral deposits such as brick clay, keramzite materials, sand and gravel, building stones, ornamental stones, facing stones, peat, materials for lime production. It is indicated that resource base of metallic and nonmetallic minerals is inferior to that of mineral coal. At the same time it can be of considerable interest to small and medium-size businesses as objects with quick return of investment (facing and ornamental stones). For a number of wide spread mineral resources (brick clay, keramzite materials, sand and gravel) it is an important component of local industry.

  12. High-pressure minerals in shocked meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Naotaka; Miyahara, Masaaki

    2017-09-01

    Heavily shocked meteorites contain various types of high-pressure polymorphs of major minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar, and quartz) and accessory minerals (chromite and Ca phosphate). These high-pressure minerals are micron to submicron sized and occur within and in the vicinity of shock-induced melt veins and melt pockets in chondrites and lunar, howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED), and Martian meteorites. Their occurrence suggests two types of formation mechanisms (1) solid-state high-pressure transformation of the host-rock minerals into monomineralic polycrystalline aggregates, and (2) crystallization of chondritic or monomineralic melts under high pressure. Based on experimentally determined phase relations, their formation pressures are limited to the pressure range up to 25 GPa. Textural, crystallographic, and chemical characteristics of high-pressure minerals provide clues about the impact events of meteorite parent bodies, including their size and mutual collision velocities and about the mineralogy of deep planetary interiors. The aim of this article is to review and summarize the findings on natural high-pressure minerals in shocked meteorites that have been reported over the past 50 years.

  13. An inventory of undiscovered Canadian mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Griffiths, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Unit regional value (URV) and unit regional weight are area standardized measures of the expected value and quantity, respectively, of the mineral resources of a region. Estimation and manipulation of the URV statistic is the basis of an approach to mineral resource evaluation. Estimates of the kind and value of exploitable mineral resources yet to be discovered in the provinces of Canada are used as an illustration of the procedure. The URV statistic is set within a previously developed model wherein geology, as measured by point counting geologic maps, is related to the historical record of mineral resource production of well-developed regions of the world, such as the 50 states of the U.S.A.; these may be considered the training set. The Canadian provinces are related to this training set using geological information obtained in the same way from geologic maps of the provinces. The desired predictions of yet to be discovered mineral resources in the Canadian provinces arise as a consequence. The implicit assumption is that regions of similar geology, if equally well developed, will produce similar weights and values of mineral resources.

  14. Mineral Sequestration of Carbon Dixoide in a Sandstone-Shale System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-07-09

    A conceptual model of CO2 injection in bedded sandstone-shale sequences has been developed using hydrogeologic properties and mineral compositions commonly encountered in Gulf Coast sediments. Numerical simulations were performed with the reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport code TOUGHREACT to analyze mass transfer between sandstone and shale layers and CO2 immobilization through carbonate precipitation. Results indicate that most CO2 sequestration occurs in the sandstone. The major CO2 trapping minerals are dawsonite and ankerite. The CO2 mineral-trapping capacity after 100,000 years reaches about 90 kg per cubic meter of the medium. The CO2 trapping capacity depends on primary mineral composition. Precipitation of siderite and ankerite requires Fe+2 supplied mainly by chlorite and some by hematite dissolution and reduction. Precipitation of dawsonite requires Na+ provided by oligoclase dissolution. The initial abundance of chlorite and oligoclase therefore affects the CO2 mineral trapping capacity. The sequestration time required depends on the kinetic rate of mineral dissolution and precipitation. Dawsonite reaction kinetics is not well understood, and sensitivity regarding the precipitation rate was examined. The addition of CO2 as secondary carbonates results in decreased porosity. The leaching of chemical constituents from the interior of the shale causes slightly increased porosity. The limited information currently available for the mineralogy of natural high-pressure CO2 gas reservoirs is also generally consistent with our simulation. The ''numerical experiments'' give a detailed understanding of the dynamic evolution of a sandstone-shale geochemical system.

  15. THE ATOMIC WEIGHTS COMMISSION AND ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO DETERMINATIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-07

    Following Thomson's discovery of stable isotopes in non-radioactive chemical elements, the derivation of atomic weight values from mass spectrometric measurements of isotopic abundance ratios moved very slowly. Forty years later, only 3 1/2 % of the recommended values were based on mass spectrometric measurements and only 38% in the first half century. It might be noted that two chemical elements (tellurium and mercury) are still based on chemical measurements, where the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement either agrees with the value from the chemical measurement or the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement falls within the uncertainty of the chemical measurement of the atomic weight. Of the 19 chemical elements, whose atomic weight is based on non-corrected relative isotopic abundance measurements, five of these are two isotope systems (indium, iridium, lanthanum, lutetium and tantalum) and one is a three-isotope system (oxygen).

  16. Amphibian abundance and diversity in Meru National Park, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasonga, D.V.; Bakele, A.; Lötters, S.; Balakrishnan, M.

    2007-01-01

    The diversity and abundance of amphibians were investigated in Meru National Park, Kenya, using transect sampling, drift-fence and pitfall trapping and opportunistic collecting. A total of 430 individuals under seven genera (Amietophrynus, Hemisus, Hyperolius, Phrynobatrachus, Phrynomantis,

  17. Distribution and abundance of Physalia in Florida waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, F.S

    1972-01-01

    Distribution, abundance and size of the Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis) were monitored in the western Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and coastal waters of Florida by aerial surveys from April 1969 through February 1971...

  18. The distribution and abundance of the endangered Knysna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution and abundance of the endangered Knysna seahorse Hippocampus capensis (Pisces: Syngnathidae) in South African estuaries. Jacqueline F Lockyear, Thomas Hecht, Horst Kaiser, Peter R Teske ...

  19. Bacterioplankton abundance and production in Indian Ocean Regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Fernandes, V.; Rodrigues, V.V.; Paul, J.T.; Gauns, M.

    Microbes mediating biological and many geochemical processes are the key components in marine ecosystems. Information on spatiotemporal variations in heterotrophic bacterial (Hbac) abundance and production in three ecologically disparate regions...

  20. Methanotrophic abundance and community fingerprint in pine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methanotrophs) is important to assess the microbial oxidation of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in soil under different land uses. Soil samples were collected from two plantation plots of pine and tea in southern China. Methanotrophic abundance ...

  1. Whooping Crane Winter Abundance Survey Protocol Aransas National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol is primarily designed to provide a mechanism for monitoring trends in whooping crane abundance on their wintering grounds along the Texas gulf coast....

  2. Abundance of bacterial and diatom fouling on various surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi

    Abundance of bacterial and diatom fouling on aluminium, fibreglass and stainless steel were studied from Dona Paula waters of the Zuari Estuary. Both these forms were reversibly attached in large numbers to surfaces during the initial 24 hr...

  3. Fundamental constraints on the abundances of chemotaxis proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Bitbol, Anne-Florence

    2015-01-01

    Flagellated bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, perform directed motion in gradients of concentration of attractants and repellents in a process called chemotaxis. The E. coli chemotaxis signaling pathway is a model for signal transduction, but it has unique features. We demonstrate that the need for fast signaling necessitates high abundances of the proteins involved in this pathway. We show that further constraints on the abundances of chemotaxis proteins arise from the requirements of self-assembly, both of flagellar motors and of chemoreceptor arrays. All these constraints are specific to chemotaxis, and published data confirm that chemotaxis proteins tend to be more highly expressed than their homologs in other pathways. Employing a chemotaxis pathway model, we show that the gain of the pathway at the level of the response regulator CheY increases with overall chemotaxis protein abundances. This may explain why, at least in one E. coli strain, the abundance of all chemotaxis proteins is higher in media w...

  4. Serum proteomes of hypertension patients with abundant phlegm-dampness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yu-guang; Shi, Jie; Hu, Yuan-hui; Wu, Hua-qin; Liu, Gui-jian; Hu, Chao-jun; Li, Yong-zhe; Li, Yi; Chen, Zi-jing; He, Qing

    2009-07-01

    To study the serum proteomes of essential hypertension (EH) patients with abundant phlegm-dampness, and try to find special proteins associated with abundant phlegm-dampness syndrome. Fifty-nine hypertension patients were included, and the patients were divided into abundant phlegm-dampness syndrome group (39 cases) and non-phlegm-dampness syndrome group (20 cases). To find the special proteins associated with abundant phlegm-dampness, the EH patients with non-phlegm-dampness and another 30 healthy persons were regarded as control. Weak cation nano-magnetic beads were used to capture proteins in serum, and proteomic fingerprint was made by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). All the proteomic fingerprints were analyzed by Biomarker Wizard 3.1 Software. Then Biomarker Patterns Software (BPS) 5.0 was used to identify the differentiated proteins, which could induce phlegm-dampness. There were 102 differentiated protein peaks between abundant phlegm-dampness and the control group. The best markers of abundant phlegm-dampness were protein peaks with the mass to charge ratio (m/z) of 9,334.958 m/z (the expression increased), 9,280.191 m/z (the expression decreased), 8,030.794 m/z (the expression increased), and 2,941.551 m/z (the expression increased). These four protein peaks found by BPS could induce abundant phlegm-dampness. They could be used to separate the abundant phlegm-dampness syndrome from the healthy persons and the hypertension patients with non-phlegm-dampness. The sensitivity of the model was 93.103% (27/29), specificity was 92% (23/25), false positive rate was 8% (2/25), false negative rate was 6.897% (2/29) and Youden's index was 85.103%. Blind test data indicated a sensitivity of 90% (9/10) and a specificity of 88% (22/25), and the false positive rate was 12% (3/25), false negative rate was 10% (1/10), and Youden's index was 78%. The differentiated proteins between the abundant phlegm

  5. Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Matthias

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the abundance of molecular components is an important prerequisite for building quantitative predictive models of cellular behavior. Proteins are central components of these models, since they carry out most of the fundamental processes in the cell. Thus far, protein concentrations have been difficult to measure on a large scale, but proteomic technologies have now advanced to a stage where this information becomes readily accessible. Results Here, we describe an experimental scheme to maximize the coverage of proteins identified by mass spectrometry of a complex biological sample. Using a combination of LC-MS/MS approaches with protein and peptide fractionation steps we identified 1103 proteins from the cytosolic fraction of the Escherichia coli strain MC4100. A measure of abundance is presented for each of the identified proteins, based on the recently developed emPAI approach which takes into account the number of sequenced peptides per protein. The values of abundance are within a broad range and accurately reflect independently measured copy numbers per cell. As expected, the most abundant proteins were those involved in protein synthesis, most notably ribosomal proteins. Proteins involved in energy metabolism as well as those with binding function were also found in high copy number while proteins annotated with the terms metabolism, transcription, transport, and cellular organization were rare. The barrel-sandwich fold was found to be the structural fold with the highest abundance. Highly abundant proteins are predicted to be less prone to aggregation based on their length, pI values, and occurrence patterns of hydrophobic stretches. We also find that abundant proteins tend to be predominantly essential. Additionally we observe a significant correlation between protein and mRNA abundance in E. coli cells. Conclusion Abundance measurements for more than 1000 E. coli proteins presented in this work

  6. Arsenic mineral dissolution and possible mobilization in mineral–microbe–groundwater environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, A.B.M.R., E-mail: uttambangla@yahoo.com [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); ITO Public Nuisance Research Institute, 1-26-8, Omori Kita, Otaku, Tokyo 142-0016 (Japan); Maity, Jyoti Prakash, E-mail: jyoti_maity@yahoo.com [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Ming-Shung, Chiayi County 62102, Taiwan (China); Bundschuh, Jochen [Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 435 (Australia); KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Teknikringen 76,SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, University Road, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Yen [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Ming-Shung, Chiayi County 62102, Taiwan (China); Bhowmik, Bejon Kumar [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life science, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1,Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tazaki, Kazue [Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► Bacteria use arsenic minerals for their growth without supplementary nutrient. ► Enzymatically active bacteria survive in the arsenic contaminated environment. ► Mostly bacillus, coccus and filamentous dissolves the arsenic mineral. ► Except enargite, soluble-As was detected with respect to other arsenic mineral. ► Dissolution: native-As > arsenolite > orpiment > realgar > arsenopyrite > tennantite. -- Abstract: Arsenic (As) is widely distributed in the nature as ores or minerals. It has been attracted much attention for the global public health issue, especially for groundwater As contamination. The aim of this study was to elucidate the characteristics of microbes in groundwater where As-minerals were dissolved. An ex situ experiment was conducted with 7 standard As-minerals in bacteria-free groundwater and stored in experimental vessels for 1 year without supplementary nutrients. The pH (6.7–8.4) and Eh{sub S.H.E.} (24–548 mV) changed between initial (0 day) and final stages (365 days) of experiment. The dissolution of As was detected higher from arsenolite (4240 ± 8.69 mg/L) and native arsenic (4538 ± 9.02 mg/L), whereas moderately dissolved from orpiment (653 ± 3.56 mg/L) and realgar (319 ± 2.56 mg/L) in compare to arsenopyrite (85 ± 1.25 mg/L) and tennantite (3 ± 0.06 mg/L). Optical microscopic, scanning electron microscopic observations and flurometric enumeration revealed the abundance of As-resistant bacillus, coccus and filamentous types of microorganisms on the surface of most of As-mineral. 4′-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained epifluorescence micrograph confirmed the presence of DNA and carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) staining method revealed the enzymatically active bacteria on the surface of As-minerals such as in realgar (As{sub 4}S{sub 4}). Therefore, the microbes enable to survive and mobilize the As in groundwater by dissolution/bioweathering of As-minerals.

  7. Primordial Nucleosynthesis: The Predicted and Observed Abundances and Their Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Steigman, Gary

    2010-01-01

    For a brief time in its early evolution the Universe was a cosmic nuclear reactor. The expansion and cooling of the Universe limited this epoch to the first few minutes, allowing time for the synthesis in astrophysically interesting abundances of only the lightest nuclides (D, 3He, 4He, 7Li). For big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) in the standard models of cosmology and particle physics (SBBN), the SBBN-predicted abundances depend on only one adjustable parameter, the baryon density parameter (th...

  8. Observing giant panda habitat and forage abundance from space

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, T.

    2009-01-01

    Giant pandas are obligate bamboo grazers. The bamboos favoured by giant pandas are typical forest understorey plants. Therefore, the availability and abundance of understorey bamboo is a key factor in determining the quantity and quality of giant panda food resources. However, there is little or no information about the spatial distribution or abundance of bamboo underneath the forest canopy, due to the limitations of traditional ground survey and remote sensing classification techniques. In ...

  9. The Significance of Microbe-Mineral-Biomarker Interactions in the Detection of Life on Mars and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röling, Wilfred F M; Aerts, Joost W; Patty, C H Lucas; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Direito, Susana O L

    2015-06-01

    The detection of biomarkers plays a central role in our effort to establish whether there is, or was, life beyond Earth. In this review, we address the importance of considering mineralogy in relation to the selection of locations and biomarker detection methodologies with characteristics most promising for exploration. We review relevant mineral-biomarker and mineral-microbe interactions. The local mineralogy on a particular planet reflects its past and current environmental conditions and allows a habitability assessment by comparison with life under extreme conditions on Earth. The type of mineral significantly influences the potential abundances and types of biomarkers and microorganisms containing these biomarkers. The strong adsorptive power of some minerals aids in the preservation of biomarkers and may have been important in the origin of life. On the other hand, this strong adsorption as well as oxidizing properties of minerals can interfere with efficient extraction and detection of biomarkers. Differences in mechanisms of adsorption and in properties of minerals and biomarkers suggest that it will be difficult to design a single extraction procedure for a wide range of biomarkers. While on Mars samples can be used for direct detection of biomarkers such as nucleic acids, amino acids, and lipids, on other planetary bodies remote spectrometric detection of biosignatures has to be relied upon. The interpretation of spectral signatures of photosynthesis can also be affected by local mineralogy. We identify current gaps in our knowledge and indicate how they may be filled to improve the chances of detecting biomarkers on Mars and beyond.

  10. Sabang Submarine Volcano Aceh, Indonesia: Review of Some Trace and Rare Earth Elements Abundances Produced by Seafloor Fumarole Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananto kurnio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.3.173-182Geochemical analyses of selected coastal and seafloor samples from Sabang Area revealed abundances of trace and rare earth elements. The selected samples of element abundances were mostly taken from seafloor in the vicinities of active fumaroles either by grab sampler operated from survey boat above fumarole point or by diver directly took the samples on the seafloor especially at Serui - Sabang Bay. Results show that samples closed to seafloor fumaroles demonstrate plenty of trace and rare earth elements. The trace and rare earth elements mean values (n=10 are: Nb (4.33 ppm, La (16.52 ppm, Ce (38.82 ppm, Nd (19.15 ppm, Ce (38.82 ppm, Pr (4.907 ppm, Nd (19.15 ppm, Sm (4.04 ppm, Gd (3.95 ppm, Dy (3.38 ppm, Th (6.432 ppm, and U (4.335 ppm. Negatively, statistical correlations between Fe, Zn, and Ni as the main sulphide elements with sulphur is interpreted that sulphide minerals do not form in the Sabang Sea. Sea water influence in the mineralization process was shown by the good correlations between Fe, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Ba.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program - Science Supporting Mineral Resource Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    The United States is the world's largest user of mineral resources. We use them to build our homes and cities, fertilize our food crops, and create wealth that allows us to buy goods and services. Individuals rarely use nonfuel mineral resources in their natural state - we buy light bulbs, not the silica, soda ash, lime, coal, salt, tungsten, copper, nickel, molybdenum, iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc used to convert electricity into light. The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) is the sole Federal source of scientific information and unbiased research on nonfuel mineral potential, production, and consumption, as well as on the environmental effects of minerals. The MRP also provides baseline geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-deposit data used to understand environmental issues related to extraction and use of mineral resources. Understanding how minerals, water, plants, and organisms interact contributes to our understanding of the environment, which is essential for maintaining human and ecosystem health. To support creation of economic and national security policies in a global context, MRP collects and analyzes data on essential mineral commodities from around the world.

  12. On ribosome load, codon bias and protein abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Klumpp

    Full Text Available Different codons encoding the same amino acid are not used equally in protein-coding sequences. In bacteria, there is a bias towards codons with high translation rates. This bias is most pronounced in highly expressed proteins, but a recent study of synthetic GFP-coding sequences did not find a correlation between codon usage and GFP expression, suggesting that such correlation in natural sequences is not a simple property of translational mechanisms. Here, we investigate the effect of evolutionary forces on codon usage. The relation between codon bias and protein abundance is quantitatively analyzed based on the hypothesis that codon bias evolved to ensure the efficient usage of ribosomes, a precious commodity for fast growing cells. An explicit fitness landscape is formulated based on bacterial growth laws to relate protein abundance and ribosomal load. The model leads to a quantitative relation between codon bias and protein abundance, which accounts for a substantial part of the observed bias for E. coli. Moreover, by providing an evolutionary link, the ribosome load model resolves the apparent conflict between the observed relation of protein abundance and codon bias in natural sequences and the lack of such dependence in a synthetic gfp library. Finally, we show that the relation between codon usage and protein abundance can be used to predict protein abundance from genomic sequence data alone without adjustable parameters.

  13. Global abundance of planktonic heterotrophic protists in the deep ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernice, Massimo C; Forn, Irene; Gomes, Ana; Lara, Elena; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Arrieta, Jesus M; del Carmen Garcia, Francisca; Hernando-Morales, Victor; MacKenzie, Roy; Mestre, Mireia; Sintes, Eva; Teira, Eva; Valencia, Joaquin; Varela, Marta M; Vaqué, Dolors; Duarte, Carlos M; Gasol, Josep M; Massana, Ramon

    2015-03-01

    The dark ocean is one of the largest biomes on Earth, with critical roles in organic matter remineralization and global carbon sequestration. Despite its recognized importance, little is known about some key microbial players, such as the community of heterotrophic protists (HP), which are likely the main consumers of prokaryotic biomass. To investigate this microbial component at a global scale, we determined their abundance and biomass in deepwater column samples from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation using a combination of epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. HP were ubiquitously found at all depths investigated down to 4000 m. HP abundances decreased with depth, from an average of 72±19 cells ml(-1) in mesopelagic waters down to 11±1 cells ml(-1) in bathypelagic waters, whereas their total biomass decreased from 280±46 to 50±14 pg C ml(-1). The parameters that better explained the variance of HP abundance were depth and prokaryote abundance, and to lesser extent oxygen concentration. The generally good correlation with prokaryotic abundance suggested active grazing of HP on prokaryotes. On a finer scale, the prokaryote:HP abundance ratio varied at a regional scale, and sites with the highest ratios exhibited a larger contribution of fungi molecular signal. Our study is a step forward towards determining the relationship between HP and their environment, unveiling their importance as players in the dark ocean's microbial food web.

  14. M22: An [Fe/H] Abundance Range Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, G. S.; Held, E. V.; Saviane, I.; Gullieuszik, M.

    2009-11-01

    Intermediate resolution spectra at the Ca II triplet have been obtained for 55 candidate red giants in the field of the globular cluster M22 with the VLT/FORS2 instrument. Spectra were also obtained for a number of red giants in standard globular clusters to provide a calibration of the observed line strengths with overall abundance [Fe/H]. For the 41 M22 member stars that lie within the V - VHB bounds of the calibration, we find an abundance distribution that is substantially broader than that expected from the observed errors alone. We argue that this broad distribution cannot be the result of differential reddening. Instead, we conclude that, as has long been suspected, M22 is similar to ω Cen in having an intrinsic dispersion in heavy element abundance. The observed M22 abundance distribution rises sharply to a peak at [Fe/H] ≈-1.9 with a broad tail to higher abundances: the highest abundance star in our sample has [Fe/H] ≈-1.45 dex. If the unusual properties of ω Cen have their origin in a scenario in which the cluster is the remnant nucleus of a disrupted dwarf galaxy, then such a scenario likely also applies to M22. Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, Proposal No. 77.D-0775.

  15. Palladium and gold minerals from the Baronskoe-Kluevsky ore deposit (Volkovsky complex, Central Urals, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccarini, F.; Anikina, E.; Pusharev, E.; Rusin, I.; Garuti, G.

    2004-09-01

    Drill cores from the newly discovered Baronskoe-Kluevsky Pd Au deposit (Volkovsky massif, Central Urals) have been investigated by reflected-light and electron microscopy, and the ore minerals were analyzed by electron microprobe. The most abundant Platinum-group mineral (PGM) is vysotskite, ideally PdS, characterized by an unusual Pt,Ni-poor composition. Palladium also occurs in kotulskite (PdTe), stillwaterite (Pd8As3), and unknown Pd As Te compounds with vincentite-type Pd3(As,Te), stillwaterite-type Pd8(As,Te)3, and Pd7(As,Te)2 stoichiometries. The main carrier of Au is Pd-rich electrum, approaching the composition Au75Ag15Pd10, with minor Fe, Cu, Ni and Pt. The precious minerals are closely associated with minute blebs of chalcopyrite+magnetite disseminated throughout serpentinized olivine-apatite host rock. Paragenetic relationships among the ore minerals define a succession of crystallization events in the order: 1) Cu Pd sulfides+electrum, 2) replacement by Pd Te As and late Pd As PGM, 3) final replacement by magnetite. The paragenesis is tentatively related with cooling of a fluid phase in the late- to post-magmatic stage.

  16. Biological role in the transformation of platinum-group mineral grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Frank; Zammit, Carla M.; Shar, Sahar S.; Etschmann, Barbara; Bottrill, Ralph; Southam, Gordon; Ta, Christine; Kilburn, Matthew; Oberthür, Thomas; Ball, Andrew S.; Brugger, Joël

    2016-04-01

    Platinum-group elements are strategically important metals. Finding new deposits is becoming increasingly difficult owing to our limited understanding of the processes that affect their mobility in surface environments. Microorganisms have been shown to promote the mobility of metals around ore deposits. Here we show that microorganisms influence the mobility of platinum-group elements in mineral grains collected from Brazil, Australia and Colombia. Scanning electron microscopy showed biofilms covering the platinum-group mineral grains. The biofilms contained abundant platinum-group element nanoparticles and microcrystalline aggregates, and were dominated by Proteobacteria, many of which were closely related to known metal-resistant species. Some platinum-group mineral grains contained carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, selenium and iodine, suggesting the grains may be biogenic in origin. Molecular analyses show that Brazilian platinum-palladium grains hosted specific bacterial communities, which were different in composition from communities associated with gold grains, or communities in surrounding soils and sediments. Nano-phase metallic platinum accumulated when a metallophillic bacterium was incubated with a percolating platinum-containing medium, suggesting that biofilms can cause the precipitation of mobile platinum complexes. We conclude that biofilms are capable of forming or transforming platinum-group mineral grains, and may play an important role for platinum-group element dispersion and re-concentration in surface environments.

  17. Linked reactivity at mineral-water interfaces through bulk crystal conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanina, Svetlana V; Rosso, Kevin M

    2008-04-11

    The semiconducting properties of a wide range of minerals are often ignored in the study of their interfacial geochemical behavior. We show that surface-specific charge density accumulation reactions combined with bulk charge carrier diffusivity create conditions under which interfacial electron transfer reactions at one surface couple with those at another via current flow through the crystal bulk. Specifically, we observed that a chemically induced surface potential gradient across hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) crystals is sufficiently high and the bulk electrical resistivity sufficiently low that dissolution of edge surfaces is linked to simultaneous growth of the crystallographically distinct (001) basal plane. The apparent importance of bulk crystal conduction is likely to be generalizable to a host of naturally abundant semiconducting minerals playing varied key roles in soils, sediments, and the atmosphere.

  18. Herbivore regulation of plant abundance in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kevin A; O'Hare, Matthew T; McDonald, Claire; Searle, Kate R; Daunt, Francis; Stillman, Richard A

    2017-05-01

    Herbivory is a fundamental process that controls primary producer abundance and regulates energy and nutrient flows to higher trophic levels. Despite the recent proliferation of small-scale studies on herbivore effects on aquatic plants, there remains limited understanding of the factors that control consumer regulation of vascular plants in aquatic ecosystems. Our current knowledge of the regulation of primary producers has hindered efforts to understand the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and to manage such ecosystems effectively. We conducted a global meta-analysis of the outcomes of plant-herbivore interactions using a data set comprised of 326 values from 163 studies, in order to test two mechanistic hypotheses: first, that greater negative changes in plant abundance would be associated with higher herbivore biomass densities; second, that the magnitude of changes in plant abundance would vary with herbivore taxonomic identity. We found evidence that plant abundance declined with increased herbivore density, with plants eliminated at high densities. Significant between-taxa differences in impact were detected, with insects associated with smaller reductions in plant abundance than all other taxa. Similarly, birds caused smaller reductions in plant abundance than echinoderms, fish, or molluscs. Furthermore, larger reductions in plant abundance were detected for fish relative to crustaceans. We found a positive relationship between herbivore species richness and change in plant abundance, with the strongest reductions in plant abundance reported for low herbivore species richness, suggesting that greater herbivore diversity may protect against large reductions in plant abundance. Finally, we found that herbivore-plant nativeness was a key factor affecting the magnitude of herbivore impacts on plant abundance across a wide range of species assemblages. Assemblages comprised of invasive herbivores and native plant assemblages were associated with

  19. Automated Mineral Analysis to Characterize Metalliferous Mine Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensler, Ana-Sophie; Lottermoser, Bernd G.; Vossen, Peter; Langenberg, Lukas C.

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of automated QEMSCAN® mineral analysis combined with bulk geochemical analysis to evaluate the environmental risk of non-acid producing mine waste present at the historic Albertsgrube Pb-Zn mine site, Hastenrath, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Geochemical analyses revealed elevated average abundances of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn and near neutral to slightly alkaline paste pH values. Mineralogical analyses using the QEMSCAN® revealed diverse mono- and polymineralic particles across all samples, with grain sizes ranging from a few μm up to 2000 μm. Calcite and dolomite (up to 78 %), smithsonite (up to 24 %) and Ca sulphate (up to 11.5 %) are present mainly as coarse-grained particles. By contrast, significant amounts of quartz, muscovite/illite, sphalerite (up to 10.8 %), galena (up to 1 %), pyrite (up to 3.4 %) and cerussite/anglesite (up to 4.3 %) are present as fine-grained (apatite, rutile, K-feldspar, biotite, Fe (hydr) oxides/CO3 and unknown Zn Pb(Fe) and Zn Pb Ca (Fe Ti) phases. Many of the metal-bearing sulphide grains occur as separate particles with exposed surface areas and thus, may be matter of environmental concern because such mineralogical hosts will continue to release metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Sb, Zn) at near neutral pH into ground and surface waters. QEMSCAN® mineral analysis allows acquisition of fully quantitative data on the mineralogical composition, textural characteristics and grain size estimation of mine waste material and permits the recognition of mine waste as “high-risk” material that would have otherwise been classified by traditional geochemical tests as benign.

  20. Iron Oxide Minerals in Dust: New Insights from Magnetism, Spectroscopy, and Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R. L.; Moskowitz, B. M.; Goldstein, H. L.; Cattle, S.; Bristow, C. S.; Berquo, T. S.; Kokaly, R. F.

    2016-12-01

    Although iron oxide minerals typically compose only a few weight percent of bulk atmospheric dust, they exert important effects on weather, climate, melting of snow and ice, and ocean fertilization. Moreover, the partition between hematite and goethite is important to know to improve models for radiative effects of ferric oxide minerals. The combination of magnetic property measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, reflectance spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy at 9-nm resolution reveals types, sizes, abundances, and occurrences of iron oxide minerals in samples from the 2009 "Red Dawn" dust storm (Australia), the Bodélé Depression (Chad), and dust and dust-source sediments in the American West. In each case, discrete nano-phase and microcrystalline iron oxides, hematite and (or) goethite were identified on and within clay coatings on composite dust particles. "Red Dawn" dust samples across eastern Australia each contained hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Goethite and hematite composed approximately 25-45% of the Fe-bearing phases as indicated by Mössbauer spectroscopy at 300K and 4.2K. Magnetite concentrations (as much as 0.29 wt %) were much higher in eastern, urban sites than in remote western sites (0.01 wt %), suggesting local addition of magnetite from urban sources. In samples from the Bodélé Depression, dominant goethite and subordinate hematite composed about 2% of yellow-reddish dust-source sediments. Magnetite was ubiquitous (0.002-0.57 wt %). The average iron apportionment was 32% in ferric oxide minerals, 1.4 % in magnetite, and 65% in ferric silicates. In all cases, high abundance of ferric oxides correlated with low reflectance, indicating their capacity to absorb solar radiation. Moreover, the high surface-to-volume ratios of ferric oxide nanoparticles may facilitate atmospheric processing and affect iron solubility and bioavailability in marine ecosystems and in human lungs.

  1. Inferring invasive species abundance using removal data from management actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amy J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Miller, Ryan S.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Lewis, Jesse S.; Moxcey, Michael; Pepin, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the progress of management programs for invasive species is crucial for demonstrating impacts to stakeholders and strategic planning of resource allocation. Estimates of abundance before and after management activities can serve as a useful metric of population management programs. However, many methods of estimating population size are too labor intensive and costly to implement, posing restrictive levels of burden on operational programs. Removal models are a reliable method for estimating abundance before and after management using data from the removal activities exclusively, thus requiring no work in addition to management. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate abundance from removal data accounting for varying levels of effort, and used simulations to assess the conditions under which reliable population estimates are obtained. We applied this model to estimate site-specific abundance of an invasive species, feral swine (Sus scrofa), using removal data from aerial gunning in 59 site/time-frame combinations (480–19,600 acres) throughout Oklahoma and Texas, USA. Simulations showed that abundance estimates were generally accurate when effective removal rates (removal rate accounting for total effort) were above 0.40. However, when abundances were small (rate needed to accurately estimates abundances was considerably higher (0.70). Based on our post-validation method, 78% of our site/time frame estimates were accurate. To use this modeling framework it is important to have multiple removals (more than three) within a time frame during which demographic changes are minimized (i.e., a closed population; ≤3 months for feral swine). Our results show that the probability of accurately estimating abundance from this model improves with increased sampling effort (8+ flight hours across the 3-month window is best) and increased removal rate. Based on the inverse relationship between inaccurate abundances and inaccurate removal rates

  2. Trace elements in hazardous mineral fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, Andrea; Barca, Donatella; Gualtieri, Alessandro Francesco; Pollastri, Simone; Belluso, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Both occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos-mineral fibres can be associated with lung diseases. The pathogenic effects are related to the dimension, biopersistence and chemical composition of the fibres. In addition to the major mineral elements, mineral fibres contain trace elements and their content may play a role in fibre toxicity. To shed light on the role of trace elements in asbestos carcinogenesis, knowledge on their concentration in asbestos-mineral fibres is mandatory. It is possible that trace elements play a synergetic factor in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by the inhalation of mineral fibres. In this paper, the concentration levels of trace elements from three chrysotile samples, four amphibole asbestos samples (UICC amosite, UICC anthophyllite, UICC crocidolite and tremolite) and fibrous erionite from Jersey, Nevada (USA) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For all samples, the following trace elements were measured: Li, Be, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Pb, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Th, U. Their distribution in the various mineral species is thoroughly discussed. The obtained results indicate that the amount of trace metals such as Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn is higher in anthophyllite and chrysotile samples, whereas the amount of rare earth elements (REE) is higher in erionite and tremolite samples. The results of this work can be useful to the pathologists and biochemists who use asbestos minerals and fibrous erionite in-vitro studies as positive cyto- and geno-toxic standard references. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution of Mineral-Organic Matter Associations in Sediments: From (Bio)mineralization to Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, E.; Nordlund, D.; Wankel, S. D.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Physical and chemical associations with mineral surfaces may protect organic matter (OM) from oxidative degradation and allow its preservation in soils and sediments. This study evaluates the mechanism of mineral-based preservation (MBP) and the time scale on which MBP is operative by tracking the co-evolution of oxide minerals and associated OM during mineral precipitation and ripening. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled to near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) as well as bulk NEXAFS demonstrate that, in laboratory systems using cell-free filtrate from pure bacterial cultures, an association between OM and biogenic manganese oxides is rapidly established. OM associated with freshly precipitated biominerals consists of proteinaceous carbon and nitrogen consistent with a microbial origin; this composition remains constant over the course of 96 hours, despite mineral aggregation and structural evolution from hexagonal to triclinic birnessite. We predict that, in natural systems, oxide minerals simultaneously drive remineralization and offer MBP. Different minerals will promote a different balance between the two, imparting a mineral-specific signature on the concentration and composition of preserved OM. We test this idea by conducting incubations of natural estuary waters spiked with compositionally and structurally diverse synthetic oxide minerals. The concentration and composition of mineral-associated OM were tracked by element analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) and STXM-NEXAFS in multiple experiments lasting between 4 weeks and 1 year. Results from incubation experiments are contrasted with natural sediment samples from a range of depositional environments in order to evaluate the potential for long-term sequestration of organic carbon in sediments facilitated by minerals.

  4. Fluid-rock interaction: mineral stability, mineral equilibria, and the propagation of metastable phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlov, D.

    2006-12-01

    The role of fluids in promoting mineral equilibria as a function of P-T-X has been documented for a variety of mineral systems both in nature as well as experimentally. In each of these cases, the rate at which equilibration occurs depends on fluid-mineral reactivity and upon the subsequent rate of dissolution- reprecipitation of the participating mineral phases (cf. review in Putnis, 2002, Mineral Mag, 66, 689). In rocks without a fluid phase, equilibration between mineral phases is entirely diffusion controlled. As a consequence, complete equilibration tends not to occur. This can then lead to the propagation of metastable mineral phases far beyond their P-T-X stability field over geological time scales. Examples of fluid-induced re-equilibration in mineral systems include formation of monazite inclusions in fluorapatite (Harlov et al., 2005, Contrib Mineral Petrol, 150, 268), metasomatically induced replacement of plagioclase by K-feldspar (Putnis et al., 2006, Lithos, in press online), solid-state transformation of biotite and amphibole to pyroxenes (Harlov et al., 2006, J Petrol, 47, 3), formation of titantite reaction rims on ilmenite (Harlov et al., Lithos, 88, 72), and replacement of fluorapatite by Fe-bearing chlorapatite (Harlov et al., 2006, Eur J Mineral, 18, 233). In each of these examples, fluids of varying compositions, pH, and H2O activities are required to achieve both the re-equilibration of the mineral phases involved, via dissolution-reprecipitation, as well as whatever subsequent mass transfer may be required. In general this process, whether from nature or experimental, can be investigated on both the micron and nanometer scale utilizing a variety of techniques including SEM, TEM, EBSD, LA-ICPMS, SIMS and EMP analysis. Such procedures, coupled with textural analysis, then allows for a more complete understanding of fluid-rock interaction and mass transfer on scales ranging from nanometers to kilometers.

  5. Neo-mineral formation during artificial coalification of low-ash - mineral free-peat material from tropical Malaysia-potential explanation for low ash coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Raphael [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811, QLD (Australia); Bustin, R. Marc; Ross, John [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Road, Vancouver, B.C. (Canada)

    2008-04-03

    Abundant coal deposits have very low inorganic contents (ash yield; < 2%) and hence are almost ash-free. Inexplicable to date is that the precursor of coal, modern peat deposits, almost nowhere have such low ash yields as a result of both the inorganic mineral and biogenic phytolith contents. However, despite the common occurrence of phytoliths in modern peats, they are invariably absent in coals. It has thus been hypothesized by some investigators that modern environments are not ideal analogues for the formation of low ash coal deposits. Here we present new evidence to suggest that mineral diagenesis during coalification can transform biogenic inorganics to new minerals and that a substantial component of these new minerals could be removed in solution during expulsion of moisture with coalification resulting in low ash precursors of coal. This study presents results from artificial coalification experiments of modern tropical forest peat material with ash yields between 2-4.3 wt.%. The inorganic material of the peat consists almost exclusively of Al-Si-and Si-rich phytoliths and other bioliths; no other inorganic mineral matter is present. Compressed pellets of dried peat were deformed in a Griggs constant strain rate apparatus at a constant confining pressure of 5 kb and constant strain rate of 10{sup -} {sup 5} s {sup -} {sup 1} at variable temperatures from 350 C to 550 C. The samples, exposed to artificial coalification processes, were then analysed by SEM, EDS, and XRD for semi-quantitative chemical analyses. The deformed material showed a lack of any biogenic silica and Al-Si-phytoliths, but contained neoformed idiomorphic quartz crystals and clays. We conclude that modern peat forming environments that have low-ash peats containing biogenic silica and other biogenic Al-Si-material can represent precursors of very low-ash coal deposits. Our experiments illustrate that during coalification, it is likely all or almost all biogenic material is transformed

  6. Small-scale spatial variability of phenoxy acid mineralization potentials in transition zones with a multidisciplinary approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazarbasi, Meric Batioglu

    activity was linked to the abundance of tfdA genes involved in phenoxy acid degradation depending on the MCPA leaching from the overlying agricultural soil expressed as long-term in situ MCPA exposure. Knowledge on the small-scale variability of mineralization potential is very important to predict...... classes in the different mineralization potentials of discharge zones. Understanding of the natural attenuation potential of groundwater-surface water transition zones is important for stream water protection. In landfill-impacted groundwater-surface water interface, we further analyzed bacterial......, the challenge of small-scale spatial variability occurs in terms of microbiological and physicochemical properties. We used genomic- and metagenomic-based approaches to reveal the effects of long-term phenoxy acid in situ exposure on the small-scale spatial variability of herbicide mineralization potentials...

  7. Microprobe analyses of rare-earth-element fractionation in meteoritic minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, T.M.; Duffy, C.J.; Rogers, P.S.Z.; Maggiore, C.J.; Woolum, D.S.; Burnett, D.S.; Murrell, M.T.

    1983-01-01

    Two meteorites were analyzed by PIXE with the Los Alamos Nuclear Microprobe. The enstatite achondrite Pena Blanca Spring and the ordinary chondrite St. Severin were chosen as likely candidates for use in /sup 244/Pu (t/sub 1/2/ = 82 my) cosmochronology and geochronology. These applications require the meteoritic minerals to have unfractionated actinides and lanthanides relative to cosmic elemental abundance ratios. The PIXE analyses produced evidence of actinide-lanthanide fractionation in Pena Blanca Spring oldhamite (CaS) whereas the St Severin phosphates, whitlockite and chlorapatite, do not exhibit this fractionation.

  8. Mineral composite assessment of Kelkit River Basin in Turkey by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Utilizing remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) tools, mineral composite characteristics (ferrous minerals (FM), iron oxide (IO), and clay minerals (CM)) of the Kelkit River Basin (15913.07 km2) in Turkey were investigated and mapped. Mineral composite (MC) index maps were produced from three ...

  9. Non-LTE aluminium abundances in late-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlander, T.; Lind, K.

    2017-11-01

    Aims: Aluminium plays a key role in studies of the chemical enrichment of the Galaxy and of globular clusters. However, strong deviations from LTE (non-LTE) are known to significantly affect the inferred abundances in giant and metal-poor stars. Methods: We present non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) modeling of aluminium using recent and accurate atomic data, in particular utilizing new transition rates for collisions with hydrogen atoms, without the need for any astrophysically calibrated parameters. For the first time, we perform 3D NLTE modeling of aluminium lines in the solar spectrum. We also compute and make available extensive grids of abundance corrections for lines in the optical and near-infrared using one-dimensional model atmospheres, and apply grids of precomputed departure coefficients to direct line synthesis for a set of benchmark stars with accurately known stellar parameters. Results: Our 3D NLTE modeling of the solar spectrum reproduces observed center-to-limb variations in the solar spectrum of the 7835 Å line as well as the mid-infrared photospheric emission line at 12.33 μm. We infer a 3D NLTE solar photospheric abundance of A(Al) = 6.43 ± 0.03, in exact agreement with the meteoritic abundance. We find that abundance corrections vary rapidly with stellar parameters; for the 3961 Å resonance line, corrections are positive and may be as large as +1 dex, while corrections for subordinate lines generally have positive sign for warm stars but negative for cool stars. Our modeling reproduces the observed line profiles of benchmark K-giants, and we find abundance corrections as large as -0.3 dex for Arcturus. Our analyses of four metal-poor benchmark stars yield consistent abundances between the 3961 Å resonance line and lines in the UV, optical and near-infrared regions. Finally, we discuss implications for the galactic chemical evolution of aluminium.

  10. Change in avian abundance predicted from regional forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Tirpak, John M.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Thompson, Frank R.; Uihlein, William B.; Fitzgerald, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    An inability to predict population response to future habitat projections is a shortcoming in bird conservation planning. We sought to predict avian response to projections of future forest conditions that were developed from nationwide forest surveys within the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. To accomplish this, we evaluated the historical relationship between silvicolous bird populations and FIA-derived forest conditions within 25 ecoregions that comprise the southeastern United States. We aggregated forest area by forest ownership, forest type, and tree size-class categories in county-based ecoregions for 5 time periods spanning 1963-2008. We assessed the relationship of forest data with contemporaneous indices of abundance for 24 silvicolous bird species that were obtained from Breeding Bird Surveys. Relationships between bird abundance and forest inventory data for 18 species were deemed sufficient as predictive models. We used these empirically derived relationships between regional forest conditions and bird populations to predict relative changes in abundance of these species within ecoregions that are anticipated to coincide with projected changes in forest variables through 2040. Predicted abundances of these 18 species are expected to remain relatively stable in over a quarter (27%) of the ecoregions. However, change in forest area and redistribution of forest types will likely result in changed abundance of some species within many ecosystems. For example, abundances of 11 species, including pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), and chuckwills- widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis), are projected to increase within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will decrease. For 6 other species, such as blue-winged warbler (Vermivora pinus), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), we projected abundances will decrease within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will

  11. Urban warming drives insect pest abundance on street trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K Meineke

    Full Text Available Cities profoundly alter biological communities, favoring some species over others, though the mechanisms that govern these changes are largely unknown. Herbivorous arthropod pests are often more abundant in urban than in rural areas, and urban outbreaks have been attributed to reduced control by predators and parasitoids and to increased susceptibility of stressed urban plants. These hypotheses, however, leave many outbreaks unexplained and fail to predict variation in pest abundance within cities. Here we show that the abundance of a common insect pest is positively related to temperature even when controlling for other habitat characteristics. The scale insect Parthenolecanium quercifex was 13 times more abundant on willow oak trees in the hottest parts of Raleigh, NC, in the southeastern United States, than in cooler areas, though parasitism rates were similar. We further separated the effects of heat from those of natural enemies and plant quality in a greenhouse reciprocal transplant experiment. P. quercifex collected from hot urban trees became more abundant in hot greenhouses than in cool greenhouses, whereas the abundance of P. quercifex collected from cooler urban trees remained low in hot and cool greenhouses. Parthenolecanium quercifex living in urban hot spots succeed with warming, and they do so because some demes have either acclimatized or adapted to high temperatures. Our results provide the first evidence that heat can be a key driver of insect pest outbreaks on urban trees. Since urban warming is similar in magnitude to global warming predicted in the next 50 years, pest abundance on city trees may foreshadow widespread outbreaks as natural forests also grow warmer.

  12. Chemical and mineralogical data of the metalliferous mineralization from S. Carlo mine (Peloritani mts, Ne Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisacane, G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The mineralization processes in the Peloritani Belt (Southern Sector of the Calabria- Peloritani Arc prevalently developed during the Variscan orogenesis producing Pb, Zn, Fe, As, Sb, Cu, Ag, W, etc. polymetalliferous ore-bearing horizons. This paper focuses on the polymetalliferous mineralization recognised in the ancient S. Carlo Mine, which has already been subject of some studies and is part of an important discordant vein deposits system that are widespread in the Mandanici Unit (MaU. This Unit is characterized by a Variscan low-P, polyphasic and plurifacial metamorphic basement, exhibiting a prograde zoning, from chlorite zone of greenschist facies to oligoclase-almandine zone of amphibolite facies. The Variscan main foliation (Fv2 is irregularly cut by mineralized veins of decimetric to metric width. They are also perpendicular to the Alpine mylonitic shear zones of metric thickness developing along the sub-horizontal tectonic contacts between the tectono-stratigraphic units. These vein deposits formed along late-Alpine systems of fractures and faults, after Peloritani nappe emplacement. Minerographic study reveals a metalliferous mineral association mainly composed of tetrahedrite associated with, in order of decreasing abundance, chalcopyrite, bournonite, pentlandite, stromeyerite, arsenopyrite, scheelite, galena, sphalerite, pyrite, bismuthinite, boulangerite, jamesonite, covellite, bornite and argentite. Quartz, siderite and ankerite among non-metalliferous minerals are predominant. This work has been supported by mineralogical studies and chemical analyses carried out by Atomic Absorption and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry on powdered and separated samples of minerals. Geochemical data (major and trace elements have allowed a detailed characterization of the minerals. They have revealed that the most significant minerals with Au contents around 1 ppm are tetrahedrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and bournonite. The

  13. The role of clay minerals in the preservation of organic matter in sediments of qinghai lake, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Lv, G.; Eberl, D.; Li, S.; Kim, J.

    2009-01-01

    The role of saline lake sediments in preserving organic matter has long been recognized. In order to further understand the preservation mechanisms, the role of clay minerals was studied. Three sediment cores, 25, 57, and 500 cm long, were collected from Qinghai Lake, NW China, and dissected into multiple subsamples. Multiple techniques were employed, including density fractionation, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), total organic carbon (TOC) and carbon compound analyses, and surface area determination. The sediments were oxic near the water-sediment interface, but became anoxic at depth. The clay mineral content was as much as 36.8%, consisting mostly of illite, chlorite, and halloysite. The TEM observations revealed that organic matter occurred primarily as organic matter-clay mineral aggregates. The TOC and clay mineral abundances are greatest in the mid-density fraction, with a positive correlation between the TOC and mineral surface area. The TOC of the bulk sediments ranges from 1 to 3% with the non-hydrocarbon fraction being predominant, followed by bitumen, saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbons, and chloroform-soluble bitumen. The bimodal distribution of carbon compounds of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction suggests that organic matter in the sediments was derived from two sources: terrestrial plants and microorganisms/algae. Depthrelated systematic changes in the distribution patterns of the carbon compounds suggest that the oxidizing conditions and microbial abundance near the water-sediment interface promote degradation of labile organic matter, probably in adsorbed form. The reducing conditions and small microbial biomass deeper in the sediments favor preservation of organic matter, because of the less labile nature of organic matter, probably occurring within clay mineral-organic matter aggregates that are inaccessible to microorganisms. These results have important implications for our

  14. Cyanobacteria as Biocatalysts for Carbonate Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Jansson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial carbonate mineralization is widespread in nature and among microorganisms, and of vast ecological and geological importance. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that trigger and control processes such as calcification, i.e., mineralization of CO2 to calcium carbonate (CaCO3, is limited and literature on cyanobacterial calcification is oftentimes bewildering and occasionally controversial. In cyanobacteria, calcification may be intimately associated with the carbon dioxide-(CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM, a biochemical system that allows the cells to raise the concentration of CO2 at the site of the carboxylating enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco up to 1000-fold over that in the surrounding medium. A comprehensive understanding of biologically induced carbonate mineralization is important for our ability to assess its role in past, present, and future carbon cycling, interpret paleontological data, and for evaluating the process as a means for biological carbon capture and storage (CCS. In this review we summarize and discuss the metabolic, physiological and structural features of cyanobacteria that may be involved in the reactions leading to mineral formation and precipitation, present a conceptual model of cyanobacterial calcification, and, finally, suggest practical applications for cyanobacterial carbonate mineralization.

  15. Geochemical study of evaporite and clay mineral-oxyhydroxide samples from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookins, D.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (US). Dept. of Geology

    1993-06-01

    Samples of clay minerals, insoluble oxyhydroxides, and their host evaporites from the WIPP site have been studied for their major and minor elements abundances, x-ray diffraction characteristics, K-Ar ages, and Rb-Sr ages. This study was undertaken to determine their overall geochemical characteristics and to investigate possible interactions between evaporates and insoluble constituents. The evaporite host material is water-soluble, having Cl/Br ratios typical of marine evaporites, although the Br content is low. Insoluble material (usually a mixture of clay minerals and oxyhydroxide phases) yields very high Cl/Br ratios, possibly because of Cl from admixed halide minerals. This same material yields K/Rb and Th/U ratios in the normal range for shales; suggesting little, if any, effect of evaporite-induced remobilization of U, K, or Rb in the insoluble material. The rare-earth element (REE) data also show normal REE/chondrite (REE/CHON) distribution patterns, supporting the K/Rb and Th/U data. Clay minerals yield K-Ar dates in the range 365 to 390 Ma and a Rb-Sr isochron age of 428 {+-} 7 Ma. These ages are well in excess of the 220- to 230-Ma formational age of the evaporites, and confirm the detrital origin of the clays. The ages also show that any evaporite or clay mineral reactions that might have occurred at or near the time of sedimentation and diagenesis were not sufficient to reset the K-Ar and Rb-Sr systematics of the clay minerals. Further, x-ray data indicate a normal evaporitic assemblage of clay minerals and Fe-rich oxyhydroxide phases. The clay minerals and other insoluble material appear to be resistant to the destructive effects of their entrapment in the evaporites, which suggests that these insoluble materials would be good getters for any radionuclides (hypothetically) released from the storage of radioactive wastes in the area.

  16. Phosphate minerals in LL chondrites: A record of the action of fluids during metamorphism on ordinary chondrite parent bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rhian H.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Dreeland, Linda; Guan, Yunbin; Burger, Paul V.; Shearer, Charles K.

    2014-05-01

    Ordinary chondrites contain two phosphate minerals, merrillite and chlorapatite, both of which are secondary minerals that developed in response to metamorphism on the chondrite parent bodies. We have studied the phosphate mineralogy of four LL chondrites, of petrologic types 3.9-6, in order to determine the petrogenesis of the two minerals and interpret the conditions under which they formed. Characterization of merrillite and apatite includes textural observations, mineral compositions determined by electron probe microanalysis, and ion microprobe analyses of trace element and volatile anion elemental abundances. Initial formation of phosphate minerals during mild metamorphism, to petrologic type 4 conditions, resulted in oxidation of P that was originally incorporated in metal, and growth of merrillite as inclusions within metal grains. Subsequent development of both phosphate minerals occurred in response to diffusional equilibration, possible precipitation from fluids as well as replacement reactions resulting from interactions with fluids. Porosity and vein-filling textures in both merrillite and chlorapatite, as well as textures indicating replacement of merrillite by chlorapatite, support a model in which fluid played a significant role and suggest an interface-coupled dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism during metasomatism. Some associations of phosphate minerals with chromite-plagioclase assemblages suggest that phosphate minerals could also be related to impact processes, either as precipitation from an impact melt or as a result of interactions with a fluid or vapor derived from an impact melt. Fluid compositions may have been water-bearing initially, at low temperatures of metamorphism, but later evolved to become halogen-rich and very dry. Late-stage halogen-rich fluids that dominated during cooling of LL chondrite material may have been derived from vaporization of partial melts in the interior of the parent body. Overall, the LL chondrite parent

  17. New aerial survey and hierarchical model to estimate manatee abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langimm, Cahterine A.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Stith, Bradley M.; Doyle, Terry J.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the response of endangered and protected species to hydrological restoration is a major component of the adaptive management framework of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) lives at the marine-freshwater interface in southwest Florida and is likely to be affected by hydrologic restoration. To provide managers with prerestoration information on distribution and abundance for postrestoration comparison, we developed and implemented a new aerial survey design and hierarchical statistical model to estimate and map abundance of manatees as a function of patch-specific habitat characteristics, indicative of manatee requirements for offshore forage (seagrass), inland fresh drinking water, and warm-water winter refuge. We estimated the number of groups of manatees from dual-observer counts and estimated the number of individuals within groups by removal sampling. Our model is unique in that we jointly analyzed group and individual counts using assumptions that allow probabilities of group detection to depend on group size. Ours is the first analysis of manatee aerial surveys to model spatial and temporal abundance of manatees in association with habitat type while accounting for imperfect detection. We conducted the study in the Ten Thousand Islands area of southwestern Florida, USA, which was expected to be affected by the Picayune Strand Restoration Project to restore hydrology altered for a failed real-estate development. We conducted 11 surveys in 2006, spanning the cold, dry season and warm, wet season. To examine short-term and seasonal changes in distribution we flew paired surveys 1–2 days apart within a given month during the year. Manatees were sparsely distributed across the landscape in small groups. Probability of detection of a group increased with group size; the magnitude of the relationship between group size and detection probability varied among surveys. Probability

  18. Ecological interactions and the distribution, abundance, and diversity of sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Janie

    2012-01-01

    Although abiotic factors may be important first-order filters dictating which sponge species can thrive at a particular site, ecological interactions can play substantial roles influencing distribution and abundance, and thus diversity. Ecological interactions can modify the influences of abiotic factors both by further constraining distribution and abundance due to competitive or predatory interactions and by expanding habitat distribution or abundance due to beneficial interactions that ameliorate otherwise limiting circumstances. It is likely that the importance of ecological interactions has been greatly underestimated because they tend to only be revealed by experiments and time-series observations in the field. Experiments have revealed opportunistic predation to be a primary enforcer of sponge distribution boundaries that coincide with habitat boundaries in several systems. Within habitats, by contrast, dramatic effects of predators on sponge populations seem to occur primarily in cases of unusually high recruitment rates or unusually low mortality rates for the predators, which are often specialists on the sponge species affected. Competitive interactions have been demonstrated to diminish populations or exclude sponge species from a habitat in only a few cases. Cases in which competitive interactions have appeared obvious have often turned out to be neutral or even beneficial interactions when observed over time. Especially striking in this regard are sponge-sponge interactions in dense sponge-dominated communities, which may promote the continued coexistence of all participating species. Mutualistic symbioses of sponges with other animals, plants, or macroalgae have been demonstrated to increase abundance, habitat distribution, and diversity of all participants. Symbiotic microbes can enhance sponge distribution and abundance but also render their hosts more vulnerable to environmental changes. And while photosynthetic symbionts can boost growth and

  19. Study on the Abundance Discrepancy Problem in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio San Cipriano, L.; Esteban, C.; Domínguez-Guzmán, G.; García-Rojas, J.

    2017-03-01

    We present chemical abundances of carbon (C) and oxygen (O) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds from deep and high-quality optical spectra of H II regions. The data have been taken using the Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph at the 8.2-m Very Large Telescope with the goal of detecting the faint C II and O II recombination lines. For all the objects of the sample, we determine C^{2+}abundances from recombination lines and O^{2+} abundances from recombination lines and collisionally excited lines. In addition, we calculate the abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs) for O^{2+} and C^{2+}, as well as the O/H, C/H and C/O ratios. We study the behaviour of the ADF comparing the values obtained in the Magellanic Clouds with those obtained for other H_{II} regions in different galaxies. We also compare the nebular and stellar abundances in two regions of the sample. Finally, we discuss the chemical evolution of the MCs through the O/H, C/H and C/O radial gradients and the changes of the C/O ratio as a function of O/H.

  20. Generalized estimators of avian abundance from count survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royle, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available I consider modeling avian abundance from spatially referenced bird count data collected according to common protocols such as capture-recapture, multiple observer, removal sampling and simple point counts. Small sample sizes and large numbers of parameters have motivated many analyses that disregard the spatial indexing of the data, and thus do not provide an adequate treatment of spatial structure. I describe a general framework for modeling spatially replicated data that regards local abundance as a random process, motivated by the view that the set of spatially referenced local populations (at the sample locations constitute a metapopulation. Under this view, attention can be focused on developing a model for the variation in local abundance independent of the sampling protocol being considered. The metapopulation model structure, when combined with the data generating model, define a simple hierarchical model that can be analyzed using conventional methods. The proposed modeling framework is completely general in the sense that broad classes of metapopulation models may be considered, site level covariates on detection and abundance may be considered, and estimates of abundance and related quantities may be obtained for sample locations, groups of locations, unsampled locations. Two brief examples are given, the first involving simple point counts, and the second based on temporary removal counts. Extension of these models to open systems is briefly discussed.