Sample records for abundance element

  1. New functionalities in abundant element oxides: ubiquitous element strategy. (United States)

    Hosono, Hideo; Hayashi, Katsuro; Kamiya, Toshio; Atou, Toshiyuki; Susaki, Tomofumi


    While most ceramics are composed of ubiquitous elements (the ten most abundant elements within the Earth's crust), many advanced materials are based on rare elements. A 'rare-element crisis' is approaching owing to the imbalance between the limited supply of rare elements and the increasing demand. Therefore, we propose a 'ubiquitous element strategy' for materials research, which aims to apply abundant elements in a variety of innovative applications. Creation of innovative oxide materials and devices based on conventional ceramics is one specific challenge. This review describes the concept of ubiquitous element strategy and gives some highlights of our recent research on the synthesis of electronic, thermionic and structural materials using ubiquitous elements.

  2. New functionalities in abundant element oxides: ubiquitous element strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Hosono, Katsuro Hayashi, Toshio Kamiya, Toshiyuki Atou and Tomofumi Susaki


    Full Text Available While most ceramics are composed of ubiquitous elements (the ten most abundant elements within the Earth's crust, many advanced materials are based on rare elements. A 'rare-element crisis' is approaching owing to the imbalance between the limited supply of rare elements and the increasing demand. Therefore, we propose a 'ubiquitous element strategy' for materials research, which aims to apply abundant elements in a variety of innovative applications. Creation of innovative oxide materials and devices based on conventional ceramics is one specific challenge. This review describes the concept of ubiquitous element strategy and gives some highlights of our recent research on the synthesis of electronic, thermionic and structural materials using ubiquitous elements.

  3. Coronae of Stars with Supersolar Elemental Abundances (United States)

    Peretz, Uria; Behar, Ehud; Drake, Stephen A.


    Coronal elemental abundances are known to deviate from the photospheric values of their parent star, with the degree of deviation depending on the first ionization potential (FIP). This study focuses on the coronal composition of stars with supersolar photospheric abundances. We present the coronal abundances of six such stars: 11 LMi, iota Hor, HR 7291, tau Boo, and alpha Cen A and B. These stars all have high-statistics X-ray spectra, three of which are presented for the first time. The abundances we measured were obtained using the line-resolved spectra of the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) in conjunction with the higher throughput EPIC-pn camera spectra onboard the XMM-Newton observatory. A collisionally ionized plasma model with two or three temperature components is found to represent the spectra well. All elements are found to be consistently depleted in the coronae compared to their respective photospheres. For 11 LMi and tau Boo no FIP effect is present, while iota Hor, HR 7291, and alpha Cen A and B show a clear FIP trend. These conclusions hold whether the comparison is made with solar abundances or the individual stellar abundances. Unlike the solar corona, where low-FIP elements are enriched, in these stars the FIP effect is consistently due to a depletion of high-FIP elements with respect to actual photospheric abundances. A comparison with solar (instead of stellar) abundances yields the same fractionation trend as on the Sun. In both cases, a similar FIP bias is inferred, but different fractionation mechanisms need to be invoked.

  4. Transition Element Abundances in MORB Basalts (United States)

    Yang, S.; Humayun, M.; Salters, V. J.; Fields, D.; Jefferson, G.; Perfit, M. R.


    primarily controls the partitioning of Fe, Zn, Ga and Ge; garnet dominates the Sc abundance; spinel exerts exceptionally strong control over Ga and Zn, and cannot be neglected as a source mineral for these elements. MORB FRTE, Ga and Ge abundances are consistent with partial melting of a spinel peridotite source (<1% garnet) similar to that estimated for DMM, although the abundances of many of these elements need to be better constrained in the model sources. [1] Davis et al. GCA (submitted)

  5. The RAVE Catalog of Stellar Elemental Abundances : First Data Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeche, C.; Siebert, A.; Williams, M.; de Jong, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Fulbright, J. P.; Ruchti, G. R.; Bienayme, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siviero, A.; Watson, F. G.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.


    We present chemical elemental abundances for 36,561 stars observed by the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE), an ambitious spectroscopic survey of our Galaxy at Galactic latitudes vertical bar b vertical bar > 25 degrees and with magnitudes in the range 9

  6. Abundances of chemical elements in the atmospheres of K gaints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarov, N.S.; Shcherbak, A.N.


    The physical parameters of seven stars are investigated in the report by a modified method of differential curves of growth. The abundances of chemical elements in their atmospheres are found. All the investigated stars, of spectral class KO III, belong to various open clusters.

  7. Trace Element Abundances in Extraterrestrial Apatite and Merrillite (United States)

    Ward, D.; Bischoff, A.; Roszjar, J.; Berndt, J.; Whitehouse, M. J.


    The trace element abundances (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, Hf, Ta, Pb, Th, U, as well as the REE) of 133 apatite and 163 merrillite grains from 24 meteorites, covering 9 different classes were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS and SIMS.

  8. Rare earth element abundances in presolar SiC (United States)

    Ireland, T. R.; Ávila, J. N.; Lugaro, M.; Cristallo, S.; Holden, P.; Lanc, P.; Nittler, L.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Gyngard, F.; Amari, S.


    Individual isotope abundances of Ba, lanthanides of the rare earth element (REE) group, and Hf have been determined in bulk samples of fine-grained silicon carbide (SiC) from the Murchison CM2 chondrite. The analytical protocol involved secondary ion mass spectrometry with combined high mass resolution and energy filtering to exclude REE oxide isobars and Si-C-O clusters from the peaks of interest. Relative sensitivity factors were determined through analysis of NIST SRM reference glasses (610 and 612) as well as a trace-element enriched SiC ceramic. When normalised to chondrite abundances, the presolar SiC REE pattern shows significant deficits at Eu and Yb, which are the most volatile of the REE. The pattern is very similar to that observed for Group III refractory inclusions. The SiC abundances were also normalised to s-process model predictions for the envelope compositions of low-mass (1.5-3 M⊙) AGB stars with close-to-solar metallicities (Z = 0.014 and 0.02). The overall trace element abundances (excluding Eu and Yb) appear consistent with the predicted s-process patterns. The depletions of Eu and Yb suggest that these elements remained in the gas phase during the condensation of SiC. The lack of depletion in some other moderately refractory elements (like Ba), and the presence of volatile elements (e.g. Xe) indicates that these elements were incorporated into SiC by other mechanisms, most likely ion implantation.

  9. Isotope-abundance variations of selected elements (IUPAC technical report) (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; De Bievre, P.; Ding, T.; Holden, N.E.; Hopple, J.A.; Krouse, H.R.; Lamberty, A.; Peiser, H.S.; Revesz, K.; Rieder, S.E.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Roth, E.; Taylor, P.D.P.; Vocke, R.D.; Xiao, Y.K.


    Documented variations in the isotopic compositions of some chemical elements are responsible for expanded uncertainties in the standard atomic weights published by the Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. This report summarizes reported variations in the isotopic compositions of 20 elements that are due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay) and their effects on the standard atomic-weight uncertainties. For 11 of those elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, copper, and selenium), standard atomic-weight uncertainties have been assigned values that are substantially larger than analytical uncertainties because of common isotope-abundance variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin. For 2 elements (chromium and thallium), recently reported isotope-abundance variations potentially are large enough to result in future expansion of their atomic-weight uncertainties. For 7 elements (magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium), documented isotope variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin are too small to have a significant effect on their standard atomic-weight uncertainties. This compilation indicates the extent to which the atomic weight of an element in a given material may differ from the standard atomic weight of the element. For most elements given above, data are graphically illustrated by a diagram in which the materials are specified in the ordinate and the compositional ranges are plotted along the abscissa in scales of (1) atomic weight, (2) mole fraction of a selected isotope, and (3) delta value of a selected isotope ratio.

  10. Neutron-capture Element Abundances in Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Mashburn, A. L.; Sterling, N. C.; Madonna, S.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Roederer, I. U.; Geballe, T. R.


    We present near-infrared spectra of 10 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC), acquired with the FIRE and GNIRS spectrometers on the 6.5 m Baade and 8.1 m Gemini South Telescopes, respectively. We detect Se and/or Kr emission lines in eight of these objects, the first detections of n-capture elements in Magellanic Cloud PNe. Our abundance analysis shows large s-process enrichments of Kr (0.6-1.3 dex) in the six PNe in which it was detected, and Se is enriched by 0.5-0.9 dex in five objects. We also estimate upper limits to Rb and Cd abundances in these objects. Our abundance results for the LMC are consistent with the hypothesis that PNe with 2-3 M ⊙ progenitors dominate the bright end of the PN luminosity function in young gas-rich galaxies. We find no significant correlations between s-process enrichments and other elemental abundances, central star temperature, or progenitor mass, though this is likely due to our small sample size. We determine S abundances from our spectra and find that [S/H] agrees with [Ar/H] to within 0.2 dex for most objects, but is lower than [O/H] by 0.2-0.4 dex in some PNe, possibly due to O enrichment via third dredge-up. Our results demonstrate that n-capture elements can be detected in PNe belonging to nearby galaxies with ground-based telescopes, allowing s-process enrichments to be studied in PN populations with well-determined distances. This paper includes data obtained with the 6.5-m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and with the Gemini-South Telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile.

  11. Chemical Cartography in the Milky Way with SDSS/APOGEE: Multi-element abundances and abundance ratio variations (United States)

    Holtzman, Jon A.; Hasselquist, Sten; Johnson, Jennifer; Bird, Jonathan C.; Majewski, Steven R.; SDSS/APOGEE Team


    The SDSS/APOGEE project is measuring abundances of multiple elements for several hundred thousand stars across the Milky Way. These allow the mapping of abundances and abundance ratio variations. Results will be presented for multiple abundance ratios across of the Galactic disk. The interpretation of mean abundance maps is complicated by variations in star formation history across the disk and by changing abundance ratios that result from an overall metallicity gradient. Variations in chemical abundance sequences, however, show the potential for using abundance ratios to track the movement of stars through the disk, and provide key information for constraining Galaxy formation and chemical evolution models.

  12. Elemental abundances of flaring solar plasma - Enhanced neon and sulfur (United States)

    Schmelz, J. T.


    Elemental abundances of two flares observed with the SMM Flat Crystal Spectrometer are compared and contrasted. The first had a gradual rise and a slow decay, while the second was much more impulsive. Simultaneous spectra of seven bright soft X-ray resonance lines provide information over a broad temperature range and are available throughout both flares, making these events unique in the SMM data base. For the first flare, the plasma seemed to be characterized by coronal abundances but, for the second, the plasma composition could not be coronal, photospheric, or a linear combination of both. A good differential emission measure fit required enhanced neon such that Ne/O = 0.32 +/- 0.02, a value which is inconsistent with the current models of coronal abundances based on the elemental first-ionization potential. Similar values of enhanced neon are found for flaring plasma observed by the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer, in (He-3)-rich solar energetic particle events, and in the decay phase of several long duration soft X-ray events. Sulfur is also enhanced in the impulsive flare, but not as dramatically as neon. These events are compared with two models which attempt to explain the enhanced values of neon and sulfur.

  13. Atomic Diffusion, Mixing, and Element Abundances in Main Sequence Stars (United States)

    Vauclair, S.


    Atomic diffusion is now recognized as a standard process working in stars, and gravitational settling is introduced in most stellar evolution codes. Helioseismology proved the importance of the downward diffusion of helium and heavy elements below the solar convective zone. However, in more massive stars, the effect of selective radiative accelerations cannot be neglected. It has been known for a long time that the resulting atomic levitation may, in some cases, lead to abundance variations in stellar atmospheres, as observed in the so-called chemically peculiar stars. But this was only part of the story. We have now discovered that, when acting on important elements like iron or nickel, radiative levitation may also lead to global macroscopic effects inside stars, like extra convective zones, wave excitation by the κ-mechanism, and double-diffusive mixing processes like fingering (thermohaline) convection. This paper presents some links between these processes and their consequences.

  14. Trace Element Abundances in Refractory Inclusions from Antarctic Micrometeorites (United States)

    Greshake, A.; Hoppe, P.; Bischoff, A.


    Refractory inclusions are charcteristic components in carbonaceous chondrites. Therefore, refractory inclusions found in micrometeorites can give important hints about the relationship between micrometeorites and carbonaceous chondrites. So far, only a few inclusions were found in micrometeorites [1-4]. In this study we report the first trace element analysis of perovskite and fassaite found in micrometeorites. We studied two Antarctic micrometeorites by ASEM, EMP, and SIMS. The first particle is 120 micrometers in size mainly consisting of a fine-grained matrix of dehydrated former phyllosilikates that enclose a 5 micrometers sized perovskite [5]. The perovskite is surrounded by a 1 micrometers thick rim of ilmenite and contains up to 1.3 wt% FeO as determined by EMP. The trace element abundances were determined by SIMS following the procedure described by [6]. The REE pattern of the perovskite is shown in Fig. 1. The pattern is closely related to the Group II pattern with its typical depletion of the more refractory REEs [7]. It is also very similar to the REE abundances of perovskite from Murchison (CM) [8] and CH-chondrites [9]. This may indicate a relationship between this micrometeorite and components in carbonaceous chondrites. The second micrometeorite is 100 micrometers in size consisting of a fine-grained (20 micrometers across) and a coarse-grained (80 micrometers across) area. Both areas contain fassaite with different chemical compositions. The particle was previously analyzed by Lindstrom and Kloeck [1] without knowing the mineralogy. We carried out SIMS analysis of each area of the micrometeorite separately. The TEE patterns of these two areas are similar and show in general a Group III pattern (20-30x CI) in which the more refractory REEs are not fractionated. The negative Eu anomaly is much more apparent in the coarse-grained area and no Yb anomaly is apparent in one of the areas. This is the first CAI of a micrometeorite showing a Group III REE

  15. Abundances of neutron-capture elements in G 24-25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S.; Nissen, Poul Erik; Schuster, W. J.


    Aims. The differences between the neutron-capture element abundances of halo stars are important to our understanding of the nucleosynthesis of elements heavier than the iron group. We present a detailed abundance analysis of carbon and twelve neutron-capture elements from Sr up to Pb...... overabundances of carbon and heavy s-process elements and mild overabundances of Eu and light s-process elements. This abundance distribution is consistent with that of a typical CH giant. The abundance pattern can be explained by mass transfer from a former asymptotic giant branch component, which is now...

  16. Nanomaterials made of earth-abundant elements for photovoltaics (United States)

    Molk, Doreen

    Of the many types of solar cells currently under exploration, multijunction photovoltaics (MJPVs) are of the most interest due to their record-breaking solar energy conversion efficiencies (over 40%). However, MJPV device fabrication is expensive because they require a costly synthesis technique that utilizes rare elements such as gallium, arsenic, and indium. To resolve this issue, our efforts have been focused on the replacement of the thin-film materials currently employed in MJPVs with a more earth-abundant alternative, Zn-alloyed iron pyrite (ZnxFe(1-x)S2). The synthesis of ZnxFe(1-x)S2 nanoparticles is of particular interest because a nanoparticle 'ink' can be inserted into a roll-to-roll processor, which is an inexpensive technique of creating defect-free thin-films for electronics. The first part of this work explores the synthesis of Zn-alloyed iron pyrite nanoparticles via the modification of a solvothermal method from the literature. The nanoparticles generated using this method at first indicated zinc-alloying was successful; yet, further studies into the electronic structure of the particles necessitated the addition of a spin-purification step to ensure only highly soluble particles remained for spin-coating deposition. Compositional and structural analysis of the particles that remained after the additional spin-purification step showed evidence of both the ZnS and FeS2 phases. The second part of this work focuses on the development of an alternative method of generating iron pyrite nanoparticles, which would also eventually be used for zinc-alloying. The two approaches focused on are a hydrothermal method in an acid-digestion bomb and a non-injection solvothermal method in an inert environment. The synthesized particles using these methods were phase-pure and did not contain any detectable quantity of other iron sulfides.

  17. Abundances of the heavy elements in the Magellanic Clouds. I. Metal abundances of F-type supergiants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, S.C.; Bessell, M.S. (Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Canberra (Australia))


    Metal abundances of eight F-type supergiants in each of the Magellanic Clouds were determined using the results of high-resolution spectroscopy analysis of these stars, together with new Stromgren uvby and Cousins (1980) BVRI photometry. It was found that the mean Fe abundance (Fe/H) for the SMC is -0.65 + or - 0.2 dex, and the mean Fe abundance for the LMC is -0.30 + or - 0.2 dex. The abundances of stars in both the SMC and LMC appear relatively uniform, and the abundances of the elements relative to Fe are very similar in both Magellanic Clouds and in Canopus (the carbon-to-iron abundances are the same for all three). It was also found that Nd and Sm are overabundant in both clouds, supporting the trends found by Spite et al. (1988) for the three SMC stars they studied. 140 refs.

  18. The abundance of some elements in hair from Tanzanian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of hair from children living in three regions in Tanzania were analysed for their elemental content using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI) at Rez, Czech Republic. The elements were tested for the type of probability distribution; hence frequency histograms for the ...

  19. The light element abundance distribution in NGC 5128 from planetary nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. R.; Jacoby, G. H.; Peletier, R. F.; Walton, N. A.

    Context. Planetary nebulae in the nearest large elliptical galaxy provide light element abundances difficult or impossible to measure by other means in a stellar system very different from the galaxies in the Local Group. Aims. The light element abundance pattern from many planetary nebulae (PNe) at

  20. The elemental abundances (with uncertainties) of the most Earth-like planet (United States)

    Wang, Haiyang S.; Lineweaver, Charles H.; Ireland, Trevor R.


    To first order, the Earth as well as other rocky planets in the Solar System and rocky exoplanets orbiting other stars, are refractory pieces of the stellar nebula out of which they formed. To estimate the chemical composition of rocky exoplanets based on their stellar hosts' elemental abundances, we need a better understanding of the devolatilization that produced the Earth. To quantify the chemical relationships between the Earth, the Sun and other bodies in the Solar System, the elemental abundances of the bulk Earth are required. The key to comparing Earth's composition with those of other objects is to have a determination of the bulk composition with an appropriate estimate of uncertainties. Here we present concordance estimates (with uncertainties) of the elemental abundances of the bulk Earth, which can be used in such studies. First we compile, combine and renormalize a large set of heterogeneous literature values of the primitive mantle (PM) and of the core. We then integrate standard radial density profiles of the Earth and renormalize them to the current best estimate for the mass of the Earth. Using estimates of the uncertainties in i) the density profiles, ii) the core-mantle boundary and iii) the inner core boundary, we employ standard error propagation to obtain a core mass fraction of 32.5 ± 0.3 wt%. Our bulk Earth abundances are the weighted sum of our concordance core abundances and concordance PM abundances. Unlike previous efforts, the uncertainty on the core mass fraction is propagated to the uncertainties on the bulk Earth elemental abundances. Our concordance estimates for the abundances of Mg, Sn, Br, B, Cd and Be are significantly lower than previous estimates of the bulk Earth. Our concordance estimates for the abundances of Na, K, Cl, Zn, Sr, F, Ga, Rb, Nb, Gd, Ta, He, Ar, and Kr are significantly higher. The uncertainties on our elemental abundances usefully calibrate the unresolved discrepancies between standard Earth models under

  1. Anatomy of a cluster IDP. Part 2: Noble gas abundances, trace element geochemistry, isotopic abundances, and trace organic chemistry of several fragments from L2008#5 (United States)

    Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Mckay, David S.; Messenger, S.; Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Walker, R. M.


    The topics discussed include the following: noble gas content and release temperatures; trace element abundances; heating summary of cluster fragments; isotopic measurements; and trace organic chemistry.

  2. Measuring 14 Elemental Abundances with R = 1800 LAMOST Spectra (United States)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Rix, Hans-Walter; Conroy, Charlie; Ho, Anna Y. Q.; Lin, Jane


    The LAMOST survey has acquired low-resolution spectra (R = 1800) for 5 million stars across the Milky Way, far more than any current stellar survey at a corresponding or higher spectral resolution. It is often assumed that only very few elemental abundances can be measured from such low-resolution spectra, limiting their utility for Galactic archaeology studies. However, Ting et al. used ab initio models to argue that low-resolution spectra should enable precision measurements of many elemental abundances, at least in theory. Here, we verify this claim in practice by measuring the relative abundances of 14 elements from LAMOST spectra with a precision of ≲ 0.1 dex for objects with {{S}}/{{{N}}}{LAMOST}≳ 30 (per pixel). We employ a spectral modeling method in which a data-driven model is combined with priors that the model gradient spectra should resemble ab initio spectral models. This approach assures that the data-driven abundance determinations draw on physically sensible features in the spectrum in their predictions and do not just exploit astrophysical correlations among abundances. Our analysis is constrained to the number of elemental abundances measured in the APOGEE survey, which is the source of the training labels. Obtaining high quality/resolution spectra for a subset of LAMOST stars to measure more elemental abundances as training labels and then applying this method to the full LAMOST catalog will provide a sample with more than 20 elemental abundances, which is an order of magnitude larger than current high-resolution surveys, substantially increasing the sample size for Galactic archaeology.

  3. Isotope-abundance variations and atomic weights of selected elements: 2016 (IUPAC Technical Report) (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Shrestha, Yesha


    There are 63 chemical elements that have two or more isotopes that are used to determine their standard atomic weights. The isotopic abundances and atomic weights of these elements can vary in normal materials due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay). These variations are well known for 12 elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, bromine, and thallium), and the standard atomic weight of each of these elements is given by IUPAC as an interval with lower and upper bounds. Graphical plots of selected materials and compounds of each of these elements have been published previously. Herein and at the URL, we provide isotopic abundances, isotope-delta values, and atomic weights for each of the upper and lower bounds of these materials and compounds.

  4. AlterBBN: A program for calculating the BBN abundances of the elements in alternative cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, Alexandre


    We describe AlterBBN, a public C program for evaluating the abundances of the elements generated by Big-Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). This program enables the user to compute the abundances of the elements in the standard model of cosmology, and additionally provides possibilities to alter the assumptions of the cosmological model in order to study their consequences on the abundances of the elements. In particular the baryon-to-photon ratio and the effective number of neutrinos, as well as the expansion rate and the entropy content of the Universe during BBN can be modified in AlterBBN. Such features allow the user to test the cosmological models by confronting them to BBN constraints. A presentation of the physics of BBN and the features of AlterBBN is provided here under the form of a manual.

  5. The Abundance of Iron-Peak Elements and the Dust Composition in eta Carinae: Manganese (United States)

    Bautista, M. A.; Melendez, M.; Hartman, H.; Gull, T. R.; Lodders, K.


    We study the chemical abundances of the Strontium Filament found in the ejecta of (eta) Carinae. In particular, we derive the abundances of iron-peak elements front spectra of their singly ionized ions present in the optical/IR spectra. In this paper we analyze the spectrum of Mn II using a new non-LTE model for this system. In constructing this models we carried out theoretical calculations of radiative transition rates and electron impact excitation rate coefficients. We find that relative to Ni the gas phase abundance ratio of Mn is roughly solar, similar to the Cr abundance but in contrast to the large enhancements in the abundances of Sc and Ti. NVe interpret this result as an indication of non-equilibrium condensation in the ejecta of (eta) Carinae.

  6. Detailed chemical abundances in NGC 5824: another metal-poor globular cluster with internal heavy element abundance variations (United States)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I.; Spencer, Meghin; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Shectman, Stephen A.


    We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundances of 39 elements derived from high-resolution spectroscopic observations of red giant stars in the luminous, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 5824. We observe 26 stars in NGC 5824 using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and two stars using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph. We derive a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.94 ± 0.02 (statistical) ±0.10 (systematic). The metallicity dispersion of this sample of stars, 0.08 dex, is in agreement with previous work and does not exceed the expected observational errors. Previous work suggested an internal metallicity spread only when fainter samples of stars were considered, so we cannot exclude the possibility of an intrinsic metallicity dispersion in NGC 5824. The M2FS spectra reveal a large internal dispersion in [Mg/Fe], 0.28 dex, which is found in a few other luminous, metal-poor clusters. [Mg/Fe] is correlated with [O/Fe] and anticorrelated with [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe]. There is no evidence for internal dispersion among the other α- or Fe-group abundance ratios. 25 of the 26 stars exhibit a n-capture enrichment pattern dominated by r-process nucleosynthesis ( = +0.11 ± 0.12; = -0.66 ± 0.05). Only one star shows evidence of substantial s-process enhancement ([Ba/Fe] = +0.56 ± 0.12; [Ba/Eu] = +0.38 ± 0.14), but this star does not exhibit other characteristics associated with s-process enhancement via mass transfer from a binary companion. The Pb and other heavy elements produced by the s-process suggest a time-scale of no more than a few hundred Myr for star formation and chemical enrichment, like the complex globular clusters M2, M22, and NGC 5286.

  7. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Optical Extension for Neutron Capture Elements (United States)

    Melendez, Matthew; O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Donor, John; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Stassun, Keivan G.; APOGEE Team


    The Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey is a systematic survey of Galactic open clusters using data primarily from the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. However, neutron capture elements are very limited in the IR region covered by APOGEE. In an effort to fully study detailed Galactic chemical evolution, we are conducting a high resolution (R~60,000) spectroscopic abundance analysis of neutron capture elements for OCCAM clusters in the optical regime to complement the APOGEE results. As part of this effort, we present Ba II, La II, Ce II and Eu II results for a few open clusters without previous abundance measurements using data obtained at McDonald Observatory with the 2.1m Otto Struve telescope and Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph.This work is supported by an NSF AAG grant AST-1311835.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: α-element abundances of Cepheid stars (Genovali+, 2015) (United States)

    Genovali, K.; Lemasle, B.; da Silva, R.; Bono, G.; Fabrizio, M.; Bergemann, M.; Buonanno, R.; Ferraro, I.; Francois, P.; Iannicola, G.; Inno, L.; Laney, C. D.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Matsunaga, N.; Nonino, M.; Primas, F.; Romaniello, M.; Urbaneja, M. A.; Thevenin, F.


    The abundances of Fe, Na, Al, and three alpha elements (Mg, Si, Ca) for our sample of 75 Cepheids plus data available in the literature for other 364 Cepheids are shown. We first show the abundances derived based on individual spectra for the 75 stars, then the averaged values, and finally the data from the literature. The original abundances available in the literature were rescaled according to the zero-point differences listed in Table 3. The priority was given in the following order: we first adopt the abundances provided by our group, this study (TS) and Lemasle et al. (2013A&A...558A..31L, LEM), and then those provided by the other studies, Luck & Lambert (2011AJ....142..136L, LIII), Luck et al. (2011AJ....142...51L, LII), and Yong et al. (2006AJ....131.2256Y, YON). (3 data files).

  9. Probabilisitc Geobiological Classification Using Elemental Abundance Distributions and Lossless Image Compression in Recent and Modern Organisms (United States)

    Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.; Hoover, Richard B.


    Last year we presented techniques for the detection of fossils during robotic missions to Mars using both structural and chemical signatures[Storrie-Lombardi and Hoover, 2004]. Analyses included lossless compression of photographic images to estimate the relative complexity of a putative fossil compared to the rock matrix [Corsetti and Storrie-Lombardi, 2003] and elemental abundance distributions to provide mineralogical classification of the rock matrix [Storrie-Lombardi and Fisk, 2004]. We presented a classification strategy employing two exploratory classification algorithms (Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and non-linear stochastic neural network to produce a Bayesian estimate of classification accuracy. We now present an extension of our previous experiments exploring putative fossil forms morphologically resembling cyanobacteria discovered in the Orgueil meteorite. Elemental abundances (C6, N7, O8, Na11, Mg12, Ai13, Si14, P15, S16, Cl17, K19, Ca20, Fe26) obtained for both extant cyanobacteria and fossil trilobites produce signatures readily distinguishing them from meteorite targets. When compared to elemental abundance signatures for extant cyanobacteria Orgueil structures exhibit decreased abundances for C6, N7, Na11, All3, P15, Cl17, K19, Ca20 and increases in Mg12, S16, Fe26. Diatoms and silicified portions of cyanobacterial sheaths exhibiting high levels of silicon and correspondingly low levels of carbon cluster more closely with terrestrial fossils than with extant cyanobacteria. Compression indices verify that variations in random and redundant textural patterns between perceived forms and the background matrix contribute significantly to morphological visual identification. The results provide a quantitative probabilistic methodology for discriminating putatitive fossils from the surrounding rock matrix and &om extant organisms using both structural and chemical information. The techniques described appear applicable

  10. High-precision abundances of elements in Kepler LEGACY stars. Verification of trends with stellar age (United States)

    Nissen, P. E.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Collet, R.; Grundahl, F.; Slumstrup, D.


    Context. A previous study of solar twin stars has revealed the existence of correlations between some abundance ratios and stellar age providing new knowledge about nucleosynthesis and Galactic chemical evolution. Aims: High-precision abundances of elements are determined for stars with asteroseismic ages in order to test the solar twin relations. Methods: HARPS-N spectra with signal-to-noise ratios S/N ≳ 250 and MARCS model atmospheres were used to derive abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, and Y in ten stars from the Kepler LEGACY sample (including the binary pair 16 Cyg A and B) selected to have metallicities in the range - 0.15 LTE iron abundances derived from Fe I and Fe II lines. Available non-LTE corrections were also applied when deriving abundances of the other elements. Results: The abundances of the Kepler stars support the [X/Fe]-age relations previously found for solar twins. [Mg/Fe], [Al/Fe], and [Zn/Fe] decrease by 0.1 dex over the lifetime of the Galactic thin disk due to delayed contribution of iron from Type Ia supernovae relative to prompt production of Mg, Al, and Zn in Type II supernovae. [Y/Mg] and [Y/Al], on the other hand, increase by 0.3 dex, which can be explained by an increasing contribution of s-process elements from low-mass AGB stars as time goes on. The trends of [C/Fe] and [O/Fe] are more complicated due to variations of the ratio between refractory and volatile elements among stars of similar age. Two stars with about the same age as the Sun show very different trends of [X/H] as a function of elemental condensation temperature Tc and for 16 Cyg, the two components have an abundance difference, which increases with Tc. These anomalies may be connected to planet-star interactions. Based on spectra obtained with HARPS-N@TNG under programme A33TAC_1.Tables 1 and 2 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via http://cdsarc

  11. X-shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects in Lupus. Lithium, iron, and barium elemental abundances (United States)

    Biazzo, K.; Frasca, A.; Alcalá, J. M.; Zusi, M.; Covino, E.; Randich, S.; Esposito, M.; Manara, C. F.; Antoniucci, S.; Nisini, B.; Rigliaco, E.; Getman, F.


    Aims: With the purpose of performing a homogeneous determination of elemental abundances for members of the Lupus T association, we analyzed three chemical elements: lithium, iron, and barium. The aims were: 1) to derive the lithium abundance for the almost complete sample ( 90%) of known class II stars in the Lupus I, II, III, and IV clouds; 2) to perform chemical tagging of a region where few iron abundance measurements have been obtained in the past, and no determination of the barium content has been done up to now. We also investigated possible barium enhancement at the very young age of the region, as this element has become increasingly interesting in the last few years following the evidence of barium over-abundance in young clusters, the origin of which is still unknown. Methods: Using the X-shooter spectrograph mounted on the Unit 2 (UT2) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), we analyzed the spectra of 89 cluster members, both class II (82) and class III (7) stars. We measured the strength of the lithium line at λ6707.8 Å and derived the abundance of this element through equivalent width measurements and curves of growth. For six class II stars we also derived the iron and barium abundances using the spectral synthesis method and the code MOOG. The veiling contribution was taken into account in the abundance analysis for all three elements. Results: We find a dispersion in the strength of the lithium line at low effective temperatures and identify three targets with severe Li depletion. The nuclear age inferred for these highly lithium-depleted stars is around 15 Myr, which exceeds by an order of magnitude the isochronal one. We derive a nearly solar metallicity for the members whose spectra could be analyzed. We find that Ba is over-abundant by 0.7 dex with respect to the Sun. Since current theoretical models cannot reproduce this abundance pattern, we investigated whether this unusually large Ba content might be related to effects due to stellar

  12. The Origin of Solar Filament Plasma Inferred from In Situ Observations of Elemental Abundances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, H. Q.; Chen, Y.; Li, B. [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Li, L. P. [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhao, L. [Department of Climate and Space sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); He, J. S.; Duan, D. [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, X. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China); Zhang, J., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)


    Solar filaments/prominences are one of the most common features in the corona, which may lead to energetic coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and flares when they erupt. Filaments are about 100 times cooler and denser than the coronal material, and physical understanding of their material origin remains controversial. Two types of scenarios have been proposed: one argues that the filament plasma is brought into the corona from photosphere or chromosphere through a siphon or evaporation/injection process, while the other suggests that the material condenses from the surrounding coronal plasma due to thermal instability. The elemental abundance analysis is a reasonable clue to constrain the models, as the siphon or evaporation/injection model would predict that the filament material abundances are close to the photospheric or chromospheric ones, while the condensation model should have coronal abundances. In this Letter, we analyze the elemental abundances of a magnetic cloud that contains the ejected filament material. The corresponding filament eruption occurred on 1998 April 29, accompanying an M6.8 class soft X-ray flare located at the heliographic coordinates S18E20 (NOAA 08210) and a fast halo CME with the linear velocity of 1374 km s{sup −1} near the Sun. We find that the abundance ratios of elements with low and high first ionization potential such as Fe/O, Mg/O, and Si/O are 0.150, 0.050, and 0.070, respectively, approaching their corresponding photospheric values 0.065, 0.081, and 0.066, which does not support the coronal origin of the filament plasma.

  13. Revisiting the plant hyperaccumulation criteria to rare plants and earth abundant elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branquinho, Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal) and Universidade Atlantica, Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)]. E-mail:; Serrano, Helena Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal); Pinto, Manuel Joao [Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal); Martins-Loucao, Maria Amelia [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal)


    The several established criteria to define a hyperaccumulator plant were applied to a rare and endangered species, Plantago almogravensis, and to the 3rd most abundant element in the earth crust, Al. Using the most common criteria, P. almogravensis undoubtedly is an Al hyperaccumulator plant. If the recent proposed requirements were considered, most of them matching those for a plant to be used in phytoextraction, it can only be considered an unusual accumulator of Al. A discussion is made concerning the several criteria of a hyperaccumulator plant in order to include rare and endemic ones and abundant elements. In ecological terms, the enrichment in Al and Fe observed may account for the differences in the vegetation pattern. Due to the rarity and endangered nature of this plant, the contribution of this work is also relevant for the ecological understanding and the development of conservation options of this endemic species. - Revisiting plant hyperaccumulation criteria.

  14. Prospects for Measuring Abundances of >20 Elements with Low-resolution Stellar Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie; Cargile, Phillip [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)


    Understanding the evolution of the Milky Way calls for the precise abundance determination of many elements in many stars. A common perception is that deriving more than a few elemental abundances ([Fe/H], [ α /Fe], perhaps [C/H], [N/H]) requires medium-to-high spectral resolution, R ≳ 10,000, mostly to overcome the effects of line blending. In a recent work, we presented an efficient and practical way to model the full stellar spectrum, even when fitting a large number of stellar labels simultaneously. In this paper, we quantify to what precision the abundances of many different elements can be recovered, as a function of spectroscopic resolution and wavelength range. In the limit of perfect spectral models and spectral normalization, we show that the precision of elemental abundances is nearly independent of resolution, for a fixed exposure time and number of detector pixels; low-resolution spectra simply afford much higher S/N per pixel and generally larger wavelength range in a single setting. We also show that estimates of most stellar labels are not strongly correlated with one another once R ≳ 1000. Modest errors in the line-spread function, as well as small radial velocity errors, do not affect these conclusions, and data-driven models indicate that spectral (continuum) normalization can be achieved well enough in practice. These results, to be confirmed with an analysis of observed low-resolution data, open up new possibilities for the design of large spectroscopic stellar surveys and for the reanalysis of archival low-resolution data sets.

  15. Disk Evolution, Element Abundances and Cloud Properties of Young Gas Giant Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Helling


    Full Text Available We discuss the chemical pre-conditions for planet formation, in terms of gas and ice abundances in a protoplanetary disk, as function of time and position, and the resulting chemical composition and cloud properties in the atmosphere when young gas giant planets form, in particular discussing the effects of unusual, non-solar carbon and oxygen abundances. Large deviations between the abundances of the host star and its gas giants seem likely to occur if the planet formation follows the core-accretion scenario. These deviations stem from the separate evolution of gas and dust in the disk, where the dust forms the planet cores, followed by the final run-away accretion of the left-over gas. This gas will contain only traces of elements like C, N and O, because those elements have frozen out as ices. PRODIMO protoplanetary disk models are used to predict the chemical evolution of gas and ice in the midplane. We find that cosmic rays play a crucial role in slowly un-blocking the CO, where the liberated oxygen forms water, which then freezes out quickly. Therefore, the C/O ratio in the gas phase is found to gradually increase with time, in a region bracketed by the water and CO ice-lines. In this regions, C/O is found to approach unity after about 5 Myrs, scaling with the cosmic ray ionization rate assumed. We then explore how the atmospheric chemistry and cloud properties in young gas giants are affected when the non-solar C/O ratios predicted by the disk models are assumed. The DRIFT cloud formation model is applied to study the formation of atmospheric clouds under the influence of varying premordial element abundances and its feedback onto the local gas. We demonstrate that element depletion by cloud formation plays a crucial role in converting an oxygen-rich atmosphere gas into carbon-rich gas when non-solar, premordial element abundances are considered as suggested by disk models.

  16. Elemental abundance studies of CP stars. II. The silicon stars HD 133029 and HD 192913

    CERN Document Server

    López-García, Z


    For pt.1 see ibid., vol.107, no.2, p.353-63 (1994). Fine analyses of the silicon stars HD 133029 and HD 192913 are presented using ATLAS9 model atmospheres whose predictions fit the optical region spectrophotometry and H gamma profiles and have the same bulk metallicity as the deduced abundances. Both are very He poor stars. The light elements are mostly solar except for silicon, and all the heavier elements, except nickel in HD 133029 which is solar, are greatly overabundant. The iron peak elements are typically 10 times overabundant. SrYZr are of order of 100 times solar. The rare earths are 1000 or more times overabundant. Table 4 is is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via (50 refs).

  17. Gaia FGK benchmark stars: opening the black box of stellar element abundance determination (United States)

    Jofré, P.; Heiter, U.; Worley, C. C.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Soubiran, C.; Masseron, T.; Hawkins, K.; Adibekyan, V.; Buder, S.; Casamiquela, L.; Gilmore, G.; Hourihane, A.; Tabernero, H.


    Gaia and its complementary spectroscopic surveys combined will yield the most comprehensive database of kinematic and chemical information of stars in the Milky Way. The Gaia FGK benchmark stars play a central role in this matter as they are calibration pillars for the atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances for various surveys. The spectroscopic analyses of the benchmark stars are done by combining different methods, and the results will be affected by the systematic uncertainties inherent in each method. In this paper, we explore some of these systematic uncertainties. We determined line abundances of Ca, Cr, Mn and Co for four benchmark stars using six different methods. We changed the default input parameters of the different codes in a systematic way and found, in some cases, significant differences between the results. Since there is no consensus on the correct values for many of these default parameters, we urge the community to raise discussions towards standard input parameters that could alleviate the difference in abundances obtained by different methods. In this work, we provide quantitative estimates of uncertainties in elemental abundances due to the effect of differing technical assumptions in spectrum modelling.

  18. Spatial Distribution of Element Abundances and Ionization States in Solar Energetic-Particle Events (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.


    We have studied the spatial and temporal distribution of abundances of chemical elements in large "gradual" solar energetic-particle (SEP) events, and especially the source plasma temperatures, derived from those abundances, using measurements from the Wind and Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft, widely separated in solar longitude. A power-law relationship between abundance enhancements and mass-to-charge ratios [A/Q] of the ions can be used to determine Q-values and source plasma temperatures at remote spacecraft with instruments that were not designed for charge-state measurements. We search for possible source variations along the accelerating shock wave, finding one clear case where the accelerating shock wave appears to dispatch ions from 3.2± 0.8 MK plasma toward one spacecraft and those from 1.6± 0.2 MK plasma toward another, 116∘ away. The difference persists for three days and then fades away. Three other SEP events show less-extreme variation in source temperatures at different spacecraft, in one case observed over 222∘ in longitude. This initial study shows how the power-law relation between abundance enhancements and ion A/Q-values provides a new technique to determine Q and plasma temperatures in the seed population of SEP ions over a broad region of space using remote spacecraft with instruments that were not originally designed for measurements of ionization states.

  19. SP_Ace: a new code to derive stellar parameters and elemental abundances (United States)

    Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K.


    Context. Ongoing and future massive spectroscopic surveys will collect large numbers (106-107) of stellar spectra that need to be analyzed. Highly automated software is needed to derive stellar parameters and chemical abundances from these spectra. Aims: We developed a new method of estimating the stellar parameters Teff, log g, [M/H], and elemental abundances. This method was implemented in a new code, SP_Ace (Stellar Parameters And Chemical abundances Estimator). This is a highly automated code suitable for analyzing the spectra of large spectroscopic surveys with low or medium spectral resolution (R = 2000-20 000). Methods: After the astrophysical calibration of the oscillator strengths of 4643 absorption lines covering the wavelength ranges 5212-6860 Å and 8400-8924 Å, we constructed a library that contains the equivalent widths (EW) of these lines for a grid of stellar parameters. The EWs of each line are fit by a polynomial function that describes the EW of the line as a function of the stellar parameters. The coefficients of these polynomial functions are stored in a library called the "GCOG library". SP_Ace, a code written in FORTRAN95, uses the GCOG library to compute the EWs of the lines, constructs models of spectra as a function of the stellar parameters and abundances, and searches for the model that minimizes the χ2 deviation when compared to the observed spectrum. The code has been tested on synthetic and real spectra for a wide range of signal-to-noise and spectral resolutions. Results: SP_Ace derives stellar parameters such as Teff, log g, [M/H], and chemical abundances of up to ten elements for low to medium resolution spectra of FGK-type stars with precision comparable to the one usually obtained with spectra of higher resolution. Systematic errors in stellar parameters and chemical abundances are presented and identified with tests on synthetic and real spectra. Stochastic errors are automatically estimated by the code for all the parameters

  20. Trace Element Abundances in an Unusual Hibonite-Perovskite Refractory Inclusion from Allende (United States)

    Mane, Prajkta; Wadhwa, M.; Keller, L. P.


    Calcium-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) are thought to be the first-formed solids in the Solar protoplanetary disk and can provide information about the earliest Solar System processes (e.g., [1]). A hibonite-perovskitebearing CAI from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL, [2]) contains a single of 500 micrometers hibonite grain and coarse-grained perovskite. The mineralogy and oxygen isotopic composition of this CAI shows similarities with FUN inclusions, especially HAL [2]. Here we present trace element abundances in SHAL.

  1. Neutral Theory Predicts the Relative Abundance and Diversity of Genetic Elements in a Broad Array of Eukaryotic Genomes (United States)

    Serra, François; Becher, Verónica; Dopazo, Hernán


    It is universally true in ecological communities, terrestrial or aquatic, temperate or tropical, that some species are very abundant, others are moderately common, and the majority are rare. Likewise, eukaryotic genomes also contain classes or “species” of genetic elements that vary greatly in abundance: DNA transposons, retrotransposons, satellite sequences, simple repeats and their less abundant functional sequences such as RNA or genes. Are the patterns of relative species abundance and diversity similar among ecological communities and genomes? Previous dynamical models of genomic diversity have focused on the selective forces shaping the abundance and diversity of transposable elements (TEs). However, ideally, models of genome dynamics should consider not only TEs, but also the diversity of all genetic classes or “species” populating eukaryotic genomes. Here, in an analysis of the diversity and abundance of genetic elements in >500 eukaryotic chromosomes, we show that the patterns are consistent with a neutral hypothesis of genome assembly in virtually all chromosomes tested. The distributions of relative abundance of genetic elements are quite precisely predicted by the dynamics of an ecological model for which the principle of functional equivalence is the main assumption. We hypothesize that at large temporal scales an overarching neutral or nearly neutral process governs the evolution of abundance and diversity of genetic elements in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:23798991

  2. Neutral theory predicts the relative abundance and diversity of genetic elements in a broad array of eukaryotic genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Serra

    Full Text Available It is universally true in ecological communities, terrestrial or aquatic, temperate or tropical, that some species are very abundant, others are moderately common, and the majority are rare. Likewise, eukaryotic genomes also contain classes or "species" of genetic elements that vary greatly in abundance: DNA transposons, retrotransposons, satellite sequences, simple repeats and their less abundant functional sequences such as RNA or genes. Are the patterns of relative species abundance and diversity similar among ecological communities and genomes? Previous dynamical models of genomic diversity have focused on the selective forces shaping the abundance and diversity of transposable elements (TEs. However, ideally, models of genome dynamics should consider not only TEs, but also the diversity of all genetic classes or "species" populating eukaryotic genomes. Here, in an analysis of the diversity and abundance of genetic elements in >500 eukaryotic chromosomes, we show that the patterns are consistent with a neutral hypothesis of genome assembly in virtually all chromosomes tested. The distributions of relative abundance of genetic elements are quite precisely predicted by the dynamics of an ecological model for which the principle of functional equivalence is the main assumption. We hypothesize that at large temporal scales an overarching neutral or nearly neutral process governs the evolution of abundance and diversity of genetic elements in eukaryotic genomes.

  3. Neutral theory predicts the relative abundance and diversity of genetic elements in a broad array of eukaryotic genomes. (United States)

    Serra, François; Becher, Verónica; Dopazo, Hernán


    It is universally true in ecological communities, terrestrial or aquatic, temperate or tropical, that some species are very abundant, others are moderately common, and the majority are rare. Likewise, eukaryotic genomes also contain classes or "species" of genetic elements that vary greatly in abundance: DNA transposons, retrotransposons, satellite sequences, simple repeats and their less abundant functional sequences such as RNA or genes. Are the patterns of relative species abundance and diversity similar among ecological communities and genomes? Previous dynamical models of genomic diversity have focused on the selective forces shaping the abundance and diversity of transposable elements (TEs). However, ideally, models of genome dynamics should consider not only TEs, but also the diversity of all genetic classes or "species" populating eukaryotic genomes. Here, in an analysis of the diversity and abundance of genetic elements in >500 eukaryotic chromosomes, we show that the patterns are consistent with a neutral hypothesis of genome assembly in virtually all chromosomes tested. The distributions of relative abundance of genetic elements are quite precisely predicted by the dynamics of an ecological model for which the principle of functional equivalence is the main assumption. We hypothesize that at large temporal scales an overarching neutral or nearly neutral process governs the evolution of abundance and diversity of genetic elements in eukaryotic genomes.

  4. Light, alpha, and Fe-peak element abundances in the galactic bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kobayashi, Chiaki [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Kunder, Andrea [Leibniz-Institute für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Ander Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Koch, Andreas, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, Heidelberg (Germany)


    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu for a sample of 156 red giant branch stars in two Galactic bulge fields centered near (l, b) = (+5.25,–3.02) and (0,–12). The (+5.25,–3.02) field also includes observations of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553. The results are based on high-resolution (R ∼ 20,000), high signal-to-noise ration (S/N ≳ 70) FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectra obtained through the European Southern Observatory archive. However, we only selected a subset of the original observations that included spectra with both high S/N and that did not show strong TiO absorption bands. This work extends previous analyses of this data set beyond Fe and the α-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti. While we find reasonable agreement with past work, the data presented here indicate that the bulge may exhibit a different chemical composition than the local thick disk, especially at [Fe/H] ≳ –0.5. In particular, the bulge [α/Fe] ratios may remain enhanced to a slightly higher [Fe/H] than the thick disk, and the Fe-peak elements Co, Ni, and Cu appear enhanced compared to the disk. There is also some evidence that the [Na/Fe] (but not [Al/Fe]) trends between the bulge and local disk may be different at low and high metallicity. We also find that the velocity dispersion decreases as a function of increasing [Fe/H] for both fields, and do not detect any significant cold, high-velocity populations. A comparison with chemical enrichment models indicates that a significant fraction of hypernovae may be required to explain the bulge abundance trends, and that initial mass functions that are steep, top-heavy (and do not include strong outflow), or truncated to avoid including contributions from stars >40 M {sub ☉} are ruled out, in particular because of disagreement with the Fe-peak abundance data. For most elements, the NGC 6553 stars exhibit abundance trends nearly identical to comparable metallicity bulge field

  5. Rare Earth Element Abundances and Pb-Pb Ages of Merrillite in Jinju H5 Chondrite: Implications to Shock Metamorphism (United States)

    Goh, S.; Choi, B.-G.


    Jinju merrillite shows homogeneous REE abundances and relatively young Pb-Pb ages. Jinju H5 chondrite was probably neither equilibrated nor compacted prior to the impact and the shock made trace elements including REEs and U-Pb equilibrated.

  6. Element distribution and noble gas isotopic abundances in lunar meteorite Allan Hills A81005 (United States)

    Kraehenbuehl, U.; Eugster, O.; Niedermann, S.


    Antarctic meteorite ALLAN HILLS A81005, an anorthositic breccia, is recognized to be of lunar origin. The noble gases in this meteorite were analyzed and found to be solar-wind implanted gases, whose absolute and relative concentrations are quite similar to those in lunar regolith samples. A sample of this meteorite was obtained for the analysis of the noble gas isotopes, including Kr(81), and for the determination of the elemental abundances. In order to better determine the volume derived from the surface correlated gases, grain size fractions were prepared. The results of the instrumental measurements of the gamma radiation are listed. From the amounts of cosmic ray produced noble gases and respective production rates, the lunar surface residence times were calculated. It was concluded that the lunar surface time is about half a billion years.

  7. Abundances of the light elements from UV (HST) and red (ESO) spectra in the very old star HD 84937 (United States)

    Spite, M.; Peterson, R. C.; Gallagher, A. J.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, F.


    Aims: In order to provide a better basis for the study of mechanisms of nucleosynthesis of the light elements beyond hydrogen and helium in the oldest stars, the abundances of C, O, Mg, Si, P, S, K, and Ca have been derived from UV-HST and visible-ESO high resolution spectra in the old, very metal-poor star HD 84937, at a metallicity that is 1/200 that of the Sun's. For this halo main-sequence turnoff star, the abundance determination of P and S are the first published determinations. Methods: The LTE profiles of the lines were computed and fitted to the observed spectra. Wherever possible, we compared the abundances derived from the UV spectrum to abundances derived from the visible or near-infrared spectra, and also corrected the derived abundances for non-LTE effects. Three-dimensional (3D) CO5BOLD model atmospheres have been used to determine the abundances of C and O from molecular CH and OH bands. Results: The abundances of these light elements relative to iron in HD 84937 are found to agree well with the abundances of these elements in classical metal-poor stars. Our HD 84937 carbon abundance determination points toward a solar (or mildly enhanced above solar) value of [C/Fe]. The modest overabundance of the α elements of even atomic number Z, typical of halo turnoff stars, is confirmed in this example. The odd-Z element P is found to be somewhat deficient in HD 84937, at [P/Fe] = -0.32, which is again consistent with the handful of existing determinations for turnoff stars of such low metallicity. We show that the abundance of oxygen, deduced from the OH band from 3D computations, is not compatible with the abundance deduced from the red oxygen triplet. This incompatibility is explained by the existence of a chromosphere heating the shallow layers of the atmosphere where the OH band, in 3D computations, is mainly formed. Conclusions: The abundance ratios are compared to the predictions of models of galactic nucleosynthesis and evolution. Based on

  8. Using Elemental Abundances and Petrophysical Properties to Trace Sediment Transport in the Hudson River (United States)

    Chang, C.; Kenna, T. C.; Nitsche, F. O.


    The IPCC predicts that the frequency and severity of storms worldwide will increase due to climate change, a growing concern for the highly populated coastal areas near the Hudson River estuary. Storms have the potential to change the river's sediment budget, and it is necessary to update the current understanding of the effect of storms on sediment dynamics. In 2011, Tropical Storm Lee and Hurricane Irene delivered over 2.7 million tons of sediment to the Hudson River including over 1.5 million tons from the Mohawk River, a freshwater tributary, in addition to record amounts contributed from other major tributaries. The goals of this project are to use sediment elemental compositions to trace the major tributaries contributing to this storm-deposited sediment and to determine where sediment is accumulating as a result of storm activity. Chemical analysis of over 800 archived sediment samples are compiled to provide a pre-storm background level. These samples are compared to newly deposited sediment and material from specific tributaries. Elemental abundances (K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Pb, and U) are measured using a field portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) unit and core scanning XRF unit. Bulk matrix density is measured using a pycnometer. The measurements are used to identify elemental signatures from tributary sediment and to trace the influence of specific tributaries on deposition through the river. Our results suggests measureable signatures in sediment from individual tributaries. The Mohawk River contributes high concentrations of Ca due to the calcite deposits in its watershed. XRF measurements also show the effect of human activity on sediment deposition; variations in Rb and Zr indicate changes in deposition due to dredging in Haverstraw Bay. The salt wedge front, where ocean and fresh water meets is evident in areas of below average matrix density. This project shows significant geochemical variability between sediment from different

  9. Element abundances, patterns, and mobility in Nakhlite Miller Range 03346 and implications for aqueous alteration (United States)

    Stopar, Julie D.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Velbel, Michael A.; Norman, Marc D.; Vicenzi, Edward P.; Hallis, Lydia J.


    Nakhlite Miller Range (MIL) 03346 contains many secondary phases resulting from aqueous processes, including formation of poorly crystalline iddingsite-like veins in olivine, the precipitation of Ca-sulfates and Fe,K-sulfates from evaporating fluids, alteration of titanomagnetite to secondary Fe-oxides, and the dissolution of magmatic Ca-phosphates and residual glass in the mesostasis. A surprising variety of alteration products occur in association with olivine in MIL 03346, including: patches of incipiently-altered olivine, large Si-enriched olivine-hosted veins (up to 10 μm across) some of which are complex in morphology and are composed of several phases, small Fe,S(±K)-rich veinlets that crosscut the Si-enriched veins, Ca-sulfates filling cracks in olivine, and secondary Ca-phosphates. Elemental abundances and distributions in these alteration products are consistent with the mobilization of elements from readily dissolved phases in the mesostasis such as phosphates and residual glass. Under favorable weathering conditions, these phases dissolve more readily than pyroxenes, plagioclase, and even olivine at low pH. The occurrence (crosscut and devolatilized by the fusion crust) and composition of Si-enriched alteration veins in olivine are consistent with their formation on Mars. Si-enriched, poorly crystalline alteration products and secondary Ca-sulfates commonly occur in nakhlites, but the habit and composition of these alteration products differ between meteorites. Elemental distributions in these secondary phases suggest at least two episodes of alteration have affected MIL 03346, and subtle differences in secondary minerals and chemistry indicate that each nakhlite experienced its own unique alteration history either on Mars, Earth, or both. The variable Al content and range of morphologies of the olivine-hosted Si-enriched veins suggest variable alteration conditions consistent with a water-limited regime. If the secondary phases in MIL 03346 can be

  10. Galactic abundance gradients from Cepheids : α and heavy elements in the outer disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemasle, B.; Francois, P.; Genovali, K.; Kovtyukh, V. V.; Bono, G.; Inno, L.; Laney, C. D.; Kaper, L.; Bergemann, M.; Fabrizio, M.; Matsunaga, N.; Pedicelli, S.; Primas, F.; Romaniello, M.


    Context. Galactic abundance gradients set strong constraints to chemo-dynamical evolutionary models of the Milky Way. Given the period-luminosity relations that provide accurate distances and the large number of spectral lines, Cepheids are excellent tracers of the present-day abundance gradients.

  11. Solar abundances of rock-forming elements, extreme oxygen and hydrogen in a young polluted white dwarf (United States)

    Farihi, J.; Koester, D.; Zuckerman, B.; Vican, L.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Smith, N.; Walth, G.; Breedt, E.


    The Teff = 20 800 K white dwarf WD 1536+520 is shown to have broadly solar abundances of the major rock-forming elements O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe, together with a strong relative depletion in the volatile elements C and S. In addition to the highest metal abundances observed to date, including log (O/He) = -3.4, the helium-dominated atmosphere has an exceptional hydrogen abundance at log (H/He) = -1.7. Within the uncertainties, the metal-to-metal ratios are consistent with the accretion of an H2O-rich and rocky parent body, an interpretation supported by the anomalously high trace hydrogen. The mixed atmosphere yields unusually short diffusion time-scales for a helium atmosphere white dwarf, of no more than a few hundred years, and equivalent to those in a much cooler, hydrogen-rich star. The overall heavy element abundances of the disrupted parent body deviate modestly from a bulk Earth pattern, and suggest the deposition of some core-like material. The total inferred accretion rate is 4.2 × 109 g s-1, and at least four times higher than for any white dwarf with a comparable diffusion time-scale. Notably, when accretion is exhausted in this system, both metals and hydrogen will become undetectable within roughly 300 Myr, thus supporting a scenario where the trace hydrogen is related to the ongoing accretion of planetary debris.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kobayashi, Chiaki [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Kunder, Andrea; De Propris, Roberto [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Pilachowski, Catherine A. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Swain West 319, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States); Koch, Andreas, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, Heidelberg (Germany)


    We present radial velocities and chemical abundance ratios of [Fe/H], [O/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] for 264 red giant branch stars in three Galactic bulge off-axis fields located near (l, b) = (-5.5, -7), (-4, -9), and (+8.5, +9). The results are based on equivalent width and spectrum synthesis analyses of moderate resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 18,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N {approx} 75-300 pixel{sup -1}) spectra obtained with the Hydra spectrographs on the Blanco 4 m and WIYN 3.5 m telescopes. The targets were selected from the blue side of the giant branch to avoid cool stars that would be strongly affected by CN and TiO; however, a comparison of the color-metallicity distribution in literature samples suggests that our selection of bluer targets should not present a significant bias against metal-rich stars. We find a full range in metallicity that spans [Fe/H] Almost-Equal-To -1.5 to +0.5, and that, in accordance with the previously observed minor-axis vertical metallicity gradient, the median [Fe/H] also declines with increasing Galactic latitude in off-axis fields. The off-axis vertical [Fe/H] gradient in the southern bulge is estimated to be {approx}0.4 dex kpc{sup -1}; however, comparison with the minor-axis data suggests that a strong radial gradient does not exist. The (+8.5, +9) field exhibits a higher than expected metallicity, with a median [Fe/H] = -0.23, that might be related to a stronger presence of the X-shaped bulge structure along that line-of-sight. This could also be the cause of an anomalous increase in the median radial velocity for intermediate metallicity stars in the (+8.5, +9) field. However, the overall radial velocity and dispersion for each field are in good agreement with recent surveys and bulge models. All fields exhibit an identical, strong decrease in velocity dispersion with increasing metallicity that is consistent with observations in similar minor-axis outer bulge fields. Additionally, the [O/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ca

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Neutron-capture elements abundances in Cepheids (da Silva+ 2016) (United States)

    da Silva, R.; Lemasle, B.; Bono, G.; Genovali, K.; McWilliam, A.; Cristallo, S.; Bergemann, M.; Buonanno, R.; Fabrizio, M.; Ferraro, I.; Francois, P.; Iannicola, G.; Inno, L.; Laney, C. D.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Matsunaga, N.; Nonino, M.; Primas, F.; Przybilla, N.; Romaniello, M.; Thevenin, F.; Urbaneja, M. A.


    The abundances of Fe, Y, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu for our sample of 73 Cepheids plus data available in the literature for other 362 Cepheids are shown. We first show the abundances derived based on individual spectra for the 73 stars, then the averaged values, and finally the data from the literature. The original abundances available in the literature were rescaled according to the zero-point differences listed in Table 5. The priority was given in the following order: we first adopt the abundances provided by our group, this study (TS) and Lemasle et al. (2013A&A...558A..31L, LEM), and then those provided by the other studies, Luck & Lambert (2011AJ....142..136L, LIII), and Luck et al. (2011AJ....142...51L, LII). (4 data files).

  14. HAT-P-26b: A Neptune-mass exoplanet with a well-constrained heavy element abundance. (United States)

    Wakeford, Hannah R; Sing, David K; Kataria, Tiffany; Deming, Drake; Nikolov, Nikolay; Lopez, Eric D; Tremblin, Pascal; Amundsen, David S; Lewis, Nikole K; Mandell, Avi M; Fortney, Jonathan J; Knutson, Heather; Benneke, Björn; Evans, Thomas M


    A correlation between giant-planet mass and atmospheric heavy elemental abundance was first noted in the past century from observations of planets in our own Solar System and has served as a cornerstone of planet-formation theory. Using data from the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes from 0.5 to 5 micrometers, we conducted a detailed atmospheric study of the transiting Neptune-mass exoplanet HAT-P-26b. We detected prominent H2O absorption bands with a maximum base-to-peak amplitude of 525 parts per million in the transmission spectrum. Using the water abundance as a proxy for metallicity, we measured HAT-P-26b's atmospheric heavy element content ([Formula: see text] times solar). This likely indicates that HAT-P-26b's atmosphere is primordial and obtained its gaseous envelope late in its disk lifetime, with little contamination from metal-rich planetesimals. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. HAT-P-26b: A Neptune-mass exoplanet with a well-constrained heavy element abundance (United States)

    Wakeford, Hannah R.; Sing, David K.; Kataria, Tiffany; Deming, Drake; Nikolov, Nikolay; Lopez, Eric D.; Tremblin, Pascal; Amundsen, David S.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Mandell, Avi M.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Knutson, Heather; Benneke, Björn; Evans, Thomas M.


    A correlation between giant-planet mass and atmospheric heavy elemental abundance was first noted in the past century from observations of planets in our own Solar System and has served as a cornerstone of planet-formation theory. Using data from the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes from 0.5 to 5 micrometers, we conducted a detailed atmospheric study of the transiting Neptune-mass exoplanet HAT-P-26b. We detected prominent H2O absorption bands with a maximum base-to-peak amplitude of 525 parts per million in the transmission spectrum. Using the water abundance as a proxy for metallicity, we measured HAT-P-26b’s atmospheric heavy element content (4.8-4.0+21.5 times solar). This likely indicates that HAT-P-26b’s atmosphere is primordial and obtained its gaseous envelope late in its disk lifetime, with little contamination from metal-rich planetesimals.

  16. Sabang Submarine Volcano Aceh, Indonesia: Review of Some Trace and Rare Earth Elements Abundances Produced by Seafloor Fumarole Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananto kurnio


    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.3.173-182Geochemical analyses of selected coastal and seafloor samples from Sabang Area revealed abundances of trace and rare earth elements. The selected samples of element abundances were mostly taken from seafloor in the vicinities of active fumaroles either by grab sampler operated from survey boat above fumarole point or by diver directly took the samples on the seafloor especially at Serui - Sabang Bay. Results show that samples closed to seafloor fumaroles demonstrate plenty of trace and rare earth elements. The trace and rare earth elements mean values (n=10 are: Nb (4.33 ppm, La (16.52 ppm, Ce (38.82 ppm, Nd (19.15 ppm, Ce (38.82 ppm, Pr (4.907 ppm, Nd (19.15 ppm, Sm (4.04 ppm, Gd (3.95 ppm, Dy (3.38 ppm, Th (6.432 ppm, and U (4.335 ppm. Negatively, statistical correlations between Fe, Zn, and Ni as the main sulphide elements with sulphur is interpreted that sulphide minerals do not form in the Sabang Sea. Sea water influence in the mineralization process was shown by the good correlations between Fe, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Ba.

  17. Elemental gas-phase abundances of intermediate redshift type Ia supernova star-forming host galaxies (United States)

    Moreno-Raya, ME; Galbany, L.; López-Sánchez, ÁR; Mollá, M.; González-Gaitán, S.; Vílchez, JM; Carnero, A.


    The maximum luminosity of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) depends on the oxygen abundance of the regions of the host galaxies where they explode. This metallicity dependence reduces the dispersion in the Hubble diagram (HD) when included with the traditional two-parameter calibration of SN Ia light-curve (LC) parameters and absolute magnitude. In this work, we use empirical calibrations to carefully estimate the oxygen abundance of galaxies hosting SNe Ia from the SDSS-II/SNe Survey at intermediate redshift, by measuring their emission line intensities. We also derive electronic temperature with the direct method for a small fraction of objects for consistency. We find a trend of decreasing oxygen abundance with increasing redshift for the most massive galaxies. Moreover, we study the dependence of the HD residuals (HR) with galaxy oxygen abundance obtaining a correlation in line with those found in other works. In particular, the HR vs oxygen abundance shows a slope of -0.186±0.123 mag dex-1 (1.52σ), in good agreement with theoretical expectations. This implies smaller distance modulii after corrections for SNe Ia in metal-rich galaxies. Based on our previous results on local SNe Ia, we propose this dependence to be due to the lower luminosity of the SNe Ia produced in more metal-rich environments.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teske, Johanna K. [Carnegie Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Khanal, Sandhya; Ramírez, Ivan, E-mail: [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1402, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)


    Binary stars provide an ideal laboratory for investigating the potential effects of planet formation on stellar composition. Assuming that the stars formed in the same environment/from the same material, any compositional anomalies between binary components might indicate differences in how material was sequestered in planets, or accreted by the star in the process of planet formation. We present here a study of the elemental abundance differences between WASP-94A and B, a pair of stars that each host a hot Jupiter exoplanet. The two stars are very similar in spectral type (F8 and F9), and their ∼2700 au separation suggests that their protoplanetary disks were likely not influenced by stellar interactions, but WASP-94Ab’s orbit—misaligned with the host star spin axis and likely retrograde—points toward a dynamically active formation mechanism, perhaps different from that of WASP-94Bb, which is not misaligned and has a nearly circular orbit. Based on our high-quality spectra and strictly relative abundance analysis, we detect a depletion of volatiles (∼−0.02 dex, on average) and enhancement of refractories (∼0.01 dex) in WASP-94A relative to B (standard errors are ∼0.005 dex). This is different from every other published case of binary host star abundances, in which either no significant abundance differences are reported or there is some degree of enhancement in all elements, including volatiles. Several scenarios that may explain the abundance trend are discussed, but none can be definitively accepted or rejected. Additional high-contrast imaging observations to search for companions that may be dynamically affecting the system, as well as a larger sample of binary host star studies, are needed to better understand the curious abundance trends we observe in WASP-94A and B.

  19. Elemental abundances in Milky Way-like galaxies from a hierarchical galaxy formation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lucia, Gabriella; Tornatore, Luca; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helmi, Amina; Navarro, Julio F.; White, Simon D. M.


    We develop a new method to account for the finite lifetimes of stars and trace individual abundances within a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. At variance with previous methods, based on the storage of the (binned) past star formation history of model galaxies, our method projects the

  20. Disk Evolution, Element Abundances and Cloud Properties of Young Gas Giant Planets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helling, Christiane; Woitke, Peter; Rimmer, Paul B.; Kamp, Inga; Thi, Wing-Fai; Meijerink, Rowin

    We discuss the chemical pre-conditions for planet formation, in terms of gas and ice abundances in a protoplanetary disk, as function of time and position, and the resulting chemical composition and cloud properties in the atmosphere when young gas giant planets form, in particular discussing the

  1. Rare earth element abundances in rocks and minerals from the Fiskenaesset Complex, West Greenland. [comparison with lunar anorthosites (United States)

    Henderson, P.; Fishlock, S. J.; Laul, J. C.; Cooper, T. D.; Conard, R. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Schmitt, R. A.


    The paper reports activation-analysis determinations of rare-earth-element (REE) and other trace-element concentrations in selected rocks, plagioclase, and mafic separates from the Fiskenaesset Complex. The REE abundances are found to be very low and atypical in comparison with other terrestrial anorthosites. The plagioclases are shown to be characterized by a deficiency in heavy RE elements relative to light ones and a positive Eu anomaly, while the mafic separates are enriched in heavy rare earths and have no Eu anomaly, except in one sample. It is found that the bulk and trace-element abundances of the plagioclases are similar to those observed in some lunar anorthosites, but the degree of Eu anomaly is less in the plagioclases. The data are taken as confirmation of the idea that fractionation processes were involved in the origin of the Complex, and it is concluded that the Complex may have been produced from a magma generated by partial melting of a garnet-bearing source.

  2. The simulation about elemental abundances in cosmic rays to investigate the origin (United States)

    Yamagiwa, I.; Kato, C.; Munakata, K.

    The problem of cosmic ray origin and propagation has been discussed for a long time. When we discuss about the origin, it is important to measure the abundances of ultraheavy nuclei. The ultraheavy nuclei are mainly created in s p r o c e s s or r-- proces s. We are interested in which process is predominant, s-process or r-process at the source. If r-process is predominant, it supports the opinion that the origin of cosmic ray is in supernova explosion. We believe that r process is occurred in- supernova exp losion. We intend to simulate about the ultraheavy nuclei abundances at earth orbit. In this paper, we report our simulation result about the ratio of Fe secondaries to Fe in the cosmic rays at the earth orbit as a first step.

  3. $\\textit{Gaia}$ FGK benchmark stars: opening the black box of stellar element abundance determination


    Jofre, P.; Heiter, U; Worley, CC; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Soubiran, C.; Masseron, T.; Hawkins, K.; Adibekyan, V.; Buder, S.; Casamiquela, L; Gilmore, Gerard Francis; Hourihane, A.; Tabernero, H.


    $\\textit{Gaia}$ and its complementary spectroscopic surveys combined will yield the most comprehensive database of kinematic and chemical information of stars in the Milky Way. The $\\textit{Gaia}$ FGK benchmark stars play a central role in this matter as they are calibration pillars for the atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances for various surveys. The spectroscopic analyses of the benchmark stars are done by combining different methods, and the results will be affected by the system...

  4. The Helium r-Process and Neutron-Capture Element Abundances in Low Metallicity Stars (United States)

    Truran, J. W.; Cowan, J. J.


    There is increasingly strong observational evidence that the r-process isotopes identified in solar system matter are in fact the products of two distinct classes of r-process nucleosynthesis events. Spectroscopic observations of extremely metal deficient halo field stars and globular cluster stars provide confirmation of the occurrence of a robust r-process mechanism for the production of the main r-process component, at mass numbers A ≳ 130-140. This main component is variously argued to have its origin in regions outside the neutronized core, in magnetic jets from the collapsing core, or in neutron star-neutron star mergers. The stellar abundance data available to date suggests, however, that the bulk of the r-process nuclei in the mass region A post shock conditions insures that this process is not as robust as that responsible for the main r-process component A ≳ 130-140. We discuss the implications of our numerical results for the interpretation both of the abundances in metal poor stars and of the anomalous r-process-like isotopic abundances observed in meteoritic silicon carbide grains (Pellin et al. 2000). This research was funded in part by NSF grant AST-9618332 to JJC and by the ASCI/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago under DOE contract B341495 (JWT).

  5. Elemental Abundance Ratios in Stars of the Outer Galactic Disk. IV. A New Sample of Open Clusters (United States)

    Yong, David; Carney, Bruce W.; Friel, Eileen D.


    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances for nine stars in the old, distant open clusters Be18, Be21, Be22, Be32, and PWM4. For Be18 and PWM4, these are the first chemical abundance measurements. Combining our data with literature results produces a compilation of some 68 chemical abundance measurements in 49 unique clusters. For this combined sample, we study the chemical abundances of open clusters as a function of distance, age, and metallicity. We confirm that the metallicity gradient in the outer disk is flatter than the gradient in the vicinity of the solar neighborhood. We also confirm that the open clusters in the outer disk are metal-poor with enhancements in the ratios [α/Fe] and perhaps [Eu/Fe]. All elements show negligible or small trends between [X/Fe] and distance ( 13 kpc) samples may have different trends with distance. There is no evidence for significant abundance trends versus age (history different from that of the solar neighborhood, we echo the sentiments expressed by Friel et al. that definitive conclusions await homogeneous analyses of larger samples of stars in larger numbers of clusters. Arguably, our understanding of the evolution of the outer disk from open clusters is currently limited by systematic abundance differences between various studies. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  6. Abundances of chemical elements in granitoids of different geological ages and their characteristics in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyi Shi


    Full Text Available Actual granitoid analytical data of 767 composited samples are presented here. The data source is 6080 samples collected mainly from 750 large- to middle-sized granitoid bodies across China. Data from the composited samples, which includes that of 70 elements, is analyzed according to geological age — Archeozoic (Ar, Proterozoic (Pt, Eopaleozoic (Pz1, Neopaleozoic (Pz2, Mesozoic (Mz, and Cenozoic (Cz — and three major compositional varieties, e.g. alkali-feldspar granite, syenogranite and adamellite. Petrochemical parameters, trace-element content and rare-earth element (REE distributions of the different rock types and geological ages are characterized, and change tendencies through Archean to Cenozoic time are recorded. The comprehensive analytical data presented here has not been previously published. This significant data set can be used as fundamental information in studies of basic China geology, magma petrogenesis, ore exploration and geochemistry.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theado, Sylvie; Vauclair, Sylvie, E-mail: [Institut de Recherches en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Universite de Toulouse, CNRS, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France)


    The early evolution of planetary systems is expected to depend on various periods of disk matter accretion onto the central star, which may include the accretion of metal-rich matter after the star settles on the main sequence. When this happens, the accreted material is rapidly mixed within the surface convective zone and induces an inverse mean-molecular-weight gradient, unstable for thermohaline convection. The induced mixing, which dilutes the metal excess, may also have important consequences on the light elements abundances. We model and analyze this process, and present the results according to various possible accretion scenarios. We give a detailed discussion of the different ways of treating thermohaline mixing, as proposed by previous authors, and converge on a consistent view, including the most recent numerical simulations. We show how the observations of light elements in stars can be used as tracers of such events.

  8. Study of galaxies in the Lynx-Cancer void. II. Element abundances (United States)

    Pustilnik, S. A.; Tepliakova, A. L.; Kniazev, A. Yu.


    In the framework of study of the evolutionary status of galaxies in the nearby Lynx-Cancer void, we present the results of the SAO RAS 6-m telescope spectroscopy for 20 objects in this region. The principal faint line [O iii]λ4363 Å, used to determine the electron temperature and oxygen abundance (O/H) by the classicalmethod, is clearly detected in only about 2/3 of the studied objects. For the remaining galaxies this line is either faint or undetected. To obtain the oxygen abundances in these galaxies we as well apply the semi-empirical method by Izotov and Thuan, and/or the empirical methods of Pilyugin et al., which are only employing the intensities of sufficiently strong lines. We also present our O/H measurements for 22 Lynx-Cancer void galaxies, for which the suitable Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra are available. In total, we present the combined O/H data for 48 Lynx-Cancer void galaxies, including the data adopted from the literature and our own earlier results. We make a comparison of their locations on the (O/H)-MB diagram with those of the dwarf galaxies of the Local Volume in the regions with denser environment. We infer that the majority of galaxies from this void on the average reveal an about 30% lower metallicity. In addition, a substantial fraction (not less than 10%) of the void dwarf galaxies have a much larger O/H deficiency (up to a factor of 5). Most of them belong to the tiny group of objects with the gas metallicity Z

  9. Mineralogical analyses of surface sediments in the Antarctic Dry Valleys: coordinated analyses of Raman spectra, reflectance spectra and elemental abundances. (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L; Englert, Peter A J; Patel, Shital; Tirsch, Daniela; Roy, Alex J; Koeberl, Christian; Böttger, Ute; Hanke, Franziska; Jaumann, Ralf


    Surface sediments at Lakes Fryxell, Vanda and Brownworth in the Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADV) were investigated as analogues for the cold, dry environment on Mars. Sediments were sampled from regions surrounding the lakes and from the ice cover on top of the lakes. The ADV sediments were studied using Raman spectra of individual grains and reflectance spectra of bulk particulate samples and compared with previous analyses of subsurface and lakebottom sediments. Elemental abundances were coordinated with the spectral data in order to assess trends in sediment alteration. The surface sediments in this study were compared with lakebottom sediments (Bishop JL et al. 2003 Int. J. Astrobiol. 2, 273-287 (doi:10.1017/S1473550403001654)) and samples from soil pits (Englert P et al. 2013 In European Planetary Science Congress, abstract no. 96; Englert P et al. 2014 In 45th Lunar and Planetary Science Conf., abstract no. 1707). Feldspar, quartz and pyroxene are common minerals found in all the sediments. Minor abundances of carbonate, chlorite, actinolite and allophane are also found in the surface sediments, and are similar to minerals found in greater abundance in the lakebottom sediments. Surface sediment formation is dominated by physical processes; a few centimetres below the surface chemical alteration sets in, whereas lakebottom sediments experience biomineralization. Characterizing the mineralogical variations in these samples provides insights into the alteration processes occurring in the ADV and supports understanding alteration in the cold and dry environment on Mars. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Helioseismic models of the sun with a low heavy element abundance (United States)

    Ayukov, S. V.; Baturin, V. A.


    Helioseismology and neutrino experiments probing the internal structure of the Sun have yieldedmuch information, such as the adiabatic elasticity index, density, and sound speed in the convective and radiative zones, the depth of the convective zone, and the flux of neutrinos from the core. The standard model of the Sun does not adequately reproduce these characteristics, with models with low heavy element contents (mass fraction of metals Z = 0.013 in the convective zone) deviating from the helioseismic data appreciably more strongly than models with high heavy element contents ( Z = 0.018). However, a spectroscopic low Z value is supported by studies reconstructing the Γ 1 profile in the adiabatic part of the convective zone based on the oscillation frequencies. Models of the convective zone show a good agreement precisely for low Z values. This study attempts to construct a model for the Sun with low Z that satisfies the helioseismic constraints. This model requires changes in the p + p reaction cross section and the opacities in the radiative zone. In our view, the helioseismic result for the mass concentrated in the convective zone testifies that the p + p reaction cross section or the electron-screening coefficient in the solar core must be increased by several percent over the current values. This requires a comparatively small correction to the opacities (by less than 5%), in order to obtain a solar model with low Z that is in agreement with the results of helioseismology and the observed solar neutrino fluxes.

  11. SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative elements in Proteus species reveal abundant genetic diversity and multidrug resistance (United States)

    Li, Xinyue; Du, Yu; Du, Pengcheng; Dai, Hang; Fang, Yujie; Li, Zhenpeng; Lv, Na; Zhu, Baoli; Kan, Biao; Wang, Duochun


    SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-transmissible mobile genetic elements that are found in most members of Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we determined fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs carried by Proteus isolates from food (4.2%) and diarrhoea patients (17.3%). BLASTn searches against GenBank showed that the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were closely related to that from different Enterobacteriaceae species, including Proteus mirabilis. Using core gene phylogenetic analysis, the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were grouped into six distinct clusters, including a dominant cluster and three clusters that have not been previously reported in Proteus isolates. The SXT/R391 ICEs shared a common structure with a set of conserved genes, five hotspots and two variable regions, which contained more foreign genes, including drug-resistance genes. Notably, a class A β-lactamase gene was identified in nine SXT/R391 ICEs. Collectively, the ICE-carrying isolates carried resistance genes for 20 tested drugs. Six isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline, which are drug resistances commonly encoded by ICEs. Our results demonstrate abundant genetic diversity and multidrug resistance of the SXT/R391 ICEs carried by Proteus isolates, which may have significance for public health. It is therefore necessary to continuously monitor the antimicrobial resistance and related mobile elements among Proteus isolates. PMID:27892525

  12. The metallicity and elemental abundance gradients of simulated galaxies and their environmental dependence (United States)

    Taylor, Philip; Kobayashi, Chiaki


    The internal distribution of heavy elements, in particular the radial metallicity gradient, offers insight into the merging history of galaxies. Using our cosmological, chemodynamical simulations that include both detailed chemical enrichment and feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN), we find that stellar metallicity gradients in the most massive galaxies (≳3 × 1010M⊙) are made flatter by mergers and are unable to regenerate due to the quenching of star formation by AGN feedback. The fitting range is chosen on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis in order to mask satellite galaxies. The evolutionary paths of the gradients can be summarized as follows: (I) creation of initial steep gradients by gas-rich assembly, (II) passive evolution by star formation and/or stellar accretion at outskirts, and (III) sudden flattening by mergers. There is a significant scatter in gradients at a given mass, which originates from the last path, and therefore from galaxy type. Some variation remains at given galaxy mass and type because of the complexity of merging events, and hence we find only a weak environmental dependence. Our early-type galaxies (ETGs), defined from the star formation main sequence rather than their morphology, are in excellent agreement with the observed stellar metallicity gradients of ETGs in the SAURON and ATLAS3D surveys. We find small positive [O/Fe] gradients of stars in our simulated galaxies, although they are smaller with AGN feedback. Gas-phase metallicity and [O/Fe] gradients also show variation, the origin of which is not as clear as for stellar populations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Gerard [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Norris, John E.; Yong, David [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Monaco, Lorenzo [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Wyse, Rosemary F. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3900 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Geisler, D., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile)


    We present a double-blind analysis of high-dispersion spectra of seven red giant members of the Booetes I ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal galaxy, complemented with re-analysis of a similar spectrum of an eighth-member star. The stars cover [Fe/H] from -3.7 to -1.9 and include a CEMP-no star with [Fe/H] = -3.33. We conclude from our chemical abundance data that Booetes I has evolved as a self-enriching star-forming system, from essentially primordial initial abundances. This allows us uniquely to investigate the place of CEMP-no stars in a chemically evolving system, in addition to limiting the timescale of star formation. The elemental abundances are formally consistent with a halo-like distribution, with enhanced mean [{alpha}/Fe] and small scatter about the mean. This is in accord with the high-mass stellar initial mass function in this low-stellar-density, low-metallicity system being indistinguishable from the present-day solar neighborhood value. There is a non-significant hint of a decline in [{alpha}/Fe] with [Fe/H]; together with the low scatter, this requires low star formation rates, allowing time for supernova ejecta to be mixed over the large spatial scales of interest. One star has very high [Ti/Fe], but we do not confirm a previously published high value of [Mg/Fe] for another star. We discuss the existence of CEMP-no stars, and the absence of any stars with lower CEMP-no enhancements at higher [Fe/H], a situation that is consistent with knowledge of CEMP-no stars in the Galactic field. We show that this observation requires there be two enrichment paths at very low metallicities: CEMP-no and 'carbon-normal'.

  14. Major and trace element abundances, and Sr and Nd isotopic composition of Carbonatites from Amba Dongar, Gujarat, India (United States)

    Chandra, Jyoti; Paul, Debajyoti; Viladkar, Shrinivas G.; Sensarma, Sarajit


    Despite significant progress during the last decade, the petrogenesis of carbonatites is still highly debated regarding the exact mechanism of carbonatite magma generation (fractional crystallization of carbonated-silicate magmas, liquid immiscibility of carbonated-silicate magmas, partial melting of carbonated mantle peridotite or carbonated lherzolitic mantle) and its evolution. The Amba Dongar carbonatite complex in Chhota Udaipur district, Gujarat is the youngest Indian carbonatite complex, which intruded into the ~ 90 Ma Bagh sandstones and limestone and 68-65 Ma Deccan flood basalts. The emplacement age (40Ar/39Ar age of 65±0.3 Ma; Ray and Pande, 1999) coincides with the age of main pulse of Deccan flood basalts at ca. 65 Ma. We report new geochemical data (major oxide and trace element abundances, and Sr and Nd isotopic ratios) on 23 carbonatite samples from Amba Dongar. The Amba Dongar carbonatite complex consists of carbonatite (sövite, and ankerite), and associated nephelinite, phonolite, and both pre- and post-carbonatite basalts. Detailed minerology of carbonatite include dominant calcite along with pyrochlore, apatite, magnetite, aegirine-augite and accessory phases. Apatite crystals are observed in carbonatite as well as in nephelinite. In sövites, apatite occur in various forms including cumulus, clusters and scattered within and along the boundary of calcite crystals. Two generation of apatite crystals are commonly observed in sövite and nephelinite; textural changes suggest presence of different five pulses of sövitic magma during the emplacement of the sövite ring dike. Bulk major oxides and trace element (including REEs) compositions of carbonatites and associated silicate rocks are determined by WD-XRF and ICP-MS, respectively. Major oxides abundances are consistent with the already available data on the Amba Dongar carbonatite complex. Trace element concentrations for the sövite reveals high concentrations of Sr (929-7476 ppm), Ba (344

  15. Formation of the Abundance Boundaries of the Heavier Neutron-capture Elements in Metal-poor Stars (United States)

    Yang, Guochao; Li, Hongjie; Liu, Nian; Zhang, Lu; Cui, Wenyuan; Liang, Yanchun; Niu, Ping; Zhang, Bo


    The abundance scatter of heavier r-process elements (Z≥slant 56) relative to Fe ([r/Fe]) in metal-poor stars preserves excellent information of the star formation history and provides important insights into the various situations of the Galactic chemical enrichment. In this respect, the upper and lower boundaries of [r/Fe] could present useful clues for investigating the extreme situations of the star formation history and the early Galactic chemical evolution. In this paper, we investigate the formation of the upper and lower boundaries of [r/Fe] for the gas clouds. We find that, for a cloud from which metal-poor stars formed, the formation of the upper limits of [r/Fe] is mainly due to the pollution from a single main r-process event. For a cloud from which metal-poor stars formed, the formation of the lower limits of [r/Fe] is mainly due to the pollution from a single SN II event that ejects primary Fe.

  16. The Ages, Metallicities, and Element Abundance Ratios of Massive Quenched Galaxies at z ≥ 1.6 (United States)

    Onodera, M.; Carollo, C. M.; Renzini, A.; Cappellari, M.; Mancini, C.; Arimoto, N.; Daddi, E.; Gobat, R.; Strazzullo, V.; Tacchella, S.; Yamada, Y.


    We investigate the stellar population properties of a sample of 24 massive quenched galaxies at 1.25population properties as close to their major formation epoch as possible, we try to put constraints on the star formation history, post-quenching evolution, and possible progenitor star-forming populations for such massive quenched galaxies. By using a set of Lick absorption line indices on a rest-frame optical composite spectrum, the average age, metallicity [Z/H], and α-to-iron element abundance ratio [α/Fe] are derived as log(age/Gyr)=0.04-0.08+0.10, [Z/H]=0.24-0.14+0.20, and [α /Fe]=0.31-0.12+0.12, respectively. If our sample of quenched galaxies at population properties will align in excellent agreement with local counterparts at similar stellar velocity dispersions, which qualifies them as progenitors of local massive early-type galaxies. Redshift evolution of stellar population ages in quenched galaxies combined with low redshift measurements from the literature suggests a formation redshift of zf∼ 2.3, around which the bulk of stars in these galaxies have been formed. The measured [α/Fe] value indicates a star formation timescale of ≲ 1 Gyr, which can be translated into a specific star formation rate of ≃ 1 Gyr-1 prior to quenching. Based on these findings, we discuss identifying possible progenitor star-forming galaxies at z≃ 2.3. We identify normal star-forming galaxies, i.e., those on the star-forming main sequence, followed by a rapid quenching event, as likely precursors of the quenched galaxies at Japan. (Proposal IDs: S09A-043, S10A-058, and S11A-075.)

  17. p-capture reaction cycles in rotating massive stars and their impact on elemental abundances in globular cluster stars: A case study of O, Na and Al (United States)

    Mahanta, Upakul; Goswami, Aruna; Duorah, Hiralal; Duorah, Kalpana


    Elemental abundance patterns of globular cluster stars can provide important clues for understanding cluster formation and early chemical evolution. The origin of the abundance patterns, however, still remains poorly understood. We have studied the impact of p-capture reaction cycles on the abundances of oxygen, sodium and aluminium considering nuclear reaction cycles of carbon-nitrogen-oxygen-fluorine, neon-sodium and magnesium-aluminium in massive stars in stellar conditions of temperature range 2×107 to 10×107 K and typical density of 102 gm cc-1. We have estimated abundances of oxygen, sodium and aluminium with respect to Fe, which are then assumed to be ejected from those stars because of rotation reaching a critical limit. These ejected abundances of elements are then compared with their counterparts that have been observed in some metal-poor evolved stars, mainly giants and red giants, of globular clusters M3, M4, M13 and NGC 6752. We observe an excellent agreement with [O/Fe] between the estimated and observed abundance values for globular clusters M3 and M4 with a correlation coefficient above 0.9 and a strong linear correlation for the remaining two clusters with a correlation coefficient above 0.7. The estimated [Na/Fe] is found to have a correlation coefficient above 0.7, thus implying a strong correlation for all four globular clusters. As far as [Al/Fe] is concerned, it also shows a strong correlation between the estimated abundance and the observed abundance for globular clusters M13 and NGC 6752, since here also the correlation coefficient is above 0.7 whereas for globular cluster M4 there is a moderate correlation found with a correlation coefficient above 0.6. Possible sources of these discrepancies are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of strontium isotope abundance ratios in combination with multi-elemental analysis as a possible tool to study the geographical origin of ciders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Ruiz, Silvia [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Moldovan, Mariella [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Fortunato, Giuseppino [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research EMPA, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Wunderli, Samuel [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research EMPA, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Garcia Alonso, J. Ignacio [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)]. E-mail:


    In order to evaluate alternative analytical methodologies to study the geographical origin of ciders, both multi-elemental analysis and Sr isotope abundance ratios in combination with multivariate statistical analysis were estimated in 67 samples from England, Switzerland, France and two Spanish regions (Asturias and the Basque Country). A methodology for the precise and accurate determination of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotope abundance ratio in ciders by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) was developed. Major elements (Na, K, Ca and Mg) were measured by ICP-AES and minor and trace elements (Li, Be, B, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, W, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th and U) were measured by ICP-MS using a collision cell instrument operated in multitune mode. An analysis of variance (ANOVA test) indicated that group means for B, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Se, Cd, Cs, Ce, W, Pb, Bi and U did not show any significant differences at the 95% confidence level, so these elements were rejected for further statistical analysis. Another group of elements (Li, Be, Sc, Co, Ga, Y, Sn, Sb, La, Tl, Th) was removed from the data set because concentrations were close to the limits of detection for many samples. Therefore, the remaining elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ba) together with {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotope abundance ratio were considered for principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Finally, LDA was able to classify correctly 100% of cider samples coming from different Spanish regions, France, England and Switzerland when considering Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ba and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotope abundance ratio as original variables.

  19. Neutron-capture element abundances in the planetary nebula NGC 5315 from deep optical and near-infrared spectrophotometry★† (United States)

    Madonna, S.; García-Rojas, J.; Sterling, N. C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Mesa-Delgado, A.; Luridiana, V.; Roederer, I. U.; Mashburn, A. L.


    We analyse the chemical composition of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5315, through high-resolution (R ˜ 40000) optical spectroscopy with Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope, and medium-resolution (R ˜ 4800) near-infrared spectroscopy with Folded-port InfraRed Echellette at Magellan Baade Telescope, covering a wide spectral range from 0.31 to 2.50 μm. The main aim of this work is to investigate neutron (n)-capture element abundances to study the operation of the slow n-capture ('s-process') in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) progenitor of NGC 5315. We detect more than 700 emission lines, including ions of the n-capture elements Se, Kr, Xe and possibly Br. We compute physical conditions from a large number of diagnostic line ratios, and derive ionic abundances for species with available atomic data. The total abundances are computed using recent ionization correction factors (ICFs) or by summing ionic abundances. Total abundances of common elements are in good agreement with previous work on this object. Based on our abundance analysis of NGC 5315, including the lack of s-process enrichment, we speculate that the most probable evolutionary scenario is that the progenitor star is in a binary system as hinted at by radial velocity studies, and interactions with its companion truncated the AGB before s-process enrichment could occur. However there are other two possible scenarios for its evolution, that cannot be ruled out: (I) the progenitor is a low-mass single star that did not undergo third dredge-up; (II) the progenitor star of NGC 5315 had an initial mass of 3-5 M⊙, and any s-process enhancements were heavily diluted by the massive envelope during the AGB phase.

  20. A history of violence: Insights into post-accretionary heating in carbonaceous chondrites from volatile element abundances, Zn isotopes and water contents (United States)

    Mahan, Brandon; Moynier, Frédéric; Beck, Pierre; Pringle, Emily A.; Siebert, Julien


    Carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) may have been the carriers of water, volatile and moderately volatile elements to Earth. Investigating the abundances of these elements, their relative volatility, and isotopes of state-change tracer elements such as Zn, and linking these observations to water contents, provide vital information on the processes that govern the abundances and isotopic signatures of these species in CCs and other planetary bodies. Here we report Zn isotopic data for 28 CCs (20 CM, 6 CR, 1 C2-ung, and 1 CV3), as well as trace element data for Zn, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, and Bi in 16 samples (8 CM, 6 CR, 1 C2-ung, and 1 CV3), that display a range of elemental abundances from case-normative to intensely depleted. We use these data, water content data from literature and Zn isotopes to investigate volatile depletions and to discern between closed and open system heating. Trace element data have been used to construct relative volatility scales among the elements for the CM and CR chondrites. From least volatile to most, the scale in CM chondrites is Pb-Sn-Bi-In-Zn-Tl, and for CR chondrites it is Tl-Zn-Sn-Pb-Bi-In. These observations suggest that heated CM and CR chondrites underwent volatile loss under different conditions to one another and to that of the solar nebula, e.g. differing oxygen fugacities. Furthermore, the most water and volatile depleted samples are highly enriched in the heavy isotopes of Zn. Taken together, these lines of evidence strongly indicate that heated CM and CR chondrites incurred open system heating, stripping them of water and volatiles concomitantly, during post-accretionary shock impact(s).

  1. Development of low-cost technology for the next generation of high efficiency solar cells composed of earth abundant elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)


    The development of renewable, affordable, and environmentally conscious means of generating energy on a global scale represents a grand challenge of our time. Due to the “permanence” of radiation from the sun, solar energy promises to remain a viable and sustainable power source far into the future. Established single-junction photovoltaic technologies achieve high power conversion efficiencies (pce) near 20% but require complicated manufacturing processes that prohibit the marriage of large-scale throughput (e.g. on the GW scale), profitability, and quality control. Our approach to this problem begins with the synthesis of nanocrystals of semiconductor materials comprising earth abundant elements and characterized by material and optoelectronic properties ideal for photovoltaic applications, namely Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe). Once synthesized, such nanocrystals are formulated into an ink, coated onto substrates, and processed into completed solar cells in such a way that enables scale-up to high throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. This project aimed to address the major limitation to CZTSSe solar cell pce’s – the low open-circuit voltage (Voc) reported throughout literature for devices comprised of this material. Throughout the project significant advancements have been made in fundamental understanding of the CZTSSe material and device limitations associated with this material system. Additionally, notable improvements have been made to our nanocrystal based processing technique to alleviate performance limitations due to the identified device limitations. Notably, (1) significant improvements have been made in reducing intra- and inter-nanoparticle heterogeneity, (2) improvements in device performance have been realized with novel cation substitution in Ge-alloyed CZTGeSSe absorbers, (3) systematic analysis of absorber sintering has been conducted to optimize the selenization process for large grain CZTSSe absorbers, (4) novel electrical

  2. The significance of oxygen as oxides and hydroxides in controlling the abundance and residence times of elements in seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    A model is presented which signifies the role of oxygen (as oxides and hydroxides) in controlling the composition of seawater. respective concentration and residence times for the unknown elements can be estimated. Geometric and statistical indices...

  3. Effects of superabsorbent polymers on the abundances of antibiotic resistance genes, mobile genetic elements, and the bacterial community during swine manure composting. (United States)

    Guo, Aiyun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Ranran; Yin, Yanan; Sun, Wei; Tuo, Xiaxia; Zhang, Li


    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) are considered suitable amendments for reducing the selection pressure due to heavy metals and the abundances of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during composting. In this study, three SAP (sodium polyacrylate) levels (0, 5, and 15mgkg-1 of compost) were applied and their effects on the abundances of ARGs, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and the bacterial community were investigated. After composting, the abundances of ARGs and MGEs decreased to different extent, where the removal efficiencies for tetW, dfrA7, ermX, aac(6')-ib-cr and MGEs exceeded 90%. The high SAP concentration significantly reduced the abundances of ARGs and MGEs, and changed the microbial community. Redundancy analysis indicated that the moisture content mainly explained the changes in ARGs and MGEs. Network analysis determined the potential hosts of ARGs and MGEs, and their co-occurrence. The results suggested that applying 15mgkg-1 SAP is appropriate for reducing ARGs in compost. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Determinations of rare earth element abundance and U-Pb age of zircons using multispot laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Yokoyama, Takaomi D; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Kon, Yoshiaki; Hirata, Takafumi


    We have developed a new calibration technique for multielement determination and U-Pb dating of zircon samples using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled with galvanometric optics. With the galvanometric optics, laser ablation of two or more sample materials could be achieved in very short time intervals (~10 ms). The resulting sample aerosols released from different ablation pits or different solid samples were mixed and homogenized within the sample cell and then transported into the ICP ion source. Multiple spot laser ablation enables spiking of analytes or internal standard elements directly into the solid samples, and therefore the standard addition calibration method can be applied for the determination of trace elements in solid samples. In this study, we have measured the rare earth element (REE) abundances of two zircon samples (Nancy 91500 and Prešovice) based on the standard addition technique, using a direct spiking of analytes through a multispot laser ablation of the glass standard material (NIST SRM612). The resulting REE abundance data show good agreement with previously reported values within analytical uncertainties achieved in this study (10% for most elements). Our experiments demonstrated that nonspectroscopic interferences on 14 REEs could be significantly reduced by the standard addition technique employed here. Another advantage of galvanometric devices is the accumulation of sample aerosol released from multiple spots. In this study we have measured the U-Pb age of a zircon sample (LMR) using an accumulation of sample aerosols released from 10 separate ablation pits of low diameters (~8 μm). The resulting (238)U-(206)Pb age data for the LMR zircons was 369 ± 64 Ma, which is in good agreement with previously reported age data (367.6 ± 1.5 Ma). (1) The data obtained here clearly demonstrate that the multiple spot laser ablation-ICPMS technique can become a powerful approach for elemental and isotopic

  5. Occurrence and abundance of a mariner-like element in freshwater and terrestrial planarians (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Sperb


    Full Text Available Transposable elements are DNA sequences present in all the large phylogenetic groups, both capable of changing position within the genome and constituting a significant part of eukaryotic genomes. The mariner family of transposons is one of the few which occurs in a wide variety of taxonomic groups, including freshwater planarians. Nevertheless, so far only five planarian species have been reported to carry mariner-like elements (MLEs, although several different species have been investigated. Regarding the number of copies of MLEs, Girardia tigrina is the only planarian species in which this has been evaluated, with an estimation of 8,000 copies of the element per haploid genome. Preliminary results obtained in our laboratory demonstrated that MLE is found in a large number of different species of planarians, including terrestrial. With this in mind, the aim was to evaluate the occurrence and estimate the number of MLE copies in different planarian species collected in south Brazil. Twenty-eight individuals from 15 planarian species were analyzed. By using PCR and the hybridization of nucleic acids, it was found that MLE was present in all the analyzed species, the number of copies being high, probably over 10³ per haploid genome.

  6. Abundance, distribution and bioavailability of major and trace elements in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay (South China Sea, Vietnam) (United States)

    Koukina, S. E.; Lobus, N. V.; Peresypkin, V. I.; Dara, O. M.; Smurov, A. V.


    Major (Si, Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K, S, P), minor (Mn) and trace (Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Ag, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi and U) elements, their chemical forms and the mineral composition, organic matter (TOC) and carbonates (TIC) in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay were first determined along the salinity gradient. The abundance and ratio of major and trace elements in surface sediments are discussed in relation to the mineralogy, grain size, depositional conditions, reference background and SQG values. Most trace-element contents are at natural levels and are derived from the composition of rocks and soils in the watershed. A severe enrichment of Ag is most likely derived from metal-rich detrital heavy minerals such as Ag-sulfosalts. Along the salinity gradient, several zones of metal enrichment occur in surface sediments because of the geochemical fractionation of the riverine material. The parts of actually and potentially bioavailable forms (isolated by four single chemical reagent extractions) are most elevated for Mn and Pb (up to 36% and 32% of total content, respectively). The possible anthropogenic input of Pb in the region requires further study. Overall, the most bioavailable parts of trace elements are associated with easily soluble amorphous Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides. The sediments are primarily enriched with bioavailable metal forms in the riverine part of the estuary. Natural (such as turbidities) and human-generated (such as urban and industrial activities) pressures are shown to influence the abundance and speciation of potential contaminants and therefore change their bioavailability in this estuarine system.

  7. Anomalous abundance and redistribution patterns of rare earth elements in soils of a mining area in Inner Mongolia, China. (United States)

    Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao


    The Bayan Obo Mine, the largest rare earth element (REE) deposit ever found in the world, has been mined for nearly 60 years for iron and rare earth elements. To assess the influences of mining activities on geochemical behavior of REEs in soils, 27 surface soil samples and three soil profile samples were collected from different directions in the vicinity of the mine area. The total concentrations of REEs in surface soils varied from 149.75 to 18,891.81 mg kg(-1) with an average value of 1906.12 mg kg(-1), which was apparently higher than the average values in China (181 mg kg(-1)). The order of the average concentrations of individual REEs in surface soils was similar to that in Bayan Obo ores, which confirmed that the concentration and distribution of REEs in the soils was influenced by the mining activities. The concentrations of single REE in the soil profiles showed a similar trend with depth with an increase at 0-25 cm section, then decreased and remained relatively stable in the deep part. The normalized curves inclined to the right side, showing the conspicuous fractionation between the light and heavy REEs, which supported by the North American Shale Composite (NASC) and Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (La N /Yb N , La N /Sm N , Gd N /Yb N ). Slight positive Ce anomaly and negative Eu anomaly were also observed.

  8. Bird Surveys at DARHT Before and During Operations: Comparison of Species Abundance and Composition and Trace Element Uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. R. Fresquez, D. C. Keller, C. D. Hathcock


    The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Mitigation Action Plan specifies the comparison of baseline conditions in biotic and abiotic media with those collected after operations have started. Operations at DARHT at Los Alamos National Laboratory started in 2000. In this study, the abundance and composition of birds collected near the DARHT facility from 2003 through 2006 were determined and compared to a preoperational period (1999). In addition, the levels of radionuclides and other inorganic chemicals in birds were compared to regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). The number and diversity of bird species generally increased over preoperational levels with the greatest number of birds (412) and species (46) occurring in 2005. The most common bird species collected regardless of time periods were the chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina), the Virginia's warbler (Vermivora virginiae), the western bluebird (Sialia mexicana), the broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus), the sage sparrow (Amphispiza belli), and the western tanager (Piranga ludoviciana). Most radionuclides, with the exception of uranium-234 and uranium-238, in (whole body) birds collected after operations began were either not detected or below RSRLs. Uranium-234 and uranium-238 concentrations in a few samples were far below screening levels and do not pose a potential unacceptable dose to the birds. In contrast, many inorganic chemicals, particularly arsenic and silver, in birds collected before and after operations began were in higher concentrations than RSRLs. Because birds (skin plus feathers) collected in the years before operations began contained higher levels of arsenic and silver than RSRLs and because there was no evidence of these metals in soil and sediment directly around the DARHT facility, the elevated levels of these metals in birds during early operations are probably not related to DARHT operations. Arsenic and silver in birds, however

  9. Combinatorial Platform for Discovery of Nanocrystal-Ink Based Earth Abundant Element PV with Efficiency Greater than 20%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillhouse, Hugh W. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    (1) We successfully developed an ultrasonic spray coating system that can be used to deposit thin chalcogenide films with composition gradients. 4 publications under the contract have been published with the instrument. The instrument was used to reveal the effects of intrinsic composition and examine the effects of 25 different dopant elements. Surprisingly, doping with most elements had little to no effect on the quasi-Fermi level splitting of bare films. Ge and Li were explored in depth, and our best devices utilize lithium doping. (2) We developed a new model of absorption coefficients, that when combined with absolute intensity photoluminescence, yield the steady-state quasi-Fermi level splitting and a way to quantify the sub-bandgap absorption. This has resulted in 2 publications on the method, with another in preparation. This is a significant development that should impact other PV technologies. (3) We found that lithium doping has several beneficial effects on CZTSSe. It improves the open-circuit voltage, short circuit current, fill factor, and shunt resistance. By using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) and conductive AFM (along with device measurements, DLPC, and XPS), we discovered that lithium acts to increase the p-type doping in both the grain and grain boundaries (GBs). The effect is stronger in the GBs and changes the direction of the electric field at the GB. In lithium doped devices, an electric field repels minority carrier electrons away from the GB. This resulted in a publication and the fabrication of 11.8% efficient devices from a DMSO-thiourea molecular ink. The mechanism of action is most likely due to the formation of LiCu, which inhibits the formation of the donor defect ZnCu. This reduces compensation and increases the net p-type doping. (4) By alloying with germanium, we have fabricated CZTGSSe devices with the best open-circuit voltage (relative the maximum theoretical open-circuit voltage for the bandgap) for any kesterite

  10. Splicing Regulatory Elements and mRNA-abundance of dlg1 and capt, Genetically Interacting with dFMRP in Drosophila Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Petrova


    Full Text Available To further understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the disease, we used the Drososphila FraX model and investigated a not well studied role of Drosophila Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (dFMRP in alternative splicing of neuronal mRNAs to which it binds via a G-quartet sequence. By means of qRT-PCR we established the relative abundance of some isoforms of the gene dlg1, resulting from alternative exon skipping nearby a G-quartet and an exonic ESE-sequence, both acting as exonic splicing enhancers. We also investigated the relative mRNA-abundance of all capt-isoforms and the pre-mRNAs of both genes. We proposed a possible involvement of dFMRP in alternative splicing of genes, interacting with dfmr1. In the absence of dFMRP in larval and pupal brains, we found a change in the mRNA-level of one of the studied isoforms of dlg1 and of its pre-mRNA.We also established previously reported splicing regulatory elements and predicted computationally novel hexamere sequences in the exonic/intronic ends of both genes with p upative regulatory roles in alternative splicing.

  11. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are abundant in Solanaceae and have a family-specific impact on gene structure and genome organization. (United States)

    Seibt, Kathrin M; Wenke, Torsten; Muders, Katja; Truberg, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas


    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are highly abundant non-autonomous retrotransposons that are widespread in plants. They are short in size, non-coding, show high sequence diversity, and are therefore mostly not or not correctly annotated in plant genome sequences. Hence, comparative studies on genomic SINE populations are rare. To explore the structural organization and impact of SINEs, we comparatively investigated the genome sequences of the Solanaceae species potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), wild tomato (Solanum pennellii), and two pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum). Based on 8.5 Gbp sequence data, we annotated 82 983 SINE copies belonging to 10 families and subfamilies on a base pair level. Solanaceae SINEs are dispersed over all chromosomes with enrichments in distal regions. Depending on the genome assemblies and gene predictions, 30% of all SINE copies are associated with genes, particularly frequent in introns and untranslated regions (UTRs). The close association with genes is family specific. More than 10% of all genes annotated in the Solanaceae species investigated contain at least one SINE insertion, and we found genes harbouring up to 16 SINE copies. We demonstrate the involvement of SINEs in gene and genome evolution including the donation of splice sites, start and stop codons and exons to genes, enlargement of introns and UTRs, generation of tandem-like duplications and transduction of adjacent sequence regions. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Facile Spray-Pyrolysis Synthesis of Yolk-Shell Earth-Abundant Elemental Nickel-Iron-Based Nanohybrid Electrocatalysts for Full Water Splitting. (United States)

    Li, Hao; Ci, Suqin; Zhang, Mengtian; Chen, Junxiang; Lai, Keyuan; Wen, Zhenhai


    The development of high-activity electrocatalysts for water splitting that comprise only inexpensive, earth-abundant elements is critical but remains a daunting challenge. In this work, yolk-shell Ni 3 Fe/Ni 3 FeN was prepared by a spray-pyrolysis technique, which could be scaleable. The yolk-shell Ni 3 Fe/Ni 3 FeN presents excellent catalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with overpotentials of 268 and 166 mV at 10 mA cm -2 , respectively, and bears a prominent electrochemical durability. Overall water splitting with an electrolyzer containing the yolk-shell Ni 3 Fe/Ni 3 FeN as the cathode and anode only requires a cell voltage of 1.62 V to reach a current density of 10 mA cm -2 . The present research not only introduces a new route for the synthesis of advanced functional electrocatalysts for overall water splitting but also sheds light on their potential commercial applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A back-arc setting for mafic rocks of the Honeysuckle Beds, southeastern N.S.W.: the use of trace and rare earth element abundances determined by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadd, K.A. [University of Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    Major, trace and rare earth elements abundance in mafic rocks of the Honeysuckle Beds was determined by x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis . A comparison with typical mid-ocean ridge basalt compositions reveals an enrichment in light rare earths elements (Ba, Rb, and Th) and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, consistent with modifications of the source by subduction-related fluids. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Element Abundances in the Galactic Cosmic Rays with Atomic Number (Z) in the Interval 30 is less than or equal to Z is less than or equal to 40 (United States)

    Barbier, Louis; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E.; deNolfo, G.; Geier, S.; Israel, M. H.; Link, J. T.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mitchell, J.; Rauch, B. F.


    We present new results on the elemental abundances of galactic cosmic rays with atomic number, Z, greater than 30, and comparison of these observations with abundances expected from galactic propagation of various suggested models of the cosmic-ray source. We combine preliminary results from the 2003-04 flight of the Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER) cosmic-ray detector with previously reported results from the 2001-02 flight. This instrument flew over Antarctica for nearly 32 days at a mean atmospheric depth of 5.2 mb in December 2001 - January 2002. At the time of submission of this abstract, January 8, 2004, TIGER was again in the air over Antarctica having completed 22 days of an expected 30day flight at a mean atmospheric depth of about 4 nb, Data from the first flight demonstrated excellent resolution of individual elements, and we expect similar resolution from the second flight.

  15. Abundances of the elements in sharp-lined early-type stars from IUE high-dispersion spectrograms; 2, the nitrogen deficiency in mercury- manganese stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roby, S W; Adelman, S J


    For pt.I see ibid., vol.419, no.1, p.276-85 (1993). The authors determine nitrogen abundances from co-added IUE high-dispersion SWP spectrograms of four HgMn stars and five normal or superficially normal main-sequence B and A stars. They find N deficiencies in the HgMn stars greater than previously reported (depletion factors of 135-400 relative to the Sun). N abundance discrepancies from UV and IR studies of normal stars are discussed in light of possible non-LTE effects. Their data set for their sample of HgMn stars (observed with a consistent strategy to maximize the benefits of co-additions) is an improvement over the single or few images previously used to derive N abundances for most of these stars. (37 refs).

  16. Full-scale mesophilic biogas plants using manure as C-source: bacterial community shifts along the process cause changes in the abundance of resistance genes and mobile genetic elements. (United States)

    Wolters, Birgit; Ding, Guo-Chun; Kreuzig, Robert; Smalla, Kornelia


    The application of manure, typically harboring bacteria carrying resistance genes (RGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs), as co-substrate in biogas plants (BGPs) might be critical when digestates are used as fertilizers. In the present study, the relative abundance of RGs and MGEs in total community (TC-) DNA from manure, fermenters and digestate samples taken at eight full-scale BGPs co-fermenting manure were determined by real-time PCR. In addition, the bacterial community composition of all digestates as well as manure and fermenter material from one BGP (BGP3) was characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons from TC-DNA. Compared to respective input manures, relative abundances determined for sul1, sul2, tet(M), tet(Q), intI1, qacEΔ1, korB and traN were significantly lower in fermenters, whereas relative abundances of tet(W) were often higher in fermenters. The bacterial communities in all digestates were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes while Proteobacteria were low in abundance and no Enterobacteriaceae were detected. High-throughput sequencing revealed shifts in bacterial communities during treatment for BGP3. Although in comparison to manure, digestate bacteria had lower relative abundances of RGs and MGEs except for tet(W), mesophilic BGPs seem not to be effective for prevention of the spread of RGs and MGEs via digestates into arable soils. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  17. Effects of long-lived 10 MeV-scale sterile neutrinos on primordial elemental abundances and the effective neutrino number (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroyuki; Kusakabe, Motohiko; Okada, Hiroshi


    The primordial lithium abundance inferred from spectroscopic observations of metal-poor stars is ˜3 times smaller than the theoretical prediction in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) model. We assume a simple model composed of standard model particles and a sterile neutrino νH with mass of O(10) MeV which decays long after BBN. We then investigate cosmological effects of a sterile neutrino decay, and check if a sterile neutrino can reduce the primordial lithium abundance. We formulate the injection spectrum of nonthermal photon induced by the νH decay. We take into account the generation of electrons and positrons, e±'s, and active neutrinos at the νH decay, the primary photon production via the inverse Compton scattering of cosmic background radiation (CBR) by energetic e±, and electromagnetic cascade showers induced by the primary photons. The steady state injection spectrum is then derived as a function of the νH mass and the photon temperature. The νH decay produces energetic active neutrinos which are not thermalized, and e±'s which are thermalized. We then derive formulas relevant to the νH decay rates and formulas for the baryon-to-photon ratio η and effective neutrino number Neff. The initial abundance, mass, and lifetime of νH are taken as free parameters. We then consistently solve (1) the cosmic thermal history, (2) nonthermal nucleosynthesis induced by the nonthermal photons, (3) the η value, and (4) the Neff value. We find that an effective Be7 destruction can occur only if the sterile neutrino decays at photon temperature T =O(1) keV. Amounts of energy injection at the νH decay are constrained from limits on primordial D and Li7 abundances, the Neff value, and the CBR energy spectrum. We find that Be7 is photodisintegrated and the Li problem is partially solved for the lifetime 104-105 s and the mass ≳14 MeV. Be7 destruction by more than a factor of 3 is not possible because of an associated D overdestruction. In the

  18. Pop III i-process nucleosynthesis and the elemental abundances of SMSS J0313-6708 and the most iron-poor stars (United States)

    Clarkson, O.; Herwig, F.; Pignatari, M.


    We have investigated a highly energetic H-ingestion event during shell He burning leading to H-burning luminosities of log (LH/L⊙) ˜ 13 in a 45 M⊙ Pop III massive stellar model. In order to track the nucleosynthesis which may occur in such an event, we run a series of single-zone nucleosynthesis models for typical conditions found in the stellar evolution model. Such nucleosynthesis conditions may lead to i-process neutron densities of up to ˜1013 cm-3. The resulting simulation abundance pattern, where Mg comes from He burning and Ca from the i process, agrees with the general observed pattern of the most iron-poor star currently known, SMSS J031300.36-670839.3. However, Na is also efficiently produced in these i-process conditions, and the prediction exceeds observations by ˜2.5 dex. While this probably rules out this model for SMSS J031300.36-670839.3, the typical i-process signature of combined He burning and i process of higher than solar [Na/Mg], [Mg/Al], and low [Ca/Mg] is reproducing abundance features of the two next most iron-poor stars HE 1017-5240 and HE 1327-2326 very well. The i process does not reach Fe which would have to come from a low level of additional enrichment. i process in hyper-metal-poor or Pop III massive stars may be able to explain certain abundance patterns observed in some of the most metal-poor CEMP-no stars.

  19. Nested insertions and accumulation of indels are negatively correlated with abundance of mutator-like transposable elements in maize and rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Zhao

    Full Text Available Mutator-like transposable elements (MULEs are widespread in plants and were first discovered in maize where there are a total of 12,900 MULEs. In comparison, rice, with a much smaller genome, harbors over 30,000 MULEs. Since maize and rice are close relatives, the differential amplification of MULEs raised an inquiry into the underlying mechanism. We hypothesize this is partly attributed to the differential copy number of autonomous MULEs with the potential to generate the transposase that is required for transposition. To this end, we mined the two genomes and detected 530 and 476 MULEs containing transposase sequences (candidate coding-MULEs in maize and rice, respectively. Over 1/3 of the candidate coding-MULEs harbor nested insertions and the ratios are similar in the two genomes. Among the maize elements with nested insertions, 24% have insertions in coding regions and over half of them harbor two or more insertions. In contrast, only 12% of the rice elements have insertions in coding regions and 19% have multiple insertions, suggesting that nested insertions in maize are more disruptive. This is because most nested insertions in maize are from LTR retrotransposons, which are large in size and are prevalent in the maize genome. Our results suggest that the amplification of retrotransposons may limit the amplification of DNA transposons but not vice versa. In addition, more indels are detected among maize elements than rice elements whereas defects caused by point mutations are comparable between the two species. Taken together, more disruptive nested insertions combined with higher frequency of indels resulted in few (6% coding-MULEs that may encode functional transposases in maize. In contrast, 35% of the coding-MULEs in rice retain putative intact transposase. This is in addition to the higher expression frequency of rice coding-MULEs, which may explain the higher occurrence of MULEs in rice than that in maize.

  20. An Ultra-Depleted Mantle Component in the Ontong Java Plateau Revealed by Major, Trace and Volatile Element Abundances in Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions (United States)

    Jackson, M. G.; Cabral, R. A.; Rose-Koga, E. F.; Koga, K. T.; Price, A. A.; Hauri, E. H.; Michael, P. J.


    The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) represents the most voluminous large igneous province (LIP) preserved in the geologic record. The most voluminous volcanic stages of the OJP—the Kroenke and Kwaimbaita stages, which dominate the accessible portions of the plateau—have relatively flat primitive mantle normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns, or spidergrams. With the exception of relatively small volumes of late-stage melts—referred to as the Singgalo stage—that are characterized by slightly enriched REE spidergrams, the volcanic stages that dominated the eruptive history of the OJP exhibit remarkably homogeneous, flat REE patterns. Here we isolate, for the first time, olivine-hosted melt inclusions from OJP. We show that the melt inclusions have two clear populations defined by having distinct trace element characteristics. The first population has relatively flat trace element patterns that are similar to that observed in whole rock lavas from the most voluminous volcanic stages (Kroenke and Kwaimbaita stages) recorded in the OJP. In contrast, a second group of melt inclusions, referred to as UDM (ultra-depleted melt) inclusions, exhibit strikingly depleted REE spidergrams; these trace element patterns are far more depleted than any previously reported lava from OJP. The UDM have unique trace element signatures that preclude an origin by assimilation of hydrothermally-altered oceanic crust or re-melting the depleted mantle source left over after melt extraction during construction of the OJP. We interpret the new UDM compositions to be the result of melting of a previously unrecognized ultra-depleted component hosted in the OJP mantle source.

  1. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Future of Using Earth-Abundant Elements in Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 20/2016). (United States)

    Briscoe, Joe; Dunn, Steve


    Sustainability is an important concept generating traction in the research community. To be really sustainable the full life cycle of a product needs to be carefully considered. A key aspect of this is using elements that are either readily recycled or accessible in the Earth's biosphere. Jigsawing these materials together in compounds to address our future energy needs represents a great opportunity for the current generation of researchers. On page 3802, S. Dunn and J. Briscoe summarize the performance of a selection of alternative materials to replace platinum in the counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. CubeSAT X-ray Telescope (CubeX) for Elemental Abundance Mapping of Airless Bodies and X-ray Pulsar Navigation (XNAV) (United States)

    Romaine, S.; Hong, J.; Elvis, M.


    The CubeSAT X-ray Telescope (CubeX) is a concept for a 12U planetary X-ray telescope, which utilizes Miniature Wolter-I X-ray optics (MiXO) and a combination of X-ray CMOS and SDD sensors for the focal plane. CubeX will map the surface elemental composition of diverse airless bodies using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), which can help us to understand the formation and evolutionary history of the individual bodies and the workings of the Solar system as a whole. CubeX will also conduct a feasibility and performance test of X-ray pulsar timing based deep space navigation (XNAV), which can lower operation costs of space navigation and enable autonomous deep space navigation.

  3. Abundances and distribution of minerals and elements in high-alumina coal fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China (United States)

    Dai, S.; Zhao, L.; Peng, S.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, D.; Sun, Y.


    The fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China, is unique because it is highly enriched in alumina (Al2O3>50%). The fly ash mainly consists of amorphous glass and mullite and trace amounts of corundum, quartz, char, calcite, K-feldspar, clay minerals, and Fe-bearing minerals. The mullite content in fly ash is as high as 37.4% because of high boehmite and kaolinite contents in feed coal. Corundum is a characteristic mineral formed during the combustion of boehmite-rich coal.Samples from the economizer were sieved into six size fractions (500 mesh) and separated into magnetic, mullite+corundum+quartz (MCQ) and glass phases for mineralogical and chemical analysis. The corundum content increases but amorphous glass decreases with decreasing particle size. Fractions of small particle sizes are relatively high in mullite, probably because mullite was formed from fine clay mineral particles under high-temperature combustion condition. Similarly, fine corundum crystals formed in the boiler from boehmite in feed coal. The magnetic phase consists of hematite, magnetite, magnesioferrite, and MgFeAlO4 crystals. The MCQ phase is composed of 89% mullite, 6.1% corundum, 4.5% quartz, and 0.5% K-feldspar.Overall, the fly ash from the power plant is significantly enriched in Al2O3 with an average of 51.9%, but poor in SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, P2O5, and As. Arsenic, TiO2, Th, Al2O3, Bi, La, Ga, Ni, and V are high in mullite, and the magnetic matter is enriched in Fe2O3, CaO, MnO, TiO2, Cs, Co, As, Cd, Ba, Ni, Sb, MgO, Zn, and V. The remaining elements are high in the glass fraction. The concentration of K2O, Na2O, P2O5, Nb, Cr, Ta, U, W, Rb, and Ni do not clearly vary with particle size, while SiO2 and Hg decrease and the remaining elements clearly increase with decreasing particle size. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Heterogeneity of elemental composition and natural abundance of stables isotopes of C and N in soils and leaves of mangroves at their southernmost West Atlantic range. (United States)

    Tognella, M M P; Soares, M L G; Cuevas, E; Medina, E


    Mangrove communities were selected in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, near their southernmost limit of distribution, to study mineral nutrient relation in soils and plants. Communities included three true mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia germinans, and two associated species, the fern Acrostichum danaeifolium, and the grass Spartina densiflora. The sites included communities in the lower Río Tavares near Florianopolis city, Sonho beach near Palhoça city, and the Santo Antonio lagoon. These sites included a full range of mangroves under humid climate where winter temperatures, instead of salinity, may be the main factor regulating their productive capacity and species composition. Soil salinity was determined by the concentration of soluble Na, and soil C and N were linearly correlated indicating their association in organic matter. Tavares site showed higher specific conductivity, and concentrations of Na and Mg in the soil layer below 40 cm depth, indicating larger influence of marine water. Isotopic signature of C increased with soil depth suggesting that microorganisms decomposing organic matter are releasing 13C depleted CO2. Nitrogen isotopic signature decreased with soil depth, indicating enrichment in 15N possibly as a result of denitrification in the upper soil layers. Mineral elements in leaf tissues showed A. schaueriana with higher concentrations of N, P, Na, K, Cu, Zn, and Na/Ca ratio. Spartina densiflora was characterized by the lowest N and K concentrations, and the highest concentrations of Al and Fe. Rhizophora mangle and L. racemosa had the highest Ca concentrations. Carbon isotopic signatures identified S. densiflora as a C4 plant, and A. schaueriana as the mangrove species occupying comparatively more water stressed microsites than the rest. Leaf nitrogen isotopic signatures were positive, in correspondence with the soil values. The results support the hypothesis that sites sampled were comparatively

  5. Interannual variation of rare earth element abundances in corals from northern coast of the South China Sea and its relation with sea-level change and human activities (United States)

    Liu, Yajing; Peng, Z.; Wei, G.; Chen, T.; Sun, W.; He, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Shen, C.-C.


    Here we present interannual rare earth element (REE) records spanning the last two decades of the 20th century in two living Porites corals, collected from Longwan Bay, close to the estuarine zones off Wanquan River of Hainan Island and Hong Kong off the Pearl River Delta of Guangdong Province in the northern South China Sea. The results show that both coral REE contents (0.5-40 ng g-1 in Longwan Bay and 2-250 ng g-1 in Hong Kong for La-Lu) are characterized with a declining trend, which are significantly negative correlated with regional sea-level rise (9.4 mm a-1 from 1981 to 1996 in Longwan Bay, 13.7 mm a-1 from 1991 to 2001 in Hong Kong). The REE features are proposed to be resulted from seawater intrusion into the estuaries in response to contemporary sea-level rise. However, the tendency for the coral Er/Nd time series at Hong Kong site is absent and there is no significant relation between Er/Nd and total REEs as found for the coral at Longwan Bay site. The observations are likely attributed to changes of the water discharge and sediment load of Pearl River, which have been significantly affected by intense human activities, such as the construction of dams/reservoirs and riverbed sediment mining, in past decades. The riverine sediment load/discharge ratio of the Pearl River decreased sharply with a rate of 0.02 kg m-3 a-1, which could make significant contribution to the declining trend of coral REE. We propose that coastal corals in Longwan Bay and similar unexplored sites with little influences of river discharge and anthropogenic disruption are ideal candidates to investigate the influence of sea-level change on seawater/coral REE. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Heterogeneity of elemental composition and natural abundance of stables isotopes of C and N in soils and leaves of mangroves at their southernmost West Atlantic range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. P. Tognella

    Full Text Available Abstract Mangrove communities were selected in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, near their southernmost limit of distribution, to study mineral nutrient relation in soils and plants. Communities included three true mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia germinans, and two associated species, the fern Acrostichum danaeifolium, and the grass Spartina densiflora. The sites included communities in the lower Río Tavares near Florianopolis city, Sonho beach near Palhoça city, and the Santo Antonio lagoon. These sites included a full range of mangroves under humid climate where winter temperatures, instead of salinity, may be the main factor regulating their productive capacity and species composition. Soil salinity was determined by the concentration of soluble Na, and soil C and N were linearly correlated indicating their association in organic matter. Tavares site showed higher specific conductivity, and concentrations of Na and Mg in the soil layer below 40 cm depth, indicating larger influence of marine water. Isotopic signature of C increased with soil depth suggesting that microorganisms decomposing organic matter are releasing 13C depleted CO2. Nitrogen isotopic signature decreased with soil depth, indicating enrichment in 15N possibly as a result of denitrification in the upper soil layers. Mineral elements in leaf tissues showed A. schaueriana with higher concentrations of N, P, Na, K, Cu, Zn, and Na/Ca ratio. Spartina densiflora was characterized by the lowest N and K concentrations, and the highest concentrations of Al and Fe. Rhizophora mangle and L. racemosa had the highest Ca concentrations. Carbon isotopic signatures identified S. densiflora as a C4 plant, and A. schaueriana as the mangrove species occupying comparatively more water stressed microsites than the rest. Leaf nitrogen isotopic signatures were positive, in correspondence with the soil values. The results support the hypothesis that

  7. Quasar Elemental Abundances at High Redshifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Hamann, F.; Shields, J. C.


    We examine rest-frame ultraviolet spectra of 70 high redshift quasars (z>3.5) to study the chemical enrichment history of the gas closely related to the quasars, and thereby estimate the epoch of first star formation. The fluxes of several ultraviolet emission lines were investigated within...... scale of t_evol = 0.5 - 0.8 Gyrs for the chemical enrichment of the gas, the first major star formation for quasars with z>=4 should have started at a redshift of z_f = 6 - 8, corresponding to an age of the universe of several 10^8 yrs (H_o = 65 km/s/Mpc, Omega_M = 0.3, Omega_Lambda = 0.7). We note...

  8. Raccoon abundance inventory report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a raccoon abundance inventory on Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge in 2012. Determining raccoon abundance allows for...

  9. La citometría de flujo en el estudio de tumores mediastinales ricos en elementos linfoides Flow cytometry for the study of mediastinal tumors with abundant lymphoid elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Vides Almonacid


    Full Text Available El mediastino anterior es un sitio frecuente de localización de tumores ricos en elementos linfoides. La identificación correcta de cada entidad es de importancia en el tratamiento de los pacientes. En ocasiones puede plantearse el diagnóstico diferencial entre timoma y linfoma linfoblástico con fenotipo de precursor T (LLB-T. La Citometría de Flujo (CF es una técnica complementaria útil para estos tumores de la cual se obtiene información cualitativa y cuantitativa. Revisamos 38 tumores mediastinales que tenían estudio de CF. Además comparamos los resultados de CF de timomas y tejido tímico normal con 42 casos de LLB-T de otras localizaciones anatómicas. De los 38 tumores mediastinales 6 eran lesiones benignas, 9 linfomas difusos de células grandes con fenotipo B (LDCG-B, 10 linfomas de Hodgkin (LH, 11 timomas y 2 LLB-T. En 24 casos la CF aportó información positiva, definiendo el inmunofenotipo de las células linfoides neoplásicas, o los linfocitos característicos que acompañan a los timomas. La CF en los 10 casos de LH y en 4 lesiones benignas permitió descartar otros tipos de linfoma (LDCG-B, LLB-T, etc.. Las marcaciones para CD3, CD4 y CD8 fueron las más útiles para el diagnóstico diferencial entre timomas y LLB-T. En conclusión, la CF es una técnica complementaria de utilidad que aporta información en lesiones mediastinales de manera rápida, requiriendo cantidades pequeñas de material, tanto para el diagnóstico inicial como para el monitoreo de estas enfermedades.The anterior mediastinum is a common site of tumors with abundant lymphoid elements. Flow cytometry is a useful complementary technique to analyze this type of tumors, which provides qualitative and quantitative information. A differential diagnosis can be sometimes made between thymoma and precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL. Correct identification is of utmost importance for patient treatment. A total of 38 mediastinal tumors were analyzed, and

  10. Interstellar Abundances Toward X Per, Revisited (United States)

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Smith, Randall K.


    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to measure elemental abundances in the local ISM. We examine absorption features of 0, Mg, and Si along this line of sight using spectra from the Chandra Observatory's LETG/ ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments. In general, we find that the abundances and their ratios are similar to those of young F and G stars and the most recent solar values. We compare our results with abundances required by dust grain models.

  11. Estimating abundance: Chapter 27 (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew


    This chapter provides a non-technical overview of ‘closed population capture–recapture’ models, a class of well-established models that are widely applied in ecology, such as removal sampling, covariate models, and distance sampling. These methods are regularly adopted for studies of reptiles, in order to estimate abundance from counts of marked individuals while accounting for imperfect detection. Thus, the chapter describes some classic closed population models for estimating abundance, with considerations for some recent extensions that provide a spatial context for the estimation of abundance, and therefore density. Finally, the chapter suggests some software for use in data analysis, such as the Windows-based program MARK, and provides an example of estimating abundance and density of reptiles using an artificial cover object survey of Slow Worms (Anguis fragilis).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Odessa Branch, Shevchenko Park, 65014 Odessa (Ukraine)


    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  13. Clustering in the stellar abundance space (United States)

    Boesso, R.; Rocha-Pinto, H. J.


    We have studied the chemical enrichment history of the interstellar medium through an analysis of the n-dimensional stellar abundance space. This work is a non-parametric analysis of the stellar chemical abundance space. The main goal is to study the stars from their organization within this abundance space. Within this space, we seek to find clusters (in a statistical sense), that is, stars likely to share similar chemo-evolutionary history, using two methods: the hierarchical clustering and the principal component analysis. We analysed some selected abundance surveys available in the literature. For each sample, we labelled the group of stars according to its average abundance curve. In all samples, we identify the existence of a main enrichment pattern of the stars, which we call chemical enrichment flow. This flow is set by the structured and well-defined mean rate at which the abundances of the interstellar medium increase, resulting from the mixture of the material ejected from the stars and stellar mass-loss and interstellar medium gas. One of the main results of our analysis is the identification of subgroups of stars with peculiar chemistry. These stars are situated in regions outside of the enrichment flow in the abundance space. These peculiar stars show a mismatch in the enrichment rate of a few elements, such as Mg, Si, Sc and V, when compared to the mean enrichment rate of the other elements of the same stars. We believe that the existence of these groups of stars with peculiar chemistry may be related to the accretion of planetary material on to stellar surfaces or may be due to production of the same chemical element by different nucleosynthetic sites.

  14. The solar system abundance of tin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loss, R.D.; Rosman, K.K.R.; De Laeter, J.R. (Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth (Australia))


    The elemental abundance of tin has been determined by the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique for four carbonaceous chondrites, including the Cl chondrites Orgueil and Ivuna. A solar system abundance of 3.98 (normalized to Si = 10{sup 6} atoms) can be derived from these data, which is in excellent agreement with the presently accepted value. Recently, a theoretical value of 2.82 {plus minus} 0.21 (Si = 10{sup 6} atoms) has been proposed for the abundance of tin based on an s-process nucleosynthesis model. This value is 26% lower than the presently accepted solar system abundance. The present data confirm the higher value for tin and indicate that a reexamination of the assumptions on which the nucleosynthetic value is based is required.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver, E-mail: [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States)


    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via

  16. Magellanic Cloud Cepheids - Abundances (United States)

    Luck, R. Earle; Moffett, Thomas J.; Barnes, Thomas G., III; Gieren, Wolfgang P.


    We have determined parameters and abundances for three SMC and nine LMC Cepheids that have not been previously studied spectroscopically for metallicity, as well as three SMC and one LMC Cepheids observed previously by Luck and Lambert. This work nearly doubles the number of Cepheids with spectroscopic metallicities in the SMC and triples the number in the LMC. For Galactic reference stars we have determined the abundances of 11 supergiants of spectral type F0 to K1. These abundances are used herein to examine the dispersion in cosmic (Fe/H) values found in LMC Cepheids by Luck and Lambert. The Magellanic Cloud Cepheids tend to be longer-period Cepheids, and thus have physical gravities that are 1.0 dex and lower. Spectroscopic gravities are even lower. Fortunately, the (Fe/H) content as determined from Fe I is not strongly dependent on gravity and is thus well determined. We combine our abundances with other published high-resolution spectroscopic results, deriving a mean (Fe/H) for the SMC of -0.68. The total range seen in the (Fe/H) ratios derived herein is -0.84 to -0.65. This result is in agreement with previous studies showing a small intrinsic range in the metallicities in the SMC. For the LMC, from the Cepheids studied here we obtain -0.30, with a range of -0.55 to -0.19. Combining all available data, we obtain a mean (Fe/H) of -0.34. From this analysis, there is little evidence for a significant metallicity dispersion in the LMC.

  17. Chemical Abundances of Compact Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Lee, Ting-Hui; Shaw, Richard A.; Stanghellini, letizia; Riley, Ben


    We present preliminary results from an optical spectroscopic survey of compact planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Galactic disk. This is an ongoing optical+infrared spectral survey of 150 compact PNe to build a deep sample of PN chemical abundances. We obtained optical spectra of PNe with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope and Goodman High-Throughput Spectrograph between 2012 and 2015. These data were used to calculate the nebulae diagnostics such as electron temperature and density for each PN, and to derive the elemental abundances of He, N, O Ne, S and Ar. These abundances are vital to understanding the nature of the PNe, and their low- to intermediate-mass progenitor stars.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN, N.E.


    Following Thomson's discovery of stable isotopes in non-radioactive chemical elements, the derivation of atomic weight values from mass spectrometric measurements of isotopic abundance ratios moved very slowly. Forty years later, only 3 1/2 % of the recommended values were based on mass spectrometric measurements and only 38% in the first half century. It might be noted that two chemical elements (tellurium and mercury) are still based on chemical measurements, where the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement either agrees with the value from the chemical measurement or the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement falls within the uncertainty of the chemical measurement of the atomic weight. Of the 19 chemical elements, whose atomic weight is based on non-corrected relative isotopic abundance measurements, five of these are two isotope systems (indium, iridium, lanthanum, lutetium and tantalum) and one is a three-isotope system (oxygen).


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides tables of weight fractions and terms of the error matrix for major oxides and K, Th, and U for the Moon from Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray and...

  20. Unifying elemental stoichiometry and metabolic theory in predicting species abundances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ott, David; Digel, Christoph; Rall, Björn Christian; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan; Brose, Ulrich


    While metabolic theory predicts variance in population density within communities depending on population average body masses, the ecological stoichiometry concept relates density variation across communities to varying resource stoichiometry. Using a data set including biomass densities of 4959


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencic, Lynne A. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Smith, Randall K. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to examine dust grain types and measure elemental abundances in the local interstellar medium (ISM). The absorption features of O, Fe, Mg, and Si along this line of sight were measured using spectra from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory's LETG/ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments, and the Spex software package. The spectra were fit with dust analogs measured in the laboratory. The O, Mg, and Si abundances were compared to those from standard references, and the O abundance was compared to that along lines of sight toward other X-ray binaries. The results are as follows. First, it was found that a combination of MgSiO{sub 3} (enstatite) and Mg{sub 1.6}Fe{sub 0.4}SiO{sub 4} (olivine) provided the best fit to the O K edge, with N(MgSiO{sub 3})/N(Mg{sub 1.6}Fe{sub 0.4}SiO{sub 4}) = 3.4. Second, the Fe L edge could be fit with models that included metallic iron, but it was not well described by the laboratory spectra currently available. Third, the total abundances of O, Mg, and Si were in very good agreement with that of recently re-analyzed B stars, suggesting that they are good indicators of abundances in the local ISM, and the depletions were also in agreement with expected values for the diffuse ISM. Finally, the O abundances found from X-ray binary absorption spectra show a similar correlation with Galactocentric distances as seen in other objects.

  2. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Galactic Neutron CaptureAbundance Gradients (United States)

    O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Melendez, Matthew; Cunha, Katia; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; APOGEE Team


    The evolution of elements, as a function or age, throughout the Milky Way disk provides a key constraint for galaxy evolution models. In an effort to provide these constraints, we have conducted an investigation into the r- and s- process elemental abundances for a large sample of open clusters as part of an optical follow-up to the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. Stars were identified as cluster members by the Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey, which culls member candidates by radial velocity, metallicity and proper motion from the observed APOGEE sample. To obtain data for neutron capture elements in these clusters, we conducted a long-term observing campaign covering three years (2013-2016) using the McDonald Observatory Otto Struve 2.1-m telescope and Sandiford Cass Echelle Spectrograph (R ~ 60,000). We present Galactic neutron capture abundance gradients using 30+ clusters, within 6 kpc of the Sun, covering a range of ages from ~80 Myr to ~10 Gyr .

  3. r-process abundances near the mass 130 peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Laeter, J.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.


    A recent article by Kaeppeler et al. has reevaluated r-process abundances in the light of new neutron-capture cross section and elemental abundance data. The height of the r-process peak near mass 130 is largely determined by the r-only process nuclides /sup 128/Te and /sup 130/Te. Recent work by Smith, De Laeter and Rosman has not been given due consideration is assessing the solar system abundance of tellurium. These data indicate a 25% reduction in the height of the mass 130 peak, in agreement with predictions from s-process systematics.

  4. APOGEE Chemical Abundances of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselquist, Sten; Holtzman, Jon [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Smith, Verne; Nidever, David L. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); McWilliam, Andrew [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Tang, Baitian [Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Majewski, Steven R.; Anguiano, Borja [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Tissera, Patricia B. [Department of Physics, Universidad Andres Bello, 700 Fernandez Concha (Chile); Alvar, Emma Fernández; Carigi, Leticia; Delgado Inglada, Gloria [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70264, Ciudad de México, 04510 (Mexico); Allende Prieto, Carlos; Battaglia, Giuseppina; García-Hernández, D. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Almeida, Andres [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Serena, Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile); Frinchaboy, Peter, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); and others


    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment provides the opportunity of measuring elemental abundances for C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni in vast numbers of stars. We analyze thechemical-abundance patterns of these elements for 158 red giant stars belonging to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr). This is the largest sample of Sgr stars with detailed chemical abundances, and it is the first time that C, N, P, K, V, Cr, Co, and Ni have been studied at high resolution in this galaxy. We find that the Sgr stars with [Fe/H] ≳ −0.8 are deficient in all elemental abundance ratios (expressed as [X/Fe]) relative to the Milky Way, suggesting that the Sgr stars observed today were formed from gas that was less enriched by Type II SNe than stars formed in the Milky Way. By examining the relative deficiencies of the hydrostatic (O, Na, Mg, and Al) and explosive (Si, P, K, and Mn) elements, our analysis supports the argument that previous generations of Sgr stars were formed with a top-light initial mass function, one lacking the most massive stars that would normally pollute the interstellar medium with the hydrostatic elements. We use a simple chemical-evolution model, flexCE, to further support our claim and conclude that recent stellar generations of Fornax and the Large Magellanic Cloud could also have formed according to a top-light initial mass function.

  5. APOGEE Chemical Abundances of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy (United States)

    Hasselquist, Sten; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia M. L.; McWilliam, Andrew; Holtzman, Jon A.; Majewski, Steven R.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Ivans, Inese I.; Allende-Prieto, Carlos; Placco, Vinicius M.; Lane, Richard; Zasowski, Gail; APOGEE


    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) provides elemental abundances for C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. We analyze the chemical abundance patterns of these elements for ~ 350 stars belonging to the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy (Sgr). This is the largest sample of Sgr stars with detailed chemical abundances and the first time C, N, P, K, V, Cr, Co, and Ni have been studied in the dwarf galaxy. For Sgr stars with [Fe/H] > -0.9, we find that Sgr is deficient in all elemental abundance ratios (expressed as [X/Fe]) relative to the Milky Way, which suggests that Sgr stars observed today were formed from gas that was less enriched by both Type II and Type Ia SNe. By examining the relative deficiencies of the hydrostatic (O, Mg, and Al) and explosive (Si, K, and Mn) elements , we find support that previous generations of Sgr stars were formed with a top-light IMF, lacking the most massive stars that would normally pollute the ISM with the hydrostatic elements.

  6. APOGEE Chemical Abundances of the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy (United States)

    Hasselquist, Sten; Shetrone, Matthew; Smith, Verne; Holtzman, Jon; McWilliam, Andrew; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Beers, Timothy C.; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.; Tang, Baitian; Tissera, Patricia B.; Fernández Alvar, Emma; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Almeida, Andres; Anguiano, Borja; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Carigi, Leticia; Delgado Inglada, Gloria; Frinchaboy, Peter; García-Hernández, D. A.; Geisler, Doug; Minniti, Dante; Placco, Vinicius M.; Schultheis, Mathias; Sobeck, Jennifer; Villanova, Sandro


    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment provides the opportunity of measuring elemental abundances for C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni in vast numbers of stars. We analyze thechemical-abundance patterns of these elements for 158 red giant stars belonging to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr). This is the largest sample of Sgr stars with detailed chemical abundances, and it is the first time that C, N, P, K, V, Cr, Co, and Ni have been studied at high resolution in this galaxy. We find that the Sgr stars with [Fe/H] ≳ -0.8 are deficient in all elemental abundance ratios (expressed as [X/Fe]) relative to the Milky Way, suggesting that the Sgr stars observed today were formed from gas that was less enriched by Type II SNe than stars formed in the Milky Way. By examining the relative deficiencies of the hydrostatic (O, Na, Mg, and Al) and explosive (Si, P, K, and Mn) elements, our analysis supports the argument that previous generations of Sgr stars were formed with a top-light initial mass function, one lacking the most massive stars that would normally pollute the interstellar medium with the hydrostatic elements. We use a simple chemical-evolution model, flexCE, to further support our claim and conclude that recent stellar generations of Fornax and the Large Magellanic Cloud could also have formed according to a top-light initial mass function.

  7. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen


    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  8. Isotopic Compositions of the Elements 1989 (United States)

    De Laeter, J. R.; Heumann, K. G.; Rosman, K. J. R.


    The Subcommittee for Isotopic Abundance Measurements (SIAM) of the IUPAC Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances has carried out its biennial review of isotopic compositions, as determined by mass spectrometry and other relevant methods. The Subcommittee's critical evaluation of the published literature element by element forms the basis of the Table of Isotopic Compositions of the Elements as Determined by Mass Spectrometry 1989, which is presented in this Report. Atomic Weights calculated from the tabulated isotopic abundances are consistent with Ar(E) values listed in the Table of Standard Atomic Weights 1989.

  9. The Paradox of Water Abundance in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Schulz


    Full Text Available While much effort has gone into studying the causes and consequences of water scarcity, the concept of water abundance has received considerably less attention in academic literature. Here, we aim to address this gap by providing a case study on the perceptions and political implications of water abundance in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. Combining a political ecology perspective on contemporary water governance (empirically based on stakeholder interviews with members of the state’s water sector with an overview of the environmental history of this hydrosocial territory, we argue, first, that water abundance has become a foundational element of Mato Grosso’s identity, situated in the wider context of natural resource abundance more generally and second, that water abundance today is a contested concept witnessing discursive struggles around its political implications and meaning. More specifically, there is a clash between the dominant conceptualisation of water abundance as a foundation for rich economic, ecological, social, and cultural values and benefits, often espoused by members of the political and economic elite, e.g., for marketing purposes, and a more critical but less widespread conceptualisation of water abundance as a source of carelessness, lack of awareness, and poor water governance, typically put forth by more informed technical staff of the public sector and civil society activists. By providing a distinct treatment and discussion of the concept of water abundance, our research has relevance for other water-rich regions beyond the immediate regional context.

  10. NEFSC Survey Indices of Abundance (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Fisheries Survey Bottom trawl survey indices of abundance such as stratified mean number per tow or mean weight per tow by species stock. Includes indices...

  11. Chemical abundances and kinematics of TYC 5619-109-1 (United States)

    Pereira, C. B.; Smith, V. V.; Drake, N. A.; Roig, F.; Hasselquist, S.; Cunha, K.; Jilinski, E.


    Previous determinations of chemical abundances of the metal-poor red giant TYC 5619-109-1, derived via high-resolution near-infrared spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment survey, indicate that this star is strongly enriched in the elements N and Al. Here, we obtain and analyse high-resolution optical spectra of TYC 5619-109-1 to verify these large N and Al overabundances and to measure abundances of a wider range of chemical elements. Our analysis confirms the N- and Al-rich nature of this star, and shows that the abundances of the s-process elements are also strongly enhanced, particularly in the heavy second s-process peak elements (Ba, La, Ce, Nd). Lighter s-process elements (Y, Zr) show smaller overabundances, and the ratio of the light-to-heavy s-process elements is consistent with the 13C(α, n)16O neutron source operating in a low-metallicity environment. The lack of Tc i lines and the abundance of Nb compared to Zr indicate that this red giant is probably not a thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) star. Mass transfer from a former s-process-rich TP-AGB companion may produce the observed overabundances, but our radial velocity analysis provides no evidence that TYC 5619-109-1 is a binary with a white dwarf companion. We suggest that TYC 5619-109-1 formed from gas already strongly enriched in s-process elements, as found in many dwarf galaxies and globular clusters. A dynamical analysis reveals that there is only a small probability that TYC 5619-109-1 is an escaped member of a globular cluster, and in this case the most likely candidate would be ω Cen.

  12. Stellar abundances in the solar neighborhood: The Hypatia Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Timmes, F.X.; Young, Patrick A.; Pagano, Michael D. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Turnbull, Margaret C. [Global Science Institute, P.O. Box 252, Antigo, WI 54409 (United States)


    We compile spectroscopic abundance data from 84 literature sources for 50 elements across 3058 stars in the solar neighborhood, within 150 pc of the Sun, to produce the Hypatia Catalog. We evaluate the variability of the spread in abundance measurements reported for the same star by different surveys. We also explore the likely association of the star within the Galactic disk, the corresponding observation and abundance determination methods for all catalogs in Hypatia, the influence of specific catalogs on the overall abundance trends, and the effect of normalizing all abundances to the same solar scale. The resulting stellar abundance determinations in the Hypatia Catalog are analyzed only for thin-disk stars with observations that are consistent between literature sources. As a result of our large data set, we find that the stars in the solar neighborhood may reveal an asymmetric abundance distribution, such that a [Fe/H]-rich group near the midplane is deficient in Mg, Si, S, Ca, Sc II, Cr II, and Ni as compared to stars farther from the plane. The Hypatia Catalog has a wide number of applications, including exoplanet hosts, thick- and thin-disk stars, and stars with different kinematic properties.

  13. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Allende Prieto


    Full Text Available Abstract The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  14. Estimating species abundance from occurrence


    He, F.; Gaston, K.J.


    The number of individuals, or the abundance, of a species\\ud in an area is a fundamental ecological parameter and a\\ud critical consideration when making management and conservation decisions (Andrewartha and Birch 1954; Krebs\\ud 1978; Gaston 1994; Caughley and Gunn 1996). However,\\ud unless the scale is very fine or localized (e.g., in a measurable habitat or a forest stand), abundance is not readily determined. At coarse or regional scales for many species, information on commonness and rar...

  15. Zinc abundances in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy (United States)

    Skúladóttir, Á.; Tolstoy, E.; Salvadori, S.; Hill, V.; Pettini, M.


    From ESO VLT/FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectra, abundance measurements of Zn have been made in ≈100 individual red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. This is the largest sample of individual Zn abundance measurements within a stellar system beyond the Milky Way. In the observed metallicity range, -2.7 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -0.9, the general trend of Zn abundances in Sculptor is similar to that of α-elements. That is, super-solar abundance ratios of [Zn/Fe] at low metallicities, which decrease with increasing [Fe/H], eventually reaching subsolar values. However, at the higher metallicities in Sculptor, [Fe/H] ≳ -1.8, we find a significant scatter, -0.8 ≲ [Zn/Fe] ≲ +0.4, which is not seen in any α-element. Our results are consistent with previous observations of a limited number of stars in Sculptor and in other dwarf galaxies. These results suggest that zinc has a complex nucleosynthetic origin, behaving neither completely like an α- nor an iron-peak element. Based on observations made with ESO/VLT/FLAMES at the La Silla Paranal observatory under program ID 092.B-0194(A).Tables 2-4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  16. Accurate LTE abundances of seven well established lambda Bootis stars (United States)

    Paunzen, E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Chernyshova, I. V.; Klochkova, V. G.; Panchuk, V. E.; Handler, G.


    High resolution and high signal-to-noise CCD spectra were analyzed to determine accurate LTE abundances for seven well established {lambda Bootis} stars (a group of A to F-type stars with strong underabundances of Fe-peak elements whereas the C, N, O and S appear to be solar abundant): HD 31295, HD 125162, HD 142994, HD 149303, HD 192640, HD 204041 and HD 221756. In general, 13 elements were investigated. The effective temperatures of our program stars range from 7200 to 9000 K. The main results are the following: C, O, Na and S seem to be nearly solar abundant for all investigated stars. A wide range of underabundances within the individual stars exists for all other elements. No correlation of the individual abundances with astrophysical parameters such as T_eff, log g and v sin i was found. These results are consistent with the accretion/diffusion model which is currently adopted for the explanation of the {lambda Bootis} phenomenon. Based on observations from the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, Northern Caucasus and the McDonald Observatory

  17. Chemical Abundance Analysis of Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1) (United States)

    O'Connell, Julia E.; Martens, Kylee; Frinchaboy, Peter M.


    We present elemental abundances for all seven stars in Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1) to determine if they may be chemically related. These stars appear to be both spatially and kinematically related, but no spectroscopic abundance analysis exists in literature. Abundances for eight elements were derived via equivalent width analyses of high-resolution (R ˜ 60,000), high-signal-to-noise ratio ( ˜ 100) spectra obtained with the Otto Struve 2.1 m telescope and the Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. The large star-to-star scatter in metallicity, -0.55 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤slant 0.06 dex (σ = 0.25), implies these stars were not produced from the same chemically homogeneous molecular cloud, and are therefore not part of a remnant or open cluster as previously proposed. Prior to this analysis, it was suggested that two stars in the group, W11449 and W11450, are possible wide binaries. The candidate wide binary pair show similar chemical abundance patterns with not only iron but with other elements analyzed in this study, suggesting the proposed connection between these two stars may be real.

  18. Coho Abundance - Linear Features [ds183 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  19. Chinook Abundance - Point Features [ds180 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  20. Steelhead Abundance - Linear Features [ds185 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  1. Steelhead Abundance - Point Features [ds184 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  2. Coho Abundance - Point Features [ds182 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  3. Abundance estimation and Conservation Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichols, J. D.


    Full Text Available Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001. The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959 and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965 open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992, and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993. However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001. The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004 is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004 emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004 also suggest that

  4. Abundance estimation and conservation biology (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; MacKenzie, D.I.


    Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001). The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959) and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965) open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992), and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993). However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001). The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004) is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004) emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004) also suggest that our attention

  5. Liquid growth conditions for abundant chlamydospore formation in Candida dubliniensis. (United States)

    Staib, Peter; Morschhäuser, Joachim


    Staib liquid medium (syn. Guizotia abyssinica creatinine medium) was evaluated for the induction of chlamydospores in the yeast species Candida dubliniensis. During growth in this liquid medium C. dubliniensis produced abundant chlamydospores at the tips of pseudohyphal elements, whereas C. albicans produced only round to oval blastospores. Chlamydospore formation could be induced with the same efficiency by use of a liquid growth medium in which Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seeds, another plant of the family Compositae, were substituted for Guizotia abyssinica plant seeds. Liquid growth culture conditions for rapid and abundant formation of chlamydospores in C. dubliniensis should facilitate their enrichment and their biochemical and genetic analysis.

  6. M22: An [Fe/H] Abundance Range Revealed (United States)

    Da Costa, G. S.; Held, E. V.; Saviane, I.; Gullieuszik, M.


    Intermediate resolution spectra at the Ca II triplet have been obtained for 55 candidate red giants in the field of the globular cluster M22 with the VLT/FORS2 instrument. Spectra were also obtained for a number of red giants in standard globular clusters to provide a calibration of the observed line strengths with overall abundance [Fe/H]. For the 41 M22 member stars that lie within the V - VHB bounds of the calibration, we find an abundance distribution that is substantially broader than that expected from the observed errors alone. We argue that this broad distribution cannot be the result of differential reddening. Instead, we conclude that, as has long been suspected, M22 is similar to ω Cen in having an intrinsic dispersion in heavy element abundance. The observed M22 abundance distribution rises sharply to a peak at [Fe/H] ≈-1.9 with a broad tail to higher abundances: the highest abundance star in our sample has [Fe/H] ≈-1.45 dex. If the unusual properties of ω Cen have their origin in a scenario in which the cluster is the remnant nucleus of a disrupted dwarf galaxy, then such a scenario likely also applies to M22. Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, Proposal No. 77.D-0775.

  7. Hematite Abundance on Martian Surface (United States)


    This figure shows the concentration of hematite measured by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument. The abundance of hematite is shown in red, with increasing brightness indicating increasing hematite abundance. The location and size of the individual TES observations on the surface are indicated by the individual squares. Black squares indicate observations with no detectable hematite. Data from 11 separate orbits acquired between Nov. 22, 1997 and April 25, 1998 are shown in this image. The TES data are superimposed on a Viking photomosaic for context. The image extends from 10 S to 10 N latitude and 350 W to 15 W longitude, covering an area 1500 km (940 miles) in longitude by 1200 km (750 miles) in latitude.The TES instrument was built by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing and is operated by Philip R. Christensen, of Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ. The MGS mission is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena CA.

  8. Neon and sulfur abundances of planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernard-Salas, J.; Pottasch, S. R.; Gutenkunst, S.; Morris, P. W.; Houck, J. R.


    The chemical abundances of neon and sulfur for 25 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Magellanic Clouds are presented. These abundances have been derived using mainly infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope. The implications for the chemical evolution of these elements are discussed. A comparison

  9. Chlorine Abundances in Martian Meteorites (United States)

    Bogard, D.D.; Garrison, D.H.; Park, J.


    Chlorine measurements made in martian surface rocks by robotic spacecraft typically give Chlorine (Cl) abundances of approximately 0.1-0.8%. In contrast, Cl abundances in martian meteorites appear lower, although data is limited, and martian nakhlites were also subjected to Cl contamination by Mars surface brines. Chlorine abundances reported by one lab for whole rock (WR) samples of Shergotty, ALH77005, and EET79001 range 108-14 ppm, whereas Cl in nakhlites range 73-1900 ppm. Measurements of Cl in various martian weathering phases of nakhlites varied 0.04-4.7% and reveal significant concentration of Cl by martian brines Martian meteorites contain much lower Chlorine than those measured in martian surface rocks and give further confirmation that Cl in these surface rocks was introduced by brines and weathering. It has been argued that Cl is twice as effective as water in lowering the melting point and promoting melting at shallower martian depths, and that significant Cl in the shergottite source region would negate any need for significant water. However, this conclusion was based on experiments that utilized Cl concentrations more analogous to martian surface rocks than to shergottite meteorites, and may not be applicable to shergottites.

  10. Thermal effects on rare earth element and strontium isotope chemistry in single conodont elements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armstrong, H.A.; Pearson, D.G.; Griselin, M.


    A low-blank, high sensitivity isotope dilution, ICP-MS analytical technique has been used to obtain REE abundance data from single conodont elements weighing as little as 5 μg. Sr isotopes can also be measured from the column eluants enabling Sr isotope ratios and REE abundance to be determined from

  11. Element 115


    Forsberg, Ulrika


    This thesis is devoted to detailed studies of element 115 decay chains using the highly efficient multi-coincidence alpha, electron, gamma and X-ray detector setup TASISpec at the gas-filled separator TASCA at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. In a three-week long experiment thirty new decay chains assumed to stem from element 115 isotopes were observed together with the very first detections of gamma rays and potential X-rays from these nuclei. Paper I describes preparations in terms of optimisations...

  12. Sulfur and zinc abundances of red giant stars† (United States)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki; Sato, Bun'ei


    Sulfur and zinc are chemically volatile elements, which play significant roles as depletion-free tracers in studying galactic chemical evolution. However, regarding red giants having evolved off the main sequence, reliable abundance determinations of S and Zn seem to be difficult, despite the several studies that have been reported so far. Given this situation, we tried to establish the abundances of these elements for an extensive sample of 239 field GK giants ( - 0.8 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ +0.2), by applying the spectrum-fitting technique to S I 8694-5, S I 6757, and Zn I 6362 lines and by taking into account the non-LTE effect. Besides, similar abundance analysis was done for 160 FGK dwarfs to be used for comparison. The non-LTE corrections for the S and Zn abundances derived from these lines turned out to be ≲ 0.1(-0.2) dex for most cases and not very significant. It revealed that the S I 6757 feature is more reliable as an abundance indicator than S I 8694-5 for the case of red giants, because the latter suffers blending of unidentified lines. The finally resulting [S/Fe]-[Fe/H] and [Zn/Fe]-[Fe/H] relations for GK giants were confirmed to be in good agreement with those for FGK dwarfs, indicating that S and Zn abundances of red giants are reliably determinable from the S I 6757 and Zn I 6362 lines. Accordingly, not only main-sequence stars but also evolved red giant stars are usable for tracing the chemical evolution history of S and Zn in the regime of disk metallicity by using these lines.

  13. Structural Variation of Element and Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songmi Kim


    Full Text Available Transposable elements are one of major sources to cause genomic instability through various mechanisms including de novo insertion, insertion-mediated genomic deletion, and recombination-associated genomic deletion. Among them is Alu element which is the most abundant element, composing ~10% of the human genome. The element emerged in the primate genome 65 million years ago and has since propagated successfully in the human and non-human primate genomes. Alu element is a non-autonomous retrotransposon and therefore retrotransposed using L1-enzyme machinery. The 'master gene' model has been generally accepted to explain Alu element amplification in primate genomes. According to the model, different subfamilies of Alu elements are created by mutations on the master gene and most Alu elements are amplified from the hyperactive master genes. Alu element is frequently involved in genomic rearrangements in the human genome due to its abundance and sequence identity between them. The genomic rearrangements caused by Alu elements could lead to genetic disorders such as hereditary disease, blood disorder, and neurological disorder. In fact, Alu elements are associated with approximately 0.1% of human genetic disorders. The first part of this review discusses mechanisms of Alu amplification and diversity among different Alu subfamilies. The second part discusses the particular role of Alu elements in generating genomic rearrangements as well as human genetic disorders.

  14. Abundance measurements in stellar environments (United States)

    Leone, F.


    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  15. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, F. [Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sezione Astrofisica, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy)


    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Gaia-ESO Survey abundances radial distribution (Magrini+, 2017) (United States)

    Magrini, L.; Randich, S.; Kordopatis, G.; Prantzos, N.; Romano, D.; Chieffi, A.; Limongi, M.; Francois, P.; Pancino, E.; Friel, E.; Bragaglia, A.; Tautvaisiene, G.; Spina, L.; Overbeek, J.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Donati, P.; Vallenari, A.; Sordo, R.; Jimenez-Esteban, F. M.; Tang, B.; Drazdauskas, A.; Sousa, S.; Duffau, S.; Jofre, P.; Gilmore, G.; Feltzing, S.; Alfaro, E.; Bensby, T.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S.; Lanzafame, A.; Smiljanic, R.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G.; Sbordone, L.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.


    We present the stellar parameters, distances, ages, heights, radial velocities and abundances used in the present work. In Table A.1 we present the stellar parameters and radial velocities of the selected member stars in open clusters, while in Table A.2 their elemental abundances. In Table A.3 we show the stellar parameters, ages, distances and heights on the Galactic plane of the solar neighbourhood sample of field stars and of the inner disc stars. In Table A.4 we present their elemental abundances in the 12+log(X/H) form. (4 data files).

  17. Helium the disappearing element

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Wheeler M


    The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. “Who cares?” you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not...

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Line list for abundance determination in Sun siblings (Liu+, 2015) (United States)

    Liu, C.; Ruchti, G.; Feltzing, S.; Martinez-Barbosa, A. C.; Bensby, T.; Brown, G. A. A.; Portegies Zwart, F. S.


    On table 2 we list all spectral lines that have been used to determine elemental abundances. Columns 1 gives the element with a degree of ionization. The wavelength, excitation potential and adopted loggf values are listed in the Columns 2, 3, and 4, respectively. References to the adopted log gf values are given in Column 5. (2 data files).

  19. Hematite Abundance Map at Echo (United States)


    This image shows the hematite abundance map for a portion of the Meridiani Planum rock outcrop near where the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity landed. It was acquired by the rover's miniature thermal emission spectrometer instrument from a spot called 'Echo.' Portions of the inner crater wall in this region appear rich in hematite (red). The sharp boundary from hematite-rich to hematite-poor (yellow and green) surfaces corresponds to a change in the surface texture and color. The hematite-rich surfaces have ripple-like forms suggesting wind transported hematite to these surfaces. The bounce marks produced during landing at the base of the slope on the left are low in hematite (blue). The hematite grains that originally covered the surface were pushed below the surface by the lander, exposing a soil that has less hematite.

  20. Trace Elements in River Waters (United States)

    Gaillardet, J.; Viers, J.; Dupré, B.


    Trace elements are characterized by concentrations lower than 1 mg L-1 in natural waters. This means that trace elements are not considered when "total dissolved solids" are calculated in rivers, lakes, or groundwaters, because their combined mass is not significant compared to the sum of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H4SiO4, HCO3-, CO32-, SO42-, Cl-, and NO3-. Therefore, most of the elements, except about ten of them, occur at trace levels in natural waters. Being trace elements in natural waters does not necessarily qualify them as trace elements in rocks. For example, aluminum, iron, and titanium are major elements in rocks, but they occur as trace elements in waters, due to their low mobility at the Earth's surface. Conversely, trace elements in rocks such as chlorine and carbon are major elements in waters.The geochemistry of trace elements in river waters, like that of groundwater and seawater, is receiving increasing attention. This growing interest is clearly triggered by the technical advances made in the determination of concentrations at lower levels in water. In particular, the development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has considerably improved our knowledge of trace-element levels in waters since the early 1990s. ICP-MS provides the capability of determining trace elements having isotopes of interest for geochemical dating or tracing, even where their dissolved concentrations are extremely low.The determination of trace elements in natural waters is motivated by a number of issues. Although rare, trace elements in natural systems can play a major role in hydrosystems. This is particularly evident for toxic elements such as aluminum, whose concentrations are related to the abundance of fish in rivers. Many trace elements have been exploited from natural accumulation sites and used over thousands of years by human activities. Trace elements are therefore highly sensitive indexes of human impact from local to global scale. Pollution

  1. Constructing an Updated Catalog of Nearby Habitable Stellar Systems with Elemental Ratios (United States)

    Tr'ehnl, N.; Timmes, F. X.; Turnbull, M.; Young, P. A.; Schmidt, S.


    We construct an updated Catalog of Nearby Habitable Stellar Systems ("HabCat"; Turnbull and Tarter, 2003), with existing elemental abundance data to quantify the 3d distribution of abundances within 1000 light years of the Sun.

  2. Isotopic Compositions of the Elements 1997 (United States)

    Rosman, K. J. R.; Taylor, P. D. P.


    The Commission's Subcommittee for the Isotopic Composition of the Elements has carried out its biennial review of isotopic compositions, as determined by mass spectrometry and other relevant methods. This involves a critical evaluation of the published literature, element by element, and forms the basis of the Table of Isotopic Compositions of the Elements as Determined by Mass Spectrometry presented here. New guidelines have been used to arrive at the uncertainties on the isotopic abundances and there are numerous changes to the table since it was last published in 1991. Atomic Weights calculated from this table are consistent with Ar(E) values listed in the Table of Standard Atomic Weights 1997.

  3. The Cosmic Abundance of 3He: Green Bank Telescope Observations (United States)

    Balser, Dana; Bania, Thomas


    The Big Bang theory for the origin of the Universe predicts that during the first ~1,000 seconds significant amounts of the light elements (2H, 3He, 4He, and 7Li) were produced. Many generations of stellar evolution in the Galaxy modifies these primordial abundances. Observations of the 3He+ hyperfine transition in Galactic HII regions reveals a 3He/H abundance ratio that is constant with Galactocentric radius to within the uncertainties, and is consistent with the primordial value as determined from cosmic microwave background experiments (e.g., WMAP). This "3He Plateau" indicates that the net production and destruction of 3He in stars is approximately zero. Recent stellar evolution models that include thermohaline mixing, however, predict that 3He/H abundance ratios should slightly decrease with Galactocentric radius, or in places in the Galaxy with lower star formation rates. Here we discuss sensitive Green Bank Telescope (GBT) observations of 3He+ at 3.46 cm in a subset of our HII region sample. We develop HII region models and derive accurate 3He/H abundance ratios to better constrain these new stellar evolution models.

  4. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  5. Stardust Abundance Variations among Interplanetary Dust Particles (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Walker, Robert M.


    Presolar grain abundances reflect the degree of processing primitive materials have experienced. This is evidenced by the wide range of silicate stardust abundances among primitive meteorites (10 to 300 ppm) [1], attributable to parent body hydrothermal processing. Stardust abundance variations are also pronounced in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (CPIDPs), that have not experienced parent body processing (300 to > 10,000 ppm) [2-4]. The large range in stardust abundances among CP IDPs thus reflect nebular processing. Here we present results of a systematic search for stardust among cluster CP IDPs. Our goals are to establish mineralogical trends among IDPs with different stardust abundances. This may shed light into the nature of isotopically normal presolar grains (GEMS grains?; 5) if their abundances vary similarly to that of isotopically exotic stardust grains.

  6. Correlation between some environmental variables and abundance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation between some environmental variables and abundance of Almophrya mediovacuolata (Ciliophora: Anoplophryidae) endocommensal ciliate of an anecic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Annelida) in Bambui (North-West Cameroon)

  7. Quantifying Elements of a Lunar Economy Based on Resource Needs (United States)

    Greenblatt, J. B.


    We model a simplified lunar economy from human life support, Earth materials consumption, and energy and propulsion requirement estimates, constrained by lunar elemental abundances; estimate likely imports/exports and "gross interplanetary product."

  8. Chemical abundances of two extragalactic young massive clusters (United States)

    Hernandez, Svea; Larsen, Søren; Trager, Scott; Groot, Paul; Kaper, Lex


    Aims: We use integrated-light spectroscopic observations to measure metallicities and chemical abundances for two extragalactic young massive star clusters (NGC 1313-379 and NGC 1705-1). The spectra were obtained with the X-shooter spectrograph on the ESO Very Large Telescope. Methods: We compute synthetic integrated-light spectra, based on colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for the brightest stars in the clusters from Hubble Space Telescope photometry and theoretical isochrones. Furthermore, we test the uncertainties arising from the use of CMD+Isochrone method compared to an Isochrone-Only method. The abundances of the model spectra are iteratively adjusted until the best fit to the observations is obtained. In this work we mainly focus on the optical part of the spectra. Results: We find metallicities of [Fe/H] = -0.84 ± 0.07 and [Fe/H] = -0.78 ± 0.10 for NGC 1313-379 and NGC 1705-1, respectively. We measure [α/Fe] = +0.06 ± 0.11 for NGC 1313-379 and a super-solar [α/Fe] = +0.32 ± 0.12 for NGC 1705-1. The roughly solar [α/Fe] ratio in NGC 1313-379 resembles those for young stellar populations in the Milky Way (MW) and the Magellanic Clouds, whereas the enhanced [α/Fe] ratio in NGC 1705-1 is similar to that found for the cluster NGC 1569-B by previous studies. Such super-solar [α/Fe] ratios are also predicted by chemical evolution models that incorporate the bursty star formation histories of these dwarf galaxies. Furthermore, our α-element abundances agree with abundance measurements from H II regions in both galaxies. In general we derive Fe-peak abundances similar to those observed in the MW and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) for both young massive clusters. For these elements, however, we recommend higher-resolution observations to improve the Fe-peak abundance measurements. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.B-0468(A).

  9. Determination of rare earth and refractory trace element ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    elemental abundances in solids with spatial reso- lution of a few microns is ideally suited for this purpose and has been used extensively in recent years for determining REE abundances in micro- scopic extraterrestrial samples (Fahey et al 1987;. Hinton et al 1988; Ireland et al 1988; Ireland 1990,. Sahijpal et al 2000).

  10. Chemical Abundances of Two Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Cluster NGC 1718 (United States)

    Sakari, Charli M.; McWilliam, Andrew; Wallerstein, George


    Detailed chemical abundances of two stars in the intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) globular cluster NGC 1718 are presented, based on high-resolution spectroscopic observations with the MIKE spectrograph. The detailed abundances confirm NGC 1718 to be a fairly metal-rich cluster, with an average [Fe/H] ˜ -0.55 ± 0.01. The two red giants appear to have primordial O, Na, Mg and Al abundances, with no convincing signs of a composition difference between the two stars - hence, based on these two stars, NGC 1718 shows no evidence for hosting multiple populations. The Mg abundance is lower than Milky Way field stars, but is similar to LMC field stars at the same metallicity. The previous claims of very low [Mg/Fe] in NGC 1718 are therefore not supported in this study. Other abundances (Si, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Ni, Cu, Rb, Y, Zr, La and Eu) all follow the LMC field star trend, demonstrating yet again that (for most elements) globular clusters trace the abundances of their host galaxy's field stars. Similar to the field stars, NGC 1718 is found to be mildly deficient in explosive α-elements, but moderately to strongly deficient in O, Na, Mg, Al and Cu, elements that form during hydrostatic burning in massive stars. NGC 1718 is also enhanced in La, suggesting that it was enriched in ejecta from metal-poor asymptotic giant branch stars.

  11. The Alpha-element knee of the Sagittarius Stream


    de Boer, T.J.L.; Belokurov, V.; Beers, T. C.; Lee, Y. S.


    We employ abundances from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) to study the alpha-element distribution of the stellar members of the Sagittarius stream. To test the reliability of SDSS/SEGUE abundances for the study of Sagittarius, we select high-likelihood samples tracing the different components of the Milky Way, and recover known literature alpha-element distributions. Using selection criteria based on the spatial po...

  12. Chempy: A flexible chemical evolution model for abundance fitting. Do the Sun's abundances alone constrain chemical evolution models? (United States)

    Rybizki, Jan; Just, Andreas; Rix, Hans-Walter


    Elemental abundances of stars are the result of the complex enrichment history of their galaxy. Interpretation of observed abundances requires flexible modeling tools to explore and quantify the information about Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) stored in such data. Here we present Chempy, a newly developed code for GCE modeling, representing a parametrized open one-zone model within a Bayesian framework. A Chempy model is specified by a set of five to ten parameters that describe the effective galaxy evolution along with the stellar and star-formation physics: for example, the star-formation history (SFH), the feedback efficiency, the stellar initial mass function (IMF), and the incidence of supernova of type Ia (SN Ia). Unlike established approaches, Chempy can sample the posterior probability distribution in the full model parameter space and test data-model matches for different nucleosynthetic yield sets. It is essentially a chemical evolution fitting tool. We straightforwardly extend Chempy to a multi-zone scheme. As an illustrative application, we show that interesting parameter constraints result from only the ages and elemental abundances of the Sun, Arcturus, and the present-day interstellar medium (ISM). For the first time, we use such information to infer the IMF parameter via GCE modeling, where we properly marginalize over nuisance parameters and account for different yield sets. We find that 11.6+ 2.1-1.6% of the IMF explodes as core-collapse supernova (CC-SN), compatible with Salpeter (1955, ApJ, 121, 161). We also constrain the incidence of SN Ia per 103M⊙ to 0.5-1.4. At the same time, this Chempy application shows persistent discrepancies between predicted and observed abundances for some elements, irrespective of the chosen yield set. These cannot be remedied by any variations of Chempy's parameters and could be an indication of missing nucleosynthetic channels. Chempy could be a powerful tool to confront predictions from stellar

  13. True Chemical Abundances of Galaxies in the Nearby Universe: A Comparison of Abundance Methods, Interstellar Processes, and Galaxy Types (United States)

    Berg, Danielle Amanda


    sampled in NGC 2403. As expected for alpha-process elements, we show that S/O, Ne/O, and Ar/O appear to be constant over a range in oxygen abundance in both NGC 628 and NGC 2403 such that the alpha-elements and O are produced in lock-step.

  14. Taking species abundance distributions beyond individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morlon, Helene; White, Ethan P.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Green, Jessica L.; Ostling, Annette; Alonso, David; Enquist, Brian J.; He, Fangliang; Hurlbert, Allen; Magurran, Anne E.; Maurer, Brian A.; McGill, Brian J.; Olff, Han; Storch, David; Zillio, Tommaso; Chave, Jérôme

    The species abundance distribution (SAD) is one of the few universal patterns in ecology. Research on this fundamental distribution has primarily focused on the study of numerical counts, irrespective of the traits of individuals. Here we show that considering a set of Generalized Species Abundance

  15. Diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; Witte, H.; van Duyl, F.C.


    We analysed the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) and Bacteria (AOB) in the shallow warm-water sponge Halisarca caerulea and the deep cold-water sponges Higginsia thielei and Nodastrella nodastrella. The abundance of AOA and AOB was analysed using catalyzed reporter

  16. On the solar abundance of indium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitas, N.; Vince, I.; Lugaro, M.A.; Andriyenko, O.; Gosic, M.; Rutten, R.J.


    The generally adopted value for the solar abundance of indium is over six times higher than the meteoritic value. We address this discrepancy through numerical synthesis of the 451.13-nm line on which all indium abundance studies are based, both for the quiet Sun and the sunspot umbra spectrum,

  17. Seasonal variation in fish abundance and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a positive correlation between fish abundance and biomass for wet and dry seasons (r = 0.60 and 0.76 respectively). There was no significant difference between fish abundance in the two seasons. Variations occurred between physico-chemical parameters of water samples. Analysis of the lagoon waters showed ...

  18. Using Cepheids to determine the galactic abundance gradient. I. The solar neighbourhood (United States)

    Andrievsky, S. M.; Kovtyukh, V. V.; Luck, R. E.; Lépine, J. R. D.; Bersier, D.; Maciel, W. J.; Barbuy, B.; Klochkova, V. G.; Panchuk, V. E.; Karpischek, R. U.


    A number of studies of abundance gradients in the galactic disk have been performed in recent years. The results obtained are rather disparate: from no detectable gradient to a rather significant slope of about -0.1 dex kpc-1. The present study concerns the abundance gradient based on the spectroscopic analysis of a sample of classical Cepheids. These stars enable one to obtain reliable abundances of a variety of chemical elements. Additionally, they have well determined distances which allow an accurate determination of abundance distributions in the galactic disc. Using 236 high resolution spectra of 77 galactic Cepheids, the radial elemental distribution in the galactic disc between galactocentric distances in the range 6-11 kpc has been investigated. Gradients for 25 chemical elements (from carbon to gadolinium) are derived. The following results were obtained in this study. Almost all investigated elements show rather flat abundance distributions in the middle part of galactic disc. Typical values for iron-group elements lie within an interval from ~-0.02 to ~-0.04 dex kpc-1 (in particular, for iron we obtained d[Fe/H]/dRG =-0.029 dex kpc-1). Similar gradients were also obtained for O, Mg, Al, Si, and Ca. For sulphur we have found a steeper gradient (-0.05 dex kpc-1). For elements from Zr to Gd we obtained (within the error bars) a near to zero gradient value. This result is reported for the first time. Those elements whose abundance is not expected to be altered during the early stellar evolution (e.g. the iron-group elements) show at the solar galactocentric distance [El/H] values which are essentially solar. Therefore, there is no apparent reason to consider our Sun as a metal-rich star. The gradient values obtained in the present study indicate that the radial abundance distribution within 6-11 kpc is quite homogeneous, and this result favors a galactic model including a bar structure which may induce radial flows in the disc, and thus may be responsible


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Croxall, Kevin V. [Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Marble, Andrew R. [National Solar Observatory, 950 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Smith, J. D. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gordon, Karl [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Garnett, Donald R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:


    Motivated by recent interstellar medium studies, we present high quality MMT and Gemini spectroscopic observations of H II regions in the nearby spiral galaxies NGC 628 and NGC 2403 in order to measure their chemical abundance gradients. Using long-slit and multi-object mask optical spectroscopy, we obtained measurements of the temperature sensitive auroral lines [O III] λ4363 and/or [N II] λ5755 at a strength of 4σ or greater in 11 H II regions in NGC 628 and 7 regions in NGC 2403. These observations allow us, for the first time, to derive an oxygen abundance gradient in NGC 628 based solely on 'direct' oxygen abundances of H II regions: 12 + log(O/H) = (8.43 ± 0.03) + (–0.017 ± 0.002) × R{sub g} (dex kpc{sup –1}), with a dispersion in log(O/H) of σ = 0.10 dex, from 14 regions with a radial coverage of ∼2-19 kpc. This is a significantly shallower slope than found by previous 'strong-line' abundance studies. In NGC 2403, we derive an oxygen abundance gradient of 12 + log(O/H) = (8.48 ± 0.04) + (–0.032 ± 0.007)× R{sub g} (dex kpc{sup –1}), with a dispersion in log(O/H) of σ = 0.07 dex, from seven H II with a radial coverage of ∼1-10 kpc. Additionally, we measure the N, S, Ne, and Ar abundances. We find the N/O ratio decreases with increasing radius for the inner disk, but reaches a plateau past R{sub 25} in NGC 628. NGC 2403 also has a negative N/O gradient with radius, but we do not sample the outer disk of the galaxy past R{sub 25} and so do not see evidence for a plateau. This bi-modal pattern measured for NGC 628 indicates dominant contributions from secondary nitrogen inside of the R{sub 25} transition and dominantly primary nitrogen farther out. As expected for α-process elements, S/O, Ne/O, and Ar/O are consistent with constant values over a range in oxygen abundance.

  20. Framed primal elements


    Debongnie, Jean-François


    Framed primal finite elements may be viewed as a generalized class of elements including conforming elements, primal hybrids, and non concorming elements passing the patch test. This systematization is illustrated on a lot of examples.

  1. The bliss (not the problem) of motor abundance (not redundancy). (United States)

    Latash, Mark L


    Motor control is an area of natural science exploring how the nervous system interacts with other body parts and the environment to produce purposeful, coordinated actions. A central problem of motor control-the problem of motor redundancy-was formulated by Nikolai Bernstein as the problem of elimination of redundant degrees-of-freedom. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using optimization methods based on a variety of cost functions. This review draws attention to a body of recent findings suggesting that the problem has been formulated incorrectly. An alternative view has been suggested as the principle of abundance, which considers the apparently redundant degrees-of-freedom as useful and even vital for many aspects of motor behavior. Over the past 10 years, dozens of publications have provided support for this view based on the ideas of synergic control, computational apparatus of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis. In particular, large amounts of "good variance"-variance in the space of elements that has no effect on the overall performance-have been documented across a variety of natural actions. "Good variance" helps an abundant system to deal with secondary tasks and unexpected perturbations; its amount shows adaptive modulation across a variety of conditions. These data support the view that there is no problem of motor redundancy; there is bliss of motor abundance.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García Pérez, Ana E.; Majewski, Steven R.; Shane, Neville; Sobeck, Jennifer; Troup, Nicholas [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Prieto, Carlos Allende; Carrera, Ricardo; García-Hernández, D. A.; Zamora, Olga [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Holtzman, Jon A. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Mészáros, Szabolcs [ELTE Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, H-9704 Szombathely, Szent Imre Herceg St. 112 (Hungary); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional, São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Johnson, Jennifer A.; Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Nidever, David L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead, Wirral CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Smith, Verne V. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bovy, Jo, E-mail: [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); and others


    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has built the largest moderately high-resolution ( R  ≈ 22,500) spectroscopic map of the stars across the Milky Way, and including dust-obscured areas. The APOGEE Stellar Parameter and Chemical Abundances Pipeline (ASPCAP) is the software developed for the automated analysis of these spectra. ASPCAP determines atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances from observed spectra by comparing observed spectra to libraries of theoretical spectra, using χ {sup 2} minimization in a multidimensional parameter space. The package consists of a fortran90 code that does the actual minimization and a wrapper IDL code for book-keeping and data handling. This paper explains in detail the ASPCAP components and functionality, and presents results from a number of tests designed to check its performance. ASPCAP provides stellar effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities precise to 2%, 0.1 dex, and 0.05 dex, respectively, for most APOGEE stars, which are predominantly giants. It also provides abundances for up to 15 chemical elements with various levels of precision, typically under 0.1 dex. The final data release (DR12) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III contains an APOGEE database of more than 150,000 stars. ASPCAP development continues in the SDSS-IV APOGEE-2 survey.

  3. On protein abundance distributions in complex mixtures. (United States)

    Koziol, Ja; Griffin, Nm; Long, F; Li, Y; Latterich, M; Schnitzer, Je


    Mass spectrometry, an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ionized atoms or molecules, dates back more than 100 years, and has both qualitative and quantitative uses for determining chemical and structural information. Quantitative proteomic mass spectrometry on biological samples focuses on identifying the proteins present in the samples, and establishing the relative abundances of those proteins. Such protein inventories create the opportunity to discover novel biomarkers and disease targets. We have previously introduced a normalized, label-free method for quantification of protein abundances under a shotgun proteomics platform (Griffin et al., 2010). The introduction of this method for quantifying and comparing protein levels leads naturally to the issue of modeling protein abundances in individual samples. We here report that protein abundance levels from two recent proteomics experiments conducted by the authors can be adequately represented by Sichel distributions. Mathematically, Sichel distributions are mixtures of Poisson distributions with a rather complex mixing distribution, and have been previously and successfully applied to linguistics and species abundance data. The Sichel model can provide a direct measure of the heterogeneity of protein abundances, and can reveal protein abundance differences that simpler models fail to show.

  4. Chemical abundances in the old LMC globular cluster Hodge 11 (United States)

    Mateluna, R.; Geisler, D.; Villanova, S.; Carraro, G.; Grocholski, A.; Sarajedini, A.; Cole, A.; Smith, V.


    Context. The study of globular clusters is one of the most powerful ways to learn about a galaxy's chemical evolution and star formation history. They preserve a record of chemical abundances at the time of their formation and are relatively easy to age date. The most detailed knowledge of the chemistry of a star is given by high resolution spectroscopy, which provides accurate abundances for a wide variety of elements, yielding a wealth of information on the various processes involved in the cluster's chemical evolution. Aims: We studied red giant branch (RGB) stars in an old, metal-poor globular cluster of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Hodge 11 (H11), in order to measure as many elements as possible. The goal is to compare its chemical trends to those in the Milky Way halo and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in order to help understand the formation history of the LMC and our own Galaxy. Methods: We have obtained high resolution VLT/FLAMES spectra of eight RGB stars in H11. The spectral range allowed us to measure a variety of elements, including Fe, Mg, Ca, Ti, Si, Na, O, Ni, Cr, Sc, Mn, Co, Zn, Ba, La, Eu and Y. Results: We derived a mean [Fe/H] = -2.00 ± 0.04, in the middle of previous determinations. We found low [α/Fe] abundances for our targets, more comparable to values found in dwarf spheroidal galaxies than in the Galactic halo, suggesting that if H11 is representative of its ancient populations then the LMC does not represent a good halo building block. Our [Ca/Fe] value is about 0.3 dex less than that of halo stars used to calibrate the Ca IR triplet technique for deriving metallicity. A hint of a Na abundance spread is observed. Its stars lie at the extreme high O, low Na end of the Na:O anti-correlation displayed by Galactic and LMC globular clusters. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal ID 082.B-0458).Table 4 is only available in electronic form at

  5. Observationally Constraining Gas Giant Composition via Their Host Star Abundances (United States)

    Teske, Johanna; Thorngren, Daniel; Fortney, Jonathan


    While the photospheric abundances of the Sun match many rock-forming elemental abundances in the Earth to within 10 mol%, as well as in Mars, the Moon, and meteorites, the Solar System giant planets are of distinctly non-stellar composition — Jupiter's bulk metallicity (inferred from its bulk density, measured from spacecraft data) is ∼ x5-10 solar, and Saturn is ∼ x10-20 solar. This knowledge has led to dramatic advances in understanding models of core accretion, which now match the heavy element enrichment of each of the Solar System's giant planets. However, we have thus far lacked similar data for exoplanets to use as a check for formation and composition models over a much larger parameter space. Here we present a study of the host stars of a sample of cool transiting gas giants with measured bulk metal fractions (as in Thorngren et al. 2016) to better constrain the relation Zplanet/Zstar — giant exoplanet metal enrichment relative to the host star. We add a new dimension of chemical variation, measuring C, O, Mg, Si, Ni, and well as Fe (on which previous Zplanet/Zstar calculations were based). Our analysis provides the best constraints to date on giant exoplanet interior composition and how this relates to formation environment, and make testable predictions for JWST observations of exoplanet atmospheres.

  6. Vesta's Elemental Composition (United States)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Beck, A. W.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, D. J.; McCoy, T. J.; McSween, H. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peplowski, P. N.; Raymond, C. A.; Reedy, R. C.; hide


    Many lines of evidence (e.g. common geochemistry, chronology, O-isotope trends, and the presence of different HED rock types in polymict breccias) indicate that the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites originated from a single parent body. Meteorite studies show that this protoplanet underwent igneous differentiation to form a metallic core, an ultramafic mantle, and a basaltic crust. A spectroscopic match between the HEDs and 4 Vesta along with a plausible mechanism for their transfer to Earth, perhaps as chips off V-type asteroids ejected from Vesta's southern impact basin, supports the consensus view that many of these achondritic meteorites are samples of Vesta's crust and upper mantle. The HED-Vesta connection was put to the test by the NASA Dawn mission, which spent a year in close proximity to Vesta. Measurements by Dawn's three instruments, redundant Framing Cameras (FC), a Visible-InfraRed (VIR) spectrometer, and a Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND), along with radio science have strengthened the link. Gravity measurements by Dawn are consistent with a differentiated, silicate body, with a dense Fe-rich core. The range of pyroxene compositions determined by VIR overlaps that of the howardites. Elemental abundances determined by nuclear spectroscopy are also consistent with HED-compositions. Observations by GRaND provided a new view of Vesta inaccessible by telescopic observations. Here, we summarize the results of Dawn's geochemical investigation of Vesta and their implications.

  7. Chinook Abundance - Linear Features [ds181 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The dataset 'ds181_Chinook_ln' is a product of the CalFish Adult Salmonid Abundance Database. Data in this shapefile are collected from stream sections or reaches...

  8. Abundance, composition and distribution of simple sequence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abundance, composition and distribution of simple sequence repeats and dinucleotide compositional bias within WSSV genomes. MALATHI SHEKAR, INDRANI KARUNASAGAR and IDDYA KARUNASAGAR*. Department of Fishery Microbiology, UNESCO Centre for Marine Biotechnology,. Karnataka Veterinary, Animal ...

  9. Estimating Squirrel Abundance From Live trapping Data (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A reprint of an article from the Journal of Wildlife Management entitled "Estimating Squirrel Abundance from Live Trapping Data" by Nixon, Edwards and Eberhardt. The...

  10. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  11. Stochastic species abundance models involving special copulas (United States)

    Huillet, Thierry E.


    Copulas offer a very general tool to describe the dependence structure of random variables supported by the hypercube. Inspired by problems of species abundances in Biology, we study three distinct toy models where copulas play a key role. In a first one, a Marshall-Olkin copula arises in a species extinction model with catastrophe. In a second one, a quasi-copula problem arises in a flagged species abundance model. In a third model, we study completely random species abundance models in the hypercube as those, not of product type, with uniform margins and singular. These can be understood from a singular copula supported by an inflated simplex. An exchangeable singular Dirichlet copula is also introduced, together with its induced completely random species abundance vector.

  12. SWFSC/MMTD: Vaquita Abundance Survey 1997 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1997, the Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC) conducted a survey designed to estimate the abundance of vaquita, the Gulf of California harbor porpoise...

  13. Abundances in Galactic bulge planetary nebulae from optical, ultraviolet and infrared observations (United States)

    Smith, Christina L.; Zijlstra, Albert A.; Gesicki, Krzysztof M.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.


    Iron suffers from high levels of depletion in the highly ionized environments of planetary nebulae, making the direct determination of undepleted elemental iron abundances difficult. Zinc, which does not suffer from the same depletion effects as iron, may be used as a surrogate element to measure iron abundances as there is an approximately constant zinc-to-iron ratio across a wide range of metallicities. In this paper, we report zinc abundances of six Galactic bulge planetary nebulae determined from new observations taken with Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) on the Very Large Telescope, Chile, prior to the instrument's decommissioning as well as a further three based upon literature observations. Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) data of the sample planetary nebulae are presented and have been used to derive abundances, temperatures and densities of a variety of elements and ions. The abundances derived from the UVES data agree well with results from the literature. [Zn/H], determined from the ISAAC observations, is found to be generally subsolar and [O/Zn] is found to be either consistent or enriched with respect to solar.

  14. Carbon as the dominant light element in the lunar core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, E.S.; Lin, Y.; Rai, N.; Jansen, M.; van Westrenen, W.


    Geophysical and geochemical observations point to the presence of a light element in the lunar core, but the exact abundance and type of light element are poorly constrained. Accurate constraints on lunar core composition are vital for models of lunar core dynamo onset and demise, core formation

  15. Species abundance and potential biological control services in shade vs. sun coffee in Puerto Rico (United States)

    Borkhataria, Rena R.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Groom, Martha J.


    Birds, lizards and insects were surveyed in three sun and three shade coffee plantations in Puerto Rico to provide a comprehensive comparison of biodiversity between plantations types and to identify potential interrelationships (e.g., biological or natural control services) between members of each taxon and coffee pests. Abundance of avian species, including insectivorous species, was significantly higher in shade coffee. Anolis cristatellus and A. stratulus were significantly more abundant in sun plantations whereas A. gundlachi and A. evermanni were detected more frequently in shade plantations. Insects in the orders Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Neuroptera, and Psocoptera were significantly more abundant in shade coffee, while orthopterans were more abundant in sun. The coffee leaf miner (Leucoptera coffeela) and the flatid planthopper (Petrusa epilepsis) did not differ significantly between plantation types, nor did the abundance of the wasp complex that parasitizes the coffee leaf miner. These findings confirmed that shade plantations harbor a wide array of elements of biodiversity; but sun plantations may also harbor many elements of biodiversity, and in some cases, in higher abundance than in shade plantations.

  16. Trace elements in chondritic stratospheric particles - Zinc depletion as a possible indicator of atmospheric entry heating (United States)

    Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S. R.


    Major-element abundances in 11 C, C?, and TCA cosmic dust particles have been measured using SEM and TEM energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) systems. The Fe/Ni ratio, when coupled with major element abundances, appears to be a useful discriminator of cosmic particles. Three particles classified as C?, but having Fe/Ni peak height ratios similar to those measured on the powdered Allende meteorite sample in their HSC EDX spectra, exhibit chondritic minor-/trace-element abundance patterns, suggesting they are extraterrestrial. The one particle classified as C-type, but without detectable Ni in its JSC EDX spectrum, exhibits an apparently nonchondritic minor-/trace-element abundance pattern. A class of particles that are chondritic except for large depletions in the volatile elements Zn and S has been identified. It is likely that these particles condensed with a C1 abundance pattern and that Zn and S were removed by some subsequent process.

  17. Abundances of La and Ta Through ν-Nucleosynthesis in 20M ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    taken for calculation. They are assumed to be produced in some s-processing events of earlier generation massive 'seed stars' with average interior density range 〈ρ〉 ≈ 103−106 g/cc. The abundances of these two elements are calculated relative to O16 and are found to be sensitive to the neutrino temperature. For neutral.

  18. Puzzling Origin of CEMP-r/s Stars: An Interpretation of Abundance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CEMP-r/s stars at low metallicity are known as double-enhanced stars that show enhancements of both r-process and s-process elements. The chemical abundances of these very metal-poor stars provide us a lot of information for putting new restraints on models of neutron-capture processes. In this article, we put forward ...

  19. Constraints on rotation of B-type stars from the nitrogen abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrowski Jakub


    Full Text Available We study the effects of rotation on surface abundances of CNO elements in massive stars. Nitrogen enrichment caused by rotationally induced mixing can help to constrain parameters of observed stars, especially their rotational velocities. Here we present theoretical results and apply them to the star HD 163899.

  20. Diversity, activity, and abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in saline nad hypersaline soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foti, M.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Lomans, B.P.; Mussman, M.; Zacharova, E.E.; Pimenov, N.V.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muyzer, G.


    Soda lakes are naturally occurring highly alkaline and saline environments. Although the sulfur cycle is one of the most active element cycles in these lakes, little is known about the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In this study we investigated the diversity, activity, and abundance of SRB in

  1. Abundances and Kinematics of OB Stars in the Leading Arm of the Magellanic System (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Moni Bidin, C.; Casetti-Dinescu, D. I.; Mendez, R. A.; Girard, T. M.; Korchagin, V. I.; Vieira, K.; van Altena, W. F.; Zhao, G.


    We determined seven element abundances (He, C, N, O, Mg, Si, and S) and kinematics for eight O-/B- type stars which is selected from 42 candidates (Casetti-Dinescu et al. 2014) of membership in the Leading Arm (LA) of the Magellanic System. The high resolution spectra were taken with the MIKE instrument on the Magellan 6.5m Clay telescope.

  2. Statistical model for the abundance of deuterated ammonia in interstellar space (United States)

    Nyman, Gunnar


    The elemental abundance of deuterium to normal hydrogen in the universe is on the order of 10-5. A random distribution would therefore give a ratio of triply deuterated ammonia, ND3, to NH3 of 10-15. Observations indicate an ND3 to NH3 ratio of roughly 10-3, implying enrichment of triply deuterated ammonia by about twelve orders of magnitude. A simple model, based on the elemental abundances of N, D and H, is developed and solved analytically. At zero temperature the expressions are particularly simple. Effects of finite temperature are included through the partition functions of the isotopologues. It is found that the effect of finite temperature is modest in the temperature range 10-100 K. The results of the model are in good agreement with the observed abundances so local thermal equilibrium may therefore be a reasonable approximation and thus also be an explanation for the apparent enrichment of deuterated isotopologues.

  3. Early solar mass loss, opacity uncertainties, and the solar abundance problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keady, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kilcrease, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Solar models calibrated with the new element abundance mixture of Asplund et al. published in 2005 no longer produce good agreement with the sound speed, convection zone depth, and convection zone helium abundance inferred from solar oscillation data. Attempts to modify the input physics of the standard model, for example, by including enhanced diffusion, increased opacities, accretion, convective overshoot, or gravity waves have not restored the good agreement attained with the prior abundances. Here we present new models including early mass loss via a stronger solar wind. Early mass loss has been investigated prior to the solar abundance problem to deplete lithium and resolve the 'faint early sun problem'. We find that mass loss modifies the core structure and deepens the convection zone, and so improves agreement with oscillation data using the new abundances: however the amount of mass loss must be small to avoid destroying all of the surface lithium, and agreement is not fully restored. We also considered the prospects for increasing solar interior opacities. In order to increase mixture opacities by the 30% required to mitigate the abundance problem, the opacities of individual elements (e.g., O, N, C, and Fe) must be revised by a factor of two to three for solar interior conditions: we are investigating the possibility of broader calculated line wings for bound-bound transitions at the relevant temperatures to enhance opacity. We find that including all of the elements in the AGS05 opacity mixture (through uranium at atomic number Z=92) instead of only the 17 elements in the OPAL opacity mixture increases opacities by a negligible 0.2%.

  4. Imaging the elusive H-poor gas in planetary nebulae with large abundance discrepancy factors (United States)

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Boffin, Henri M. J.; Monteiro, Hektor; Jones, David; Wesson, Roger; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo


    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs) is a major, unresolved problem with significant implications for the determination of chemical abundances throughout the Universe. In planetary nebulae (PNe), the most common explanation for the discrepancy is that two different gas phases coexist: a hot component with standard metallicity, and a much colder plasma enhanced in heavy elements. This dual nature is not predicted by mass loss theories, and direct observational support for it is still weak. In this work, we present our recent findings that demonstrate that the largest abundance discrepancies are associated with close binary central stars. OSIRIS-GTC tunable filter imaging of the faint O ii ORLs and MUSE-VLT deep 2D spectrophotometry confirm that O ii ORL emission is more centrally concentrated than that of [Oiii] CELs and, therefore, that the abundance discrepancy may be closely linked to binary evolution.

  5. Bracken: estimating species abundance in metagenomics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lu


    Full Text Available Metagenomic experiments attempt to characterize microbial communities using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Identification of the microorganisms in a sample provides information about the genetic profile, population structure, and role of microorganisms within an environment. Until recently, most metagenomics studies focused on high-level characterization at the level of phyla, or alternatively sequenced the 16S ribosomal RNA gene that is present in bacterial species. As the cost of sequencing has fallen, though, metagenomics experiments have increasingly used unbiased shotgun sequencing to capture all the organisms in a sample. This approach requires a method for estimating abundance directly from the raw read data. Here we describe a fast, accurate new method that computes the abundance at the species level using the reads collected in a metagenomics experiment. Bracken (Bayesian Reestimation of Abundance after Classification with KrakEN uses the taxonomic assignments made by Kraken, a very fast read-level classifier, along with information about the genomes themselves to estimate abundance at the species level, the genus level, or above. We demonstrate that Bracken can produce accurate species- and genus-level abundance estimates even when a sample contains multiple near-identical species.

  6. REVIEW: Can habitat selection predict abundance? (United States)

    Boyce, Mark S; Johnson, Chris J; Merrill, Evelyn H; Nielsen, Scott E; Solberg, Erling J; van Moorter, Bram


    Habitats have substantial influence on the distribution and abundance of animals. Animals' selective movement yields their habitat use. Animals generally are more abundant in habitats that are selected most strongly. Models of habitat selection can be used to distribute animals on the landscape or their distribution can be modelled based on data of habitat use, occupancy, intensity of use or counts of animals. When the population is at carrying capacity or in an ideal-free distribution, habitat selection and related metrics of habitat use can be used to estimate abundance. If the population is not at equilibrium, models have the flexibility to incorporate density into models of habitat selection; but abundance might be influenced by factors influencing fitness that are not directly related to habitat thereby compromising the use of habitat-based models for predicting population size. Scale and domain of the sampling frame, both in time and space, are crucial considerations limiting application of these models. Ultimately, identifying reliable models for predicting abundance from habitat data requires an understanding of the mechanisms underlying population regulation and limitation. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  7. Estimating the relationship between abundance and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Lewy, Peter


    Numerous studies investigate the relationship between abundance and distribution using indices reflecting one of the three aspects of distribution: proportion of area occupied, aggregation, and geographical range. Using simulations and analytical derivations, we examine whether these indices...... based on Euclidean distance to the centre of gravity of the spatial distribution. Only the proportion of structurally empty areas, Lloyds index, and indices of the distance to the centre of gravity of the spatial distribution are unbiased at all levels of abundance. The remaining indices generate...... relationships between abundance and distribution even in cases where no underlying relationships exists, although the problem decreases for measures derived from Lorenz curves when samples contain more than four individuals on average. To illustrate the problem, the indices are applied to juvenile North Sea cod...

  8. Age-abundance relationships for neutral communities (United States)

    Danino, Matan; Shnerb, Nadav M.


    Neutral models for the dynamics of a system of competing species are often used to describe a wide variety of empirical communities. These models are used in many situations, ranging from population genetics and ecological biodiversity to macroevolution and cancer tumors. One of the main issues discussed within this framework is the relationships between the abundance of a species and its age. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of the age-abundance relationships for fixed-size and growing communities. Explicit formulas for the average and the most likely age of a species with abundance n are given, together with the full probability distribution function. We further discuss the universality of these results and their applicability to the tropical forest community.

  9. Galactic Pal-eontology: abundance analysis of the disrupting globular cluster Palomar 5 (United States)

    Koch, Andreas; Côté, Patrick


    We present a chemical abundance analysis of the tidally disrupted globular cluster (GC) Palomar 5. By co-adding high-resolution spectra of 15 member stars from the cluster's main body, taken at low signal-to-noise with the Keck/HIRES spectrograph, we were able to measure integrated abundance ratios of 24 species of 20 elements including all major nucleosynthetic channels (namely the light element Na; α-elements Mg, Si, Ca, Ti; Fe-peak and heavy elements Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn; and the neutron-capture elements Y, Zr, Ba, La, Nd, Sm, Eu). The mean metallicity of -1.56 ± 0.02 ± 0.06 dex (statistical and systematic errors) agrees well with the values from individual, low-resolution measurements of individual stars, but it is lower than previous high-resolution results of a small number of stars in the literature. Comparison with Galactic halo stars and other disrupted and unperturbed GCs renders Pal 5 a typical representative of the Milky Way halo population, as has been noted before, emphasizing that the early chemical evolution of such clusters is decoupled from their later dynamical history. We also performed a test as to the detectability of light element variations in this co-added abundance analysis technique and found that this approach is not sensitive even in the presence of a broad range in sodium of 0.6 dex, a value typically found in the old halo GCs. Thus, while methods of determining the global abundance patterns of such objects are well suited to study their overall enrichment histories, chemical distinctions of their multiple stellar populations is still best obtained from measurements of individual stars. Full Table 3 is is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  10. Trace Elements and Residual Elements in Superalloys, (United States)

    Trace elements , *Superalloys, Impurities, Nickel alloys, Refining, Refractory materials, Gases, Residuals, Porosity, Nonmetals, Metals, Metalloids, Segregation(Metallurgy), Auger electron spectroscopy, Fracture(Mechanics), Symposia

  11. Hans A. Bethe Prize Lecture: The Primordial Helium Abundance (United States)

    Peimbert, Manuel


    It is generally accepted that the production of the light elements (He, D, and Li) during the early stages of the expansion of the Universe is one of the three pillars of the Big Bang theory. The main results obtained from the observational determination of the primordial helium abundance, Yp, and its comparison with the value predicted by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis will be presented, in particular: a) the recognition that galaxies form with Yp in the 0.24 to 0.26 range, b) that Yp was produced during the Big Bang, c) that Yp is fundamental as a critical test for cosmological theories and the baryonic content of the Universe, and d) that the value of Yp provides an observational constraint on the number of light neutrino species, which is smaller than four and probably equal to three. In addition, the present status of the observationally determined Yp value based on extragalactic H II regions will be discussed.

  12. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae. (United States)

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank


    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Abundances in planetary nebulae : NGC 6826

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surendiranath, R.; Pottasch, S. R.

    Aims. We determine the chemical abundances and other parameters of the nebula NGC 6826 and its central star. Methods. We present new ISO spectra and combine them with archival IUE and optical spectra from the literature to get a complete, extinction-corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of

  14. Abundances of planetary nebula NGC2392

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Roellig, T. L.

    The spectra of the planetary nebula NGC2392 is reanalysed using spectral measurements made in the mid-infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The aim is to determine the chemical composition of this object. We also make use of IUE and ground based spectra. Abundances determined from the

  15. Catch Composition, Abundance and Length- Weight Relationships ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loading Salter digital balance for small fish (<2.0 kg) or on a hanging Salter ... white- spotted grouper,. Epinephelus caeruleopunctatus, was numerically the most abundant (15.6%) in the catch followed by Cephalopholis boenak. (13%) and E. fasciatus ... Vanga, the commonly landed species were the white-spotted grouper,.

  16. A biogeographical perspective on species abundance distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; de Azevedo, Eduardo Brito


    the fit of different SAD models to data from a single site is to collect abundance data from a variety of sites, and then build models to analyse how different SAD properties (e.g. form, skewness) vary with different predictor variables. Such a biogeographical approach to SAD research is potentially very...

  17. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change? (United States)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.


    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data analyses. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to determine which environmental factors. (independent variables) were significant predictors of number of clinid species, and clinid abundance and ... models to detect possible non-linear relations between dependent and independent variables. Sepkoski ...

  19. Palaeoceanographic implications of abundance and mean ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Temporal variation in abundance and mean proloculus diameter of the benthic foraminiferal species Epistominella exigua has been reconstructed over the last ∼ 50,000 yr BP,from a core collected from the distal Bay of Bengal fan,to assess its potential application in palaeoceanographic reconstruction studies.

  20. Electron Density and Temperature Measurements, and Abundance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using spectra obtained from the SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) spectrograph on the spacecraft SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), we investigate the height dependence of electron density, temperature and abundance anomalies in the solar atmosphere. In particular, we present ...

  1. Composition, abundance, distribution and seasonality of larval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composition, abundance, distribution and seasonality of larval fishes in the Sundays Estuary, South Africa. K. Sutherland, N.A. Strydom, T.H. Wooldridge. Abstract. The larval fish assemblage was studied in the permanently open Sundays Estuary on the southeast coast of South Africa. Seasonal samples were collected ...

  2. Composition, abundance, distribution and seasonality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composition, abundance, distribution and seasonality of zooplankton in the Sundays Estuary, South Africa. K Sutherland, TH Wooldridge, NA Strydom. Abstract. The zooplankton assemblage in the permanently open Sundays Estuary, on the south-east coast of South Africa, was studied seasonally. Samples were collected ...

  3. In Abundance: Networked Participatory Practices as Scholarship (United States)

    Stewart, Bonnie E.


    In an era of knowledge abundance, scholars have the capacity to distribute and share ideas and artifacts via digital networks, yet networked scholarship often remains unrecognized within institutional spheres of influence. Using ethnographic methods including participant observation, interviews, and document analysis, this study investigates…

  4. Occurrence, abundance and distribution of benthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A baseline study was conducted of the occurrence of macroinvertebrates at 26 sites in the Nyando River catchment in 2005–2006. A total of 13 orders and 16 families of Arthropoda, Mollusca, Platyhelminthes and Annelida were collected, with the order Ephemeroptera being most abundant in the up- and mid-stream ...

  5. Short communication: Abundance, distribution and population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is an iconic or keystone species in many aquatic ecosystems. In order to understand the abundance, distribution, and population trends of Nile crocodiles in Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), southeastern Zimbabwe, we carried out 4 annual aerial surveys, using a Super Cub aircraft ...

  6. Benthic macrofauna community composition, abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macroinvertebrate abundance was higher in the shallow nearshore waters than in the deep offshore waters. The communities of the shallow, intermediate and deep environments were composed mainly of molluscs, worms and insects. Gastropods (52.68%) and bivalves (40.18%) constituted the major part of the benthic ...

  7. Non-Salmonid Abundance - Line Features [ds186 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. The "Other Fish" category contains data collected...

  8. Stellar Abundances for Galactic Archaeology Database. IV. Compilation of stars in dwarf galaxies (United States)

    Suda, Takuma; Hidaka, Jun; Aoki, Wako; Katsuta, Yutaka; Yamada, Shimako; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y.; Ohtani, Yukari; Masuyama, Miyu; Noda, Kazuhiro; Wada, Kentaro


    We have constructed a database of stars in Local Group galaxies using the extended version of the SAGA (Stellar Abundances for Galactic Archaeology) database that contains stars in 24 dwarf spheroidal galaxies and ultra-faint dwarfs. The new version of the database includes more than 4500 stars in the Milky Way, by removing the previous metallicity criterion of [Fe/H] ≤ -2.5, and more than 6000 stars in the Local Group galaxies. We examined the validity of using a combined data set for elemental abundances. We also checked the consistency between the derived distances to individual stars and those to galaxies as given in the literature. Using the updated database, the characteristics of stars in dwarf galaxies are discussed. Our statistical analyses of α-element abundances show that the change of the slope of the [α/Fe] relative to [Fe/H] (so-called "knee") occurs at [Fe/H] = -1.0 ± 0.1 for the Milky Way. The knee positions for selected galaxies are derived by applying the same method. The star formation history of individual galaxies is explored using the slope of the cumulative metallicity distribution function. Radial gradients along the four directions are inspected in six galaxies where we find no direction-dependence of metallicity gradients along the major and minor axes. The compilation of all the available data shows a lack of CEMP-s population in dwarf galaxies, while there may be some CEMP-no stars at [Fe/H] ≲ -3 even in the very small sample. The inspection of the relationship between Eu and Ba abundances confirms an anomalously Ba-rich population in Fornax, which indicates a pre-enrichment of interstellar gas with r-process elements. We do not find any evidence of anti-correlations in O-Na and Mg-Al abundances, which characterizes the abundance trends in the Galactic globular clusters.

  9. Abundance patterns of evolved stars with Hipparcos parallaxes and ages based on the APOGEE data base (United States)

    Jia, Y. P.; Chen, Y. Q.; Zhao, G.; Bari, M. A.; Zhao, J. K.; Tan, K. F.


    We investigate the abundance patterns for four groups of stars at evolutionary phases from sub-giant to red clump (RC) and trace the chemical evolution of the disc by taking 21 individual elemental abundances from APOGEE and ages from evolutionary models with the aid of Hipparcos distances. We find that the abundances of six elements (Si, S, K, Ca, Mn and Ni) are similar from the sub-giant phase to the RC phase. In particular, we find that a group of stars with low [C/N] ratios, mainly from the second sequence of RC stars, show that there is a difference in the transfer efficiency of the C-N-O cycle between the main and the secondary RC sequences. We also compare the abundance patterns of C-N, Mg-Al and Na-O with giant stars in globular clusters from APOGEE and find that field stars follow similar patterns as M107, a metal-rich globular cluster with [M/H] ∼- 1.0, which shows that the self-enrichment mechanism represented by strong C-N, Mg-Al and Na-O anti-correlations may not be important as the metallicity reaches [M/H] > -1.0 dex. Based on the abundances of above-mentioned six elements and [Fe/H], we investigate age versus abundance relations and find some old super-metal-rich stars in our sample. Their properties of old age and being rich in metal are evidence for stellar migration. The age versus metallicity relations in low-[α/M] bins show unexpectedly positive slopes. We propose that the fresh metal-poor gas infalling on to the Galactic disc may be the precursor for this unexpected finding.

  10. Abundance Analysis of 17 Planetary Nebulae from High-Resolution Optical Spectroscopy (United States)

    Sherrard, Cameroun G.; Sterling, Nicholas C.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Madonna, Simone; Mashburn, Amanda


    We present an abundance analysis of 17 planetary nebulae (PNe) observed with the 2D-coudé echelle spectrograph on the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory. The spectra cover the wavelength range 3600--10,400 Å at a resolution R = 36,700, and are the first high-resolution optical spectra for many objects in our sample. The number of emission lines detected in individual nebulae range from ~125 to over 600. We derive temperatures, densities, and abundances from collisionally-excited lines using the PyNeb package (Luridiana et al. 2015, A&A, 573, A42) and the ionization correction factor scheme of Delgado-Inglada et al. (2014, MNRAS, 440, 536). The abundances of light elements agree with previous estimates for most of the PNe. Several objects exhibit emission lines of refractory elements such as K and Fe, and neutron-capture elements that can be enriched by the s-process. We find that K and Fe are depleted relative to solar by ~0.3--0.7~dex and 1-2 dex, respectively, and find evidence for s-process enrichments in 10 objects. Several objects in our sample exhibit C, N, and O recombination lines that are useful for abundance determinations. These transitions are used to compute abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs), the ratio of ionic abundances derived from permitted lines to those from collisionally-excited transitions. We explore relations among depletion factors, ADFs, s-process enrichment factors, and other nebular stellar and nebular properties. We acknowledge support from NSF awards AST-901432 and AST-0708429.

  11. A Review of Stellar Abundance Databases and the Hypatia Catalog Database (United States)

    Hinkel, Natalie Rose


    The astronomical community is interested in elements from lithium to thorium, from solar twins to peculiarities of stellar evolution, because they give insight into different regimes of star formation and evolution. However, while some trends between elements and other stellar or planetary properties are well known, many other trends are not as obvious and are a point of conflict. For example, stars that host giant planets are found to be consistently enriched in iron, but the same cannot be definitively said for any other element. Therefore, it is time to take advantage of large stellar abundance databases in order to better understand not only the large-scale patterns, but also the more subtle, small-scale trends within the data.In this overview to the special session, I will present a review of large stellar abundance databases that are both currently available (i.e. RAVE, APOGEE) and those that will soon be online (i.e. Gaia-ESO, GALAH). Additionally, I will discuss the Hypatia Catalog Database ( -- which includes abundances from individual literature sources that observed stars within 150pc. The Hypatia Catalog currently contains 72 elements as measured within ~6000 stars, with a total of ~240,000 unique abundance determinations. The online database offers a variety of solar normalizations, stellar properties, and planetary properties (where applicable) that can all be viewed through multiple interactive plotting interfaces as well as in a tabular format. By analyzing stellar abundances for large populations of stars and from a variety of different perspectives, a wealth of information can be revealed on both large and small scales.

  12. The GAPS programme with HARPS-N at TNG. X. Differential abundances in the XO-2 planet-hosting binary (United States)

    Biazzo, K.; Gratton, R.; Desidera, S.; Lucatello, S.; Sozzetti, A.; Bonomo, A. S.; Damasso, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Affer, L.; Boccato, C.; Borsa, F.; Claudi, R.; Cosentino, R.; Covino, E.; Knapic, C.; Lanza, A. F.; Maldonado, J.; Marzari, F.; Micela, G.; Molaro, P.; Pagano, I.; Pedani, M.; Pillitteri, I.; Piotto, G.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Santos, N. C.; Scandariato, G.; Zanmar Sanchez, R.


    Binary stars hosting exoplanets are a unique laboratory where chemical tagging can be performed to measure the elemental abundances of both stellar components with high accuracy, with the aim to investigate the formation of planets and their subsequent evolution. Here, we present a high-precision differential abundance analysis of the XO-2 wide stellar binary based on high-resolution HARPS-N at TNG spectra. Both components are very similar K-dwarfs and host planets. Since they formed presumably within the same molecular cloud, we expect that they possess the same initial elemental abundances. We investigated whether planets can cause some chemical imprints in the stellar atmospheric abundances. We measure abundances of 25 elements for both stars with a range of condensation temperature TC = 40-1741 K, achieving typical precisions of ~0.07 dex. The northern component shows abundances in all elements higher by +0.067 ± 0.032 dex on average, with a mean difference of +0.078 dex for elements with TC > 800 K. The significance of the XO-2N abundance difference relative to XO-2S is at the 2σ level for almost all elements. We discuss that this result might be interpreted as the signature of the ingestion of material by XO-2N or depletion in XO-2S that is due to locking of heavy elements by the planetary companions. We estimate a mass of several tens of M⊕ in heavy elements. The difference in abundances between XO-2N and XO-2S shows a positive correlation with the condensation temperatures of the elements, with a slope of (4.7 ± 0.9) × 10-5 dex K-1, which could mean that both components have not formed terrestrial planets, but first experienced the accretion of rocky core interior to the subsequent giant planets. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), operated on the island of La Palma by the INAF - Fundación Galileo Galilei at the Roche de los Muchachos Observatory of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) in the

  13. The Abundance of Helium in the Source Plasma of Solar Energetic Particles (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.


    Studies of patterns of abundance enhancements of elements, relative to solar coronal abundances, in large solar energetic-particle (SEP) events, and of their power-law dependence on the mass-to-charge ratio, A/Q, of the ions, have been used to determine the effective source-plasma temperature, T, that defines the Q-values of the ions. We find that a single assumed value for the coronal reference He/O ratio in all SEP events is often inconsistent with the transport-induced power-law trend of the other elements. In fact, the coronal He/O varies rather widely from one SEP event to another. In the large Fe-rich SEP events with T ≈ 3 MK, where shock waves, driven out by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), have reaccelerated residual ions from impulsive suprathermal events that occur earlier in solar active regions, He/O ≈ 90, a ratio similar to that in the slow solar wind, which may also originate from active regions. Ions in the large SEP events with T solar wind. Other than He, reference coronal abundances for heavier elements show little temperature dependence or systematic difference between SEP events; He, the element with the highest first-ionization potential, is unique. The CME-driven shock waves probe the same regions of space, at ≈ 2 RS near active regions, which are also likely sources of the slow solar wind, providing complementary information on conditions in those regions.

  14. Deuterium Abundance in Consciousness and Current Cosmology (United States)

    Rauscher, Elizabeth A.

    We utilize the deuterium-hydrogen abundances and their role in setting limits on the mass and other conditions of cosmogenesis and cosmological evolution. We calculate the dependence of a set of physical variables such as density, temperature, energy mass, entropy and other physical variable parameters through the evolution of the universe under the Schwarzschild conditions as a function from early to present time. Reconciliation with the 3°K and missing mass is made. We first examine the Schwarzschild condition; second, the geometrical constraints of a multidimensional Cartesian space on closed cosmologies, and third we will consider the cosmogenesis and evolution of the universe in a multidimensional Cartesian space, obeying the Schwarzschild condition. Implications of this model for matter creation are made. We also examine experimental evidence for closed versus open cosmologies; x-ray detection of the "missing mass" density. Also the interstellar deuterium abundance, along with the value of the Hubble constant set a general criterion on the value of the curvature constant, k. Once the value of the Hubble constant, H is determined, the deuterium abundance sets stringent restrictions on the value of the curvature constant k by an detailed discussion is presented. The experimental evidences for the determination of H and the primary set of coupled equations to determine D abundance is given. 'The value of k for an open, closed, or flat universe will be discussed in terms of the D abundance which will affect the interpretation of the Schwarzschild, black hole universe. We determine cosmology solutions to Einstein's field obeying the Schwarzschild solutions condition. With this model, we can form a reconciliation of the black hole, from galactic to cosmological scale. Continuous creation occurs at the dynamic blackhole plasma field. We term this new model the multiple big bang or "little whimper model". We utilize the deuteriumhydrogen abundances and their role in

  15. Elemental Abundances in the Broad Emission Line Region of Quasars at Redshifts larger than 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Appenzeller, I.; Hamann, F.


    We present observations of 11 high redshift quasars ($3.9 \\la z \\la 5.0$) observed with low spectral resolution in the restframe ultraviolet using FORS 1 at the VLT UT 1. The emission-line fluxes of strong permitted and intercombination ultraviolet emission lines are measured to estimate the chem...

  16. ISO spectroscopy of compact HII regions in the Galaxy - II. Ionization and elemental abundances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; Peeters, E; Morisset, C; Tielens, AGGM; Cox, P; Roelfsema, PR; Baluteau, JP; Schaerer, D; Mathis, JS; Damour, F; Churchwell, E; Kessler, MF

    Based on the ISO spectral catalogue of compact H II regions by Peeters et al. (2002), we present a first analysis of the hydrogen recombination and atomic fine-structure lines originated in the ionized gas. The sample consists of 34 H II regions located at galactocentric distances between R-Gal = 0

  17. What is Neptune's D/H ratio really telling us about its water abundance ? (United States)

    Ali-Dib, Mohamad; Lakhlani, Gunjan


    We investigate the deep water abundance of Neptune using a simple 2-component (core + envelope) toy model. The free parameters of the model are the total mass of heavy elements in the planet (Z), the mass fraction of Z in the envelope (fenv), and the D/H ratio of the accreted building blocks (D/Hbuild). We systematically search the allowed parameter space on a grid and constrain it using Neptune's bulk carbon abundance, D/H ratio, and interior structure models. Assuming solar C/O ratio and cometary D/H for the accreted building blocks forming the planet, we can fit all of the constraints if less than ˜ 15% of Z is in the envelope (f_{env}^{median} ˜ 7%), and the rest is locked in a solid core. This model predicts a maximum bulk oxygen abundance in Neptune of 65× solar value. If we assume a C/O of 0.17, corresponding to clathrate-hydrates building blocks, we predict a maximum oxygen abundance of 200× solar value with a median value of ˜140. Thus, both cases lead to an oxygen abundance significantly lower than the preferred value of Cavalié et al. (2017) (˜ 540 × solar), inferred from model dependent deep CO observations. Such high water abundances are excluded by our simple but robust model. We attribute this discrepancy to our imperfect understanding of either the interior structure of Neptune or the chemistry of the primordial protosolar nebula.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, R. Earle, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States)


    Parameters and abundances have been derived for 1002 stars of spectral types F, G, and K, and luminosity classes IV and V. After culling the sample for rotational velocity and effective temperature, 867 stars remain for discussion. Twenty-eight elements are considered in the analysis. The α , iron-peak, and Period 5 transition metal abundances for these stars show a modest enhancement over solar averaging about 0.05 dex. The lanthanides are more abundant, averaging about +0.2 dex over solar. The question is: Are these stars enhanced, or is the Sun somewhat metal-poor relative to these stars? The consistency of the abundances derived here supports an argument for the latter view. Lithium, carbon, and oxygen abundances have been derived. The stars show the usual lithium astration as a function of mass/temperature. There are more than 100 planet-hosts in the sample, and there is no discernible difference in their lithium content, relative to the remaining stars. The carbon and oxygen abundances show the well-known trend of decreasing [x/Fe] ratio with increasing [Fe/H].

  19. Integral Field Spectroscopy Surveys: Oxygen Abundance Gradients (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.


    We present here the recent results on our understanding of oxygen abundance gradients derived using Integral Field Spectroscopic surveys. In particular we analyzed more than 2124 datacubes corresponding to individual objects observed by the CALIFA (˜ 734 objects) and the public data by MaNGA (˜ 1390 objects), deriving the oxygen abundance gradient for each galaxy. We confirm previous results that indicate that the shape of this gradient is very similar for all galaxies with masses above 109.5M⊙, presenting in average a very similar slope of ˜ -0.04 dex within 0.5-2.0 re, with a possible drop in the inner regions (r109.5M⊙) the gradient seems to be flatter than for more massive ones. All these results agree with an inside-out growth of massive galaxies and indicate that low mass ones may still be growing in an outside in phase.

  20. Angel lichen moth abundance and morphology data (United States)

    Metcalfe, Anya; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.


    Two unique datasets on the abundance and morphology of the angel lichen moth ( Cisthene angelus) in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA were compiled to describe the phenology and life history of this common, but poorly known, species. The abundance data were collected from 2012 to 2013 through a collaboration with river runners in Grand Canyon National Park. These citizen scientists deployed light traps from their campsites for one hour each night of their expedition. Insects were preserved in ethanol on site, and returned to the Southwest Biological Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona for analysis in the laboratory. A total of 2,437 light trap samples were sorted through, 903 of which contained C. angelus. In total, 73,841 C. angelus were identified and enumerated to create the abundance data set. The morphology dataset is based on a subset of 28 light trap samples from sampling year 2012 (14 from spring and 14 from fall.) It includes gender and forewing lengths for 2,674 individual moths and dry weights for 1,102 of those individuals.

  1. Abundance effects on the Cepheid distance scale (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.


    A new investigation is made of the dependence of the period-luminosity (PL) and period-luminosity-color (PLC) relations on the helium (Y) and metal (Z) abundances in classical Cepheids. For consistency in overall approach and in error estimation, theoretical data alone have been used. These data come from stellar evolution, atmosphere, and pulsation theory. Composition dependences have been assigned to all quantities. A major quantitative result is that the PLC relation in B, V magnitudes is at least 5 times more sensitive to chemical composition than is the PL relation. If the PL relation is adopted and the helium abundance is held fixed, a Cepheid with Z = 0.005 should be fainter than one with Z = 0.02 by ≡0.04 mag. Since the slope of the predicted PL relation is independent of chemical composition, the PL relation can be considered to be effectively universal. Theoretical results are also presented for the bolometric PL relation, whose slope and dependence on metal abundance should be roughly applicable to infrared observations of Cepheids.

  2. A global database of ant species abundances (United States)

    Gibb, Heloise; Dunn, Rob R.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Grossman, Blair F.; Photakis, Manoli; Abril, Silvia; Agosti, Donat; Andersen, Alan N.; Angulo, Elena; Armbrecht, Ingre; Arnan, Xavier; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Bishop, Tom R.; Boulay, Raphael; Bruhl, Carsten; Castracani, Cristina; Cerda, Xim; Del Toro, Israel; Delsinne, Thibaut; Diaz, Mireia; Donoso, David A.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Enriquez, Martha L.; Fayle, Tom M.; Feener Jr., Donald H.; Fisher, Brian L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitpatrick, Matthew C.; Gomez, Cristanto; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Gove, Aaron; Grasso, Donato A.; Groc, Sarah; Guenard, Benoit; Gunawardene, Nihara; Heterick, Brian; Hoffmann, Benjamin; Janda, Milan; Jenkins, Clinton; Kaspari, Michael; Klimes, Petr; Lach, Lori; Laeger, Thomas; Lattke, John; Leponce, Maurice; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Longino, John; Lucky, Andrea; Luke, Sarah H.; Majer, Jonathan; McGlynn, Terrence P.; Menke, Sean; Mezger, Dirk; Mori, Alessandra; Moses, Jimmy; Munyai, Thinandavha Caswell; Pacheco, Renata; Paknia, Omid; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Pfeiffer, Martin; Philpott, Stacy M.; Resasco, Julian; Retana, Javier; Silva, Rogerio R.; Sorger, Magdalena D.; Souza, Jorge; Suarez, Andrew V.; Tista, Melanie; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Vonshak, Merav; Weiser, Michael D.; Yates, Michelle; Parr, Catherine L.


    What forces structure ecological assemblages? A key limitation to general insights about assemblage structure is the availability of data that are collected at a small spatial grain (local assemblages) and a large spatial extent (global coverage). Here, we present published and unpublished data from 51,388 ant abundance and occurrence records of more than 2693 species and 7953 morphospecies from local assemblages collected at 4212 locations around the world. Ants were selected because they are diverse and abundant globally, comprise a large fraction of animal biomass in most terrestrial communities, and are key contributors to a range of ecosystem functions. Data were collected between 1949 and 2014, and include, for each geo-referenced sampling site, both the identity of the ants collected and details of sampling design, habitat type and degree of disturbance. The aim of compiling this dataset was to provide comprehensive species abundance data in order to test relationships between assemblage structure and environmental and biogeographic factors. Data were collected using a variety of standardised methods, such as pitfall and Winkler traps, and will be valuable for studies investigating large-scale forces structuring local assemblages. Understanding such relationships is particularly critical under current rates of global change. We encourage authors holding additional data on systematically collected ant assemblages, especially those in dry and cold, and remote areas, to contact us and contribute their data to this growing dataset.

  3. 2015-2016 Palila abundance estimates (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Banko, Paul C.


    The palila (Loxioides bailleui) population was surveyed annually during 1998−2016 on Mauna Kea Volcano to determine abundance, population trend, and spatial distribution. In the latest surveys, the 2015 population was estimated at 852−1,406 birds (point estimate: 1,116) and the 2016 population was estimated at 1,494−2,385 (point estimate: 1,934). Similar numbers of palila were detected during the first and subsequent counts within each year during 2012−2016; the proportion of the total annual detections in each count ranged from 46% to 56%; and there was no difference in the detection probability due to count sequence. Furthermore, conducting repeat counts improved the abundance estimates by reducing the width of the confidence intervals between 9% and 32% annually. This suggests that multiple counts do not affect bird or observer behavior and can be continued in the future to improve the precision of abundance estimates. Five palila were detected on supplemental survey stations in the Ka‘ohe restoration area, outside the core survey area but still within Palila Critical Habitat (one in 2015 and four in 2016), suggesting that palila are present in habitat that is recovering from cattle grazing on the southwest slope. The average rate of decline during 1998−2016 was 150 birds per year. Over the 18-year monitoring period, the estimated rate of change equated to a 58% decline in the population.

  4. Abundant SAR11 viruses in the ocean. (United States)

    Zhao, Yanlin; Temperton, Ben; Thrash, J Cameron; Schwalbach, Michael S; Vergin, Kevin L; Landry, Zachary C; Ellisman, Mark; Deerinck, Tom; Sullivan, Matthew B; Giovannoni, Stephen J


    Several reports proposed that the extraordinary dominance of the SAR11 bacterial clade in ocean ecosystems could be a consequence of unusual mechanisms of resistance to bacteriophage infection, including 'cryptic escape' through reduced cell size and/or K-strategist defence specialism. Alternatively, the evolution of high surface-to-volume ratios coupled with minimal genomes containing high-affinity transporters enables unusually efficient metabolism for oxidizing dissolved organic matter in the world's oceans that could support vast population sizes despite phage susceptibility. These ideas are important for understanding plankton ecology because they emphasize the potentially important role of top-down mechanisms in predation, thus determining the size of SAR11 populations and their concomitant role in biogeochemical cycling. Here we report the isolation of diverse SAR11 viruses belonging to two virus families in culture, for which we propose the name 'pelagiphage', after their host. Notably, the pelagiphage genomes were highly represented in marine viral metagenomes, demonstrating their importance in nature. One of the new phages, HTVC010P, represents a new podovirus subfamily more abundant than any seen previously, in all data sets tested, and may represent one of the most abundant virus subfamilies in the biosphere. This discovery disproves the theory that SAR11 cells are immune to viral predation and is consistent with the interpretation that the success of this highly abundant microbial clade is the result of successfully evolved adaptation to resource competition.

  5. BOND: Bayesian Oxygen and Nitrogen abundance Determinations (United States)

    Vale Asari, N.; Stasinska, G.; Morisset, C.; Cid Fernandes, R.


    BOND determines oxygen and nitrogen abundances in giant H II regions by comparison with a large grid of photoionization models. The grid spans a wide range in O/H, N/O and ionization parameter U, and covers different starburst ages and nebular geometries. Unlike other statistical methods, BOND relies on the [Ar III]/[Ne III] emission line ratio to break the oxygen abundance bimodality. By doing so, it can measure oxygen and nitrogen abundances without assuming any a priori relation between N/O and O/H. BOND takes into account changes in the hardness of the ionizing radiation field, which can come about due to the ageing of H II regions or the stochastically sampling of the IMF. The emission line ratio He I/Hβ, in addition to commonly used strong lines, constrains the hardness of the ionizing radiation field. BOND relies on the emission line ratios [O III]/Hβ, [O II]/Hβ and [N II]/Hβ, [Ar III]/Hβ, [Ne III]/Hβ, He I/Hβ as its input parameters, while its output values are the measurements and uncertainties for O/H and N/O.

  6. Non-LTE analysis of copper abundances for the two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood


    Yan, H. L.; Shi, J. R.; Nissen, P. E.; Zhao, G.


    Two distinct halo populations were found in the solar neighborhood by a series of works. They can be clearly separated by [alpha\\Fe] and several other elemental abundance ratios including [Cu/Fe]. Very recently, a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) study revealed that relatively large departures exist between LTE and non-LTE results in copper abundance analysis. We aim to derive the copper abundances for the stars from the sample of Nissen et al (2010) with both LTE and non-LTE cal...

  7. Isotopic compositions of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report) (United States)

    Meija, Juris; Coplen, Tyler B.; Berglund, Michael; Brand, Willi A.; De Bièvre, Paul; Gröning, Manfred; Holden, Norman E.; Irrgeher, Johanna; Loss, Robert D.; Walczyk, Thomas; Prohaska, Thomas


    The Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights ( of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry ( has revised the Table of Isotopic Compositions of the Elements (TICE). The update involved a critical evaluation of the recent published literature. The new TICE 2013 includes evaluated data from the “best measurement” of the isotopic abundances in a single sample, along with a set of representative isotopic abundances and uncertainties that accommodate known variations in normal terrestrial materials.

  8. Trace Elements and Health (United States)

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.


    Summarizes the effects of arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium on human health, indicates the sources of the elements in water, and considers the possibility of students in high schools analyzing water for trace amounts of the elements. (AL)

  9. Data Element Registry Services (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...

  10. Abundant Solar Nebula Solids in Comets (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Clemett, S.


    Comets have been proposed to consist of unprocessed interstellar materials together with a variable amount of thermally annealed interstellar grains. Recent studies of cometary solids in the laboratory have shown that comets instead consist of a wide range of materials from across the protoplanetary disk, in addition to a minor complement of interstellar materials. These advances were made possible by the return of direct samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 coma dust by the NASA Stardust mission and recent advances in microscale analytical techniques. Isotopic studies of 'cometary' chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and comet 81P/Wild 2 Stardust samples show that preserved interstellar materials are more abundant in comets than in any class of meteorite. Identified interstellar materials include sub-micron-sized presolar silicates, oxides, and SiC dust grains and some fraction of the organic material that binds the samples together. Presolar grain abundances reach 1 weight percentage in the most stardust-rich CP-IDPs, 50 times greater than in meteorites. Yet, order of magnitude variations in presolar grain abundances among CP-IDPs suggest cometary solids experienced significant variations in the degree of processing in the solar nebula. Comets contain a surprisingly high abundance of nebular solids formed or altered at high temperatures. Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples include 10-40 micron-sized, refractory Ca- Al-rich inclusion (CAI)-, chondrule-, and ameboid olivine aggregate (AOA)-like materials. The O isotopic compositions of these refractory materials are remarkably similar to their meteoritic counterparts, ranging from 5 percent enrichments in (sup 16) O to near-terrestrial values. Comet 81P/Wild 2 and CP-IDPs also contain abundant Mg-Fe crystalline and amorphous silicates whose O isotopic compositions are also consistent with Solar System origins. Unlike meteorites, that are dominated by locally-produced materials, comets appear to be composed of

  11. Bi-Abundance Ionisation Structure of the Wolf-Rayet Planetary Nebula PB 8 (United States)

    Danehkar, A.


    The planetary nebula PB 8 around a [WN/WC]-hybrid central star is one of planetary nebulae with moderate abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs 2-3), which could be an indication of a tiny fraction of metal-rich inclusions embedded in the nebula (bi-abundance). In this work, we have constructed photoionisation models to reproduce the optical and infrared observations of the planetary nebula PB 8 using a non-LTE stellar model atmosphere ionising source. A chemically homogeneous model initially used cannot predict the optical recombination lines. However, a bi-abundance model provides a better fit to most of the observed optical recombination lines from N and O ions. The metal-rich inclusions in the bi-abundance model occupy 5.6% of the total volume of the nebula, and are roughly 1.7 times cooler and denser than the mean values of the surrounding nebula. The N/H and O/H abundance ratios in the metal-rich inclusions are 1.0 and 1.7 dex larger than the diffuse warm nebula, respectively. To reproduce the Spitzer spectral energy distribution of PB 8, dust grains with a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.01 (by mass) were also included. It is found that the presence of metal-rich inclusions can explain the heavy element optical recombination lines, while a dual-dust chemistry with different grain species and discrete grain sizes likely produces the infrared continuum of this planetary nebula. This study demonstrates that the bi-abundance hypothesis, which was examined in a few planetary nebulae with large abundance discrepancies (ADFs > 10), could also be applied to those typical planetary nebulae with moderate abundance discrepancies.


    Beaver, R.J.; Leitten, C.F. Jr.


    A boron-10 containing reactor control element wherein the boron-10 is dispersed in a matrix material is describeri. The concentration of boron-10 in the matrix varies transversely across the element from a minimum at the surface to a maximum at the center of the element, prior to exposure to neutrons. (AEC)

  13. Iron abundance in the hot DA white dwarfs Feige 24 and G191 B2B (United States)

    Vennes, Stephane; Chayer, Pierre; Thorstensen, John R.; Bowyer, Stuart; Shipman, Harry L.


    Attention is given to model calculations of the far- and extreme-UV line spectra of highly ionized Fe species (Fe IV, Fe V, and Fe VI) for hot high-gravity H-rich stars. A spectral analysis of 31 hr of exposure of the DA white dwarf Feige 24 with IUE in the echelle mode reveals the presence of Fe with an abundance relative to H by number of (5-10) x 10 exp -6 with an uncertainty dominated by the determination of stellar parameters. An analysis of IUE data from the white dwarf G191 B2B results in a similar Fe abundance if this star shares similar atmospheric parameters (Teff, g) with Feige 24. Fe is thus the second most abundant photospheric element in hot DA white dwarfs.

  14. Male germline control of transposable elements. (United States)

    Bao, Jianqiang; Yan, Wei


    Repetitive sequences, especially transposon-derived interspersed repetitive elements, account for a large fraction of the genome in most eukaryotes. Despite the repetitive nature, these transposable elements display quantitative and qualitative differences even among species of the same lineage. Although transposable elements contribute greatly as a driving force to the biological diversity during evolution, they can induce embryonic lethality and genetic disorders as a result of insertional mutagenesis and genomic rearrangement. Temporary relaxation of the epigenetic control of retrotransposons during early germline development opens a risky window that can allow retrotransposons to escape from host constraints and to propagate abundantly in the host genome. Because germline mutations caused by retrotransposon activation are heritable and thus can be deleterious to the offspring, an adaptive strategy has evolved in host cells, especially in the germline. In this review, we will attempt to summarize general defense mechanisms deployed by the eukaryotic genome, with an emphasis on pathways utilized by the male germline to confer retrotransposon silencing.

  15. Wireless solar water splitting using silicon-based semiconductors and earth-abundant catalysts. (United States)

    Reece, Steven Y; Hamel, Jonathan A; Sung, Kimberly; Jarvi, Thomas D; Esswein, Arthur J; Pijpers, Joep J H; Nocera, Daniel G


    We describe the development of solar water-splitting cells comprising earth-abundant elements that operate in near-neutral pH conditions, both with and without connecting wires. The cells consist of a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic interfaced to hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from an alloy of earth-abundant metals and a cobalt|borate catalyst, respectively. The devices described here carry out the solar-driven water-splitting reaction at efficiencies of 4.7% for a wired configuration and 2.5% for a wireless configuration when illuminated with 1 sun (100 milliwatts per square centimeter) of air mass 1.5 simulated sunlight. Fuel-forming catalysts interfaced with light-harvesting semiconductors afford a pathway to direct solar-to-fuels conversion that captures many of the basic functional elements of a leaf.

  16. Red horizontal branch stars in the Galactic field: A chemical abundance survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fo B.-Q.


    Full Text Available A large sample survey of Galactic red horizontal-branch (RHB stars was conducted to investigate their atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances. High-resolution spectra of 76 Galactic field stars were obtained with the 2.7 m Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. Only the color and the parallax were considered during the selection of the field stars. Equivalent width or synthetic spectrum analyses were used in order to determine the relative abundances of the following elements: proton-capture elements C, N, O and Li, alpha-elements Ca and Si, and neutron-capture elements Eu and La. Additionally, 12C/13C isotopic ratios were derived by using the CN features mainly located in the 7995 − 8040 Å spectral region. The evaluation of effective temperatures, surface gravities and 12C/13C isotopic ratios together with evolutionary stages of the candidates revealed that 18 out of 76 stars in our sample are probable RHBs. Including both kinematic and evolutionary status information, we conclude that we have five thick disk and 13 thin disk RHB stars in our sample. Although RHB stars have been regarded as thick disk members of the Galaxy, the low-velocity RHBs with a solar metallicity in our sample suggests the existence of a large number of thin disk RHBs, which cannot be easily explained by standard stellar evolutionary models.

  17. Elements of spin motion (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshio; Ishizaki, Hideharu


    For use in numerical studies of rotational motion, a set of elements is introduced for the torque-free rotational motion of a rigid body around its barycenter. The elements are defined as the initial values of a modification of the Andoyer canonical variables. A computational procedure is obtained for determining these elements from the combination of the spin angular momentum vector and a triad defining the orientation of the rigid body. A numerical experiment shows that the errors of transformation between the elements and variables are sufficiently small. The errors increase linearly with time for some elements and quadratically for some others.

  18. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez


    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  19. Rare-earth elements (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Long, Keith R.; Gambogi, Joseph; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.


    The rare-earth elements (REEs) are 15 elements that range in atomic number from 57 (lanthanum) to 71 (lutetium); they are commonly referred to as the “lanthanides.” Yttrium (atomic number 39) is also commonly regarded as an REE because it shares chemical and physical similarities and has affinities with the lanthanides. Although REEs are not rare in terms of average crustal abundance, the concentrated deposits of REEs are limited in number.Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications. The glass industry is the leading consumer of REE raw materials, which are used for glass polishing and as additives that provide color and special optical properties to the glass. Lanthanum-based catalysts are used in petroleum refining, and cerium-based catalysts are used in automotive catalytic converters. The use of REEs in magnets is a rapidly increasing application. Neodymium-iron-boron magnets, which are the strongest known type of magnets, are used when space and weight are restrictions. Nickel-metal hydride batteries use anodes made of a lanthanum-based alloys.China, which has led the world production of REEs for decades, accounted for more than 90 percent of global production and supply, on average, during the past decade. Citing a need to retain its limited REE resources to meet domestic requirements as well as concerns about the environmental effects of mining, China began placing restrictions on the supply of REEs in 2010 through the imposition of quotas, licenses, and taxes. As a result, the global rare-earth industry has increased its stockpiling of REEs; explored for deposits outside of China; and promoted new efforts to conserve, recycle, and substitute for REEs. New mine production began at Mount Weld in Western Australia, and numerous other exploration and development projects noted in this chapter are ongoing throughout the world.The REE-bearing minerals are

  20. Can occupancy-abundance models be used to monitor wolf abundance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cecilia Latham

    Full Text Available Estimating the abundance of wild carnivores is of foremost importance for conservation and management. However, given their elusive habits, direct observations of these animals are difficult to obtain, so abundance is more commonly estimated from sign surveys or radio-marked individuals. These methods can be costly and difficult, particularly in large areas with heavy forest cover. As an alternative, recent research has suggested that wolf abundance can be estimated from occupancy-abundance curves derived from "virtual" surveys of simulated wolf track networks. Although potentially more cost-effective, the utility of this approach hinges on its robustness to violations of its assumptions. We assessed the sensitivity of the occupancy-abundance approach to four assumptions: variation in wolf movement rates, changes in pack cohesion, presence of lone wolves, and size of survey units. Our simulations showed that occupancy rates and wolf pack abundances were biased high if track surveys were conducted when wolves made long compared to short movements, wolf packs were moving as multiple hunting units as opposed to a cohesive pack, and lone wolves were moving throughout the surveyed landscape. We also found that larger survey units (400 and 576 km2 were more robust to changes in these factors than smaller survey units (36 and 144 km2. However, occupancy rates derived from large survey units rapidly reached an asymptote at 100% occupancy, suggesting that these large units are inappropriate for areas with moderate to high wolf densities (>15 wolves/1,000 km2. Virtually-derived occupancy-abundance relationships can be a useful method for monitoring wolves and other elusive wildlife if applied within certain constraints, in particular biological knowledge of the surveyed species needs to be incorporated into the design of the occupancy surveys. Further, we suggest that the applicability of this method could be extended by directly incorporating some of its

  1. The primordial helium abundance from updated emissivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aver, Erik [Department of Physics, Gonzaga University, 502 E Boone Ave, Spokane, WA, 99258 (United States); Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Porter, R.L., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602 (United States)


    Observations of metal-poor extragalactic H II regions allow the determination of the primordial helium abundance, Y{sub p}. The He I emissivities are the foundation of the model of the H II region's emission. Porter, Ferland, Storey, and Detisch (2012) have recently published updated He I emissivities based on improved photoionization cross-sections. We incorporate these new atomic data and update our recent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of the dataset published by Izotov, Thuan, and Stasi'nska (2007). As before, cuts are made to promote quality and reliability, and only solutions which fit the data within 95% confidence level are used to determine the primordial He abundance. The previously qualifying dataset is almost entirely retained and with strong concordance between the physical parameters. Overall, an upward bias from the new emissivities leads to a decrease in Y{sub p}. In addition, we find a general trend to larger uncertainties in individual objects (due to changes in the emissivities) and an increased variance (due to additional objects included). From a regression to zero metallicity, we determine Y{sub p} = 0.2465 ± 0.0097, in good agreement with the BBN result, Y{sub p} = 0.2485 ± 0.0002, based on the Planck determination of the baryon density. In the future, a better understanding of why a large fraction of spectra are not well fit by the model will be crucial to achieving an increase in the precision of the primordial helium abundance determination.

  2. Clustering dark energy and halo abundances (United States)

    Batista, Ronaldo C.; Marra, Valerio


    Within the standard paradigm, dark energy is taken as a homogeneous fluid that drives the accelerated expansion of the universe and does not contribute to the mass of collapsed objects such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. The abundance of galaxy clusters—measured through a variety of channels—has been extensively used to constrain the normalization of the power spectrum: it is an important probe as it allows us to test if the standard ΛCDM model can indeed accurately describe the evolution of structures across billions of years. It is then quite significant that the Planck satellite has detected, via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, less clusters than expected according to the primary CMB anisotropies. One of the simplest generalizations that could reconcile these observations is to consider models in which dark energy is allowed to cluster, i.e., allowing its sound speed to vary. In this case, however, the standard methods to compute the abundance of galaxy clusters need to be adapted to account for the contributions of dark energy. In particular, we examine the case of clustering dark energy—a dark energy fluid with negligible sound speed—with a redshift-dependent equation of state. We carefully study how the halo mass function is modified in this scenario, highlighting corrections that have not been considered before in the literature. We address modifications in the growth function, collapse threshold, virialization densities and also changes in the comoving scale of collapse and mass function normalization. Our results show that clustering dark energy can impact halo abundances at the level of 10%-30%, depending on the halo mass, and that cluster counts are modified by about 30% at a redshift of unity.

  3. Chemical abundances of primary stars in the Sirius-like binary systems (United States)

    Kong, X. M.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. K.; Shi, J. R.; Kumar, Y. Bharat; Wang, L.; Zhang, J. B.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, Y. T.


    Study of primary stars lying in Sirius-like systems with various masses of WD companions and orbital separations is one of the key aspects to understand the origin and nature of Barium (Ba) stars. In this paper, based on high resolution and high S/N spectra, we present systematic analysis of photospheric abundances for 18 FGK primary stars of Sirius-like systems including six giants and 12 dwarfs. Atmospheric parameters, stellar masses, and abundances of 24 elements (C, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce and Nd) are determined homogeneously. The abundance patterns in these sample stars show that most of the elements in our sample follow the behavior of field stars with similar metallicity. As expected, s-process elements in four known Ba giants show overabundance. A weak correlation was found between anomalies of s-process elemental abundance and orbital separation, suggesting the orbital separation of the binaries could not be the main constraint to differentiate strong Ba stars from mild Ba stars. Our study shows that the large mass (>0.51 M⊙) of a WD companion in a binary system is not a sufficient condition to form a Ba star, even if the separation between the two components is small. Although not sufficient it seems to be a necessary condition since Ba stars with lower mass WDs in the observed sample were not found. Our results support that [s/Fe] and [hs/ls] ratios of Ba stars are anti-correlated with the metallicity. However, the different levels of s-process overabundance among Ba stars may not to be dominated mainly by the metallicity.

  4. Cosmic ray source abundance of calcium

    CERN Document Server

    Perron, C


    Re-examines the results of experiments in which ultra-high purity iron targets were irradiated by protons from the two CERN accelerators (600 MeV and 21 GeV); the spallation products were then chemically separated, and their isotopic composition determined by mass spectrometry. Ratios of cross-sections for calcium production by spallation of iron show that /sup 42/Ca, /sup 43/Ca and /sup 44/Ca have about the same abundance, about 10-15% that of iron, confirming earlier studies. (11 refs).

  5. Behavior of Abundances in Chemically Peculiar Dwarf and Subgiant A-Type Stars: HD 23193 and HD 170920 (United States)

    Kılıçoğlu, Tolgahan; Çalışkan, Şeyma; Ünal, Kübraözge


    To understand the origin of the abundance peculiarities of non-magnetic A-type stars, we present the first detailed chemical abundance analysis of a metallic line star HD 23193 (A2m) and an A-type subgiant HD 170920 (A5), which could have been a HgMn star on the main sequence. Our analysis is based on medium (R ∼ 14,000) and high (R ∼ 40,000) resolution spectroscopic data of the stars. The abundances of 18 elements are derived: C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sr, Y, and Ba. The masses of HD 23193 and HD 170920 are estimated from evolutionary tracks as 2.3 ± 0.1 M ⊙ and 2.9 ± 0.1 M ⊙. The ages are found to be 635 ± 33 Myr for HD 23193 and 480 ± 50 Myr for HD 170920 using isochrones. The abundance pattern of HD 23193 shows deviations from solar values in the iron-peak elements and indicates remarkable overabundances of Sr (1.16), Y (1.03), and Ba (1.24) with respect to the solar abundances. We compare the derived abundances of this moderately rotating (v\\sin i =37.5 km s‑1) Am star to the theoretical chemical evolution models including rotational mixing. The theoretically predicted abundances resemble our derived abundance pattern, except for a few elements (Si and Cr). For HD 170920, we find nearly solar abundances, except for C (‑0.43), S (0.16), Ti (0.15), Ni (0.16), Zn (0.41), Y (0.57), and Ba (0.97). Its low rotational velocity (v\\sin i=14.5 km s‑1), reduced carbon abundance, and enhanced heavy element abundances suggest that the star is most likely an evolved HgMn star. Based on observations made at the TÜBITAK National Observatory (Program ID 14BRTT150–671), and the Ankara University Observatory, Turkey.

  6. Metal abundances in hot white dwarfs with signatures of a superionized wind (United States)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.


    About a dozen hot white dwarfs with effective temperatures Teff = 65 000-120 000 K exhibit unusual absorption features in their optical spectra. These objects were tentatively identified as Rydberg lines of ultra-high excited metals in ionization stages v-x, indicating line formation in a dense environment with temperatures near 106 K. Since some features show blueward extensions, it was argued that they stem from a superionized wind. A unique assignment of the lines to particular elements is not possible, although they probably stem from C, N, O, and Ne. To further investigate this phenomenon, we analyzed the ultraviolet spectra available from only three stars of this group; that is, two helium-rich white dwarfs, HE 0504-2408 and HS 0713+3958 with spectral type DO, and a hydrogen-rich white dwarf, HS 2115+1148 with spectral type DAO. We identified light metals (C, N, O, Si, P, and S) with generally subsolar abundances and heavy elements from the iron group (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) with solar or oversolar abundance. The abundance patterns are not unusual for hot WDs and can be interpreted as the result of gravitational settling and radiative levitation of elements. As to the origin of the ultra-high ionized metals lines, we discuss the possible presence of a multicomponent radiatively driven wind that is frictionally heated.

  7. What is your Cosmic Connection to the Elements? (United States)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Lochner, James; Rohrbach, Gail; Cochrane, Kim


    This information and activity booklet describes the roles of the Big Bang, types of stars, supernovae, cosmic ray interactions, and radioactive decay in the formation of the elements. The booklet includes instructions for the following classroom activities, intended for students in Grades 9-12: Grandma's Apple Pie; Cosmic Shuffle; Nickel-odeon; Kinesthetic Big Bang; Elemental Haiku; Cosmic Ray Collisions; Cosmic Abundances; and What's Out There.

  8. 3He Abundances in Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Guzman-Ramirez, Lizette


    Determination of the 3He isotope is important to many fields of astrophysics, including stellar evolution, chemical evolution, and cosmology. The isotope is produced in stars which evolve through the planetary nebula phase. Planetary nebulae are the final evolutionary phase of low- and intermediate-mass stars, where the extensive mass lost by the star on the asymptotic giant branch is ionised by the emerging white dwarf. This ejecta quickly disperses and merges with the surrounding ISM. 3He abundances in planetary nebulae have been derived from the hyperfine transition of the ionised 3He, 3He+, at the radio rest frequency 8.665 GHz. 3He abundances in PNe can help test models of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Many hours have been put into trying to detect this line, using telescopes like the Effelsberg 100m dish of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) 140-foot telescope, the NRAO Very Large Array, the Arecibo antenna, the Green Bank Telescope, and only just recently, the Deep Space Station 63 antenna from the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex.

  9. Resource abundance and distribution drive bee visitation within developing tropical urban landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik, Victoria


    Full Text Available Urban landscapes include a mix of biotic and anthropogenic elements that can interact with and influence species occurrence and behaviour. In order to outline the drivers of bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea occurrence in tropical urban landscapes, foraging patterns and community characteristics were examined at a common and broadly attractive food resource, Tecoma stans (Bignoniaceae. Bee visitation was monitored at 120 individual resources in three cities from June 2007 to March 2009. Resource characteristics, spatial distribution, and other local and regional landscape variables were assessed and then used to develop descriptive regression models of forager visitation. The results indicated that increased bee abundance and taxon richness consistently correlated with increased floral abundance. Resource distribution was also influential, with more spatially aggregated resources receiving more foragers. Individual bee guilds had differential responses to the variables tested, but the significant impact of increased floral abundance was generally conserved. Smaller bodied bee species responded to floral abundance, resource structure, and proximity to natural habitats, suggesting that size-related dispersal abilities structure occurrence patterns in this guild. Larger bees favoured spatially aggregated resources in addition to increased floral abundance, suggesting an optimization of foraging energetics. The impact of the urban matrix was minimal and was only seen in generalist feeders (African honey bees. The strongly resource-driven foraging dynamics described in this study can be used to inform conservation and management practices in urban landscapes.

  10. Radioactive Elements on Mercury's Surface from MESSENGER: Implications for the Planet's Formation and Evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrick N. Peplowski; Larry G. Evans; Steven A. Hauck; Timothy J. McCoy; William V. Boynton; Jeffery J. Gillis-Davis; Denton S. Ebel; John O. Goldsten; David K. Hamara; David J. Lawrence; Ralph L. McNutt; Larry R. Nittler; Sean C. Solomon; Edgar A. Rhodes; Ann L. Sprague; Richard D. Starr; Karen R. Stockstill-Cahill


    ...) in Mercury's northern hemisphere. The abundance of the moderately volatile element K, relative to Th and U, is inconsistent with physical models for the formation of Mercury requiring extreme heating of the planet or its precursor...

  11. Are the Formation and Abundances of Metal-poor Stars the Result of Dust Dynamics? (United States)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Conroy, Charlie


    Large dust grains can fluctuate dramatically in their local density, relative to the gas, in neutral turbulent disks. Small, high-redshift galaxies (before reionization) represent ideal environments for this process. We show via simple arguments and simulations that order-of-magnitude fluctuations are expected in local abundances of large grains (>100 Å) under these conditions. This can have important consequences for star formation and stellar metal abundances in extremely metal-poor stars. Low-mass stars can form in dust-enhanced regions almost immediately after some dust forms even if the galaxy-average metallicity is too low for fragmentation to occur. We argue that the metal abundances of these “promoted” stars may contain interesting signatures as the CNO abundances (concentrated in large carbonaceous grains and ices) and Mg and Si (in large silicate grains) can be enhanced and/or fluctuate almost independently. Remarkably, the otherwise puzzling abundance patterns of some metal-poor stars can be well fit by standard IMF-averaged core-collapse SNe yields if we allow for fluctuating local dust-to-gas ratios. We also show that the observed log-normal distribution of enhancements in these species agrees with our simulations. Moreover, we confirm that Mg and Si are correlated in these stars the abundance ratios are similar to those in local silicate grains. Meanwhile [Mg/Ca], predicted to be nearly invariant from pure SNe yields, shows very large enhancements and variations up to factors of ≳100 as expected in the dust-promoted model, preferentially in the [C/Fe]-enhanced metal-poor stars. Together, this suggests that (1) dust exists in second-generation star formation, (2) local dust-to-gas ratio fluctuations occur in protogalaxies and can be important for star formation, and (3) the light element abundances of these stars may be affected by the local chemistry of dust where they formed, rather than directly tracing nucleosynthesis from earlier

  12. Rare earth element mineralogy and geochemistry in a laterite profile from Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Janots, Emilie; Gnos, Edwin


    In this study, rare earth element (REE) distribution has been investigated in a weathering profile from central Madagascar. Combination of bulk rock geochemical data (elements and isotopes) with mineral characterization reveals a remarkable evolution of the REE abundances and REE-minerals in the ......In this study, rare earth element (REE) distribution has been investigated in a weathering profile from central Madagascar. Combination of bulk rock geochemical data (elements and isotopes) with mineral characterization reveals a remarkable evolution of the REE abundances and REE...

  13. Finite element procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Bathe, Klaus-Jürgen


    Finite element procedures are now an important and frequently indispensable part of engineering analyses and scientific investigations. This book focuses on finite element procedures that are very useful and are widely employed. Formulations for the linear and nonlinear analyses of solids and structures, fluids, and multiphysics problems are presented, appropriate finite elements are discussed, and solution techniques for the governing finite element equations are given. The book presents general, reliable, and effective procedures that are fundamental and can be expected to be in use for a long time. The given procedures form also the foundations of recent developments in the field.

  14. Chemistry of superheavy elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaedel, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Science Research Center; GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany)


    The chemistry of superheavy elements - or transactinides from their position in the Periodic Table - is summarized. After giving an overview over historical developments, nuclear aspects about synthesis of neutron-rich isotopes of these elements, produced in hot-fusion reactions, and their nuclear decay properties are briefly mentioned. Specific requirements to cope with the one-atom-at-a-time situation in automated chemical separations and recent developments in aqueous-phase and gas-phase chemistry are presented. Exciting, current developments, first applications, and future prospects of chemical separations behind physical recoil separators ('pre-separator') are discussed in detail. The status of our current knowledge about the chemistry of rutherfordium (Rf, element 104), dubnium (Db, element 105), seaborgium (Sg, element 106), bohrium (Bh, element 107), hassium (Hs, element 108), copernicium (Cn, element 112), and element 114 is discussed from an experimental point of view. Recent results are emphasized and compared with empirical extrapolations and with fully-relativistic theoretical calculations, especially also under the aspect of the architecture of the Periodic Table. (orig.)

  15. Stochastic finite element method with simple random elements


    Starkloff, Hans-Jörg


    We propose a variant of the stochastic finite element method, where the random elements occuring in the problem formulation are approximated by simple random elements, i.e. random elements with only a finite number of possible values.

  16. Multiple modes in a coral species abundance distribution. (United States)

    Dornelas, Maria; Connolly, Sean R


    Species abundance distributions are an important measure of biodiversity and community structure. These distributions are affected by sampling, and alternative species-abundance models often make similar predictions for small sample sizes. Very large samples reveal the relative abundances of rare species, and thus provide information about species relative abundances that small samples cannot. Here, we present the species-abundance distribution for a sample of > 40,000 coral colonies at a single site, exceeding existing samples of coral local assemblages by over an order of magnitude. This abundance distribution is multimodal when examined on a logarithmic scale. Four different model selection procedures all indicate that the underlying community abundance distribution has at least three modes. We show that the multiple modes are not caused by mixtures of species with different habitat preferences. However, spatial aggregation partially explains our results. We inspect published work on species abundance distributions, and suggest that multimodality may be a common feature of large samples.

  17. Relation between grade and abundance of manganese nodules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sudhakar, M.

    Data from more than 1000 locations in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) where both bulk nodule chemistry and abundance were determined and utilized to study the relationship between grade and abundance of manganese nodule deposits. Grade...

  18. Species Composition, Relative Abundance and Distribution of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Composition, Relative Abundance and Distribution of the Avian Fauna of Entoto Natural ... A study on avian species composition, relative abundance, diversity and ... Eucalyptus plantation, soil erosion, deforestation, habitat fragmentation, ...

  19. Is the geographic pattern in the abundance of south African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two general, alternative hypotheses can explain the abundance pattern: either pre-recruitment factors, those affecting the abundance of larvae, settlers and juveniles (5 mm in basal diameter), are significantly different ...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A global map of the abundance of hydrogen in micrograms/g within the regolith of asteroid 4 Vesta is provided for two-degree equal-angle pixels. Hydrogen abundances...

  1. An Update of the Primordial Helium Abundance (United States)

    Peimbert, Antonio; Peimbert, Manuel; Luridiana, Valentina


    Three of the best determinations of the primordial helium abundance (Yp) are those obtained from low metallicity HII regions by Aver, Olive, Porter, & Skillman (2013); Izotov, Thuan, & Guseva (2014); and Peimbert, Peimbert, & Luridiana (2007). In this poster we update the Yp determination by Peimbert et al. taking into account, among other aspects, recent advances in the determination of the He atomic physical parameters, the temperature structure, the collisional effects of high temperatures on the Balmer lines, as well as the effect of H and He bound-bound absorption.We compare our results with those of Aver et al. and Izotov et al. and point out possible explanations for the differences among the three determinations. We also compare our results with those obtained with the Plank satellite considering recent measurements of the neutron mean life; this comparison has implications on the determination of the number of light neutrino families.

  2. Forms and genesis of species abundance distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans O. Ochiaga


    Full Text Available Species abundance distribution (SAD is one of the most important metrics in community ecology. SAD curves take a hollow or hyperbolic shape in a histogram plot with many rare species and only a few common species. In general, the shape of SAD is largely log-normally distributed, although the mechanism behind this particular SAD shape still remains elusive. Here, we aim to review four major parametric forms of SAD and three contending mechanisms that could potentially explain this highly skewed form of SAD. The parametric forms reviewed here include log series, negative binomial, lognormal and geometric distributions. The mechanisms reviewed here include the maximum entropy theory of ecology, neutral theory and the theory of proportionate effect.

  3. Nitrous Oxide Production by Abundant Benthic Macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    that do not ingest large quantities of microorganisms produced insignificant amounts of nitrous oxide. Ephemera danica, a very abundant mayfly larva, was monitored monthly in a nitrate-polluted stream. Nitrous oxide production by this filter-feeder was highly dependent on nitrate availability...... and temperature. Given the increasing nitrate pollution of freshwater ecosystems, the collective gut of benthic macrofauna might constitute an increasingly important yet hitherto overlooked link in the global nitrous oxide budget.......Detritivorous macrofauna species co-ingest large quantities of microorganisms some of which survive the gut passage. Denitrifying bacteria, in particular, become metabolically induced by anoxic conditions, nitrate, and labile organic compounds in the gut of invertebrates. A striking consequence...

  4. Role of Ceratophyllum demersum in recycling macro elements from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is one of the most stable and abundant complexes on nature that can be polluted with natural and human factors. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure a timely warning for possible accumulation of polluting metal in natural waters in order to protect public health. One of the economic and rapid methods for elements ...

  5. Preliminary investigation of the rare earth element (REE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shales belonging to the Oshosun Formation exposed at the Sagamu quarry of the West African Portland Cement have been mapped and assessed for their abundances in rare earth elements (REE). The shale thickness, which measures approximately 15m and overlies the Ewekoro Formation is separated by a very thin ...

  6. Determination of rare earth and refractory trace element ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental and analytical procedures devised for measurement of rare earth element (REE) abundances using a secondary ion mass spectrometer (ion microprobe) are described. This approach is more versatile than the conventional techniques such as neutron activation analysis and isotope dilution mass spectrometry ...

  7. VLT/UVES abundances in four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies. I. Nucleosynthesis and abundance ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetrone, M; Venn, KA; Tolstoy, E; Primas, F; Hill, [No Value; Kaufer, A

    We have used the Ultraviolet Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on Kueyen (UT2) of the Very Large Telescope to take spectra of 15 individual red giants in the Sculptor, Fornax, Carina, and Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph's). We measure the abundances of alpha-, iron peak, first s-process, second

  8. Abundant carbon in the mantle beneath Hawai`i (United States)

    Anderson, Kyle R.; Poland, Michael


    Estimates of carbon concentrations in Earth’s mantle vary over more than an order of magnitude, hindering our ability to understand mantle structure and mineralogy, partial melting, and the carbon cycle. CO2 concentrations in mantle-derived magmas supplying hotspot ocean island volcanoes yield our most direct constraints on mantle carbon, but are extensively modified by degassing during ascent. Here we show that undegassed magmatic and mantle carbon concentrations may be estimated in a Bayesian framework using diverse geologic information at an ocean island volcano. Our CO2 concentration estimates do not rely upon complex degassing models, geochemical tracer elements, assumed magma supply rates, or rare undegassed rock samples. Rather, we couple volcanic CO2 emission rates with probabilistic magma supply rates, which are obtained indirectly from magma storage and eruption rates. We estimate that the CO2content of mantle-derived magma supplying Hawai‘i’s active volcanoes is 0.97−0.19+0.25 wt%—roughly 40% higher than previously believed—and is supplied from a mantle source region with a carbon concentration of 263−62+81 ppm. Our results suggest that mantle plumes and ocean island basalts are carbon-rich. Our data also shed light on helium isotope abundances, CO2/Nb ratios, and may imply higher CO2 emission rates from ocean island volcanoes.

  9. The abundance and environment of dark matter haloes (United States)

    Metuki, Ofer; Libeskind, Noam I.; Hoffman, Yehuda


    An open question in cosmology and the theory of structure formation is to what extent does environment affect the properties of galaxies and haloes. The present paper aims at shedding light on this problem. The paper focuses on the analysis of a dark matter only simulation and it addresses the issue of how the environment affects the abundance of haloes, which are assigned four attributes: their virial mass, an ambient density calculated with an aperture that scales with Rvir (ΔM), a fixed-aperture (ΔR) ambient density, and a cosmic web classification (i.e. voids, sheets, filaments, and knots, as defined by the V-web algorithm). ΔM is the mean density around a halo evaluated within a sphere of a radius of 5Rvir, where Rvir is the virial radius. ΔR is the density field Gaussian smoothed with R = 4 h-1 Mpc, evaluated at the centre of the halo. The main result of the paper is that the difference between haloes in different web elements stems from the difference in their mass functions, and does not depend on their adaptive-aperture ambient density. A dependence on the fixed-aperture ambient density is induced by the cross-correlation between the mass of a halo and its fixed-aperture ambient density.

  10. Abundant carbon in the mantle beneath Hawai`i (United States)

    Anderson, Kyle R.; Poland, Michael P.


    Estimates of carbon concentrations in Earth’s mantle vary over more than an order of magnitude, hindering our ability to understand mantle structure and mineralogy, partial melting, and the carbon cycle. CO2 concentrations in mantle-derived magmas supplying hotspot ocean island volcanoes yield our most direct constraints on mantle carbon, but are extensively modified by degassing during ascent. Here we show that undegassed magmatic and mantle carbon concentrations may be estimated in a Bayesian framework using diverse geologic information at an ocean island volcano. Our CO2 concentration estimates do not rely upon complex degassing models, geochemical tracer elements, assumed magma supply rates, or rare undegassed rock samples. Rather, we couple volcanic CO2 emission rates with probabilistic magma supply rates, which are obtained indirectly from magma storage and eruption rates. We estimate that the CO2 content of mantle-derived magma supplying Hawai`i’s active volcanoes is 0.97-0.19+0.25 wt%--roughly 40% higher than previously believed--and is supplied from a mantle source region with a carbon concentration of 263-62+81 ppm. Our results suggest that mantle plumes and ocean island basalts are carbon-rich. Our data also shed light on helium isotope abundances, CO2/Nb ratios, and may imply higher CO2 emission rates from ocean island volcanoes.

  11. The abundance and composition of crabs (Decapoda) in Uta Ewa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... abundant accounting for 46.6% of the percentage abundance. Station 2 had the highest Shannon diversity index of 1.22, while Station 1 had 1.15. The abundance and composition of crab species in the study areas is an indication that the area is an important ecological zone for benthos macroinvertebrates conservation.

  12. Developments of Mindlin-Reissner Plate Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Cen


    Full Text Available Since 1960s, how to develop high-performance plate bending finite elements based on different plate theories has attracted a great deal of attention from finite element researchers, and numerous models have been successfully constructed. Among these elements, the most popular models are usually formulated by two theoretical bases: the Kirchhoff plate theory and the Mindlin-Reissener plate theory. Due to the advantages that only C0 continuity is required and the effect of transverse shear strain can be included, the latter one seems more rational and has obtained more attention. Through abundant works, different types of Mindlin-Reissener plate models emerged in many literatures and have been applied to solve various engineering problems. However, it also brings FEM users a puzzle of how to choose a “right” one. The main purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the development history of the Mindlin-Reissner plate elements, exhibiting the state-of-art in this research field. At the end of the paper, a promising method for developing “shape-free” plate elements is recommended.

  13. Transposable elements in the Anopheles funestus transcriptome. (United States)

    Fernández-Medina, Rita D; Carareto, Claudia M A; Struchiner, Cláudio J; Ribeiro, José M C


    Transposable elements (TEs) are present in most of the eukaryotic genomes and their impact on genome evolution is increasingly recognized. Although there is extensive information on the TEs present in several eukaryotic genomes, less is known about the expression of these elements at the transcriptome level. Here we present a detailed analysis regarding the expression of TEs in Anopheles funestus, the second most important vector of human malaria in Africa. Several transcriptionally active TE families belonging both to Class I and II were identified and characterized. Interestingly, we have identified a full-length putative active element (including the presence of full length TIRs in the genomic sequence) belonging to the hAT superfamily, which presents active members in other insect genomes. This work contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the landscape of transposable elements in A. funestus transcriptome. Our results reveal that TEs are abundant and diverse in the mosquito and that most of the TE families found in the genome are represented in the mosquito transcriptome, a fact that could indicate activity of these elements.The vast diversity of TEs expressed in A. funestus suggests that there is ongoing amplification of several families in this organism.

  14. Li-7 abundances in halo stars: Testing stellar evolution models and the primordial Li-7 abundance (United States)

    Chaboyer, Brian; Demarque, P.


    A large number of stellar evolution models with (Fe/H) = -2.3 and -3.3 have been calculated in order to determine the primordial Li-7 abundance and to test current stellar evolution models by a comparison to the extensive database of accurate Li abundances in extremely metal-poor halo stars observed by Thorburn (1994). Standard models with gray atmospheres do a very good job of fitting the observed Li abundances in stars hotter than approximately 5600 K. They predict a primordial. Li-7 abundance of log N(Li) = 2.24 +/- 0.03. Models which include microscopic diffusion predict a downward curvature in the Li-7 destruction isochrones at hot temperatures which is not present in the observations. Thus, the observations clearly rule out models which include uninhibited microscopic diffusion of Li-7 from the surface of the star. Rotational mixing inhibits the microscopic diffusion and the (Fe/H) = -2.28 stellar models which include both diffusion and rotational mixing provide an excellent match to the mean trend in T(sub eff) which is present in the observations. Both the plateau stars and the heavily depleted cool stars are well fit by these models. The rotational mixing leads to considerable Li-7 depletion in these models and the primordial Li-7 abundance inferred from these models is log N(Li) = 3.08 +/- 0.1. However, the (Fe/H) = -3.28 isochrones reveal problems with the combined models. These isochrones predict a trend of decreasing log N(Li) with increasing T(sub eff) which is not present in the observations. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  15. The ends of elements (United States)

    Thornton, Brett F.; Burdette, Shawn C.


    When elements 117 and 118 are finally named, should these new members of the halogen and noble gas families receive names ending in -ium as IUPAC has suggested? Brett F. Thornton and Shawn C. Burdette look at the history of element suffixes and make the case for not following this recommendation.

  16. Trace element emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.


    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  17. Movies and Literary Elements. (United States)

    Keller, Rodney D.

    Showing ten-minute movie clips can be an effective way to motivate students to read literature and to teach elements of fiction, namely plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. A clip from "And Then There Were None" may be used to teach various elements of plot, including conflict and the four types of conflict (man vs. man,…

  18. BSCW Unstructured Mixed Element Grids (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Corase Grid: Quad Surface Faces= 9360 Tria Surface Faces= 128928 Nodes = 2869187 Total Elements = 9099201 Hex Elements = 0 Pent_5 Elements = 0 Pent_6 Elements =...

  19. Subsurface In Situ Elemental Composition Measurements with PING (United States)

    Parsons, Ann; McClanahan, Timothy; Bodnarik, Julia; Evans, Larry; Nowicki, Suzanne; Schweitzer, Jeffrey; Starr, Richard


    This paper describes the Probing In situ with Neutron and Gamma rays (PING) instrument, that can measure the subsurface elemental composition in situ for any rocky body in the solar system without the need for digging into the surface. PING consists of a Pulsed Neutron Generator (PNG), a gamma ray spectrometer and neutron detectors. Subsurface elements are stimulated by high-energy neutrons to emit gamma rays at characteristic energies. This paper will show how the detection of these gamma rays results in a measurement of elemental composition. Examples of the basalt to granite ratios for aluminum and silicon abundance are provided.

  20. Chemical Abundance Analysis of Three α-poor, Metal-poor Stars in the Ultrafaint Dwarf Galaxy Horologium I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, D.Q.; et al.


    We present chemical abundance measurements of three stars in the ultra-faintdwarf galaxy Horologium I, a Milky Way satellite discovered by the Dark EnergySurvey. Using high resolution spectroscopic observations we measure themetallicity of the three stars as well as abundance ratios of several$\\alpha$-elements, iron-peak elements, and neutron-capture elements. Theabundance pattern is relatively consistent among all three stars, which have alow average metallicity of [Fe/H] $\\sim -2.6$ and are not $\\alpha$-enhanced([$\\alpha$/Fe] $\\sim 0.0$). This result is unexpected when compared to otherlow-metallicity stars in the Galactic halo and other ultra-faint dwarfs andhints at an entirely different mechanism for the enrichment of Hor I comparedto other satellites. We discuss possible scenarios that could lead to thisobserved nucleosynthetic signature including extended star formation, aPopulation III supernova, and a possible association with the Large MagellanicCloud.

  1. Neutronic fuel element fabrication (United States)

    Korton, George


    This disclosure describes a method for metallurgically bonding a complete leak-tight enclosure to a matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant channels. Coolant tubes containing solid filler pins are disposed in the coolant channels. A leak-tight metal enclosure is then formed about the entire assembly of fuel matrix, coolant tubes and pins. The completely enclosed and sealed assembly is exposed to a high temperature and pressure gas environment to effect a metallurgical bond between all contacting surfaces therein. The ends of the assembly are then machined away to expose the pin ends which are chemically leached from the coolant tubes to leave the coolant tubes with internal coolant passageways. The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. It relates generally to fuel elements for neutronic reactors and more particularly to a method for providing a leak-tight metal enclosure for a high-performance matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant tubes. The planned utilization of nuclear energy in high-performance, compact-propulsion and mobile power-generation systems has necessitated the development of fuel elements capable of operating at high power densities. High power densities in turn require fuel elements having high thermal conductivities and good fuel retention capabilities at high temperatures. A metal clad fuel element containing a ceramic phase of fuel intimately mixed with and bonded to a continuous refractory metal matrix has been found to satisfy the above requirements. Metal coolant tubes penetrate the matrix to afford internal cooling to the fuel element while providing positive fuel retention and containment of fission products generated within the fuel matrix. Metal header plates are bonded to the coolant tubes at each end of the fuel element and a metal cladding or can completes the fuel-matrix enclosure

  2. Flow Element Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Air distribution in ventilated rooms is a flow process that can be divided into different elements such as supply air jets, exhaust flows, thermal plumes, boundary layer flows, infiltration and gravity currents. These flow elements are isolated volumes where the air movement is controlled...... by a restricted number of parameters, and the air movement is fairly independent of the general flow in the enclosure. In many practical situations, the most convenient· method is to design the air distribution system using flow element theory....

  3. The solar element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge


    of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... and astronomers in the period until the spring of 1895, when William Ramsay serendipitously found the gas in uranium minerals? The hypothetical element helium was fairly well known, yet Ramsay's discovery owed little or nothing to Lockyer's solar element. Indeed, for a brief while it was thought that the two...

  4. Elements in biological AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.


    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. {sup 14}C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth`s biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed.

  5. Discovery of element 112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)


    The new elements 110, 111, and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. Due to strong shell effects the dominant decay mode is not fission, but emission of alpha particles. Theoretical investigations predict that maximum shell effects should exist in nuclei near proton number 114 and neutron number 184. Measurements give hope that isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical Superheavy Elements could be produced by fusion reactions using {sup 118}Pb as target. systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that transfer of nucleons is the important process to initiate the fusion.

  6. Climate change induced molting mismatch? Mountain hare abundance reduced by duration of snowcover and predator abundance


    Pedersen, Simen; Odden, Morten; Pedersen, Hans-Christian


    In northern latitudes, species that have adapted to snow cover by molting and changing pelage color will be particularly vulnerable to climate change, as predation levels may increase due to a mismatch with background coloration. Here, we investigated the synergistic effect of mammalian generalist predators (red fox Vulpes vulpes and pine marten Martes martes) and the duration of snow cover on the abundance of a winter-adapted species, the mountain hare (Lepus timidus). We analyzed 12 yr of d...

  7. Multi-Element Airfoil System (United States)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); McKenney, Martin J. (Inventor); Atherley, Raymond D. (Inventor); Kidd, Reggie T. (Inventor)


    A multi-element airfoil system includes an airfoil element having a leading edge region and a skin element coupled to the airfoil element. A slat deployment system is coupled to the slat and the skin element, and is capable of deploying and retracting the slat and the skin element. The skin element substantially fills the lateral gap formed between the slat and the airfoil element when the slat is deployed. The system further includes an uncoupling device and a sensor to remove the skin element from the gap based on a critical angle-of-attack of the airfoil element. The system can alternatively comprise a trailing edge flap, where a skin element substantially fills the lateral gap between the flap and the trailing edge region of the airfoil element. In each case, the skin element fills a gap between the airfoil element and the deployed flap or slat to reduce airframe noise.

  8. Divergent picornavirus IRES elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham


    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements were first identified about 20 years ago within the 5' untranslated region of picornavirus RNAs. They direct a cap-independent mechanism of translation initiation on the viral RNA. Within the picornavirus family it is now known that there are four...... classes of IRES element which vary in size (450-270nt), they also have different, complex, secondary structures and distinct requirements for cellular proteins to allow them to function. This review describes the features of each class of picornavirus IRES element but focuses on the characteristics...... of the most recently described group, initially identified within the porcine teschovirus-1 RNA, which has strong similarities to the IRES elements from within the genomes of hepatitis C virus and the pestiviruses which are members of the flavivirus family. The selection of the initiation codon...

  9. Reverse transcriptase genes are highly abundant and transcriptionally active in marine plankton assemblages

    KAUST Repository

    Lescot, Magali


    Genes encoding reverse transcriptases (RTs) are found in most eukaryotes, often as a component of retrotransposons, as well as in retroviruses and in prokaryotic retroelements. We investigated the abundance, classification and transcriptional status of RTs based on Tara Oceans marine metagenomes and metatranscriptomes encompassing a wide organism size range. Our analyses revealed that RTs predominate large-size fraction metagenomes (>5 μm), where they reached a maximum of 13.5% of the total gene abundance. Metagenomic RTs were widely distributed across the phylogeny of known RTs, but many belonged to previously uncharacterized clades. Metatranscriptomic RTs showed distinct abundance patterns across samples compared with metagenomic RTs. The relative abundances of viral and bacterial RTs among identified RT sequences were higher in metatranscriptomes than in metagenomes and these sequences were detected in all metatranscriptome size fractions. Overall, these observations suggest an active proliferation of various RT-assisted elements, which could be involved in genome evolution or adaptive processes of plankton assemblage.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung-Sun [Hinode Team, ISAS/JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Brooks, David H. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Imada, Shinsuke, E-mail: [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STEL), Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)


    Many jets are detected at X-ray wavelengths in the Sun's polar regions, and the ejected plasma along the jets has been suggested to contribute mass to the fast solar wind. From in situ measurements in the magnetosphere, it has been found that the fast solar wind has photospheric abundances while the slow solar wind has coronal abundances. Therefore, we investigated the abundances of polar jets to determine whether they are the same as that of the fast solar wind. For this study, we selected 22 jets in the polar region observed by Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray Telescope (XRT) simultaneously on 2007 November 1–3. We calculated the First Ionization Potential (FIP) bias factor from the ratio of the intensity between high (S) and low (Si, Fe) FIP elements using the EIS spectra. The values of the FIP bias factors for the polar jets are around 0.7–1.9, and 75% of the values are in the range of 0.7–1.5, which indicates that they have photospheric abundances similar to the fast solar wind. The results are consistent with the reconnection jet model where photospheric plasma emerges and is rapidly ejected into the fast wind.

  11. Reverse transcriptase genes are highly abundant and transcriptionally active in marine plankton assemblages. (United States)

    Lescot, Magali; Hingamp, Pascal; Kojima, Kenji K; Villar, Emilie; Romac, Sarah; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Boccara, Martine; Jaillon, Olivier; Iudicone, Daniele; Bowler, Chris; Wincker, Patrick; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Ogata, Hiroyuki


    Genes encoding reverse transcriptases (RTs) are found in most eukaryotes, often as a component of retrotransposons, as well as in retroviruses and in prokaryotic retroelements. We investigated the abundance, classification and transcriptional status of RTs based on Tara Oceans marine metagenomes and metatranscriptomes encompassing a wide organism size range. Our analyses revealed that RTs predominate large-size fraction metagenomes (>5 μm), where they reached a maximum of 13.5% of the total gene abundance. Metagenomic RTs were widely distributed across the phylogeny of known RTs, but many belonged to previously uncharacterized clades. Metatranscriptomic RTs showed distinct abundance patterns across samples compared with metagenomic RTs. The relative abundances of viral and bacterial RTs among identified RT sequences were higher in metatranscriptomes than in metagenomes and these sequences were detected in all metatranscriptome size fractions. Overall, these observations suggest an active proliferation of various RT-assisted elements, which could be involved in genome evolution or adaptive processes of plankton assemblage.

  12. Chemical abundances in the nucleus of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (United States)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Bellazzini, M.; Ibata, R.; Romano, D.; Chapman, S. C.; Monaco, L.


    We present iron, magnesium, calcium, and titanium abundances for 235 stars in the central region of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (within 9.0' ≃ 70 pc from the centre) from medium-resolution Keck/Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph spectra. All the considered stars belong to the massive globular cluster M 54 or to the central nucleus of the galaxy (Sgr, N). In particular we provide abundances for 109 stars with [Fe/H] ≥-1.0, more than doubling the available sample of spectroscopic metallicity and α-elements abundance estimates for Sgr dSph stars in this metallicity regime. We find for the first time a metallicity gradient in the Sgr, N population, whose peak iron abundance goes from [Fe/H] =-0.38 for R ≤ 2.5' to [Fe/H] =-0.57 for 5.0 chemical patterns of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal as a whole with a chemical evolution model which implies that a high mass progenitor (MDM = 6 × 1010M⊙) and a significant event of mass-stripping occurred a few Gyr ago, presumably starting at the first peri-Galactic passage after infall. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  13. An Enhanced Cosmological Li6 Abundance as a Potential Signature of Residual Dark Matter Annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Luo, Feng; Olive, Keith A; Spanos, Vassilis C


    Residual late-time dark matter particle annihilations during and after Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) may alter the predicted cosmological abundances of the light elements. Within the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (the CMSSM) with a neutralino LSP, we find negligible effects on the abundances of Deuterium, He3, He4 and Li7 predicted by homogeneous BBN, but potentially a large enhancement in the predicted abundance of Li6. This enhancement may be as much as two orders of magnitude in the focus-point WMAP strip and in the coannihilation and funnel regions for large tan beta for small m_{1/2}, and the effect is still significant at large m_{1/2}. However, the potential Li6 enhancement is negligible in the part of the coannihilation strip for tan beta = 10 that survives the latest LHC constraints. A similar enhancement of the \\li6 abundance may also be found in a model with common, non-universal Higgs masses (the NUHM1).

  14. Structural elements design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Draycott, Trevor


    Gives clear explanations of the logical design sequence for structural elements. The Structural Engineer says: `The book explains, in simple terms, and with many examples, Code of Practice methods for sizing structural sections in timber, concrete,masonry and steel. It is the combination into one book of section sizing methods in each of these materials that makes this text so useful....Students will find this an essential support text to the Codes of Practice in their study of element sizing'.

  15. New roof element system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Jesper; Rudbeck, Claus Christian


    The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs.......The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs....

  16. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  17. Atoms, molecules & elements

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George


    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  18. Elemental nitrogen partitioning in dense interstellar clouds. (United States)

    Daranlot, Julien; Hincelin, Ugo; Bergeat, Astrid; Costes, Michel; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M


    Many chemical models of dense interstellar clouds predict that the majority of gas-phase elemental nitrogen should be present as N(2), with an abundance approximately five orders of magnitude less than that of hydrogen. As a homonuclear diatomic molecule, N(2) is difficult to detect spectroscopically through infrared or millimeter-wavelength transitions. Therefore, its abundance is often inferred indirectly through its reaction product N(2)H(+). Two main formation mechanisms, each involving two radical-radical reactions, are the source of N(2) in such environments. Here we report measurements of the low temperature rate constants for one of these processes, the N + CN reaction, down to 56 K. The measured rate constants for this reaction, and those recently determined for two other reactions implicated in N(2) formation, are tested using a gas-grain model employing a critically evaluated chemical network. We show that the amount of interstellar nitrogen present as N(2) depends on the competition between its gas-phase formation and the depletion of atomic nitrogen onto grains. As the reactions controlling N(2) formation are inefficient, we argue that N(2) does not represent the main reservoir species for interstellar nitrogen. Instead, elevated abundances of more labile forms of nitrogen such as NH(3) should be present on interstellar ices, promoting the eventual formation of nitrogen-bearing organic molecules.

  19. Chemical Abundances and Mixing in Stars in the Milky Way and its Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Randich, Sofia; Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held in Castiglione della Pescaia, Italy, 13–17 September, 2004


    The field of chemical abundances and internal mixing of elements in stars has made large progress in the last decade. Both a wealth of new observational data and in the last years also the inauguration of new theoretical roads have been the stimulus for this ESO Workshop held in Castiglione della Pescaia, Italy, 13-17 September 2004. The proceedings cover topics from chemical abundances in the different components of the Milky Way and in local group galaxies, via observational and theoretical papers on mixing in stars to big bang nucleosynthesis and galaxy formation and evolution. As all volumes in this series of ESO Astrophysics Symposia this one gives a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of the forefront of research in its area. It is thus a valuable reference for both students specializing in the field and researchers alike.

  20. Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disc LV 2 (Orion): clues to the causes of the abundance anomaly in H II regions (United States)

    Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.; Vílchez, J. M.; Péquignot, D.


    Optical integral field spectroscopy of the archetype protoplanetary disc LV 2 in the Orion nebula is presented, taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES/Argus fibre array. The detection of recombination lines (RLs) of C II and O II from this class of objects is reported, and the lines are utilized as abundance diagnostics. The study is complemented with the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph ultraviolet and optical spectra of the target contained within the Argus field of view. By subtracting the local nebula background the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd is obtained and its elemental composition is derived for the first time. The proplyd is found to be overabundant in carbon, oxygen and neon compared to the Orion nebula and the Sun. The simultaneous coverage over LV 2 of the C III]λ1908 and [O III]λ5007 collisionally excited lines (CELs) and C II and O II RLs has enabled us to measure the abundances of C2 + and O2 + for LV 2 with both sets of lines. The two methods yield consistent results for the intrinsic proplyd spectrum, but not for the proplyd spectrum contaminated by the generic nebula spectrum, thus providing one example where the long-standing abundance anomaly plaguing metallicity studies of H II regions has been resolved. These results would indicate that the standard forbidden-line methods used in the derivation of light metal abundances in H II regions in our own and other galaxies underestimate the true gas metallicity.

  1. The mineralogy and trace element constituents of suspended stream sediments of the Linggi River Basin, Malaysia (United States)

    Nather Khan, I. S. A.

    The mineralogy and trace element concentrations of suspended stream sediments were determined at selected stations in the Linggi River Basin, Malaysia, while conducting an intensive study on water quality and a biological assessment of water pollution in the basin. The minerals that were identified from the X-ray patterns of the suspended stream sediments are kaolinite, mica, feldspar and quartz. Kaolinite was the most abundant mineral, followed by mica. By considering mean concentrations of various trace elements, aluminum and manganese were the most abundant elements. Higher concentrations of copper and zinc at some stations were due to pollutants from the nearby Senawang Industrial Estate.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliadis, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Karakas, A. I. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Prantzos, N. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Université P. and M. Curie, 98bis Bd. Arago, F-75104 Paris (France); Lattanzio, J. C.; Doherty, C. L., E-mail: [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)


    Globular clusters are of paramount importance for testing theories of stellar evolution and early galaxy formation. Strong evidence for multiple populations of stars in globular clusters derives from observed abundance anomalies. A puzzling example is the recently detected Mg–K anticorrelation in NGC 2419. We perform Monte Carlo nuclear reaction network calculations to constrain the temperature–density conditions that gave rise to the elemental abundances observed in this elusive cluster. We find a correlation between stellar temperature and density values that provide a satisfactory match between simulated and observed abundances in NGC 2419 for all relevant elements (Mg, Si, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, and V). Except at the highest densities (ρ ≳ 10{sup 8} g cm{sup −3}), the acceptable conditions range from ≈100 MK at ≈10{sup 8} g cm{sup −3} to ≈200 MK at ≈10{sup −4} g cm{sup −3}. This result accounts for uncertainties in nuclear reaction rates and variations in the assumed initial composition. We review hydrogen-burning sites and find that low-mass stars, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, massive stars, or supermassive stars cannot account for the observed abundance anomalies in NGC 2419. Super-AGB stars could be viable candidates for the polluter stars if stellar model parameters can be fine-tuned to produce higher temperatures. Novae, involving either CO or ONe white dwarfs, could be interesting polluter candidates, but a current lack of low-metallicity nova models precludes firmer conclusions. We also discuss whether additional constraints for the first-generation polluters can be obtained by future measurements of oxygen, or by evolving models of second-generation low-mass stars with a non-canonical initial composition.

  3. Observational Effects of Magnetism in O Stars: Surface Nitrogen Abundances (United States)

    Martins, F.; Escolano, C.; Wade, G. A.; Donati, J. F.; Bouret, J. C.


    Aims. We investigate the surface nitrogen content of the six magnetic O stars known to date as well as of the early B-type star Tau Sco.. We compare these abundances to predictions of evolutionary models to isolate the effects of magnetic field on the transport of elements in stellar interiors. Methods. We conduct a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the ample stars with state-of-the-art atmosphere models. We rely on high signal-to-noise ratio, high resolution optical spectra obtained with ESPADONS at CFHT and NARVAL at TBL. Atmosphere models and synthetic spectra are computed with the code CMFGEN. Values of N/H together with their uncertainties are determined and compared to predictions of evolutionary models. Results. We find that the magnetic stars can be divided into two groups: one with stars displaying no N enrichment (one object); and one with stars most likely showing extra N enrichment (5 objects). For one star (Ori C) no robust conclusion can be drawn due to its young age. The star with no N enrichment is the one with the weakest magnetic field, possibly of dynamo origin. It might be a star having experienced strong magnetic braking under the condition of solid body rotation, but its rotational velocity is still relatively large. The five stars with high N content were probably slow rotators on the zero age main sequence, but they have surface N/H typical of normal O stars, indicating that the presence of a (probably fossil) magnetic field leads to extra enrichment. These stars may have a strong differential rotation inducing shear mixing. Our results shOuld be viewed as a basis on which new theoretical simulations can rely to better understand the effect of magnetism on the evolution of massive stars.

  4. Studies on abundance of zooplanktons in lakes of Mysore, India. (United States)

    Savitha, N; Yamakanamardi, Sadanand M


    This is the first comprehensive ecological study on the abundance of zooplankton in Kalale, Alanahalli and Dalvoy lakes of Mysore. The abundance of zooplankton as well as their relation with physico-chemical parameters was analyzed, every month in these lakes from June 2008-May 2010. The mean abundance of Rotifer (281 Org (l-1)), Cladocerans (27 Org l(-1)) and total abundance of zooplankton (343 Org l(-1)) were more and significantly different in Dalvoy lake; whereas, in Kalale lake the mean abundance of Rotifer (19 Org l(-1)), Cladocerans (3 Org l(-1)) and total abundance of zooplankton (79 Org l(-1)) and in Alanahalli lake the mean abundance of Rotifer (84 Org l(-1)), Cladocerans (9 Org l(-1)) and total abundance of zooplankton (149 Org l(-1)) were significantly less. However, the abundance of Copepods and Ostracods was similar in all the three lakes studied. The water bodies of Kalale lake were less polluted when compared toAlanahalli and Dalvoy lakes. The increases in conductivity, Chl a, turbidity, phosphate, carbon-di-oxide and total anions in Alanahalli and Dalvoy lakes may be attributed to the various anthropogenic activities in the catchment areas. Interrelationships between zooplankton variables and physico-chemical parameters were calculated using Pearson's correlation co-efficient (r) which revealed (25) significant (P lake and moderate (7) in Alanahalli and Kalale lakes). The stepwise multiple regression analysis (r2) showed out of 21 physico-chemical parameters studied, as many as 12 were positively controlling the abundance of zooplankton, where as the phosphate and chloride were negatively controlling the total abundance of zooplankton and the abundance of ostracods respectively. The results obtained have been discussed in the light of the present literature available in the field of aquatic microbial ecology.

  5. Bacterial community profiles in low microbial abundance sponges


    Giles, Emily C; Kamke, Janine; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Taylor, Michael W.; Hentschel, Ute; Ravasi, Timothy; Schmitt, Susanne


    It has long been recognized that sponges differ in the abundance of associated microorganisms, and they are therefore termed either 'low microbial abundance' (LMA) or 'high microbial abundance' (HMA) sponges. Many previous studies concentrated on the dense microbial communities in HMA sponges, whereas little is known about microorganisms in LMA sponges. Here, two LMA sponges from the Red Sea, two from the Caribbean and one from the South Pacific were investigated. With up to only five bacteri...

  6. Distribution and abundance of Pleuronectiformes larvae off Southeastern Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garbini, Camilla Nunes; Zani-Teixeira, Maria de Lourdes; Ohkawara, Márcio Hidekazu; Katsuragawa, Mario


    The objective of this study was the description of the composition, abundance and density in horizontal and vertical distribution of Pleuronectiformes larvae on the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf...

  7. Latitudinal patterns in the abundance of major marine bacterioplankton groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wietz, Matthias; Gram, Lone; Jørgensen, Bo


    ) and Gammaproteobacteria (polar stations) varied between major oceanic regions (biomes), as did absolute abundances of Roseobacter (peaking at temperate and polar stations). For almost all groups absolute abundances were positively correlated with nutrient concentrations in warmer oceans, and negatively with oxygen...... and higher latitudes. This was related to significantly different relative abundances of Bacteroidetes (peaking at higher latitudes), unclassified Bacteria and Vibrio (both peaking at lower latitudes) between warmer and colder oceans. Relative abundances of Alphaproteobacteria (peaking at subtropical...... oceans underlined the presence of biogeographical patterns among marine bacteria and the influence of environmental parameters on bacterial distribution....

  8. Modelling tick abundance using machine learning techniques and satellite imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Lene Jung; Korslund, L.; Kjelland, V.

    satellite images to run Boosted Regression Tree machine learning algorithms to predict overall distribution (presence/absence of ticks) and relative tick abundance of nymphs and larvae in southern Scandinavia. For nymphs, the predicted abundance had a positive correlation with observed abundance...... the predicted distribution of larvae was mostly even throughout Denmark, it was primarily around the coastlines in Norway and Sweden. Abundance was fairly low overall except in some fragmented patches corresponding to forested habitats in the region. Machine learning techniques allow us to predict for larger...... the collected ticks for pathogens and using the same machine learning techniques to develop prevalence maps of the ScandTick region....

  9. Nuclear fuel element (United States)

    Zocher, Roy W.


    A nuclear fuel element and a method of manufacturing the element. The fuel element is comprised of a metal primary container and a fuel pellet which is located inside it and which is often fragmented. The primary container is subjected to elevated pressure and temperature to deform the container such that the container conforms to the fuel pellet, that is, such that the container is in substantial contact with the surface of the pellet. This conformance eliminates clearances which permit rubbing together of fuel pellet fragments and rubbing of fuel pellet fragments against the container, thus reducing the amount of dust inside the fuel container and the amount of dust which may escape in the event of container breach. Also, as a result of the inventive method, fuel pellet fragments tend to adhere to one another to form a coherent non-fragmented mass; this reduces the tendency of a fragment to pierce the container in the event of impact.

  10. Transposable elements in Drosophila (United States)

    McCullers, Tabitha J.; Steiniger, Mindy


    ABSTRACT Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements that can mobilize within host genomes. As TEs comprise more than 40% of the human genome and are linked to numerous diseases, understanding their mechanisms of mobilization and regulation is important. Drosophila melanogaster is an ideal model organism for the study of eukaryotic TEs as its genome contains a diverse array of active TEs. TEs universally impact host genome size via transposition and deletion events, but may also adopt unique functional roles in host organisms. There are 2 main classes of TEs: DNA transposons and retrotransposons. These classes are further divided into subgroups of TEs with unique structural and functional characteristics, demonstrating the significant variability among these elements. Despite this variability, D. melanogaster and other eukaryotic organisms utilize conserved mechanisms to regulate TEs. This review focuses on the transposition mechanisms and regulatory pathways of TEs, and their functional roles in D. melanogaster. PMID:28580197

  11. Advanced finite element technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wriggers, Peter


    The book presents an overview of the state of research of advanced finite element technologies. Besides the mathematical analysis, the finite element development and their engineering applications are shown to the reader. The authors give a survey of the methods and technologies concerning efficiency, robustness and performance aspects. The book covers the topics of mathematical foundations for variational approaches and the mathematical understanding of the analytical requirements of modern finite element methods. Special attention is paid to finite deformations, adaptive strategies, incompressible, isotropic or anisotropic material behavior and the mathematical and numerical treatment of the well-known locking phenomenon. Beyond that new results for the introduced approaches are presented especially for challenging nonlinear problems.

  12. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.


    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  13. Modelling chemical abundance distributions for dwarf galaxies in the Local Group: the impact of turbulent metal diffusion (United States)

    Escala, Ivanna; Wetzel, Andrew; Kirby, Evan N.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Ma, Xiangcheng; Wheeler, Coral; Kereš, Dušan; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot


    We investigate stellar metallicity distribution functions (MDFs), including Fe and α-element abundances, in dwarf galaxies from the Feedback in Realistic Environment (FIRE) project. We examine both isolated dwarf galaxies and those that are satellites of a Milky Way-mass galaxy. In particular, we study the effects of including a sub-grid turbulent model for the diffusion of metals in gas. Simulations that include diffusion have narrower MDFs and abundance ratio distributions, because diffusion drives individual gas and star particles towards the average metallicity. This effect provides significantly better agreement with observed abundance distributions in dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, including small intrinsic scatter in [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] of ≲0.1 dex. This small intrinsic scatter arises in our simulations because the interstellar medium in dwarf galaxies is well mixed at nearly all cosmic times, such that stars that form at a given time have similar abundances to ≲0.1 dex. Thus, most of the scatter in abundances at z = 0 arises from redshift evolution and not from instantaneous scatter in the ISM. We find similar MDF widths and intrinsic scatter for satellite and isolated dwarf galaxies, which suggests that environmental effects play a minor role compared with internal chemical evolution in our simulations. Overall, with the inclusion of metal diffusion, our simulations reproduce abundance distribution widths of observed low-mass galaxies, enabling detailed studies of chemical evolution in galaxy formation.

  14. Intelligent Elements for ISHM (United States)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando; Oostdyk, Rebecca


    There are a number of architecture models for implementing Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) capabilities. For example, approaches based on the OSA-CBM and OSA-EAI models, or specific architectures developed in response to local needs. NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has developed one such version of an extensible architecture in support of rocket engine testing that integrates a palette of functions in order to achieve an ISHM capability. Among the functional capabilities that are supported by the framework are: prognostic models, anomaly detection, a data base of supporting health information, root cause analysis, intelligent elements, and integrated awareness. This paper focuses on the role that intelligent elements can play in ISHM architectures. We define an intelligent element as a smart element with sufficient computing capacity to support anomaly detection or other algorithms in support of ISHM functions. A smart element has the capabilities of supporting networked implementations of IEEE 1451.x smart sensor and actuator protocols. The ISHM group at SSC has been actively developing intelligent elements in conjunction with several partners at other Centers, universities, and companies as part of our ISHM approach for better supporting rocket engine testing. We have developed several implementations. Among the key features for these intelligent sensors is support for IEEE 1451.1 and incorporation of a suite of algorithms for determination of sensor health. Regardless of the potential advantages that can be achieved using intelligent sensors, existing large-scale systems are still based on conventional sensors and data acquisition systems. In order to bring the benefits of intelligent sensors to these environments, we have also developed virtual implementations of intelligent sensors.

  15. Carbon Abundances In The Light Of 3D Model Stellar Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collet, Remo

    Classical spectroscopic analyses of late-type stars generally rely on the interpretation of observations with the use of stationary, one-dimensional (1D), hydrostatic model stellar atmospheres. In recent years, however, there has been significant development in the field of three-dimensional (3D...... parameters and compositions. I show that the differences with respect to classical analyses based on 1D models can be significant in very metal-poor stars and of the order of -0.5 to -1 dex in terms of logarithmic abundances of these important elements. I also examine the dependence of differential 3D-1D...

  16. Finite elements and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, O C


    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  17. Rocket propulsion elements

    CERN Document Server

    Sutton, George P


    The definitive text on rocket propulsion-now revised to reflect advancements in the field For sixty years, Sutton's Rocket Propulsion Elements has been regarded as the single most authoritative sourcebook on rocket propulsion technology. As with the previous edition, coauthored with Oscar Biblarz, the Eighth Edition of Rocket Propulsion Elements offers a thorough introduction to basic principles of rocket propulsion for guided missiles, space flight, or satellite flight. It describes the physical mechanisms and designs for various types of rockets' and provides an unders

  18. Finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server


    Finite element analysis is an engineering method for the numerical analysis of complex structures. This book provides a bird's eye view on this very broad matter through 27 original and innovative research studies exhibiting various investigation directions. Through its chapters the reader will have access to works related to Biomedical Engineering, Materials Engineering, Process Analysis and Civil Engineering. The text is addressed not only to researchers, but also to professional engineers, engineering lecturers and students seeking to gain a better understanding of where Finite Element Analysis stands today.

  19. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N


    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  20. Elements of social security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    (Alte Länder). This is the 9th and last edition of the publication,covering income levels and rules for social security and personal taxation for 1999. Basis for the projections to 1999 income levels is the 1998 data (in some cases 1999 data)for OECD's Taxing Wages as reported by national experts.......Elements of Social Security is a comparative study of important elements of the social security systems in Denmark (DK), Sweden (S), Finland (FIN), Austria (A), Germany (D), the Netherlands (NL), Great Britain (GB) and Canada (CAN). It should be emphasized that Germany is the former West Germany...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Brian D.; O’Shea, Brian W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA—Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Tumlinson, Jason, E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    This paper presents the first results from a model for chemical evolution that can be applied to N-body cosmological simulations and quantitatively compared to measured stellar abundances from large astronomical surveys. This model convolves the chemical yield sets from a range of stellar nucleosynthesis calculations (including asymptotic giant branch stars, Type Ia and II supernovae, and stellar wind models) with a user-specified stellar initial mass function (IMF) and metallicity to calculate the time-dependent chemical evolution model for a “simple stellar population” (SSP) of uniform metallicity and formation time. These SSP models are combined with a semianalytic model for galaxy formation and evolution that uses merger trees from N-body cosmological simulations to track several α- and iron-peak elements for the stellar and multiphase interstellar medium components of several thousand galaxies in the early (z ≥ 6) universe. The simulated galaxy population is then quantitatively compared to two complementary data sets of abundances in the Milky Way stellar halo and is capable of reproducing many of the observed abundance trends. The observed abundance ratio distributions are best reproduced with a Chabrier IMF, a chemically enriched star formation efficiency of 0.2, and a redshift of reionization of 7. Many abundances are qualitatively well matched by our model, but our model consistently overpredicts the carbon-enhanced fraction of stars at low metallicities, likely owing to incomplete coverage of Population III stellar yields and supernova models and the lack of dust as a component of our model.

  2. Climatic effects on mosquito abundance in Mediterranean wetlands. (United States)

    Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi


    The impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases is highly controversial. One of the principal points of debate is whether or not climate influences mosquito abundance, a key factor in disease transmission. To test this hypothesis, we analysed ten years of data (2003-2012) from biweekly surveys to assess inter-annual and seasonal relationships between the abundance of seven mosquito species known to be pathogen vectors (West Nile virus, Usutu virus, dirofilariasis and Plasmodium sp.) and several climatic variables in two wetlands in SW Spain. Within-season abundance patterns were related to climatic variables (i.e. temperature, rainfall, tide heights, relative humidity and photoperiod) that varied according to the mosquito species in question. Rainfall during winter months was positively related to Culex pipiens and Ochlerotatus detritus annual abundances. Annual maximum temperatures were non-linearly related to annual Cx. pipiens abundance, while annual mean temperatures were positively related to annual Ochlerotatus caspius abundance. Finally, we modelled shifts in mosquito abundances using the A2 and B2 temperature and rainfall climate change scenarios for the period 2011-2100. While Oc. caspius, an important anthropophilic species, may increase in abundance, no changes are expected for Cx. pipiens or the salt-marsh mosquito Oc. detritus. Our results highlight that the effects of climate are species-specific, place-specific and non-linear and that linear approaches will therefore overestimate the effect of climate change on mosquito abundances at high temperatures. Climate warming does not necessarily lead to an increase in mosquito abundance in natural Mediterranean wetlands and will affect, above all, species such as Oc. caspius whose numbers are not closely linked to rainfall and are influenced, rather, by local tidal patterns and temperatures. The final impact of changes in vector abundance on disease frequency will depend on the direct and indirect

  3. Photovoltaic radiation detector element (United States)

    Agouridis, D.C.


    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  4. Elements of Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 1. Elements of Chemistry. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier. Classics Volume 17 Issue 1 January 2012 pp 92-100. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations.

  5. Water, the intangible element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotting, R.J.


    Water is the key to life. No living creature can survive without water. Too much water or polluted water are serious threats to mankind. Managing this intangible element is complex, not only in wet deltaic regions but also in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Combined efforts of the


    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.


    A fuel element is described for fast reactors comprised of a core of uranium metal containing material and a jacket around the core, the jacket consisting of from 2.5 to 15 percent of titanium, from 1 to 5 percent of niobium, and from 80 to 96.5 percent of vanadium.

  7. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  8. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  9. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable...

  10. Inside finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Weiser, Martin


    All relevant implementation aspects of finite element methods are discussed in this book. The focus is on algorithms and data structures as well as on their concrete implementation. Theory is covered as far as it gives insight into the construction of algorithms. Throughout the exercises a complete FE-solver for scalar 2D problems will be implemented in Matlab/Octave.

  11. CEDS Addresses: Rubric Elements (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2015


    Common Education Data Standards (CEDS) Version 4 introduced a common data vocabulary for defining rubrics in a data system. The CEDS elements support digital representations of both holistic and analytic rubrics. This document shares examples of holistic and analytic project rubrics, available CEDS Connections, and a logical model showing the…

  12. Senescence responsive transcriptional element (United States)

    Campisi, Judith; Testori, Alessandro


    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  13. Beam transport elements

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Two of the beam transport elements for the slow ejection system. On the left, a quadrupole 1.2 m long with a 5 cm aperture, capable of producing a gradient of 5000 gauss. On the right, a 1 m bending magnet with a 4 cm gap; its field is 20 000 gauss.

  14. Variation in rank abundance replicate samples and impact of clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuteboom, J.H.; Struik, P.C.


    Calculating a single-sample rank abundance curve by using the negative-binomial distribution provides a way to investigate the variability within rank abundance replicate samples and yields a measure of the degree of heterogeneity of the sampled community. The calculation of the single-sample rank

  15. Spatio-temporal Variations of Abundance, Biomass, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatio-seasonal variations of Pseudodiaptomus hessei abundance, biomass and reproductive parameters were investigated in the Grand-Lahou lagoon at five stations during the dry and wet (or rainy) seasons from September 2005 to August 2006. In all sampling stations, abundance and biomass of P. hessei in the dry ...

  16. Effect of Spent Lubricating Oil on the Composition and Abundance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that altogether, 476 specimens were collected and sorted into four arthropod groups, namely Acarina, Collembola, Hymenoptera and Myriapoda in successive order of abundance at both sites studied. Soil arthropod taxa and abundance were significantly lower (u(2) = 51, P<0.05) at the impacted sites ...

  17. Abundances and Habitat Sensitivities of Some River Fishes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abundances were largest for Channa gachua, Dermogenys pusillus and Mastacembelus armatus but for none of the 18 species were they large relative to the total numbers of fish captured. The importance of habitat characteristics to abundance was examined by multiple regression analysis for those species captured at ...

  18. Forager abundance and dietary relationships in a Namib Desert ant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forager abundance and dietary relationships in a Namib Desert ant community. A.C. Marsh. Abstract. Thirteen ant species coexist on a barren gravel plain habitat in the central Namib Desert. Numerical density of foragers of all species fluctuated considerably over a 17-month period. Peaks in abundance correlated to ...

  19. Influence of summer biogeography on wood warbler stopover abundance (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Rob Smith; Deborah M. Finch; Frank R. Moore; Wang Yong


    We evaluated the effect of summer biogeography of migrant wood warblers (Parulidae) on their stopover abundance. To characterize abundance patterns, we used mist-net capture data from spring and fall migration in the Middle Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico, spring migration on the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, and fall migration on the Gulf Coast of Alabama. To describe the...

  20. The distribution and abundance of baboons ( Papio anubis ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Base line information on animal population distribution and abundance is crucial to planning and implementation of effective management strategies for the conservation of species. There is paucity of information on the distribution and abundance of papio anubis in Sambisa game reserve. Therefore, this study was carried ...

  1. Species Diversity and Relative Abundance of Fisheries Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative abundance of key organisms in the beach seine landings include Chloroscombrus chrysurus (26.0%) in 2007, Brachydeuterus auritus (22.8%) in 2008, Ilisha africana (14.7%) in 2008, Sardinella aurita (13.1%) in 2009 and Selene dorsalis (11.2%) in 2007. The organisms that were in low relative abundance ...

  2. Abundance of birds in six selected habitats | Ogunsusi | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected were subjected to t-test of independent variables with LSD in ANOVA for birds' use of habitats and linear regression for the dependence of birds' abundance on habitats' variables.88 bird species belonging to 31 families were associated with the study area. The abundance of birds was significantly affected ...

  3. Community structure and abundance of avian and non-avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, bird abundance between sites and between months differed significantly (p<0.05). An abundance of testudines was noted during the wet period of the study. Eight species of mammals were recorded during the survey. Other vertebrate taxa encountered included, reptiles (9 species) and amphibians (5 species).

  4. Fire and faunal abundance and diversity in the Natal Drakensberg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Natal Drakensberg the abundance and diversity of francolins, small mammals and antelope were related to time elapsed since the last fire. Greatest abundance and diversity occurred up to 3 years after fire, and on areas rarely or never burnt. Under an intermediate frequency of fire, the numbers of both species and ...

  5. Relative Abundance of Adult Mosquitoes in University of Abuja Main ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mosquito species abundance revealed that Anopheles species was higher in terms of abundance which are very important vectors of malaria in Nigeria. These results indicated that vectors of mosquito-borne diseases are breeding in the study area, most of which are encouraged by human activities. Keywords: Relative ...

  6. Distribution, abundance and ecology of the sponge Spheciospongia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution, abundance and physico-chemical parameters affecting the sponge Spheciospongia vagabunda were studied in a shallow lagoon (Albion) of Mauritius. Visual censuses were conducted along the 2 Km lagoon and GPS coordinates around sponge assemblages (patches) were noted. Sponge abundance ...

  7. Species Composition, Relative Abundance and Distribution of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no significant difference between seasons and habitats in the abundance of birds in these habitats. However, wet season had an effect on the avian abundance in eucalyptus plantation (t=2.952, P <0.05). Eucalyptus plantation, soil erosion, deforestation, habitat fragmentation, settlement and land degradation ...

  8. A protocol for sampling vascular epiphyte richness and abundance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.H.D.; Gradstein, S.R.; Nadkarni, N.M.


    The sampling of epiphytes is fraught with methodological difficulties. We present a protocol to sample and analyse vascular epiphyte richness and abundance in forests of different structure (SVERA). Epiphyte abundance is estimated as biomass by recording the number of plant components in a range of

  9. Spatial and temporal patterns of phytoplankton abundance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytoplankton abundance and composition in relation to physico-chemical parameters were investigated from September 2005 to October 2007 at 51 stations of various depths in the nearshore, intermediate and deep offshore waters of Lake Victoria. Shallow nearshore waters had the highest abundance of phytoplankton ...

  10. Spatial patterns of zooplankton distribution and abundance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial patterns and abundance of zooplankton in aquatic habitats are important determinants for production of fish species, invertebrates and availability of phytoplankton. Weekly monitoring for zooplankton abundance was conducted in Shirati Bay, Lake Victoria, to explore their spatial patterns in relation to phytoplankton, ...

  11. Abundance, length-weight relationship and condition factors of fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most abundant fish species recorded in Ogbomoso reservoir are O. niloticus, C. nigrodigitatus, S. galilaeus, S. mystus with percentage abundance of 24.8%, 23.9%, 18.2% and 13.3% respectively. The values of b in C. nigrodigitatus, C. gariepinus, P. obscura and O. niloticus showed a positive allometric growth pattern.

  12. Species diversity and abundance of Oligochaeta fauna in a tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species diversity and abundance of Oligochaeta fauna in a tropical rain forest lake in South-Southern, Nigeria. ... The impact of seasonal variations, human activities and environmental factors influencing the distribution and abundance of Oligochaeta are observed. There is a need for freshwater biologists to investigate the ...

  13. Symbiont abundance can affect host plant population dynamics. (United States)

    Rock-Blake, Rachel; McCormick, Melissa K; Brooks, Hope E A; Jones, Cynthia S; Whigham, Dennis F


    Symbioses are almost universal, but little is known about how symbiont abundance can affect host performance. Many orchids undergo vegetative dormancy and frequent and protracted dormancy have been associated with population declines. If mycorrhizal fungi affect host plant performance, those effects are likely to alter patterns of vegetative dormancy. The goal of this study was to determine whether the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi is related to the likelihood of entering dormancy and whether fungal abundance varied with dormancy duration in the federally listed threatened orchid Isotria medeoloides. We studied three populations of the threatened North American terrestrial orchid Isotria medeoloides using long-term emergence data and evaluated the relationship between the abundance of associated mycorrhizal fungi (Russulaceae) and orchid dormancy and emergence. Mycorrhizal fungi in soil adjacent to orchids were quantified in two ways. First, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi on adjacent root tips were identified using DNA sequencing to determine their phylogenetic relationship to fungi that are known to form mycorrhizae with I. medeoloides. Second, we extracted DNA from soil samples and used quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the abundance of Russulaceae hyphae adjacent to each orchid. We found that the abundance of Russulaceae, both in the soil and on nearby ECM root tips, was significantly related to orchid prior emergence. Both abundance and prior emergence history were predictive of future emergence. These results suggest that the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi can influence orchid population dynamics and is an essential component of orchid conservation. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Mechanisms driving postfire abundance of a generalist mammal (United States)

    R. Zwolak; D. E. Pearson; Y. K. Ortega; E. E. Crone


    Changes in vertebrate abundance following disturbance are commonly attributed to shifts in food resources or predation pressure, but underlying mechanisms have rarely been tested. We examined four hypotheses for the commonly reported increase in abundance of deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner, 1845)) following forest fires: source-sink dynamics, decreased...

  15. Suzaku Results of SN 1006: Chemical Abundances of the ``youngest'' Galactic Type Ia Supernova Remnant (United States)

    Koyama, Katsuji


    SN 1006 is one of the supernova remnants (SNR) recorded in the Japanese diary ``Meigetsuki''. From the historical records including Meigetsuki, we conclude that SN 1006 was the brightest type Ia supernova remnant. We report on the observations of SN 1006 with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometers (XIS) on board the 5-th Japanese X-ray satellite Suzaku. We found that the ionization age of SN 1006 is the youngest among any Galactic SNRs, hence is the best SNR to study early phase of type Ia. In the X-ray spectrum, we found the K-shell emission lines from heavy elements, in particular that from iron, for the first time. The X-ray emitting plasma is highly overabundant in heavy elements, hence are likely due to ejecta. The abundance pattern agrees well to the theoretical prediction of type Ia supernova.

  16. Epidemiology and trace elements. (United States)

    Elwood, P C


    Basically, epidemiology is the making of measurements of known reproducibility, in a bias-free manner, on representative samples of subjects drawn from defined communities. Epidemiology has become a relatively precise science and its value in medicine is widely appreciated. So too are its limitations: the difficulties in achieving a high response rate, in identifying and controlling confounding factors in the examination of an association, and the ultimate difficulties in distinguishing causation from association. While the value of community-based studies seems to be recognized by those interested in man and his environment, the need for the strict application of epidemiological procedures, and the limitations imposed on conclusions drawn from studies in which these procedures have been compromised, does not seem to be adequately understood. There are certain known links between trace elements in the environment and disease: for example the level of iodine in soil and water and the prevalence of goitre; the level of fluoride in water and the prevalence of dental caries. The investigation of other possible associations is difficult for a number of reasons, including interrelationships between trace elements, confounding of trace element levels (and disease) with social and dietary factors, and the probability that relationships are generally weak. Two conditions in which associations are likely are cardiovascular disease and cancer. Despite research along a number of lines, the relevance of trace elements to cardiovascular disease is not clear, and certainly the apparent association with hardness of domestic water supply seems unlikely to be causal. The same general conclusion seems reasonable for cancer, and although there are a very few well established associations which are likely to be causal, such as exposure to arsenic and skin cancer, the role of trace elements is obscure, and likely to be very small.

  17. Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishihama, Y.; Schmidt, T.; Rappsilber, J.


    proteins. Proteins involved in energy metabolism as well as those with binding function were also found in high copy number while proteins annotated with the terms metabolism, transcription, transport, and cellular organization were rare. The barrel-sandwich fold was found to be the structural fold......Background: Knowledge about the abundance of molecular components is an important prerequisite for building quantitative predictive models of cellular behavior. Proteins are central components of these models, since they carry out most of the fundamental processes in the cell. Thus far, protein...... protein and mRNA abundance in E. coli cells. Conclusion: Abundance measurements for more than 1000 E. coli proteins presented in this work represent the most complete study of protein abundance in a bacterial cell so far. We show significant associations between the abundance of a protein and its...

  18. Detailed chemical abundance analysis of the thick disk star cluster Gaia 1 (United States)

    Koch, Andreas; Hansen, Terese T.; Kunder, Andrea


    Star clusters, particularly those objects in the disk-bulge-halo interface are as yet poorly charted, despite the fact that they carry important information about the formation and the structure of the Milky Way. Here, we present a detailed chemical abundance study of the recently discovered object Gaia 1. Photometry has previously suggested it as an intermediate-age, moderately metal-rich system, although the exact values for its age and metallicity remained ambiguous in the literature. We measured detailed chemical abundances of 14 elements in four red giant members, from high-resolution (R = 25 000) spectra that firmly establish Gaia 1 as an object associated with the thick disk. The resulting mean Fe abundance is -0.62 ± 0.03(stat.)± 0.10(sys.) dex, which is more metal-poor than indicated by previous spectroscopy from the literature, but it is fully in line with values from isochrone fitting. We find that Gaia 1 is moderately enhanced in the α-elements, which allowed us to consolidate its membership with the thick disk via chemical tagging. The cluster's Fe-peak and neutron-capture elements are similar to those found across the metal-rich disks, where the latter indicate some level of s-process activity. No significant spread in iron nor in other heavy elements was detected, whereas we find evidence of light-element variations in Na, Mg, and Al. Nonetheless, the traditional Na-O and Mg-Al (anti-)correlations, typically seen in old globular clusters, are not seen in our data. This confirms that Gaia 1 is rather a massive and luminous open cluster than a low-mass globular cluster. Finally, orbital computations of the target stars bolster our chemical findings of Gaia 1's present-day membership with the thick disk, even though it remains unclear which mechanisms put it in that place. This paper includes data gathered with the 2.5 meter du Pont Telescope located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.Full Table 2 is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  19. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations (United States)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott


    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  20. Star formation and the interstellar medium in low surface brightness galaxies - I. Oxygen abundances and abundance gradients in low surface brightness disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blok, WJG; van der Hulst, JM

    We present measurements of the oxygen abundances in 64 HII regions in 12 LSB galaxies. We find that oxygen abundances are low. No regions with solar abundance have been found, and most have oxygen abundances similar to 0.5 to 0.1 solar. The oxygen abundance appears to be constant as a function of

  1. Trace elements record complex histories in diogenites (United States)

    Balta, J. B.; Beck, A. W.; McSween, H. Y.


    element compositions imply. Many trace element analyses are performed using either bulk rock techniques or spot analyses, and these maps suggest those types of analyses likely sample variable trace element abundances even within otherwise homogeneous grains, rendering their results difficult to interpret. Consequently, the correlation discussed previously between trace elements and short lived isotopes has likely been impacted by post-magmatic alteration and cannot solely be used to argue that HED's cannot be derived from Vesta. Furthermore, these maps strengthen the HED-Vesta link by suggesting that the diogenites underwent an extended history of cooling, reheating, partial melting, impact fragmentation, fluid/melt migration, and finally re-annealing. These complicated steps are particularly noteworthy as the pyroxene cumulate layer on the asteroid Vesta should lie beneath the eucritic crust, implying that early impacts were able to penetrate that crust and affect the diogenite layers early in Vesta's history, most likely while the asteroid was still hot enough to allow for annealing and regrowth of fractured grains. [1] Schiller et al. (2011) [2] Milman-Barris et al. (2008)

  2. Male Germline Control of Transposable Elements1 (United States)

    Bao, Jianqiang; Yan, Wei


    ABSTRACT Repetitive sequences, especially transposon-derived interspersed repetitive elements, account for a large fraction of the genome in most eukaryotes. Despite the repetitive nature, these transposable elements display quantitative and qualitative differences even among species of the same lineage. Although transposable elements contribute greatly as a driving force to the biological diversity during evolution, they can induce embryonic lethality and genetic disorders as a result of insertional mutagenesis and genomic rearrangement. Temporary relaxation of the epigenetic control of retrotransposons during early germline development opens a risky window that can allow retrotransposons to escape from host constraints and to propagate abundantly in the host genome. Because germline mutations caused by retrotransposon activation are heritable and thus can be deleterious to the offspring, an adaptive strategy has evolved in host cells, especially in the germline. In this review, we will attempt to summarize general defense mechanisms deployed by the eukaryotic genome, with an emphasis on pathways utilized by the male germline to confer retrotransposon silencing. PMID:22357546

  3. Novel transposable elements from Anopheles gambiae (United States)


    Background Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences, present in the genome of most eukaryotic organisms that hold the key characteristic of being able to mobilize and increase their copy number within chromosomes. These elements are important for eukaryotic genome structure and evolution and lately have been considered as potential drivers for introducing transgenes into pathogen-transmitting insects as a means to control vector-borne diseases. The aim of this work was to catalog the diversity and abundance of TEs within the Anopheles gambiae genome using the PILER tool and to consolidate a database in the form of a hyperlinked spreadsheet containing detailed and readily available information about the TEs present in the genome of An. gambiae. Results Here we present the spreadsheet named AnoTExcel that constitutes a database with detailed information on most of the repetitive elements present in the genome of the mosquito. Despite previous work on this topic, our approach permitted the identification and characterization both of previously described and novel TEs that are further described in detailed. Conclusions Identification and characterization of TEs in a given genome is important as a way to understand the diversity and evolution of the whole set of TEs present in a given species. This work contributes to a better understanding of the landscape of TEs present in the mosquito genome. It also presents a novel platform for the identification, analysis, and characterization of TEs on sequenced genomes. PMID:21605407

  4. Molecular genetics and epigenetics of CACTA elements

    KAUST Repository

    Fedoroff, Nina V.


    The CACTA transposons, so named for a highly conserved motif at element ends, comprise one of the most abundant superfamilies of Class 2 (cut-and-paste) plant transposons. CACTA transposons characteristically include subterminal sequences of several hundred nucleotides containing closely spaced direct and inverted repeats of a short, conserved sequence of 14-15 bp. The Supressor-mutator (Spm) transposon, identified and subjected to detailed genetic analysis by Barbara McClintock, remains the paradigmatic element of the CACTA family. The Spm transposon encodes two proteins required for transposition, the transposase (TnpD) and a regulatory protein (TnpA) that binds to the subterminal repeats. Spm expression is subject to both genetic and epigenetic regulation. The Spm-encoded TnpA serves as an activator of the epigenetically inactivated, methylated Spm, stimulating both transient and heritable activation of the transposon. TnpA also serves as a negative regulator of the demethylated active element promoter and is required, in addition to the TnpD, for transposition. © Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013.

  5. The α-element knee of the Sagittarius stream (United States)

    de Boer, T. J. L.; Belokurov, V.; Beers, T. C.; Lee, Y. S.


    We employ abundances from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) to study the α-element distribution of the stellar members of the Sagittarius stream. To test the reliability of SDSS/SEGUE abundances for the study of Sagittarius, we select high-likelihood samples tracing the different components of the Milky Way, and recover known literature α-element distributions. Using selection criteria based on the spatial position, radial velocity, distance and colours of individual stars, we obtain a robust sample of Sagittarius-stream stars. The α-element distribution of the Sagittarius stream forms a narrow sequence at intermediate metallicities with a clear turn-down, consistent with the presence of an α-element `knee'. This is the first time that the α-element knee of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy has been detected. Fitting a toy model to our data, we determine that the α-knee in Sagittarius takes place at [Fe/H]=-1.27±0.05, only slightly less metal-poor than the knee in the Milky Way. This indicates that a small number of Sagittarius-like galaxies could have contributed significantly to the build-up of the Milky Way's stellar halo system at ancient times.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew D. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Meszaros, Szabolcs; Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto d' Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Garcia Perez, Ana; Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5UX (United Kingdom); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)


    High-resolution H-band spectra of five bright field K, M, and MS giants, obtained from the archives of the Kitt Peak National Observatory Fourier transform spectrometer, are analyzed to determine chemical abundances of 16 elements. The abundances were derived via spectrum synthesis using the detailed linelist prepared for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey to derive detailed chemical abundance distributions and precise radial velocities for 100,000 red giants sampling all Galactic stellar populations. The red giant sample studied here was chosen to probe which chemical elements can be derived reliably from the H-band APOGEE spectral region. These red giants consist of two K-giants ({alpha} Boo and {mu} Leo), two M-giants ({beta} And and {delta} Oph), and one thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) star of spectral type MS (HD 199799). Measured chemical abundances include the cosmochemically important isotopes {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N, and {sup 16}O, along with Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. The K and M giants exhibit the abundance signature of the first dredge-up of CN-cycle material, while the TP-AGB star shows clear evidence of the addition of {sup 12}C synthesized during {sup 4}He-burning thermal pulses and subsequent third dredge-up. A comparison of the abundances derived here with published values for these stars reveals consistent results to {approx}0.1 dex. The APOGEE spectral region and linelist is thus well suited for probing both Galactic chemical evolution, as well as internal nucleosynthesis and mixing in populations of red giants via high-resolution spectroscopy.

  7. Elements of quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Meystre, Pierre


    Elements of Quantum Optics gives a self-contained and broad coverage of the basic elements necessary to understand and carry out research in laser physics and quantum optics, including a review of basic quantum mechanics and pedagogical introductions to system-reservoir interactions and to second quantization. The text reveals the close connection between many seemingly unrelated topics, such as probe absorption, four-wave mixing, optical instabilities, resonance fluorescence and squeezing. It also comprises discussions of cavity quantum electrodynamics and atom optics. The 4th edition includes a new chapter on quantum entanglement and quantum information, as well as added discussions of the quantum beam splitter, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light, and the input-output formalism needed to understand many problems in quantum optics. It also provides an expanded treatment of the minimum-coupling Hamiltonian and a simple derivation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, an important gateway to rese...

  8. Archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haina; Peng, Nan; Shah, Shiraz Ali


    SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes, such as spind......SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes...... on archaeal ECEs has just started to unravel the molecular biology of these genetic entities and their interactions with archaeal hosts, it is expected to accelerate in the next decade....

  9. Abundance and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in livestock farms: a comprehensive investigation in eastern China. (United States)

    Cheng, Weixiao; Chen, Hong; Su, Chao; Yan, Shuhai


    Increases of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment may pose a threat to public health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the abundance and diversity of tetracycline (tet) and sulfonamide (sul) resistance genes in eight livestock farms in Hangzhou, eastern China. Ten tet genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG, tetL, tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetW, and tetX), two sul genes (sulI and sulII), and one genetic element associated with mobile antibiotic resistance genes [class 1 integron (intI1)] were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. No significant difference was found in the abundance of the tet and sul genes in various scales of pig, chicken, and duck farms (P>0.05). The average abundance of ribosomal protection protein genes (tetQ, tetM, tetW, and tetO) in the manure and wastewater samples was higher than most of the efflux pump genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetL) and enzymatic modification gene (tetX) (Pantibiotic resistance emanating from agricultural activities. © 2013.

  10. Widespread, abundant, and diverse TE-associated siRNAs in developing wheat grain. (United States)

    Sun, Fenglong; Guo, Weiwei; Du, Jinkun; Ni, Zhongfu; Sun, Qixin; Yao, Yingyin


    Small RNAs related to RNA interference are key molecules in many developmental processes, in which they can both regulate developmental gene expression and maintain the integrity of the genome and epigenome. In plants, short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of 24 nt in length are an abundant type of small RNA associated with transposable elements (TEs), other repetitive sequences, and viral defense. One means by which TE-associated siRNAs affect genome integrity is by altering chromatin structure through a process called RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In this paper, we describe a comparative survey of siRNAs from wheat seedling leaves, seedling roots, young spikelets, and grains at 8 and 15 days after pollination (DAP). We find that the general patterns of siRNA distributions are similar across different TEs and within TEs of the same family regardless of tissue, but the relative abundance of 24-nt siRNAs is highest in developing grains. We also find that TEs that are transcriptionally active in endosperm are associated with the highest siRNA abundance not only in grains, but also in other tissues as well. These results suggest that RdDM is an important feature of developing wheat grain and are consistent with the hypothesis that TE expression in endosperm results in increased TE siRNAs, and that RdDM is a conserved feature of plant seed development. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mixed poloidal-toroidal magnetic configuration and surface abundance distributions of the Bp star 36 Lyn★ (United States)

    Oksala, M. E.; Silvester, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Neiner, C.; Wade, G. A.; the MiMeS Collaboration


    Previous studies of the chemically peculiar Bp star 36 Lyn revealed a moderately strong magnetic field, circumstellar material and inhomogeneous surface abundance distributions of certain elements. We present in this paper an analysis of 33 high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution Stokes IV observations of 36 Lyn obtained with the Narval spectropolarimeter at the Bernard Lyot Telescope at Pic du Midi Observatory. From these data, we compute new measurements of the mean longitudinal magnetic field, Bℓ, using the multiline least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique. A rotationally phased Bℓ curve reveals a strong magnetic field, with indications for deviation from a pure dipole field. We derive magnetic maps and chemical abundance distributions from the LSD profiles, produced using the Zeeman-Doppler imaging code INVERSLSD. Using a spherical harmonic expansion to characterize the magnetic field, we find that the harmonic energy is concentrated predominantly in the dipole mode (ℓ = 1), with significant contribution from both the poloidal and toroidal components. This toroidal field component is predicted theoretically, but not typically observed for Ap/Bp stars. Chemical abundance maps reveal a helium enhancement in a distinct region where the radial magnetic field is strong. Silicon enhancements are located in two regions, also where the radial field is stronger. Titanium and iron enhancements are slightly offset from the helium enhancements, and are located in areas where the radial field is weak, close to the magnetic equator.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousis, Olivier [Universite de Franche-Comte, Institut UTINAM, CNRS/INSU, UMR 6213, Observatoire des Sciences de l' Univers de Besancon (France); Lunine, Jonathan I. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Johnson, Torrence V., E-mail: [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)


    Motivated by recent spectroscopic observations suggesting that atmospheres of some extrasolar giant planets are carbon-rich, i.e., carbon/oxygen ratio (C/O) {>=} 1, we find that the whole set of compositional data for Jupiter is consistent with the hypothesis that it should be a carbon-rich giant planet. We show that the formation of Jupiter in the cold outer part of an oxygen-depleted disk (C/O {approx} 1) reproduces the measured Jovian elemental abundances at least as well as the hitherto canonical model of Jupiter formed in a disk of solar composition (C/O 0.54). The resulting O abundance in Jupiter's envelope is then moderately enriched by a factor of {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign solar (instead of {approx}7 Multiplication-Sign solar) and is found to be consistent with values predicted by thermochemical models of the atmosphere. That Jupiter formed in a disk with C/O {approx} 1 implies that water ice was heterogeneously distributed over several AU beyond the snow line in the primordial nebula and that the fraction of water contained in icy planetesimals was a strong function of their formation location and time. The Jovian oxygen abundance to be measured by NASA's Juno mission en route to Jupiter will provide a direct and strict test of our predictions.

  13. Quantum theory elements

    CERN Document Server


    Quantum Theory: A Treatise in Three Volumes, I: Elements focuses on the principles, methodologies, and approaches involved in quantum theory, including quantum mechanics, linear combinations, collisions, and transitions. The selection first elaborates on the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, exactly soluble bound state problems, and continuum. Discussions focus on delta function normalization, spherically symmetric potentials, rectangular potential wells, harmonic oscillators, spherically symmetrical potentials, Coulomb potential, axiomatic basis, consequences of first three postula

  14. Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Abbas


    Full Text Available Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006–2011 from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in “Desirable” variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids.

  15. Dam removal increases American eel abundance in distant headwater streams (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Eyler, Sheila; Wofford, John E.B.


    American eel Anguilla rostrata abundances have undergone significant declines over the last 50 years, and migration barriers have been recognized as a contributing cause. We evaluated eel abundances in headwater streams of Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, to compare sites before and after the removal of a large downstream dam in 2004 (Embrey Dam, Rappahannock River). Eel abundances in headwater streams increased significantly after the removal of Embrey Dam. Observed eel abundances after dam removal exceeded predictions derived from autoregressive models parameterized with data prior to dam removal. Mann–Kendall analyses also revealed consistent increases in eel abundances from 2004 to 2010 but inconsistent temporal trends before dam removal. Increasing eel numbers could not be attributed to changes in local physical habitat (i.e., mean stream depth or substrate size) or regional population dynamics (i.e., abundances in Maryland streams or Virginia estuaries). Dam removal was associated with decreasing minimum eel lengths in headwater streams, suggesting that the dam previously impeded migration of many small-bodied individuals (<300 mm TL). We hypothesize that restoring connectivity to headwater streams could increase eel population growth rates by increasing female eel numbers and fecundity. This study demonstrated that dams may influence eel abundances in headwater streams up to 150 river kilometers distant, and that dam removal may provide benefits for eel management and conservation at the landscape scale.

  16. Positive interspecific relationship between temporal occurrence and abundance in insects. (United States)

    Scrosati, Ricardo A; Patten, Ruth D; Lauff, Randolph F


    One of the most studied macroecological patterns is the interspecific abundance-occupancy relationship, which relates species distribution and abundance across space. Interspecific relationships between temporal distribution and abundance, however, remain largely unexplored. Using data for a natural assemblage of tabanid flies measured daily during spring and summer in Nova Scotia, we found that temporal occurrence (proportion of sampling dates in which a species occurred in an experimental trap) was positively related to temporal mean abundance (number of individuals collected for a species during the study period divided by the total number of sampling dates). Moreover, two models that often describe spatial abundance-occupancy relationships well, the He-Gaston and negative binomial models, explained a high amount of the variation in our temporal data. As for the spatial abundance-occupancy relationship, the (temporal) aggregation parameter, k, emerged as an important component of the hereby named interspecific temporal abundance-occurrence relationship. This may be another case in which a macroecological pattern shows similarities across space and time, and it deserves further research because it may improve our ability to forecast colonization dynamics and biological impacts.

  17. Geographical range and local abundance of tree species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao Ren

    Full Text Available Most studies on the geographical distribution of species have utilized a few well-known taxa in Europe and North America, with little research in China and its wide range of climate and forest types. We assembled large datasets to quantify the geographic ranges of tree species in China and to test several biogeographic hypotheses: 1 whether locally abundant species tend to be geographically widespread; 2 whether species are more abundant towards their range-centers; and 3 how abundances are correlated between sites. Local abundances of 651 species were derived from four tree plots of 20-25 ha where all individuals ≥1 cm in stem diameter were mapped and identified taxonomically. Range sizes of these species across China were then estimated from over 460,000 geo-referenced records; a Bayesian approach was used, allowing careful measures of error of each range estimate. The log-transformed range sizes had a bell-shaped distribution with a median of 703,000 km(2, and >90% of 651 species had ranges >10(5 km(2. There was no relationship between local abundance and range size, and no evidence for species being more abundant towards their range-centers. Finally, species' abundances were positively correlated between sites. The widespread nature of most tree species in China suggests few are vulnerable to global extinction, and there is no indication of the double-peril that would result if rare species also had narrow ranges.

  18. Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan (United States)

    Dutcher, James D.; Karar, Haider; Abbas, Ghulam


    Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006–2011) from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in “Desirable” variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids. PMID:26466738

  19. Determinants of protein abundance and translation efficiency in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamir Tuller


    Full Text Available The translation efficiency of most Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes remains fairly constant across poor and rich growth media. This observation has led us to revisit the available data and to examine the potential utility of a protein abundance predictor in reinterpreting existing mRNA expression data. Our predictor is based on large-scale data of mRNA levels, the tRNA adaptation index, and the evolutionary rate. It attains a correlation of 0.76 with experimentally determined protein abundance levels on unseen data and successfully cross-predicts protein abundance levels in another yeast species (Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The predicted abundance levels of proteins in known S. cerevisiae complexes, and of interacting proteins, are significantly more coherent than their corresponding mRNA expression levels. Analysis of gene expression measurement experiments using the predicted protein abundance levels yields new insights that are not readily discernable when clustering the corresponding mRNA expression levels. Comparing protein abundance levels across poor and rich media, we find a general trend for homeostatic regulation where transcription and translation change in a reciprocal manner. This phenomenon is more prominent near origins of replications. Our analysis shows that in parallel to the adaptation occurring at the tRNA level via the codon bias, proteins do undergo a complementary adaptation at the amino acid level to further increase their abundance.

  20. Chemical Elements Bingo (United States)

    Tejeda, Silvia; Palacios, Joaquin


    An important part of the high school chemistry program is the topic of periodic classification and periodicity. We have observed that one of the obstacles for the study of the matter is the new vocabulary necessary to initiate this work. Our students have to understand that the periodic classification is an orderly way of presenting the elements and its properties, they compare the table with other classification systems that they already know, nevertheless for the average student it is difficult to deduce or predict properties with periodic classification. As an example of this concept, we can point out the electronic configuration, atomic radii, oxidation state, and valence number. In order to facilitate the learning-teaching process of this topic in high school level, we stimulate the class to play with the periodic table, to get familiar with the general concepts of periodicity. We started our work dealing with the most common elements in each group. Chemical Elements Bingo (CEB) is a game we designed to teach periodic classification.

  1. Commentary on the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun III. Insight into Solar Lithium Abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.


    Full Text Available The apparent depletion of lithium represents one of the grea test challenges to modern gaseous solar models. As a result, lithium has been hypothes ized to undergo nuclear burning deep within the Sun. Conversely, extremely low lith ium abundances can be easily accounted for within the liquid metallic hydrogen mo del, as lithium has been hypothesized to greatly stabilize the formation of metalli c hydrogen (E. Zurek et al. A little bit of lithium does a lot for hydrogen. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA , 2009, v. 106, no. 42, 17640–17643. Hence, the abundances of lithium on th e solar surface can be explained, not by requiring the nuclear burning of this elem ent, but rather, by suggesting that the Sun is retaining lithium within the solar body in ord er to help stabilize its liquid metallic hydrogen lattice. Unlike lithium, many of t he other elements synthesized within the Sun should experience powerful lattice exclusio nary forces as they are driven out of the intercalate regions between the layered liquid me tallic hydrogen hexagonal planes (Robitaille J.C. and Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metalli c Hydrogen III. Intercalation and Lattice Exclusion Versus Gravitational Settling and Th eir Consequences Relative to Internal Structure, Surface Activity, and Solar Winds in the Sun. Progr. Phys ., 2013, v. 2, in press. As for lithium, its stabilizing role within t he solar interior helps to account for the lack of this element on the surface of the Sun.

  2. Highly efficient luminescent solar concentrators based on earth-abundant indirect-bandgap silicon quantum dots (United States)

    Meinardi, Francesco; Ehrenberg, Samantha; Dhamo, Lorena; Carulli, Francesco; Mauri, Michele; Bruni, Francesco; Simonutti, Roberto; Kortshagen, Uwe; Brovelli, Sergio


    Building-integrated photovoltaics is gaining consensus as a renewable energy technology for producing electricity at the point of use. Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) could extend architectural integration to the urban environment by realizing electrode-less photovoltaic windows. Crucial for large-area LSCs is the suppression of reabsorption losses, which requires emitters with negligible overlap between their absorption and emission spectra. Here, we demonstrate the use of indirect-bandgap semiconductor nanostructures such as highly emissive silicon quantum dots. Silicon is non-toxic, low-cost and ultra-earth-abundant, which avoids the limitations to the industrial scaling of quantum dots composed of low-abundance elements. Suppressed reabsorption and scattering losses lead to nearly ideal LSCs with an optical efficiency of η = 2.85%, matching state-of-the-art semi-transparent LSCs. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that optimized silicon quantum dot LSCs have a clear path to η > 5% for 1 m2 devices. We are finally able to realize flexible LSCs with performances comparable to those of flat concentrators, which opens the way to a new design freedom for building-integrated photovoltaics elements.

  3. Constraints on Galactic Cosmic-Ray Origins from Elemental and Isotopic Composition Measurements (United States)

    Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; deNolfo, G. A.; Israel, M. H.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A,; Stone, E. C.; vonRosevinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.


    The most recent measurements by the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite of ultra-heavy cosmic ray isotopic and elemental abundances will be presented. A range of isotope and element ratios, most importantly Ne-22/Ne-20, Fe-58/Fe-56, and Ga-31/Ge -32 show that the composition is consistent with source material that is a mix of approx 80% ISM (with Solar System abundances) and 20% outflow/ejecta from massive stars. In addition, our data show that the ordering of refractory and volatile elements with atomic mass is greatly improved when compared to an approx 80%/20% mix rather than pure ISM, that the refractory and volatile elements have similar slopes, and that refractory elements are preferentially accelerated by a factor of approx 4. We conclude that these data are consistent with an OB association origin of GCRs.

  4. Genomic analysis of P elements in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Bergman, Casey M; Han, Shunhua; Nelson, Michael G; Bondarenko, Vladyslav; Kozeretska, Iryna


    The Drosophila melanogaster P transposable element provides one of the best cases of horizontal transfer of a mobile DNA sequence in eukaryotes. Invasion of natural populations by the P element has led to a syndrome of phenotypes known as P-M hybrid dysgenesis that emerges when strains differing in their P element composition mate and produce offspring. Despite extensive research on many aspects of P element biology, many questions remain about the genomic basis of variation in P-M dysgenesis phenotypes across populations. Here we compare estimates of genomic P element content with gonadal dysgenesis phenotypes for isofemale strains obtained from three worldwide populations of D. melanogaster to illuminate the molecular basis of natural variation in cytotype status. We show that P element abundance estimated from genome sequences of isofemale strains is highly correlated across different bioinformatics approaches, but that abundance estimates are sensitive to method and filtering strategies as well as incomplete inbreeding of isofemale strains. We find that P element content varies significantly across populations, with strains from a North American population having fewer P elements but a higher proportion of full-length elements than strains from populations sampled in Europe or Africa. Despite these geographic differences in P element abundance and structure, neither the number of P elements nor the ratio of full-length to internally-truncated copies is strongly correlated with the degree of gonadal dysgenesis exhibited by an isofemale strain. Thus, variation in P element abundance and structure across different populations does not necessarily lead to corresponding geographic differences in gonadal dysgenesis phenotypes. Finally, we confirm that population differences in the abundance and structure of P elements that are observed from isofemale lines can also be observed in pool-seq samples from the same populations. Our work supports the view that genomic P

  5. Causality of the relationship between geographic distribution and species abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Rahbek, Carsten


    The positive relationship between a species' geographic distribution and its abundance is one of ecology's most well-documented patterns, yet the causes behind this relationship remain unclear. Although many hypotheses have been proposed to account for distribution-abundance relationships none have...... differences in terminology and ecological point of view. Realizing and accounting for these differences facilitates integration, so that the relative contributions of each mechanism may be evaluated. Here, we review all the mechanisms that have been proposed to account for distribution-abundance relationships...

  6. Abundance Estimation of Hyperspectral Data with Low Compressive Sampling Rate (United States)

    Wang, Zhongliang; Feng, Yan


    Hyperspectral data processing typically demands enormous computational resources in terms of storage, computation, and I/O throughputs. In this paper, a compressive sensing framework with low sampling rate is described for hyperspectral imagery. It is based on the widely used linear spectral mixture model. Abundance fractions can be calculated directly from compressively sensed data with no need to reconstruct original hyperspectral imagery. The proposed abundance estimation model is based on the sparsity of abundance fractions and an alternating direction method of multipliers is developed to solve this model. Experiments show that the proposed scheme has a high potential to unmix compressively sensed hyperspectral data with low sampling rate.

  7. On the abundance of Europium. [in Ap and Am stars (United States)

    Hartoog, M. R.; Cowley, C. R.; Adelman, S. J.


    The inclusion of the effects of hyperfine splitting can significantly lower the abundance estimate of Eu from singly ionized lines which lie on the flat portion of the curve of growth. In the 21 cool Ap stars studied by Adelman and the five Am stars studied by Smith, the Eu abundance was reduced by 0.4 dex on the average. In individual cases, the reductions were as great as 0.9 dex. This makes the Eu abundance comparable to that of its neighboring rare earths Sm and Gd in the Ap stars and less than Sm and Gd in the Am stars, but still substantially overabundant with respect to solar values.

  8. Development of Earth-Abundant and Non-Toxic Thin-Film Solar Cells (United States)

    Park, Helen Hejin

    Although solar energy is the most abundant energy resource available, photovoltaic solar cells must consist of sufficiently abundant and environmentally friendly elements, for scalable low-cost production to provide a major amount of the world's energy supply. However, scalability is limited in current thin-film solar cell technologies based on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 and CdTe due to scarce, expensive, and toxic elements. Thin-film solar cells consisting of earth-abundant and non-toxic materials were made from pulsed chemical vapor deposition (pulsed-CVD) of SnS as the p-type absorber layer and atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Zn(O,S) as the n-type buffer layer. Solar cells with a structure of Mo/SnS/Zn(O,S)/ZnO/ITO were studied by varying the synthesis conditions of the SnS and Zn(O,S) layers. Annealing SnS in hydrogen sulfide increased the mobility by more than one order of magnitude, and improved the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell devices. Solar cell performance can be further optimized by adjusting the stoichiometry of Zn(O,S), and by tuning the electrical properties of Zn(O,S) through various in situ or post-annealing treatments. Zn(O,S) can be post-annealed in oxygen atmosphere or doped with nitrogen, by ammonium hydroxide or ammonia gas, during the ALD growth to reduce the carrier concentration, which can be critical for reducing interface recombination at the p-n junction. High carrier concentration buffer layers can be critical for reducing contact resistance with the ITO layer. Zn(O,S) can also be incorporated with aluminum by trimethylaluminum (TMA) doses to either increase or decrease the carrier concentration based on the stoichiometry of Zn(O,S).

  9. Abundance and temperature distributions in the hot intra-cluster gas of Abell 4059 (United States)

    Mernier, F.; de Plaa, J.; Lovisari, L.; Pinto, C.; Zhang, Y.-Y.; Kaastra, J. S.; Werner, N.; Simionescu, A.


    Using the EPIC and RGS data from a deep (200 ks) XMM-Newton observation, we investigate the temperature structure (kT and σT) and the abundances of nine elements (O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, and Ni) of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) in the nearby (z = 0.046) cool-core galaxy cluster Abell 4059. Next to a deep analysis of the cluster core, a careful modelling of the EPIC background allows us to build radial profiles up to 12' (~650 kpc) from the core. Probably because of projection effects, the temperature ICM is not found to be in single phase, even in the outer parts of the cluster. The abundances of Ne, Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe, but also O are peaked towards the core. The elements Fe and O are still significantly detected in the outermost annuli, which suggests that the enrichment by both type Ia and core-collapse SNe started in the early stages of the cluster formation. However, the particularly high Ca/Fe ratio that we find in the core is not well reproduced by the standard SNe yield models. Finally, 2D maps of temperature and Fe abundance are presented and confirm the existence of a denser, colder, and Fe-rich ridge south-west of the core, previously observed by Chandra. The origin of this asymmetry in the hot gas of the cluster core is still unclear, but it might be explained by a past intense ram-pressure stripping event near the central cD galaxy. Appendices are available in electronic form at


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Thompson, Ian B. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Cowan, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Frebel, Anna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ivans, Inese I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schatz, Hendrik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)


    Elements heavier than the iron group are found in nearly all halo stars. A substantial number of these elements, key to understanding neutron-capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We report the results of an observing campaign using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to study the detailed heavy-element abundance patterns in four metal-poor stars. We derive abundances or upper limits from 27 absorption lines of 15 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions, including seven elements (germanium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, platinum, and gold) that can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We also examine 202 heavy-element absorption lines in ground-based optical spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle Spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I Telescope on Mauna Kea. We have detected up to 34 elements heavier than zinc. The bulk of the heavy elements in these four stars are produced by r-process nucleosynthesis. These observations affirm earlier results suggesting that the tellurium found in metal-poor halo stars with moderate amounts of r-process material scales with the rare earth and third r-process peak elements. Cadmium often follows the abundances of the neighboring elements palladium and silver. We identify several sources of systematic uncertainty that must be considered when comparing these abundances with theoretical predictions. We also present new isotope shift and hyperfine structure component patterns for Lu II and Pb I lines of astrophysical interest.

  11. Elemental matrices for the finite element method in electromagnetics with quadratic triangular elements


    Cojocaru, E.


    The finite element method has become a preeminent simulation technique in electromagnetics. For problems involving anisotropic media and metamaterials, proper algorithms should be developed. It has been proved that discretizing in quadratic triangular elements may lead to an improved accuracy. Here we present a collection of elemental matrices evaluated analytically for quadratic triangular elements. They could be useful for the finite element method in advanced electromagnetics.

  12. Relationships between gas field development and the presence and abundance of pygmy rabbits in southwestern Wyoming (United States)

    Germaine, Stephen; Carter, Sarah; Ignizio, Drew A.; Freeman, Aaron T.


    More than 5957 km2 in southwestern Wyoming is currently covered by operational gas fields, and further development is projected through 2030. Gas fields fragment landscapes through conversion of native vegetation to roads, well pads, pipeline corridors, and other infrastructure elements. The sagebrush steppe landscape where most of this development is occurring harbors 24 sagebrush-associated species of greatest conservation need, but the effects of gas energy development on most of these species are unknown. Pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) are one such species. In 2011, we began collecting three years of survey data to examine the relationship between gas field development density and pygmy rabbit site occupancy patterns on four major Wyoming gas fields (Continental Divide–Creston–Blue Gap, Jonah, Moxa Arch, Pinedale Anticline Project Area). We surveyed 120 plots across four gas fields, with plots distributed across the density gradient of gas well pads on each field. In a 1 km radius around the center of each plot, we measured the area covered by each of 10 gas field infrastructure elements and by shrub cover using 2012 National Agriculture Imagery Program imagery. We then modeled the relationship between gas field elements, pygmy rabbit presence, and two indices of pygmy rabbit abundance. Gas field infrastructure elements—specifically buried utility corridors and a complex of gas well pads, adjacent disturbed areas, and well pad access roads—were negatively correlated with pygmy rabbit presence and abundance indices, with sharp declines apparent after approximately 2% of the area consisted of gas field infrastructure. We conclude that pygmy rabbits in southwestern Wyoming may be sensitive to gas field development at levels similar to those observed for greater sage-grouse, and may suffer local population declines at lower levels of development than are allowed in existing plans and policies designed to conserve greater sage-grouse by limiting

  13. Modeling CO, CO2, and H2O Ice Abundances in the Envelopes of Young Stellar Objects in the Magellanic Clouds (United States)

    Pauly, Tyler; Garrod, Robin T.


    Massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) in the Magellanic Clouds show infrared absorption features corresponding to significant abundances of CO, CO2, and H2O ice along the line of sight, with the relative abundances of these ices differing between the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way. CO ice is not detected toward sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud, and upper limits put its relative abundance well below sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Milky Way. We use our gas-grain chemical code MAGICKAL, with multiple grain sizes and grain temperatures, and further expand it with a treatment for increased interstellar radiation field intensity to model the elevated dust temperatures observed in the MCs. We also adjust the elemental abundances used in the chemical models, guided by observations of H II regions in these metal-poor satellite galaxies. With a grid of models, we are able to reproduce the relative ice fractions observed in MC MYSOs, indicating that metal depletion and elevated grain temperature are important drivers of the MYSO envelope ice composition. Magellanic Cloud elemental abundances have a subgalactic C/O ratio, increasing H2O ice abundances relative to the other ices; elevated grain temperatures favor CO2 production over H2O and CO. The observed shortfall in CO in the Small Magellanic Cloud can be explained by a combination of reduced carbon abundance and increased grain temperatures. The models indicate that a large variation in radiation field strength is required to match the range of observed LMC abundances. CH3OH abundance is found to be enhanced in low-metallicity models, providing seed material for complex organic molecule formation in the Magellanic Clouds.

  14. Measuring the IMF and Detailed Abundance Patterns from the Integrated Light of Old Stellar Systems (United States)

    Conroy, Charlie

    The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of unresolved stellar systems holds key information regarding the detailed abundance pattern, star formation history, dust properties, and initial mass function (IMF) of the underlying stellar population(s). This information can only be extracted with the aid of stellar population synthesis (SPS) models. Such models have been employed to estimate basic properties such as the star formation rate, metallicity (Z, and in certain contexts, alpha-enhancement), and total stellar mass (assuming an IMF). However, much more information is available in the SED than can be extracted by the current generation of SPS models because existing models are plagued by incomplete and poorly calibrated ingredients. The proposers request funds to develop a next generation SPS model capable of measuring the IMF and detailed abundance patterns from the SEDs of composite stellar systems. In particular, we intend to develop an SPS model that makes accurate predictions for the SEDs (from 0.1-3mu m at a resolving power of ~5,000) of composite systems as a function of the IMF, stellar age, metallicity, and individual elemental abundances (including C, N, O, Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Sr, and Ba). This will require the construction of a new synthetic stellar spectral library and a new isochrone library. This new model will be the first to make predictions for the full SED shape as a function of individual abundance ratios, age, and the IMF. We will extensively calibrate the model predictions against data on individual stars and globular clusters. The new model will be essential for interpreting optical-NIR spectra obtained from the James Webb Space Telescope as well as both present and future ground-based facilities.

  15. Project VeSElkA: abundance analysis of chemical species in HD 41076 and HD 148330 (United States)

    Khalack, V.; Gallant, G.; Thibeault, C.


    A new semi-automatic approach is employed to carry out the abundance analysis of high-resolution spectra of HD 41076 and HD 148330 obtained recently with the spectropolarimetre Echelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for Observations of Stars at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. This approach allows to prepare in a semi-automatic mode the input data for the modified zeeman2 code and to analyse several hundreds of line profiles in sequence during a single run. It also provides more information on abundance distribution for each chemical element at the deeper atmospheric layers. Our analysis of the Balmer profiles observed in the spectra of HD 41076 and HD 148330 has resulted in the estimates of their effective temperature, gravity, metallicity and radial velocity. The respective models of stellar atmosphere have been calculated with the code phoenix and used to carry out abundance analysis employing the modified zeeman2 code. The analysis shows a deficit of the C, N, F, Mg, Ca, Ti, V, Cu, Y, Mo, Sm and Gd, and overabundance of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Sr, Zr, Ba, Ce, Nd and Dy in the stellar atmosphere of HD 41076. In the atmosphere of HD 148330, the C, N and Mo appear to be underabundant, while the Ne, Na, Al, Si, P, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd and Dy are overabundant. We also have found signatures of vertical abundance stratification of Fe, Ti, Cr and Mn in HD 41076, and of Fe, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Y, Zr, Ce, Nd, Sm and Gd in HD 148330.

  16. PArthENoPE: Public Algorithm Evaluating the Nucleosynthesis of Primordial Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisanti, O.; Cirillo, A.; Esposito, S.; Iocco, F.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Serpico, P.D.


    We describe a program for computing the abundances of light elements produced during Big Bang Nucleosynthesis which is publicly available at Starting from nuclear statistical equilibrium conditions the program solves the set of coupled ordinary differential equations, follows the departure from chemical equilibrium of nuclear species, and determines their asymptotic abundances as function of several input cosmological parameters as the baryon density, the number of effective neutrino, the value of cosmological constant and the neutrino chemical potential.

  17. Amphibian abundance and diversity in Meru National Park, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasonga, D.V.; Bakele, A.; Lötters, S.; Balakrishnan, M.


    The diversity and abundance of amphibians were investigated in Meru National Park, Kenya, using transect sampling, drift-fence and pitfall trapping and opportunistic collecting. A total of 430 individuals under seven genera (Amietophrynus, Hemisus, Hyperolius, Phrynobatrachus, Phrynomantis,

  18. Distribution and abundance of Physalia in Florida waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, F.S


    Distribution, abundance and size of the Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis) were monitored in the western Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and coastal waters of Florida by aerial surveys from April 1969 through February 1971...

  19. The distribution and abundance of the endangered Knysna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution and abundance of the endangered Knysna seahorse Hippocampus capensis (Pisces: Syngnathidae) in South African estuaries. Jacqueline F Lockyear, Thomas Hecht, Horst Kaiser, Peter R Teske ...

  20. Bacterioplankton abundance and production in Indian Ocean Regions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Fernandes, V.; Rodrigues, V.V.; Paul, J.T.; Gauns, M.

    Microbes mediating biological and many geochemical processes are the key components in marine ecosystems. Information on spatiotemporal variations in heterotrophic bacterial (Hbac) abundance and production in three ecologically disparate regions...

  1. Methanotrophic abundance and community fingerprint in pine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methanotrophs) is important to assess the microbial oxidation of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in soil under different land uses. Soil samples were collected from two plantation plots of pine and tea in southern China. Methanotrophic abundance ...

  2. Whooping Crane Winter Abundance Survey Protocol Aransas National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol is primarily designed to provide a mechanism for monitoring trends in whooping crane abundance on their wintering grounds along the Texas gulf coast....

  3. Abundance of bacterial and diatom fouling on various surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)


    Abundance of bacterial and diatom fouling on aluminium, fibreglass and stainless steel were studied from Dona Paula waters of the Zuari Estuary. Both these forms were reversibly attached in large numbers to surfaces during the initial 24 hr...

  4. Fundamental constraints on the abundances of chemotaxis proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Bitbol, Anne-Florence


    Flagellated bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, perform directed motion in gradients of concentration of attractants and repellents in a process called chemotaxis. The E. coli chemotaxis signaling pathway is a model for signal transduction, but it has unique features. We demonstrate that the need for fast signaling necessitates high abundances of the proteins involved in this pathway. We show that further constraints on the abundances of chemotaxis proteins arise from the requirements of self-assembly, both of flagellar motors and of chemoreceptor arrays. All these constraints are specific to chemotaxis, and published data confirm that chemotaxis proteins tend to be more highly expressed than their homologs in other pathways. Employing a chemotaxis pathway model, we show that the gain of the pathway at the level of the response regulator CheY increases with overall chemotaxis protein abundances. This may explain why, at least in one E. coli strain, the abundance of all chemotaxis proteins is higher in media w...

  5. Making Mercury's Core with Light Elements (United States)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Ross, D. Kent


    Recent results obtained from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging spacecraft showed the surface of Mercury has low FeO abundances (less than 2 wt%) and high S abundances (approximately 4 wt%), suggesting the oxygen fugacity of Mercury's surface materials is somewhere between 3 to 7 log10 units below the IW buffer. The highly reducing nature of Mercury has resulted in a relatively thin mantle and a large core that has the potential to exhibit an exotic composition in comparison to the other terrestrial planets. This exotic composition may extend to include light elements (e.g., Si, C, S). Furthermore, has argued for a possible primary floatation crust on Mercury composed of graphite, which may require a core that is C-saturated. In order to investigate mercurian core compositions, we conducted piston cylinder experiments at 1 GPa, from 1300 C to 1700 C, using a range of starting compositions consisting of various Si-Fe metal mixtures (Si5Fe95, Si10Fe90, Si22Fe78, and Si35Fe65). All metals were loaded into graphite capsules used to ensure C-saturation during the duration of each experimental run. Our experiments show that Fe-Si metallic alloys exclude carbon relative to more Fe-rich metal. This exclusion of carbon commences within the range of 5 to 10 wt% Si. These results indicate that if Mercury has a Si-rich core (having more than approximately 5 wt% silicon), it would have saturated in carbon at low C abundances allowing for the possible formation of a graphite floatation crust as suggested by. These results have important implications for the thermal and magmatic evolution of Mercury.

  6. Serum proteomes of hypertension patients with abundant phlegm-dampness. (United States)

    Chu, Yu-guang; Shi, Jie; Hu, Yuan-hui; Wu, Hua-qin; Liu, Gui-jian; Hu, Chao-jun; Li, Yong-zhe; Li, Yi; Chen, Zi-jing; He, Qing


    To study the serum proteomes of essential hypertension (EH) patients with abundant phlegm-dampness, and try to find special proteins associated with abundant phlegm-dampness syndrome. Fifty-nine hypertension patients were included, and the patients were divided into abundant phlegm-dampness syndrome group (39 cases) and non-phlegm-dampness syndrome group (20 cases). To find the special proteins associated with abundant phlegm-dampness, the EH patients with non-phlegm-dampness and another 30 healthy persons were regarded as control. Weak cation nano-magnetic beads were used to capture proteins in serum, and proteomic fingerprint was made by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). All the proteomic fingerprints were analyzed by Biomarker Wizard 3.1 Software. Then Biomarker Patterns Software (BPS) 5.0 was used to identify the differentiated proteins, which could induce phlegm-dampness. There were 102 differentiated protein peaks between abundant phlegm-dampness and the control group. The best markers of abundant phlegm-dampness were protein peaks with the mass to charge ratio (m/z) of 9,334.958 m/z (the expression increased), 9,280.191 m/z (the expression decreased), 8,030.794 m/z (the expression increased), and 2,941.551 m/z (the expression increased). These four protein peaks found by BPS could induce abundant phlegm-dampness. They could be used to separate the abundant phlegm-dampness syndrome from the healthy persons and the hypertension patients with non-phlegm-dampness. The sensitivity of the model was 93.103% (27/29), specificity was 92% (23/25), false positive rate was 8% (2/25), false negative rate was 6.897% (2/29) and Youden's index was 85.103%. Blind test data indicated a sensitivity of 90% (9/10) and a specificity of 88% (22/25), and the false positive rate was 12% (3/25), false negative rate was 10% (1/10), and Youden's index was 78%. The differentiated proteins between the abundant phlegm

  7. Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Matthias


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the abundance of molecular components is an important prerequisite for building quantitative predictive models of cellular behavior. Proteins are central components of these models, since they carry out most of the fundamental processes in the cell. Thus far, protein concentrations have been difficult to measure on a large scale, but proteomic technologies have now advanced to a stage where this information becomes readily accessible. Results Here, we describe an experimental scheme to maximize the coverage of proteins identified by mass spectrometry of a complex biological sample. Using a combination of LC-MS/MS approaches with protein and peptide fractionation steps we identified 1103 proteins from the cytosolic fraction of the Escherichia coli strain MC4100. A measure of abundance is presented for each of the identified proteins, based on the recently developed emPAI approach which takes into account the number of sequenced peptides per protein. The values of abundance are within a broad range and accurately reflect independently measured copy numbers per cell. As expected, the most abundant proteins were those involved in protein synthesis, most notably ribosomal proteins. Proteins involved in energy metabolism as well as those with binding function were also found in high copy number while proteins annotated with the terms metabolism, transcription, transport, and cellular organization were rare. The barrel-sandwich fold was found to be the structural fold with the highest abundance. Highly abundant proteins are predicted to be less prone to aggregation based on their length, pI values, and occurrence patterns of hydrophobic stretches. We also find that abundant proteins tend to be predominantly essential. Additionally we observe a significant correlation between protein and mRNA abundance in E. coli cells. Conclusion Abundance measurements for more than 1000 E. coli proteins presented in this work

  8. Elements of social action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš


    Full Text Available Because of the significant analytical advantages, the author prefers social action as initial sociological concept in the relation to social phenomenon. Its basic elements are: actors, subjects and tools, needs and interests, values and norms, positions and roles. Actors set in motion and unify the rest of elements, guide to the magic triangle of sociology (movement, change, order, reaffirm actor paradigm to systemic paradigm. Subjects and tools materialize an action and its overestimate results in technological determinism or (by means of property as institutional appropriation of nature in the (unclassed historical type of society. Needs and interests are the basis of person's motivation and starting point for depth analysis of sociability. The expansion of legitimate interests circle develops techniques of normative regulation. Values and norms guide to institutional-organizational, positions to vertical and roles to horizontal structure. Values give the meaning to the action as well as to human existence, they are orientations of motivate system of personality but also basic aspect of society. As abstractions, values are latent background of norms and they tell to us what to do, and norms how to do something. Norms are specified instructions for suitable behavior Without normative order, not to be possible the satisfying of needs and the conciliation of interests. Riches, power and prestige are components of social position, and legal status is the determination of rights and obligations of the position. Roles are normative expectation of behavior. Toward kinds of sanctions roles are classified. Roles but also other elements of social action are starting point for sociological analysis of legal norms and institutes. On the other side, the observation of legal component of social actions enriches, strengths and precises sociological analysis of them.

  9. Primordial Nucleosynthesis: The Predicted and Observed Abundances and Their Consequences


    Steigman, Gary


    For a brief time in its early evolution the Universe was a cosmic nuclear reactor. The expansion and cooling of the Universe limited this epoch to the first few minutes, allowing time for the synthesis in astrophysically interesting abundances of only the lightest nuclides (D, 3He, 4He, 7Li). For big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) in the standard models of cosmology and particle physics (SBBN), the SBBN-predicted abundances depend on only one adjustable parameter, the baryon density parameter (th...

  10. Observing giant panda habitat and forage abundance from space


    Wang, T.


    Giant pandas are obligate bamboo grazers. The bamboos favoured by giant pandas are typical forest understorey plants. Therefore, the availability and abundance of understorey bamboo is a key factor in determining the quantity and quality of giant panda food resources. However, there is little or no information about the spatial distribution or abundance of bamboo underneath the forest canopy, due to the limitations of traditional ground survey and remote sensing classification techniques. In ...

  11. Elements of analytical dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurth, Rudolph; Stark, M


    Elements of Analytical Dynamics deals with dynamics, which studies the relationship between motion of material bodies and the forces acting on them. This book is a compilation of lectures given by the author at the Georgia and Institute of Technology and formed a part of a course in Topological Dynamics. The book begins by discussing the notions of space and time and their basic properties. It then discusses the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and Hamilton's principle and first integrals. The text concludes with a discussion on Jacobi's geometric interpretation of conservative systems. This book will

  12. Analytical elements of mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Thomas R


    Analytical Elements of Mechanics, Volume 1, is the first of two volumes intended for use in courses in classical mechanics. The books aim to provide students and teachers with a text consistent in content and format with the author's ideas regarding the subject matter and teaching of mechanics, and to disseminate these ideas. The book opens with a detailed exposition of vector algebra, and no prior knowledge of this subject is required. This is followed by a chapter on the topic of mass centers, which is presented as a logical extension of concepts introduced in connection with centroids. A

  13. Osteoporosis and trace elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, J.; Boivin, G.; Andersen, Ole


    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine...... in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified...

  14. Elements of Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elements of Architecture explores new ways of engaging architecture in archaeology. It conceives of architecture both as the physical evidence of past societies and as existing beyond the physical environment, considering how people in the past have not just dwelled in buildings but have existed...... and affective impacts, of these material remains. The contributions in this volume investigate the way time, performance and movement, both physically and emotionally, are central aspects of understanding architectural assemblages. It is a book about the constellations of people, places and things that emerge...

  15. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R


    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  16. [Healthcare marketing elements]. (United States)

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio


    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions.

  17. Ring-laser gyroscope system using dispersive element(s) (United States)

    Smith, David D. (Inventor)


    A ring-laser gyroscope system includes a ring-laser gyroscope (RLG) and at least one dispersive element optically coupled to the RLG's ring-shaped optical path. Each dispersive element has a resonant frequency that is approximately equal to the RLG's lasing frequency. A group index of refraction defined collectively by the dispersive element(s) has (i) a real portion that is greater than zero and less than one, and (ii) an imaginary portion that is less than zero.

  18. On ribosome load, codon bias and protein abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Klumpp

    Full Text Available Different codons encoding the same amino acid are not used equally in protein-coding sequences. In bacteria, there is a bias towards codons with high translation rates. This bias is most pronounced in highly expressed proteins, but a recent study of synthetic GFP-coding sequences did not find a correlation between codon usage and GFP expression, suggesting that such correlation in natural sequences is not a simple property of translational mechanisms. Here, we investigate the effect of evolutionary forces on codon usage. The relation between codon bias and protein abundance is quantitatively analyzed based on the hypothesis that codon bias evolved to ensure the efficient usage of ribosomes, a precious commodity for fast growing cells. An explicit fitness landscape is formulated based on bacterial growth laws to relate protein abundance and ribosomal load. The model leads to a quantitative relation between codon bias and protein abundance, which accounts for a substantial part of the observed bias for E. coli. Moreover, by providing an evolutionary link, the ribosome load model resolves the apparent conflict between the observed relation of protein abundance and codon bias in natural sequences and the lack of such dependence in a synthetic gfp library. Finally, we show that the relation between codon usage and protein abundance can be used to predict protein abundance from genomic sequence data alone without adjustable parameters.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bernhardt


    Full Text Available In this study we apply a nonlinear spectral unmixing algorithm to a nearly global lunar spectral reflectance mosaic derived from hyper-spectral image data acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3 instrument. Corrections for topographic effects and for thermal emission were performed. A set of 19 laboratory-based reflectance spectra of lunar samples published by the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC were used as a catalog of potential endmember spectra. For a given spectrum, the multi-population population-based incremental learning (MPBIL algorithm was used to determine the subset of endmembers actually contained in it. However, as the MPBIL algorithm is computationally expensive, it cannot be applied to all pixels of the reflectance mosaic. Hence, the reflectance mosaic was clustered into a set of 64 prototype spectra, and the MPBIL algorithm was applied to each prototype spectrum. Each pixel of the mosaic was assigned to the most similar prototype, and the set of endmembers previously determined for that prototype was used for pixel-wise nonlinear spectral unmixing using the Hapke model, implemented as linear unmixing of the single-scattering albedo spectrum. This procedure yields maps of the fractional abundances of the 19 endmembers. Based on the known modal abundances of a variety of mineral species in the LSCC samples, a conversion from endmember abundances to mineral abundances was performed. We present maps of the fractional abundances of plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine and compare our results with previously published lunar mineral abundance maps.

  20. Spectral Unmixing Based Construction of Lunar Mineral Abundance Maps (United States)

    Bernhardt, V.; Grumpe, A.; Wöhler, C.


    In this study we apply a nonlinear spectral unmixing algorithm to a nearly global lunar spectral reflectance mosaic derived from hyper-spectral image data acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument. Corrections for topographic effects and for thermal emission were performed. A set of 19 laboratory-based reflectance spectra of lunar samples published by the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) were used as a catalog of potential endmember spectra. For a given spectrum, the multi-population population-based incremental learning (MPBIL) algorithm was used to determine the subset of endmembers actually contained in it. However, as the MPBIL algorithm is computationally expensive, it cannot be applied to all pixels of the reflectance mosaic. Hence, the reflectance mosaic was clustered into a set of 64 prototype spectra, and the MPBIL algorithm was applied to each prototype spectrum. Each pixel of the mosaic was assigned to the most similar prototype, and the set of endmembers previously determined for that prototype was used for pixel-wise nonlinear spectral unmixing using the Hapke model, implemented as linear unmixing of the single-scattering albedo spectrum. This procedure yields maps of the fractional abundances of the 19 endmembers. Based on the known modal abundances of a variety of mineral species in the LSCC samples, a conversion from endmember abundances to mineral abundances was performed. We present maps of the fractional abundances of plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine and compare our results with previously published lunar mineral abundance maps.

  1. Global abundance of planktonic heterotrophic protists in the deep ocean. (United States)

    Pernice, Massimo C; Forn, Irene; Gomes, Ana; Lara, Elena; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Arrieta, Jesus M; del Carmen Garcia, Francisca; Hernando-Morales, Victor; MacKenzie, Roy; Mestre, Mireia; Sintes, Eva; Teira, Eva; Valencia, Joaquin; Varela, Marta M; Vaqué, Dolors; Duarte, Carlos M; Gasol, Josep M; Massana, Ramon


    The dark ocean is one of the largest biomes on Earth, with critical roles in organic matter remineralization and global carbon sequestration. Despite its recognized importance, little is known about some key microbial players, such as the community of heterotrophic protists (HP), which are likely the main consumers of prokaryotic biomass. To investigate this microbial component at a global scale, we determined their abundance and biomass in deepwater column samples from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation using a combination of epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. HP were ubiquitously found at all depths investigated down to 4000 m. HP abundances decreased with depth, from an average of 72±19 cells ml(-1) in mesopelagic waters down to 11±1 cells ml(-1) in bathypelagic waters, whereas their total biomass decreased from 280±46 to 50±14 pg C ml(-1). The parameters that better explained the variance of HP abundance were depth and prokaryote abundance, and to lesser extent oxygen concentration. The generally good correlation with prokaryotic abundance suggested active grazing of HP on prokaryotes. On a finer scale, the prokaryote:HP abundance ratio varied at a regional scale, and sites with the highest ratios exhibited a larger contribution of fungi molecular signal. Our study is a step forward towards determining the relationship between HP and their environment, unveiling their importance as players in the dark ocean's microbial food web.

  2. Herbivore regulation of plant abundance in aquatic ecosystems. (United States)

    Wood, Kevin A; O'Hare, Matthew T; McDonald, Claire; Searle, Kate R; Daunt, Francis; Stillman, Richard A


    Herbivory is a fundamental process that controls primary producer abundance and regulates energy and nutrient flows to higher trophic levels. Despite the recent proliferation of small-scale studies on herbivore effects on aquatic plants, there remains limited understanding of the factors that control consumer regulation of vascular plants in aquatic ecosystems. Our current knowledge of the regulation of primary producers has hindered efforts to understand the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and to manage such ecosystems effectively. We conducted a global meta-analysis of the outcomes of plant-herbivore interactions using a data set comprised of 326 values from 163 studies, in order to test two mechanistic hypotheses: first, that greater negative changes in plant abundance would be associated with higher herbivore biomass densities; second, that the magnitude of changes in plant abundance would vary with herbivore taxonomic identity. We found evidence that plant abundance declined with increased herbivore density, with plants eliminated at high densities. Significant between-taxa differences in impact were detected, with insects associated with smaller reductions in plant abundance than all other taxa. Similarly, birds caused smaller reductions in plant abundance than echinoderms, fish, or molluscs. Furthermore, larger reductions in plant abundance were detected for fish relative to crustaceans. We found a positive relationship between herbivore species richness and change in plant abundance, with the strongest reductions in plant abundance reported for low herbivore species richness, suggesting that greater herbivore diversity may protect against large reductions in plant abundance. Finally, we found that herbivore-plant nativeness was a key factor affecting the magnitude of herbivore impacts on plant abundance across a wide range of species assemblages. Assemblages comprised of invasive herbivores and native plant assemblages were associated with

  3. The Gaia-ESO Survey: radial distribution of abundances in the Galactic disc from open clusters and young-field stars (United States)

    Magrini, L.; Randich, S.; Kordopatis, G.; Prantzos, N.; Romano, D.; Chieffi, A.; Limongi, M.; François, P.; Pancino, E.; Friel, E.; Bragaglia, A.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Spina, L.; Overbeek, J.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Donati, P.; Vallenari, A.; Sordo, R.; Jiménez-Esteban, F. M.; Tang, B.; Drazdauskas, A.; Sousa, S.; Duffau, S.; Jofré, P.; Gilmore, G.; Feltzing, S.; Alfaro, E.; Bensby, T.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S.; Lanzafame, A.; Smiljanic, R.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G.; Sbordone, L.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.


    Context. The spatial distribution of elemental abundances in the disc of our Galaxy gives insights both on its assembly process and subsequent evolution, and on the stellar nucleogenesis of the different elements. Gradients can be traced using several types of objects as, for instance, (young and old) stars, open clusters, HII regions, planetary nebulae. Aims: We aim to trace the radial distributions of abundances of elements produced through different nucleosynthetic channels - the α-elements O, Mg, Si, Ca and Ti, and the iron-peak elements Fe, Cr, Ni and Sc - by use of the Gaia-ESO IDR4 results for open clusters and young-field stars. Methods: From the UVES spectra of member stars, we have determined the average composition of clusters with ages > 0.1 Gyr. We derived statistical ages and distances of field stars. We traced the abundance gradients using the cluster and field populations and compared them with a chemo-dynamical Galactic evolutionary model. Results: The adopted chemo-dynamical model, with the new generation of metallicity-dependent stellar yields for massive stars, is able to reproduce the observed spatial distributions of abundance ratios, in particular the abundance ratios of [O/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] in the inner disc (5 kpc chemical evolution models. Conclusions: Oxygen and magnesium are often considered to be equivalent in tracing α-element abundances and in deducing, for example, the formation timescales of different Galactic stellar populations. In addition, often [α/Fe] is computed combining several α-elements. Our results indicate, as expected, a complex and diverse nucleosynthesis of the various α-elements, in particular in the high metallicity regimes, pointing towards a different origin of these elements and highlighting the risk of considering them as a single class with common features. Tables A.1-A.4 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via http://cdsarc

  4. Helium-abundance and other composition effects on the properties of stellar surface convection in solar-like main-sequence stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, Joel D.; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)


    We investigate the effect of helium abundance and α-element enhancement on the properties of convection in envelopes of solar-like main-sequence stars using a grid of three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations. Helium abundance increases the mean molecular weight of the gas and alters opacity by displacing hydrogen. Since the scale of the effect of helium may depend on the metallicity, the grid consists of simulations with three helium abundances (Y = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3), each with two metallicities (Z = 0.001, 0.020). We find that changing the helium mass fraction generally affects structure and convective dynamics in a way opposite to that of metallicity. Furthermore, the effect is considerably smaller than that of metallicity. The signature of helium differs from that of metallicity in the manner in which the photospheric velocity distribution is affected. We also find that helium abundance and surface gravity behave largely in similar ways, but differ in the way they affect the mean molecular weight. A simple model for spectral line formation suggests that the bisectors and absolute Doppler shifts of spectral lines depend on the helium abundance. We look at the effect of α-element enhancement and find that it has a considerably smaller effect on the convective dynamics in the superadiabatic layer compared to that of helium abundance.

  5. Heavy element nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, D N


    A review is made of current nuclear astrophysical theory regarding the origin of the elements heavier than iron. The pre-supernova evolution of stars is very briefly described, and speculation is given regarding the supernova mechanism. In particular, the possible role of weak neutral currents is presented. The synthesis of the trans-iron nuclei via the s and r-processes is examined. Special emphasis is given to the r-process because it depends completely on the properties of nuclei off the valley of stability. Recent explosive r-process calculations are discussed, as well as plausible astrophysical sites. The alternative n-process is also described. The possible production by the r and/or n-processes of the almost mythical superheavy elements is reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to certain crudely estimated parameters is explicitly shown. Throughout the discussion, the importance of certain nuclear physics experiments and formalism is demonstrated. Areas where advances in nuclear physics will have a d...

  6. The CEBAF Element Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodore Larrieu, Christopher Slominski, Michele Joyce


    With the inauguration of the CEBAF Element Database (CED) in Fall 2010, Jefferson Lab computer scientists have taken a step toward the eventual goal of a model-driven accelerator. Once fully populated, the database will be the primary repository of information used for everything from generating lattice decks to booting control computers to building controls screens. A requirement influencing the CED design is that it provide access to not only present, but also future and past configurations of the accelerator. To accomplish this, an introspective database schema was designed that allows new elements, types, and properties to be defined on-the-fly with no changes to table structure. Used in conjunction with Oracle Workspace Manager, it allows users to query data from any time in the database history with the same tools used to query the present configuration. Users can also check-out workspaces to use as staging areas for upcoming machine configurations. All Access to the CED is through a well-documented Application Programming Interface (API) that is translated automatically from original C++ source code into native libraries for scripting languages such as perl, php, and TCL making access to the CED easy and ubiquitous.

  7. G-quadruplex structures within the 3' UTR of LINE-1 elements stimulate retrotransposition. (United States)

    Sahakyan, Aleksandr B; Murat, Pierre; Mayer, Clemens; Balasubramanian, Shankar


    Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) are ubiquitous transposable elements in higher eukaryotes that have a significant role in shaping genomes, owing to their abundance. Here we report that guanine-rich sequences in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of hominoid-specific LINE-1 elements are coupled with retrotransposon speciation and contribute to retrotransposition through the formation of G-quadruplex (G4) structures. We demonstrate that stabilization of the G4 motif of a human-specific LINE-1 element by small-molecule ligands stimulates retrotransposition.

  8. Inferring invasive species abundance using removal data from management actions (United States)

    Davis, Amy J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Miller, Ryan S.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Lewis, Jesse S.; Moxcey, Michael; Pepin, Kim M.


    Evaluation of the progress of management programs for invasive species is crucial for demonstrating impacts to stakeholders and strategic planning of resource allocation. Estimates of abundance before and after management activities can serve as a useful metric of population management programs. However, many methods of estimating population size are too labor intensive and costly to implement, posing restrictive levels of burden on operational programs. Removal models are a reliable method for estimating abundance before and after management using data from the removal activities exclusively, thus requiring no work in addition to management. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate abundance from removal data accounting for varying levels of effort, and used simulations to assess the conditions under which reliable population estimates are obtained. We applied this model to estimate site-specific abundance of an invasive species, feral swine (Sus scrofa), using removal data from aerial gunning in 59 site/time-frame combinations (480–19,600 acres) throughout Oklahoma and Texas, USA. Simulations showed that abundance estimates were generally accurate when effective removal rates (removal rate accounting for total effort) were above 0.40. However, when abundances were small (rate needed to accurately estimates abundances was considerably higher (0.70). Based on our post-validation method, 78% of our site/time frame estimates were accurate. To use this modeling framework it is important to have multiple removals (more than three) within a time frame during which demographic changes are minimized (i.e., a closed population; ≤3 months for feral swine). Our results show that the probability of accurately estimating abundance from this model improves with increased sampling effort (8+ flight hours across the 3-month window is best) and increased removal rate. Based on the inverse relationship between inaccurate abundances and inaccurate removal rates

  9. NIH Common Data Elements Repository (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  10. Elements of mathematics integration

    CERN Document Server

    Bourbaki, Nicolas


    Intégration is the sixth and last of the Books that form the core of the Bourbaki series; it draws abundantly on the preceding five Books, especially General Topology and Topological Vector Spaces, making it a culmination of the core six. The power of the tool thus fashioned is strikingly displayed in Chapter II of the author's Théories Spectrales, an exposition, in a mere 38 pages, of abstract harmonic analysis and the structure of locally compact abelian groups. The present volume comprises Chapters 1-6 in English translation (a second volume will contain the remaining Chapters 7-9). The individual fascicles of the original French edition have been extensively reviewed. Chapters 1-5 received very substantial revisions in a second edition, including changes to some fundamental definitions. Chapters 6-8 are based on the first editions of Chs. 1-5. The English edition has given the author the opportunity to correct misprints, update references, clarify the concordance of Chapter 6 with the second editions of...

  11. Non-LTE aluminium abundances in late-type stars (United States)

    Nordlander, T.; Lind, K.


    Aims: Aluminium plays a key role in studies of the chemical enrichment of the Galaxy and of globular clusters. However, strong deviations from LTE (non-LTE) are known to significantly affect the inferred abundances in giant and metal-poor stars. Methods: We present non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) modeling of aluminium using recent and accurate atomic data, in particular utilizing new transition rates for collisions with hydrogen atoms, without the need for any astrophysically calibrated parameters. For the first time, we perform 3D NLTE modeling of aluminium lines in the solar spectrum. We also compute and make available extensive grids of abundance corrections for lines in the optical and near-infrared using one-dimensional model atmospheres, and apply grids of precomputed departure coefficients to direct line synthesis for a set of benchmark stars with accurately known stellar parameters. Results: Our 3D NLTE modeling of the solar spectrum reproduces observed center-to-limb variations in the solar spectrum of the 7835 Å line as well as the mid-infrared photospheric emission line at 12.33 μm. We infer a 3D NLTE solar photospheric abundance of A(Al) = 6.43 ± 0.03, in exact agreement with the meteoritic abundance. We find that abundance corrections vary rapidly with stellar parameters; for the 3961 Å resonance line, corrections are positive and may be as large as +1 dex, while corrections for subordinate lines generally have positive sign for warm stars but negative for cool stars. Our modeling reproduces the observed line profiles of benchmark K-giants, and we find abundance corrections as large as -0.3 dex for Arcturus. Our analyses of four metal-poor benchmark stars yield consistent abundances between the 3961 Å resonance line and lines in the UV, optical and near-infrared regions. Finally, we discuss implications for the galactic chemical evolution of aluminium.

  12. Change in avian abundance predicted from regional forest inventory data (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Tirpak, John M.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Thompson, Frank R.; Uihlein, William B.; Fitzgerald, Jane A.


    An inability to predict population response to future habitat projections is a shortcoming in bird conservation planning. We sought to predict avian response to projections of future forest conditions that were developed from nationwide forest surveys within the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. To accomplish this, we evaluated the historical relationship between silvicolous bird populations and FIA-derived forest conditions within 25 ecoregions that comprise the southeastern United States. We aggregated forest area by forest ownership, forest type, and tree size-class categories in county-based ecoregions for 5 time periods spanning 1963-2008. We assessed the relationship of forest data with contemporaneous indices of abundance for 24 silvicolous bird species that were obtained from Breeding Bird Surveys. Relationships between bird abundance and forest inventory data for 18 species were deemed sufficient as predictive models. We used these empirically derived relationships between regional forest conditions and bird populations to predict relative changes in abundance of these species within ecoregions that are anticipated to coincide with projected changes in forest variables through 2040. Predicted abundances of these 18 species are expected to remain relatively stable in over a quarter (27%) of the ecoregions. However, change in forest area and redistribution of forest types will likely result in changed abundance of some species within many ecosystems. For example, abundances of 11 species, including pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), and chuckwills- widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis), are projected to increase within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will decrease. For 6 other species, such as blue-winged warbler (Vermivora pinus), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), we projected abundances will decrease within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will

  13. Urban warming drives insect pest abundance on street trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K Meineke

    Full Text Available Cities profoundly alter biological communities, favoring some species over others, though the mechanisms that govern these changes are largely unknown. Herbivorous arthropod pests are often more abundant in urban than in rural areas, and urban outbreaks have been attributed to reduced control by predators and parasitoids and to increased susceptibility of stressed urban plants. These hypotheses, however, leave many outbreaks unexplained and fail to predict variation in pest abundance within cities. Here we show that the abundance of a common insect pest is positively related to temperature even when controlling for other habitat characteristics. The scale insect Parthenolecanium quercifex was 13 times more abundant on willow oak trees in the hottest parts of Raleigh, NC, in the southeastern United States, than in cooler areas, though parasitism rates were similar. We further separated the effects of heat from those of natural enemies and plant quality in a greenhouse reciprocal transplant experiment. P. quercifex collected from hot urban trees became more abundant in hot greenhouses than in cool greenhouses, whereas the abundance of P. quercifex collected from cooler urban trees remained low in hot and cool greenhouses. Parthenolecanium quercifex living in urban hot spots succeed with warming, and they do so because some demes have either acclimatized or adapted to high temperatures. Our results provide the first evidence that heat can be a key driver of insect pest outbreaks on urban trees. Since urban warming is similar in magnitude to global warming predicted in the next 50 years, pest abundance on city trees may foreshadow widespread outbreaks as natural forests also grow warmer.

  14. Trace element emissions from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Trace elements are emitted during coal combustion. The quantity, in general, depends on the physical and chemical properties of the element itself, the concentration of the element in the coal, the combustion conditions and the type of particulate control device used, and its collection efficiency as a function of particle size. Some trace elements become concentrated in certain particle streams following combustion such as bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas particulate matter, while others do not. Various classification schemes have been developed to describe this partitioning behaviour. These classification schemes generally distinguish between: Class 1: elements that are approximately equally concentrated in the fly ash and bottom ash, or show little or no fine particle enrichment, examples include Mn, Be, Co and Cr; Class 2: elements that are enriched in the fly ash relative to bottom ash, or show increasing enrichment with decreasing particle size, examples include As, Cd, Pb and Sb; Class 3: elements which are emitted in the gas phase (primarily Hg (not discussed in this review), and in some cases, Se). Control of class 1 trace elements is directly related to control of total particulate matter emissions, while control of the class 2 elements depends on collection of fine particulates. Due to the variability in particulate control device efficiencies, emission rates of these elements can vary substantially. The volatility of class 3 elements means that particulate controls have only a limited impact on the emissions of these elements.


    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.


    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  16. The nonconforming virtual element method


    de Dios, B. Ayuso; Lipnikov, K.; Manzini, G


    We introduce the nonconforming Virtual Element Method (VEM) for the approximation of second order elliptic problems. We present the construction of the new element in two and three dimensions, highlighting the main differences with the conforming VEM and the classical nonconforming finite element methods. We provide the error analysis and establish the equivalence with a family of mimetic finite difference methods.

  17. It is elemental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Reich, Peter B.; Khachane, Amit N.


    diversity and composition were primarily driven by variation in soil resource stoichiometry (total C:N:P ratios), itself linked to different land uses, and secondarily driven by other important biodiversity drivers such as climate, soil spatial heterogeneity, soil pH, root influence (plant-soil microbe......It is well established that resource quantity and elemental stoichiometry play major roles in shaping below and aboveground plant biodiversity, but their importance for shaping microbial diversity in soil remains unclear. Here, we used statistical modeling on a regional database covering 179...... interactions) and microbial biomass (soil microbe-microbe interactions). In aggregate, these findings provide evidence that nutrient stoichiometry is a strong predictor of bacterial diversity and composition at a regional scale. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  18. Ucla, escuela elemental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.


    Full Text Available La Escuela Elemental de Preparación de la Universidad de California, en Los Angeles, está dedicada a la educación e investigación y preparación del profesorado de la infancia. Se ha construido en un paraje maravilloso, de frondosa vegetación, frente a un terreno bastante quebrado, circunstancia que presta mayor encanto al conjunto, construido con gran pericia y adaptación al paisaje a base de una dominante horizontalidad, con materiales sencillos (ladrillos, hierro y madera y gran comunicación con la naturaleza mediante grandes cristaleras correderas que ensanchan las clases y las suplementan hacia el jardín de acuerdo con las nuevas normas y prácticas docentes.

  19. Solar cell element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Satoru; Matsukuma, Kunihiro; Kokuuchi, Shigeru; Morita, Keiichi; Yagi, Hideyuki.


    This invention aims to provide a soalr cell element with an easily formable electrode having an independent BSF and BSR. For this purpose, in this invention, a layer with high concentration of impurities (which functions as BSF on the opposite surface of the light-receiving surface) is partly and adjacently placed; a back electrode is made to have an ohmic resistance to the high-impurity layer; a metal oxide film is forther placed in other parts. By this, the functions of BSF and BSR are sufficiently utilized as a boundary surface between the high-impurity layer (BSF) and the semi-conductor substrate and the metal oxide film (BSR) are separated, thus enhancing the conversion efficiency. As for the patterns on the separated layers of BSF and BSR, various patterns are possible to be relized by using resist printing patterns. 3 figs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Emanuel Korstanje


    Full Text Available Modern studies emphasized on the needs of researching the hospitality as relevant aspects of tourism and hospitality fields. Anyway, these approaches are inextricably intertwined to the industry of tourism and do not take seriously the anthropological and sociological roots of hospitality. In fact, the hotel seems to be a partial sphere of hospitality at all. Under this context, the present paper explores the issue of hospitality enrooted in the political and economic indo-European principle of free-transit which is associated to a much broader origin.  Starting from the premise etymologically hostel and hospital share similar origins, we follow the contributions of J Derrida to determine the elements that formed the hospitality up to date.

  1. De-novo discovery of differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites including their positional preference. (United States)

    Keilwagen, Jens; Grau, Jan; Paponov, Ivan A; Posch, Stefan; Strickert, Marc; Grosse, Ivo


    Transcription factors are a main component of gene regulation as they activate or repress gene expression by binding to specific binding sites in promoters. The de-novo discovery of transcription factor binding sites in target regions obtained by wet-lab experiments is a challenging problem in computational biology, which has not been fully solved yet. Here, we present a de-novo motif discovery tool called Dispom for finding differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites that models existing positional preferences of binding sites and adjusts the length of the motif in the learning process. Evaluating Dispom, we find that its prediction performance is superior to existing tools for de-novo motif discovery for 18 benchmark data sets with planted binding sites, and for a metazoan compendium based on experimental data from micro-array, ChIP-chip, ChIP-DSL, and DamID as well as Gene Ontology data. Finally, we apply Dispom to find binding sites differentially abundant in promoters of auxin-responsive genes extracted from Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, and we find a motif that can be interpreted as a refined auxin responsive element predominately positioned in the 250-bp region upstream of the transcription start site. Using an independent data set of auxin-responsive genes, we find in genome-wide predictions that the refined motif is more specific for auxin-responsive genes than the canonical auxin-responsive element. In general, Dispom can be used to find differentially abundant motifs in sequences of any origin. However, the positional distribution learned by Dispom is especially beneficial if all sequences are aligned to some anchor point like the transcription start site in case of promoter sequences. We demonstrate that the combination of searching for differentially abundant motifs and inferring a position distribution from the data is beneficial for de-novo motif discovery. Hence, we make the tool freely available as a component of the open

  2. The fantastic four.. elements (United States)

    Marsili, Antonella; D'Addezio, Giuliana; Rubbia, Giuliana; Ramieri, Caterina; Todaro, Riccardo; Scipilliti, Francesca; Tosto, Eleonora


    With a "Sunday between territory and music to 'National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology," October 12, 2014 the headquarters of INGV Roma kicked off the activities of the second edition of the Week of Planet Earth. The laboratory of scientific outreach and museum activities together with volunteers of the National Civil Service have organized the whole day dedicated to the dissemination of earth sciences, involving adults and children. Especially for primary school children a laboratory was made involving three amusing activities all aimed at inspiring respect for the Earth: a theatrical representation called "The Fantastic 4... elements", a behavioral game and a nursery rhyme reading. The theater as a means of communication of science is an innovative and creative way to introduce children to important scientific concepts. The use of this methodology and simple language favoring the emotional involvement of the child facilitating learning. The main character is a child, chosen to facilitate the identification of the spectators with the protagonist, that through a fantastic journey discovers the importance of the four elements of our planet: earth, fire, air and water. As a second step, volunteers involved children in reading a nursery rhyme "the ABC to become a Friend of the Earth" inviting them to protect and respect the environment and its resources. Finally, the behavioral game gave indications about behaviors to adopt to safeguard the planet. Volunteers introduced a billboard divided into two colors, green to indicate the right behaviors and red for the wrong ones. Each child, after reading a card with indication on the behavior to adopt, had to decide if they were correct or not with respect to the environment safeguard. After listening to the children's answer, the volunteer gave the correct explanation about the appropriate behavior to adopt. At the end of the activities, each child received a certificate as "a friend of Planet Earth".

  3. Measurement of isotope abundance variations in nature by gravimetric spiking isotope dilution analysis (GS-IDA). (United States)

    Chew, Gina; Walczyk, Thomas


    Subtle variations in the isotopic composition of elements carry unique information about physical and chemical processes in nature and are now exploited widely in diverse areas of research. Reliable measurement of natural isotope abundance variations is among the biggest challenges in inorganic mass spectrometry as they are highly sensitive to methodological bias. For decades, double spiking of the sample with a mix of two stable isotopes has been considered the reference technique for measuring such variations both by multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and multicollector-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS). However, this technique can only be applied to elements having at least four stable isotopes. Here we present a novel approach that requires measurement of three isotope signals only and which is more robust than the conventional double spiking technique. This became possible by gravimetric mixing of the sample with an isotopic spike in different proportions and by applying principles of isotope dilution for data analysis (GS-IDA). The potential and principle use of the technique is demonstrated for Mg in human urine using MC-TIMS for isotopic analysis. Mg is an element inaccessible to double spiking methods as it consists of three stable isotopes only and shows great potential for metabolically induced isotope effects waiting to be explored.

  4. New aerial survey and hierarchical model to estimate manatee abundance (United States)

    Langimm, Cahterine A.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Stith, Bradley M.; Doyle, Terry J.


    Monitoring the response of endangered and protected species to hydrological restoration is a major component of the adaptive management framework of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) lives at the marine-freshwater interface in southwest Florida and is likely to be affected by hydrologic restoration. To provide managers with prerestoration information on distribution and abundance for postrestoration comparison, we developed and implemented a new aerial survey design and hierarchical statistical model to estimate and map abundance of manatees as a function of patch-specific habitat characteristics, indicative of manatee requirements for offshore forage (seagrass), inland fresh drinking water, and warm-water winter refuge. We estimated the number of groups of manatees from dual-observer counts and estimated the number of individuals within groups by removal sampling. Our model is unique in that we jointly analyzed group and individual counts using assumptions that allow probabilities of group detection to depend on group size. Ours is the first analysis of manatee aerial surveys to model spatial and temporal abundance of manatees in association with habitat type while accounting for imperfect detection. We conducted the study in the Ten Thousand Islands area of southwestern Florida, USA, which was expected to be affected by the Picayune Strand Restoration Project to restore hydrology altered for a failed real-estate development. We conducted 11 surveys in 2006, spanning the cold, dry season and warm, wet season. To examine short-term and seasonal changes in distribution we flew paired surveys 1–2 days apart within a given month during the year. Manatees were sparsely distributed across the landscape in small groups. Probability of detection of a group increased with group size; the magnitude of the relationship between group size and detection probability varied among surveys. Probability

  5. Ecological interactions and the distribution, abundance, and diversity of sponges. (United States)

    Wulff, Janie


    Although abiotic factors may be important first-order filters dictating which sponge species can thrive at a particular site, ecological interactions can play substantial roles influencing distribution and abundance, and thus diversity. Ecological interactions can modify the influences of abiotic factors both by further constraining distribution and abundance due to competitive or predatory interactions and by expanding habitat distribution or abundance due to beneficial interactions that ameliorate otherwise limiting circumstances. It is likely that the importance of ecological interactions has been greatly underestimated because they tend to only be revealed by experiments and time-series observations in the field. Experiments have revealed opportunistic predation to be a primary enforcer of sponge distribution boundaries that coincide with habitat boundaries in several systems. Within habitats, by contrast, dramatic effects of predators on sponge populations seem to occur primarily in cases of unusually high recruitment rates or unusually low mortality rates for the predators, which are often specialists on the sponge species affected. Competitive interactions have been demonstrated to diminish populations or exclude sponge species from a habitat in only a few cases. Cases in which competitive interactions have appeared obvious have often turned out to be neutral or even beneficial interactions when observed over time. Especially striking in this regard are sponge-sponge interactions in dense sponge-dominated communities, which may promote the continued coexistence of all participating species. Mutualistic symbioses of sponges with other animals, plants, or macroalgae have been demonstrated to increase abundance, habitat distribution, and diversity of all participants. Symbiotic microbes can enhance sponge distribution and abundance but also render their hosts more vulnerable to environmental changes. And while photosynthetic symbionts can boost growth and

  6. Study on the Abundance Discrepancy Problem in the Magellanic Clouds (United States)

    Toribio San Cipriano, L.; Esteban, C.; Domínguez-Guzmán, G.; García-Rojas, J.


    We present chemical abundances of carbon (C) and oxygen (O) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds from deep and high-quality optical spectra of H II regions. The data have been taken using the Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph at the 8.2-m Very Large Telescope with the goal of detecting the faint C II and O II recombination lines. For all the objects of the sample, we determine C^{2+}abundances from recombination lines and O^{2+} abundances from recombination lines and collisionally excited lines. In addition, we calculate the abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs) for O^{2+} and C^{2+}, as well as the O/H, C/H and C/O ratios. We study the behaviour of the ADF comparing the values obtained in the Magellanic Clouds with those obtained for other H_{II} regions in different galaxies. We also compare the nebular and stellar abundances in two regions of the sample. Finally, we discuss the chemical evolution of the MCs through the O/H, C/H and C/O radial gradients and the changes of the C/O ratio as a function of O/H.

  7. Generalized estimators of avian abundance from count survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royle, J. A.


    Full Text Available I consider modeling avian abundance from spatially referenced bird count data collected according to common protocols such as capture-recapture, multiple observer, removal sampling and simple point counts. Small sample sizes and large numbers of parameters have motivated many analyses that disregard the spatial indexing of the data, and thus do not provide an adequate treatment of spatial structure. I describe a general framework for modeling spatially replicated data that regards local abundance as a random process, motivated by the view that the set of spatially referenced local populations (at the sample locations constitute a metapopulation. Under this view, attention can be focused on developing a model for the variation in local abundance independent of the sampling protocol being considered. The metapopulation model structure, when combined with the data generating model, define a simple hierarchical model that can be analyzed using conventional methods. The proposed modeling framework is completely general in the sense that broad classes of metapopulation models may be considered, site level covariates on detection and abundance may be considered, and estimates of abundance and related quantities may be obtained for sample locations, groups of locations, unsampled locations. Two brief examples are given, the first involving simple point counts, and the second based on temporary removal counts. Extension of these models to open systems is briefly discussed.

  8. Analysis and modeling of scale-invariance in plankton abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Pelletier, J D


    The power spectrum, $S$, of horizontal transects of plankton abundance are often observed to have a power-law dependence on wavenumber, $k$, with exponent close to $-2$: $S(k)\\propto k^{-2}$ over a wide range of scales. I present power spectral analyses of aircraft lidar measurements of phytoplankton abundance from scales of 1 to 100 km. A power spectrum $S(k)\\propto k^{-2}$ is obtained. As a model for this observation, I consider a stochastic growth equation where the rate of change of plankton abundance is determined by turbulent mixing, modeled as a diffusion process in two dimensions, and exponential growth with a stochastically variable net growth rate representing a fluctuating environment. The model predicts a lognormal distribution of abundance and a power spectrum of horizontal transects $S(k)\\propto k^{-1.8}$, close to the observed spectrum. The model equation predicts that the power spectrum of variations in abundance in time at a point in space is $S(f)\\propto f^{-1.5}$ (where $f$ is the frequency...

  9. Origin and abundance of beach debris in the Balearic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Martinez-Ribes


    Full Text Available The abundance, nature and possible sources of litter on 32 beaches on the Balearic Islands (Mediterranean Sea were investigated in 2005. Mean summer abundances in the Balearics reached approximately 36 items m-1, with a corresponding weight of 32±25 g m-1, which is comparable to the results of other studies in the Mediterranean. Multivariate analyses (principal component analysis and redundancy analysis confirmed strong similarities between islands and a statistically significant seasonal evolution of litter composition and abundance. In summer (the high tourist season, debris contamination expressed as item abundance was double that in the low season and showed a heterogeneous nature associated with beach use. Cigarette butts were the most abundant item, accounting for up to 46% of the objects observed in the high tourist season. In contrast, plastics related to personal hygiene/medical items were predominant in wintertime (67% and natural wood was the most important debris by weight (75%. In both seasons, litter characteristics suggested a strong relationship with local land-based origins. While beach users were the main source of summer debris, low tourist season litter was primarily attributed to drainage and outfall systems.

  10. Dispersal ability determines the scaling properties of species abundance distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borda-De-Água, Luís; Whittaker, Robert James; Cardoso, Pedro


    Species abundance distributions (SAD) are central to the description of diversity and have played a major role in the development of theories of biodiversity and biogeography. However, most work on species abundance distributions has focused on one single spatial scale. Here we used data on arthr......Species abundance distributions (SAD) are central to the description of diversity and have played a major role in the development of theories of biodiversity and biogeography. However, most work on species abundance distributions has focused on one single spatial scale. Here we used data...... on arthropods to test predictions obtained with computer simulations on whether dispersal ability influences the rate of change of SADs as a function of sample size. To characterize the change of the shape of the SADs we use the moments of the distributions: the skewness and the raw moments. In agreement...... with computer simulations, low dispersal ability species generate a hump for intermediate abundance classes earlier than the distributions of high dispersal ability species. Importantly, when plotted as function of sample size, the raw moments of the SADs of arthropods have a power law pattern similar...

  11. The invasive ant, Solenopsis invicta, reduces herpetofauna richness and abundance (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.; Slater, J.; Wiggers, E.


    Amphibians and reptiles are declining globally. One potential cause of this decline includes impacts resulting from co-occurrence with non-native red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Although a growing body of anecdotal and observational evidence from laboratory experiments supports this hypothesis, there remains a lack of field scale manipulations testing the effect of fire ants on reptile and amphibian communities. We addressed this gap by measuring reptile and amphibian (“herpetofauna”) community response to successful fire ant reductions over the course of 2 years following hydramethylnon application to five 100–200 ha plots in southeastern coastal South Carolina. By assessing changes in relative abundance and species richness of herpetofauna in response to fire ant reductions, we were able to assess whether some species were particularly vulnerable to fire ant presence, and whether this sensitivity manifested at the community level. We found that herpetofauna abundance and species richness responded positively to fire ant reductions. Our results document that even moderate populations of red imported fire ants decrease both the abundance and diversity of herpetofauna. Given global herpetofauna population declines and continued spread of fire ants, there is urgency to understand the impacts of fire ants beyond anecdotal and singles species studies. Our results provides the first community level investigation addressing these dynamics, by manipulating fire ant abundance to reveal a response in herpetofauna species abundance and richness.

  12. Abundance analysis of a CEMP-no star in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy (United States)

    Susmitha, A.; Koch, A.; Sivarani, T.


    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars bear important imprints of the early chemical enrichment of any stellar system. While these stars are known to exist in copious amounts in the Milky Way halo, detailed chemical abundance data from the faint dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellites are still sparse, although the relative fraction of these stars increases with decreasing metallicity. Here, we report the abundance analysis of a metal-poor ([ Fe / H ] = - 2.5 dex), carbon-rich ([C/Fe] = 1.4 dex) star, ALW-8, in the Carina dSph using high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the ESO/UVES instrument. Its spectrum does not indicate any over-enhancements of neutron capture elements. Thus classified as a CEMP-no star, this is the first detection of this kind of star in Carina. Another of our sample stars, ALW-1, is shown to be a CEMP-s star, but its immediate binarity prompted us to discard it from a detailed analysis. The majority of the 18 chemical elements we measured are typical of Carina's field star population and also agree with CEMP stars in other dSph galaxies. Similar to the only known CEMP-no star in the Sculptor dSph and the weak-r-process star HD 122563, the lack of any strong barium-enhancement is accompanied by a moderate overabundance in yttrium, indicating a weak r-process activity. The overall abundance pattern confirms that, also in Carina, the formation site for CEMP-no stars has been affected by both faint supernovae and by standard core collapse supernovae. Whichever process was responsible for the heavy element production in ALW-8 must be a ubiquitous source to pollute the CEMP-no stars, acting independently of the environment such as in the Galactic halo or in dSphs. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory at Paranal, Chile; Large Programme proposal 171.B- 0520.Table A.1 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via http://cdsarc

  13. The Chemistry of Superheavy Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Schädel, M


    The chemistry of transactinide or superheavy elements has reached element 108. Preparations are under way to leap to element 112 and beyond. The current status of this atom-at-a-time chemical research and its future perspectives are reviewed from an experimental point of view together with some of the interesting results from n -rich nuclides near and at the N=162 neutron shell. Experimental techniques and important results enlightening typical chemical properties of elements 104 through 108 are presented in an exemplary way. From the results of these experiments it is justified to place these elements in the Periodic Table of the Elements in to groups 4 through 8, respectively. However, mainly due to the influence of relativistic effects, it is no longer possible to deduce detailed chemical properties of these superheavy elements simply from this position.

  14. Variability of a Stellar Corona on a Time Scale of Days: Evidence for Abundance Fractionation in an Emerging Coronal Active Region (United States)

    Nordon, R.; Behar, E.; Drake, S. A.


    Elemental abundance effects in active coronae have eluded our understanding for almost three decades, since the discovery of the first ionization potential (FIP) effect on the sun. The goal of this paper is to monitor the same coronal structures over a time interval of six days and resolve active regions on a stellar corona through rotational modulation. We report on four iso-phase X-ray spectroscopic observations of the RS CVn binary EI Eri with XMM-Newton, carried out approximately every two days, to match the rotation period of EI Eri. We present an analysis of the thermal and chemical structure of the EI Eri corona as it evolves over the six days. Although the corona is rather steady in its temperature distribution, the emission measure and FIP bias both vary and seem to be correlated. An active region, predating the beginning of the campaign, repeatedly enters into our view at the same phase as it rotates from beyond the stellar limb. As a result, the abundances tend slightly, but consistently, to increase for high FIP elements (an inverse FIP effect) with phase. We estimate the abundance increase of high FIP elements in the active region to be of about 75% over the coronal mean. This observed fractionation of elements in an active region on time scales of days provides circumstantial clues regarding the element enrichment mechanism of non-flaring stellar coronae.

  15. Signs of Accretion in the Abundance Patterns of the Components of the RS CVn-type Eclipsing Binary Star LX Persei (United States)

    Kang, Young-Woon; Yushchenko, Alexander V.; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Guinan, Edward F.; Gopka, Vira F.


    We present spectroscopic observations of LX Per carried out using the Korean Bohyunsan Observatory Echelle Spectrograph (BOES) with spectral resolving power R = 80, 000. The spectrograph was attached to the 1.8 m telescope. The fit of synthetic spectra to the observed spectrum of the system allowed us to find the component parameters and the abundances of chemical elements in the atmospheres of the components. The strong Ca II H&K emissions are confirmed; we also found emission lines in the Ca II reversals' triplet absorptions at the wavelengths of 8498, 8542, and 8662 Å in the spectrum of the cooler component of LX Per. A unique photometric solution using the distorted light curves of three different epochs was made. The spot model light curves were fitted to the 1981, 1982, and 1983 observations successfully by adjusting only spot parameters. We could infer that the variation of spot location and size was the main reason for the changing shape of light curves. The main feature of the abundance patterns of both components was the apparent deficiency of heavy (Z > 30) elements. Only elements with strong lines, namely Y and Ba, were detected. Correlations of relative abundances of chemical elements with condensation temperatures and second ionization potentials of these elements, which can be explained by the accretion of dust and gas, were found.

  16. Origins Of The Elements - An Educational Web Site (United States)

    Samarasingha, Iranga; Ivans, I. I.


    This poster introduces a new and unique web site "ORIGINS OF THE ELEMENTS" to the astronomy and physics communities. The main objective of our site is to provide a useful reference guide to the origins of the elements for researchers, educators and students. Only a very few of the lightest elements have their origins at the earliest cosmological ages of the Universe, the Big Bang. Most of the elements found on the Earth, and in the rest of the Universe, owe their primary existence to stellar nucleosynthesis, either during the course of the energy generation lifetimes of stars, or in the exploding supernovae of stars at the end of their lives. A by-product of stellar energy generation and exploding supernovae is alchemy -- the ashes of the energy generation contribution of one element is another, more massive element. Although various reference sources are available to learn about nucleosynthesis, it's a challenging task to uncover appropriate study materials. In this single site, we present both data and recent research results in a concise and attractive structure. Using tables and charts, the material is presented in a multi-level style. For each of the elements in the periodic table, and for each of the stable isotopes in the chart of the nuclides, the site gives a clear visualization of their corresponding nucleosynthetic origins. As a consequence, the charts afford an insight into the patterns of nucleosynthesis. Moreover, the web site provides the student with an intuition to the relative distributions of those elements. Another important feature of our site is that users have direct access to the tabulated elemental abundances (both theoretical and observed) of stars and meteorites.

  17. Social research design: framework for integrating philosophical and practical elements. (United States)

    Cunningham, Kathryn Burns


    To provide and elucidate a comprehensible framework for the design of social research. An abundance of information exists concerning the process of designing social research. The overall message that can be gleaned is that numerable elements - both philosophical (ontological and epistemological assumptions and theoretical perspective) and practical (issue to be addressed, purpose, aims and research questions) - are influential in the process of selecting a research methodology and methods, and that these elements and their inter-relationships must be considered and explicated to ensure a coherent research design that enables well-founded and meaningful conclusions. There is a lack of guidance concerning the integration of practical and philosophical elements, hindering their consideration and explication. The author's PhD research into loneliness and cancer. This is a methodology paper. A guiding framework that incorporates all of the philosophical and practical elements influential in social research design is presented. The chronological and informative relationships between the elements are discussed. The framework presented can be used by social researchers to consider and explicate the practical and philosophical elements influential in the selection of a methodology and methods. It is hoped that the framework presented will aid social researchers with the design and the explication of the design of their research, thereby enhancing the credibility of their projects and enabling their research to establish well-founded and meaningful conclusions.

  18. Chemical characterization of element 112. (United States)

    Eichler, R; Aksenov, N V; Belozerov, A V; Bozhikov, G A; Chepigin, V I; Dmitriev, S N; Dressler, R; Gäggeler, H W; Gorshkov, V A; Haenssler, F; Itkis, M G; Laube, A; Lebedev, V Ya; Malyshev, O N; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Petrushkin, O V; Piguet, D; Rasmussen, P; Shishkin, S V; Shutov, A V; Svirikhin, A I; Tereshatov, E E; Vostokin, G K; Wegrzecki, M; Yeremin, A V


    The heaviest elements to have been chemically characterized are seaborgium (element 106), bohrium (element 107) and hassium (element 108). All three behave according to their respective positions in groups 6, 7 and 8 of the periodic table, which arranges elements according to their outermost electrons and hence their chemical properties. However, the chemical characterization results are not trivial: relativistic effects on the electronic structure of the heaviest elements can strongly influence chemical properties. The next heavy element targeted for chemical characterization is element 112; its closed-shell electronic structure with a filled outer s orbital suggests that it may be particularly susceptible to strong deviations from the chemical property trends expected within group 12. Indeed, first experiments concluded that element 112 does not behave like its lighter homologue mercury. However, the production and identification methods used cast doubt on the validity of this result. Here we report a more reliable chemical characterization of element 112, involving the production of two atoms of (283)112 through the alpha decay of the short-lived (287)114 (which itself forms in the nuclear fusion reaction of 48Ca with 242Pu) and the adsorption of the two atoms on a gold surface. By directly comparing the adsorption characteristics of (283)112 to that of mercury and the noble gas radon, we find that element 112 is very volatile and, unlike radon, reveals a metallic interaction with the gold surface. These adsorption characteristics establish element 112 as a typical element of group 12, and its successful production unambiguously establishes the approach to the island of stability of superheavy elements through 48Ca-induced nuclear fusion reactions with actinides.

  19. First determination of the tropospheric CO abundance in Saturn (United States)

    Fouchet, Thierry; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Cavalié, Thibault; Bézard, Bruno


    In Giant Planets, CO has two potential origins: i) an external source in form of cometary impacts, infalling ring/satellite dust or/and interplanetary particles; ii) an internal origin that involves convective transport from the deep, dense, hot atmosphere where the thermodynamic equilibrium CO abundance is relatively large.In Saturn, submilimeter stratospheric CO emissions have been detected (Cavalié et al. A&A, 510, A88, 2010; Cavalié et al. Icarus, 203, 531, 2009), suggesting a cometary impact 200 years ago. In contrast, no observation was in position to confirm or rule out the presence of CO in Saturn's troposphere (Noll et al. Icarus, 89, 168, 1990).Here, we present CRIRES/ELT 5-μm observations of Saturn that definitely confirm the presence of CO in Saturn's troposphere. We will present the derived CO abundance and its implication for Saturn's tropospheric transport rate and water deep abundance.

  20. Pex35 is a regulator of peroxisome abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yofe, Ido; Soliman, Kareem; Chuartzman, Silvia G


    Peroxisomes are cellular organelles with vital functions in lipid, amino acid, and redox metabolism. The cellular formation and dynamics of peroxisomes are governed by PEX genes, however, the regulation of peroxisome abundance is yet poorly understood. Here we use a high-content microscopy screen...... to identify novel regulators of peroxisome size and abundance. Our screen led to the identification of a previously uncharacterized gene, which we term PEX35, which affects peroxisome abundance. PEX35 encodes a peroxisomal membrane protein, a remote homolog to several curvature generating human proteins. We...... systematically characterized the genetic and physical interactome as well as the metabolome of mutants in PEX35, and we found that Pex35 functionally interacts with the vesicle budding inducer Arf1 Our results highlight the functional interaction between peroxisomes and the secretory pathway....

  1. Detecting novel low-abundant transcripts in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sanggyu; Bao, Jingyue; Zhou, Guolin


    Increasing evidence suggests that low-abundant transcripts may play fundamental roles in biological processes. In an attempt to estimate the prevalence of low-abundant transcripts in eukaryotic genomes, we performed a transcriptome analysis in Drosophila using the SAGE technique. We collected 244......,313 SAGE tags from transcripts expressed in Drosophila embryonic, larval, pupae, adult, and testicular tissue. From these SAGE tags, we identified 40,823 unique SAGE tags. Our analysis showed that 55% of the 40,823 unique SAGE tags are novel without matches in currently known Drosophila transcripts......, and most of the novel SAGE tags have low copy numbers. Further analysis indicated that these novel SAGE tags represent novel low-abundant transcripts expressed from loci outside of currently annotated exons including the intergenic and intronic regions, and antisense of the currently annotated exons...

  2. The abundant world: Paul Feyerabend's metaphysics of science. (United States)

    Brown, Matthew J


    The goal of this paper is to provide an interpretation of Feyerabend's metaphysics of science as found in late works like Conquest of Abundance and Tyranny of Science. Feyerabend's late metaphysics consists of an attempt to criticize and provide a systematic alternative to traditional scientific realism, a package of views he sometimes referred to as "scientific materialism." Scientific materialism is objectionable not only on metaphysical grounds, nor because it provides a poor ground for understanding science, but because it implies problematic claims about the epistemic and cultural authority of science, claims incompatible with situating science properly in democratic societies. I show how Feyerabend's metaphysical view, which I call "the abundant world" or "abundant realism," constitute a sophisticated and challenging form of ontological pluralism that makes interesting connections with contemporary philosophy of science and issues of the political and policy role of science in a democratic society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. New Abundant Microbial Groups in Aquatic Hypersaline Environments (United States)

    Ghai, Rohit; Pašić, Lejla; Fernández, Ana Beatriz; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; McMahon, Katherine D.; Papke, R. Thane; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Rodriguez-Brito, Beltran; Rohwer, Forest; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio; Rodríguez-Valera, Francisco


    We describe the microbiota of two hypersaline saltern ponds, one of intermediate salinity (19%) and a NaCl saturated crystallizer pond (37%) using pyrosequencing. The analyses of these metagenomes (nearly 784 Mb) reaffirmed the vast dominance of Haloquadratum walsbyi but also revealed novel, abundant and previously unsuspected microbial groups. We describe for the first time, a group of low GC Actinobacteria, related to freshwater Actinobacteria, abundant in low and intermediate salinities. Metagenomic assembly revealed three new abundant microbes: a low-GC euryarchaeon with the lowest GC content described for any euryarchaeon, a high-GC euryarchaeon and a gammaproteobacterium related to Alkalilimnicola and Nitrococcus. Multiple displacement amplification and sequencing of the genome from a single archaeal cell of the new low GC euryarchaeon suggest a photoheterotrophic and polysaccharide-degrading lifestyle and its relatedness to the recently described lineage of Nanohaloarchaea. These discoveries reveal the combined power of an unbiased metagenomic and single cell genomic approach. PMID:22355652

  4. Chemical Abundances in the Leading Arm of the Magellanic Stream (United States)

    Fox, Andrew; Barger, Kat; Wakker, Bart; Antwi-Danso, Jacqueline; Richter, Philipp; Casetti, Dana; Howk, Chris; Lehner, Nicolas; D'Onghia, Elena; Crowther, Paul


    A vast debris field connects the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. Known as the Leading Arm of the Magellanic Stream, this network of gas clouds represents an active site of gas accretion onto the Milky Way. Previously only one chemical abundance measurement had been made in the Leading Arm, toward the AGN NGC 3783. Here we present new chemical abundance measurements along seven Leading Arm sightlines using Hubble/COS spectra of background AGN. We focus on the O/H and S/H abundances, which have small dust depletion and ionization corrections. These measurements provide important constraints on the origin of the Leading Arm and its relationship to the trailing Stream, and can be used to constrain numerical simulations of Leading Arm formation.

  5. The human initiator is a distinct and abundant element that is precisely positioned in focused core promoters. (United States)

    Vo Ngoc, Long; Cassidy, California Jack; Huang, Cassidy Yunjing; Duttke, Sascha H C; Kadonaga, James T


    DNA sequence signals in the core promoter, such as the initiator (Inr), direct transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II. Here we show that the human Inr has the consensus of BBCA+1BW at focused promoters in which transcription initiates at a single site or a narrow cluster of sites. The analysis of 7678 focused transcription start sites revealed 40% with a perfect match to the Inr and 16% with a single mismatch outside of the CA+1 core. TATA-like sequences are underrepresented in Inr promoters. This consensus is a key component of the DNA sequence rules that specify transcription initiation in humans. © 2017 Vo ngoc et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. Selected elements in fly agaric Amanita muscaria. (United States)

    Falandysz, J; Kunito, T; Kubota, R; Lipka, K; Mazur, A; Falandysz, Justyna J; Tanabe, S


    Concentrations of Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb, Rb, Se, Sb, Sr, V, Tl and Zn have been determined in the whole fruiting bodies, as well as separately in caps and stalks, of fly agaric collected from three geographically distant sites in northern part of Poland. The elements were determined using ICP-MS, ICP-OES, HG-AAS and CV-AAS, respectively. For elements such as Al, Ba, Cr, Fe, Ga, Mo, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, Tl, and V concentrations were similar in the caps and stalks, respectively, and for K, Zn, Ag, Ca, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mg, Rb and Se were greater in the caps, while for Co, Cs and Na in the stalks. For Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ga, Hg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sr, Tl and V concentration in the caps showed spatial variations (P<0.05), while for Cu, K, Mg, Na, Se and Zn was independent of the site. The elements such as K with median or mean in the caps between 37,000 and 43,000 microg/ and Mg with 920 and 1,100 microg/g dm were most abundant. Next, within median values range from approximately 100 to 500 microg/g dm were such as Ca, Fe and Al, and in descending order they followed by Rb (100-400 microg/g dm); V, Na, Zn (50-200 microg/g dm); Cu, Mn (10-50 microg/g dm); Cd (10-20 microg/g dm); Se (5 microg/g dm); Ba (<1-3); Cr, Ag, Pb, Sr (<1-2 microg/g dm); Cs, Co, Hg (<1-1 microg/g dm); Ga (<0.5), Sb, Mo and Tl (<0.1 microg/g dm).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN, N.E.


    Along with my usual weekly review of the published literature for new nuclear data, I also search for new candidates for best measurements of isotopic abundances from a single source. Most of the published articles, that I previously had found in the Research Library at the Brookhaven Lab, have already been sent to the members of the Atomic Weights Commission, by either Michael Berglund or Thomas Walczyk. In the last few days, I checked the published literature for any other articles in the areas of natural variations in isotopic abundance ratios, measurements of isotopic abundance ratios on samples of extra-terrestrial material and isotopic abundance ratio measurements performed using ICPMS instruments. Hopefully this information will be of interest to members of the Commission, the sub-committee on isotopic abundance measurements (SIAM), members of the former sub-committee on natural isotopic fractionation (SNIF), the sub-committee on extra-terrestrial isotope ratios (SETIR), the RTCE Task Group and the Guidelines Task Group, who are dealing with ICPMS and TIMS comparisons. In the following report, I categorize the publications in one of four areas. Measurements performed using either positive or negative ions with Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer, TIMS, instruments; measurements performed on Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer, ICPMS, instruments; measurements of natural variations of the isotopic abundance ratios; and finally measurements on extra-terrestrial samples with instrumentation of either type. There is overlap in these areas. I selected out variations and ET results first and then categorized the rest of the papers by TIMS and ICPMS.

  8. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Serafy

    Full Text Available Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1 Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2 Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1 focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2 consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3 quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i

  9. Experimental plant communities develop phylogenetically overdispersed abundance distributions during assembly. (United States)

    Allan, Eric; Jenkins, Tania; Fergus, Alexander J F; Roscher, Christiane; Fischer, Markus; Petermann, Jana; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schmid, Bernhard


    The importance of competition between similar species in driving community assembly is much debated. Recently, phylogenetic patterns in species composition have been investigated to help resolve this question: phylogenetic clustering is taken to imply environmental filtering, and phylogenetic overdispersion to indicate limiting similarity between species. We used experimental plant communities with random species compositions and initially even abundance distributions to examine the development of phylogenetic pattern in species abundance distributions. Where composition was held constant by weeding, abundance distributions became overdispersed through time, but only in communities that contained distantly related clades, some with several species (i.e., a mix of closely and distantly related species). Phylogenetic pattern in composition therefore constrained the development of overdispersed abundance distributions, and this might indicate limiting similarity between close relatives and facilitation/complementarity between distant relatives. Comparing the phylogenetic patterns in these communities with those expected from the monoculture abundances of the constituent species revealed that interspecific competition caused the phylogenetic patterns. Opening experimental communities to colonization by all species in the species pool led to convergence in phylogenetic diversity. At convergence, communities were composed of several distantly related but species-rich clades and had overdispersed abundance distributions. This suggests that limiting similarity processes determine which species dominate a community but not which species occur in a community. Crucially, as our study was carried out in experimental communities, we could rule out local evolutionary or dispersal explanations for the patterns and identify ecological processes as the driving force, underlining the advantages of studying these processes in experimental communities. Our results show that

  10. Elements and elasmobranchs: hypotheses, assumptions and limitations of elemental analysis. (United States)

    McMillan, M N; Izzo, C; Wade, B; Gillanders, B M


    Quantifying the elemental composition of elasmobranch calcified cartilage (hard parts) has the potential to answer a range of ecological and biological questions, at both the individual and population level. Few studies, however, have employed elemental analyses of elasmobranch hard parts. This paper provides an overview of the range of applications of elemental analysis in elasmobranchs, discussing the assumptions and potential limitations in cartilaginous fishes. It also reviews the available information on biotic and abiotic factors influencing patterns of elemental incorporation into hard parts of elasmobranchs and provides some comparative elemental assays and mapping in an attempt to fill knowledge gaps. Directions for future experimental research are highlighted to better understand fundamental elemental dynamics in elasmobranch hard parts. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Ages of 70 Dwarfs of Three Populations in the Solar Neighborhood: Considering O and C Abundances in Stellar Models (United States)

    Ge, Z. S.; Bi, S. L.; Chen, Y. Q.; Li, T. D.; Zhao, J. K.; Liu, K.; Ferguson, J. W.; Wu, Y. Q.


    Oxygen and carbon are important elements in stellar populations. Their behavior refers to the formation history of the stellar populations. C and O abundances would also obviously influence stellar opacities and the overall metal abundance Z. With observed high-quality spectroscopic properties, we construct stellar models with C and O elements to give more accurate ages for 70 metal-poor dwarfs, which have been determined to be high-α halo, low-α halo, and thick-disk stars. Our results show that high-α halo stars are somewhat older than low-α halo stars by around 2.0 Gyr. The thick-disk population has an age range in between the two halo populations. The age distribution profiles indicate that high-α halo and low-α halo stars match the in situ accretion simulation by Zolotov et al., and the thick-disk stars might be formed in a relatively quiescent and long-lasting process. We also note that stellar ages are very sensitive to O abundance, since the ages clearly increase with increasing [O/Fe] values. Additionally, we obtain several stars with peculiar ages, including 2 young thick-disk stars and 12 stars older than the universe age.

  12. Chemical abundance analysis of symbiotic giants - II. AE Ara, BX Mon, KX TrA, and CL Sco (United States)

    Gałan, Cezary; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Hinkle, Kenneth H.


    Knowledge of the elemental abundances of symbiotic giants is essential to address the role of chemical composition in the evolution of symbiotic binaries, to map their parent population, and to trace their mass transfer history. However, there are few symbiotic giants for which the photospheric abundances are fairly well determined. This is the second in a series of papers on chemical composition of symbiotic giants determined from high-resolution (R ˜ 50 000) near-IR spectra. Results are presented for the late-type giant star in the AE Ara, BX Mon, KX TrA, and CL Sco systems. Spectrum synthesis employing standard local thermal equilibrium (LTE) analysis and stellar atmosphere models were used to obtain photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak (Sc, Ti, Fe, and Ni). Our analysis resulted in sub-solar metallicities in BX Mon, KX TrA, and CL Sco by [Fe/H] ˜ -0.3 or -0.5 depending on the value of microturbulence. AE Ara shows metallicity closer to solar by ˜ 0.2 dex. The enrichment in 14N isotope found in all these objects indicates that the giants have experienced the first dredge-up. In the case of BX Mon first dredge-up is also confirmed by the low 12C/13C isotopic ratio of ˜ 8.

  13. Asteroseismic estimate of helium abundance of 16 Cyg A, B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Kuldeep


    Full Text Available The helium ionization zone in a star leaves a characteristic signature on its oscillation frequencies, which can be used to estimate the helium content in the envelope of the star. We use the oscillation frequencies of 16 Cyg A and B, obtained using 2.5 years of Kepler data, to estimate the envelope helium abundance of these stars. We find the envelope helium abundance to lie in the range 0.231–0.251 for 16 Cyg A and 0.218–0.266 for 16 Cyg B.

  14. Instruction manual for ORNL tandem high abundance sensitivity mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.H.; McKown, H.S.; Chrisite, W.H.; Walker, R.L.; Carter, J.A.


    This manual describes the physical characteristics of the tandem mass spectrometer built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the International Atomic Energy Agency. Specific requirements met include ability to run small samples, high abundance sensitivity, good precision and accuracy, and adequate sample throughput. The instrument is capable of running uranium samples as small as 10/sup -12/ g and has an abundance sensitivity in excess of 10/sup 6/. Precision and accuracy are enhanced by a special sweep control circuit. Sample throughput is 6 to 12 samples per day. Operating instructions are also given.

  15. Lubrication of Machine Elements (United States)

    Hamrock, Bernard J.


    The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

  16. Levels of major and trace elements, including rare earth elements, and ²³⁸U in Croatian tap waters. (United States)

    Fiket, Željka; Rožmarić, Martina; Krmpotić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila


    Concentrations of 46 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements, and (238)U in Croatian tap waters were investigated. Selected sampling locations include tap waters from various hydrogeological regions, i.e., different types of aquifers, providing insight into the range of concentrations of studied elements and (238)U activity concentrations in Croatian tap waters. Obtained concentrations were compared with the Croatian maximum contaminant levels for trace elements in water intended for human consumption, as well as WHO and EPA drinking water standards. Concentrations in all analyzed tap waters were found in accordance with Croatian regulations, except tap water from Šibenik in which manganese in concentration above maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was measured. Furthermore, in tap water from Osijek, levels of arsenic exceeded the WHO guidelines and EPA regulations. In general, investigated tap waters were found to vary considerably in concentrations of studied elements, including (238)U activity concentrations. Causes of variability were further explored using statistical methods. Composition of studied tap waters was found to be predominately influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, at regional and local level, the existing redox conditions, and the household plumbing system. Rare earth element data, including abundances and fractionation patterns, complemented the characterization and facilitated the interpretation of factors affecting the composition of the analyzed tap waters.

  17. Chemistry of the superheavy elements. (United States)

    Schädel, Matthias


    The quest for superheavy elements (SHEs) is driven by the desire to find and explore one of the extreme limits of existence of matter. These elements exist solely due to their nuclear shell stabilization. All 15 presently 'known' SHEs (11 are officially 'discovered' and named) up to element 118 are short-lived and are man-made atom-at-a-time in heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. They are identical to the transactinide elements located in the seventh period of the periodic table beginning with rutherfordium (element 104), dubnium (element 105) and seaborgium (element 106) in groups 4, 5 and 6, respectively. Their chemical properties are often surprising and unexpected from simple extrapolations. After hassium (element 108), chemistry has now reached copernicium (element 112) and flerovium (element 114). For the later ones, the focus is on questions of their metallic or possibly noble gas-like character originating from interplay of most pronounced relativistic effects and electron-shell effects. SHEs provide unique opportunities to get insights into the influence of strong relativistic effects on the atomic electrons and to probe 'relativistically' influenced chemical properties and the architecture of the periodic table at its farthest reach. In addition, they establish a test bench to challenge the validity and predictive power of modern fully relativistic quantum chemical models. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of global nuclear mass model uncertainties on r-process abundance predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumpower M.


    Full Text Available Rapid neutron capture or ‘r-process’ nucleosynthesis may be responsible for half the production of heavy elements above iron on the periodic table. Masses are one of the most important nuclear physics ingredients that go into calculations of r-process nucleosynthesis as they enter into the calculations of reaction rates, decay rates, branching ratios and Q-values. We explore the impact of uncertainties in three nuclear mass models on r-process abundances by performing global monte carlo simulations. We show that root-mean-square (rms errors of current mass models are large so that current r-process predictions are insufficient in predicting features found in solar residuals and in r-process enhanced metal poor stars. We conclude that the reduction of global rms errors below 100 keV will allow for more robust r-process predictions.

  19. An abundance of small exoplanets around stars with a wide range of metallicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Lars A.; Latham, David W.; Johansen, Anders


    on average a metallicity close to that of the Sun), whereas large planets preferentially form around stars with higher metallicities. This observation suggests that terrestrial planets may be widespread in the disk of the Galaxy, with no special requirement of enhanced metallicity for their formation.......The abundance of heavy elements (metallicity) in the photospheres of stars similar to the Sun provides a fossil record of the chemical composition of the initial protoplanetary disk. Metal-rich stars are much more likely to harbour gas giant planets, supporting the model that planets form...... of the host stars of 226 small exoplanet candidates discovered by NASAs Kepler mission, including objects that are comparable in size to the terrestrial planets in the Solar System. We find that planets with radii less than four Earth radii form around host stars with a wide range of metallicities (but...

  20. Early-type galaxy archeology: Ages, abundance ratios, and effective temperatures from full-spectrum fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Graves, Genevieve J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter G. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)


    The stellar populations of galaxies hold vital clues to their formation histories. In this paper we present results based on modeling stacked spectra of early-type galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a function of velocity dispersion, σ, from 90 km s{sup –1} to 300 km s{sup –1}. The spectra are of extremely high quality, with typical signal-to-noise ratio of 1000 Å{sup –1}, and a wavelength coverage of 4000 Å –8800 Å. Our population synthesis model includes variation in 16 elements from C to Ba, a two-component star formation history, the shift in effective temperature, Δ T {sub eff}, of the stars with respect to a solar metallicity isochrone, and the stellar initial mass function, among other parameters. In our approach we fit the full optical spectra rather than a select number of spectral indices and are able to, for the first time, measure the abundances of the elements V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni from the integrated light of distant galaxies. Our main results are as follows: (1) light-weighted stellar ages range from 6-12 Gyr from low to high σ; (2) [Fe/H] varies by less than 0.1 dex across the entire sample; (3) Mg closely tracks O, and both increase from ≈0.0 at low σ to ∼0.25 at high σ; Si and Ti show a shallower rise with σ, and Ca tracks Fe rather than O; (4) the iron peak elements V, Cr, Mn, and Ni track Fe, while Co tracks O, suggesting that Co forms primarily in massive stars; (5) C and N track O over the full sample and [C/Fe] and [N/Fe] exceed 0.2 at high σ; and (6) the variation in Δ T {sub eff} with total metallicity closely follows theoretical predictions based on stellar evolution theory. This last result is significant because it implies that we are robustly solving not only for the detailed abundance patterns but also the detailed temperature distributions (i.e., isochrones) of the stars in these galaxies. A variety of tests reveal that the systematic uncertainties in our measurements are probably 0.05 dex or