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Sample records for abundance element

  1. Solar System Abundances of the Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Lodders, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Representative abundances of the chemical elements for use as a solar abundance standard in astronomical and planetary studies are summarized. Updated abundance tables for solar system abundances based on meteorites and photospheric measurements are presented.

  2. Coronae of Stars with Supersolar Elemental Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Uria; Behar, Ehud; Drake, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Coronal elemental abundances are known to deviate from the photospheric values of their parent star, with the degree of deviation depending on the first ionization potential (FIP). This study focuses on the coronal composition of stars with supersolar photospheric abundances. We present the coronal abundances of six such stars: 11 LMi, iota Hor, HR 7291, tau Boo, and alpha Cen A and B. These stars all have high-statistics X-ray spectra, three of which are presented for the first time. The abundances we measured were obtained using the line-resolved spectra of the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) in conjunction with the higher throughput EPIC-pn camera spectra onboard the XMM-Newton observatory. A collisionally ionized plasma model with two or three temperature components is found to represent the spectra well. All elements are found to be consistently depleted in the coronae compared to their respective photospheres. For 11 LMi and tau Boo no FIP effect is present, while iota Hor, HR 7291, and alpha Cen A and B show a clear FIP trend. These conclusions hold whether the comparison is made with solar abundances or the individual stellar abundances. Unlike the solar corona, where low-FIP elements are enriched, in these stars the FIP effect is consistently due to a depletion of high-FIP elements with respect to actual photospheric abundances. A comparison with solar (instead of stellar) abundances yields the same fractionation trend as on the Sun. In both cases, a similar FIP bias is inferred, but different fractionation mechanisms need to be invoked.

  3. Earth Abundant Element Type I Clathrate Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Kauzlarich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Earth abundant element clathrate phases are of interest for a number of applications ranging from photovoltaics to thermoelectrics. Silicon-containing type I clathrate is a framework structure with the stoichiometry A8-xSi46 (A = guest atom such as alkali metal that can be tuned by alloying and doping with other elements. The type I clathrate framework can be described as being composed of two types of polyhedral cages made up of tetrahedrally coordinated Si: pentagonal dodecahedra with 20 atoms and tetrakaidecahedra with 24 atoms in the ratio of 2:6. The cation sites, A, are found in the center of each polyhedral cage. This review focuses on the newest discoveries in the group 13-silicon type I clathrate family: A8E8Si38 (A = alkali metal; E = Al, Ga and their properties. Possible approaches to new phases based on earth abundant elements and their potential applications will be discussed.

  4. Elemental abundances and classification of CEMP stars

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Dinah M; Rossi, Silvia; Beers, Tim C; Tsangarides, Stelios A

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed study of Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars, based on high-resolution spectroscopic observations of a sample of 18 stars. The stellar spectra for this sample were obtained at the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in 2001 and 2002, using the Utrecht Echelle Spectrograph (UES), at a resolving power R ~52000 and S/N ~ 40, covering the wavelength range lambda-lambda 3700-5700 A. The atmospheric parameters determined for this sample indicate temperatures ranging from 4750 C to 7100 K, log g from 1.5 to 4.3, and metallicities -3.0 <= [Fe/H] <= -1.7. Elemental abundances for C, Na, Mg, Sc, Ti, Cr, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy are determined. Abundances for an additional 109 stars were taken from the literature and combined with the data of our sample. The literature sample reveals a lack of reliable abundance estimates for species that might be associated with the r-process elements for about 67% of CEMP stars, preventing a complete understanding of this clas...

  5. Element Abundances through the Cosmic Ages

    CERN Document Server

    Pettini, M

    2003-01-01

    The horizon for studies of element abundances has expanded dramatically in the last ten years. Once the domain of astronomers concerned chiefly with stars and nearby galaxies, this field has now become a key component of observational cosmology, as technological advances have made it possible to measure the abundances of several chemical elements in a variety of environments at redshifts up to z = 4, when the universe was in its infancy. In this series of lectures I summarise current knowledge on the chemical make-up of distant galaxies observed directly in their starlight, and of interstellar and intergalactic gas seen in absorption against the spectra of bright background sources. The picture which is emerging is one where the universe at z = 3 already included many of the constituents of today's galaxies-even at these early times we see evidence for Population I and II stars, while the `smoking gun' for Population III objects may be hidden in the chemical composition of the lowest density regions of the in...

  6. Elemental Abundances of Solar Sibling Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez, I; Bobylev, V V; Roederer, I U; Lambert, D L; Endl, M; Cochran, W D; MacQueen, P J; Wittenmyer, R A

    2014-01-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying a...

  7. The Solar Heavy Element Abundances: I. Constraints from Stellar Interiors

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, F; Delahaye, Franck; Pinsonneault, Marc

    2005-01-01

    The latest solar atmosphere models include non-LTE corrections and 3D hydrodynamic convection simulations. These models predict a significant reduction in the solar metal abundance, which leads to a serious conflict between helioseismic data and the predictions of solar interiors models. We demonstrate that the helioseismic constraints on the surface convection zone depth and helium abundance combined with stellar interiors models can be used to define the goodness of fit for a given chemical composition. After a detailed examination of the errors in the theoretical models we conclude that models constructed with the older solar abundances are consistent (<2 \\sigma) with the seismic data. Models constructed with the proposed new low abundance scale are strongly disfavored, disagreeing at the 15 \\sigma level. We then use the sensitivity of the seismic properties to abundance changes to invert the problem and infer a seismic solar heavy element abundance mix with two components: meteoritic abundances, and th...

  8. A Comparison of Stellar Elemental Abundance Techniques and Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkel, Natalie R; Pagano, Michael D; Desch, Steven J; Anbar, Ariel D; Adibekyan, Vardan; Blanco-Cuaresma, Sergi; Carlberg, Joleen K; Mena, Elisa Delgado; Liu, Fan; Nordlander, Thomas; Sousa, Sergio G; Korn, Andreas; Gruyters, Pieter; Heiter, Ulrike; Jofre, Paula; Santos, Nuno C; Soubiran, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Stellar elemental abundances are important for understanding the fundamental properties of a star or stellar group, such as age and evolutionary history, as well as the composition of an orbiting planet. However, as abundance measurement techniques have progressed, there has been little standardization between individual methods and their comparisons. As a result, different stellar abundance procedures determine measurements that vary beyond quoted error for the same elements within the same stars (Hinkel et al. 2014). The purpose of this paper is to better understand the systematic variations between methods and offer recommendations for producing more accurate results in the future. We have invited a number of participants from around the world (Australia, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and USA) to calculate ten element abundances (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Fe, Ni, Ba, and Eu) using the same stellar spectra for four stars (HD361, HD10700, HD121504, HD202206). Each group produced measurements for each of the sta...

  9. Fe-peak element abundances in disk and halo stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bergemann, Maria

    2009-01-01

    At present none of Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) models provides a self-consistent description of observed trends for all iron-peak elements with metallicity simultaneously. The question is whether the discrepancy is due to deficiencies of GCE models, such as stellar yields, or due to erroneous spectroscopically-determined abundances of these elements in metal-poor stars. The present work aims at a critical reevaluation of the abundance trends for several odd and even-Z Fe-peak elements, which are important for understanding explosive nucleosynthesis in supernovae.

  10. HD 209621: Abundances of neutron-capture elements

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Aruna; Aoki, Wako

    2010-01-01

    High resolution spectra obtained from the Subaru Telescope High Dispersion Spectrograph have been used to update the stellar atmospheric parameters and metallicity of the star HD 209621. We have derived a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.93 for this star, and have found a large enhancement of carbon and of heavy elements, with respect to iron. Updates on the elemental abundances of four s-process elements (Y, Ce, Pr, Nd) along with the first estimates of abundances for a number of other heavy eleme...

  11. Elemental abundances of intermediate age open cluster NGC 3680

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschang, A W; Zucker, D B

    2012-01-01

    We present a new abundance analysis of the intermediate age Galactic open cluster NGC 3680, based on high resolution, high signal-to-noise VLT/UVES spectroscopic data. Several element abundances are presented for this cluster for the first time, but most notably we derive abundances for the light and heavy s-process elements Y, Ba, La, and Nd. The serendipitous measurement of the rare-earth r-process element Gd is also reported. This cluster exhibits a significant enhancement of Na in giants as compared to dwarfs, which may be a proxy for an O to Na anti-correlation as observed in Galactic globular clusters but not open clusters. We also observe a step-like enhancement of heavy s-process elements towards higher atomic number, contrary to expectations from AGB nucleosynthesis models, suggesting that the r-process played a significant role in the generation of both La and Nd in this cluster

  12. The Origin of Element Abundance Variations in Solar Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.

    2016-08-01

    Abundance enhancements, during acceleration and transport in both gradual and impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) events, vary approximately as power laws in the mass-to-charge ratio [A/Q] of the ions. Since the Q-values depend upon the electron temperature of the source plasma, this has allowed a determination of this temperature from the pattern of element-abundance enhancements and a verification of the expected inverse-time dependence of the power of A/Q for diffusive transport of ions from the SEP events, with scattering mean free paths found to be between 0.2 and 1 AU. SEP events derived from plasma of different temperatures map into different regions in typical cross-plots of abundances, spreading the distributions. In comparisons of SEP events with temperatures above 2 MK, impulsive events show much broader non-thermal variation of abundances than do gradual events. The extensive shock waves accelerating ions in gradual events may average over much of an active region where numerous but smaller magnetic reconnections, "nanojets", produce suprathermal seed ions, thus averaging over varying abundances, while an impulsive SEP event only samples one local region of abundance variations. Evidence for a reference He/O-abundance ratio of 91, rather than 57, is also found for the hotter plasma. However, while this is similar to the solar-wind abundance of He/O, the solar-wind abundances otherwise provide an unacceptably poor reference for the SEP-abundance enhancements, generating extremely large errors.

  13. The Origin of Element Abundance Variations in Solar Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.

    2016-07-01

    Abundance enhancements, during acceleration and transport in both gradual and impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) events, vary approximately as power laws in the mass-to-charge ratio [ A/Q] of the ions. Since the Q-values depend upon the electron temperature of the source plasma, this has allowed a determination of this temperature from the pattern of element-abundance enhancements and a verification of the expected inverse-time dependence of the power of A/Q for diffusive transport of ions from the SEP events, with scattering mean free paths found to be between 0.2 and 1 AU. SEP events derived from plasma of different temperatures map into different regions in typical cross-plots of abundances, spreading the distributions. In comparisons of SEP events with temperatures above 2 MK, impulsive events show much broader non-thermal variation of abundances than do gradual events. The extensive shock waves accelerating ions in gradual events may average over much of an active region where numerous but smaller magnetic reconnections, "nanojets", produce suprathermal seed ions, thus averaging over varying abundances, while an impulsive SEP event only samples one local region of abundance variations. Evidence for a reference He/O-abundance ratio of 91, rather than 57, is also found for the hotter plasma. However, while this is similar to the solar-wind abundance of He/O, the solar-wind abundances otherwise provide an unacceptably poor reference for the SEP-abundance enhancements, generating extremely large errors.

  14. Elemental abundances variations in plume and interplume regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennou, Chloé; Savin, Daniel; Hahn, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Plumes are relatively bright, narrow structures in coronal holes that extend along open magnetic field lines far out into the corona. Extensive coronal measurements show abundances anomalies in the solar corona, in which elements with a low first ionization potential (FIP) Remote sensing spectroscopic measurements show that interplume regions have a photospheric composition. In contrast, the elemental composition of plume material is still unclear, previous spectroscopic measurements have reached contradictory results as to whether the elemental abundances in plumes are the same as or different from interplume regions. In this work, we measured the FIP bias, i.e. the ratio of coronal to photospheric abundances, in both interplumes and plumes using Hinode/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) data. Using spectral line intensities and Differential Emission Measure analysis, we assess the chemical composition of plumes and interplumes over an ~24 hour period in March, 2007. We find that some plumes do show different elemental abundances relative to interplumes. Moreover, the abundance anomaly in plumes is time dependent. If previous studies observed plumes at different stages in their evolution, this time dependence may explain the lack of consistency among previous results. Our work on plume and interplume elemental composition may also enable in situ measurements to answer the longstanding question of whether plumes contribute to the fast solar wind, which originates from coronal holes.

  15. Neutron-Capture Element Abundances in Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Mashburn, A L; Madonna, S; Dinerstein, H L; Roederer, I U; Geballe, T

    2016-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectra of ten planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC), acquired with the FIRE and GNIRS spectrometers on the 6.5-m Baade and 8.1-m Gemini South Telescopes, respectively. We detect Se and/or Kr emission lines in eight of these objects, the first detections of n-capture elements in Magellanic Cloud PNe. Our abundance analysis shows large s-process enrichments of Kr (0.6-1.3 dex) in the six PNe in which it was detected, and Se is enriched by 0.5-0.9 dex in five objects. We also estimate upper limits to Rb and Cd abundances in these objects. Our abundance results for the LMC are consistent with the hypothesis that PNe with 2--3 M$_{\\odot}$ progenitors dominate the bright end of the PN luminosity function in young gas-rich galaxies. We find no significant correlations between s-process enrichments and other elemental abundances, central star temperature, or progenitor mass, though this is likely due to our small sample size. We determine S abundances...

  16. Trace Element Abundance Measurements on Cosmic Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, George

    1996-01-01

    The X-Ray Microprobe on beamline X-26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was used to determine the abundances of elements from Cr through Sr in individual interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected from the Earth's stratosphere and the Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope (STXM) on beamline X-1A at the NSLS was used to determine the carbon abundances and spatial distributions in IDPs. In addition, modeling was performed in an attempt to associate particular types of IDPs with specific types of parent bodies, and thus to infer the chemistry, mineralogy, and structural properties of those parent bodies.

  17. Revised element abundances for WC-type central stars

    CERN Document Server

    Todt, H; Hamann, W -R

    2007-01-01

    According to previous spectral analyses of Wolf-Rayet type central stars, late [WC] subtypes show systematically higher carbon-to-helium abundance ratios than early [WC] subtypes. If this were true, it would rule out that these stars form an evolutionary sequence. However, due to the different parameter domains and diagnostic lines, one might suspect systematic errors being the source of this discrepancy. In an ongoing project we are therefore checking the [WC] analyses by means of the last generation of non-LTE models for expanding stellar atmospheres which account for line-blanketing and wind clumping. So far, the abundance discrepancy is not resolved. Further element abundances (H, N, Fe) are determined and compared with evolutionary predictions.

  18. Neutron-capture Element Abundances in Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, A. L.; Sterling, N. C.; Madonna, S.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Roederer, I. U.; Geballe, T. R.

    2016-11-01

    We present near-infrared spectra of 10 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC), acquired with the FIRE and GNIRS spectrometers on the 6.5 m Baade and 8.1 m Gemini South Telescopes, respectively. We detect Se and/or Kr emission lines in eight of these objects, the first detections of n-capture elements in Magellanic Cloud PNe. Our abundance analysis shows large s-process enrichments of Kr (0.6–1.3 dex) in the six PNe in which it was detected, and Se is enriched by 0.5–0.9 dex in five objects. We also estimate upper limits to Rb and Cd abundances in these objects. Our abundance results for the LMC are consistent with the hypothesis that PNe with 2–3 M ⊙ progenitors dominate the bright end of the PN luminosity function in young gas-rich galaxies. We find no significant correlations between s-process enrichments and other elemental abundances, central star temperature, or progenitor mass, though this is likely due to our small sample size. We determine S abundances from our spectra and find that [S/H] agrees with [Ar/H] to within 0.2 dex for most objects, but is lower than [O/H] by 0.2–0.4 dex in some PNe, possibly due to O enrichment via third dredge-up. Our results demonstrate that n-capture elements can be detected in PNe belonging to nearby galaxies with ground-based telescopes, allowing s-process enrichments to be studied in PN populations with well-determined distances. This paper includes data obtained with the 6.5-m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and with the Gemini-South Telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile.

  19. Abundances of 30 elements in 23 metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, J A

    2002-01-01

    We report the abundances of 30 elements in 23 metal-poor ([Fe/H] 0.10 dex, the relative abundances, especially between closely allied atoms such as the rare earth group, often show only small (<0.03 dex) changes. We found that some strong lines of FeI, MnI and CrI consistently gave lower abundances by ~0.2 dex, a number larger than the quoted errors in the gf values. After considering a model with depth-dependent microturbulent velocity and a model with hotter temperatures in the upper layers, we conclude that the latter did a better job of resolving the problem and agreeing with observational evidence for the structure of stars. The error analysis includes the effects of correlation of Teff, log g, and microturbulent velocity errors, which is crucial for certain element ratios, such as [Mg/Fe]. The abundances presented here are being analyzed and discussed in a separate series of papers.

  20. Elemental Abundance Survey of The Galactic Thick Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, B E; Allende-Prieto, C; Reddy, Bacham E.; Lambert, David L.; Prieto, Carlos Allende

    2006-01-01

    [Abridged abstract] We have performed an abundance analysis for 176 F- and G- dwarfs of the Galactic thick disk component. Using accurate radial velocities combined with $Hipparcos$ astrometry, kinematics (U, V, and W) and Galactic orbital parameters were computed. We estimate the probability for a star to belong to the thin disk, the thick disk or the halo. Abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Ba, Ce, Nd, and Eu have been obtained. The abundances for thick disk stars are compared with those for thin disk members from Reddy et al. (2003). The ratios of $\\alpha$-elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca and Ti) to iron for thick disk disk stars show a clear enhancement compared to thin disk members in the range $-0.3 <$ [Fe/H] $ < -1.2$. There are also other elements -- Al, Sc, V, Co, and possibly Zn -- which show enhanced ratios to iron in the thick disk relative to the thin disk. The abundances of Na, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Cu (relative to Fe) are very similar for thin and thick dis...

  1. The double-lined spectroscopic binary $\\alpha$ Andromedae orbital elements and elemental abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Ryabchikova, T A; Adelman, S J

    1998-01-01

    We performed a spectroscopic study of the SB2 Mercury-Manganese star alpha And. Our measurements of the secondary's radial velocities result in improved orbital elements. The secondary shows abundances typical of the metallic-line stars: a Ca deficiency, small overabundances of the iron-peak elements, and 1.0 dex overabundances of Sr and Ba.

  2. Elemental abundances of flaring solar plasma - Enhanced neon and sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    Elemental abundances of two flares observed with the SMM Flat Crystal Spectrometer are compared and contrasted. The first had a gradual rise and a slow decay, while the second was much more impulsive. Simultaneous spectra of seven bright soft X-ray resonance lines provide information over a broad temperature range and are available throughout both flares, making these events unique in the SMM data base. For the first flare, the plasma seemed to be characterized by coronal abundances but, for the second, the plasma composition could not be coronal, photospheric, or a linear combination of both. A good differential emission measure fit required enhanced neon such that Ne/O = 0.32 +/- 0.02, a value which is inconsistent with the current models of coronal abundances based on the elemental first-ionization potential. Similar values of enhanced neon are found for flaring plasma observed by the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer, in (He-3)-rich solar energetic particle events, and in the decay phase of several long duration soft X-ray events. Sulfur is also enhanced in the impulsive flare, but not as dramatically as neon. These events are compared with two models which attempt to explain the enhanced values of neon and sulfur.

  3. The Origin of Element Abundance Variations in Solar Energetic Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Reames, Donald V

    2016-01-01

    Abundance enhancements, during acceleration and transport in both gradual and impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) events, vary approximately as power laws in the mass-to-charge ratio A/Q of the ions. Since the Q values depend upon the electron temperature of the source plasma, this has allowed a determination of this temperature from the pattern of element abundance enhancements and a verification of the expected inverse-time dependence of the power of A/Q for diffusive transport of ions from the SEP events, with scattering mean free paths found to be between 0.2 and 1 AU. SEP events derived from plasma of different temperatures map into different regions in typical cross-plots of abundances, spreading the distributions. In comparisons of SEP events with temperatures above 2 MK, impulsive events show much broader non-thermal variation of abundances than do gradual events. The extensive shock waves accelerating ions in gradual events may average over much of an active region where numerous but smaller mag...

  4. Atomic Diffusion, Mixing, and Element Abundances in Main Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauclair, S.

    2013-12-01

    Atomic diffusion is now recognized as a standard process working in stars, and gravitational settling is introduced in most stellar evolution codes. Helioseismology proved the importance of the downward diffusion of helium and heavy elements below the solar convective zone. However, in more massive stars, the effect of selective radiative accelerations cannot be neglected. It has been known for a long time that the resulting atomic levitation may, in some cases, lead to abundance variations in stellar atmospheres, as observed in the so-called chemically peculiar stars. But this was only part of the story. We have now discovered that, when acting on important elements like iron or nickel, radiative levitation may also lead to global macroscopic effects inside stars, like extra convective zones, wave excitation by the κ-mechanism, and double-diffusive mixing processes like fingering (thermohaline) convection. This paper presents some links between these processes and their consequences.

  5. Big Bang nucleosynthesis, microwave anisotropy, and the light element abundances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coc, A. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS/IN2P3/UPS, Bat. 104, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France); Angulo, C. [Centre de Recherches du Cyclotron, Universite catholique de Louvain, Chemin du cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Vangioni-Flam, E. [lnstitut d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, 98bis Bd. Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Descouvemont, P. [Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, CP229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Adahchour, A. [Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, CP229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-04-18

    From the observations of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, the WMAP satellite has provided a determination of the baryonic density of the Universe, with an unprecedented precision: 4%. This imposes a careful reanalysis of the standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (SBBN) calculations. In a recent paper, we used the R-matrix theory to fit S-factor data on nuclear reactions involved in Big Bang nucleosynthesis. We derived the reaction rates with associated uncertainties, which were evaluated on statistical grounds (available at http://pntpm3.ulb.ac.be/bigbang). Combining these BBN results with the {omega}bh2 value from WMAP, we deduced the light element ({sup 4}He, D, {sup 3}He and {sup 7}Li) primordial abundances and compare them with spectroscopic observations. There is a very good agreement with deuterium observed in cosmological clouds, which strengthens the confidence on the estimated baryonic density of the Universe. However, there is a discrepancy between the deduced {sup 7}Li abundance and the one observed in halo stars of our Galaxy, supposed, until now, to represent the primordial abundance of this isotope. The origin of this discrepancy, observational, nuclear or more fundamental remains to be clarified. The possible role of the up to now neglected {sup 7}Be(d,p)2{alpha} and {sup 7}Be(d,{alpha}){sup 5}Li reactions is considered and we present here a dedicated experiment performed at Louvain-la-Neuve to measure these cross sections.

  6. Big Bang nucleosynthesis, microwave anisotropy, and the light element abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coc, A.; Angulo, C.; Vangioni-Flam, E.; Descouvemont, P.; Adahchour, A.

    2005-04-01

    From the observations of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, the WMAP satellite has provided a determination of the baryonic density of the Universe, with an unprecedented precision: 4%. This imposes a careful reanalysis of the standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (SBBN) calculations. In a recent paper, we used the R-matrix theory to fit S-factor data on nuclear reactions involved in Big Bang nucleosynthesis. We derived the reaction rates with associated uncertainties, which were evaluated on statistical grounds (available at http://pntpm3.ulb.ac.be/bigbang). Combining these BBN results with the Ωbh2 value from WMAP, we deduced the light element (4He, D,3He and 7Li) primordial abundances and compare them with spectroscopic observations. There is a very good agreement with deuterium observed in cosmological clouds, which strengthens the confidence on the estimated baryonic density of the Universe. However, there is a discrepancy between the deduced 7Li abundance and the one observed in halo stars of our Galaxy, supposed, until now, to represent the primordial abundance of this isotope. The origin of this discrepancy, observational, nuclear or more fundamental remains to be clarified. The possible role of the up to now neglected 7Be(d,p)2α and 7Be(d,α)5Li reactions is considered and we present here a dedicated experiment performed at Louvain-la-Neuve to measure these cross sections.

  7. Highly siderophile element abundances in Eoarchean komatiite and basalt protoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Elizabeth A.; Maier, Wolfgang D.; Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    2016-03-01

    Plume-derived, Mg-rich, volcanic rocks (komatiites, high-Mg basalts, and their metamorphic equivalents) can record secular changes in the highly siderophile element (HSE) abundances of mantle sources. An apparent secular time-dependent enrichment trend in HSE abundances from Paleoarchean to Paleoproterozoic mantle-derived rocks could represent the protracted homogenization of a Late Veneer chondritic contaminant into the pre-Late Veneer komatiite source. To search for a possible time dependence of a late accretion signature in the Eoarchean mantle, we report new data from rare >3700 Myr-old mafic and ultramafic schists locked in supracrustal belts from the Inukjuak domain (Québec, Canada) and the Akilia association (West Greenland). Our analysis shows that some of these experienced HSE mobility and/or include a cumulate component (Touboul et al. in Chem Geol 383:63-75, 2014), whereas several of the oldest samples show some of the most depleted HSE abundances measured for rocks of this composition. We consider these new data for the oldest documented rocks of komatiite protolith in light of the Late Veneer hypothesis.

  8. Abundances of heavy elements in ultra-metal-poor star CS 22892-052

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 张彩霞; 李冀; 梁艳春; 彭秋和

    1999-01-01

    Based on the heavy element nucleosynthesis theory, with the solar heavy-nuclide abundances and the observed abundances of three elements which are the representatives of the individul neutron-capture processes, a method to determine the relative contributions from the individul neutron-capture processes to the abundances of heavy elements in metal-poor stars is applied. With this method, the abundances of heavy elements in ultra-metal-poor star CS 22892-052 are calculated. It is found that the observed abundances of heavy elements in this star are well matched by our calculations in error limits, except for thorium.

  9. Abundance gradients in the Milky Way for alpha elements, Iron peak elements, Barium, Lanthanum and Europium

    CERN Document Server

    Cescutti, G; François, P; Chiappini, C

    2006-01-01

    We model the abundance gradients in the disk of the Milky Way for several chemical elements (O, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, Co, V, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ba, La and Eu), and compare our results with the most recent and homogeneous observational data. We adopt a chemical evolution model able to well reproduce the main properties of the solar vicinity. We compute, for the first time, the abundance gradients for all the above mentioned elements in the galactocentric distance range 4 - 22 kpc. The comparison with the observed data on Cepheids in the galactocentric distance range 5-17 kpc gives a very good agreement for many of the studied elements. In addition, we fit very well the data for the evolution of Lanthanum in the solar vicinity for which we present results here for the first time. We explore, also for the first time, the behaviour of the abundance gradients at large galactocentric distances by comparing our results with data relative to distant open clusters and red giants and select the best chemical evol...

  10. The Law of Element Abundance Relationships in Igneous Rocks Petrogenetically Associated with Fractional Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪云亮; 王旺章

    1991-01-01

    Reported in this paper are:1)the law of element abundance relationships:element abun-dances are of power function with each other in an igneous rock petrogenetically associated with fractional crystallization,2)deduction of the law and relevant parameters:abundance relationship constant(a°) and phase constant? from Henry's law and the law of mass conservation,3)the data basis and evidence of the law of element abundance relationships,4)establishment of the equa-bions for element abundance relationships in igneous rocks formed from the same parental magma during the same fractional crystallization stage ,and all measurable parameters involved in the equations.

  11. Abundances of neutron-capture elements in G 24-25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S.; Nissen, Poul Erik; Schuster, W. J.;

    2012-01-01

    Aims. The differences between the neutron-capture element abundances of halo stars are important to our understanding of the nucleosynthesis of elements heavier than the iron group. We present a detailed abundance analysis of carbon and twelve neutron-capture elements from Sr up to Pb...... overabundances of carbon and heavy s-process elements and mild overabundances of Eu and light s-process elements. This abundance distribution is consistent with that of a typical CH giant. The abundance pattern can be explained by mass transfer from a former asymptotic giant branch component, which is now...

  12. Abundances of the heavy elements in the Magellanic Clouds. I. Metal abundances of F-type supergiants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal abundances of eight F-type supergiants in each of the Magellanic Clouds were determined using the results of high-resolution spectroscopy analysis of these stars, together with new Stromgren uvby and Cousins (1980) BVRI photometry. It was found that the mean Fe abundance (Fe/H) for the SMC is -0.65 + or - 0.2 dex, and the mean Fe abundance for the LMC is -0.30 + or - 0.2 dex. The abundances of stars in both the SMC and LMC appear relatively uniform, and the abundances of the elements relative to Fe are very similar in both Magellanic Clouds and in Canopus (the carbon-to-iron abundances are the same for all three). It was also found that Nd and Sm are overabundant in both clouds, supporting the trends found by Spite et al. (1988) for the three SMC stars they studied. 140 refs

  13. Composite Stellar Populations and Element by Element Abundances in the Milky Way Bulge and Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Baitian; Davis, A Bianca

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the integrated-light characteristics of the Milky Way (MW) bulge and to what extent they match those of elliptical galaxies in the local universe. We model composite stellar populations with realistic abundance distribution functions (ADFs), tracking the trends of individual elements as a function of overall heavy element abundance as actually observed in MW bulge stars. The resultant predictions for absorption feature strengths from the MW bulge mimic elliptical galaxies better than solar neighborhood stars do, but the MW bulge does not match elliptical galaxies, either. Comparing bulge versus elliptical galaxies, Fe, Ti, and Mg trend about the same for both but C, Na, and Ca seem irreconcilably different. Exploring the behavior of abundance compositeness leads to the concepts of "red lean" where a narrower ADF appears more metal rich than a wide one, and "red spread" where the spectral difference between wide and narrow ADFs increases as the ADF peak is moved to more metal-rich values. T...

  14. The light element abundance distribution in NGC 5128 from planetary nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. R.; Jacoby, G. H.; Peletier, R. F.; Walton, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Planetary nebulae in the nearest large elliptical galaxy provide light element abundances difficult or impossible to measure by other means in a stellar system very different from the galaxies in the Local Group. Aims. The light element abundance pattern from many planetary nebulae (PNe) at

  15. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and the Observed Abundances of Light Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Craig J.

    1996-01-01

    The predictions of Standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis are summarized and compared with observations of abundances of helium in HII regions, deuterium in quasar absorbers, deuterium and helium-3 in the Galaxy, and lithium in metal-poor stars. It is concluded that the prospects are good for a precise test of the theory.

  16. Light element abundances, galactic evolution, and the universal baryon density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present mean universal mean baryon density, rho/sub b/, is of particular interest because, in Friedmann cosmologies with no cosmological constant, it is this quantity together with the Hubble constant, H/sub o/, which determines the spatial curvature of the universe, i.e., whether it is open or closed. The most stringent upper limit to rho/sub b/ so far established comes from the present deuterium abundance. This paper proposes an alternative method to evaluate the range of permissible values of rho/sub b/. The method considers the abundance of both D and 7Li. By utilizing the abundance ratio of 7Li to D, the difficulty associated with the astration process can be essentially canceled from the problem. Further, this method is slightly more sensitive to rho/sub b/ than the method which uses the D abundance alone. The ratio of 7Li to D mass fractions is plotted as a function of the present baryon density for a background temperature of 2.80K. Results are tabulated; they indicate that rho/sub b/ is too small to close the universe by a factor of the order of 5. 1 figure, 1 table

  17. Abundance Distribution of Slow-Process Main Heavy Elements in AGB Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妙静; 张波; 厉光烈

    2003-01-01

    By re-analysing the results of the theoretical abundance of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stellar models and the observed abundances of 51 AGB samples, we find that the abundance distribution of s-process main heavy (SMH) elements of any AGB star is similar to the scaled s-process main component of the solar system. This means that superposition of the SMH element abundance distributions of AGB stars should be similar to the scaled solar s-process main component. As a conclusion, the abundance pattern of the solar SMH elements is not only an average result of a complex chemical evolution of galaxy, but also a typical one that can be used as a standard in abundance investigation.

  18. Anomalous globular clusters: insights from neutron capture elements abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, A F

    2013-01-01

    Thanks to the large amount of spectroscopic and photometric data assembled in the last couple of decades, the assumption that all globular clusters (GCs) contain a simple mono-metallic stellar population has been modified. Besides the common variations in the elements created/destroyed in the H-burning processes, spreads and/or multi-modalities in heavier elements have been detected in a few objects. Among the most remarkable chemical inhomogeneity in these anomalous objects is the internal variation in the neutron-capture (n-capture) elements, that can provide some information about the material from which stars were born. I report a summary of the chemical pattern observed in GCs where variations in n-capture have been detected, and the connection between these chemical features and the distribution of stars along the color-magnitude diagrams in the context of the lively debate on multiple stellar populations.

  19. Light-element Abundance Variations in the Milky Way Halo

    OpenAIRE

    Martell, Sarah L.; Grebel, Eva K.

    2010-01-01

    We present evidence for the contribution of high-mass globular clusters to the stellar halo of the Galaxy. Using SDSS-II/SEGUE spectra of over 1900 G- and K-type halo giants, we identify for the first time a subset of stars with CN bandstrengths significantly larger, and CH bandstrengths lower, than the majority of halo field stars, at fixed temperature and metallicity. Since CN bandstrength inhomogeneity and the usual attendant abundance variations are presently understood as a result of sta...

  20. Light-element Abundance Variations in the Milky Way Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Martell, Sarah L

    2010-01-01

    We present evidence for the contribution of high-mass globular clusters to the stellar halo of the Galaxy. Using SDSS-II/SEGUE spectra of over 1900 G- and K-type halo giants, we identify for the first time a subset of stars with CN bandstrengths significantly larger, and CH bandstrengths lower, than the majority of halo field stars, at fixed temperature and metallicity. Since CN bandstrength inhomogeneity and the usual attendant abundance variations are presently understood as a result of star formation in globular clusters, we interpret this subset of halo giants as a result of globular cluster dissolution into the Galactic halo. We find that 2.5% of our sample is CN-strong, and can infer based on recent models of globular cluster evolution that the fraction of halo field stars initially formed within globular clusters may be as large as 50%.

  1. Light-element abundance variations in the Milky Way halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, S. L.; Grebel, E. K.

    2010-09-01

    We present evidence for the contribution of high-mass globular clusters to the stellar halo of the Galaxy. Using SDSS-II/SEGUE spectra of over 1900 G- and K-type halo giants, we identify for the first time a subset of stars with CN bandstrengths significantly larger, and CH bandstrengths lower, than the majority of halo field stars, at fixed temperature and metallicity. Since CN bandstrength inhomogeneity and the usual attendant abundance variations are presently understood as a result of star formation in globular clusters, we interpret this subset of halo giants as a result of globular cluster dissolution into the Galactic halo. We find that 2.5% of our sample is CN-strong, and can infer based on recent models of globular cluster evolution that the fraction of halo field stars initially formed within globular clusters may be as large as 50%.

  2. The Elemental Abundance Distributions of Milky Way Satellite Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Evan N

    2010-01-01

    The chemical compositions of the stars in Milky Way (MW) satellite galaxies reveals the history of gas flows and star formation (SF) intensity. This talk presented a Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic survey of the Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti abundances of nearly 3000 red giants in eight MW dwarf satellites. The metallicity and alpha-to-iron ratio distributions obey the following trends: (1) The more luminous galaxies are more metal-rich, indicating that they retained gas more efficiently than the less luminous galaxies. (2) The shapes of the metallicity distributions of the more luminous galaxies require gas infall during their SF lifetimes. (3) At [Fe/H] < -1.5, [alpha/Fe] falls monotonically with increasing [Fe/H] in all MW satellites. One interpretation of these trends is that the SF timescale in any MW satellite is long enough that Type Ia supernovae exploded for nearly the entire SF lifetime.

  3. The Alpha Centauri binary system. Atmospheric parameters and element abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto de Mello, G. F.; Lyra, W.; Keller, G. R.

    2008-09-01

    Context: The α Centauri binary system, owing to its duplicity, proximity and brightness, and its components' likeness to the Sun, is a fundamental calibrating object for the theory of stellar structure and evolution and the determination of stellar atmospheric parameters. This role, however, is hindered by a considerable disagreement in the published analyses of its atmospheric parameters and abundances. Aims: We report a new spectroscopic analysis of both components of the α Centauri system, compare published analyses of the system, and attempt to quantify the discrepancies still extant in the determinations of the atmospheric parameters and abundances of these stars. Methods: The analysis is differential with respect to the Sun, based on spectra with R = 35 000 and signal-to-noise ratio ≥1000, and employed spectroscopic and photometric methods to obtain as many independent T_eff determinations as possible. We also check the atmospheric parameters for consistency against the results of the dynamical analysis and the positions of the components in a theoretical HR diagram. Results: The spectroscopic atmospheric parameters of the system are found to be T_eff = (5847 ± 27) K, [Fe/H] = +0.24 ± 0.03, log g = 4.34 ± 0.12, and ξt = 1.46 ± 0.03 km s-1, for α Cen A, and T_eff = (5316 ± 28) K, [Fe/H] = +0.25 ± 0.04, log g = 4.44 ± 0.15, and ξt = 1.28 ± 0.15 km s^-1 for α Cen B. The parameters were derived from the simultaneous excitation & ionization equilibria of Fe I and Fe II lines. T_effs were also obtained by fitting theoretical profiles to the Hα line and from photometric calibrations. Conclusions: We reached good agreement between the three criteria for α Cen A. For α Cen B the spectroscopic T_eff is ~140 K higher than the other two determinations. We discuss possible origins of this inconsistency, concluding that the presence of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects is a probable candidate, but we note that there is as yet no consensus on

  4. The Alpha Centauri Binary System: Atmospheric Parameters and Element Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    de Mello, G F Porto; Keller, G R

    2008-01-01

    The Alpha Centauri binary system, owing to its binarity, proximity and brightness, is a fundamental calibrating object for the theory of stellar structure and evolution. This role, however, is hindered by a considerable disagreement in the published analyses of its atmospheric parameters and abundances. We report a detailed spectroscopic analysis of both components of the Alpha Centauri binary system, differentially with respect to the Sun, based on high quality spectra (R = 35 000, S/N > 1000). The atmospheric parameters of the system are found to be Teff = 5820 K, [Fe/H] = +0.24, log g = 4.34 and xi = 1.46 km/s, for Alpha Cen A, and Teff = 5240 K, [Fe/H] = +0.25, log g = 4.44 and xi = 1.28 km/s for Alpha Cen B. The parameters were derived from the simultaneous excitation & ionization equilibria of the equivalent widths of Fe I and Fe II lines, by fitting theoretical profiles to the Halpha line and from photometric calibrations, good agreement being reached between the criteria for both stars. We derived...

  5. Parent Stars of Extrasolar Planets. VIII. Chemical Abundances for 18 Elements in 31 Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Guillermo; Laws, Chris

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of detailed spectroscopic abundance analyses for 18 elements in 31 nearby stars with planets. The resulting abundances are combined with other similar studies of nearby stars with planets and compared to a sample of nearby stars without detected planets. We find some evidence for abundance differences between these two samples for Al, Si and Ti. Some of our results are in conflict with a recent study of stars with planets in the SPOCS database. We encourage continued st...

  6. The Abundances of Some Heavy Elements in the Atmosphere of γ Tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushchenko, A. V.; Gopka, V. F.

    Comparison of synthetic spectrum of the γ Tauri photosphere and high quality spectral atlases of this star permit us to identify absorption lines of rubidium, indium, disprosium, erbium, osmium in the observed spectra. The abundances of these elements in the atmosphere of γ Tauri with respect to their abundances in the solar atmosphere were determined by the method of spectrum synthesis.

  7. Anatomy of a cluster IDP. Part 2: Noble gas abundances, trace element geochemistry, isotopic abundances, and trace organic chemistry of several fragments from L2008#5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Mckay, David S.; Messenger, S.; Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Walker, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: noble gas content and release temperatures; trace element abundances; heating summary of cluster fragments; isotopic measurements; and trace organic chemistry.

  8. Peculiarities of the abundances of neutron-capture elements in Galactic open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Marsakov, V A; Koval', V V; Shpigel', L V

    2016-01-01

    The properties of the relative abundances of rapid and slow neutron-capture elements are studied using a catalog containing spectroscopic abundance determinations for 14~elements produced in various nuclear-synthesis processes for 90~open clusters. The catalog also contains the positions, ages, velocities, and elements of the Galactic orbits of the clusters. The relative abundances of both $r$-elements (Eu) and $s$-elements (Y, Ba, La, and Ce) in clusters with high, elongated orbits and in field stars of the Galactic thin disk display different dependences on metallicity, age, Galactocentric distance, and the elements of the Galactic orbits, supporting the view that these objects have different natures. In young clusters, not only barium, but also the three other studied $s$-elements display significantly higher relative abundances than field stars of the same metallicity. The relative abundances of Eu are lower in high-metallicity clusters (${\\rm [Fe/H]} > -0.1$) with high, elongated orbits than in field gia...

  9. Population Signatures in Planetary Nebulae from Abundances of Fe-group and Neutron-Capture Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Sterling, N. C.

    2015-08-01

    There are two categories of elements for which abundances are measured in planetary nebulae (PNe). The first are species whose abundances may be modified by nuclear reactions in the star prior to PN formation, such as He, C, N, and nuclei made by slow neutron captures (Karakas & Lattanzio 2014, PASA, 31, 30). In contrast, elements unaffected by evolution should indicate the star’s initial composition. These include S, Ar, Cl, and (with certain exceptions) O and Ne, most of which are alpha species. A long-missing piece of the puzzle has been the abundances of the Fe-group elements. We cannot determine a meaningful elemental abundance from the gas-phase Fe lines seen in PNe, since Fe is heavily depleted into dust. Another approach is to use a different element as a proxy for Fe. Dinerstein & Geballe (2001, ApJ, 562, 515) identified a line at 3.625 μm as due to Zn, the least refractory Fe-group element. Observations of this line in Milky Way PNe yield -1 ≤ [Zn/H] ≤ 0 (Smith, Zijlstra, & Dinerstein 2014, MNRAS, 441, 3161; Dinerstein et al. 2015, in preparation). Substituting Zn for Fe, PNe can be placed in the [alpha/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] diagram used to characterize stellar populations. Dividing our sample into probable thin and thick disk members using the kinematic criterion of Peimbert’s Type II and III classes (1978, IAU Symp. 76, 215), we find that they occupy similar regions in [alpha/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] phase space as the stars of those populations. Elevated [alpha/Fe] values at subsolar [Fe/H], which tend to be higher for thick than thin disk PNe, cause degeneracies that make alpha species ambiguous metallicity indicators. This is important for self-enrichment studies, since if the initial abundance of an element is lower than projected from an alpha species, internal synthesis may be required to produce even a solar final abundance. Low observed abundances of the n-capture element Se suggest that many Type III PNe may have subsolar initial abundances of n

  10. Elemental abundances in AGB stars and the formation of the Galactic bulge

    OpenAIRE

    Wood P.R.; Ryde N.; Lebzelter T.; Blommaert J.A.D.L.; Uttenthaler S.; Schultheis M.; Aringer B.

    2012-01-01

    We obtained high-resolution near-IR spectra of 45 AGB stars located in the Galactic bulge. The aim of the project is to determine key elemental abundances in these stars to help constrain the formation history of the bulge. A further aim is to link the photospheric abundances to the dust species found in the winds of the stars. Here we present a progress report of the analysis of the spectra.

  11. Gaia FGK benchmark stars : abundances of α and iron-peak elements

    OpenAIRE

    González Hernández, J. I.; Montes Gutiérrez, David; Tabernero Guzmán, Hugo Martín; otros

    2015-01-01

    Context. In the current era of large spectroscopic surveys of the Milky Way, reference stars for calibrating astrophysical parameters and chemical abundances are of paramount importance. Aims. We determine elemental abundances of Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni for our predefined set of Gaia FGK benchmark stars. Methods. By analysing high-resolution spectra with a high signal-to-noise ratio taken from several archive datasets, we combined results of eight different methods to determ...

  12. Open Cluster Neutron Capture Element Abundances and Milky Way Disk Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Heather R.; Friel, E. D.

    2012-01-01

    Open clusters, whose ages and distances can be precisely determined, are useful probes of the chemical evolution of the Milky Way disk. The sample sizes of clusters subject to homogeneous analysis of high resolution spectra have grown in recent years, and increased attention has turned to measuring the abundances of neutron capture elements. The relative abundances of r-process elements (e.g., europium) to s-process elements (e.g., barium, lanthanum and zirconium) in cluster stars reveal the relative contributions of Type II supernovae and low-mass AGB stars to the chemical evolution of the galactic disk. A recent study of cluster s-process element abundances has revealed a surprising trend of increasing s-process element abundance ([s/Fe]) with decreasing cluster age, at odds with current s-process yield predictions (D'Orazi et al. 2009, Maiorca et al. 2011). We have undertaken an analysis of Zr, Ba, La, and Eu abundances in 17 open clusters based on high resolution optical spectra. The sample spans 700 Myr to 10 Gyr in age and Rgc 7-22 kpc in galactocentric distance, allowing for the exploration of neutron capture [x/Fe] ratios as a function of age and location in the disk. Preliminary results confirm the trend of enhanced [s/Fe] with decreasing cluster age found by other studies, though with a weaker correlation. Here we present the latest results of this analysis, including newly-determined abundances for the r-process element Eu for an expanded cluster sample that includes outer disk objects. This research is supported by a National Science Foundation Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship to HRJ under award AST-0901919.

  13. Elemental abundance studies of the Ultraviolet Gallium CP star HD 168733

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, A. E.; López-García, Z.; Levato, H.; Malaroda, S.

    2009-05-01

    We report elemental abundance studies of the ultraviolet gallium CP star HD 168733. It is neither a silicon, nor a mercury-manganese star and a longitudinal magnetic field of the order of -594 gauss has been detected in it. The high resolution spectra were obtained with the EBASIM spectrograph attached to the 2.10 m telescope at CASLEO Observatory. The abundances results obtained show that Si es normal, Ti Cr and Fe are rich, PII, SII, GaII, SrII, YII, ZrII are present and its abundances are being determined. The presence of RE will be also investigated.

  14. Complete element abundances of nine stars in the r-process galaxy Reticulum II

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Alexander P; Simon, Joshua D; Chiti, Anirudh

    2016-01-01

    We present chemical abundances derived from high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectra of the nine brightest known red giant members of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum II. These stars span the full metallicity range of Ret II (-3.5 < [Fe/H] < -2). Seven of the nine stars have extremely high levels of r-process material ([Eu/Fe]~1.7), in contrast to the extremely low neutron-capture element abundances found in every other ultra-faint dwarf galaxy studied to date. The other two stars are the most metal-poor stars in the system ([Fe/H] < -3), and they have neutron-capture element abundance limits similar to those in other ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. We confirm that the relative abundances of Sr, Y, and Zr in these stars are similar to those found in r-process halo stars but ~0.5 dex lower than the solar r-process pattern. If the universal r-process pattern extends to those elements, the stars in Ret II display the least contaminated known r-process pattern. The abundances of lighter elements up to the...

  15. Trace Element Abundance Relationships in the Multi—stage Comagmatic Fractional Crystallization and Their Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪云亮; 李巨初

    1993-01-01

    In this study a mathematical expression of trace element abundance relationship for the mul-ti-stage comagmatic fractional crystallization has been established ,based on geochemical studies of the Emeishan basalt-trachyte series and adjacent mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions, as well as on the avail-able data for basalt, andesite, dacite and rhyolite series in southern Andes,Chile ,which have been well documented.It is demonstrated that the abundance constant (R) for a given trace element at dif-ferent stages of fractional crystallization of a parental magma is highly variable,which can be used as a criterion to divide fractional crystallization stages.

  16. Abundance ratios of volatile vs. refractory elements in planet-harbouring stars: hints of pollution?

    OpenAIRE

    Ecuvillon, A.; Israelian, G.; Santos, N.C.; Mayor, M.; Gilli, G.

    2005-01-01

    We present the [X/H] trends as function of the elemental condensation temperature Tc in 88 planet host stars and in a volume-limited comparison sample of 33 dwarfs without detected planetary companions. We gathered homogeneous abundance results for many volatile and refractory elements spanning a wide range of Tc, from a few dozens to several hundreds kelvin. We investigate possible anomalous trends of planet hosts with respect to comparison sample stars in order to detect evidence of possibl...

  17. Gaia FGK benchmark stars: abundances of α and iron-peak elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, P.; Heiter, U.; Soubiran, C.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Masseron, T.; Nordlander, T.; Chemin, L.; Worley, C. C.; Van Eck, S.; Hourihane, A.; Gilmore, G.; Adibekyan, V.; Bergemann, M.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Delgado-Mena, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Guiglion, G.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Mikolaitis, S.; Montes, D.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Sordo, R.; Sousa, S.; Tabernero, H. M.; Vallenari, A.

    2015-10-01

    Context. In the current era of large spectroscopic surveys of the Milky Way, reference stars for calibrating astrophysical parameters and chemical abundances are of paramount importance. Aims: We determine elemental abundances of Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni for our predefined set of Gaia FGK benchmark stars. Methods: By analysing high-resolution spectra with a high signal-to-noise ratio taken from several archive datasets, we combined results of eight different methods to determine abundances on a line-by-line basis. We performed a detailed homogeneous analysis of the systematic uncertainties, such as differential versus absolute abundance analysis. We also assessed errors that are due to non-local thermal equilibrium and the stellar parameters in our final abundances. Results: Our results are provided by listing final abundances and the different sources of uncertainties, as well as line-by-line and method-by-method abundances. Conclusions: The atmospheric parameters of the Gaia FGK benchmark stars are already being widely used for calibration of several pipelines that are applied to different surveys. With the added reference abundances of ten elements, this set is very suitable for calibrating the chemical abundances obtained by these pipelines. Based on NARVAL and HARPS data obtained within the Gaia DPAC (Data Processing and Analysis Consortium) and coordinated by the GBOG (Ground-Based Observations for Gaia) working group and on data retrieved from the ESO-ADP database.Tables C.1-C.35 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/582/A81

  18. Galactic abundance gradients from Cepheids: alpha and heavy elements in the outer disk

    CERN Document Server

    Lemasle, B; Genovali, K; Kovtyukh, V V; Bono, G; Inno, L; Laney, C D; Kaper, L; Bergemann, M; Fabrizio, M; Matsunaga, N; Pedicelli, S; Primas, F; Romaniello, M

    2013-01-01

    Context: Galactic abundance gradients set strong constraints to chemo-dynamical evolutionary models of the Milky Way. Given the PL relations that provide accurate distances and the large number of spectral lines, Cepheids are excellent tracers of the present-day abundance gradients. Aims: We want to measure the Galactic abundance gradient of several chemical elements. While the slope of the Cepheid iron gradient did not vary much from the very first studies, the gradients of the other elements are not that well constrained. In this paper we focus on the inner and outer regions of the Galactic thin disk. Methods: We use HR spectra (FEROS, ESPADONS, NARVAL) to measure the abundances of several light (Na, Al), alpha (Mg, Si, S, Ca), and heavy elements (Y, Zr, La, Ce, Nd, Eu) in a sample of 65 Milky Way Cepheids. Combining these results with accurate distances from period-Wesenheit relations in the NIR enables us to determine the abundance gradients in the Milky Way. Results: Our results are in good agreement wit...

  19. The physical structure of Magellanic Cloud HII regions - II. Elemental abundances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, R; van der Hulst, JM

    2002-01-01

    Based on a new data set of optical and infrared spectra described in Vermeij et al. (2001), we analyse the gas-phase elemental abundances of a sample of H II regions in the Large and Small Magellanic Cloud. The combined optical and infrared data set gives us access to all the ionization stages of as

  20. Elemental abundances at early times: the nature of Damped Lyman-alpha systems

    OpenAIRE

    Molla, Mercedes; Diaz, Angeles,; Ferrini, Federico

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of element abundances with redshift in Damped Ly-alpha (DLA) systems can be adequately reproduced by the same model reproducing the halo and disk components of the Milky Way Galaxy at different galactocentric distances: DLA systems are well represented by normal spiral galaxies in their early evolutionary stages.

  1. Search for white dwarf companions of cool stars with peculiar element abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1984-01-01

    A search for a white dwarf companions of cool stars with peculiar element abundances was undertaken. One additional star the xi Cet, was found with a white dwarf companion. It was found that HR 1016, 56Uma, 16 Ser, have high excitation emission lines which indicate a high temperature object in the system. It is suggested that since these indications for high temperature companions were seen for all nearby Ba stars, it is highly probable that all Ba stars have white dwarf companions, and that the peculiar element abundances seen in the Ba stars are due to mass transfer. Observations, arguments and conclusions are presented. White dwarf companions were not found. Together with the Li and Be abundances and the chromospheric emission line spectra in these stars were studied. No white dwarf companions were seen for subgiant CH stars.

  2. Gaia FGK benchmark stars: abundances of alpha and iron-peak elements

    CERN Document Server

    Jofré, P; Soubiran, C; Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Masseron, T; Nordlander, T; Chemin, L; Worley, C C; Van Eck, S; Hourihane, A; Gilmore, G; Adibekyan, V; Bergemann, M; Cantat-Gaudin, T; Delgado-Mena, E; Hernández, J I González; Guiglion, G; Lardo, C; de Laverny, P; Lind, K; Magrini, L; Mikolaitis, S; Montes, D; Pancino, E; Recio-Blanco, A; Sordo, R; Sousa, S; Tabernero, H M; Vallenari, A

    2015-01-01

    In the current era of large spectroscopic surveys of the Milky Way, reference stars for calibrating astrophysical parameters and chemical abundances are of paramount importance. We determine elemental abundances of Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni for our predefined set of Gaia FGK benchmark stars. By analysing high-resolution and high-signal to noise spectra taken from several archive datasets, we combined results of eight different methods to determine abundances on a line-by-line basis. We perform a detailed homogeneous analysis of the systematic uncertainties, such as differential versus absolute abundance analysis, as well as we assess errors due to NLTE and the stellar parameters in our final abundances. Our results are provided by listing final abundances and the different sources of uncertainties, as well as line-by-line and method-by-method abundances. The Gaia FGK benchmark stars atmospheric parameters are already being widely used for calibration of several pipelines applied to different su...

  3. Limits on heavy element abundances in QSO Ly α absorption systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermediate-resolution spectra of the QSOs MCS402, Q0347 -383, Q0420 - 388, and Q2204 - 408 have been combined to yield average spectra of Lyα absorption systems with improved signal-to-noise ratios. Searches for absorption lines of a number of heavy elements were carried out with no positive detections. Limits on the heavy element ions' column densities have been determined which are in broad agreement with previous studies. The further usefulness of intermediate-resolution spectra for setting heavy element abundance limits in Lyα systems is considered. (author)

  4. THE SuperTIGER Instrument: Measurement of Elemental Abundances of Ultra-Heavy Galactic Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, W. R.; Bose, R. G.; Braun, D. L.; Brandt, T. J.; Daniels, W. M.; DowKonnt, P. F.; Fitzsimmons, S. P.; Hahne, D. J.; Hams, T.; Israel, M. H.; Klemic, J.; Labrador, A. W.; Link, J. T.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Moore, P.; Murphy, R. P.; Olevitch, M. A.; Rauch, B. F.; Sakai, K.; San Sebastian, F.; Sasaki, M.; Simburger, G. E.; Stone, E. C.; Waddington, C. J.; Ward, J. E.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    The SuperTIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) instrument was developed to measure the abundances of galactic cosmic-ray elements from Ne-10 to Zr-40 with individual element resolution and the high statistics needed to test models of cosmic-ray origins. SuperTIGER also makes exploratory measurements of the abundances of elements with 40 measures the energy spectra of the more abundant elements for Z instrument is an enlarged and higher resolution version of the earlier TIGER instrument. It was designed to provide the largest geometric acceptance possible and to reach as high an altitude as possible, flying on a standard long-duration 1.11 million cu m balloon. SuperTIGER was launched from Williams Field, McMurdo Station, Antarctica, on 2012 December 8, and made about 2.7 revolutions around the South Pole in 55 days of flight, returning data on over 50 x 10(exp 6) cosmic-ray nuclei with Z > or = 10, including approx.1300 with Z > 29 and approx.60 with Z > 49. Here, we describe the instrument, the methods of charge identification employed, the SuperTIGER balloon flight, and the instrument performance.

  5. Heavy element abundances in giant stars of the globular clusters M4 and M5

    CERN Document Server

    Yong, David; Lambert, David L; Chieffi, Alessandro; Limongi, Marco

    2008-01-01

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of 27 heavy elements in bright giant stars of the globular clusters M4 and M5 based on high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra obtained with the Magellan Clay Telescope. We confirm and expand upon previous results for these clusters by showing that (1) all elements heavier than, and including, Si have constant abundances within each cluster, (2) the elements from Ca to Ni have indistinguishable compositions in M4 and M5, (3) Si, Cu, Zn, and all s-process elements are approximately 0.3 dex overabundant in M4 relative to M5, and (4) the r-process elements Sm, Eu, Gd, and Th are slightly overabundant in M5 relative to M4. The cluster-to-cluster abundance differences for Cu and Zn are intriguing, especially in light of their uncertain nucleosynthetic origins. We confirm that stars other than Type Ia supernovae must produce significant amounts of Cu and Zn at or below the clusters' metallicities. If intermediate-mass AGB stars or massive stars are responsib...

  6. A Large-Scale Survey of Neutron-Capture Element Abundances in Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, N C; Kallman, T R

    2007-01-01

    We present results from the first large-scale survey of neutron(n)-capture element abundances in planetary nebulae (PNe). This survey was motivated by the fact that a PN may be enriched in n-capture elements if its progenitor star experienced s-process nucleosynthesis during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. [Kr III] 2.199 and/or [Se IV] 2.287 $\\mu$m were detected in 81 PNe out of 120 PNe, for a detection rate of nearly 70%. We derive Se and Kr abundances or upper limits using ionization correction factors derived from photoionization models. A significant range is found in the Se and Kr abundances, from near solar (no enrichment), to enriched by a factor of ten. Our survey has increased the number of PNe with known n-capture element abundances by an order of magnitude, enabling us to explore correlations between s-process enrichments and other nebular and central star properties. In particular, the Se and Kr enrichments display a positive correlation with nebular C/O ratios, as theoretically expected....

  7. Solar Abundances of Rock Forming Elements, Extreme Oxygen and Hydrogen in a Young Polluted White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farihi, J.; Koester, D.; Zuckerman, B.; Vican, L.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Smith, N.; Walth, G.; Breedt, E.

    2016-09-01

    The Teff = 20 800 K white dwarf WD 1536+520 is shown to have broadly solar abundances of the major rock forming elements O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe, together with a strong relative depletion in the volatile elements C and S. In addition to the highest metal abundances observed to date, including log (O/He) =-3.4, the helium-dominated atmosphere has an exceptional hydrogen abundance at log (H/He) =-1.7. Within the uncertainties, the metal-to-metal ratios are consistent with the accretion of an H2O-rich and rocky parent body, an interpretation supported by the anomalously high trace hydrogen. The mixed atmosphere yields unusually short diffusion timescales for a helium atmosphere white dwarf, of no more than a few hundred yr, and equivalent to those in a much cooler, hydrogen-rich star. The overall heavy element abundances of the disrupted parent body deviate modestly from a bulk Earth pattern, and suggest the deposition of some core-like material. The total inferred accretion rate is 4.2 × 109 g s-1, and at least 4 times higher than any white dwarf with a comparable diffusion timescale. Notably, when accretion is exhausted in this system, both metals and hydrogen will become undetectable within roughly 300 Myr, thus supporting a scenario where the trace hydrogen is related to the ongoing accretion of planetary debris.

  8. Solar Abundances of Rock Forming Elements, Extreme Oxygen and Hydrogen in a Young Polluted White Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Farihi, J; Zuckerman, B; Vican, L; Gänsicke, B T; Smith, N; Walth, G; Breedt, E

    2016-01-01

    The Teff = 20,800 K white dwarf WD 1536+520 is shown to have broadly solar abundances of the major rock forming elements O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe, together with a strong relative depletion in the volatile elements C and S. In addition to the highest metal abundances observed to date, including log(O/He) = -3.4, the helium-dominated atmosphere has an exceptional hydrogen abundance at log(H/He) = -1.7. Within the uncertainties, the metal-to-metal ratios are consistent with the accretion of an H2O-rich and rocky parent body, an interpretation supported by the anomalously high trace hydrogen. The mixed atmosphere yields unusually short diffusion timescales for a helium atmosphere white dwarf, of no more than a few hundred yr, and equivalent to those in a much cooler, hydrogen-rich star. The overall heavy element abundances of the disrupted parent body deviate modestly from a bulk Earth pattern, and suggest the deposition of some core-like material. The total inferred accretion rate is 4.2e9 g/s, and at least 4 t...

  9. CD -24_17504 revisited: a new comprehensive element abundance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Heather R

    2015-01-01

    With [Fe/H] ~ -3.3, CD -24_17504 is a canonical metal-poor main sequence turn-off star. Though it has appeared in numerous literature studies, the most comprehensive abundance analysis for the star based on high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra is nearly 15 years old. We present a new detailed abundance analysis for 21 elements based on combined archival Keck-HIRES and VLT-UVES spectra of the star that is higher in both spectral resolution and signal-to-noise than previous data. Our results for many elements are very similar to those of an earlier comprehensive study of the star, but we present for the first time a carbon abundance from the CH G-band feature as well as improved upper limits for neutron-capture species such as Y, Ba and Eu. In particular, we find that CD -24_17504 has [Fe/H] = -3.41, [C/Fe] = +1.10, [Sr/H] = -4.68 and [Ba/H] <= -4.46, making it a carbon enhanced metal-poor star with neutron-capture element abundances among the lowest measured in Milky Way halo stars.

  10. Abundances of refractory elements in the atmospheres of stars with extrasolar planets

    OpenAIRE

    Gilli, G.; Israelian, G.; Ecuvillon, A.; Santos, N.C.; Mayor, M.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents a uniform and homogeneous study of chemical abundances of refractory elements in 101 stars with and 94 without known planetary companions. We carry out an in-depth investigation of the abundances of Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Na, Mg and Al. The new comparison sample, spanning the metallicity range -0.70< [Fe/H]< 0.50, fills the gap that previously existed, mainly at high metallicities, in the number of stars without known planets. We used an enlarged set of data inc...

  11. Chemical Elements Abundance in the Universe and the Origin of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Valkovic, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    Element synthesis which started with p-p chain has resulted in several specific characteristics including lack of any stable isotope having atomic masses 5 or 8. The carbon to oxygen ratio is fixed early by the chain of coincidences. These, remarkably fine-tuned, conditions are responsible for our own existence and indeed the existence of any carbon based life in the Universe. Chemical evolution of galaxies reflects in the changes of chemical composition of stars, interstellar gas and dust. The evolution of chemical element abundances in a galaxy provides a clock for galactic aging. On the other hand, the living matter on the planet Earth needs only some elements for its existence. Compared with element requirements of living matter a hypothesis is put forward, by accepting the Anthropic Principle, which says: life as we know, (H-C-N-O) based, relying on the number of bulk and trace elements originated when two element abundance curves, living matter and galactic, coincided. This coincidence occurring at part...

  12. Detailed Chemical Abundances in NGC 5824: Another Metal-Poor Globular Cluster with Internal Heavy Element Abundance Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Bailey, John I; Spencer, Meghin; Crane, Jeffrey D; Shectman, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundances of 39 elements derived from high-resolution spectroscopic observations of red giant stars in the luminous, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 5824. We observe 26 stars in NGC 5824 using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and two stars using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph. We derive a mean metallicity of [Fe/H]=-1.94+/-0.02 (statistical) +/-0.10 (systematic). The metallicity dispersion of this sample of stars, 0.08 dex, is in agreement with previous work and does not exceed the expected observational errors. Previous work suggested an internal metallicity spread only when fainter samples of stars were considered, so we cannot exclude the possibility of an intrinsic metallicity dispersion in NGC 5824. The M2FS spectra reveal a large internal dispersion in [Mg/Fe], 0.28 dex, which is found in a few other luminous, metal-poor clusters. [Mg/Fe] is correlated with [O/Fe] and anti-correlated with [Na/Fe] and [Al/F...

  13. Revisiting the plant hyperaccumulation criteria to rare plants and earth abundant elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branquinho, Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal) and Universidade Atlantica, Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)]. E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt; Serrano, Helena Cristina [Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal); Pinto, Manuel Joao [Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal); Martins-Loucao, Maria Amelia [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande C2, Piso 4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Jardim Botanico (Portugal)

    2007-03-15

    The several established criteria to define a hyperaccumulator plant were applied to a rare and endangered species, Plantago almogravensis, and to the 3rd most abundant element in the earth crust, Al. Using the most common criteria, P. almogravensis undoubtedly is an Al hyperaccumulator plant. If the recent proposed requirements were considered, most of them matching those for a plant to be used in phytoextraction, it can only be considered an unusual accumulator of Al. A discussion is made concerning the several criteria of a hyperaccumulator plant in order to include rare and endemic ones and abundant elements. In ecological terms, the enrichment in Al and Fe observed may account for the differences in the vegetation pattern. Due to the rarity and endangered nature of this plant, the contribution of this work is also relevant for the ecological understanding and the development of conservation options of this endemic species. - Revisiting plant hyperaccumulation criteria.

  14. Central Elemental Abundance Ratios in the Perseus Cluster Resonant Scattering or SN Ia Enrichment?

    CERN Document Server

    Dupke, R A; Dupke, Renato A.; Arnaud, Keith A.

    2001-01-01

    We have determined elemental abundance ratios in the core of the Perseus cluster for several elements. These ratios indicate a central dominance of SN Ia ejecta similar to that found for A496, A2199 and A3571 (Dupke & White 2000). Simultaneous analysis of ASCA spectra from SIS1, GIS 2&3 shows that the ratio of Ni to Fe abundances is ~ (3.4 +- 1.1) times Solar within the central 4'. This ratio is consistent with (and more precise than) that observed in other clusters whose central regions are dominated by SN Ia ejecta. Such a large Ni over-abundance is predicted by "Convective Deflagration" explosion models for SN Ia such as "W7" but is inconsistent with delayed detonation models. We note that with current instrumentation the NiK(alpha) line is confused with FeK(beta) and that the Ni over-abundance we observe has been interpreted by others as an anomalously large ratio of FeK(beta) to FeK(alpha) caused by resonant scattering in the FeK(alpha) line. We argue that a central enhancement of SN Ia ejecta an...

  15. Abundances of Refractory Elements for G-type Stars with Extrasolar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Wonseok; Kim, Kang-Min

    2011-01-01

    We confirm the difference of chemical abundance between stars with and without exoplanet, as well as present the relation between chemical abundances and the physical properties of exoplanets such as planetary mass and semi-major axis of planetary orbit. We have obtained the spectra of 52 G-type stars with BOES (BOAO Echelle Spectrograph) and carried out the abundance analysis for 12 elements of Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni. We first have found that the [Mn/Fe] ratios of planet-host stars are higher than those of comparisons in the whole metallicity range, and in metal-poor stars of [Fe/H] $<$ -0.4, the abundance difference have been larger than in metal-rich samples, especially for the elements of Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, and Co. When examined the relation between planet properties and metallicities of planet-host stars, we have observed that planet-host stars with low-metallicity tend to bear several low-mass planets ($< M_J$) instead of a massive gas-giant planet.

  16. Heavy Element Abundances in Planetary Nebulae from Deep Optical Echelle Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Amanda; Sterling, Nicholas C.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Garofali, Kristen; Jensema, Rachael; Turbyfill, Amanda; Wieser, Hannah-Marie N.; Reed, Evan C.; Redfield, Seth

    2016-01-01

    We present the abundances of neutron(n)-capture elements (atomic number Z > 30) and iron determined from deep optical echelle spectroscopy of 14 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe). The spectra were obtained with the 2D-coudé spectrograph on the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory. The abundances of n-capture elements can be enhanced in PNe due to slow n-capture nucleosynthesis in the progenitor asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. The high spectral resolution of these data (R = 36,700) allow most n-capture element emission lines to be resolved from other nebular and telluric features. We detect Kr in all of the observed PNe (with multiple ions detected in several objects), while Br, Rb, and Xe were each detected in 4--5 objects. Using the new Kr ionization correction factors (ICFs) of Sterling et al. (2015, ApJS, 218, 25), we find [Kr/O] abundances ranging from 0.05 to 1.1 dex. We utilize approximate ICFs for the other n-capture elements, and find slightly lower enrichments for Br and Rb (-0.1 to 0.7 dex), while Xe is enhanced relative to solar by factors of two to 30. The [Xe/Kr] ratios range from -0.3 to 1.4 dex, indicating a significant range in neutron exposures in PN progenitor stars. Interestingly, the largest [Xe/Kr] ratio is found in the thick-disk PN NGC 6644, which has a lower metallicity than the other observed PNe. We detect iron emission lines in all but one target. Fe can be depleted into dust grains in ionized nebulae, and its abundance thus provides key information regarding dust-to-gas ratios and grain destruction processes. We find that [Fe/O] ranges from -1.3 to -0.7 dex in the observed PNe, a smaller spread of depletion factors than found in recent studies (Delgado-Inglada & Rodriguez 2014, ApJ, 784, 173) though this may be due in part to our smaller sample. These data are part of a larger study of heavy elements in PNe, which will provide more accurate determinations of n-capture element abundances than previous estimates in

  17. Study of isotopic fractions and abundances of the neutron-capture elements in HD 175305

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiang; Zhang, Bo; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15947.x

    2010-01-01

    The chemical abundances of metal-poor stars are excellent sources of information for setting new constraints on models of Galactic chemical evolution at low metallicities. In this paper we present an attempt to fit the elemental abundances observed in the bright, metal-poor giant HD 175305, and derive isotopic fractions using a parametric model. The observed abundances can be wellmatched by the combined contributions froms- and r-processmaterial. The component coefficients of the r- and s-processes are C1 = 3.220 and C3 = 1.134, respectively. The Smisotopic fraction in this star where the observed neutron-capture elements are produced is predicted to be f 152+154 =0.582,which suggests that, even though the r-process is predominantly responsible for the synthesis of the neutron-capture elements in the early Galaxy, the onset of the s-process had already occurred at this metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.6.

  18. Elemental abundance anomalies in the late Cenomanian extinction interval: a search for the source(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, C.J.; Attrep, M.; Quintana, L.R.; Elder, W.P.; Kauffman, E.G.; Diner, R.; Villamil, T.

    1993-01-01

    Elemental abundances have been measured by neutron activation methods across the Cenomanian-Turonian (late Cretaceous) extinction interval in samples collected from sixteen sites in the Western Interior Basin of North America and from twelve widely separated locations around the globe, including six ODP/DSDP sites. In most Western Interior Basin sites, in Colombia, and in western Europe (weaker), two closely spaced elemental abundance peaks occur in the upper Cenomanian (??? 92 m.y.), spanning the ammonite zones of Sciponoceras gracile through Neocardioceras juddii. Elements with anomalously high concentrations include Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Ir, Pt and Au. The lower peak coincides with the disappearance (extinction) of the foraminifer Rotalipora cushmani. In North American sections R. greenhornensis also disappears at or just below this horizon, but in Europe it disappears considerably earlier than R. cushmani. A series of molluscan extinction and speciation or migration events also begins near the stratigraphic level of the lower elemental abundance peak. The well-documented positive ?? 13C excursion begins just before the extinctions and the elemental anomalies, and continues into the lower Turonian, well above the upper anomaly. This carbon isotope excursion has been observed in East European sections where we find little or no evidence of the elemental anomalies, suggesting that the two phenomena may not be tightly coupled. Elemental abundance ratios in the anomalies closely resemble those of Mid-Atlantic Ridge basalt or Hawaiian lava (tholeiitic), but not those of C1 chondrite, black shale, average crustal rocks, or lamproite and kimberlite of roughly similar age in southeastern Kansas. The excess Ir and other siderophiles hint at possible large-body impact(s) for the source. However, we have not located microspherules (other than biogenic calcispheres) or shocked mineral grains in any of our samples. Furthermore, Sc, Ti, V and Mn are not enriched in

  19. Abundances of neutron-capture elements in the Hot Extreme-Helium Stars V1920 Cygni and HD 124448

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, G; Rao, N K; Jeffery, C S; Pandey, Gajendra; Lambert, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of HST STIS ultraviolet spectra of two hot extreme helium stars (EHes): V1920 Cyg and HD 124448 provide the first measurements of abundances of neutron-capture elements for EHes. Although the two stars have similar abundances for elements up through the iron-group, they differ strikingly in their abundances of heavier elements: V1920 Cyg is enriched by a factor of 30 in light neutron-capture elements (Y/Fe, Zr/Fe) relative to HD 124448. These differences in abundances of neutron-capture elements among EHes mirrors that exhibited by the RCrB stars, and is evidence supporting the view that there is an evolutionary connection between these two groups of hydrogen-deficient stars. Also, the abundances of Y and Zr in V1920 Cyg provide evidence that at least one EHe star went through a s-process synthesis episode in its earlier evolution.

  20. Disk Evolution, Element Abundances and Cloud Properties of Young Gas Giant Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Helling

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the chemical pre-conditions for planet formation, in terms of gas and ice abundances in a protoplanetary disk, as function of time and position, and the resulting chemical composition and cloud properties in the atmosphere when young gas giant planets form, in particular discussing the effects of unusual, non-solar carbon and oxygen abundances. Large deviations between the abundances of the host star and its gas giants seem likely to occur if the planet formation follows the core-accretion scenario. These deviations stem from the separate evolution of gas and dust in the disk, where the dust forms the planet cores, followed by the final run-away accretion of the left-over gas. This gas will contain only traces of elements like C, N and O, because those elements have frozen out as ices. PRODIMO protoplanetary disk models are used to predict the chemical evolution of gas and ice in the midplane. We find that cosmic rays play a crucial role in slowly un-blocking the CO, where the liberated oxygen forms water, which then freezes out quickly. Therefore, the C/O ratio in the gas phase is found to gradually increase with time, in a region bracketed by the water and CO ice-lines. In this regions, C/O is found to approach unity after about 5 Myrs, scaling with the cosmic ray ionization rate assumed. We then explore how the atmospheric chemistry and cloud properties in young gas giants are affected when the non-solar C/O ratios predicted by the disk models are assumed. The DRIFT cloud formation model is applied to study the formation of atmospheric clouds under the influence of varying premordial element abundances and its feedback onto the local gas. We demonstrate that element depletion by cloud formation plays a crucial role in converting an oxygen-rich atmosphere gas into carbon-rich gas when non-solar, premordial element abundances are considered as suggested by disk models.

  1. The Evolution of the Elemental Abundances in the Gas and Dust Phases of the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Dwek, E

    1997-01-01

    We present models for the evolution of the elemental abundances in the gas and dust phases of the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy by generalizing standard models for its dynamical and chemical evolution. In these models, the stellar birthrate history is determined by the infall rate of primordial gas, and by its functional dependence on the mass surface density of the stars and gas. We adopt a two component model for the Galaxy, consisting of a central bulge and an exponential disk with different infall rates and stellar birthrate histories. Condensation in stellar winds, Type Ia and Type II supernovae, and the accretion of refractory elements onto preexisting grains in dense molecular clouds are the dominant contributors to the abundance of elements locked up in the dust. Grain destruction by sputtering and evaporative grain-grain collisions in supernova remnants are the most important mechanisms that return these elements back to the gas phase. We calculate the dust production rate by the various du...

  2. Trace element abundances in megacrysts and their host basalts - Constraints on partition coefficients and megacryst genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, A. J.; Frey, F. A.

    1984-01-01

    Rare earth and other trace element abundances are determined in megacrysts of clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, amphibole, mica, anorthoclase, apatite and zircon, as well as their host basalts, in an effort to gather data on mineral/melt trace element partitioning during the high pressure petrogenesis of basic rocks. Phase equilibria, major element partitioning and isotopic ratio considerations indicate that while most of the pyroxene and amphibole megacrysts may have been in equilibrium with their host magmas at high pressures, mica, anorthoclase, apatite, and zircon megacrysts are unlikely to have formed in equilibrium with their host basalts. It is instead concluded that they were precipitated from more evolved magmas, and have been mixed into their present hosts.

  3. Complete Element Abundances of Nine Stars in the r-process Galaxy Reticulum II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Alexander P.; Frebel, Anna; Simon, Joshua D.; Chiti, Anirudh

    2016-10-01

    We present chemical abundances derived from high-resolution Magellan/Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectra of the nine brightest known red giant members of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum II (Ret II). These stars span the full metallicity range of Ret II (‑3.5 date. The other two stars are the most metal-poor stars in the system ([Fe/H] up to the iron peak are otherwise similar to abundances of stars in the halo and in other ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. However, the scatter in abundance ratios is large enough to suggest that inhomogeneous metal mixing is required to explain the chemical evolution of this galaxy. The presence of low amounts of neutron-capture elements in other ultra-faint dwarf galaxies may imply the existence of additional r-process sites besides the source of r-process elements in Ret II. Galaxies like Ret II may be the original birth sites of r-process enhanced stars now found in the halo. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  4. Possible sources of the Population I lithium abundance and light-element evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence E.

    1992-01-01

    One-zone numerical models of Galactic chemical evolution of the light elements (lithium, beryllium, boron, and deuterium) with a broad sample of possible stellar lithium production sites and star formation histories, including the multiple merger model of Mathews and Schramm (1992), are examined. Models with high primordial lithium are constrained by observations of lithium and potassium in the interstellar medium of the LMC to have Li abundances close to the Population I value of about 10 exp -9. Li-7 production in intermediate- or high-mass stars (greater than 4 solar masses) is found to fit observations somewhat better than production in low-mass (1-5 solar masses) stars. Since elevated levels of lithium are commonly observed in intermediate-mass stars in the LMC, it is argued that this is indeed the major source of the Population I Li-7 abundance.

  5. What are the Sources of Solar Energetic Particles? Element Abundances and Source Plasma Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Reames, Donald V

    2015-01-01

    We have spent 50 years in heated discussion over which populations of solar energetic particles (SEPs) are accelerated at flares and which by shock waves driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The association of the large "gradual" SEP events with shock acceleration is supported by the extensive spatial distribution of SEPs and by the delayed acceleration of the particles. The relative abundances of the elements in these gradual events are a measure of those in the ambient solar corona, differing from those in the photosphere by a widely-observed function of the first ionization potential (FIP) of the elements. SEP events we call "impulsive", the traditional "3He-rich" events with enhanced heavy-element abundances, are associated with type III radio bursts, flares, and narrow CMEs; they selectively populate flux tubes that thread a localized source, and they are fit to new particle-in-cell models of magnetic reconnection on open field lines as found in solar jets. These models help explain ...

  6. New Atomic Data for Trans-Iron Elements and Their Application to Abundance Determinations in Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, N C; Esteves, D A; Bilodeau, R C; Kilcoyne, A L D; Red, E C; Phaneuf, R A; Alna'Washi, G; Aguilar, A

    2010-01-01

    [Abridged] Investigations of neutron(n)-capture element nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution have largely been based on stellar spectroscopy. However, the recent detection of these elements in several planetary nebulae (PNe) indicates that nebular spectroscopy is a promising new tool for such studies. In PNe, n-capture element abundance determinations reveal details of s-process nucleosynthesis and convective mixing in evolved low-mass stars, as well as the chemical evolution of elements that cannot be detected in stellar spectra. Only one or two ions of a given trans-iron element can typically be detected in individual nebulae. Elemental abundance determinations thus require corrections for the abundances of unobserved ions. Such corrections rely on the availability of atomic data for processes that control the ionization equilibrium of nebulae. Until recently, these data were unknown for virtually all n-capture element ions. For the first five ions of Se, Kr, and Xe -- the three most widely detected n-cap...

  7. SP_Ace: a new code to derive stellar parameters and elemental abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Ongoing and future massive spectroscopic surveys will collect large numbers (106-107) of stellar spectra that need to be analyzed. Highly automated software is needed to derive stellar parameters and chemical abundances from these spectra. Aims: We developed a new method of estimating the stellar parameters Teff, log g, [M/H], and elemental abundances. This method was implemented in a new code, SP_Ace (Stellar Parameters And Chemical abundances Estimator). This is a highly automated code suitable for analyzing the spectra of large spectroscopic surveys with low or medium spectral resolution (R = 2000-20 000). Methods: After the astrophysical calibration of the oscillator strengths of 4643 absorption lines covering the wavelength ranges 5212-6860 Å and 8400-8924 Å, we constructed a library that contains the equivalent widths (EW) of these lines for a grid of stellar parameters. The EWs of each line are fit by a polynomial function that describes the EW of the line as a function of the stellar parameters. The coefficients of these polynomial functions are stored in a library called the "GCOG library". SP_Ace, a code written in FORTRAN95, uses the GCOG library to compute the EWs of the lines, constructs models of spectra as a function of the stellar parameters and abundances, and searches for the model that minimizes the χ2 deviation when compared to the observed spectrum. The code has been tested on synthetic and real spectra for a wide range of signal-to-noise and spectral resolutions. Results: SP_Ace derives stellar parameters such as Teff, log g, [M/H], and chemical abundances of up to ten elements for low to medium resolution spectra of FGK-type stars with precision comparable to the one usually obtained with spectra of higher resolution. Systematic errors in stellar parameters and chemical abundances are presented and identified with tests on synthetic and real spectra. Stochastic errors are automatically estimated by the code for all the parameters

  8. Trace Element Abundances in an Unusual Hibonite-Perovskite Refractory Inclusion from Allende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Prajkta; Wadhwa, M.; Keller, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) are thought to be the first-formed solids in the Solar protoplanetary disk and can provide information about the earliest Solar System processes (e.g., [1]). A hibonite-perovskitebearing CAI from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL, [2]) contains a single of 500 micrometers hibonite grain and coarse-grained perovskite. The mineralogy and oxygen isotopic composition of this CAI shows similarities with FUN inclusions, especially HAL [2]. Here we present trace element abundances in SHAL.

  9. Sources of carbon and the evolution of the abundance of CNO elements

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Y. C.; Zhao, G.; Shi, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    Using the standard infall model of Galactic chemical evolution, we explore the origin of carbon and calculate the abundance evolution of CNO elements for 8 different models of stellar nucleosynthesis yields. The results show that, in the early stage of the Galaxy, massive stars are the main producer of carbon, and that as our Galaxy evolves to the late stage, the longer lived intermediate- and low-mass stars play an increasingly important role, while at the same time, metal-rich Wolf-Rayet st...

  10. Galactic abundance gradients from Cepheids. α and heavy elements in the outer disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasle, B.; François, P.; Genovali, K.; Kovtyukh, V. V.; Bono, G.; Inno, L.; Laney, C. D.; Kaper, L.; Bergemann, M.; Fabrizio, M.; Matsunaga, N.; Pedicelli, S.; Primas, F.; Romaniello, M.

    2013-10-01

    Context. Galactic abundance gradients set strong constraints to chemo-dynamical evolutionary models of the Milky Way. Given the period-luminosity relations that provide accurate distances and the large number of spectral lines, Cepheids are excellent tracers of the present-day abundance gradients. Aims: We want to measure the Galactic abundance gradient of several chemical elements. While the slope of the Cepheid iron gradient did not vary much from the very first studies, the gradients of the other elements are not that well constrained. In this paper we focus on the inner and outer regions of the Galactic thin disk. Methods: We use high-resolution spectra (FEROS, ESPADONS, NARVAL) to measure the abundances of several light (Na, Al), α (Mg, Si, S, Ca), and heavy elements (Y, Zr, La, Ce, Nd, Eu) in a sample of 65 Milky Way Cepheids. Combining these results with accurate distances from period-Wesenheit relations in the near-infrared enables us to determine the abundance gradients in the Milky Way. Results: Our results are in good agreement with previous studies on either Cepheids or other tracers. In particular, we confirm an upward shift of ≈0.2 dex for the Mg abundances, as has recently been reported. We also confirm the existence of a gradient for all the heavy elements studied in the context of a local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis. However, for Y, Nd, and especially La, we find lower abundances for Cepheids in the outer disk than reported in previous studies, leading to steeper gradients. This effect can be explained by the differences in the line lists used by different groups. Conclusions: Our data do not support a flattening of the gradients in the outer disk, in agreement with recent Cepheid studies and chemo-dynamical simulations. This is in contrast to the open cluster observations but remains compatible with a picture where the transition zone between the inner disk and the outer disk would move outward with time. Based on observations obtained

  11. Solar Flare Element Abundances from the Solar Assembly for X-rays (SAX) on MESSENGER

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, B R; Schwartz, R A; Tolbert, A K; Starr, R D; Nittler, L R

    2015-01-01

    X-ray spectra in the range $1.5-8.5$~keV have been analyzed for 526 large flares detected with the Solar Assembly for X-rays (SAX) on the Mercury {\\em MESSENGER} spacecraft between 2007 and 2013. For each flare, the temperature and emission measure of the emitting plasma were determined from the spectrum of the continuum. In addition, with the SAX energy resolution of 0.6 keV (FWHM) at 6~keV, the intensities of the clearly resolved Fe-line complex at 6.7~keV and the Ca-line complex at 3.9~keV were determined, along with those of unresolved line complexes from S, Si, and Ar at lower energies. Comparisons of these line intensities with theoretical spectra allow the abundances of these elements relative to hydrogen to be derived, with uncertainties due to instrument calibration and the unknown temperature distribution of the emitting plasma. While significant deviations are found for the abundances of Fe and Ca from flare to flare, the abundances averaged over all flares are found to be enhanced over photospheri...

  12. On the Measurement of Elemental Abundance Ratios in Inner Galaxy H II Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, J P; Colgan, S W J; Erickson, E F; Haas, M R; Simpson, Janet P.; Rubin, Robert H.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Haas, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    Although variations in elemental abundance ratios in the Milky Way Galaxy certainly exist, details remain uncertain, particularly in the inner Galaxy, where stars and H II regions in the Galactic plane are obscured optically. In this paper we revisit two previously studied, inner Galaxy H II regions: G333.6-0.2 and W43. We observed three new positions in G333.6-0.2 with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory and reobserved the central position with the Infrared Space Observatory's Long Wavelength Spectrometer in far-infrared lines of S++, N++, N+, and O++. We also added the N+ lines at 122 and 205 micron to the suite of lines measured in W43 by Simpson et al. (1995). The measured electron densities range from ~40 to over 4000 cm-3 in a single H II region, indicating that abundance analyses must consider density variations, since the critical densities of the observed lines range from 40 to 9000 cm-3. We propose a method to handle density variations and make new estimates of the S/H and N/H abundance ratios. We find ...

  13. Origin of the heavy elements in HD 140283. Measurement of europium abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Mello, C Siqueira; Spite, M; Spite, F

    2012-01-01

    HD 140283 is a nearby (V=7.7) subgiant metal-poor star, extensively analysed in the literature. Although many spectra have been obtained for this star, none showed a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio high enough to enable a very accurate derivation of abundances from weak lines. The detection of europium proves that the neutron-capture elements in this star originate in the r-process, and not in the s-process, as recently claimed in the literature. Based on the OSMARCS 1D LTE atmospheric model and with a consistent approach based on the spectrum synthesis code Turbospectrum, we measured the europium lines at 4129 {\\AA} and 4205 {\\AA}, taking into account the hyperfine structure of the transitions. The spectrum, obtained with a long exposure time of seven hours at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), has a resolving power of 81000 and a S/N ratio of 800 at 4100 {\\AA}. We were able to determine the abundance A(Eu)=-2.35 dex, compatible with the value predicted for the europium from the r-process. The abundance ...

  14. Planetary Nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds: II) Abundances and element production

    CERN Document Server

    Leisy, P

    2006-01-01

    We present the second part of an optical spectroscopic study of planetary nebulae in the LMC and SMC. The first paper, Leisy & Dennefeld (1996), discussed the CNO cycle for those objects where C abundances were available. In this paper we concentrate more on other elemental abundances (such as O, Ne, S, Ar) and their implications for the evolution of the progenitor stars. We use a much larger sample of 183 objects, of which 65 are from our own observations, where the abundances have been re-derived in a homogeneous way. For 156 of them, the quality of data is considered to be satisfactory for further analysis. We confirm the difficulty of separating Type-I and non-type-I objects in the classical He-N/O diagram, as found in Paper I, a problem reinforced by the variety of initial compositions for the progenitor stars. We observed oxygen variations, either depletion via the ON cycle in the more massive progenitor stars, or oxygen production in other objects. Neon production also appears to be present. These ...

  15. Abundances of chemical elements of the granitoids in different geotectonic units of China and their characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Changyi; YAN Mingcai; CHI Qinghua

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of actual analytical data of 767 composited samples collected mainly from about 750 large to middle representative granitoid bodies all over China, the average chemical compositions and element abundances of about 70 chemical elements of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, FeO, MgO,CaO, Na2O, K2O, H2O+, CO2, TFe2O3, Ag, As, Au, B, Ba, Be,Bi, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, F, Ga, Ge, Hf, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb,Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V, W, Zn,Zr, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu and Y in alkalifeldspar granite, syenogranite and adamellite in 7 geotectonic units in China such as Tianshan-Xing'an orogenic series, Sino-Korean metaplatform, Kunlun-Qilian-Qinling orogenic series, Yunnan-Tibet orogenic series,Yangtze metaplatform, South China-Youjiang orogenic zone and Himalayan orogenic belt, are calculated and presented in this paper. In addition, the characteristics of petrochemical parameters, trace element contents and rare earth element dis-tributions of different rock types of the granitoids in different geotectonic units are also sufficiently discussed.

  16. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Stellar content and elemental abundances in the massive cluster NGC\\,6705

    CERN Document Server

    Cantat-Gaudin, T; Zaggia, S; Bragaglia, A; Sordo, R; Drew, J E; Eisloeffel, J; Farnhill, H J; Gonzalez-Solares, E; Greimel, R; Irwin, M J; Kupcu-Yoldas, A; Jordi, C; Blomme, R; Sampedro, L; Costado, M T; Alfaro, E; Smiljanic, R; Magrini, L; Donati, P; Friel, E D; Jacobson, H; Abbas, U; Hatzidimitriou, D; Spagna, A; Vecchiato, A; Balaguer-Nunez, L; Lardo, C; Tosi, M; Pancino, E; Klutsch, A; Tautvaisiene, G; Drazdauskas, A; Puzeras, E; Jimenez-Esteban, F; Maiorca, E; Geisler, D; San, I; Villanova, S; Gilmore, G; Randich, S; Bensby, T; Flaccomio, E; Lanzafame, A; Recio-Blanco, A; Damiani, F; Hourihane, A; Jofre, P; deLaverny, P; Masseron, T; Morbidelli, L; Prisinzano, L; Sacco, G G; Sbordone, L; Worley, C C

    2014-01-01

    Chemically inhomogeneous populations are observed in most globular clusters, but not in open clusters. Cluster mass seems to play a key role in the existence of multiple populations. Studying the chemical homogeneity of the most massive open clusters is necessary to better understand the mechanism of their formation and determine the mass limit under which clusters cannot host multiple populations. Here we studied NGC6705, that is a young and massive open cluster located towards the inner region of the Milky Way. This cluster is located inside the solar circle. This makes it an important tracer of the inner disk abundance gradient. This study makes use of BVI and ri photometry and comparisons with theoretical isochrones to derive the age of NGC6705. We study the density profile of the cluster and the mass function to infer the cluster mass. Based on abundances of the chemical elements distributed in the first internal data release of the Gaia-ESO Survey, we study elemental ratios and the chemical homogeneity ...

  17. Elemental abundances of the supergiant stars {\\sigma} Cygnus and {\\eta} Leonis

    CERN Document Server

    Tanriverdi, Taner

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the elemental abundances for the late B type supergiant star $\\sigma$ Cyg and the early A-type supergiant $\\eta$ Leo using ATLAS9 (Kurucz, 1995; Sbordone et al., 2004), assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The spectra used in this study are obtained from Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and have high resolution and signal-to-noise ratios. The effective temperature and the surface gravity of $\\sigma$ Cyg are determined from the ionisation equilibria of Al I/II, Mg I/II, Fe I/II, Fe II/III , and by fitting to the wings of H$_\\gamma$ and H$_\\beta$ profiles as $\\textit{T}$$_{eff}$ = 10388 K and log $\\textit{g}$ = 1.80. The elemental abundances of $\\eta$ Leo} are determined using $\\textit{T}$$_{eff}$ = 9600 K and log $\\textit{g}$ = 2.00, as reported by Przybilla et al. (2006). The ionisation equilibria of C I/II, N I/II, Mg I/II, Ca I/II, Cr I/II and Fe I/II/III are also satisfied in the atmosphere of $\\eta$ Leo. The radial velocities of $\\sigma$ Cyg and $\\eta$ Leo are -7.25...

  18. Chemical analysis of CH stars - II: atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Karinkuzhi, Drisya

    2014-01-01

    We present detailed chemical analyses for a sample of twelve stars selected from the CH star catalogue of Bartkevicius (1996). The sample includes two confirmed binaries, four objects that are known to show radial velocity variations and the rest with no information on the binary status. A primary objective is to examine if all these objects exhibit chemical abundances characteristics of CH stars, based on detailed chemical composition study using high resolution spectra. We have used high resolution (R ~ 42000) spectra from the ELODIE archive. These spectra cover 3900 to 6800 Angstrom in the wavelength range. We have estimated the stellar atmospheric parameters, the effective temperature Teff, the surface gravity log g, and metallicity [Fe/H] from LTE analysis using model atmospheres. Estimated temperatures of these objects cover a wide range from 4200 K to 6640 K, the surface gravity from 0.6 to 4.3 and metallicity from -0.13 to -1.5. We report updates on elemental abundances for several heavy elements, Sr,...

  19. Rare Earth Element Abundances and Pb-Pb Ages of Merrillite in Jinju H5 Chondrite: Implications to Shock Metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, S.; Choi, B.-G.

    2016-08-01

    Jinju merrillite shows homogeneous REE abundances and relatively young Pb-Pb ages. Jinju H5 chondrite was probably neither equilibrated nor compacted prior to the impact and the shock made trace elements including REEs and U-Pb equilibrated.

  20. Abundance, distribution and potential impact of transposable elements in the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Mateus F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a ascomycete that causes Black Sigatoka in bananas. Recently, the M. fijiensis genome was sequenced. Repetitive sequences are ubiquitous components of fungal genomes. In most genomic analyses, repetitive sequences are associated with transposable elements (TEs. TEs are dispersed repetitive DNA sequences found in a host genome. These elements have the ability to move from one location to another within the genome, and their insertion can cause a wide spectrum of mutations in their hosts. Some of the deleterious effects of TEs may be due to ectopic recombination among TEs of the same family. In addition, some transposons are physically linked to genes and can control their expression. To prevent possible damage caused by the presence of TEs in the genome, some fungi possess TE-silencing mechanisms, such as RIP (Repeat Induced Point mutation. In this study, the abundance, distribution and potential impact of TEs in the genome of M. fijiensis were investigated. Results A total of 613 LTR-Gypsy and 27 LTR-Copia complete elements of the class I were detected. Among the class II elements, a total of 28 Mariner, five Mutator and one Harbinger complete elements were identified. The results of this study indicate that transposons were and are important ectopic recombination sites. A distribution analysis of a transposable element from each class of the M. fijiensis isolates revealed variable hybridization profiles, indicating the activity of these elements. Several genes encoding proteins involved in important metabolic pathways and with potential correlation to pathogenicity systems were identified upstream and downstream of transposable elements. A comparison of the sequences from different transposon groups suggested the action of the RIP silencing mechanism in the genome of this microorganism. Conclusions The analysis of TEs in M. fijiensis suggests that TEs play an important role in the evolution of

  1. Oxygen, {\\alpha}-element and iron abundance distributions in the inner part of the Galactic thin disc

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, R P; Kovtyukh, V V; Korotin, S A; Yegorova, I A; Saviane, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    We derived elemental abundances in 27 Cepheids, the great majority situated within a zone of Galactocentric distances ranging from 5 to 7 kpc. One star of our sample, SU Sct, has a Galactocentric distance of about 3 kpc, and thus falls in a poorly investigated region of the inner thin disc. Our new results, combined with data on abundances in the very central part of our Galaxy taken from literature, show that iron, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, calcium and titanium LTE abundance radial distributions, as well as NLTE distribution of oxygen reveal a plateau-like structure or even positive abundance gradient in the region extending from the Galactic center to about 5 kpc.

  2. Abundances of neutron-capture elements in G 24-25. A halo-population CH subgiant

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, S; Schuster, W J; Zhao, G; Chen, Y Q; Liang, Y C

    2012-01-01

    The differences between the neutron-capture element abundances of halo stars are important to our understanding of the nucleosynthesis of elements heavier than the iron group. We present a detailed abundance analysis of carbon and twelve neutron-capture elements from Sr up to Pb for a peculiar halo star G24-25 with [Fe/H] = -1.4 in order to probe its origin. The equivalent widths of unblended lines are measured from high resolution NOT/FIES spectra and used to derive abundances based on Kurucz model atmospheres. In the case of CH, Pr, Eu, Gd, and Pb lines, the abundances are derived by fitting synthetic profiles to the observed spectra. Abundance analyses are performed both relative to the Sun and to a normal halo star G16-20 that has similar stellar parameters as G24-25. We find that G24-25 is a halo subgiant star with an unseen component. It has large overabundances of carbon and heavy s-process elements and mild overabundances of Eu and light s-process elements. This abundance distribution is consistent wi...

  3. Petrogenesis of high-CaO lavas from Mauna Kea, Hawaii: Constraints from trace element abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shichun; Humayun, Munir

    2016-07-01

    The role of a mafic component in the petrogenesis of Oceanic Island Basalts (OIBs) is highly debated. As the best studied OIB, Hawaiian lavas provide critical insights into OIB genesis. At a given MgO content, the CaO content in the melt has been used to distinguish between partial melts of peridotite and garnet pyroxenite/eclogite. However, calculations using the BATCH program show that CaO contents in volatile-free melts saturated with all four phases, garnet, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and olivine, are controlled by both degrees of partial melting and source compositions, and low melt CaO content is not diagnostic of partial melts from garnet pyroxenite/eclogite. This is an important consideration in understanding the origin of high-CaO lavas recovered from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP). Detailed geochemical and isotopic studies have been focused on the HSDP high- and low-SiO2 group lavas, and high-CaO lavas were not well studied because they were not included in the original reference suite samples. Here, we report trace element abundances obtained on a suite of high-CaO glasses and compared the trace element abundances of high-CaO lavas to those in high- and low-SiO2 lavas. When normalized to the average composition of low-SiO2 lavas, high-CaO lavas form a U-shaped trace element pattern, enriched in both the most incompatible (Nb, Th) and the least incompatible (Sc, V) elements. This compositional distinction is best explained if high-CaO parental magma represents a mixture of a low degree partial melt of the low-SiO2 mantle source with a high degree (>80%) partial melt derived from a mafic cumulate component. This mafic cumulate must be clinopyroxene-rich, and it could be delaminated mafic cumulate formed under arcs during continent formation, lower continental crust, recycled lower oceanic crust, or high pressure cumulates from a magma chamber.

  4. CaII Absorbers in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Element Abundances and Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Sardane, Gendith M; Rao, Sandhya M

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of element abundance ratios and dust in CaII~absorbers identified in SDSS DR7+DR9. In an earlier paper we formed a statistical sample of 435 CaII absorbers and postulated that their statistical properties might be representative of at least two populations of absorbers. Here we show that if the absorbers are roughly divided into two subsamples with CaII rest equivalent widths larger and smaller than $W_0^{\\lambda 3934} = 0.7$ \\AA, they are then representative of two physically different populations. Comparisons of abundance ratios between the two CaII absorber populations indicate that the weaker $W_0^{\\lambda 3934}$ absorbers have properties consistent with halo-type gas, while the stronger absorbers have properties intermediate between halo- and disk-type gas. We also show that, on average, the dust extinction properties of the overall sample is consistent with a LMC or SMC dust law, and the stronger absorbers are nearly 6 times more reddened than their weaker counterparts. The absor...

  5. The Curious Case of Elemental Abundance Differences in the Dual Hot Jupiter Hosts WASP-94AB

    CERN Document Server

    Teske, Johanna K; Ramírez, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Binary stars provide an ideal laboratory for investigating the potential effects of planet formation on stellar composition. Assuming the stars formed in the same environment/from the same material, any compositional anomalies between binary components might indicate differences in how material was sequestered in planets, or accreted by the star in the process of planet formation. We present here a study of the elemental abundance differences between WASP-94AB, a pair of stars that each host a hot Jupiter exoplanet. The two stars are very similar in spectral type (F8 and F9), and their ~2700 AU separation suggests their protoplanetary disks were likely not influenced by stellar interactions, but WASP-94Ab's orbit -- misaligned with the host star spin axis and likely retrograde -- points towards a dynamically active formation mechanism, perhaps different than that of WASP-94Bb, which is not misaligned and has nearly circular orbit. Based on our high-quality spectra and strictly relative abundance analysis, we ...

  6. SP_Ace: a new code to derive stellar parameters and elemental abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Boeche, C

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We developed a new method of estimating the stellar parameters Teff, log g, [M/H], and elemental abundances. This method was implemented in a new code, SP_Ace (Stellar Parameters And Chemical abundances Estimator). This is a highly automated code suitable for analyzing the spectra of large spectroscopic surveys with low or medium spectral resolution (R=2,000-20,000). Methods: After the astrophysical calibration of the oscillator strengths of 4643 absorption lines covering the wavelength ranges 5212-6860\\AA\\ and 8400-8924\\AA, we constructed a library that contains the equivalent widths (EW) of these lines for a grid of stellar parameters. The EWs of each line are fit by a polynomial function that describes the EW of the line as a function of the stellar parameters. The coefficients of these polynomial functions are stored in a library called the "$GCOG$ library". SP_Ace, a code written in FORTRAN95, uses the GCOG library to compute the EWs of the lines, constructs models of spectra as a function of the s...

  7. Elemental Abundance Analysis of the Early Type Members of the Open Cluster M6: Preliminary Results

    CERN Document Server

    Kilicoglu, T; Fossati, L

    2014-01-01

    Differences in chemical composition among main sequence stars within a given cluster are probably due to differences in their masses and other effects such as radiative diffusion, magnetic field, rotation, mixing mechanisms, mass loss, accretion and multiplicity. The early type main-sequence members of open clusters of different ages allow to study the competition between radiative diffusion and mixing mechanisms. We have analysed low and high resolution spectra covering the spectral range 4500 - 5840 Angs. of late B, A, and F type members of the open Cluster M6 (age about 100 Myr). The spectra were obtained using the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph mounted at UT2, the 8 meter class VLT telescope. The effective temperatures, surface gravities and microturbulent velocities of the stars were derived using both photometric and spectral methods. We have also performed a chemical abundance analysis using synthetic spectra. The abundances of the elements were determined for C, O, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Y, ...

  8. Short interspersed element (SINE) depletion and long interspersed element (LINE) abundance are not features universally required for imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Michael; de Burca, Anna; McCole, Ruth B; Chahal, Mandeep; Saadat, Ghazal; Oakey, Rebecca J; Schulz, Reiner

    2011-04-20

    Genomic imprinting is a form of gene dosage regulation in which a gene is expressed from only one of the alleles, in a manner dependent on the parent of origin. The mechanisms governing imprinted gene expression have been investigated in detail and have greatly contributed to our understanding of genome regulation in general. Both DNA sequence features, such as CpG islands, and epigenetic features, such as DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs, play important roles in achieving imprinted expression. However, the relative importance of these factors varies depending on the locus in question. Defining the minimal features that are absolutely required for imprinting would help us to understand how imprinting has evolved mechanistically. Imprinted retrogenes are a subset of imprinted loci that are relatively simple in their genomic organisation, being distinct from large imprinting clusters, and have the potential to be used as tools to address this question. Here, we compare the repeat element content of imprinted retrogene loci with non-imprinted controls that have a similar locus organisation. We observe no significant differences that are conserved between mouse and human, suggesting that the paucity of SINEs and relative abundance of LINEs at imprinted loci reported by others is not a sequence feature universally required for imprinting.

  9. Organic matter formed from hydrolysis of metal carbides of the iron peak of cosmic elemental abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Franco

    2003-01-01

    This work is a modern revisitation of an old idea of great chemists of the past such as Berthelot, Mendeleev, Cloez and Moissan: the formation of organic matter under pre-biotic conditions starting from the hydrolysis of metal carbides. This idea was originally proposed for the formation of petroleum in the Earth and was extended to other bodies of the solar system by Sokolov at the end of the 19th century. The reason for this revisitation lies in the fact that complex organic matter resembling a petroleum fraction may exist in certain protoplanetary nebulae. The present work starts with a survey of the theory of the inorganic origin of petroleum and reports on current evidence for its derivation from residues of formerly living matter, but also considers theories that admit both a biogenic and an abiogenic origin for petroleum. By considering the cosmic abundance of elements and the evidence concerning the presence of carbides in meteorites, we discuss the formation, structure and hydrolysis products derived from the metal carbides of the iron peak of cosmic elemental abundance. Chromium carbide (Cr3C2) has then been used as a model compound for all the key carbides of the iron peak of the cosmic abundance (Cr, Fe, Ni, V, Mn, Co) and it has been hydrolysed under different conditions and the hydrocarbons formed have been analysed using electronic spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Methane, a series of about 20 different alkenes with single and conjugated double bonds have been detected. Paraffins are formed simultaneously with the alkene series but no acetylenic hydrocarbons have been detected. This study confirms early works considering the easy hydrolysis of the carbides of Cr, Fe, Ni, Mn and Co with the formation of H2, a series of alkanes including methane and a series of alkenes including ethylene. The peculiar behaviour of copper carbide (copper is

  10. LIGHT-ELEMENT ABUNDANCES OF GIANT STARS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M71 (NGC 6838)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, M. J. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, Heidelberg (Germany); Pilachowski, C. A.; Vesperini, E. [Astronomy Department, Indiana University Bloomington, Swain West 319, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States); Johnson, C. I., E-mail: mjcorde@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: catyp@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: evesperi@indiana.edu, E-mail: cjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    Aluminum is the heaviest light element displaying large star-to-star variations in Galactic globular clusters (GCs). This element may provide additional insight into the origin of the multiple populations, now known to be common place in GCs, and also the nature of the first-generation stars responsible for a cluster's chemical inhomogeneities. In a previous analysis, we found that unlike more metal-poor GCs, 47 Tuc did not exhibit a strong Na-Al correlation, which motivates a careful study of the similar metallicity but less massive GC M71. We present chemical abundances of O, Na, Al, and Fe for 33 giants in M71 using spectra obtained with the WIYN-Hydra spectrograph. Our spectroscopic analysis finds that similar to 47 Tuc and in contrast with more metal-poor GCs, M71 stars do not exhibit a strong Na-Al correlation and span a relatively narrow range in [Al/Fe], which are characteristics that GC formation models must reproduce.

  11. Al-26, Pu-244, Ti-50, REE, and trace element abundances in hibonite grains from CM and CV meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, A. J.; Mckeegan, K. D.; Zinner, E.; Goswami, J. N.

    1987-01-01

    Hibonites from the CM meteorites Murchison, Murray, and Cold Bokkeveld, and hibonites and Ti-rich pyroxene from the CV chondrite Allende are studied. Electron microprobe measurements of major element concentrations and track and ion probe measurements of Mg and Ti isotopic ratios, rare earth elements (REEs), and trace element abundances are analyzed. Correlations between isotopic anomalies in Ti, Al-26, Pu-244, and Mg-26(asterisk) are examined. Ti isotopic anomalies are compared with REE and trace element abundance patterns. Reasons for the lack of Al-26 in the hibonites are investigated and discussed. It is observed that there is no correlation between the Ti isotopic compositions, and the presence of Mg-26(asterisk), Pu-244, and REE and trace element patterns in individual hibonite samples. The data reveal that hibonites are not interstellar dust grains but formed on a short time scale and in localized regions of the early solar system.

  12. The Abundances of Light Neutron-Capture Elements in Planetary Nebulae III. The Impact of New Atomic Data on Nebular Selenium and Krypton Abundance Determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, N C; Dinerstein, H L

    2015-01-01

    The detection of neutron(n)-capture elements in several planetary nebulae (PNe) has provided a new means of investigating s-process nucleosynthesis in low-mass stars. However, a lack of atomic data has inhibited accurate trans-iron element abundance determinations in astrophysical nebulae. Recently, photoionization and recombination data were determined for Se and Kr, the two most widely detected n-capture elements in nebular spectra. We have incorporated these new data into the photoionization code Cloudy. To test the atomic data, numerical models were computed for 15 PNe that exhibit emission lines from multiple Kr ions. We found systematic discrepancies between the predicted and observed emission lines that are most likely caused by inaccurate photoionization and recombination data. These discrepancies were removed by adjusting the Kr$^+$--Kr$^{3+}$ photoionization cross sections within their cited uncertainties and the dielectronic recombination rate coefficients by slightly larger amounts. From grids of ...

  13. HAT-P-26b: A Neptune-mass Exoplanet with Primordial Solar Heavy Element Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Hannah; Sing, David; Deming, Drake; Kataria, Tiffany; Lopez, Eric

    2016-10-01

    A trend in giant planet mass and atmospheric heavy elemental abundance was first noted last century from observations of planets in our own solar system. These four data points from Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have served as a corner stone of planet formation theory. Here we add another point in the mass-metallicity trend from a detailed observational study of the extrasolar planet HAT-P-26b, which inhabits the critical mass regime near Neptune and Uranus. Neptune-sized worlds are among the most common planets in our galaxy and frequently exist in orbital periods very different from that of our own solar system ice giants. Atmospheric studies are the principal window into these worlds, and thereby into their formation and evolution, beyond those of our own solar system. Using the Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer, from the optical to the infrared, we conducted a detailed atmospheric study of the Neptune-mass exoplanet HAT-P-26b over 0.5 to 4.5 μm. We detect prominent H2O absorption at 1.4 μm to 525 ppm in the atmospheric transmission spectrum. We determine that HAT-P-26b's atmosphere is not rich in heavy elements (≈1.8×solar), which goes distinctly against the solar system mass-metallicity trend. This likely indicates that HAT-P-26b's atmosphere is primordial and obtained its gaseous envelope late in its disk lifetime with little contamination from metal-rich planetesimals.

  14. Deriving Plasma Densities and Elemental Abundances from SERTS Differential Emission Measure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Kimble, J. A.; Saba, J. L. R.

    2012-01-01

    We use high-resolution spectral emission line data obtained by the SERTS instrument during three rocket flights to demonstrate a new approach for constraining electron densities of solar active region plasma.We apply differential emission measure (DEM) forward-fitting techniques to characterize the multithermal solar plasma producing the observed EUV spectra, with constraints on the high-temperature plasma from the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope. In this iterative process, we compare line intensities predicted by an input source distribution to observed line intensities for multiple iron ion species, and search a broad range of densities to optimize chi-square simultaneously for the many available density-sensitive lines. This produces a density weighted by the DEM, which appears to be useful for characterizing the bulk of the emitting plasma over a significant range of temperature. This "DEM-weighted density" technique is complementary to the use of density-sensitive line ratios and less affected by uncertainties in atomic data and ionization fraction for any specific line. Once the DEM shape and the DEM-weighted density have been established from the iron lines, the relative elemental abundances can be determined for other lines in the spectrum. We have also identified spectral lines in the SERTS wavelength range that may be problematic

  15. Heavy Element Abundances and Dust Depletions in 4 Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Savaglio, S; Fiore, F

    2003-01-01

    We have determined the column densities of UV absorption lines in 4 Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) optical transients, using the curve of growth analysis. From a direct comparison with the column densities of the same elements observed in damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) systems along QSO sight lines, we unambiguously find that 3 GRB-DLAs are characterized by much higher column densities of ZnII with respect to QSO-DLAs. The relative abundances of [Fe/Zn], [Si/Zn] and [Cr/Zn] as a function of ZnII column density in QSO--DLAs, are smaller at larger N_{ZnII}. These trends are confirmed by the GRB-DLA measurements, being located at the lower [X/Zn] and higher ZnII column part of the QSO-DLA distribution. Very small [Fe/Zn], [Si/Zn] and [Cr/Zn] values in GRBs also indicate a large dust depletion and extinction. Once the dust-to-metals ratios are determined in 3 GRBs, we find A_V=0.6, 0.9 and 1.1 mags, to be compared with typical A_V \\sim 0.1 in QSO-DLAs. All our findings support the idea that QSOs (fainter than GRBs) can only pro...

  16. Light, Alpha, and Fe-Peak Element Abundances in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Christian I; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Kunder, Andrea; Koch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu for a sample of 156 red giant branch stars in two Galactic bulge fields centered near (l,b)=(+5.25,-3.02) and (0,-12). The (+5.25,-3.02) field also includes observations of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553. The results are based on high resolution (R~20,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N>70) FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectra obtained through the ESO archive. However, we only selected a subset of the original observations that included spectra with both high S/N and that did not show strong TiO absorption bands. The present work extends previous analyses of this data set beyond Fe and the alpha-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti. While we find reasonable agreement with past work, the data presented here indicate that the bulge may exhibit a different chemical composition than the local thick disk, especially at [Fe/H]>-0.5. In particular, the bulge [alpha/Fe] ratios may remain enhanced to a slightly higher [Fe/H] than the thick...

  17. Oxygen, $\\alpha$-element and iron abundance distributions in the inner part of the Galactic thin disc. II

    CERN Document Server

    Andrievsky, S M; Kovtyukh, V V; Korotin, S A; Lépine, J R D

    2016-01-01

    We have derived the abundances of 36 chemical elements in one Cepheid star, ASAS 181024--2049.6, located R$_{\\rm G}= 2.53$ kpc from the Galactic center. This star falls within a region of the inner thin disc poorly sampled in Cepheids. Our spectral analysis shows that iron, magnesium, silicon, calcium and titanium LTE abundances in that star support the presence of a plateau-like abundance distribution in the thin disc within 5 kpc of the Galactic center, as previously suggested by \\cite{Maret15}. If confirmed, the flattening of the abundance gradient within that region could be the result of a decrease in the star formation rate due to dynamic effects, possibly from the central Galactic bar.

  18. Galactic abundance gradients from Cepheids. α and heavy elements in the outer disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Lemasle; P. François; K. Genovali; V.V. Kovtyukh; G. Bono; L. Inno; C.D. Laney; L. Kaper; M. Bergemann; M. Fabrizio; N. Matsunaga; S. Pedicelli; F. Primas; M. Romaniello

    2013-01-01

    Context. Galactic abundance gradients set strong constraints to chemo-dynamical evolutionary models of the Milky Way. Given the period-luminosity relations that provide accurate distances and the large number of spectral lines, Cepheids are excellent tracers of the present-day abundance gradients. A

  19. Galactic abundance gradients from Cepheids : α and heavy elements in the outer disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemasle, B.; Francois, P.; Genovali, K.; Kovtyukh, V. V.; Bono, G.; Inno, L.; Laney, C. D.; Kaper, L.; Bergemann, M.; Fabrizio, M.; Matsunaga, N.; Pedicelli, S.; Primas, F.; Romaniello, M.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Galactic abundance gradients set strong constraints to chemo-dynamical evolutionary models of the Milky Way. Given the period-luminosity relations that provide accurate distances and the large number of spectral lines, Cepheids are excellent tracers of the present-day abundance gradients. A

  20. Determination of rare earth and refractory trace element abundances in early solar system objects by ion microprobe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sahijpal; K K Marhas; J N Goswami

    2003-12-01

    Experimental and analytical procedures devised for measurement of rare earth element (REE) abundances using a secondary ion mass spectrometer (ion microprobe) are described. This approach is more versatile than the conventional techniques such as neutron activation analysis and isotope dilution mass spectrometry by virtue of its high spatial resolution that allows determination of REE abundances in small domains (10-20 micron) within individual mineral phases. The ion microprobe measurements are performed at a low mass-resolving power adopting the energy-filltering technique (Zinner and Crozaz 1986) for removal and suppression of unresolved complex molecular interferences in the REE masses of interest. Synthetic standards are used for determining various instrument specific parameters needed in the data deconvolution procedure adopted for obtaining REE abundances. Results obtained from analysis of standards show that our ion microprobe may be used for determining REE abundances down to ppm range with uncertainties of ∼10 to 15%. Abundances of rare earth and several other refractory trace elements in a set of early solar system objects isolated from two primitive carbonaceous chondrites were determined using the procedures devised by us. The results suggest that some of these objects could be high temperature nebular condensates, while others are products of melting and recrystallization of precursor nebular solids in a high temperature environment.

  1. On the internal pollution mechanisms in the globular cluster NGC 6121 (M4): heavy-element abundances and AGB models

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orazi, Valentina; Lugaro, Maria; Lattanzio, John C; Pignatari, Marco; Carretta, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Globular clusters display significant variations in their light-element content, pointing to the existence of a second stellar generation formed from the ejecta of an earlier generation. The nature of these internal polluters is still a matter of debate: the two most popular scenarios indicate intermediate-mass AGB stars and fast rotating massive stars. Abundances determination for some key elements can help distinguish between these competitor candidates. We present in this paper Y abundances for a sample of 103 red giant branch stars in NGC 6121. Within measurement errors, we find that the [Y/Fe] is constant in this cluster contrary to a recent suggestion. For a subsample of six stars we also find [Rb/Fe] to be constant, consistent with previous studies showing no variation in other s-process elements. We also present a new set of stellar yields for intermediate-mass AGB stellar models of 5 and 6 solar masses, including heavy element s-process abundances. The uncertainties on the mass-loss rate, the mixing-...

  2. THE CURIOUS CASE OF ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCE DIFFERENCES IN THE DUAL HOT JUPITER HOSTS WASP-94A AND B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teske, Johanna K. [Carnegie Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Khanal, Sandhya; Ramírez, Ivan, E-mail: jteske@carnegiescience.edu [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1402, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Binary stars provide an ideal laboratory for investigating the potential effects of planet formation on stellar composition. Assuming that the stars formed in the same environment/from the same material, any compositional anomalies between binary components might indicate differences in how material was sequestered in planets, or accreted by the star in the process of planet formation. We present here a study of the elemental abundance differences between WASP-94A and B, a pair of stars that each host a hot Jupiter exoplanet. The two stars are very similar in spectral type (F8 and F9), and their ∼2700 au separation suggests that their protoplanetary disks were likely not influenced by stellar interactions, but WASP-94Ab’s orbit—misaligned with the host star spin axis and likely retrograde—points toward a dynamically active formation mechanism, perhaps different from that of WASP-94Bb, which is not misaligned and has a nearly circular orbit. Based on our high-quality spectra and strictly relative abundance analysis, we detect a depletion of volatiles (∼−0.02 dex, on average) and enhancement of refractories (∼0.01 dex) in WASP-94A relative to B (standard errors are ∼0.005 dex). This is different from every other published case of binary host star abundances, in which either no significant abundance differences are reported or there is some degree of enhancement in all elements, including volatiles. Several scenarios that may explain the abundance trend are discussed, but none can be definitively accepted or rejected. Additional high-contrast imaging observations to search for companions that may be dynamically affecting the system, as well as a larger sample of binary host star studies, are needed to better understand the curious abundance trends we observe in WASP-94A and B.

  3. The Abundances of Light Neutron-Capture Elements in Planetary Nebulae II. s-process Enrichments and Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, N C

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a large-scale survey of neutron(n)-capture elements in Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), undertaken to study enrichments from s-process nucleosynthesis in their progenitor stars. From new K band observations of over 100 PNe supplemented by data from the literature, we have detected the emission lines [Kr III] 2.199 and/or [Se IV] 2.287 $\\mu$m in 81 of 120 objects. We determine Se and Kr elemental abundances, employing ionization correction formulae derived in the first paper of this series. We find a significant range in Se and Kr abundances, from near solar (no enrichment) to enhanced by >1.0 dex relative to solar, which we interpret as self-enrichment due to in situ s-process nucleosynthesis. Kr tends to be more strongly enriched than Se; in 18 objects exhibiting both Se and Kr emission, we find that [Kr/Se] = 0.5$\\pm$0.2. Our survey has increased the number of PNe with n-capture element abundance determinations by a factor of ten, enabling us for the first time to search for corre...

  4. High-precision abundances of Sc, Mn, Cu, and Ba in solar twins. Trends of element ratios with stellar age

    CERN Document Server

    Nissen, P E

    2016-01-01

    A previous study of correlations between element abundance ratios, [X/Fe], and ages of solar twin stars is extended to include Sc, Mn, Cu, and Ba. HARPS spectra with S/N > 600 are used to derive very precise (+/- 0.01 dex) differential abundances, and stellar ages with internal errors less than 1 Gyr are obtained by interpolation in the logg - Teff diagram between isochrones calculated with the Aarhus Stellar Evolution Code. For stars younger than 6 Gyr, [X/Fe] is tightly correlated with stellar age for all elements. For ages between 6 and 9 Gyr, the [X/Fe] - age correlations break down and the stars split up into two groups having respectively high and low [X/Fe] for the odd-Z elements. It is concluded that while stars in the solar neighborhood younger than about 6 Gyr were formed from interstellar gas with a smooth chemical evolution, older stars have originated from regions enriched by supernovae with different neutron excesses. Furthermore, the correlations between abundance ratios and stellar age suggest...

  5. Element Abundances in a Gas-rich Galaxy at z = 5: Clues to the Early Chemical Enrichment of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Sean; Som, Debopam; DeMarcy, Bryan; Quiret, Samuel; Peroux, Celine

    2016-01-01

    Element abundances in high-redshift quasar absorbers offer excellent probes of the chemical enrichment of distant galaxies, and can constrain models for population III and early population II stars. Recent observations indicate that the sub-damped Lyman-alpha (sub-DLA) absorbers are more metal-rich than the damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) absorbers at redshifts 0$$4.7. However, only 3 DLAs at $z$$>$4.5 and no sub-DLAs at $z$$>$3.5 have "dust-free" metallicity measurements of undepleted elements. We report the first measurement of element abundances in a sub-DLA at $z$=5.0, using Keck HIRES and ESI data. We obtain fairly robust abundances of C, O, Si, and Fe, using lines outside the Lyman-alpha forest. We find this absorber to be metal-poor, with [O/H]=$-2.02$$\\pm$0.12, which is $>$5$\\sigma$ below the level expected from an extrapolation of the trend for $z$$<$3.5 sub-DLAs. The C/O ratio is $1.7^{+0.4}_{-0.3}$ times lower than in the Sun. More strikingly, Si/O is $3.0^{+0.6}_{-0.5}$ times lower than in the Sun, wh...

  6. Elemental abundances of metal poor carbon rich lead star: CS29497-030

    OpenAIRE

    Sivarani, T.; Bonifacio, P.; Molaro, P.; Cayrel, R.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Plez, B.; Andersen, J.; Barbuy, B.; Beers, T. C.; Depagne, E.; Hill, V.; Francois, P.; Nordstrom, B.; Primas, F.

    2002-01-01

    We present here the abundance analysis of a metal poor carbon rich lead star, CS29497-030. High resolution and high signal to noise spectra were obtained using the UVES spectrograph on the 8.2m VLT-Kueyen telescope. The observations were made as a part of the Large Programme 165.N-0276, P.I. R. Cayrel. Abundance analysis was done using the latest version of the MARCS model atmospheres (Plez et. al. 1992) and the turbospectrum spectrum synthesis code. We have derived Teff = 6650K from the FeI ...

  7. Double white dwarf mergers and elemental surface abundances in extreme helium and R Coronae Borealis stars

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery, C. Simon; Karakas, Amanda I.; Saio, Hideyuki

    2011-01-01

    The surface abundances of extreme helium (EHe) and R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are discussed in terms of the merger of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf with a helium white dwarf. The model is expressed as a linear mixture of the individual layers of both constituent white dwarfs, taking account of the specific evolution of each star. In developing this recipe from previous versions, particular attention has been given to the inter-shell abundances of the asymptotic giant branch star which evolv...

  8. Elemental abundance analyses with coadded DAO spectrograms. IV - Revision of previous analyses. V - The mercury-manganese stars Phi Herculis, 28 Herculis and HR 7664

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Saul J.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in chromium, manganese, and nickel abundances derived from singly ionized lines are incorporated into the elemental abundance of Adelman and Hill (1987) in order to provide more accurate gf values and damping constants for several atomic species. An improved agreement with the values from neutral lines of the same element is found. In the second part, the method is applied to an elemental abundance analysis of three mercury-manganese stars, and correlations are found between the derived abundances and the effective temperature.

  9. Disk Evolution, Element Abundances and Cloud Properties of Young Gas Giant Planets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helling, Christiane; Woitke, Peter; Rimmer, Paul B.; Kamp, Inga; Thi, Wing-Fai; Meijerink, Rowin

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the chemical pre-conditions for planet formation, in terms of gas and ice abundances in a protoplanetary disk, as function of time and position, and the resulting chemical composition and cloud properties in the atmosphere when young gas giant planets form, in particular discussing the ef

  10. Seasonal and spatial variation in species diversity, abundance, and element accumulation capacities of macroalgae in mangrove forests of Zhanjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yubin; LI Yuan; SHI Fei; SUN Xingli; LIN Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether there was distinctive seasonal and zonal variation in the species diversity, biomass, and element accumulation capacities of macroalgae in two major intertidal mangrove stand types (Avicennia marina assemblage andSonneratia apetala assemblage) in the Zhanjiang region of southern China. Over a year, 31 species in 15 genera were identified in both mangrove assem-blages, of which the dominant species wereCladophoropsis zollingeriand Enteromorpha clathrat.Macroal-gal species were significantly most abundant in spring (p<0.05), followed by summer, winter, and autumn. Variation in the zonal distribution of macroalgal species was conspicuous in both intertidal mangrove as-semblages, with the greatest abundance in the middle zone, and the least in the front zone. Patterns in the seasonal and zonal variation in macroalgal biomass in theS. apetalaassemblage were similar to those of macroalgal species diversity in both mangrove assemblages. The seasonal patterns in tissue concentrations of 15 analyzed elements were not uniform among the macroalgaeC. zollingeri,E. clathrata, andGracilaria salicornia in theA. marina assemblage. All three species exhibited variation in their responses to ambient concentrations of different elements, implying their differential ability to absorb and selectively accumulate certain elements.

  11. Iron and s-elements abundance variations in NGC5286: comparison with anomalous globular clusters and Milky Way satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, A F; Karakas, A I; Casagrande, L; Yong, D; Shingles, L; Da Costa, G; Norris, J E; Stetson, P B; Lind, K; Asplund, M; Collet, R; Jerjen, H; Sbordone, L; Aparicio, A; Cassisi, S

    2015-01-01

    We present a high resolution spectroscopic analysis of 62 red giants in the Milky Way globular cluster NGC5286. We have determined abundances of representative light proton-capture, alpha, Fe-peak and neutron-capture element groups, and combined them with photometry of multiple sequences observed along the colour-magnitude diagram. Our principal results are: (i) a broad, bimodal distribution in s-process element abundance ratios, with two main groups, the s-poor and s-rich groups; (ii) substantial star-to-star Fe variations, with the s-rich stars having higher Fe, e.g. _s-rich - _s-poor ~ 0.2~dex; and (iii) the presence of O-Na-Al (anti-)correlations in both stellar groups. We have defined a new photometric index, c_{BVI}=(B-V)-(V-I), to maximise the separation in the colour-magnitude diagram between the two stellar groups with different Fe and s-element content, and this index is not significantly affected by variations in light elements (such as the O-Na anticorrelation). The variations in the overall metal...

  12. Abundances of Baade's Window Giants from Keck/HIRES Spectra: II. The Alpha- and Light Odd Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Fulbright, J P; Rich, R M; Fulbright, Jon. P.; William, Andrew Mc

    2006-01-01

    We report detailed chemical abundance analysis of 27 RGB stars towards the Galactic bulge in Baade's Window for elements produced by massive stars: O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca and Ti. All of these elements are overabundant in the bulge relative to the disk, especially Mg, indicating that the bulge is enhanced in Type~II supernova ejecta and most likely formed more rapidly than the disk. We attribute a rapid decline of [O/Fe] to metallicity-dependent yields of oxygen in massive stars, perhaps connected to the Wolf-Reyet phenomenon. he explosive nucleosynthesis alphas, Si, Ca and Ti, possess identical trends with [Fe/H], consistent with their putative common origin. We note that different behaviors of hydrostatic and explosive alpha elements can be seen in the stellar abundances of stars in Local Group dwarf galaxies. We also attribute the decline of Si,Ca and Ti relative to Mg, to metallicity- dependent yields for the explosive alpha elements from Type~II supernovae. The starkly smaller scatter of [/Fe] with [Fe/H] ...

  13. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN THE EJECTA OF OLD CLASSICAL NOVAE FROM LATE-EPOCH SPITZER SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared IRS spectra, supplemented by ground-based optical observations, of the classical novae V1974 Cyg, V382 Vel, and V1494 Aql more than 11, 8, and 4 years after outburst, respectively. The spectra are dominated by forbidden emission from neon and oxygen, though in some cases, there are weak signatures of magnesium, sulfur, and argon. We investigate the geometry and distribution of the late time ejecta by examination of the emission line profiles. Using nebular analysis in the low-density regime, we estimate lower limits on the abundances in these novae. In V1974 Cyg and V382 Vel, our observations confirm the abundance estimates presented by other authors and support the claims that these eruptions occurred on ONe white dwarfs (WDs). We report the first detection of neon emission in V1494 Aql and show that the system most likely contains a CO WD.

  14. The abundance pattern of heavy elements in Sirius: Impact of modern observations (STIS) and improved Atomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay Cowley, Charles; Ayres, Thomas; Wahlgren, Glenn; Carpenter, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    The abundance pattern of heavy elements in Sirius: Impact of modern observations (STIS) and improved atomic data. We determine abundances or upper limits for the 55 stable elements from copper to uranium for the A1 Vm star Sirius. The primary observational material consists of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectra taken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) from the ASTRAL project (Ayres 2010, ApJS, 187, 149). We have also used archival material from COPERNICUS (retrieved from the MAST) and from HST/GHRS, as well as the ground-based Furenlid, Westin, and Kurucz Sirius Atlas (FWK). The GHRS observations were described by Wahlgren, et al. (1993, Bull. AAS, 25, 1321). We also used the monumental study of Sirius by Klaus Kohl (1964, Zs. f. Ap. 60, 115, 1964, see also 1964, Das Spektrum des Sirius, 3100 - 8863A, Kiel thesis). Abundance determinations are based on the photospheric model of Landstreet (2011, A&A, 528, 132). The atomic data base is significantly improved since the pioneering work by Sadakane (1988, PASP, 100, 811; 1991, 103, 355). The basic source was VALD3 (http://vald.inasan.ru/~vald3/php/vald.php), supplemented for all species by the essential NIST bibliographic data base (http://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/ASBib1/TransProbBib.cgi). We determine abundances and upper limits by synthesizing short wavelength regions around strong lines. Virtually all of the abundance/upper limit results show excesses over the solar composition of between 1 and 2 dex. This result is in general agreement with overall results for metallic line stars, though we have no information on possible severe depletions for most elements. We conclude that the mechanisms causing abundance anomalies in Sirius have not acted to produce the extreme excesses of 4 or more dex (Pt, Hg), or deficiencies (Zn) seen in many HgMn stars.CRC thanks Stefano Bagnulo for the UVESPOP Sirius spectrum. Robert Kurucz was most helpful with older Sirius UV and visual spectra.

  15. The Origin of the Metal-Poor Common Proper Motion Pair HD 134439/134440: Insights from New Elemental Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu; Boesgaard, Ann M

    2014-01-01

    The low [alpha/Fe] ratio in the metal-poor ([Fe/H]= -1.50) common proper motion pair HD 134439 and HD 134440 has been variously attributed to chemical evolution in an extragalactic environment with an irregular star formation history, planetessimal accretion, and formation in an environment with an unusually high dust-to-gas ratio. We explore these various putative origins using CNO, Be, Ag, and Eu abundances derived from high-resolution near-UV Keck/HIRES spectroscopy. While we confirm a previously suggested correlation between elemental abundance ratios and condensation temperature at the 95% confidence level, these ratios lie within the continuum of values manifested by extant dSph data. We argue that the most plausible origin of our stars' distinctive abundance distribution relative to the Galactic halo field is formation in an environment chemically dominated by products of Type II SN of low progenitor mass; such a progenitor mass bias has been previously suggested as an explanation of low alpha-element ...

  16. Estimating stellar atmospheric parameters, absolute magnitudes and elemental abundances from the LAMOST spectra with Kernel-based Principal Component Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Maosheng; Shi, Jianrong; Yuan, Haibo; Huang, Yang; Luo, Ali; Zhang, Huawei; Zhao, Yongheng; Zhang, Jiannan; Ren, Juanjuan; Chen, Bingqiu; Wang, Chun; Li, Ji; Huo, Zhiying; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jianling; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-01-01

    Accurate determination of stellar atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances is crucial for Galactic archeology via large-scale spectroscopic surveys. In this paper, we estimate stellar atmospheric parameters -- effective temperature T_{\\rm eff}, surface gravity log g and metallicity [Fe/H], absolute magnitudes M_V and M_{Ks}, {\\alpha}-element to metal (and iron) abundance ratio [{\\alpha}/M] (and [{\\alpha}/Fe]), as well as carbon and nitrogen abundances [C/H] and [N/H] from the LAMOST spectra with amultivariate regressionmethod based on kernel-based principal component analysis, using stars in common with other surveys (Hipparcos, Kepler, APOGEE) as training data sets. Both internal and external examinations indicate that given a spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) better than 50, our method is capable of delivering stellar parameters with a precision of ~100K for Teff, ~0.1 dex for log g, 0.3 -- 0.4mag for M_V and M_{Ks}, 0.1 dex for [Fe/H], [C/H] and [N/H], and better than 0.05 dex for [{\\alpha}/M] ([...

  17. Transposable element distribution, abundance and role in genome size variation in the genus Oryza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collura Kristi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Oryza is composed of 10 distinct genome types, 6 diploid and 4 polyploid, and includes the world's most important food crop – rice (Oryza sativa [AA]. Genome size variation in the Oryza is more than 3-fold and ranges from 357 Mbp in Oryza glaberrima [AA] to 1283 Mbp in the polyploid Oryza ridleyi [HHJJ]. Because repetitive elements are known to play a significant role in genome size variation, we constructed random sheared small insert genomic libraries from 12 representative Oryza species and conducted a comprehensive study of the repetitive element composition, distribution and phylogeny in this genus. Particular attention was paid to the role played by the most important classes of transposable elements (Long Terminal Repeats Retrotransposons, Long interspersed Nuclear Elements, helitrons, DNA transposable elements in shaping these genomes and in their contributing to genome size variation. Results We identified the elements primarily responsible for the most strikingly genome size variation in Oryza. We demonstrated how Long Terminal Repeat retrotransposons belonging to the same families have proliferated to very different extents in various species. We also showed that the pool of Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons is substantially conserved and ubiquitous throughout the Oryza and so its origin is ancient and its existence predates the speciation events that originated the genus. Finally we described the peculiar behavior of repeats in the species Oryza coarctata [HHKK] whose placement in the Oryza genus is controversial. Conclusion Long Terminal Repeat retrotransposons are the major component of the Oryza genomes analyzed and, along with polyploidization, are the most important contributors to the genome size variation across the Oryza genus. Two families of Ty3-gypsy elements (RIRE2 and Atlantys account for a significant portion of the genome size variations present in the Oryza genus.

  18. 187Re-187Os systematics, highly siderophile element, S-Se-Te abundances in the components of unequilibrated L chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlag, Yogita; Becker, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The 187Re-187Os systematics, abundances of highly siderophile elements (HSE: Re, platinum group elements and Au), Te, Se and S as well as major and minor elements were determined in separated components of two unequilibrated L chondrites QUE 97008 (L3.05) and Ceniceros (L3.7). The 187Re-187Os systematics are disturbed in the components of both meteorites, most likely due to open system behavior of Re during terrestrial weathering of QUE 97008 and alteration on the L chondrite parent body as indicated by an internal errorchron generated for components of Ceniceros. The HSE abundance patterns suggest that the bulk rock abundances were mainly controlled by two different end members. Non-magnetic fractions display lower Re/Os and HSE/Ir than CI chondrites. Chondrules, metal-troilite spherules and fine magnetic fractions, are depleted in refractory HSE and show higher Rh/Ir, Pd/Ir and Au/Ir than in CI chondrites. The different HSE compositions indicate the presence of unequilibrated alloys and loss of refractory HSE-rich carrier phases from the precursors of some L chondrite components. Gold is decoupled from other HSE in magnetic fractions and shows chalcophile affinities with a grain size dependent variation similar to S and Se, presumably inherited from preaccretionary processes. Tellurium is depleted in all components compared to other analysed siderophile elements, and its abundance was most likely controlled by fractional condensation and different geochemical affinities. The volatility dependent depletion of Te requires different physical and chemical conditions than typical for the canonical condensation sequence as represented by carbonaceous chondrites. Tellurium also shows variable geochemical behavior, siderophile in Ceniceros, predominantly chalcophile in QUE 97008. These differences may have been inherited from element partitioning during chondrule formation. Selenium and S on the other hand are almost unfractionated from each other and only show

  19. Element Abundances in a Gas-rich Galaxy at z = 5: Clues to the Early Chemical Enrichment of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Sean; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Som, Debopam; DeMarcy, Bryan; Quiret, Samuel; Péroux, Celine

    2016-10-01

    Element abundances in high-redshift quasar absorbers offer excellent probes of the chemical enrichment of distant galaxies, and can constrain models for population III and early population II stars. Recent observations indicate that the sub-damped Lyα (sub-DLA) absorbers are more metal-rich than DLA absorbers at redshifts 0 4.7. However, only three DLAs at z > 4.5 and no sub-DLAs at z > 3.5 have “dust-free” metallicity measurements of undepleted elements. We report the first quasar sub-DLA metallicity measurement at z > 3.5, from detections of undepleted elements in high-resolution data for a sub-DLA at z = 5.0. We obtain fairly robust abundances of C, O, Si, and Fe, using lines outside the Lyα forest. This absorber is metal-poor, with [O/H] = ‑2.00 ± 0.12, which is ≳4σ below the level expected from extrapolation of the trend for z Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  20. Estimating stellar atmospheric parameters, absolute magnitudes and elemental abundances from the LAMOST spectra with Kernel-based Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, M.-S.; Liu, X.-W.; Shi, J.-R.; Yuan, H.-B.; Huang, Y.; Luo, A.-L.; Zhang, H.-W.; Zhao, Y.-H.; Zhang, J.-N.; Ren, J.-J.; Chen, B.-Q.; Wang, C.; Li, J.; Huo, Z.-Y.; Zhang, W.; Wang, J.-L.; Zhang, Y.; Hou, Y.-H.; Wang, Y.-F.

    2016-10-01

    Accurate determination of stellar atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances is crucial for Galactic archeology via large-scale spectroscopic surveys. In this paper, we estimate stellar atmospheric parameters - effective temperature Teff, surface gravity log g and metallicity [Fe/H], absolute magnitudes MV and MKs, α-element to metal (and iron) abundance ratio [α/M] (and [α/Fe]), as well as carbon and nitrogen abundances [C/H] and [N/H] from the LAMOST spectra with a multivariate regression method based on kernel-based principal component analysis, using stars in common with other surveys (Hipparcos, Kepler, APOGEE) as training data sets. Both internal and external examinations indicate that given a spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) better than 50, our method is capable of delivering stellar parameters with a precision of ˜100 K for Teff, ˜0.1 dex for log g, 0.3 - 0.4 mag for MV and MKs, 0.1 dex for [Fe/H], [C/H] and [N/H], and better than 0.05 dex for [α/M] ([α/Fe]). The results are satisfactory even for a spectral SNR of 20. The work presents first determinations of [C/H] and [N/H] abundances from a vast data set of LAMOST, and, to our knowledge, the first reported implementation of absolute magnitude estimation directly based on the observed spectra. The derived stellar parameters for millions of stars from the LAMOST surveys will be publicly available in the form of value-added catalogues.

  1. High-precision abundances of Sc, Mn, Cu, and Ba in solar twins. Trends of element ratios with stellar age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, P. E.

    2016-09-01

    Aims: A previous study of correlations between element abundances and ages of solar twin stars in the solar neighborhood is extended to include Sc, Mn, Cu, and Ba to obtain new information on the nucleosynthetic history of these elements. Methods: HARPS spectra with S/N ≳ 600 are used to derive very precise (σ ~ 0.01 dex) differential abundances of Sc, Mn, Cu, and Ba for 21 solar twins and the Sun. The analysis is based on MARCS model atmospheres with parameters determined from the excitation and ionization balance of Fe lines. Stellar ages with internal errors less than 1 Gyr are obtained by interpolation in the log g - Teff diagram between isochrones based on the Aarhus Stellar Evolution Code. Results: For stars younger than 6 Gyr, [Sc/Fe], [Mn/Fe], [Cu/Fe], and [Ba/Fe] are tightly correlated with stellar age, which is also the case for the other elements previously studied; linear relations between [X/Fe] and age have χ^2red ˜ 1, and for most stars the residuals do not depend on elemental condensation temperature. For ages between 6 and 9 Gyr, the [X/Fe] - age correlations break down and the stars split up into two groups having respectively high and low [X/Fe] for the odd-Z elements Na, Al, Sc, and Cu. Conclusions: While stars in the solar neighborhood younger than ~ 6 Gyr were formed from interstellar gas with a smooth chemical evolution, older stars seem to have originated from regions enriched by supernovae with different neutron excesses. Correlations between abundance ratios and stellar age suggest that: (i) Sc is made in Type II supernovae along with the α-capture elements; (ii) the Type II to Ia yield ratio is about the same for Mn and Fe; (iii) Cu is mainly made by the weak s-process in massive stars; (iv) the Ba/Y yield ratio for asymptotic giant branch stars increases with decreasing stellar mass; (v) [Y/Mg] and [Y/Al] can be used as chemical clocks when determining ages of solar metallicity stars. Based on data products from observations made

  2. Disk evolution, element abundances and cloud properties of young gas giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Ch; Rimmer, P B; Kamp, I; Thi, W -F; Meijerink, R

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the chemical pre-conditions for planet formation, in terms of gas and ice abundances in a protoplanetary disk, as function of time and position, and the resulting chemical composition and cloud properties in the atmosphere when young gas giant planets form. Large deviations between the abundances of the host star and its gas giants seem likely to occur if the planet formation follows the core-accretion scenario. These deviations stem from the separate evolution of gas and dust in the disk, where the dust forms the planet cores, followed by the final run-away accretion of the left-over gas. ProDiMo protoplanetary disk models are used to predict the chemical evolution of gas and ice in the midplane. We find that cosmic rays play a crucial role in slowly un-blocking the CO, where the liberated oxygen forms water, which then freezes out quickly. Therefore, the C/O ratio in the gas phase is found to gradually increase with time, in a region bracketed by the water and CO ice-lines. In this regions, C/O i...

  3. The Origin of the Metal-Poor Common Proper Motion Pair HD 134439/134440: Insights from New Elemental Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; King, Jeremy R.; Boesgaard, Ann M.

    2014-11-01

    The low [α/Fe] ratio in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~ -1.50) common proper motion pair HD 134439 and HD 134440 has been variously attributed to chemical evolution in an extragalactic environment with an irregular star formation history, planetesimal accretion, and formation in an environment with an unusually high dust-to-gas ratio. We explore these various putative origins using CNO, Be, Ag, and Eu abundances derived from high-resolution near-UV Keck/HIRES spectroscopy. While we confirm a previously suggested correlation between elemental abundance ratios and condensation temperature at the 95% confidence level, these ratios lie within the continuum of values manifested by extant dSph data. We argue that the most plausible origin of our stars' distinctive abundance distribution relative to the Galactic halo field is formation in an environment chemically dominated by products of Type II SN of low progenitor mass; such a progenitor mass bias has been previously suggested as an explanation of low α-element ratios of dSph stars. The proper motion pair's heavy-to-light n-capture element ratio, which is >=0.3-0.5 dex lower than in the Galactic halo field and dSph stars, is discussed in the context of the truncated r-process, phenomenological n-capture production models, and α-rich freezeout in a high neutron excess environment; the latter simultaneously provides an attractive explanation of the difference in [Ca, Ti/O, Mg, Si] ratio in HD 134439/134440 compared to in situ dSph stars.

  4. A Statistical Model for Predicting the Average Abundance Patterns of Heavier Elements in Metal-Poor Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We have collected nearly all the available observed data of the elements from Ba to Dy in halo and disk stars in the metallicity range -4.0 <[Fe/H]< 0.5.Based on the observed data of Ba and Eu, we evaluated the least-squares regressions of [Ba/Fe] on [Fe/H], and [Eu/H] on [Ba/H]. Assuming that the heavy elements (heavier than Ba) are produced by a combination of the main components of s- and r-processes in metal-poor stars, and choosing Ba and Eu as respective representative elements of the main s- and the main r-processes, a statistical model for predicting the Galactic chemical evolution of the heavy elements is presented. With this model,we calculate the mean abundance trends of the heavy elements La, Ce, Pr, Nd,Sm, and Dy with the metallicity. We compare our results with the observed data at various metallicities, showing that the predicted trends are in good agreement with the observed trends, at least for the metallicity range [Fe/H]≥ -2.5. Finally,we discuss our results and deduce some important information about the Galactic chemical evolution.

  5. Metal free earth abundant elemental red phosphorus: a new class of visible light photocatalyst and photoelectrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sajid Ali; Ansari, Mohammad Shahnawaze; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Developing a high-performance photocatalyst and a photoelectrode with enhanced visible light harvesting properties is essential for practical visible light photocatalytic applications. Noble metal-free, highly visible light-active, elemental red phosphorus (RP) was prepared by a facile mechanical ball milling method, which is a reproducible, low cost and controllable synthesis process. The synthesis used inexpensive and abundant raw materials because most RP hybrids are based on expensive noble-metals. The novel milled RP showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical performances with a lower charge transfer resistance compared to commercial RP under wide visible photoirradiation, making it a feasible alternative for photocatalytic applications. PMID:26765211

  6. Transposable elements: an abundant and natural source of regulatory sequences for host genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, Rita; Romanish, Mark T; Mager, Dixie L

    2012-01-01

    The fact that transposable elements (TEs) can influence host gene expression was first recognized more than 50 years ago. However, since that time, TEs have been widely regarded as harmful genetic parasites-selfish elements that are rarely co-opted by the genome to serve a beneficial role. Here, we survey recent findings that relate to TE impact on host genes and remind the reader that TEs, in contrast to other noncoding parts of the genome, are uniquely suited to gene regulatory functions. We review recent studies that demonstrate the role of TEs in establishing and rewiring gene regulatory networks and discuss the overall ubiquity of exaptation. We suggest that although individuals within a population can be harmed by the deleterious effects of new TE insertions, the presence of TE sequences in a genome is of overall benefit to the population. PMID:22905872

  7. DcSto: carrot Stowaway-like elements are abundant, diverse, and polymorphic

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated nine families of Stowaway-like MITEs in the carrot genome, named DcSto1 to DcSto9. All of them were AT-rich and shared a highly conserved 6 bp-long TIR typical for Stowaways. The copy number of DcSto1 elements was estimated as ca. 5,000 per diploid genome. We observed preference for ...

  8. Constraints on the Formation of the Galactic Bulge from Na, Al, and Heavy Element Abundances in Plaut's Field

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Christian I; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Fulbright, Jon P

    2012-01-01

    We report chemical abundances of Na, Al, Zr, La, Nd, and Eu for 39 red giant branch (RGB) stars and 23 potential inner disk red clump stars located in Plaut-s low extinction window. We also measure lithium for a super Li-rich RGB star. The abundances were determined by spectrum synthesis of high resolution (R~25,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N~50-100 pixel-1) spectra obtained with the Blanco 4m telescope and Hydra multifiber spectrograph. For the bulge RGB stars, we find a general increase in the [Na/Fe] and [Na/Al] ratios with increasing metallicity, and a similar decrease in [La/Fe] and [Nd/Fe]. Additionally, the [Al/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] abundance trends almost identically follow those of the {\\alpha}-elements, and the [Zr/Fe] ratios exhibit relatively little change with [Fe/H]. The consistently low [La/Eu] ratios of the RGB stars indicate that at least a majority of bulge stars formed rapidly (<1 Gyr) and before the main s-process could become a significant pollution source. In contrast, we find that the pot...

  9. Assimilation of trace elements ingested by the mussel Mytilus edulis: effects of algal food abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.-X.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    Pulse-chase feeding and multi-labeled radiotracer techniques were employed to measure the assimilation of 6 trace elements (110mAg, 241Am, 109Cd, 57Co, 75Se and 65Zn) from ingested diatoms in the mussel Mytilus edulis feeding at different rates (0.1, 0.49 and 1.5 mg dry wt h-1). Uniformly radiolabeled diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana were fed to mussels for 0.5 h, and the behavior of the radiotracers in individual mussels was followed for 96 h in a depuration seawater system. Assimilation efficiency (AE) of each element declined with increasing ingestion rate and increased with gut passage time. The importance of extracellular digestion relative to intracellular digestion increased with ingestion activity, which, when coupled with a decline in AE, suggested that extracellular digestion is less efficient in metal absorption. Zn assimilation was most affected by ingestion rate, suggesting that AE may play a role in the physiological regulation of this metal in M. edulis. In an experiment to simulate the effects of an acidic gut, lowered pH (5.5) enhanced the release of elements from intact diatom cells, especially at low particle concentration. These results indicate that both feeding components of the mussel (i.e. gut passage time, digestive partitioning) and metal chemistry (i.e. metal release at lowered pH within the bivalve gut) are responsible for the difference in the assimilation of trace metals at different food quantities observed in mussels.

  10. Determining element abundances of [WC]-type Central Stars for probing stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Todt, H; Hamann, W -R; Gräfener, G

    2007-01-01

    [WC]-type CSPNs are hydrogen-deficient Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae showing strong stellar winds and a carbon-rich chemistry. We have analyzed new high-resolution spectra of [WC]-type CSPNs with the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) non-LTE expanding atmosphere models, using upgraded model atoms and atomic data. Previous analyses are repeated on the basis of the current models which account for iron-line blanketing. We especially focus on determining the chemical composition, including some trace elements like nitrogen which are of key importance for understanding the evolutionary origin of the hydrogen-deficient Central Stars.

  11. Elemental abundances of the supernova remnant G292.0+1.8: Evidence for a massive progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John P.; Singh, K. P.

    1994-02-01

    We present a comprehensive nonequilibrium ionization (NEI) analysis of X-ray spectral data from the Einstein Observatory and EXOSAT for the supernova remnant G292.0+1.8. The spectra are well described by a single-temperature, single-timescale NEI model with kT = 1.64-0.19+0.29 keV and net = (5.55-1.12+1.2 x 1010s/cu cm, which establishes that this remnant is indeed young and in the ionizing phase of evolution of its X-ray spectrum. We determine the abundances of the elements O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, and Fe and examine their variation over the allowed range of column density, kT, and net. Numerical calculations of the nucleosynthesis expected for a 25 solar mass progenitor agree best with the fitted abundances; in fact the minimum rms percent difference between this model and the derived abundances is only 15%. From the fitted emission measure and a simple geometric model of the remnant we estimate the mass of X-ray-emitting plasma to be 9.3-6.2+1.19 solar mass, for an assumed distance of 4.8 +/- 1.6 kpc. Additional errors on this mass estimate, from clumping of the ejecta, for example, may be substantial. No evidence was found for a difference in the thermodynamic state of the plasma as a function of elemental composition based on analysis of the individual ionization timescales of the various species. In this sense then, G292.0+1.8 resembles the remnant Cas A (another product of a massive star supernova), while it is different from the remnants of SN 1572 (Tycho) and SN 1006, both of which are believed to be from Type Ia supernovae.

  12. Elemental Abundances in Milky Way-like Galaxies from a Hierarchical Galaxy Formation Model

    CERN Document Server

    De Lucia, Gabriella; Frenk, Carlos S; Helmi, Amina; Navarro, Julio F; White, Simon D M

    2014-01-01

    We develop a new method to account for the finite lifetimes of stars and trace individual abundances within a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. At variance with previous methods, based on the storage of the (binned) past star formation history of model galaxies, our method projects the information about the metals produced by each simple stellar population (SSP) in the future. Using this approach, an accurate accounting of the timings and properties of the individual SSPs composing model galaxies is possible. We analyse the dependence of our chemical model on various ingredients, and apply it to six simulated haloes of roughly Milky Way mass and with no massive close neighbour at z=0. For all models considered, the [Fe/H] distributions of the stars in the disc component are in good agreement with Milky Way data, while for the spheroid component (whose formation we model only through mergers) these are offset low with respect to observational measurements for the Milky Way bulge. This is a consequence o...

  13. Subaru/HDS study of CH stars: elemental abundances for stellar neutron-capture process studies

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Aruna; Karinkuzhi, Drisya

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive abundance analysis providing rare insight into the chemical history of lead stars is still lacking. We present results from high resolution (R ~ 50000), spectral analyses of three CH stars, HD 26, HD 198269, HD 224959, and, a carbon star with a dusty envelope, HD 100764. Previous studies on these objects are limited by both resolution and wavelength regions and the results differ significantly from each other. We have undertaken to re-analyse the chemical composition of these objects based on high resolution Subaru spectra covering the wavelength regions 4020 to 6775 A,. Considering local thermodynamic equilibrium and using model atmospheres, we have derived the stellar parameters, the effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, and metallicities [Fe/H] for these objects. The derived parameters for HD 26, HD 100764, HD 198269 and HD 224959 are (5000, 1.6, -1.13), (4750, 2.0 -0.86), (4500, 1.5, -2.06) and (5050, 2.1, -2.44) respectively. The stars are found to exhibit large enhancemen...

  14. Elemental Abundances in the Possible Type Ia Supernova Remnant G344.7-0.1

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Maeda, Keiichi; Slane, Patrick O; Foster, Adam; Smith, Randall K; Katsuda, Satoru; Yoshii, Rie

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G344.7-0.1 have commonly claimed its origin to be a core-collapse supernova (SN) explosion, based on its highly asymmetric morphology and/or proximity to a star forming region. In this paper, however, we present an X-ray spectroscopic study of this SNR using Suzaku, which is supportive of a Type Ia origin. Strong K-shell emission from lowly ionized Fe has clearly been detected, and its origin is determined, for the first time, to be the Fe-rich SN ejecta. The abundance pattern is highly consistent with that expected for a somewhat-evolved Type Ia SNR. It is suggested, therefore, that the X-ray point-like source CXOU J170357.8-414302 located at the SNR's geometrical center is not associated with the SNR but is likely to be a foreground object. Our result further indicates that G344.7-0.1 is the first possible Type Ia SNR categorized as a member of the so-called "mixed-morphology" class. In addition, we have detected emission from He-like Al at ~1.6 keV, th...

  15. An instrument for elemental and isotopic abundance characterization of extra-terrestrial materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veryovkin, I. V.; Calaway, W. F.; Moore, J. F.; Pellin, M. J.; Savina, M. R.; King, B. V.; Petravić, M.; Burnett, D. S.

    2002-12-01

    Samples returned from the Genesis and Stardust missions of NASA's Discovery Program require quantitative analysis at sensitivities unobtainable with present instruments. This has driven development of a new generation of instruments for laser-post-ionization secondary neutral mass spectrometry (laser-SNMS). Construction of a prototype time-of-flight (TOF) SNMS instrument has been completed recently at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and testing began in August 2002. This instrument is optimized for laser post-ionization of sputtered neutrals and is capable of locating and analyzing individual sub-micrometer interstellar particles on a sample stage for Stardust or determining elemental concentrations in shallow implants at ultra-trace levels for Genesis. Post-ionization can be accomplished with a variety of laser sources. These include high repetition rate tunable Ti-sapphire lasers for ultra-trace analysis of a single element and two vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light sources for simultaneous ionization of most atomic and molecular species in the sample. The two VUV lasers are an F2 laser with a fixed wavelength of 157 nm and the self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron laser (SASE FEL) capable of generating tunable VUV at wavelengths down to 60 nm. Fundamental physical theory of ion sputtering forms the scientific basis of the approach used to design the instrument. An ion optics design for the instrument was perfected through extensive three-dimensional computer simulations using SIMION software. Realistic sets of photo-ions were calculated using formalisms derived from sputtering theory. Their trajectories in various instrument designs were then traced by SIMION. Finally, results of the simulations were processed to estimate instrument capabilities including resolution and useful yield. This same approach proved accurate and quantitative during tests of an existing TOF SNMS instrument demonstrating the reliability of the simulation method. The completed

  16. Stellar substructures in the solar neighbourhood. II. Abundances of neutron-capture elements in the kinematic Group 3 of the Geneva-Copenhagen survey

    CERN Document Server

    Stonkutė, Edita; Nordström, Birgitta; Ženovienė, Renata; 10.1051/0004-6361/201321437

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of chemical elements in a galaxy is linked to its star formation history. Variations in star formation history are imprinted in the relative abundances of chemical elements produced in different supernova events and asymptotic giant branch stars. We determine detailed elemental abundances of s- and r-process elements in stars belonging to Group3 of the Geneva-Copenhagen survey and compare their chemical composition with Galactic disc stars. The aim is to look for possible chemical signatures that might give information about the formation history of this kinematic group of stars, which is suggested to correspond to remnants of disrupted satellites. High-resolution spectra were obtained with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, and were analysed with a differential model atmosphere method. Comparison stars were observed and analysed with the same method. Abundances of chemical elements produced mainly by the s-process are similar to those in the Galactic thin-disc dwar...

  17. The effect of rotation on the abundances of the chemical elements of the A-type stars in the Praesepe cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Bagnulo, S.; Landstreet, J.; Wade, G.; Kochukhov, O.; Monier, R.; Weiss, W.; Gebran, M.

    2008-06-01

    Aims: We study how chemical abundances of late B-, A-, and early F-type stars evolve with time, and we search for correlations between the abundance of chemical elements and other stellar parameters, such as effective temperature and υ sin i. Methods: We observed a large number of B-, A-, and F-type stars belonging to open clusters of different ages. In this paper we concentrate on the Praesepe cluster (log t = 8.85), for which we have obtained high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of sixteen normal A- and F-type stars and one Am star, using the SOPHIE spectrograph of the Observatoire de Haute-Provence. For all the observed stars, we derived fundamental parameters and chemical abundances. In addition, we discuss another eight Am stars belonging to the same cluster, for which the abundance analysis had been presented in a previous paper. Results: We find a strong correlation between the peculiarity of Am stars and υ sin i. The abundance of the elements underabundant in Am stars increases with υ sin i, while it decreases for the overabundant elements. Chemical abundances of various elements appear correlated with the iron abundance. Based on observations made at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence. Figures [see full textsee full textsee full text] to [see full textsee full textsee full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT OF THE BOOeTES I ULTRAFAINT GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Gerard [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Norris, John E.; Yong, David [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Monaco, Lorenzo [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Wyse, Rosemary F. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3900 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Geisler, D., E-mail: gil@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: yong@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: lmonaco@eso.org, E-mail: wyse@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile)

    2013-01-20

    We present a double-blind analysis of high-dispersion spectra of seven red giant members of the Booetes I ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal galaxy, complemented with re-analysis of a similar spectrum of an eighth-member star. The stars cover [Fe/H] from -3.7 to -1.9 and include a CEMP-no star with [Fe/H] = -3.33. We conclude from our chemical abundance data that Booetes I has evolved as a self-enriching star-forming system, from essentially primordial initial abundances. This allows us uniquely to investigate the place of CEMP-no stars in a chemically evolving system, in addition to limiting the timescale of star formation. The elemental abundances are formally consistent with a halo-like distribution, with enhanced mean [{alpha}/Fe] and small scatter about the mean. This is in accord with the high-mass stellar initial mass function in this low-stellar-density, low-metallicity system being indistinguishable from the present-day solar neighborhood value. There is a non-significant hint of a decline in [{alpha}/Fe] with [Fe/H]; together with the low scatter, this requires low star formation rates, allowing time for supernova ejecta to be mixed over the large spatial scales of interest. One star has very high [Ti/Fe], but we do not confirm a previously published high value of [Mg/Fe] for another star. We discuss the existence of CEMP-no stars, and the absence of any stars with lower CEMP-no enhancements at higher [Fe/H], a situation that is consistent with knowledge of CEMP-no stars in the Galactic field. We show that this observation requires there be two enrichment paths at very low metallicities: CEMP-no and 'carbon-normal'.

  19. High resolution study of the abundance pattern of the heavy elements in very metal-poor field stars

    CERN Document Server

    Spite, Monique

    2013-01-01

    The abundances of heavy elements in EMP stars are not well explained by the simple view of an initial basic "rapid" process. In a careful and homogeneous analysis of the "First stars" sample (eighty per cent of the stars have a metallicity [Fe/H]=-3.1$\\pm$0.4), it has been shown that at this metallicity [Eu/Ba] is constant, and therefore the Eu-rich stars (generally called "r-rich") are also Ba-rich. The very large variation of [Ba/Fe] (existence of "r-poor" and "r-rich" stars) induces that the early matter was not perfectly mixed. On the other hand, the distribution of the values of [Sr/Ba] vs. [Ba/Fe] appears with well defined upper and lower envelopes. No star was found with [Sr/Ba]<-0.5 and the scatter of [Sr/Ba] increases regularly when [Ba/Fe] decreases. To explain this behavior, we suggest that an early "additional" process forming mainly first peak elements would affect the initial composition of the matter. For a same quantity of accreted matter, this additional Sr production would barely affect t...

  20. First stars. XVI. HST/STIS abundances of heavy elements in the uranium-rich metal-poor star CS 31082-001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira Mello, C.; Spite, M.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, F.; Caffau, E.; Hill, V.; Wanajo, S.; Primas, F.; Plez, B.; Cayrel, R.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Sneden, C.; Beers, T. C.; Bonifacio, P.; François, P.; Molaro, P.

    2013-02-01

    Context. The origin and site(s) of the r-process nucleosynthesis is(are) still not known with certainty, but complete, detailed r-element abundances offer our best clues. The few extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with large r-element excesses allow us to study the r-process signatures in great detail, with minimal interference from later stages of Galactic evolution. CS 31082-001 is an outstanding example of the information that can be gathered from these exceptional stars. Aims: Here we aim to complement our previous abundance determinations for third-peak r-process elements with new and improved results for elements of the first and second r-process peaks from near-UV HST/STIS and optical UVES spectra. These results should provide new insight into the nucleosynthesis of the elements beyond iron. Methods: The spectra were analyzed by a consistent approach based on an OSMARCS LTE model atmosphere and the Turbospectrum spectrum synthesis code to derive abundances of heavy elements in CS 31082-001, and using updated oscillator strengths from the recent literature. Synthetic spectra were computed for all lines of the elements of interest to check for proper line intensities and possible blends in these crowded spectra. Our new abundances were combined with the best previous results to provide reliable mean abundances for the first and second-peak r-process elements. Results: We present new abundances for 23 neutron-capture elements, 6 of which - Ge, Mo, Lu, Ta, W, and Re - have not been reported before. This makes CS 31082-001 the most completely studied r-II star, with abundances for a total of 37 neutron-capture elements. We also present the first NLTE+3D abundance of lead in this star, further constraining the nature of the r-process. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) through the Space Telescope Science Institute, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555; and

  1. Major Elements Abundances in Chang'E-3 Landing Site from Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Xie, Minggang; Zhu, Meng-Hua; Dong, Wudong; Tang, Zesheng; Xu, Aoao

    2015-04-01

    Chang'E-3, China's first Moon lander and rover mission, was launched at 17:30 on 1st December 2013 (UTC) and successfully landed on Moon surface at 13:11 on 14th December 2013 (UTC). About 8 hours later after the soft landing, the rover, named "Yutu' after a mythological rabbit that lives on the Moon as a pet of the Moon goddess, was successfully separated from the lander and started its adventure on the Moon. The success of this mission marks the first soft-landing on the Moon since 1976. The landing site is in northern Mare Imbrium (N44.12, W19.51), close to the boundary of two different geologic units and sits on 'young' Eratoshenian lava flows which spread several hundreds to thousands of kilometers. The mare basalts in the landing site are believed to be formed from the lava flows ~2.5 billion years ago, which are significantly younger than all of the returned lunar samples, dating from 3.1 to 3.8 billion years ago. This makes the landing site a very interesting place for exploring geochemical characteristics of the young lava flows and lunar evolution in a later stage. Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is the only payload on the robotic arm of Yutu rover. It was designed to measure the intensities of characteristic fluorescent X-rays produced by interactions of lunar sample with incident X-rays. Major elements abundances of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe on the lunar surface were expected to be detected after the exploration. On December 24th (UTC), 2013 and January 14th (UTC), 2014, APXS performed 4 successful measurements on lunar soils along Yutu's track. Characteristic peaks of Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Sr and Zr could be clearly seen from the measured spectra. A global fit based on minimum chi-square method has been performed to disentangle different components in the measured spectra. These components include Kα and/or Kβ peaks of each element, escape peaks, exponential and shelf tail of major peaks and electronic noises, etc

  2. First stars XVI. STIS/HST abundances of heavy-elements in the uranium-rich star CS 31082-001

    CERN Document Server

    Mello, C Siqueira; Barbuy, B; Spite, F; Caffau, E; Hill, V; Wanajo, S; Primas, F; Plez, B; Cayrel, R; Andersen, J; Nordström, B; Sneden, C; Beers, T C; Bonifacio, P; François, P; Molaro, P

    2012-01-01

    Detailed abundances of the elements produced by r-process nucleosynthesis in various circumstances are our best observational clues to their origin, since the site(s) of r-element production is(are) still not known with certainty. A small fraction of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars exhibit excesses of heavy neutron-capture elements produced in the r-process, and CS 31082-001 is among the 4 well-known r-process-enhanced EMP stars. Observations with HST/STIS provide abundances for elements observable only from the UV region. Here we aim to supplement the optical data with abundances from near-UV spectroscopy of the first and second peak of the r-elements, which are crucial to giving insight into the nucleosynthesis of the elements beyond iron. The UVES spectrum provided additional measurements, thereby improving the previous results. The spectra were analyzed with the OSMARCS LTE model atmosphere and with a consistent approach based on the spectrum synthesis code Turbospectrum to derive abundances of heavy ele...

  3. Early Earth differentiation investigated through 142Nd, 182W, and highly siderophile element abundances in samples from Isua, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, H.; Walker, R. J.; Carlson, R. W.; Touboul, M.; Horan, M. F.; Puchtel, I. S.; Boyet, M.; Rosing, M. T.

    2016-02-01

    We report new data for W concentrations, stable W isotopic compositions, high-precision 182W/184W ratios, highly siderophile element (HSE) abundances and 187Re-187Os systematics in a suite of 3.8-3.3 Ga mafic and ultramafic rocks from the Isua supracrustal belt, and the Paleoarchean terrane in the northwestern part of the belt. These data are compared with published data for 146Sm-142Nd systematics in the same samples. The samples from the Isua supracrustal belt show well resolved excesses of 182W/184W of up to ∼21 ppm, consistent with previous W isotopic data reported by Willbold et al. (2011). While there is abundant evidence that W was mobilized in the crust accessed by the Isua supracrustal suite, the isotopic anomalies are interpreted to primarily reflect processes that affected the mantle precursors to these rocks. The origin of the 182W excesses in these rocks remains uncertain. The Isua mantle source could represent a portion of the post-core-formation mantle that was isolated from late accretionary additions (e.g., Willbold et al., 2011). However, the combined 182W, Re-Os isotopic systematics and HSE abundances estimated for the source of the Isua basalts are difficult to reconcile with this interpretation. The W isotope variations were more likely produced as a result of fractionation of the Hf/W ratio in the mantle during the lifetime of 182Hf, i.e., during the first 50 Ma of Solar System history. This could have occurred as a result of differentiation in an early magma ocean. The Isua suite examined is also characterized by variable 142Nd/144Nd, but the variations do not correlate with the variations in 182W/184W. Further, samples with ages between 3.8 and 3.3 Ga show gradual diminution of 142Nd anomalies until these are no longer resolved from the modern mantle isotopic composition. By contrast, there is no diminishment of 182W variability with time, suggesting different mechanisms of origin and retention of isotopic variations for these two extinct

  4. Elemental abundance analyses with coadded DAO spectrograms. VI - The mercury-manganese stars Nu Cancri, Iota Coronae Borealis and HR 8349

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Saul J.

    1989-01-01

    The elemental abundances of three mercury-manganese stars, Nu Cancri, Iota Coronae Borealis, and HR 8349, were found to be consistent with previous analyses of this series. As Iota CrB is a double-lined spectroscopic binary with a small velocity amplitude for most of its period, its study required determining whether the observed lines were produced in the primary or secondary or both. The derived abundances and effective termperatures were used along with those of mercury-manganese stars previously analyzed in order to extend the study of probable correlations between abundances, with the effective temperature and surface gravity in accordance with radiative diffusion explanations.

  5. Estimation of the Primary Magma Compositions of an Igneous Rock Series Petrogenetically Associated with Fractional Crystallization with Special Reference to Element Abundance Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪云亮; 张万林; 等

    1994-01-01

    A primary magma not only represents the starting point of a fractional crystallization process, but also is the product of an equilibrium or fractional partial melting process in a mantle.Element abundance relationships in the primary magma obey both law of power function for fractional crystallization and the law of fractional linear function for equilibrium partial melting .Based on this double nature of the primary magma, the authors advanced a principle to restore the primary magma composition from that of an igneous rock series with petrogenesis of fractional crystallization and put forward an approach of estimating the element abundance of the primary magma, exempli-fied by the rar-earth elements in the Andes volcanic rock series.

  6. The effect of rotation on the abundances of the chemical elements of the A-type stars in the Praesepe cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, L; Landstreet, J; Wade, G; Kochukhov, O; Monier, R; Weiss, W; Gebran, M

    2008-01-01

    We study how chemical abundances of late B-, A- and early F-type stars evolve with time, and we search for correlations between the abundance of chemical elements and other stellar parameters, such as effective temperature and Vsini. We have observed a large number of B-, A- and F-type stars belonging to open clusters of different ages. In this paper we concentrate on the Praesepe cluster (log t = 8.85), for which we have obtained high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of sixteen normal A- and F-type stars and one Am star, using the SOPHIE spectrograph of the Observatoire de Haute-Provence. For all the observed stars, we have derived fundamental parameters and chemical abundances. In addition, we discuss another eight Am stars belonging to the same cluster, for which the abundance analysis had been presented in a previous paper. We find a strong correlation between peculiarity of Am stars and Vsini. The abundance of the elements underabundant in Am stars increases with Vsini, while it decreases f...

  7. High-Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with the XMM-Newton RGS: CNO Element Abundance Measurements and Density Diagnostics of a Photoionized Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-Garate, M. A.; Hailey, C. J.; Herder, J. W. den; Zane, S.; Ramsay, G

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of Hercules X-1, an intermediate-mass X-ray binary, which was observed with the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer. We measure the elemental abundance ratios by use of spectral models, and we detect material processed through the CNO-cycle. The CNO abundances, and in particular the ratio N/O > 4.0 times solar, provide stringent constraints on the evolution of the binary system. The low and short-on flux states of Her X-1 exhibit narrow lin...

  8. Globular Cluster Abundances from High-Resolution, Integrated-Light Spectroscopy. IV. The Large Magellanic Cloud: $\\alpha$, Fe-peak, Light, and Heavy Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Colucci, J E; Cameron, S A; McWilliam, A

    2011-01-01

    We present detailed chemical abundances in 8 clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We measure abundances of 22 elements for clusters spanning a range in age of 0.05 to 12 Gyr, providing a comprehensive picture of the chemical enrichment and star formation history of the LMC. The abundances were obtained from individual absorption lines using a new method for analysis of high resolution ($R\\sim$25,000) integrated light spectra of star clusters. This method was developed and presented in Papers I, II, and III of this series. In this paper, we develop an additional integrated light $\\chi^2$-minimization spectral synthesis technique to facilitate measurement of weak ($\\sim$15 m\\AA) spectral lines and abundances in low signal-to-noise ratio data (S/N$\\sim$30). Additionally, we supplement the integrated light abundance measurements with detailed abundances that we measure for individual stars in the youngest clusters (Age$+0.5$) and increases with decreasing age, indicating a strong contribution of low-meta...

  9. X-ray Evidence for Spectroscopic Diversity of Type Ia Supernovae XMM observation of the elemental abundance pattern in M87

    CERN Document Server

    Finoguenov, A; Böhringer, H; Ikebe, Y; Arnaud, M

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of a detailed element abundance study of hot gas in M87, observed by XMM-Newton. We choose two radial bins, 1'-3' and 8'-16' (8'-14' for EMOS; hereafter the central and the outer zones), where the temperature is almost constant, to carry out the detailed abundance measurements of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe and Ni using EPIC-PN (EPN) and -MOS (EMOS) data. First, we find that the element abundance pattern in the central compared to the outer zone in M87 is characterized by SN Ia enrichment of a high (roughly solar) ratio of Si-group elements (Si, S, Ar, Ca) to Fe, implying that Si burning in SN Ia is highly incomplete. In nucleosynthesis modeling this is associated with either a lower density of the deflagration-detonation transition and/or lower C/O and/or lower central ignition density and observationally detected as optically subluminous SNe Ia in early-type galaxies. Second, we find that SN Ia enrichment has a systematically lower ratio of the Si-group elements to Fe by 0.2 dex in t...

  10. Investigation for the enrichment pattern of the element abundances in r+s star HE 0338-3945: a special r-II star?

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Wenyuan; Zhu, Zizhong; Zhang, Bo; 10.1088/0004-637X/708/1/51

    2010-01-01

    The very metal-poor star HE 0338-3945 shows a double-enhanced pattern of the neutron-capture elements. The study to this sample could make people gain a better understanding of s- and r-process nucleosynthesis at low metallicity. Using a parametric model,we find that the abundance pattern of the neutron-capture elements could be best explained by a binary system formed in a molecular cloud, which had been polluted by r-process material. The observed abundance pattern of C and N can be explained by an AGB model(Karakas & Lattanzio 2007), . Combing with the parameters obtained from Cui & Zhang (2006), we suggest that the initial mass of the AGB companion is most likely to be about 2.5Msun, which excludes the possibility of forming a type-1.5 supernova. By comparing with the observational abundance pattern of CS 22892-052, we find that the dominating production of O should accompany with the production of the heavy r-process elements of r+s stars. Similar to r-II stars, the heavy r-process elements are n...

  11. Development of low-cost technology for the next generation of high efficiency solar cells composed of earth abundant elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2014-09-28

    The development of renewable, affordable, and environmentally conscious means of generating energy on a global scale represents a grand challenge of our time. Due to the “permanence” of radiation from the sun, solar energy promises to remain a viable and sustainable power source far into the future. Established single-junction photovoltaic technologies achieve high power conversion efficiencies (pce) near 20% but require complicated manufacturing processes that prohibit the marriage of large-scale throughput (e.g. on the GW scale), profitability, and quality control. Our approach to this problem begins with the synthesis of nanocrystals of semiconductor materials comprising earth abundant elements and characterized by material and optoelectronic properties ideal for photovoltaic applications, namely Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe). Once synthesized, such nanocrystals are formulated into an ink, coated onto substrates, and processed into completed solar cells in such a way that enables scale-up to high throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. This project aimed to address the major limitation to CZTSSe solar cell pce’s – the low open-circuit voltage (Voc) reported throughout literature for devices comprised of this material. Throughout the project significant advancements have been made in fundamental understanding of the CZTSSe material and device limitations associated with this material system. Additionally, notable improvements have been made to our nanocrystal based processing technique to alleviate performance limitations due to the identified device limitations. Notably, (1) significant improvements have been made in reducing intra- and inter-nanoparticle heterogeneity, (2) improvements in device performance have been realized with novel cation substitution in Ge-alloyed CZTGeSSe absorbers, (3) systematic analysis of absorber sintering has been conducted to optimize the selenization process for large grain CZTSSe absorbers, (4) novel electrical

  12. Development of low-cost technology for the next generation of high efficiency solar cells composed of earth abundant elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2014-09-28

    The development of renewable, affordable, and environmentally conscious means of generating energy on a global scale represents a grand challenge of our time. Due to the “permanence” of radiation from the sun, solar energy promises to remain a viable and sustainable power source far into the future. Established single-junction photovoltaic technologies achieve high power conversion efficiencies (pce) near 20% but require complicated manufacturing processes that prohibit the marriage of large-scale throughput (e.g. on the GW scale), profitability, and quality control. Our approach to this problem begins with the synthesis of nanocrystals of semiconductor materials comprising earth abundant elements and characterized by material and optoelectronic properties ideal for photovoltaic applications, namely Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe). Once synthesized, such nanocrystals are formulated into an ink, coated onto substrates, and processed into completed solar cells in such a way that enables scale-up to high throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. This project aimed to address the major limitation to CZTSSe solar cell pce’s – the low open-circuit voltage (Voc) reported throughout literature for devices comprised of this material. Throughout the project significant advancements have been made in fundamental understanding of the CZTSSe material and device limitations associated with this material system. Additionally, notable improvements have been made to our nanocrystal based processing technique to alleviate performance limitations due to the identified device limitations. Notably, (1) significant improvements have been made in reducing intra- and inter-nanoparticle heterogeneity, (2) improvements in device performance have been realized with novel cation substitution in Ge-alloyed CZTGeSSe absorbers, (3) systematic analysis of absorber sintering has been conducted to optimize the selenization process for large grain CZTSSe absorbers, (4) novel electrical

  13. Rb, Sr and strontium isotopic composition, K/Ar age and large ion lithophile trace element abundances in rocks and glasses from the Wanapitei Lake impact structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shock metamorphosed rocks and shock-produced melt glasses from the Wanapitei Lake impact structure have been examined petrographically and by electron microprobe. Eleven clasts exhibiting varying degrees of shock metamorphism and eight impact-produced glasses have been analyzed for Rb, Sr and Sr isotopic composition. Five clasts and one glass have also been analyzed for large ion lithophile (LIL) trace element abundances including Li, Rb, Sr, and Ba and the REE's. The impact event forming the Wanapitei Lake structure occurred 37 m.y. ago based on K/Ar dating of glass and glassy whole-rock samples. Rb/Sr isotopic dating failed to provide a meaningful whole-rock or internal isochron. The isotopic composition of the glasses can be explained by impact-produced mixing and melting of metasediments. Large ion lithophile trace element abundance patterns confirm the origin of the glasses by total shock melting of metasediments. (author)

  14. Elemental abundances of the B and A stars. 2: Gamma Geminorum, HD 60825, 7 Sextantis, HR 4817, and HR 5780

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Philip, A. G. Davis

    1994-01-01

    We extend fine analyses of the B and A stars, gamma Geminorum, 7 Sextantis, HR 4817, and HR 5780 using additional spectroscopic data from the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) coude feed telescope with a TI CCD, camera 5, and grating A, and ATLAS9 model atmospheres. In addition we study HD 60825, which had colors similar to the FHB A stars, but was found to be a Population I star. HD 60825, as is gamma Gem, is a sharp-lined early-A star with nearly solar derived abundances. HR 5780 and 7 Sex are also examples of stars which for the most part have solar abundances. The newly derived abundances for HR 4817 reveal important differences with respect to 53 Tau, a somewhat similar HgMn star.

  15. P2-type Na(x)[Fe(1/2)Mn(1/2)]O2 made from earth-abundant elements for rechargeable Na batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kajiyama, Masataka; Iwatate, Junichi; Nishikawa, Heisuke; Hitomi, Shuji; Okuyama, Ryoichi; Usui, Ryo; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Komaba, Shinichi

    2012-04-29

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have risen to prominence as key devices for green and sustainable energy development. Electric vehicles, which are not equipped with an internal combustion engine, have been launched in the market. Manganese- and iron-based positive-electrode materials, such as LiMn(2)O(4) and LiFePO(4), are used in large-scale batteries for electric vehicles. Manganese and iron are abundant elements in the Earth's crust, but lithium is not. In contrast to lithium, sodium is an attractive charge carrier on the basis of elemental abundance. Recently, some layered materials, where sodium can be electrochemically and reversibly extracted/inserted, have been reported. However, their reversible capacity is typically limited to 100 mAh g(-1). Herein, we report a new electrode material, P2-Na(2/3)[Fe(1/2)Mn(1/2)]O(2), that delivers 190 mAh g(-1) of reversible capacity in the sodium cells with the electrochemically active Fe(3+)/Fe(4+) redox. These results will contribute to the development of rechargeable batteries from the earth-abundant elements operable at room temperature.

  16. P2-type Nax[Fe1/2Mn1/2]O2 made from earth-abundant elements for rechargeable Na batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kajiyama, Masataka; Iwatate, Junichi; Nishikawa, Heisuke; Hitomi, Shuji; Okuyama, Ryoichi; Usui, Ryo; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Komaba, Shinichi

    2012-06-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have risen to prominence as key devices for green and sustainable energy development. Electric vehicles, which are not equipped with an internal combustion engine, have been launched in the market. Manganese- and iron-based positive-electrode materials, such as LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4, are used in large-scale batteries for electric vehicles. Manganese and iron are abundant elements in the Earth’s crust, but lithium is not. In contrast to lithium, sodium is an attractive charge carrier on the basis of elemental abundance. Recently, some layered materials, where sodium can be electrochemically and reversibly extracted/inserted, have been reported. However, their reversible capacity is typically limited to 100 mAh g-1. Herein, we report a new electrode material, P2-Na2/3[Fe1/2Mn1/2]O2, that delivers 190 mAh g-1 of reversible capacity in the sodium cells with the electrochemically active Fe3+/Fe4+ redox. These results will contribute to the development of rechargeable batteries from the earth-abundant elements operable at room temperature.

  17. Elemental abundances of the B and A stars Gamma Geminorum, 7 Sextantis, HR 4817, and HR 5780

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Philip, A. G. D.

    1992-01-01

    Fine analyses of the B and A stars, Gamma Geminorum, 7 Sextantis, HR 4817, and HR 5780 are performed. Although the data cover rather limited spectral regions, still useful results were obtained. The data were mostly obtained at the KPNO coude feed telescope with CCD TI No. 3, camera 5, and grating A. The He/H ratio of HR 4817 confirms the similarity of many abundance values with those of the peculiar Mn star 53 Tauri. For the most part Gamma Gem, 7 Sex, and HR 5780 have derived abundances similar to those of other normal sharp-lined stars of similar effective temperature.

  18. Investigation for the puzzling abundance pattern of the neutron-capture elements in the ultra metal-poor star: CS 30322-023

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, W Y; Ma, K; Zhang, L

    2007-01-01

    The s-enhanced and very metal-poor star CS 30322-023 shows a puzzling abundance pattern of the neutron-capture elements, i.e. several neutron-capture elements such as Ba, Pb etc. show enhancement, but other neutron-capture elements such as Sr, Eu etc. exhibit deficient with respect to iron. The study to this sample star could make people gain a better understanding of s- and r-process nucleosynthesis at low metallicity. Using a parametric model, we find that the abundance pattern of the neutron-capture elements could be best explained by a star that was polluted by an AGB star and the CS 30322-023 binary system formed in a molecular cloud which had never been polluted by r-process material. The lack of r-process material also indicates that the AGB companion cannot have undergone a type-1.5 supernova, and thus must have had an initial mass below 4.0M$_\\odot$, while the strong N overabundance and the absence of a strong C overabundance indicate that the companion's initial mass was larger than 2.0M$_\\odot$. Th...

  19. Comparison of element abundance between the exposed crust of the continent of China and the global averaged upper continental crust: Constraints on crustal evolution and some speculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the results of a study of regional element abundance in eastern China and the 1:200 000 geochemical surveys in northern Xinjiang, the element geochemical characteristics of the exposed crust in 23 tectonic units of the continent of China are summarized.Compared with the global average abundance of the upper continental crust, the exposed crust of the continent of China is compositionally more evolved than the upper crust of the island arc, but less evolved than the mature Precambrian Canadian shield. The exposed crust of the North China and Yangtze platforms has a lower SiO2 content, but markedly higher CaO and MgO contents due to the presence of widespread carbonate strata, which suggests that we should not neglect the contribution of carbonate rocks in the study of the exposed crust and the element abundance of the upper crust, in comparison with two recently published average compositional models of the global upper continental crust,the exposed crust of the continent of China is depleted in Au,Hg, Mo, Sn, and W, which suggests that their abundance in the present global models is overestimated. The exposed crust of the North China plat form and the Qinling-Dabieshan fold belt to its south has lower μ(238U/204pb) values(8), but other regions of the continent of China exhibit much higher μ values, which implies that the low μ feature of the North China platform and its adjacent regions does not have global significance. Considering the apparent lateral variation in composition of the exposed crust for the tectonic units of the continent of China, there is no adequate reason to take the average upper crust compositional model of the North China platform and its adjacent regions as a reliable composition representative for Chinese and global upper continental crust composition.

  20. Physical conditions and element abundances in supernova and γ-ray burst host galaxies at different redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, M.

    2016-08-01

    We compare the physical parameters and the relative abundances calculated throughout supernova (SN) and γ-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using a detailed modelling of the spectra. The coupled effect of shocks and radiation from the starburst within the host galaxy is considered. We have found the following. (i) Shock velocities are lower in long-period GRBs (LGRBs) than in SN host galaxies. (ii) O/H relative abundances in SN hosts are scattered within a range 8.0 105 K). The values of T* in LGRB hosts are ˜3-8 × 104 K. (iv) The Hα absolute flux calculated from the emitting clouds of a few SN hosts at 0.1 analysis suggests that the SN-host symbiosis is stronger than for GRBs in terms of activity. The physical and chemical conditions in the GRB host galaxies are similar to those in starburst galaxies within a large redshift range.

  1. The predominantly selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana experienced a recent reduction in transposable element abundance compared to its outcrossing relative Arabidopsis lyrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Chaux Nicole

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable elements (TEs are major contributors to genome evolution. One factor that influences their evolutionary dynamics is whether their host reproduces through selfing or through outcrossing. According to the recombinational spreading hypothesis, for instance, TEs can spread more easily in outcrossing species through recombination, and should thus be less abundant in selfing species. We here studied the distribution and evolutionary dynamics of TE families in the predominantly selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana and its close outcrossing relative Arabidopsis lyrata on a genome-wide scale. We characterized differences in TE abundance between them and asked which, if any, existing hypotheses about TE abundances may explain these differences. Results We identified 1,819 TE families representing all known classes of TEs in both species, and found three times more copies in the outcrossing A. lyrata than in the predominantly selfing A. thaliana, as well as ten times more TE families unique to A. lyrata. On average, elements in A. lyrata are younger than elements in A. thaliana. In particular, A. thaliana shows a marked decrease in element number that occurred during the most recent 10% of the time interval since A. thaliana split from A. lyrata. This most recent period in the evolution of A. thaliana started approximately 500,000 years ago, assuming a splitting time of 5 million years ago, and coincides with the time at which predominant selfing originated. Conclusions Our results indicate that the mating system may be important for determining TE copy number, and that selfing species are likely to have fewer TEs.

  2. Multi-Element Abundance Measurements from Medium-Resolution Spectra. II. Catalog of Stars in Milky Way Dwarf Satellite Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Evan N; Simon, Joshua D; Geha, Marla C; Rockosi, Constance M; Sneden, Christopher; Cohen, Judith G; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Majewski, Steven R; Siegel, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti abundances for 2961 red giant stars that are likely members of eight dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way (MW): Sculptor, Fornax, Leo I, Sextans, Leo II, Canes Venatici I, Ursa Minor, and Draco. For the purposes of validating our measurements, we also observed 445 red giants in MW globular clusters and 21 field red giants in the MW halo. The measurements are based on Keck/DEIMOS medium-resolution spectroscopy combined with spectral synthesis. We estimate uncertainties in [Fe/H] by quantifying the dispersion of [Fe/H] measurements in a sample of stars in monometallic globular clusters. We estimate uncertainties in Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti abundances by comparing our medium-resolution spectroscopic measurements to high-resolution spectroscopic abundances of the same stars. For this purpose, our DEIMOS sample included 132 red giants with published high-resolution spectroscopy in globular clusters, the MW halo field, and dwarf galaxies. The standard deviations of the ...

  3. The chemical composition of nearby young associations: s-process element abundances in AB Doradus, Carina-Near, and Ursa Major

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orazi, Valentina; Desidera, Silvano; Covino, Elvira; Andrievsky, Sergei M; Gratton, Raffaele G

    2012-01-01

    Recently, several studies have shown that young, open clusters are characterised by a considerable over-abundance in their barium content. In particular, D'Orazi et al. (2009) reported that in some younger clusters [Ba/Fe] can reach values as high as ~0.6 dex. The work also identified the presence of an anti-correlation between [Ba/Fe] and cluster age. For clusters in the age range ~4.5 Gyr-500 Myr, this is best explained by assuming a higher contribution from low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars to the Galactic chemical enrichment. The purpose of this work is to investigate the ubiquity of the barium over-abundance in young stellar clusters. We analysed high-resolution spectroscopic data, focusing on the s-process elemental abundance for three nearby young associations, i.e. AB Doradus, Carina-Near, and Ursa Major. The clusters have been chosen such that their age spread would complement the D'Orazi et al. (2009) study. We find that while the s-process elements Y, Zr, La, and Ce exhibit solar ratios in all...

  4. A deep survey of heavy element lines in planetary nebulae -- II. Recombination line abundances and evidence for ultra-cold plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Tsamis, Y G; Liu, X W; Storey, P J; Danziger, I J

    2004-01-01

    [Abridged] Deep optical observations of the spectra of 12 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) and 3 Magellanic Cloud PNe were presented in Paper I by Tsamis et al. (2003b), who carried out an abundance analysis using the collisionally excited forbidden lines. Here, the relative intensities of faint optical recombination lines (ORLs) from ions of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are analysed in order to derive the abundances of these ions relative to hydrogen. We define an abundance discrepancy factor (ADF) as the ratio of the abundance derived for a heavy element ion from its recombination lines to that derived for the same ion from its ultraviolet, optical or infrared collisionally excited lines (CELs). All of the PNe in our sample are found to have ADF's that exceed unity. There is no dependence of the magnitude of the ADF upon the excitation energy of the UV, optical or IR CEL transition used, indicating that classical nebular temperature fluctuations--i.e. in a chemically homogeneous medium--are not the cause of ...

  5. Highly Sideophile Element Abundance Constraints on the Nature of the Late Accretionary Histories of Earth, Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. J.; Puchtel, I. S.; Brandon, A. D.; Horan, M. F.; James, O. B.

    2007-01-01

    The highly siderophile elements (HSE) include Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt and Pd. These elements are initially nearly-quantitatively stripped from planetary silicate mantles during core segregation. They then may be re-enriched in mantles via continued accretion sans continued core segregation. This suite of elements and its included long-lived radiogenic isotopes systems (Re-187 (right arrow) Os-187; Pt-190 (right arrow) Os-186) can potentially be used to fingerprint the characteristics of late accreted materials. The fingerprints may ultimately be useful to constrain the prior nebular history of the dominant late accreted materials, and to compare the proportion and genesis of late accretionary materials added to the inner planets. The past ten years have seen considerable accumulation of isotopic and compositional data for HSE present in the Earth's mantle, lunar mantle and impact melt breccias, and Martian meteorites. Here we review some of these data and consider the broader implications of the compiled data.

  6. Modes of Occurrence and Abundance of Trace Elements in Pennsylvanian Coals from the Pingshuo Mine, Ningwu Coalfield, Shanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pingshuo Mine is an important coal mine of the Ningwu coalfield in northern Shanxi Province, China. To investigate the mineralogy and geochemistry of Pingshuo coals, core samples from the mineable No. 4 coals were collected. The minerals, major element oxides, and trace elements were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, LTA-XRD in combination with Siroquant software, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-CCT-MS (As and Se. The minerals in the Pennsylvanian coals from the Pingshuo Mine dominantly consist of kaolinite and boehmite, with minor amounts of siderite, anatase, goyazite, calcite, apatite and florencite. Major-element oxides including SiO2 (9.54 wt %, Al2O3 (9.68 wt %, and TiO2 (0.63 wt %, as well as trace elements including Hg (449.63 ng/g, Zr (285.95 μg/g, Cu (36.72 μg/g, Ga (18.47 μg/g, Se (5.99 μg/g, Cd (0.43 μg/g, Hf (7.14 μg/g, and Pb (40.63 μg/g are enriched in the coal. Lithium and Hg present strong positive correlations with ash yield and SiO2, indicating an inorganic affinity. Elements Sr, Ba, Be, As and Ga have strong positive correlations with CaO and P2O5, indicating that most of these elements may be either associated with phosphates and carbonates or have an inorganic–organic affinity. Some of the Zr and Hf may occur in anatase due to their strong positive correlations with TiO2.

  7. Determinations of rare earth element abundance and U-Pb age of zircons using multispot laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Takaomi D; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Kon, Yoshiaki; Hirata, Takafumi

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a new calibration technique for multielement determination and U-Pb dating of zircon samples using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled with galvanometric optics. With the galvanometric optics, laser ablation of two or more sample materials could be achieved in very short time intervals (~10 ms). The resulting sample aerosols released from different ablation pits or different solid samples were mixed and homogenized within the sample cell and then transported into the ICP ion source. Multiple spot laser ablation enables spiking of analytes or internal standard elements directly into the solid samples, and therefore the standard addition calibration method can be applied for the determination of trace elements in solid samples. In this study, we have measured the rare earth element (REE) abundances of two zircon samples (Nancy 91500 and Prešovice) based on the standard addition technique, using a direct spiking of analytes through a multispot laser ablation of the glass standard material (NIST SRM612). The resulting REE abundance data show good agreement with previously reported values within analytical uncertainties achieved in this study (10% for most elements). Our experiments demonstrated that nonspectroscopic interferences on 14 REEs could be significantly reduced by the standard addition technique employed here. Another advantage of galvanometric devices is the accumulation of sample aerosol released from multiple spots. In this study we have measured the U-Pb age of a zircon sample (LMR) using an accumulation of sample aerosols released from 10 separate ablation pits of low diameters (~8 μm). The resulting (238)U-(206)Pb age data for the LMR zircons was 369 ± 64 Ma, which is in good agreement with previously reported age data (367.6 ± 1.5 Ma). (1) The data obtained here clearly demonstrate that the multiple spot laser ablation-ICPMS technique can become a powerful approach for elemental and isotopic

  8. A window on the efficiency of the s-process in AGB stars: chemical abundances of n-capture elements in the planetary nebula NGC 3918

    CERN Document Server

    Madonna, S; Luridiana, V; Sterling, N C; Morisset, C

    2015-01-01

    The chemical content of the planetary nebula NGC 3918 is investigated through deep, high-resolution (R~40000) UVES at VLT spectrophotometric data. We identify and measure more than 750 emission lines, making ours one of the deepest spectra ever taken for a planetary nebula. Among these lines we detect very faint lines of several neutron-capture elements (Se, Kr, Rb, and Xe), which enable us to compute their chemical abundances with unprecedented accuracy, thus constraining the efficiency of the s-process and convective dredge-up in the progenitor star of NGC 3918.

  9. Mantle in the Manihiki Plateau source with ultra-depleted incompatible element abundances but FOZO-like isotopic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golowin, R.; Hoernle, K.; Portnyagin, M.; Hauff, F.; Gurenko, A.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C. D.; Werner, R.

    2014-12-01

    The ~120Ma Manihiki Plateau basement consists of high-Ti tholeiitic basalts with EM-I type isotopic signatures, similar to the Singgalo basalts at Ontong Java, and low-Ti tholeiitic basalts with FOZO (Kwaimbaita/Kroenke) to HIMU-type isotopic compositions, similar to late stage volcanism on Hikurangi and Manihiki Plateaus (Hoernle et al. 2010; Timm et al. 2011). The low-Ti basalts have affinities to boninites and have been interpreted to be derived from residual mantle wedge mantle (Ingle et al. 2007). New major, volatile and trace element and radiogenic isotope data have been generated from fresh low-Ti glass samples recovered during R/V Sonne cruises SO193 and SO225. The low-Ti samples have distinctly lower Ti/V ratios compared to lavas from Ontong Java Plateau (Kwaimbaita-Kroenke and Singgalo), but similar to boninitic rocks. Glasses and melt inclusions in olivine have low volatile contents (0.12-0.25 wt% H2O). Olivine chemistry points to derivation from peridotite source. Therefore we interpret the low-Ti lavas to have formed through melting of dry and depleted peridotite at high temperatures, consistent with Timm et al (2011). The low-Ti group is characterized by U-shaped trace element patterns. The glass samples form linear mixing arrays on radiogenic isotope diagrams, pointing to the involvement of two components: 1) a component ultra-depleted in highly incompatible elements (UDC) but with intermediate Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic compositions, being similar to Kwaimbaita/Kroenke lavas from Ontong Java, and 2) an enriched component with HIMU-type incompatible element and isotopic characteristics, similar to late-stage volcanism on Manihiki, Hikurangi and Ontong Java (e.g. Hoernle et al. 2010). The ultra-depleted, FOZO-like mantle component could represent second stage melting of FOZO type mantle or re-melting of young recycled oceanic lithosphere within the plume head. Enrichment with HIMU type melts is required to explain the enrichment in the most incompatible

  10. Abundance and distribution of selected elements in soils, stream sediments, and selected forage plants from desert tortoise habitats in the Mojave and Colorado deserts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, M.A.; Berry, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    A baseline and background chemical survey was conducted in southeastern California, USA, to identify potential sources of toxicants in natural and anthropogenically-altered habitats of the threatened desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii). Soil, stream sediment, and plant samples were collected from six tortoise habitat study areas in the Mojave and Colorado deserts and analysed for up to 66 different elements. The chemical analyses provided new information on the abundances and distributions of selected elements in this region. Soil, stream-sediment, and plant analyses showed distinct variations in bulk chemistries from locality to locality. Variations were, in general, consistent with the many types of exposed rock units in the region, their highly variable bulk mineralogies, and chemical contents. Of elements in soils that might have been toxic to tortoises, only As seemed to be anomalous region-wide. Some soil and plant anomalies were clearly anthropogenic. In the Rand and Atolia mining districts, soil anomalies for As, Au, Cd, Hg, Sb, and(or) W and plant anomalies for As, Sb, and(or) W extend as far as ???15 km outward from the present area of mining; soils containing anomalous Hg were found at least 6 km away from old piles of tailings. The anomalous concentrations of As and Hg may have been the source of elevated levels of these elements found in ill tortoises from the region. In the Goldstone mining district, soil anomalies extended several km from the mining area. These areas probably represented anthropogenic surface contamination of dust redistributed by wind, vehicles, and rainfall. One of two study areas transected by a paved road (Chemehuevi Valley) showed weakly elevated levels of Pb, which extended as far as ???22 m from the pavement edge and were probably related to vehicle exhaust. No soil or plant samples from historically used military areas (Goldstone, Goffs, Chemehuevi Valley, Chuckwalla Bench) contained anomalous concentrations of the elements

  11. Highly siderophile element (HSE) abundances in the mantle of Mars are due to core formation at high pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L. R.; Pando, K. M.; Williams, J.; Humayun, M.; Hervig, R. L.; Sharp, T. G.

    2015-04-01

    Highly siderophile elements (HSEs) can be used to understand accretion and core formation in differentiated bodies, due to their strong affinity for FeNi metal and sulfides. Coupling experimental studies of metal-silicate partitioning with analyses of HSE contents of Martian meteorites can thus offer important constraints on the early history of Mars. Here, we report new metal-silicate partitioning data for the PGEs and Au and Re across a wide range of pressure and temperature space, with three series designed to complement existing experimental data sets for HSE. The first series examines temperature effects for D(HSE) in two metallic liquid compositions—C-bearing and C-free. The second series examines temperature effects for D(Re) in FeO-bearing silicate melts and FeNi-rich alloys. The third series presents the first systematic study of high pressure and temperature effects for D(Au). We then combine our data with previously published partitioning data to derive predictive expressions for metal-silicate partitioning of the HSE, which are subsequently used to calculate HSE concentrations of the Martian mantle during continuous accretion of Mars. Our results show that at midmantle depths in an early magma ocean (equivalent to approximately 14 GPa, 2100 °C), the HSE contents of the silicate fraction are similar to those observed in the Martian meteorite suite. This is in concert with previous studies on moderately siderophile elements. We then consider model calculations that examine the role of melting, fractional crystallization, and sulfide saturation/undersaturation in establishing the range of HSE contents in Martian meteorites derived from melting of the postcore formation mantle. The core formation modeling indicates that the HSE contents can be established by metal-silicate equilibrium early in the history of Mars, thus obviating the need for a late veneer for HSE, and by extension volatile siderophile elements, or volatiles in general.

  12. THE OLD, SUPER-METAL-RICH OPEN CLUSTER, NGC 6791—ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN TURN-OFF STARS FROM KECK/HIRES SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of star clusters has advanced our understanding of stellar evolution, Galactic chemical evolution, and nucleosynthesis. Here we investigate the composition of turn-off stars in the intriguing open cluster, NGC 6791, which is old, but super-metal-rich with high-resolution (R = 46,000) Keck/HIRES spectra. We find [Fe/H] = +0.30 ± 0.02 from measurements of some 40 unblended, unsaturated lines of both Fe I and Fe II in eight turn-off stars. Our O abundances come from the O I triplet near 7774 Å and we perform a differential analysis relative to the Sun from our Lunar spectrum also obtained with Keck/HIRES. The O results are corrected for small nLTE effects. We find consistent ratios of [O/Fe]n with a mean of –0.06 ± 0.02. This is low with respect to field stars that are also both old and metal-rich and continue the trend of decreasing [O/Fe] with increasing [Fe/H]. The small range in our oxygen abundances is consistent with a single population of stars. Our results for the alpha elements [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe] are near solar and compare well with those of the old, metal-rich field stars. The two Fe-peak elements, Cr and Ni, are consistent with Fe. These turn-off-star abundances provide benchmark abundances to investigate whether there are any observable abundance differences with the giants that might arise from nuclear-burning and dredge-up processes. Determinations of upper limits were found for Li by spectrum synthesis and are consistent with the upper limits in similar stars in the relatively old, super-metal-rich cluster NGC 6253. Our results support the prediction from standard theory that higher-metallicity stars deplete more Li. Probably no stars in NGC 6791 have retained their initial Li

  13. THE OLD, SUPER-METAL-RICH OPEN CLUSTER, NGC 6791—ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN TURN-OFF STARS FROM KECK/HIRES SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant Boesgaard, Ann; Lum, Michael G. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Deliyannis, Constantine P., E-mail: boes@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: mikelum@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: cdeliyan@indiana.edu [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University 727 East 3rd Street, Swain Hall West 319, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The study of star clusters has advanced our understanding of stellar evolution, Galactic chemical evolution, and nucleosynthesis. Here we investigate the composition of turn-off stars in the intriguing open cluster, NGC 6791, which is old, but super-metal-rich with high-resolution (R = 46,000) Keck/HIRES spectra. We find [Fe/H] = +0.30 ± 0.02 from measurements of some 40 unblended, unsaturated lines of both Fe I and Fe II in eight turn-off stars. Our O abundances come from the O I triplet near 7774 Å and we perform a differential analysis relative to the Sun from our Lunar spectrum also obtained with Keck/HIRES. The O results are corrected for small nLTE effects. We find consistent ratios of [O/Fe]{sub n} with a mean of –0.06 ± 0.02. This is low with respect to field stars that are also both old and metal-rich and continue the trend of decreasing [O/Fe] with increasing [Fe/H]. The small range in our oxygen abundances is consistent with a single population of stars. Our results for the alpha elements [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe] are near solar and compare well with those of the old, metal-rich field stars. The two Fe-peak elements, Cr and Ni, are consistent with Fe. These turn-off-star abundances provide benchmark abundances to investigate whether there are any observable abundance differences with the giants that might arise from nuclear-burning and dredge-up processes. Determinations of upper limits were found for Li by spectrum synthesis and are consistent with the upper limits in similar stars in the relatively old, super-metal-rich cluster NGC 6253. Our results support the prediction from standard theory that higher-metallicity stars deplete more Li. Probably no stars in NGC 6791 have retained their initial Li.

  14. Identification of Columbia River basalt flows from deep cores in the Pasco Basin based on trace element abundances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Rancitelli, L.A.

    1976-03-31

    Samples of basalt from three deep core holes drilled in the Pasco Basin, Washington (DDH-3, DH-4, DH-5) were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation (INAA) for up to fifteen trace and major elements. These analyses were used to assign each basalt flow to one of a series of previously defined chemical types of the Columbia River Basalt Group. All of the flows except the two flows at the bottom of well DDH-3 were clearly assignable to one of the defined chemical types. These two flows apparently represent new, as yet undefined chemical types. Average values and standard deviations for compositions of each of the chemical types found in the three wells are presented along with two-element variation diagrams for the geochemically important pair La-Cr, La-Fe, La-Th and La-Sc. The assignment of the flows to known chemical types accomplished in this study was very helpful in relating the basalts in the core holes to stratigraphically defined basalt flows in surface sections. A correlation diagram relating the flows in the core holes to one another on the basis of chemical type is presented.

  15. Ion-microprobe measurements of Mg, Ca, Ti and Fe isotopic ratios and trace element abundance in hibonite-bearing inclusions in primitive meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis reports the isotopic abundances of Mg, Ca, and Ti and rare earth element (REE) abundances in 19 hibonite-bearing inclusions from primative meteorites. The isotopic ratios of Fe were measured in one of the samples, Lance HH-1. These measurements were made by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (CAMECA IMS-3f). The novel hardware and software developments that made this work possible are described in detail. The samples were studied in thin section in order to investigate the relationship between the inclusions and their mineralogical environments. Inclusions from a number of different meteorites, specifically, Mighei, Murray, Murchison, Lance, Efremovka, Vigarano, Qingzhen, Dhajala, and Semarkona, were studied. The isotopes of Ca and Ti show large and correlated abundance anomalies in their most neutron-rich isotopes, 48Ca and 50Ti. The largest anomalies among the samples studied here are in the Murray inclusion MY-F6, with a 4.6% deficit in 48Ca and a 5.2% deficit in 50Ti, and Lance HH-1, with 3.3% and 6.0% deficits in 48Ca and 50Ti respectively. Correlated excesses of 48Ca and 50Ti, up to 2.4% and 1.4% respectively, are found in some other samples studied here. The fact that there is a correlation of isotopic anomalies in two different elements is clear evidence for a nucleosynthetic origin of these effects. Various possibilities for the origin of these isotopic anomalies are discussed and it is shown that a Cosmic Chemical Memory-like model of the incomplete mixing of dust grains from one or several supernovae is sufficient to explain the data. Magnesium isotopes show excesses of 26Mg, attributable to the in-situ decay of 26Al, in 7 of these inclusions

  16. Multi-Element Abundance Measurements from Medium-Resolution Spectra. III. Metallicity Distributions of Milky Way Dwarf Satellite Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Evan N; Simon, Joshua D; Cohen, Judith G; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2010-01-01

    We present metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) for the central regions of eight dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way: Fornax, Leo I and II, Sculptor, Sextans, Draco, Canes Venatici I, and Ursa Minor. We use the published catalog of abundance measurements from the previous paper in this series. The measurements are based on spectral synthesis of iron absorption lines. For each MDF, we determine maximum likelihood fits for Leaky Box, Pre-Enriched, and Extra Gas (wherein the gas supply available for star formation increases before it decreases to zero) analytic models of chemical evolution. Although the models are too simplistic to describe any MDF in detail, a Leaky Box starting from zero metallicity gas fits none of the galaxies except Canes Venatici I well. The MDFs of some galaxies, particularly the more luminous ones, strongly prefer the Extra Gas Model to the other models. Only for Canes Venatici I does the Pre-Enriched Model fit significantly better than the Extra Gas Model. The best-fit effect...

  17. Carbon, nitrogen and $\\alpha$-element abundances determine the formation sequence of the Galactic thick and thin disks

    CERN Document Server

    Masseron, T

    2015-01-01

    Using the DR12 public release of APOGEE data, we show that thin and thick disk separate very well in the space defined by [$\\alpha$/Fe], [Fe/H] and [C/N]. Thick disk giants have both higher [C/N] and higher [$\\alpha$/Fe] than do thin disk stars with similar [Fe/H]. We deduce that the thick disk is composed of lower mass stars than the thin disk. Considering the fact that at a given metallicity there is a one-to-one relation between stellar mass and age, we are then able to infer the chronology of disk formation. Both the thick and the thin disks - defined by [$\\alpha$/Fe] -- converge in their dependance on [C/N] and [C+N/Fe] at [Fe/H]$\\approx$-0.7. We conclude that 1) the majority of thick disk stars formed earlier than did the thin disk stars 2) the formation histories of the thin and thick disks diverged early on, even when the [Fe/H] abundances are similar 3) that the star formation rate in the thin disk has been lower than in the thick disk, at all metallicities. Although these general conclusions remain ...

  18. Bird Surveys at DARHT Before and During Operations: Comparison of Species Abundance and Composition and Trace Element Uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. R. Fresquez, D. C. Keller, C. D. Hathcock

    2007-11-30

    The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Mitigation Action Plan specifies the comparison of baseline conditions in biotic and abiotic media with those collected after operations have started. Operations at DARHT at Los Alamos National Laboratory started in 2000. In this study, the abundance and composition of birds collected near the DARHT facility from 2003 through 2006 were determined and compared to a preoperational period (1999). In addition, the levels of radionuclides and other inorganic chemicals in birds were compared to regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). The number and diversity of bird species generally increased over preoperational levels with the greatest number of birds (412) and species (46) occurring in 2005. The most common bird species collected regardless of time periods were the chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina), the Virginia's warbler (Vermivora virginiae), the western bluebird (Sialia mexicana), the broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus), the sage sparrow (Amphispiza belli), and the western tanager (Piranga ludoviciana). Most radionuclides, with the exception of uranium-234 and uranium-238, in (whole body) birds collected after operations began were either not detected or below RSRLs. Uranium-234 and uranium-238 concentrations in a few samples were far below screening levels and do not pose a potential unacceptable dose to the birds. In contrast, many inorganic chemicals, particularly arsenic and silver, in birds collected before and after operations began were in higher concentrations than RSRLs. Because birds (skin plus feathers) collected in the years before operations began contained higher levels of arsenic and silver than RSRLs and because there was no evidence of these metals in soil and sediment directly around the DARHT facility, the elevated levels of these metals in birds during early operations are probably not related to DARHT operations. Arsenic and silver in birds, however

  19. Mineralogy and Major Element Abundance of the Dust Particles Recovered from Muses-C Regio on the Asteroid Itokawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; Tanaka, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Kimura, M.; Nakato, A.; Ogami, T.; Ishida, H.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Yada, T.; Shirai, K.; Okazaki, R.; Fujimura, A.; Ishibashi, Y.; Abe, M.; Okada, T.; Ueno, M.; Mukai, T.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing by the spacecraft Hayabusa suggested that outermost surface particles of Muses-C regio of the asteroid Itokawa consist of centimeter and sub-centimeter size small pebbles. However, particles we found in the sample catcher A stored in the Hayabusa capsule, where Muses-C particles were captured during first touchdown, are much smaller. i.e., most are smaller than 100 microns in size. This suggests that only small fractions of Muses-C particles were stirred up due to the impact of the sampling horn onto the surface, or due to jets from chemical thrusters during the lift off of the spacecraft from the surface. X-ray fluorescence and near-infrared measurements by the Hayabusa spacecraft suggested that Itokawa surface materials have mineral and major element composition roughly similar to LL chondrites. The particles of the Muses-C region are expected to have experienced some effects of space weathering. Both of these prospects can be tested by the direct mineralogical analyses of the returned Itokawa particles in our study and another one. This comparison is most important aspect of the Hayabusa mission, because it finally links chemical analyses of meteorites fallen on the Earth to spectroscopic measurements of the asteroids.

  20. High-Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with the XMM-Newton RGS CNO Element Abundance Measurements and Density Diagnostics of a Photoionized Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Garate, M A; Den Herder, J W A; Zane, S; Ramsay, G

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of Hercules X-1, an intermediate-mass X-ray binary, which was observed with the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer. We measure the elemental abundance ratios by use of spectral models, and we detect material processed through the CNO-cycle. The CNO abundances, and in particular the ratio N/O > 4.0 times solar, provide stringent constraints on the evolution of the binary system. The low and short-on flux states of Her X-1 exhibit narrow line emission from C VI, N VI, N VII, O VII, O VIII, Ne IX, and Ne X ions. The spectra show signatures of photoionization. We measure the electron temperature, quantify photoexcitation in the He alpha lines, and set limits on the location and density of the gas. The recombination lines may originate in the accretion disk atmosphere and corona, or on the X-ray illuminated face of the mass donor (HZ Her). The spectral variation over the course of the 35 d period provides additional evidence for the precession of the disk. Duri...

  1. The Old, Super-Metal-Rich Open Cluster, NGC 6791 - Elemental Abundances in Turn-off Stars from Keck/HIRES Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Deliyannis, Constantine P

    2014-01-01

    The study of star clusters has advanced our understanding of stellar evolution, Galactic chemical evolution and nucleosynthesis. Here we investigate the composition of turn-off stars in the intriguing open cluster, NGC 6791, which is old, but super-metal-rich with high-resolution (46,000) Keck/HIRES spectra. We find [Fe/H] = +0.30 +/-0.02 from measurements of some 40 unblended, unsaturated lines of both Fe I and Fe II in eight turn-off stars. Our O abundances come from the O I triplet near 7774 A and we do a differential analysis relative to the Sun from our Lunar spectrum also obtained with Keck/HIRES. The O results are corrected for small nLTE effects. We find consistent ratios of [O/Fe]n with a mean of $-$0.06 +/-0.02. This continues the trend of decreasing [O/Fe] with increasing [Fe/H] found in field stars that are also both old and metal-rich. The small range in our oxygen abundances is consistent with a single population of stars. Our results for the alpha elements [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe]...

  2. Element Abundances at High-redshift: Magellan MIKE Observations of sub-Damped Lyman-alpha Absorbers at 1.7 < z <2.4

    CERN Document Server

    Som, Debopam; Meiring, Joseph; York, Donald G; Péroux, Celine; Khare, Pushpa; Lauroesch, James T

    2013-01-01

    We present chemical abundance measurements from high-resolution observations of 5 sub-damped Lyman-alpha absorbers at 1.7 < z < 2.4 observed with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph on the 6.5-m Magellan II Clay telescope. Lines of Zn II, Mg I, Mg II, Al II, Al III, S II, Si II, Si IV, C II, C II*, C IV, Ni II, Mn II and Fe II were detected and column densities were determined. The metallicity of the absorbing gas, inferred from the nearly undepleted element Zn, is in the range of < -0.95 to +0.25 dex for the five absorbers in our sample, with three of the systems being near-solar or super-solar. We also investigate the effect of ionisation on the observed abundances using photoionisation modelling. Combining our data with other sub-DLA and DLA data from the literature, we report the most complete existing determination of the metallicity vs. redshift relation for sub-DLAs and DLAs. We confirm the suggestion from previous investigations that sub-DLAs are, on average, more metal-r...

  3. Splicing Regulatory Elements and mRNA-abundance of dlg1 and capt, Genetically Interacting with dFMRP in Drosophila Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Petrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To further understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the disease, we used the Drososphila FraX model and investigated a not well studied role of Drosophila Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (dFMRP in alternative splicing of neuronal mRNAs to which it binds via a G-quartet sequence. By means of qRT-PCR we established the relative abundance of some isoforms of the gene dlg1, resulting from alternative exon skipping nearby a G-quartet and an exonic ESE-sequence, both acting as exonic splicing enhancers. We also investigated the relative mRNA-abundance of all capt-isoforms and the pre-mRNAs of both genes. We proposed a possible involvement of dFMRP in alternative splicing of genes, interacting with dfmr1. In the absence of dFMRP in larval and pupal brains, we found a change in the mRNA-level of one of the studied isoforms of dlg1 and of its pre-mRNA.We also established previously reported splicing regulatory elements and predicted computationally novel hexamere sequences in the exonic/intronic ends of both genes with p upative regulatory roles in alternative splicing.

  4. Soft X-ray spectrum of BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164 as a tracer of elemental abundances at z approximately 0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejski, Greg

    1994-01-01

    We report the soft X-ray spectrum of BL Lac object AO 0235+164, observed with the Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC). This object (z = 0.94) has an intervening galaxy (or a protogalactic disk) at z = 0.524 present in the line of sight, producing both radio and optical absorption lines in the background BL Lac continuum. The X-ray spectrum exhibits a substantial soft X-ray cutoff, corresponding to several times that expected from our own Galaxy; we interpret that excess cutoff as due to the intervening galaxy. The comparison of the hydrogen column density inferred from the 21 cm radio data and the X-ray absorption allows, in principle, the determination of the elemental abundances in the intervening galaxy. However, the uncertainties in both the H I spin temperature and X-ray spectral parameters only loosely restrict these abundances to be 2 +/- 1 solar, which even at the lower limit appears higher than that inferred from studies of samples of optical absoprtion-line systems.

  5. Puzzling Origin of CEMP-r/s Stars: An Interpretation of Abundance and Enrichment of s- and r-Process Elements from Asymptotic Giant Branch Supernovae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jiang Zhang; Fang Zhao; Yanping Chen; Wenyuan Cui; Bo Zhang

    2013-12-01

    CEMP-r/s stars at low metallicity are known as double-enhanced stars that show enhancements of both r-process and s-process elements. The chemical abundances of these very metal-poor stars provide us a lot of information for putting new restraints on models of neutron-capture processes. In this article, we put forward an accreted scenario in which the double enrichment of r-process and s-process elements is caused by a former intermediate-mass Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) companion in a detached binary system. As the AGB superwind is only present at the ultimate phase of AGB stars, there is thus a lot of potential that the degenerate-core mass of an intermediate-mass AGB star reaches the Chandrasekhar limit before the AGB superwind. In these circumstances, both s-process elements produced in the AGB shell and r-process elements synthesized in the subsequent explosion would be sprayed contemporaneously and accreted by its companion. Despite similarity to physical conditions of a core-collapse supernova, a major focus in this scenario is the degenerate C–O core surrounded by an envelope of a former intermediate-mass AGB donor that may collapse and explode. Due to the existence of an outer envelope, r-process nucleosynthesis is expected to occur. Hypothesizing the material-rich europium (Eu) accreted by the secondary via the wind from the supernova to be in proportion to the geometric fraction of the companion with respect to the exploding donor star, we find that the estimated yield of Eu (as representative of r-process elements) per AGB supernova event is about 1 × 10-9⊙ ∼ 5 × 10-9⊙. Using the yields of Eu, the overabundance of r-process elements in CEMP-r/s stars can be accounted for. The calculated results show that the value of parameter , standing for efficiency of wind pollution from the AGB supernova, will reach about 104, which means that the enhanced factor is much larger than unity due to the impact of gravity of the donor and the result of the

  6. Evaluation of relative isotopic abundance measurements in a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer for elemental composition determination of natural products in traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Jun; Huo, Jia-Li; Chen, Jian-Zhong; Li, Na; Fang, Dong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Zhen; Zhang, Guo-Lin; Wang, Jian-Hua; Xu, Xiao-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The relative isotopic abundance (RIA) measurement errors of a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-ToF) instrument incorporating analog-to-digital converter detectors were systemically evaluated by stochastically collecting about 200 data in positive ion mass spectrometry (MS) mode. Errors varied with peak intensities at definite spectral acquisition rates but were very close, even if peak intensities changed sharply at different spectral acquisition rates with the same concentration. Intensity thresholds were systematically defined at 1 Hz of spectral acquisition rates. RIA measurement errors were also evaluated using peak area. It seemed that peak area was better adapted for the high-intensity ions while peak intensity was suited for very low-intensity ions. Several known compounds were selected for RIA measurements for product ions in tandem mass spectropmetry (MS/MS) mode. An extract of a representative traditional Chinese medicinal, Paederia scandens was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-QToF-MS/MS. The unique elemental compositions of some compounds could not be identified even with exact masses and MS/MS spectra of measured and reference compounds. RIA errors, especially of (M+2)M(-1), provided vital information for determining the elemental composition. PMID:24261081

  7. 浅议元素离子电位和丰度与巨型矿床的关系%Relationship Between Elemental Ionic Potential,Together with Elemental Abundance,and Giant Ore-Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵博; 王斌; 石成龙; 廖煜钟; 赵欣; 张涛; 张德会

    2015-01-01

    Both elemental quality and quantity as well as their way of permutation and combination are widely considered to be the “genes”of ore-deposits.Significantly,ionic potential and Clark value can represent the basic elemental geochemical attributes which can be divided into both of “quality”and“quantity”.Thus,we studied the relationship between such two indivisible geochemical properties of ore-elements and the tonnage accumulation index (TAI )of giant ore-deposits.There are three critical steps to achieve the formation of ore-deposits; and they are material source, transportation, and preservation. In terms of its control ability to elemental behaviors of transportation (and/or preservation?),an ionic potential must exerts a striking influence on its elemental ore-forming ability;so does the Clark value in terms of its control of material source and of some geochemical behaviors that are sensitive to elemental abundance and strongly affect the concentration in those rock-and ore-forming processes.The available and unique value of ionic potential of some individual elements was worked out;and the mathematic relationship between the numbers of TAI of global giant ore-deposits and elemental ionic potentials was subsequently depicted,which appears as an opening-up parabola.Whereas,there is a rather clear linear relationship between metal resource reserves stored in giant and supergiant ore deposits all over the world and the elemental Clark values.So,a larger value of metal abundance indicatel its regional superiority of resources.%元素的质和量及其排列组合方式被认为是矿床形成的“基因”。使用离子电位与克拉克值定量反映元素的质、量特征。成矿不外乎“源、运、储”三个环节,而离子电位通过控制金属“运”的行为影响其成矿能力,笔者给出了唯一的具有一定成因意义的元素离子电位,并发现离子电位与全球巨型矿床数目(n

  8. A comparative study on the abundance and elemental composition of POM in three interconnected basins: the Black, the Marmara and the Mediterranean Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. COBAN-YILDIZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and elemental composition of suspended particulate organic matter in the upper layers of the interconnected Mediterranean, Marmara and Black Seas having different ecosystems were determined in 1990-1998. The aim was principally to compare the C:N:P ratio of seston and understand factors controlling the seston composition in near- and off-shore waters of these seas. In the Marmara Sea, euphotic zone average particulate concentrations varied regionally and seasonally between 10-35 ìM for POC, 0.4-4.5 ìM for PON and 0.05-0.45 ìM for PP. These concentrations are mostly above the off-shore Black Sea values but much greater than those measured in the open waters of the north-eastern Mediterranean whose near-shore data are comparable with the seston content of the deep Black Sea. Comparison of C:N:P ratios of seston reveals that atmospheric and land-based phosphorus input influences the C:P and N:P ratios in the near-shore waters. Apparent nutrient deficiencies observed in the water column were not as remarkable in the elemental composition of seston. Unexpectedly, in the NE Mediterranean, N:P ratios from regression analyses of particulate data are very low (7-9 in the coastal region but slightly increase to levels of 10-15 in the open sea. In the Sea of Marmara, the N:P ratios (7-12 of seston are as low as in the Mediterranean, being consistent with the particulate ratios of the Black Sea inflow and NO3:PO4 ratios of the Marmara sub-halocline water. The Black Sea seston is relatively rich in carbonaceous compounds with N:P ratio ranging merely between 15-17 in the open sea but 9-27 in coastal waters where riverine discharges markedly influence the stoichiometry of seston.

  9. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are abundant in Solanaceae and have a family-specific impact on gene structure and genome organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, Kathrin M; Wenke, Torsten; Muders, Katja; Truberg, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are highly abundant non-autonomous retrotransposons that are widespread in plants. They are short in size, non-coding, show high sequence diversity, and are therefore mostly not or not correctly annotated in plant genome sequences. Hence, comparative studies on genomic SINE populations are rare. To explore the structural organization and impact of SINEs, we comparatively investigated the genome sequences of the Solanaceae species potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), wild tomato (Solanum pennellii), and two pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum). Based on 8.5 Gbp sequence data, we annotated 82 983 SINE copies belonging to 10 families and subfamilies on a base pair level. Solanaceae SINEs are dispersed over all chromosomes with enrichments in distal regions. Depending on the genome assemblies and gene predictions, 30% of all SINE copies are associated with genes, particularly frequent in introns and untranslated regions (UTRs). The close association with genes is family specific. More than 10% of all genes annotated in the Solanaceae species investigated contain at least one SINE insertion, and we found genes harbouring up to 16 SINE copies. We demonstrate the involvement of SINEs in gene and genome evolution including the donation of splice sites, start and stop codons and exons to genes, enlargement of introns and UTRs, generation of tandem-like duplications and transduction of adjacent sequence regions. PMID:26996788

  10. A back-arc setting for mafic rocks of the Honeysuckle Beds, southeastern N.S.W.: the use of trace and rare earth element abundances determined by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadd, K.A. [University of Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Major, trace and rare earth elements abundance in mafic rocks of the Honeysuckle Beds was determined by x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis . A comparison with typical mid-ocean ridge basalt compositions reveals an enrichment in light rare earths elements (Ba, Rb, and Th) and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, consistent with modifications of the source by subduction-related fluids. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Precision Chemical Abundance Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yong, David; Grundahl, Frank; Meléndez, Jorge;

    2012-01-01

    This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate that the ob......This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate...... that the observed abundance dispersion exceeds the measurement uncertainties and that many pairs of elements show significant correlations when plotting [X1/H] vs. [X2/H]. Our tentative conclusions are that either NGC 6752 is not chemically homogeneous at the ~=0.03 dex level or the abundance variations...

  12. The apogee red-clump catalog: Precise distances, velocities, and high-resolution elemental abundances over a large area of the Milky Way's disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III's Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey covering all of the major components of the Galaxy, including the dust-obscured regions of the inner Milky Way disk and bulge. Here we present a sample of 10,341 likely red-clump stars (RC) from the first two years of APOGEE operations, selected based on their position in color-metallicity-surface-gravity-effective-temperature space using a new method calibrated using stellar evolution models and high-quality asteroseismology data. The narrowness of the RC locus in color-metallicity-luminosity space allows us to assign distances to the stars with an accuracy of 5%-10%. The sample extends to typical distances of about 3 kpc from the Sun, with some stars out to 8 kpc, and spans a volume of approximately 100 kpc3 over 5 kpc ≲ R ≲ 14 kpc, |Z| ≲ 2 kpc, and –15° ≲ Galactocentric azimuth ≲ 30°. The APOGEE red-clump (APOGEE-RC) catalog contains photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, reddening estimates, distances, line-of-sight velocities, stellar parameters and elemental abundances determined from the high-resolution APOGEE spectra, and matches to major proper motion catalogs. We determine the survey selection function for this data set and discuss how the RC selection samples the underlying stellar populations. We use this sample to limit any azimuthal variations in the median metallicity within the ≈45° azimuthal region covered by the current sample to be ≤0.02 dex, which is more than an order of magnitude smaller than the radial metallicity gradient. This result constrains coherent non-axisymmetric flows within a few kiloparsecs from the Sun.

  13. The apogee red-clump catalog: Precise distances, velocities, and high-resolution elemental abundances over a large area of the Milky Way's disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovy, Jo [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Nidever, David L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Girardi, Léo; Rodrigues, Thaíse S. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Zasowski, Gail [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chojnowski, S. Drew; Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904 (United States); Holtzman, Jon; Hayden, Michael R. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Epstein, Courtney; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Andrews, Brett [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Frinchaboy, Peter M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Stello, Dennis [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: bovy@ias.edu [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2014-08-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III's Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey covering all of the major components of the Galaxy, including the dust-obscured regions of the inner Milky Way disk and bulge. Here we present a sample of 10,341 likely red-clump stars (RC) from the first two years of APOGEE operations, selected based on their position in color-metallicity-surface-gravity-effective-temperature space using a new method calibrated using stellar evolution models and high-quality asteroseismology data. The narrowness of the RC locus in color-metallicity-luminosity space allows us to assign distances to the stars with an accuracy of 5%-10%. The sample extends to typical distances of about 3 kpc from the Sun, with some stars out to 8 kpc, and spans a volume of approximately 100 kpc{sup 3} over 5 kpc ≲ R ≲ 14 kpc, |Z| ≲ 2 kpc, and –15° ≲ Galactocentric azimuth ≲ 30°. The APOGEE red-clump (APOGEE-RC) catalog contains photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, reddening estimates, distances, line-of-sight velocities, stellar parameters and elemental abundances determined from the high-resolution APOGEE spectra, and matches to major proper motion catalogs. We determine the survey selection function for this data set and discuss how the RC selection samples the underlying stellar populations. We use this sample to limit any azimuthal variations in the median metallicity within the ≈45° azimuthal region covered by the current sample to be ≤0.02 dex, which is more than an order of magnitude smaller than the radial metallicity gradient. This result constrains coherent non-axisymmetric flows within a few kiloparsecs from the Sun.

  14. Gaseous abundances in M82

    CERN Document Server

    Ranalli, P; Origlia, L; Maiolino, R; Makishima, K; Ranalli, Piero; Comastri, Andrea; Origlia, Livia; Maiolino, Roberto; Makishima, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    We present the preliminary analysis of a deep (100ks) XMM-Newton observation of M82. The spatial distribution of the abundances of chemical elements (Fe, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S) is investigated through narrow-band imaging analisys and spatially-resolved spectroscopy. We find that the abundances of alpha-elements follow a bipolar distribution, these elements being more abundant in the gaseous outflow than in the galaxy centre. This behaviour is found to be more marked for lighter elements (O, Ne) than for heavier elements.

  15. Melt- versus fluid-induced metasomatism in spinel to garnet wedge peridotites (Ulten Zone, Eastern Italian Alps): clues from trace element and Li abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scambelluri, M.; Hermann, J.; Morten, L.; Rampone, E.

    2006-04-01

    anomalies in Cs, Ba, Pb and U and moderate enrichment in Li, indicating addition of a crustal component to the mantle rocks. Amphibole hosts most of these trace elements. Clinopyroxene displays high LILE/HFSE (Pb N /Nb N =300-600), low Ce/Pb (1.4-2.7 in garnet-facies clinopyroxene compared with 2.6-24.5 in the spinel-facies one) and variable LILE and LREE enrichments. The coupled increase of modal amphibole, Sr and Pb, together with positive Pb-Sr and Pb-U correlations, further indicate that incompatible element influx in these samples was fluid-mediated. In the garnet-facies samples, amphibole and, interestingly, olivine have similarly high Li concentrations as clinopyroxene, leading to cpx/amph D Li=0.7 and cpx/ol D Li=0.7-0.8, the latter being up to ten times lower than in the spinel-facies rocks. Due to its high modal abundance, olivine is the main host of Li in the garnet-amphibole peridotites. The observed metasomatic features provide evidence for the infiltration of an aqueous fluid in the mantle wedge above a subducting slab. This fluid most likely derived from subducted crustal rocks that underwent partial melting. Successive retrograde re-equilibration during exhumation of the garnet peridotite is accompanied by garnet and clinopyroxene breakdown and amphibole formation. This process produced minor changes, such as an increase of HREE and Li in amphibole, and an increase of Li in olivine. The general trace element signature remains essentially unchanged during retrogression and further hydration, indicating that fluids with a similar composition to the one present at the garnet-amphibole peridotite formation, were responsible for increased amphibole formation. The combined evidence from the metamorphic and metasomatic evolution indicates that the peridotites experienced first corner flow in a mantle wedge, followed by subduction and finally entrapment and exhumation within a crustal slab. During their entire history the Ulten peridotites were percolated first by

  16. DcSto, stowaway-like miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), are abundant and polymorphic in the carrot genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transposable elements constitute a large fraction of plant genomes and strongly influence gene and genome evolution. Stowaway elements, a group of MITEs present in high copy number, are preferentially located in the vicinity of coding regions. Stowaway elements are characterized by short length, sim...

  17. First stars VI - Abundances of C, N, O, Li, and mixing in extremely metal-poor giants. Galactic evolution of the light elements

    CERN Document Server

    Spite, M; Plez, B; Hill, V; Spite, F; Depagne, E; François, P; Bonifacio, P; Barbuy, B; Beers, T; Andersen, J; Molaro, P; Nordström, B; Primas, F

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the poorly-understood origin of nitrogen in the early Galaxy by determining N abundances in 35 extremely metal-poor halo giants (22 stars have [Fe/H]<-3.0) using the C and O abundances determined in Paper V. Because any dredge-up of CNO processed material to the surface may complicate the interpretation of CNO abundances in giants, we have also measured the surface abundance of lithium. Our sample shows a clear dichotomy between two groups of stars. The first group shows evidence of C to N conversion through CN cycling and strong Li dilution, a signature of mixing. The second group shows no evidence for C to N conversion, and Li is only moderately diluted, and we conclude that their C and N abundances are very close to those of the gas from which they formed in the early Galaxy. These "unmixed" stars reflect the abundances in the early Galaxy: the [C/Fe] ratio is constant (about +0.2 dex) and the [C/Mg] ratio is close to solar at low metallicity, favouring a high C production by massiv...

  18. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. III. A New Classification Scheme for Carbon-Enhanced Metal-poor Stars with S-process Element Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Hollek, Julie K; Placco, Vinicius M; Karakas, Amanda I; Shetrone, Matthew; Sneden, Christopher; Christlieb, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed abundance analysis of 23 elements for a newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star, HE 0414-0343, from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. Its spectroscopic stellar parameters are Teff = 4863 K, log g = 1.25, vmic = 2.20 km/s, and [Fe/H] = -2.24. Radial velocity measurements covering seven years indicate HE 0414-0343 to be a binary. HE 0414-0343 has [C/Fe] = 1.44 and is strongly enhanced in neutron-capture elements but its abundances cannot be reproduced by a solar-type s-process pattern alone. Traditionally, it could be classified as "CEMP-r/s" star. Based on abundance comparisons with AGB star nucleosynthesis models, we suggest a new physically-motivated origin and classification scheme for CEMP-s stars and the still poorly-understood CEMP-r/s. The new scheme describes a continuous transition between these two so-far distinctly treated subgroups: CEMP-sA, CEMP-sB, and CEMP-sC. Possible causes for a continuous transition include the number of therma...

  19. Abundances in galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard (or mildly inhomogeneous) Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory is well confirmed by abundance measurements of light elements up to 7Li and the resulting upper limit to the number of neutrino families confirmed in accelerator experiments. Extreme inhomogeneous models with a closure density in form of baryons seem to be ruled out and there is no evidence for a cosmic 'floor' to 9Be or heavier elements predicted in some versions of those models. Galaxies show a correlation between luminous mass and abundance of carbon and heavier elements, usually attributed to escape of hot gas from shallow potential wells. Uncertainties include the role of dark matter and biparametric behaviour of ellipticals. Spirals have radial gradients which may arise from a variety of causes. In our own Galaxy one can distinguish three stellar populations - disk, halo and bulge - characterised by differing metallicity distribution functions. Differential abundance effects are found among different elements in stars as a function of metallicity and presumably age, notably in the ratio of oxygen and α-particle elements to iron. These may eventually be exploitable to set a time scale for the formation of the halo, bulge and disk. (orig.)

  20. Long-term Cultivation of the Deep-Sea Clam Calyptogena okutanii: Changes in the Abundance of Chemoautotrophic Symbiont, Elemental Sulfur, and Mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Kazue; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tame, Akihiro; Kusaka, Chiho; Nagai, Yukiko; Sugimura, Makoto; Inoue, Koji; Uematsu, Katsuyuki; Yoshida, Takao; Ikuta, Tetsuro; Toyofuku, Takashi; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    Survival of deep-sea Calyptogena clams depends on organic carbon produced by symbiotic, sulfur-oxidizing, autotrophic bacteria present in the epithelial cells of the gill. To understand the mechanism underlying this symbiosis, the development of a long-term cultivation system is essential. We cultivated specimens of Calyptogena okutanii in an artificial chemosynthetic aquarium with a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) supply system provided by the sulfate reduction of dog food buried in the sediment. We studied morphological and histochemical changes in the clams' gills by immunohistochemical and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses. The freshly collected clams contained a high amount of elemental sulfur in the gill epithelial cells, as well as densely packed symbiotic bacteria. Neither elemental sulfur nor symbiotic bacteria was detected in any other organs except the ovaries, where symbiotic bacteria, but not sulfur, was detected. The longest survival of an individual clam in this aquarium was 151 days. In the 3 clams dissected on Days 57 and 91 of the experiment, no elemental sulfur was detected in the gills. The symbiotic bacteria content had significantly decreased by Day 57, and was absent by Day 91. For comparison, we also studied the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum, which harbors a phylogenetically close, sulfur-oxidizing, symbiotic bacterium with similar sulfur oxidation pathways. Sulfur particles were not detected, even in the gills of the freshly collected mussels. We discuss the importance of the proportion of available H2S and oxygen to the bivalves for elemental sulfur accumulation. Storage of nontoxic elemental sulfur, an energy source, seems to be an adaptive strategy of C. okutanii. PMID:27365420

  1. 盐湖丰产元素与Zintl化合物(续完)%The Correlation of Abundant Elements and Zintl Phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾永忠; 景燕; 马军; 岳都元; Claude Belin; Monique Tillard

    2011-01-01

    Zintl化合物是以Edward Zintl命名的化合物,是一类由电正性的碱金属或碱土金属与电负性的13族或14族元素形成的特殊金属间化合物.其价键模式可以是离子键、金属键和共价键共存,其中的准金属可以共价键的形式形成各种形式的离子簇,因而其结构复杂多样.这类化合物的部分阴离子簇不仅具有稳定的笼状、层状和链状结构,并且具有特殊的光、电、磁等性能,使得在半导体、催化、电极材料等方面都有应用的前景和发展潜力.介绍了几个特殊Zintl化合物体系,盐湖丰产元素在Zinfi化合物中的作用,指出了含有盐湖丰产元素的Zintl化合物的应用前景和方向.%The term Zintl phase has been coined in honour of Edward Zintl,a German chemist. Zintl phases are formed by combinations of moderately electronegative post-transition elements, such as main group 13 and 14 elements with electropositive alkaline or alkaline-earth metals. In these combinations, owing to electron transfers ( total or partial) from the electropositive to the electronegative elements, anionic frameworks are formed in solid state that range from isolated anionic clusters, rings. cages and 1,2 or 3-D extended structures of which clathrates are among the most remarkable.The authors discuss the correlation of salt lake resources and Zintl phases. The potential applications of Zintl phases in salt lake resources are briefly discussed. This strategy for the synthesis of solid state compounds, which comprised light elements of salt lake resources, main group 13 and 14 elements and transition metal, have unique magnetic, electronic, thermoelectric, colossal magnetoresistance and ferromagnetic properties.

  2. Interstellar Atomic Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, E B

    2003-01-01

    A broad array of interstellar absorption features that appear in the ultraviolet spectra of bright sources allows us to measure the abundances and ionization states of many important heavy elements that exist as free atoms in the interstellar medium. By comparing these abundances with reference values in the Sun, we find that some elements have abundances relative to hydrogen that are approximately consistent with their respective solar values, while others are depleted by factors that range from a few up to around 1000. These depletions are caused by the atoms condensing into solid form onto dust grains. Their strengths are governed by the volatility of compounds that are produced, together with the densities and velocities of the gas clouds. We may characterize the depletion trends in terms of a limited set of parameters; ones derived here are based on measurements of 15 elements toward 144 stars with known values of N(H I) and N(H2). In turn, these parameters may be applied to studies of the production, de...

  3. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Future of Using Earth-Abundant Elements in Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (Adv. Mater. 20/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Joe; Dunn, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Sustainability is an important concept generating traction in the research community. To be really sustainable the full life cycle of a product needs to be carefully considered. A key aspect of this is using elements that are either readily recycled or accessible in the Earth's biosphere. Jigsawing these materials together in compounds to address our future energy needs represents a great opportunity for the current generation of researchers. On page 3802, S. Dunn and J. Briscoe summarize the performance of a selection of alternative materials to replace platinum in the counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:27197641

  4. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. III. A New Classification Scheme for Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars with s-process Element Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollek, Julie K.; Frebel, Anna; Placco, Vinicius M.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Shetrone, Matthew; Sneden, Christopher; Christlieb, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    We present a detailed abundance analysis of 23 elements for a newly discovered carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) star, HE 0414-0343, from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo Project. Its spectroscopic stellar parameters are Teff = 4863 K, {log}g=1.25,\\ξ = 2.20 km s-1, and [Fe/H] = -2.24. Radial velocity measurements covering seven years indicate HE 0414-0343 to be a binary. HE 0414-0343 has {{[C/Fe]}}=1.44 and is strongly enhanced in neutron-capture elements but its abundances cannot be reproduced by a solar-type s-process pattern alone. Traditionally, it could be classified as a “CEMP-r/s” star. Based on abundance comparisons with asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star nucleosynthesis models, we suggest a new physically motivated origin and classification scheme for CEMP-s stars and the still poorly understood CEMP-r/s. The new scheme describes a continuous transition between these two so-far distinctly treated subgroups: CEMP-sA, CEMP-sB, and CEMP-sC. Possible causes for a continuous transition include the number of thermal pulses the AGB companion underwent, the effect of different AGB star masses on their nucleosynthetic yields, and physics that is not well approximated in 1D stellar models such as proton ingestion episodes and rotation. Based on a set of detailed AGB models, we suggest the abundance signature of HE 0414-0343 to have arisen from a >1.3 M⊙ mass AGB star and a late-time mass transfer that transformed HE 0414-0343 into a CEMP-sC star. We also find that the [Y/Ba] ratio well parametrizes the classification and can thus be used to easily classify any future such stars. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  5. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2006-01-01

    A summary is given of planetary nebulae abundances from ISO measurements. It is shown that these nebulae show abundance gradients (with galactocentric distance), which in the case of neon, argon, sulfur and oxygen (with four exceptions) are the same as HII regions and early type star abundance gradients. The abundance of these elements predicted from these gradients at the distance of the Sun from the center are exactly the solar abundance. Sulfur is the exception to this; the reason for this...

  6. The fractal dimension characteristics of element abundance of the granitoid in China%中国花岗岩类化学元素组成的分维数特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于蕾; 王训练; 赵博

    2011-01-01

    The data set of various elements' abundance is taken as an abundance sequence, and fractal dimension (box dimension) is used in the study of elemental abundance of the granitoid in China. In theory, the universality of fractal derives from that of randomness, and fractal dimension can indicate the inner structure of the sequence and its evolvement orientation, providing valuable information for prospecting. In practice, based on both the elemental compatible order and integrity of observed variables, characteristics of the box dimension are made effective use of. Therefore, the correlations and mechanisms between fractal dimension and evolution trend or differentiation degree of diagenetic succession, and geochemical characteristic of the research system have also been discussed in detail, according to which we can explain why some rocks have component, time and space aspects within the granitoid category while differ from one another in the metallogenic relation and ore-bearing potential. Therefore, we demonstrated a new elemental abundance method with a basis of frequency characteristics. It can be concluded that elemental abundance sequence of the granitoid may operate structur al evolution in some form, and conventional log-normal distribution fails to describe the frequency laws. However, the cumulative summation and error obey fractal distribution. Herein, descending order of the fractal dimension, which is of important geochemical significance, corresponds to the degree of chemical evolution of the observed sequence, so do the results of cluster analysis.%将各种化学元素的丰度集合视为一组丰度序列,首次将分维数(盒维数)应用于研究中国花岗岩类的化学元素组成及演化特征.原理上,分形的遍在性源于随机性的遍在性,分维数的取值可表征丰度序列的内部结 构性及演化的方向性,为矿产资源勘查提供重要信息;实践上,以观测元素相容性序列为基础分析其地球化学行

  7. Effect of weathering on abundance and release of potentially toxic elements in soils developed on Lower Cambrian black shales, P. R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changxun; Peng, Bo; Peltola, Pasi; Tang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Shurong

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the geochemical features of 8 soil profiles developed on metalliferous black shales distributed in the central parts of the South China black shale horizon. The concentrations of 21 trace elements and 8 major elements were determined using ICP-MS and XRF, respectively, and weathering intensity (W) was calculated according to a new technique recently proposed in the literature. The data showed that the black shale soils inherited a heterogeneous geochemical character from their parent materials. A partial least square regression model and EF(bedrock) (enrichment factor normalized to underlying bedrock) indicated that W was not a major control in the redistribution of trace metals. Barium, Sn, Cu, V, and U tended to be leached in the upper soil horizons and trapped by Al and Fe oxides, whereas Sb, Cd, and Mo with negative EF values across the whole profiles may have been leached out during the first stage of pedogenesis (mainly weathering of black shale). Compared with the Chinese average soils, the soils were strongly enriched in the potentially toxic metals Mo, Cd, Sb, Sn, U, V, Cu, and Ba, among which the 5 first listed were enriched to the highest degrees. Elevated concentrations of these toxic metals can have a long-term negative effect on human health, in particular, the soils in mining areas dominated by strongly acidic conditions. As a whole, the black shale soils have much in common with acid sulfate soils. Therefore, black shale soils together with acid sulfate soils deserve more attention in the context of metal exposure and human health. PMID:21674160

  8. Effect of weathering on abundance and release of potentially toxic elements in soils developed on Lower Cambrian black shales, P. R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changxun; Peng, Bo; Peltola, Pasi; Tang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Shurong

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the geochemical features of 8 soil profiles developed on metalliferous black shales distributed in the central parts of the South China black shale horizon. The concentrations of 21 trace elements and 8 major elements were determined using ICP-MS and XRF, respectively, and weathering intensity (W) was calculated according to a new technique recently proposed in the literature. The data showed that the black shale soils inherited a heterogeneous geochemical character from their parent materials. A partial least square regression model and EF(bedrock) (enrichment factor normalized to underlying bedrock) indicated that W was not a major control in the redistribution of trace metals. Barium, Sn, Cu, V, and U tended to be leached in the upper soil horizons and trapped by Al and Fe oxides, whereas Sb, Cd, and Mo with negative EF values across the whole profiles may have been leached out during the first stage of pedogenesis (mainly weathering of black shale). Compared with the Chinese average soils, the soils were strongly enriched in the potentially toxic metals Mo, Cd, Sb, Sn, U, V, Cu, and Ba, among which the 5 first listed were enriched to the highest degrees. Elevated concentrations of these toxic metals can have a long-term negative effect on human health, in particular, the soils in mining areas dominated by strongly acidic conditions. As a whole, the black shale soils have much in common with acid sulfate soils. Therefore, black shale soils together with acid sulfate soils deserve more attention in the context of metal exposure and human health.

  9. Abundances and distribution of minerals and elements in high-alumina coal fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Zhao, L.; Peng, S.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, D.; Sun, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China, is unique because it is highly enriched in alumina (Al2O3>50%). The fly ash mainly consists of amorphous glass and mullite and trace amounts of corundum, quartz, char, calcite, K-feldspar, clay minerals, and Fe-bearing minerals. The mullite content in fly ash is as high as 37.4% because of high boehmite and kaolinite contents in feed coal. Corundum is a characteristic mineral formed during the combustion of boehmite-rich coal.Samples from the economizer were sieved into six size fractions (500 mesh) and separated into magnetic, mullite+corundum+quartz (MCQ) and glass phases for mineralogical and chemical analysis. The corundum content increases but amorphous glass decreases with decreasing particle size. Fractions of small particle sizes are relatively high in mullite, probably because mullite was formed from fine clay mineral particles under high-temperature combustion condition. Similarly, fine corundum crystals formed in the boiler from boehmite in feed coal. The magnetic phase consists of hematite, magnetite, magnesioferrite, and MgFeAlO4 crystals. The MCQ phase is composed of 89% mullite, 6.1% corundum, 4.5% quartz, and 0.5% K-feldspar.Overall, the fly ash from the power plant is significantly enriched in Al2O3 with an average of 51.9%, but poor in SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, P2O5, and As. Arsenic, TiO2, Th, Al2O3, Bi, La, Ga, Ni, and V are high in mullite, and the magnetic matter is enriched in Fe2O3, CaO, MnO, TiO2, Cs, Co, As, Cd, Ba, Ni, Sb, MgO, Zn, and V. The remaining elements are high in the glass fraction. The concentration of K2O, Na2O, P2O5, Nb, Cr, Ta, U, W, Rb, and Ni do not clearly vary with particle size, while SiO2 and Hg decrease and the remaining elements clearly increase with decreasing particle size. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Abundances and distribution of minerals and elements in high-alumina coal fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shifeng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), D 11, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Resources and Earth Science, China University of Mining and Technology, D11, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, Lei; Wang, Xibo; Zhang, Yong; Li, Dan; Sun, Yingying [Department of Resources and Earth Science, China University of Mining and Technology, D11, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Peng, Suping [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), D 11, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Chou, Chen-Lin [Illinois State Geological Survey (emeritus), University of Illinois, 615 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China, is unique because it is highly enriched in alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > 50%). The fly ash mainly consists of amorphous glass and mullite and trace amounts of corundum, quartz, char, calcite, K-feldspar, clay minerals, and Fe-bearing minerals. The mullite content in fly ash is as high as 37.4% because of high boehmite and kaolinite contents in feed coal. Corundum is a characteristic mineral formed during the combustion of boehmite-rich coal. Samples from the economizer were sieved into six size fractions (< 120, 120-160, 160-300, 300-360, 360-500, and > 500 mesh) and separated into magnetic, mullite + corundum + quartz (MCQ) and glass phases for mineralogical and chemical analysis. The corundum content increases but amorphous glass decreases with decreasing particle size. Fractions of small particle sizes are relatively high in mullite, probably because mullite was formed from fine clay mineral particles under high-temperature combustion condition. Similarly, fine corundum crystals formed in the boiler from boehmite in feed coal. The magnetic phase consists of hematite, magnetite, magnesioferrite, and MgFeAlO{sub 4} crystals. The MCQ phase is composed of 89% mullite, 6.1% corundum, 4.5% quartz, and 0.5% K-feldspar. Overall, the fly ash from the power plant is significantly enriched in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average of 51.9%, but poor in SiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, MgO, Na{sub 2}O, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and As. Arsenic, TiO{sub 2}, Th, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Bi, La, Ga, Ni, and V are high in mullite, and the magnetic matter is enriched in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, MnO, TiO{sub 2}, Cs, Co, As, Cd, Ba, Ni, Sb, MgO, Zn, and V. The remaining elements are high in the glass fraction. The concentration of K{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}O, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Nb, Cr, Ta, U, W, Rb, and Ni do not clearly vary with particle size, while SiO{sub 2} and Hg decrease and the remaining elements clearly increase with decreasing

  11. Interannual variation of rare earth element abundances in corals from northern coast of the South China Sea and its relation with sea-level change and human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajing; Peng, Z.; Wei, G.; Chen, T.; Sun, W.; He, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Shen, C.-C.

    2011-01-01

    Here we present interannual rare earth element (REE) records spanning the last two decades of the 20th century in two living Porites corals, collected from Longwan Bay, close to the estuarine zones off Wanquan River of Hainan Island and Hong Kong off the Pearl River Delta of Guangdong Province in the northern South China Sea. The results show that both coral REE contents (0.5-40 ng g-1 in Longwan Bay and 2-250 ng g-1 in Hong Kong for La-Lu) are characterized with a declining trend, which are significantly negative correlated with regional sea-level rise (9.4 mm a-1 from 1981 to 1996 in Longwan Bay, 13.7 mm a-1 from 1991 to 2001 in Hong Kong). The REE features are proposed to be resulted from seawater intrusion into the estuaries in response to contemporary sea-level rise. However, the tendency for the coral Er/Nd time series at Hong Kong site is absent and there is no significant relation between Er/Nd and total REEs as found for the coral at Longwan Bay site. The observations are likely attributed to changes of the water discharge and sediment load of Pearl River, which have been significantly affected by intense human activities, such as the construction of dams/reservoirs and riverbed sediment mining, in past decades. The riverine sediment load/discharge ratio of the Pearl River decreased sharply with a rate of 0.02 kg m-3 a-1, which could make significant contribution to the declining trend of coral REE. We propose that coastal corals in Longwan Bay and similar unexplored sites with little influences of river discharge and anthropogenic disruption are ideal candidates to investigate the influence of sea-level change on seawater/coral REE. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Evaluating the primary and/or diagenetic origin of rare earth element abundances in Ediacaran to early Cambrian phosphate deposits, Yangtze Platform (South China) by LA-ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, Dorothee; Klügel, Andreas; Biedermann, Nicole; Guo, Qingjun; Franz, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    The Precambrian-Cambrian time interval represents one of the greatest phosphogenic episodes in Earth's history with giant and well-preserved phosphate deposits occurring on the Yangtze Platform in South China. We investigated concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) and yttrium of shallow and deep-water sedimentary phosphate deposits of the Ediacaran Doushantou Formation and the early Cambrian Zhongyicun Formation by using LA-ICP mass spectrometry. The aim is to examine the temporal and spatial variability of seawater chemistry in conjunction with the conditions of phosphate formation and the evaluation of the extent of diagenetic modification. The mineralogical and textural composition of the samples was pre-screened using SEM and XRD, and polished thick sections were prepared for subsequent high-resolution LA-ICPMS analyses. Overall concentrations in REE range between 18 and 657 ppm, with elevated concentrations (> 200 ppm) in apatite from the deep-water phosphate deposits. REE+Y patterns of shallow-water phosphate deposits exhibit the evolution from flat shale-like to gently inclined seawater-derived patterns, with the early Cambrian phosphate deposits revealing distinct negative Ce- and positive Y-anomalies indicative for oxygenated surface waters. REE+Y patterns of phosphate deposits of the deep-water facies are flat to highly enriched in MREE, which is manifested in variably pronounced concave-down patterns. In detail, these patterns display different Ce-anomalies, as well as small positive Eu-anomalies. We propose that REE+Y patterns of Ediacaran and early Cambrian sedimentary phosphate deposits can inherit both primary and secondary signatures reflecting either seawater composition or diagenetic modification and fluid flow. The combination of imaging techniques and in-situ LA-ICPMS thereby enables a more sophisticated examination of the potential sources and processes than whole rock determinations. Placing the results in stratigraphic order and assuming

  13. Solar System chemical abundances corrected for systematics

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    The relative chemical abundances between CI meteorites and the solar photosphere exhibit a significant trend with condensation temperature. A trend with condensation temperature is also seen when the solar photospheric abundances are compared to those of nearby solar twins. We use both these trends to determine the alteration of the elemental abundances of the meteorties and the photosphere by fractionation and calculate a new set of primordial Solar System abundances.

  14. Abundances in stars with exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Israelian, Garik

    2003-01-01

    Extensive spectroscopic studies of stars with and without planets have concluded that stars hosting planets are significantly more metal-rich than those without planets. More subtle trends of different chemical elements begin to appear as the number of detected extrasolar planetary systems continues to grow. I review our current knowledge concerning the observed abundance trends of various chemical elements in stars with exoplanets and their possible implications.

  15. Solar Energetic Particles: Sampling Coronal Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.

    1998-05-01

    In the large solar energetic particle (SEP) events, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) drive shock waves out through the corona that accelerate elements of the ambient material to MeV energies in a fairly democratic, temperature-independent manner. These events provide the most complete source of information on element abundances in the corona. Relative abundances of 22 elements from H through Zn display the well-known dependence on the first ionization potential (FIP) that distinguishes coronal and photospheric material. For most elements, the main abundance variations depend upon the gyrofrequency, and hence on the charge-to-mass ratio, Q/A, of the ion. Abundance variations in the dominant species, H and He, are not Q/A dependent, presumably because of non-linear wave-particle interactions of H and He during acceleration. Impulsive flares provide a different sample of material that confirms the Ne:Mg:Si and He/C abundances in the corona.

  16. Relative abundance determinations in extremely metal poor giants. II. Transition probabilities and the abundance determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abundances of Fe and other elements are determined for a star of intermediate metallicity and for nine extremely metal poor stars, including two members of the globular cluster M92 and CD -38 deg 245. The accuracy of the transition probabilities for Fe I and other elements is evaluated. The distribution of the abundances of other elements with respect to Fe is the same for most of the cases studied. Manganese is the only element that shows a different relative abundance in an extremely metal poor star. 120 refs

  17. Comparison of abundances, compositions and sources of elements, inorganic ions and organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols from Xi'an and New Delhi, two megacities in China and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Gehui; Aggarwal, Shankar G; Huang, Yao; Ren, Yanqin; Zhou, Bianhong; Singh, Khem; Gupta, Prabhat K; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Rong

    2014-04-01

    Wintertime TSP samples collected in the two megacities of Xi'an, China and New Delhi, India were analyzed for elements, inorganic ions, carbonaceous species and organic compounds to investigate the differences in chemical compositions and sources of organic aerosols. The current work is the first time comparing the composition of urban organic aerosols from China and India and discussing their sources in a single study. Our results showed that the concentrations of Ca, Fe, Ti, inorganic ions, EC, PAHs and hopanes in Xi'an are 1.3-2.9 times of those in New Delhi, which is ascribed to the higher emissions of dust and coal burning in Xi'an. In contrast, Cl(-), levoglucosan, n-alkanes, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, phthalates and bisphenol A are 0.4-3.0 times higher in New Delhi than in Xi'an, which is attributed to strong emissions from biomass burning and solid waste incineration. PAHs are carcinogenic while phthalates and bisphenol A are endocrine disrupting. Thus, the significant difference in chemical compositions of the above TSP samples may suggest that residents in Xi'an and New Delhi are exposed to environmental hazards that pose different health risks. Lower mass ratios of octadecenoic acid/octadecanoic acid (C18:1/C18:0) and benzo(a)pyrene/benzo(e)pyrene (BaP/BeP) demonstrate that aerosol particles in New Delhi are photochemically more aged. Mass closure reconstructions of the wintertime TSP indicate that crustal material is the most abundant component of ambient particles in Xi'an and New Delhi, accounting for 52% and 48% of the particle masses, respectively, followed by organic matter (24% and 23% in Xi'an and New Delhi, respectively) and secondary inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate plus ammonium, 16% and 12% in Xi'an and New Delhi, respectively). PMID:24496022

  18. Chemical abundances and kinematics of barium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, D. B.; Pereira, C. B.; Roig, F.; Jilinski, E.; Drake, N. A.; Chavero, C.; Sales Silva, J. V.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an homogeneous analysis of photospheric abundances based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of 182 barium stars and candidates. We determined atmospheric parameters, spectroscopic distances, stellar masses, ages, luminosities and scaleheight, radial velocities, abundances of the Na, Al, α-elements, iron-peak elements, and s-process elements Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. We found that the metallicities, the temperatures and the surface gravities for barium stars cannot be represented by a single Gaussian distribution. The abundances of α-elements and iron peak elements are similar to those of field giants with the same metallicity. Sodium presents some degree of enrichment in more evolved stars that could be attributed to the NeNa cycle. As expected, the barium stars show overabundance of the elements created by the s-process. By measuring the mean heavy-element abundance pattern as given by the ratio [s/Fe], we found that the barium stars present several degrees of enrichment. We also obtained the [hs/ls] ratio by measuring the photospheric abundances of the Ba-peak and the Zr-peak elements. Our results indicated that the [s/Fe] and the [hs/ls] ratios are strongly anticorrelated with the metallicity. Our kinematical analysis showed that 90 per cent of the barium stars belong to the thin disc population. Based on their luminosities, none of the barium stars are luminous enough to be an asymptotic giant branch star, nor to become self-enriched in the s-process elements. Finally, we determined that the barium stars also follow an age-metallicity relation.

  19. La citometría de flujo en el estudio de tumores mediastinales ricos en elementos linfoides Flow cytometry for the study of mediastinal tumors with abundant lymphoid elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Vides Almonacid

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available El mediastino anterior es un sitio frecuente de localización de tumores ricos en elementos linfoides. La identificación correcta de cada entidad es de importancia en el tratamiento de los pacientes. En ocasiones puede plantearse el diagnóstico diferencial entre timoma y linfoma linfoblástico con fenotipo de precursor T (LLB-T. La Citometría de Flujo (CF es una técnica complementaria útil para estos tumores de la cual se obtiene información cualitativa y cuantitativa. Revisamos 38 tumores mediastinales que tenían estudio de CF. Además comparamos los resultados de CF de timomas y tejido tímico normal con 42 casos de LLB-T de otras localizaciones anatómicas. De los 38 tumores mediastinales 6 eran lesiones benignas, 9 linfomas difusos de células grandes con fenotipo B (LDCG-B, 10 linfomas de Hodgkin (LH, 11 timomas y 2 LLB-T. En 24 casos la CF aportó información positiva, definiendo el inmunofenotipo de las células linfoides neoplásicas, o los linfocitos característicos que acompañan a los timomas. La CF en los 10 casos de LH y en 4 lesiones benignas permitió descartar otros tipos de linfoma (LDCG-B, LLB-T, etc.. Las marcaciones para CD3, CD4 y CD8 fueron las más útiles para el diagnóstico diferencial entre timomas y LLB-T. En conclusión, la CF es una técnica complementaria de utilidad que aporta información en lesiones mediastinales de manera rápida, requiriendo cantidades pequeñas de material, tanto para el diagnóstico inicial como para el monitoreo de estas enfermedades.The anterior mediastinum is a common site of tumors with abundant lymphoid elements. Flow cytometry is a useful complementary technique to analyze this type of tumors, which provides qualitative and quantitative information. A differential diagnosis can be sometimes made between thymoma and precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL. Correct identification is of utmost importance for patient treatment. A total of 38 mediastinal tumors were analyzed, and

  20. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, G C; Spite, M; Chen, Y Q; Zhao, G; Zhang, B; Liu, G Q; Liu, Y J; Liu, N; Deng, L C; Spite, F; Hill, V; Zhang, C X

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures, surface gravities, metallicity and microturbulent velocity) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their light elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-ca...

  1. Primordial Deuterium Abundance and Cosmic Baryon Density

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Craig J.

    1994-01-01

    The comparison of cosmic abundances of the light elements with the density of baryonic stars and gas in the universe today provides a critical test of big bang theory and a powerful probe of the nature of dark matter. A new technique allows determination of cosmic deuterium abundances in quasar absorption clouds at large redshift, allowing a new test of big bang homogeneity in diverse, very distant systems. The first results of these studies are summarized, along with their implications. The ...

  2. TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    OpenAIRE

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method o...

  3. Chemical abundances and kinematics of barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    de Castro, D B; Roig, F; Jilinski, E; Drake, N A; Chavero, C; Silva, J V Sales

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present an homogeneous analysis of photospheric abundances based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of 182 barium stars and candidates. We determined atmospheric parameters, spectroscopic distances, stellar masses, ages, luminosities and scale height, radial velocities, abundances of the Na, Al, $alpha$-elements, iron-peak elements, and s-process elements Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. We employed the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code {\\sc moog}. We found that the metallicities, the temperatures and the surface gravities for barium stars can not be represented by a single gaussian distribution. The abundances of $alpha$-elements and iron peak elements are similar to those of field giants with the same metallicity. Sodium presents some degree of enrichment in more evolved stars that could be attributed to the NeNa cycle. As expected, the barium stars show overabundance of the elements created by the s-process. By measuring the mean heav...

  4. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V., E-mail: luck@fafnir.astr.cwru.edu, E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua, E-mail: val@deneb1.odessa.ua, E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua [Department of Astronomy and Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Odessa Branch, Shevchenko Park, 65014 Odessa (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  5. Abundance analysis of the outer halo globular cluster Palomar 14

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, S; Grebel, K E

    2011-01-01

    We determine the elemental abundances of nine red giant stars belonging to Palomar 14 (Pal 14). Pal 14 is an outer halo globular cluster (GC) at a distance of \\sim 70 kpc. Our abundance analysis is based on high-resolution spectra and one-dimensional stellar model atmospheres.We derived the abundances for the iron peak elements Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, the {\\alpha}-elements O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, the light odd element Na, and the neutron-capture elements Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Dy, and Cu. Our data do not permit us to investigate light element (i.e., O to Mg) abundance variations. The neutron-capture elements show an r-process signature. We compare our measurements with the abundance ratios of inner and other outer halo GCs, halo field stars, GCs of recognized extragalactic origin, and stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). The abundance pattern of Pal 14 is almost identical to those of Pal 3 and Pal 4, the next distant members of the outer halo GC population after Pal 14. The abundance pattern of Pal 14 is...

  6. Abundance, size distributions and trace-element binding of organic and iron-rich nanocolloids in Alaskan rivers, as revealed by field-flow fractionation and ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolpe, Björn; Guo, Laodong; Shiller, Alan M.; Aiken, George R.

    2013-03-01

    Water samples were collected from six small rivers in the Yukon River basin in central Alaska to examine the role of colloids and organic matter in the transport of trace elements in Northern high latitude watersheds influenced by permafrost. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), selected elements (Al, Si, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba, Pb, U), and UV-absorbance spectra were measured in 0.45 μm filtered samples. 'Nanocolloidal size distributions' (0.5-40 nm, hydrodynamic diameter) of humic-type and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined by on-line coupling of flow field-flow fractionation (FFF) to detectors including UV-absorbance, fluorescence, and ICP-MS. Total dissolved and nanocolloidal concentrations of the elements varied considerably between the rivers and between spring flood and late summer base flow. Data on specific UV-absorbance (SUVA), spectral slopes, and the nanocolloidal fraction of the UV-absorbance indicated a decrease in aromaticity and size of CDOM from spring flood to late summer. The nanocolloidal size distributions indicated the presence of different 'components' of nanocolloids. 'Fulvic-rich nanocolloids' had a hydrodynamic diameter of 0.5-3 nm throughout the sampling season; 'organic/iron-rich nanocolloids' occurred in the stability constant of the metal (+II)-organic complexes, while stronger association of Cr to the iron-rich nanocolloids was attributed to the higher oxidation states of Cr (+III or +IV). Changes in total dissolved element concentrations, size and composition of CDOM, and occurrence and size of organic/iron and iron-rich nanocolloids were related to variations in their sources from either the upper organic-rich soil or the deeper mineral layer, depending on seasonal variations in hydrological flow patterns and permafrost dynamics.

  7. Abundances in the diffuse interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wealth of interstellar absorption line data obtained with the Copernicus and IUE satellites has opened up a new era in studies of the interstellar gas. It is now well established that certain elements, generally those with high condensation temperatures, are substantially under-abundant in the gas-phase relative to total solar or cosmic abundances. This depletion of elements is due to the existence of solid material in the form of dust grains in the interstellar medium. Surprisingly, however, recent surveys indicate that even volatile elements such as Zn and S are significantly depleted in many sight lines. Developments in this field which have been made possible by the large base of UV interstellar absorption line data built up over recent years are reviewed and the implications of the results for our understanding of the physical processes governing depletion are discussed. (author)

  8. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  9. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  10. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pottasch, S R

    2006-01-01

    A summary is given of planetary nebulae abundances from ISO measurements. It is shown that these nebulae show abundance gradients (with galactocentric distance), which in the case of neon, argon, sulfur and oxygen (with four exceptions) are the same as HII regions and early type star abundance gradients. The abundance of these elements predicted from these gradients at the distance of the Sun from the center are exactly the solar abundance. Sulfur is the exception to this; the reason for this is discussed. The higher solar neon abundance is confirmed; this is discussed in terms of the results of helioseismology. Evidence is presented for oxygen destruction via ON cycling having occurred in the progenitors of four planetary nebulae with bilobal structure. These progenitor stars had a high mass, probably greater than 5 solar masses. This is deduced from the high values of He/H and N/H found in these nebulae. Formation of nitrogen, helium and carbon are discussed. The high mass progenitors which showed oxygen de...

  11. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Chao; Liang, Yan-Chun; Spite, Monique; Chen, Yu-Qin; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Guo-Qing; Liu, Yu-Juan; Liu, Nian; Deng, Li-Cai; Spite, Francois; Hill, Vanessa; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, metallicity [Fe/H] and microturbulence velocity ξt) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants as indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their Na, Al, α- and iron-peak elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-capture) process elements relative to the Sun. Their median abundances of [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] are 0.54, 0.65 and 0.40, respectively. The Y I and Zr I abundances are lower than Ba, La and Eu, but higher than the α- and iron-peak elements for the strong Ba stars and similar to the iron-peak elements for the mild stars. There exists a positive correlation between Ba intensity and [Ba/Fe]. For the n-capture elements (Y, Zr, Ba, La), there is an anti-correlation between their [X/Fe] and [Fe/H]. We identify nine of our sample stars as strong Ba stars with [Ba/Fe] >0.6 where seven of them have Ba intensity Ba=2-5, one has Ba=1.5 and another one has Ba=1.0. The remaining ten stars are classified as mild Ba stars with 0.17<[Ba/Fe] <0.54.

  12. Origin of Cosmic Chemical Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Maio, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological N-body hydrodynamic computations following atomic and molecular chemistry (e$^-$, H, H$^+$, H$^-$, He, He$^+$, He$^{++}$, D, D$^+$, H$_2$, H$_2^+$, HD, HeH$^+$), gas cooling, star formation and production of heavy elements (C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Fe, etc.) from stars covering a range of mass and metallicity are used to explore the origin of several chemical abundance patterns and to study both the metal and molecular content during simulated galaxy assembly. The resulting trends show a remarkable similarity to up-to-date observations of the most metal-poor damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorbers at redshift $z\\gtrsim 2$. These exhibit a transient nature and represent collapsing gaseous structures captured while cooling is becoming effective in lowering the temperature below $\\sim 10^4\\,\\rm K$, before they are disrupted by episodes of star formation or tidal effects. Our theoretical results agree with the available data for typical elemental ratios, such as [C/O], [Si/Fe], [O/Fe], [Si/O], [Fe/H], [O/...

  13. Chemical Fractionation and Abundances in Coronal Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, J J

    2003-01-01

    Much of modern astrophysics is grounded on the observed chemical compositions of stars and the diffuse plasma that pervades the space between stars, galaxies and clusters of galaxies. X-ray and EUV spectra of the hot plasma in the outer atmospheres of stars have demonstrated that these environments are subject to chemical fractionation in which the abundances of elements can be enhanced and depleted by an order of magnitude or more. These coronal abundance anomalies are discussed and some of the physical mechanisms that might be responsible for producing them are examined. It is argued that coronal abundances can provide important new diagnostics on physical processes at work in solar and stellar coronae. It seems likely that other hot astrophysical plasmas will be subject to similar effects.

  14. Relative Abundance Measurements in Plumes and Interplumes

    CERN Document Server

    Guennou, Chloé; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of relative elemental abundances in plumes and interplumes. Plumes are bright, narrow structures in coronal holes that extend along open magnetic field lines far out into the corona. Previous work has found that in some coronal structures the abundances of elements with a low first ionization potential (FIP) 10 eV). We have used EIS spectroscopic observations made on 2007 March 13 and 14 over an ~24 hour period to characterize abundance variations in plumes and interplumes. To assess their elemental composition, we have used a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis, which accounts for the thermal structure of the observed plasma. We have used lines from ions of iron, silicon, and sulfur. From these we have estimated the ratio of the iron and silicon FIP bias relative to that for sulfur. From the results, we have created FIP-bias-ratio maps. We find that the FIP-bias ratio is sometimes higher in plumes than in interplumes and that this enhancement can be time dependent. These res...

  15. Carbon and nitrogen abundances determined from transition layer lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika; Mena-Werth, Jose

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of determining relative carbon, nitrogen, and silicon abundances from the emission-line fluxes in the lower transition layers between stellar chromospheres and coronae is explored. Observations for main-sequence and luminosity class IV stars with presumably solar element abundances show that for the lower transition layers Em = BT sup -gamma. For a given carbon abundance the constants gamma and B in this relation can be determined from the C II and C IV emission-line fluxes. From the N V and S IV lines, the abundances of these elements relative to carbon can be determined from their surface emission-line fluxes. Ratios of N/C abundances determined in this way for some giants and supergiants agree within the limits of errors with those determined from molecular bands. For giants, an increase in the ratio of N/C at B-V of about 0.8 is found, as expected theoretically.

  16. THE ATOMIC WEIGHTS COMMISSION AND ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO DETERMINATIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-07

    Following Thomson's discovery of stable isotopes in non-radioactive chemical elements, the derivation of atomic weight values from mass spectrometric measurements of isotopic abundance ratios moved very slowly. Forty years later, only 3 1/2 % of the recommended values were based on mass spectrometric measurements and only 38% in the first half century. It might be noted that two chemical elements (tellurium and mercury) are still based on chemical measurements, where the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement either agrees with the value from the chemical measurement or the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement falls within the uncertainty of the chemical measurement of the atomic weight. Of the 19 chemical elements, whose atomic weight is based on non-corrected relative isotopic abundance measurements, five of these are two isotope systems (indium, iridium, lanthanum, lutetium and tantalum) and one is a three-isotope system (oxygen).

  17. Abundance, Excess, Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rox De Luca

    2016-02-01

    Her recent work focuses on the concepts of abundance, excess and waste. These concerns translate directly into vibrant and colourful garlands that she constructs from discarded plastics collected on Bondi Beach where she lives. The process of collecting is fastidious, as is the process of sorting and grading the plastics by colour and size. This initial gathering and sorting process is followed by threading the components onto strings of wire. When completed, these assemblages stand in stark contrast to the ease of disposability associated with the materials that arrive on the shoreline as evidence of our collective human neglect and destruction of the environment around us. The contrast is heightened by the fact that the constructed garlands embody the paradoxical beauty of our plastic waste byproducts, while also evoking the ways by which those byproducts similarly accumulate in randomly assorted patterns across the oceans and beaches of the planet.

  18. TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, M Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp (1999), the free thermochemical equilibrium code CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications), and the example given by White et al. (1958). Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is ...

  19. La and Eu Abundances in Metal-poor Halo Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Harrison; Burris, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Elements with atomic number greater than Z=26 (the Iron Peak) cannot be formed through fusion in a star's core; the majority of these elements are produced through one of two neutron-capture processes. Early in the history of the Galaxy, the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is believed to be responsible for the production of elements Z=56 and beyond. These elements require at least one generation of stars to have completed their life cycle in order to be synthesized. Therefore, if we observe the heavy metal abundances in what are called Population II stars (metal-poor stars), then we can begin to make inferences about the chemistry of the earliest stars in the Galaxy. To contribute to this picture of the early universe, the Lanthanum and Europium abundances of low-metallicity stars will be measured and trends in these abundances based on comparisons to existing related literature will be sought.

  20. Primordial Deuterium Abundance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Takahara, F; Levshakov, Sergei A.; Kegel, Wilhelm H.; Takahara, Fumio

    1997-01-01

    Deuterium abundances measured recently from QSO absorption-line systems lie in the range from 3 10^{-5} to 3 10^{-4}, which shed some questions on standard big bang theory. We show that this discordance may simply be an artifact caused by inadequate analysis ignoring spatial correlations in the velocity field in turbulent media. The generalized procedure (accounting for such correlations) is suggested to reconcile the D/H measurements. An example is presented based on two high-resolution observations of Q1009+2956 (low D/H) [1,2] and Q1718+4807 (high D/H) [8,9]. We show that both observations are compatible with D/H = 4.1 - 4.6 10^{-5}, and thus support SBBN. The estimated mean value = 4.4 10^{-5} corresponds to the baryon-to-photon ratio during SBBN eta = 4.4 10^{-10} which yields the present-day baryon density Omega_b h^2 = 0.015.

  1. Element abundances and distributions in the crab nebula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. MacAlpine

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La Nebulosa del Cangrejo proporciona oportunidades unicas para investigar diversos aspectos de la nucleos ntesis y del enriquecimiento de elementos relativos a la estrella progenitora y a la estrella de neutrones joven. Se pueden combinar datos espectrosc opicos e im agenes para conocer la distribuci on de abundancias. Nuestros conocimientos sobre esta remanente de supernova han aumentado de manera considerable en los ultimos a~nos.

  2. The solar element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    2009-01-01

    Apart from hydrogen, helium is the most abundant chemical element in the universe, and yet it was only discovered on the Earth in 1895. Its early history is unique because it encompasses astronomy as well as chemistry, two sciences which the spectroscope brought into contact during the second half...... of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... elements might be different. The complex story of how helium became established as both a solar and terrestrial element involves precise observations as well as airy speculations. It is a story that is unique among the discovery histories of the chemical elements....

  3. Trek and ECCO: Abundance measurements of ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Trek detector, we have measured the abundances of the heaviest elements (with Z>70) in the galactic cosmic rays with sufficient charge resolution to resolve the even-Z elements. We find that the abundance of Pb compared to Pt is ∼3 times lower than the value expected from the most widely-held class of models of the origin of galactic cosmic ray nuclei, that is, origination in a partially ionized medium with solar-like composition. The low abundance of Pb is, however, consistent with the interstellar gas and dust model of Meyer, Drury and Ellison, and with a source enriched in r-process material, proposed by Binns et al. A high-resolution, high-statistics measurement of the abundances of the individual actinides would distinguish between these models. This is the goal of ECCO, the Extremely Heavy Cosmic-ray Composition Observer, which we plan to deploy on the International Space Station

  4. Chemical abundances of A-type dwarfs in the young open cluster M6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kílíçoǧlu, T.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2011-12-01

    Elemental abundance analysis of five members in the open cluster M6 (age ˜90 myr) were performed using FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectrograph mounted on 8-meter class VLT telescopes. The abundances of 14 chemical elements were derived. Johnson and Geneva photometric systems, hydrogen line profile fittings, and ionization equilibrium were used to derive the atmospheric parameters of the stars. Synthetic spectra were compared to the observed spectra to derive chemical abundances. The abundance analysis of these five members shows that these stars have an enhancement (or solar composition) of metals in general, with some exceptions. C, O, Ca, Sc, Ni, Y, and Ba exhibit the largest star-to-star abundance variations.

  5. Abundance Survey of M and K Dwarf Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolf, Vincent M. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98133 (United States); Wallerstein, George [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98133 (United States)

    2005-07-25

    We report the measurement of chemical abundances in 35 low-mass main sequence (M and K dwarf) stars. We have measured the abundance of 12 elements in Kapteyn's Star, a nearby halo M subdwarf. The abundances indicate an iron abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.98, which is about 0.5 dex smaller than that measured in the only previous published measurement using atomic absorption lines. We have measured Fe and Ti abundances in 35 M and K dwarfs with -2.39 [Fe/H] +0.21 using atomic absorption lines, mostly in the 8000A <{lambda} < 8850A range. These will be used to calibrate photometric and low-resolution spectrum metallicity indices for low mass dwarfs, which will make metallicity estimates for these stars more certain. We also describe some difficulties encountered which are not normally necessary to consider when studying warmer stars.

  6. A holistic abundance analysis of r-rich stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiang; Zhang, Bo; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17374.x

    2010-01-01

    The chemical abundances of metal-poor stars are an excellent test bed by which to set new constraints on models of neutron-capture processes at low metallicity. Some r-process-rich (hereafter r-rich) metal-poor stars, such as HD221170, show an overabundance of the heavier neutron-capture elements and excesses of lighter neutron-capture elements. The study of these r-rich stars could give us a better understanding of weak and main r-process nucleosynthesis at low metallicity. Based on conclusions from the observation of metal-poor stars and neutron-capture element nucleosynthesis theory, we set up a model to determine the relative contributions from weak and main r-processes to the heavy-element abundances in metal-poor stars. Using this model, we find that the abundance patterns of light elements for most sample stars are close to the pattern of weak r-process stars, and those of heavier neutron-capture elements very similar to the pattern of main r-process stars, while the lighter neutron-capture elements ca...

  7. Chemical Abundances in our Galaxy and Other Galaxies Derived from H II Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Peimbert, M.; L. Carigi; Peimbert, A.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the accuracy of the abundance determinations of H II regions in our Galaxy and other galaxies. We focus on the main observational constraints derived from abundance determinations that have implications for models of galactic chemical evolution: a) the helium to hydrogen abundance ratio, He/H; b) the oxygen to hydrogen abundance ratio, O/H; c) the carbon to oxygen abundance ratio, C/O; d) the helium to oxygen and helium to heavy elements abundance ratios, Delta Y/ Delta O and Delta...

  8. Abundances In Very Metal Poor Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, J G; McWilliam, A; Shectman, S; Thompson, I; Wasserburg, G J; Ivans, I I; Dehn, M; Karlsson, T; Melendez, J; Cohen, Judith G.; Christlieb, Norbert; William, Andrew Mc; Shectman, Steve; Thompson, Ian; Ivans, Inese; Dehn, Matthias; Karlsson, Torgny

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the detailed composition of 28 extremely metal-poor dwarfs, 22 of which are from the Hamburg/ESO Survey, based on Keck Echelle spectra. Our sample has a median [Fe/H] of -2.7 dex, extends to -3.5 dex, and is somewhat less metal-poor than was expected from [Fe/H](HK,HES) determined from low resolution spectra. Our analysis supports the existence of a sharp decline in the distribution of halo stars with metallicity below [Fe/H] = -3.0 dex. So far no additional turnoff stars with [Fe/H]}<-3.5 have been identified in our follow up efforts. For the best observed elements between Mg and Ni, we find that the abundance ratios appear to have reached a plateau, i.e. [X/Fe] is approximately constant as a function of [Fe/H], except for Cr, Mn and Co, which show trends of abundance ratios varying with [Fe/H]. These abundance ratios at low metallicity correspond approximately to the yield expected from Type II SN with a narrow range in mass and explosion parameters; high mass Type II SN progenitors are requir...

  9. The Coronal Abundance Anomalies of M Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Brian E; Karovska, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    We analyze Chandra X-ray spectra of the M0 V+M0 V binary GJ 338. As quantified by X-ray surface flux, these are the most inactive M dwarfs ever observed with X-ray grating spectroscopy. We focus on measuring coronal abundances, in particular searching for evidence of abundance anomalies related to First Ionization Potential (FIP). In the solar corona and wind, low FIP elements are overabundant, which is the so-called "FIP effect." For other stars, particularly very active ones, an "inverse FIP effect" is often observed, with low FIP elements being underabundant. For both members of the GJ 338 binary, we find evidence for a modest inverse FIP effect, consistent with expectations from a previously reported correlation between spectral type and FIP bias. This amounts to strong evidence that all M dwarfs should exhibit the inverse FIP effect phenomenon, not just the active ones. We take the first step towards modeling the inverse FIP phenomenon in M dwarfs, building on past work that has demonstrated that MHD wav...

  10. Neon and Oxygen Abundances and Abundance Ratio in the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, E.; Testa, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we determine the Ne/O abundance ratio from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) off-disk observations of quiescent streamers over the 1996-2008 period. We find that the Ne/O ratio is approximately constant over solar cycle 23 from 1996 to 2005, at a value of 0.099 ± 0.017 this value is lower than the transition region determinations from the quiet Sun used to infer the neon photospheric abundance from the oxygen photospheric abundance. Also, the Ne/O ratio we determined from SUMER is in excellent agreement with in situ determinations from ACE/SWICS. In 2005-2008, the Ne/O abundance ratio increased with time and reached 0.25 ± 0.05, following the same trend found in the slowest wind analyzed by ACE/SWICS. Further, we measure the absolute abundance in the corona for both oxygen and neon from the data set of 1996 November 22, obtaining A o = 8.99 ± 0.04 and A Ne = 7.92 ± 0.03, and we find that both elements are affected by the first ionization potential (FIP) effect, with oxygen being enhanced by a factor of 1.4-2.1 over its photospheric abundance, and neon being changed by a factor of 0.75-1.20. We conclude that the Ne/O ratio is not constant in the solar atmosphere, both in time and at different heights, and that it cannot be reliably used to infer the neon abundance in the photosphere. Also, we argue that the FIP effect was less effective during the minimum of solar cycle 24, and that the Ne/O = 0.25 ± 0.05 value measured at that time is closer to the true photospheric value, leading to a neon photospheric abundance larger than assumed by ≈40%. We discuss the implications of these results for the solar abundance problem, for the FIP effect, and for the identification of the source regions of the solar wind.

  11. Transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors introduce this volume of historical and research papers on the transuranium elements by reviewing the period of discovery of elements 93 and beyond. Then the authors highlight the research achievements that focus on the unique properties of the 5f elements. Finally, the authors outline the technology and applications of transuranium elements and their radiobiology

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Gaia FGK benchmark stars: abundances (Jofre+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre, P.; Heiter, U.; Soubiran, C.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Masseron, T.; Nordlander, T.; Chemin, L.; Worley, C. C.; van Eck, S.; Hourihane, A.; Gilmore, G.; Adibekyan, V.; Bergemann, M.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J. I.; Guiglion, G.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Mikolaitis, S.; Montes, D.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Sordo, R.; Sousa, S.; Tabernero, H. M.; Vallenari, A.

    2015-07-01

    As in our previous work on the subject, we built a library of high- resolution spectra of the GBS, using our own observations on the NARVAL spectrograph at Pic du Midi in addition to archived data. The abundance of alpha and iron peak elements of the Gaia FGK benchmark stars is determined by combining 8 methods. The Tables indicate the elemental abundances determined for each star, element, line and method. (36 data files).

  13. Carbon and nitrogen abundance variations in globular cluster red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Sarah L.

    2008-06-01

    This dissertation describes investigations into two of the persistent questions of elemental abundances in Galactic globular clusters: the phenomenon of deep mixing, observed through the progressive depletion of surface carbon abundance as stars evolve along the red giant branch, and abundance bimodality, a phenomenon observed only in globular clusters, in which a subset of stars in a given globular cluster have a distinctive pattern of elemental enhancements and depletions relative to the Solar pattern. The first chapter gives an introduction to the history of globular cluster abundance studies, with particular focus on low-resolution spectroscopy. For both deep mixing and abundance bimodality, the leading theoretical models and the data which support and challenge them are laid out. Each section ends with a description of presently-unanswered questions; these are the motivation for the various projects contained in this dissertation. The second chapter describes the use of molecular handstrengths for determining elemental abundances from low-resolution spectra, and introduces a new CH bandstrength index that is designed to be sensitive to carbon abundance and insensitive to nitrogen abundance in Pop. II red giants over a wide range of metallicity. Various CH indices defined elsewhere in the literature are also discussed, and are shown to have comparable accuracy to the new index only over a limited range of stellar properties. Carbon abundances determined using the new CH index are compared to literature abundances for a few stars, and general concordance with published abundances is found. The third chapter contains a large-scale application of the new CH index: a survey of present-day carbon abundances and calculated carbon depletion rates in bright red giants belonging to eleven Galactic globular clusters spanning the full metallicity range of halo globular clusters. Targets were selected with similar evolutionary states, were observed with one instrument on

  14. Chlorine Abundances in Cool Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Maas, Z G; Hinkle, K

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine abundances are reported in 15 evolved giants and one M dwarf in the solar neighborhood. The Cl abundance was measured using the vibration-rotation 1-0 P8 line of H$^{35}$Cl at 3.69851 $\\mu$m. The high resolution L-band spectra were observed using the Phoenix infrared spectrometer on the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m telescope. The average [$^{35}$Cl/Fe] abundance in stars with --0.72$<$[Fe/H]$<$0.20 is [$^{35}$Cl/Fe]=(--0.10$\\pm$0.15) dex. The mean difference between the [$^{35}$Cl/Fe] ratios measured in our stars and chemical evolution model values is (0.16$\\pm$0.15) dex. The [$^{35}$Cl/Ca] ratio has an offset of $\\sim$0.35 dex above model predictions suggesting chemical evolution models are under producing Cl at the high metallicity range. Abundances of C, N, O, Si, and Ca were also measured in our spectral region and are consistent with F and G dwarfs. The Cl versus O abundances from our sample match Cl abundances measured in planetary nebula and \\ion{H}{2} regions. In one star where both H$^{35}$Cl a...

  15. Abundance analysis of s-process enhanced barium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Upakul; Karinkuzhi, Drisya; Goswami, Aruna; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-08-01

    Detailed chemical composition studies of stars with enhanced abundances of neutron-capture elements can provide observational constraints for neutron-capture nucleosynthesis studies and clues for understanding their contribution to the Galactic chemical enrichment. We present abundance results from high-resolution spectral analyses of a sample of four chemically peculiar stars characterized by s-process enhancement. High-Resolution spectra (R ˜42000) of these objects spanning a wavelength range from 4000 to 6800 Å, are taken from the ELODIE archive. We have estimated the stellar atmospheric parameters, the effective temperature Teff, the surface gravity log g, and metallicity [Fe/H] from local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using model atmospheres. We report estimates of elemental abundances for several neutron-capture elements, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Dy. While HD 49641 and HD 58368 show [Ba/Fe] ≥ 1.16 the other two objects HD 119650 and HD 191010 are found to be mild barium stars with [Ba/Fe] ˜ 0.4. The derived abundances of the elements are interpreted on the basis of existing theories for understanding their origin and evolution.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances in Galactic open clusters (Marsakov+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsakov, V. A.; Gozha, M. L.; Koval', V. V.; Shpigel', L. V.

    2016-07-01

    Spectroscopic determinations of the relative abundances of alpha-elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti), slow neutron capture elements (Y, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Zr), rapid neutron capture element (Eu), and elements with an odd number of protons (Na, Al) are collected for 90 open clusters of the Galaxy. Metallicities are presented for 346 clusters. In addition catalog contains positions, ages, velocities, elements of Galactic orbits for open clusters. (2 data files).

  17. Investigating Detailed Abundance Patterns in the Hyades Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Drake; Schuler, Simon C.

    2016-01-01

    We have derived the paramters and abundances of up to 17 elements for seven stars within the Hyades open star cluster, through an analysis of high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra obtained via the Harlan J. Smith 2.7 m telescope and the 2dcoude cross-dispersed echelle spectrometer at the McDonald Observatory. Four of the stars are solar-type dwarves while three giants were also analyzed to better calculate an overall metallicity of the entire cluster. In addition, we investigated whether there are differences in various stellar abundance trends across the open cluster. Here we present the results of our abundance analysis and stellar parameter derivations of the seven stars and discuss the implications of stellar abundance patterns across star clusters. We acknowledge support provided by grant NNX12AD19G to S.C.S. from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the Kepler Participating Scientist Program.

  18. Stellar abundances in the solar neighborhood: The Hypatia Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Timmes, F.X.; Young, Patrick A.; Pagano, Michael D. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Turnbull, Margaret C. [Global Science Institute, P.O. Box 252, Antigo, WI 54409 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We compile spectroscopic abundance data from 84 literature sources for 50 elements across 3058 stars in the solar neighborhood, within 150 pc of the Sun, to produce the Hypatia Catalog. We evaluate the variability of the spread in abundance measurements reported for the same star by different surveys. We also explore the likely association of the star within the Galactic disk, the corresponding observation and abundance determination methods for all catalogs in Hypatia, the influence of specific catalogs on the overall abundance trends, and the effect of normalizing all abundances to the same solar scale. The resulting stellar abundance determinations in the Hypatia Catalog are analyzed only for thin-disk stars with observations that are consistent between literature sources. As a result of our large data set, we find that the stars in the solar neighborhood may reveal an asymmetric abundance distribution, such that a [Fe/H]-rich group near the midplane is deficient in Mg, Si, S, Ca, Sc II, Cr II, and Ni as compared to stars farther from the plane. The Hypatia Catalog has a wide number of applications, including exoplanet hosts, thick- and thin-disk stars, and stars with different kinematic properties.

  19. An element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Iidzima, K.

    1983-03-30

    An anode of a light metal is used in the element, along with an electrolyte which consists of an ether solvent and an ionogenic additive in the form of a salt of dithiocarbamic acid. The element has good discharge characteristics.

  20. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  1. Surface abundances of OC supergiants

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, F; Bouret, J -C; Barba, R; Howarth, I

    2016-01-01

    Some O and B stars show unusually strong or weak lines of carbon and/or nitrogen. These objects are classified as OBN or OBC stars. It has recently been shown that nitrogen enrichment and carbon depletion are the most likely explanations for the existence of the ON class. We investigate OC stars (all being supergiants) to check that surface abundances are responsible for the observed anomalous line strengths. We perform a spectroscopic analysis of three OC supergiants using atmosphere models. A fourth star was previously studied by us. Our sample thus comprises all OC stars known to date in the Galaxy. We determine the stellar parameters and He, C, N, and O surface abundances. We show that all stars have effective temperatures and surface gravities fully consistent with morphologically normal O supergiants. However, OC stars show little, if any, nitrogen enrichment and carbon surface abundances consistent with the initial composition. OC supergiants are thus barely chemically evolved, unlike morphologically n...

  2. Solar and Stellar Photospheric Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, Carlos Allende

    2016-01-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  3. Subaru/HDS Abundances in Three Giant Stars in the Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Sadakane, K; Ikuta, C; Aoki, W; Jablonka, P; Tajitsu, A

    2004-01-01

    With the HDS (High Dispersion Spectrograph) on the Subaru telescope, we obtained high resolution optical region spectra of three red giant stars (cos 4, cos 82, and cos 347) in the Ursa Minor dwarf spheriodal galaxy. Chemical abundances in these stars have been analysed for 26 elements including alpha-, iron-peak, and neutron capture elements. All three stars show low abundances of alpha-elements (Mg, Si, and Ca) and two stars (cos 82 and cos 347) show high abundance of Mn compared to Galactic halo stars of similar metallicity. One star (cos 4) has been confirmed to be very metal deficient ([Fe/H]=-2.7) and found to show anomalously low abundances of Mn, Cu, and Ba. In another star cos 82 ([Fe/H]=-1.5), we have found large excess of heavy neutron-capture elements with the general abundance pattern similar to the scaled solar system r-process abundance curve. These observational results are rather puzzling: low abundances of alpha-elements and high abundance of Mn seem to sugggest a significant contribution of...

  4. Beryllium abundances in stars hosting giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, N C; Israelian, G; Mayor, M; Rebolo, R; García-Gíl, A; Pérez de Taoro, M R; Randich, S

    2002-01-01

    We have derived beryllium abundances in a wide sample of stars hosting planets, with spectral types in the range F7V-K0V, aimed at studying in detail the effects of the presence of planets on the structure and evolution of the associated stars. Predictions from current models are compared with the derived abundances and suggestions are provided to explain the observed inconsistencies. We show that while still not clear, the results suggest that theoretical models may have to be revised for stars with Teff<5500K. On the other hand, a comparison between planet host and non-planet host stars shows no clear difference between both populations. Although preliminary, this result favors a ``primordial'' origin for the metallicity ``excess'' observed for the planetary host stars. Under this assumption, i.e. that there would be no differences between stars with and without giant planets, the light element depletion pattern of our sample of stars may also be used to further investigate and constraint Li and Be deple...

  5. Manganese abundances in Galactic bulge red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Barbuy, B; Zoccali, M; Minniti, D; Renzini, A; Ortolani, S; Gomez, A; Trevisan, M; Dutra, N

    2013-01-01

    Manganese is mainly produced in type II SNe during explosive silicon burning, in incomplete Si-burning regions, and depends on several nucleosynthesis environment conditions, such as mass cut beween the matter ejected and falling back onto the remnant, electron and neutron excesses, mixing fallback, and explosion energy. Manganese is also produced in type Ia SNe. The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the iron-peak element Mn in 56 bulge giants, among which 13 are red clump stars. Four bulge fields along the minor axis are inspected. The study of abundances of Mn-over-Fe as a function of metallicity in the Galactic bulge may shed light on its production mechanisms. High-resolution spectra were obtained using the FLAMES+UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The spectra were obtained within a program to observe 800 stars using the GIRAFFE spectrograph, together with the present UVES spectra. We aim at identifying the chemical evolution of manganese, as a function of metallicity, in the Gala...

  6. Coho Abundance - Point Features [ds182

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  7. Coho Abundance - Linear Features [ds183

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  8. Chinook Abundance - Point Features [ds180

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  9. Steelhead Abundance - Linear Features [ds185

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  10. Steelhead Abundance - Point Features [ds184

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. Beginning in 1998, the Pacific States Marine...

  11. Sulfur and zinc abundances of red giant stars

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Yoichi; Harakawa, Hiroki; Sato, Bun'ei

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur and zinc are chemically volatile elements, which play significant roles as depletion-free tracers in studying galactic chemical evolution. However, regarding red giants having evolved off the main sequence, reliable abundance determinations of S and Zn seem to be difficult despite that a few studies have been reported so far. Given this situation, we tried to establish the abundances of these elements for an extensive sample of 239 field GK giants (-0.8 < [Fe/H] < +0.2), by applying the spectrum-fitting technique to S I 8694-5, S I 6757, and Zn I 6362 lines and by taking into account the non-LTE effect. Besides, similar abundance analysis was done for 160 FGK dwarfs to be used for comparison. The non-LTE corrections for the S and Zn abundances derived from these lines turned out < 0.1(-0.2) dex for most cases and not very significant. It revealed that the S I 6757 feature is more reliable as an abundance indicator than S I 8694-5 for the case of red giants, because the latter suffers blending ...

  12. Enhanced Abundances in Spiral Galaxies of the Pegasus I Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Paul; Blanc, Guillermo A

    2011-01-01

    We study the influence of cluster environment on the chemical evolution of spiral galaxies in the Pegasus I cluster. We determine the gas-phase heavy element abundances of six galaxies in Pegasus derived from H II region spectra obtained from integral-field spectroscopy. These abundances are analyzed in the context of Virgo, whose spirals are known to show increasing interstellar metallicity as a function of H I deficiency. The galaxies in the Pegasus cluster, despite its lower density and velocity dispersion, also display gas loss due to ISM-ICM interaction, albeit to a lesser degree. Based on the abundances of 3 H I deficient spirals and 2 H I normal spirals, we observe a heavy element abundance offset of +0.13\\pm0.07 dex for the H I deficient galaxies. This abundance differential is consistent with the differential observed in Virgo for galaxies with a similar H I deficiency, and we observe a correlation between log(O/H) and the H I deficiency parameter DEF for the two clusters analyzed together. Our resul...

  13. Beryllium abundances in stars with planets:Extending the sample

    CERN Document Server

    Gálvez-Ortiz, M C; Hernández, J I González; Israelian, G; Santos, N C; Rebolo, R; Ecuvillon, A

    2011-01-01

    Context: Chemical abundances of light elements as beryllium in planet-host stars allow us to study the planet formation scenarios and/or investigate possible surface pollution processes. Aims: We present here an extension of previous beryllium abundance studies. The complete sample consists of 70 stars hosting planets and 30 stars without known planetary companions. The aim of this paper is to further assess the trends found in previous studies with less number of objects. This will provide more information on the processes of depletion and mixing of light elements in the interior of late type stars, and will provide possible explanations for the abundance differences between stars that host planets and "single" stars. Methods: Using high resolution UVES spectra, we measure beryllium abundances of 26 stars that host planets and 1 "single" star mainly using the \\lambda 3131.065 A Be II line, by fitting synthetic spectra to the observational data. We also compile beryllium abundance measurements of 44 stars hos...

  14. Abundance estimation and Conservation Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichols, J. D.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001. The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959 and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965 open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992, and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993. However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001. The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004 is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004 emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004 also suggest that

  15. Transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that neutron irradiation of uranium, beginning in 1934, led to the reported discovery of such transuranium elements as eka-rhenium. After a few years of investigation these were correctly identified, in December 1938, as fission products. The first real transuranium elements, with atomic numbers 93 and 94 (neptumiun and plutionium), were discovered in 1940-1941. Plutomiun-239 was shown to be fission-able with slow neutrons, and chemical methods for its separation in quantity were developed. Not until it was recognized that transuranium elements should be part of a 14-member actinide series could elements 95 and 96 (americium and curium) be chemically identified after their nuclear synthesis. This new view was the key to the synthesis and identified after their nuclear synthesis. This new view was the key to the synthesis and identification of the next seven transuranium elements, resulting in the completion of the actinide series at element 103 in 1961. The transactinide elements could, according to the actinide concept, also be correctly placed in the periodic table, and the chemical properties of the first transactinide elements, elements 104 and 105 (rutherfordium and hafnium), confirm this point of view. Transuranium elements through number 109 are now known

  16. Statistical analysis from recent abundance determinations in HgMn stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaryan, S.; Alecian, G.

    2016-08-01

    To better understand the hot chemically peculiar group of HgMn stars, we have considered a compilation of a large number of recently published data obtained for these stars from spectroscopy. We compare these data to the previous compilation by Smith. We confirm the main trends of the abundance peculiarities, namely the increasing overabundances with increasing atomic number of heavy elements, and their large spread from star to star. For all the measured elements, we have looked for correlations between abundances and effective temperature (Teff). In addition to the known correlation for Mn, some other elements are found to show some connection between their abundances and Teff. We have also checked if multiplicity is a determinant parameter for abundance peculiarities determined for these stars. A statistical analysis using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows that the abundances anomalies in the atmosphere of HgMn stars do not present significant dependence on the multiplicity.

  17. Ruthenium and hafnium abundances in giant and dwarf barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, D M

    2007-01-01

    We present abundances for Ru and Hf, compare them to abundances of other heavy elements, and discuss the problems found in determining Ru and Hf abundances with laboratory gf-values in the spectra of barium stars. We determined Ru and Hf abundances in a sample of giant and dwarf barium stars, by the spectral synthesis of two RuI (4080.574A and 4757.856A) and two HfII (4080.437A and 4093.155A) transitions. The stellar spectra were observed with FEROS/ESO, and the stellar atmospheric parameters lie in the range 4300 < Teff/K < 6500, -1.2 < [Fe/H] <= 0 and 1.4 <= log g < 4.6. The HfII 4080A and the RuI 4758A observed transitions result in a unreasonably high solar abundance, given certain known uncertainties, when fitted with laboratory gf-values. For these two transitions we determined empirical gf-values by fitting the observed line profiles of the spectra of the Sun and Arcturus. For the sample stars, this procedure resulted in a good agreement of Ru and Hf abundances given by the two availa...

  18. The Solar Flare Sulphur Abundance from RESIK Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Sylwester, J; Phillips, K J H; Kuznetsov, V D

    2012-01-01

    The RESIK instrument on {\\em CORONAS-F} spacecraft observed several sulphur X-ray lines in three of its four channels covering the wavelength range 3.8-6.1 \\AA\\ during solar flares. The fluxes are analyzed to give the sulphur abundance. Data are chosen for when the instrument parameters were optimized. The measured fluxes of the \\ion{S}{15} $1s^2-1s4p$ ($w4$) line at 4.089 \\AA\\ gives $A({\\rm S}) = 7.16 \\pm 0.17$ (abundances on a logarithmic scale with $A({\\rm H}) = 12$) which we consider to be the most reliable. Estimates from other lines range from 7.13 to 7.24. The preferred S abundance estimate is very close to recent photospheric abundance estimates and to quiet-Sun solar wind and meteoritic abundances. This implies no fractionation of sulphur by processes tending to enhance the coronal abundance from the photospheric that depend on the first ionization potential (FIP), or that sulphur, though its FIP has an intermediate value of 10.36 eV, acts like a "high-FIP" element.

  19. R-Process Abundances and Chronometers in Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, J J; Kratz, K L; Thielemann, F K; Sneden, C; Burles, S M; Tytler, D; Beers, T C; Cowan, John J.; Sneden, Christopher; Burles, Scott; Tytler, David; Beers, Timothy C.

    1998-01-01

    Rapid neutron-capture (i.e., r-process) nucleosynthesis calculations, employing internally consistent and physically realistic nuclear physics input (QRPA beta-decay rates and the ETFSI-Q nuclear mass model), have been made. These calculations are compared with ground-based and HST observations of neutron-capture elements in the metal poor halo stars CS 22892--052, HD 115444, HD 122563 and HD 126238. The elemental abundances in all four metal-poor stars are consistent with the solar r-process elemental distribution for the elements Z >/= 56. These results strongly suggest, at least for those elements, that the relative elemental r-process abundances have not changed over the history of the Galaxy. This further suggests that there is one r-process site in the Galaxy, at least for elements Z >/= 56. Employing the observed stellar abundances of stable elements, in conjunction with the solar r-process abundances to constrain the calculations, predictions for the zero decay-age abundances of the radioactive elemen...

  20. Oxygen Gas Phase Abundance Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    André, M K; Howk, J C; Ferlet, R; Désert, J M; Hébrard, G; Lacour, S; Lecavelier-des-Etangs, A; Vidal-Madjar, A; Moos, H W

    2003-01-01

    We present new measurements of the interstellar gas-phase oxygen abundance along the sight lines towards 19 early-type galactic stars at an average distance of 2.6 kpc. We derive O {\\small I} column densities from {\\it HST}/STIS observations of the weak 1355 \\AA intersystem transition. We derive total hydrogen column densities [N(H {\\small I})+2N(H$_2$)] using {\\it HST}/STIS observations of \\lya and {\\it FUSE} observations of molecular hydrogen. The molecular hydrogen content of these sight lines ranges from f(H$_2$) = 2N(H$_2$)/[N(H {\\small I})+2N(H$_2$)] = 0.03 to 0.47. The average $$ of 6.3$\\times10^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$ mag$^{-1}$ with a standard deviation of 15% is consistent with previous surveys. The mean oxygen abundance along these sight lines, which probe a wide range of galactic environments in the distant ISM, is 10$^6$ \\oh = $408 \\pm 13$ (1 $\\sigma$ in the mean). %$({\\rm O/H})_{gas} = 408 \\pm 14$(1 $\\sigma$). We see no evidence for decreasing gas-phase oxygen abundance with increasing molecular hydroge...

  1. The Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL): Abundance Analysis of the CP Star HR 465

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Nielsen, Krister E.; Kober, Gladys V.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a spectrum analysis of the prototypical A-type magnetic CP star HR465. Synthetic spectra, using an non-LTE atmosphere model, were generated to fit high-resolution ultraviolet spectra (1200-3100 A) obtained as a part of the "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Hot Stars" program (GO-13346: Ayres PI). The ultraviolet data were supplemented by high resolution optical data recorded at the Nordic Optical Telescope with the SOFIN spectrograph. The optical data was used as a complement to the high line density ultraviolet spectrum and primarily used to derive accurate iron-group element abundances.HR 465 has previously been analyzed using IUE spectra. We revisit the object with this high quality data. Large parts of the spectrum have been synthesized with an ATLAS model (Teff=10750K, logg=4.0) and we present abundance results for more than 50 elements. We can confirm some of the abundance characteristics previously derived from IUE data, where elements heavier than Z=30 show significant abundance enhancements compared to solar values, while some of the lighter elements show abundance deficiencies. We will place these results in context of other AP stars, and the large number of element abundances will also help us to put some constraint on stellar abundance and evolution theories.

  2. The age of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to nuclear cosmochronology. The age of the Universe is estimated with the aid of radioactive nuclear-nuclear chronometers (NC). For calculations it is required that the proportion in which the appropriate pair of NC is at present ('relative abundance') and the proportion for the moment of their formation ('relative production') should be known. A short description is given of production of elements in the process of star evolution. The 'relative production' is calculated theoretically. The relative abundance is determined from experiments, mainly from meteorites. Recentl Lunar rocks have been also coming into use. The following elements are chosen as pairs of chronometers: Th-232/U-238; U-235/U-238; Pu-244/Th-232; J-129/J-127. Using this method the authors have determined the age of elements from 7 to 15 billion years, the best estimate being approximately 10 billion years. This age is quite in an agreement with calculations made by other methods

  3. A search for stars of very low metal abundance. VI. Detailed abundances of 313 metal-poor stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Burley, Gregory S.; Kelson, Daniel D. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Sneden, Christopher, E-mail: iur@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We present radial velocities, equivalent widths, model atmosphere parameters, and abundances or upper limits for 53 species of 48 elements derived from high resolution optical spectroscopy of 313 metal-poor stars. A majority of these stars were selected from the metal-poor candidates of the HK Survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We derive detailed abundances for 61% of these stars for the first time. Spectra were obtained during a 10 yr observing campaign using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, the Robert G. Tull Coudé Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, and the High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We perform a standard LTE abundance analysis using MARCS model atmospheres, and we apply line-by-line statistical corrections to minimize systematic abundance differences arising when different sets of lines are available for analysis. We identify several abundance correlations with effective temperature. A comparison with previous abundance analyses reveals significant differences in stellar parameters, which we investigate in detail. Our metallicities are, on average, lower by ≈0.25 dex for red giants and ≈0.04 dex for subgiants. Our sample contains 19 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.5, 84 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.0, and 210 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5. Detailed abundances are presented here or elsewhere for 91% of the 209 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5 as estimated from medium resolution spectroscopy by Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We will discuss the interpretation of these abundances in subsequent papers.

  4. The sensitivity of Lick indices to abundance variations

    CERN Document Server

    Korn, A J; Thomas, D

    2005-01-01

    We present results of model atmosphere/line formation calculations which quantitatively test how the 21 classical and four higher-order Balmer-line Lick/IDS indices (Worthey et al. 1994; Worthey & Ottaviani 1997) depend on individual elemental abundances (of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, magnesium, iron, calcium, natrium, silicon, chromium, titanium) and overall metallicity in various stellar evolutionary stages and at various metallicities. At low metallicities the effects of an overall enhancement of alpha-elements are also investigated. The general results obtained by Tripicco & Bell (1995) at solar metallicity are confirmed, while details do differ. Tables are given detailing to which element every index reacts significantly, as a function of evolutionary stage and composition. This work validates a number of assumptions implicitly made in the stellar population models of Thomas, Maraston & Bender (2003), which utilized the results of Tripicco & Bell (1995) to include the effects of element ab...

  5. Sulfur and zinc abundances of red giant stars†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki; Sato, Bun'ei

    2016-10-01

    Sulfur and zinc are chemically volatile elements, which play significant roles as depletion-free tracers in studying galactic chemical evolution. However, regarding red giants having evolved off the main sequence, reliable abundance determinations of S and Zn seem to be difficult, despite the several studies that have been reported so far. Given this situation, we tried to establish the abundances of these elements for an extensive sample of 239 field GK giants ( - 0.8 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ +0.2), by applying the spectrum-fitting technique to S I 8694-5, S I 6757, and Zn I 6362 lines and by taking into account the non-LTE effect. Besides, similar abundance analysis was done for 160 FGK dwarfs to be used for comparison. The non-LTE corrections for the S and Zn abundances derived from these lines turned out to be ≲ 0.1(-0.2) dex for most cases and not very significant. It revealed that the S I 6757 feature is more reliable as an abundance indicator than S I 8694-5 for the case of red giants, because the latter suffers blending of unidentified lines. The finally resulting [S/Fe]-[Fe/H] and [Zn/Fe]-[Fe/H] relations for GK giants were confirmed to be in good agreement with those for FGK dwarfs, indicating that S and Zn abundances of red giants are reliably determinable from the S I 6757 and Zn I 6362 lines. Accordingly, not only main-sequence stars but also evolved red giant stars are usable for tracing the chemical evolution history of S and Zn in the regime of disk metallicity by using these lines.

  6. Lambda Boo Abundance Patterns: Accretion from Orbiting Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Jura, M

    2015-01-01

    The abundance anomalies in lambda Boo stars are popularly explained by element-specific mass inflows at rates that are much greater than empirically-inferred bounds for interstellar accretion. Therefore, a lambda Boo star's thin outer envelope must derive from a companion star, planet, analogs to Kuiper Belt Objects or a circumstellar disk. Because radiation pressure on gas-phase ions might selectively allow the accretion of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen and inhibit the inflow of elements such as iron, the source of the acquired matter need not contain dust. We propose that at least some lambda Boo stars accrete from the winds of hot Jupiters.

  7. Germanium, Arsenic, and Selenium Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U

    2012-01-01

    The elements germanium (Ge, Z=32), arsenic (As, Z=33), and selenium (Se, Z=34) span the transition from charged-particle or explosive synthesis of the iron-group elements to neutron-capture synthesis of heavier elements. Among these three elements, only the chemical evolution of germanium has been studied previously. Here we use archive observations made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope and observations from several ground-based facilities to study the chemical enrichment histories of seven stars with metallicities -2.6 < [Fe/H] < -0.4. We perform a standard abundance analysis of germanium, arsenic, selenium, and several other elements produced by neutron-capture reactions. When combined with previous derivations of germanium abundances in metal-poor stars, our sample reveals an increase in the [Ge/Fe] ratios at higher metallicities. This could mark the onset of the weak s-process contribution to germanium. In contrast, the [As/Fe] and [Se/Fe] ratios rema...

  8. Zirconium, Barium, Lanthanum and Europium Abundances in Open Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, H R; 10.1088/0004-6256/145/4/107

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the s-process elements Zr, Ba, and La and the r-process element Eu in a sample of 50 stars in 19 open clusters. Stellar abundances of each element are based on measures of a minimum of two lines per species via both equivalent width and spectrum synthesis techniques. We investigate cluster mean neutron-capture abundance trends as a function of cluster age and location in the Milky Way disk and compare them to results found in other studies in the literature. We find a statistically significant trend of increasing cluster [Ba/Fe] as a function of decreasing cluster age, in agreement with recent findings for other open cluster samples, supporting the increased importance of low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars to the generation of s-process elements. However, the other s-process elements, [La/Fe] and [Zr/Fe], do not show similar dependences, in contrast to theoretical expectations and the limited observational data from other studies. Conversely, cluster [Eu/Fe] ratios show a slight ...

  9. Chemical Abundance Analysis of Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1)

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connell, Julia E; Frinchaboy, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    We present elemental abundances for all seven stars in Moving Group W11450 (Latham 1) to determine if they may be chemically related. These stars appear to be both spatially and kinematically related, but no spectroscopic abundance analysis exists in literature. Abundances for eight elements were derived via equivalent width analyses of high resolution (R $\\sim$60,000), high signal-to-noise ratio ($\\langle$SNR$\\rangle\\sim$100) spectra obtained with the Otto Struve 2.1m telescope and Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. The large star-to-star scatter in metallicity, -0.55 $\\leq$ [Fe/H] $\\leq$ 0.06 dex ($\\sigma$= 0.25), implies these stars were not produced from the same chemically homogeneous molecular cloud, and are therefore not part of a remnant or open cluster as previously proposed. Prior to this analysis, it was suggested that two stars in the group, W11449 & W11450, are possible wide binaries. The candidate wide binary pair show similar chemical abundance patterns with not only ir...

  10. Lead abundance in the uranium star CS 31082-001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plez, B.; Hill, V.; Cayrel, R.;

    2004-01-01

    stars:abundances- physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances- atomic data......stars:abundances- physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances- atomic data...

  11. Halo abundances within the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, D.; Eardley, E.; Peacock, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the dependence of the mass function of dark-matter haloes on their environment within the cosmic web of large-scale structure. A dependence of the halo mass function on large-scale mean density is a standard element of cosmological theory, allowing mass-dependent biasing to be understood via the peak-background split. On the assumption of a Gaussian density field, this analysis can be extended to ask how the mass function depends on the geometrical environment: clusters, filaments, sheets and voids, as classified via the tidal tensor (the Hessian matrix of the gravitational potential). In linear theory, the problem can be solved exactly, and the result is attractively simple: the conditional mass function has no explicit dependence on the local tidal field, and is a function only of the local density on the filtering scale used to define the tidal tensor. There is nevertheless a strong implicit predicted dependence on geometrical environment, because the local density couples statistically to the derivatives of the potential. We compute the predictions of this model and study the limits of their validity by comparing them to results deduced empirically from N-body simulations. We have verified that, to a good approximation, the abundance of haloes in different environments depends only on their densities, and not on their tidal structure. In this sense we find relative differences between halo abundances in different environments with the same density which are smaller than ˜13 per cent. Furthermore, for sufficiently large filtering scales, the agreement with the theoretical prediction is good, although there are important deviations from the Gaussian prediction at small, non-linear scales. We discuss how to obtain improved predictions in this regime, using the `effective-universe' approach.

  12. Abundance analysis of s-process enhanced barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mahanta, Upakul; Goswami, Aruna; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Detailed chemical composition studies of stars with enhanced abundances of neutron-capture elements can provide observational constraints for neutron-capture nucleosynthesis studies and clues for understanding their contribution to the Galactic chemical enrichment. We present abundance results from high-resolution spectral analyses of a sample of four chemically peculiar stars characterized by s-process enhancement. High-Resolution spectra (R ~ 42000) of these objects spanning a wavelength range from 4000 to 6800 A, are taken from the ELODIE archive. We have estimated the stellar atmospheric parameters, the effective temperature T_eff, the surface gravity log g, and metallicity [Fe/H] from local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis using model atmospheres. We report estimates of elemental abundances for several neutron-capture elements, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Dy. While HD 49641 and HD 58368 show [Ba/Fe] > 1.16 the other two objects HD 119650 and HD 191010 are found to be mild barium stars wit...

  13. Surface abundances of ON stars

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, F; Palacios, A; Howarth, I; Georgy, C; Walborn, N R; Bouret, J -C; Barba, R

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars burn hydrogen through the CNO cycle during most of their evolution. When mixing is efficient, or when mass transfer in binary systems happens, chemically processed material is observed at the surface of O and B stars. ON stars show stronger lines of nitrogen than morphologically normal counterparts. Whether this corresponds to the presence of material processed through the CNO cycle or not is not known. Our goal is to answer this question. We perform a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of ON stars with atmosphere models. We determine the fundamental parameters as well as the He, C, N, and O surface abundances. We also measure the projected rotational velocities. We compare the properties of the ON stars to those of normal O stars. We show that ON stars are usually helium-rich. Their CNO surface abundances are fully consistent with predictions of nucleosynthesis. ON stars are more chemically evolved and rotate - on average - faster than normal O stars. Evolutionary models including rotation cann...

  14. Stellar chemical abundances: in pursuit of the highest achievable precision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedell, Megan; Bean, Jacob L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Meléndez, Jorge; Leite, Paulo [Departamento de Astronomia do IAG/USP, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Ramírez, Ivan [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1206 (United States); Asplund, Martin, E-mail: mbedell@oddjob.uchicago.edu [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-11-01

    The achievable level of precision on photospheric abundances of stars is a major limiting factor on investigations of exoplanet host star characteristics, the chemical histories of star clusters, and the evolution of the Milky Way and other galaxies. While model-induced errors can be minimized through the differential analysis of spectrally similar stars, the maximum achievable precision of this technique has been debated. As a test, we derive differential abundances of 19 elements from high-quality asteroid-reflected solar spectra taken using a variety of instruments and conditions. We treat the solar spectra as being from unknown stars and use the resulting differential abundances, which are expected to be zero, as a diagnostic of the error in our measurements. Our results indicate that the relative resolution of the target and reference spectra is a major consideration, with use of different instruments to obtain the two spectra leading to errors up to 0.04 dex. Use of the same instrument at different epochs for the two spectra has a much smaller effect (∼0.007 dex). The asteroid used to obtain the solar standard also has a negligible effect (∼0.006 dex). Assuming that systematic errors from the stellar model atmospheres have been minimized, as in the case of solar twins, we confirm that differential chemical abundances can be obtained at sub-0.01 dex precision with due care in the observations, data reduction, and abundance analysis.

  15. Chemical abundances for A-and F-type supergiant stars

    CERN Document Server

    Molina, R E

    2016-01-01

    We present the stellar parameters and elemental abundances of a set of A--F-type supergiant stars HD\\,45674, HD\\,180028, HD\\,194951 and HD\\,224893 using high resolution ($R$\\,$\\sim$\\,42,000) spectra taken from ELODIE library. We present the first results of the abundance analysis for HD\\,45674 and HD\\,224893. We reaffirm the abundances for HD\\,180028 and HD\\,194951 studied previously by Luck (2014) respectively. Alpha-elements indicates that objects belong to the thin disc population. From their abundances and its location on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram seems point out that HD\\,45675, HD\\,194951 and HD\\,224893 are in the post-first dredge-up (post-1DUP) phase and they are moving in the red-blue loop region. HD~180028, on the contary, shows typical abundances of the population I but its evolutionary status could not be satisfactorily defined.

  16. Chemical abundances for A-and F-type supergiant stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, R. E.; Rivera, H.

    2016-04-01

    We present the stellar parameters and elemental abundances of a set of A-F-type supergiant stars HD 45674, HD 180028, HD 194951 and HD 224893 using high resolution (R≈ 42,000) spectra taken from ELODIE library. We present the first results of the abundance analysis for HD 45674 and HD 224893. We reaffirm the abundances for HD 180028 and HD 194951 studied previously by Luck. Alpha-elements indicate that the objects belong to the thin disc population. Their abundances and their location on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram seem to indicate that HD 45675, HD 194951 and HD 224893 are in the post-first dredge-up (post-1DUP) phase, and that they are moving in the red-blue loop region. HD 180028, on the contary, shows typical abundances of Population I, but its evolutionary status cannot be satisfactorily defined.

  17. Abundances in the atmosphere of the metal-rich planet-host star HD 77338

    CERN Document Server

    Kushniruk, I O; Jenkins, J S; Jones, H R A

    2015-01-01

    Abundances of Fe, Si, Ni, Ti, Na, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr and Ca in the atmosphere of the K-dwarf HD 77338 are determined and discussed. HD 77338 hosts a hot Uranus-like planet and is currently the most metal-rich single star to host any planet. Determination of abundances was carried out in the framework of a self-consistent approach developed by Pavlenko et al. (2012). Abundances were computed iteratively by the program ABEL8, and the process converged after 4 iterations. We find that most elements follow the iron abundance, however some of the iron peak elements are found to be over-abundant in this star.

  18. PELTIER ELEMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Tani, Laurits

    2015-01-01

    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  19. Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2010-01-01

    Context. In recent years mid-and far infrared spectra of planetary nebulae have been analysed and lead to more accurate abundances. It may be expected that these better abundances lead to a better understanding of the evolution of these objects. Aims. The observed abundances in planetary nebulae are

  20. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic elements are disclosed having first and second silver halide emulsion layers comprised of a dispersing medium and radiation-sensitive silver halide grains, and a support interposed between said silver halide emulsion layers capable of transmitting radiation to which said second silver halide emulsion layer is responsive. These elements are characterized in that at least said first silver halide emulsion layer contains tabular silver halide grains and spectral sensitizing dye adsorbed to the surface of the grains. Crossover can be improved in relation to the imaging characteristics. (author)

  1. Solar abundances with the SPICE spectral imager on Solar Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, Alessandra; Haberreiter, Margit; Peter, Hardi; Vial, Jean-Claude; Harrison, Richard; Parenti, Susanna; Innes, Davina; Schmutz, Werner; Buchlin, Eric; Chamberlin, Phillip; Thompson, William; Bocchialini, Karine; Gabriel, Alan; Morris, Nigel; Caldwell, Martin; Auchere, Frederic; Curdt, Werner; Teriaca, Luca; Hassler, Donald M.; DeForest, Craig; Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats; Philippon, Anne; Janvier, Miho; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Griffin, Douglas; Baudin, Frederic; Davila, Joseph; Fludra, Andrzej; Waltham, Nick; Eccleston, Paul; Gottwald, Alexander; Klein, Roman; Hanley, John; Walls, Buddy; Howe, Chris; Schuehle, Udo; Gyo, Manfred; Pfiffner, Dany

    2016-07-01

    Elemental composition of the solar atmosphere and in particular abundance bias of low and high First Ionization Potential (FIP) elements are a key tracer of the source regions of the solar wind. These abundances and their spatio-temporal variations, as well as the other plasma parameters , will be derived by the SPICE (Spectral Imaging of the Coronal Environment) EUV spectral imager on the upcoming Solar Orbiter mission. SPICE is designed to provide spectroheliograms (spectral images) using a core set of emission lines arising from ions of both low-FIP and high-FIP elements. These lines are formed over a wide range of temperatures, enabling the analysis of the different layers of the solar atmosphere. SPICE will use these spectroheliograms to produce dynamic composition maps of the solar atmosphere to be compared to in-situ measurements of the solar wind composition of the same elements (i.e. O, Ne, Mg, Fe). This will provide a tool to study the connectivity between the spacecraft (the Heliosphere) and the Sun. We will discuss the SPICE capabilities for such composition measurements.

  2. Abundance Profiles in Low-Mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kobulnicky, H A

    1997-01-01

    The nitrogen and oxygen abundances in the warm ionized gas of low-mass, metal-poor galaxies appear surprisingly homogeneous considering the prevalence of large HII regions, which contain hundreds of massive stars. Of the six galaxies with extensive optical spectroscopy, only the largest and most metal-rich, the LMC, shows evidence for a chemical gradient akin to those commonly seen in spirals. Furthermore, no significant localized chemical fluctuations are found in the vicinity of young star clusters, despite large expected chemical yields of massive stars. An ad-hoc fine-tuning of the release, dispersal and mixing rates could give rise to the observed homogeneity, but a more probable explanation is that fresh ejecta reside in a hard-to-observe hot or cold phase. In any case, the observations indicate that heavy elements which have already mixed with the warm interstellar medium are homogeneously dispersed. Mixing of fresh ejecta with the surrounding warm ISM apparently requires longer than the lifetimes of t...

  3. NLTE strontium abundance in a sample of extremely metal poor stars and the Sr/Ba ratio in the early Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Andrievsky, S M; Korotin, S A; Francois, P; Spite, M; Bonifacio, P; Cayrel, R; Hill, V

    2011-01-01

    Heavy element abundances in extremely metal-poor stars provide strong constraints on the processes of forming these elements in the first stars. We attempt to determine precise abundances of strontium in a homogeneous sample of extremely metal-poor stars. The abundances of strontium in 54 very or extremely metal-poor stars, was redetermined by abandoning the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) hypothesis, and fitting non-LTE (NLTE) profiles to the observed spectral lines. The corrected Sr abundances and previously obtained NLTE Ba abundances are compared to the predictions of several hypothetical formation processes for the lighter neutron-capture elements. Our NLTE abundances confirm the previously determined huge scatter of the strontium abundance in low metallicity stars. This scatter is also found (and is even larger) at very low metallicities (i. e. early in the chemical evolution). The Sr abundance in the extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars is compatible with the main r-process involved in other processe...

  4. Chemical Abundances and Dust in Planetary Nebulae in the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Gutenkunst, S; Pottasch, S R; Sloan, G C; Houck, J R

    2008-01-01

    We present mid-infrared Spitzer spectra of eleven planetary nebulae in the Galactic Bulge. We derive argon, neon, sulfur, and oxygen abundances for them using mainly infrared line fluxes combined with some optical line fluxes from the literature. Due to the high extinction toward the Bulge, the infrared spectra allow us to determine abundances for certain elements more accurately that previously possible with optical data alone. Abundances of argon and sulfur (and in most cases neon and oxygen) in planetary nebulae in the Bulge give the abundances of the interstellar medium at the time their progenitor stars formed; thus these abundances give information about the formation and evolution of the Bulge. The abundances of Bulge planetary nebulae tend to be slightly higher than those in the Disk on average, but they do not follow the trend of the Disk planetary nebulae, thus confirming the difference between Bulge and Disk evolution. Additionally, the Bulge planetary nebulae show peculiar dust properties compared...

  5. The Solar Photospheric Oxygen Abundance and the Role of 3D Model Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2008-09-01

    The solar oxygen abundance has undergone a major downward revision in the last decade, reputedly as a result of employing 3D hydrodynamical simulations to model the inhomogeneous structure of the solar photosphere. The very low oxygen abundance advocated by Asplund et al. 2004, A(O)=8.66, together with the downward revision of the abundances of other key elements, has created serious problems for solar models to explain the helioseismic measurements. In an effort to contribute to the dispute of whether the Sun has "solar" or "sub-solar" abundances, we have re-derived its photospheric abundance of oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements, independently of previous analyses. We applied a state-of-the art 3D (CO5BOLD) hydrodynamical simulation of the solar granulation as well as different 1D model atmospheres for the line by line spectroscopic abundance determinations. The analysis is based on both standard disk-center and full-disk spectral atlases; for oxygen we acquired in addition spectra at different heliocentric angles. The derived abundances are the result of equivalent width and/or line profile fitting of the available atomic lines. Our recommended oxygen abundance is A(O)=8.76+- 0.07, 0.1 dex higher than the value of Asplund et al. (2004). Our current estimate of the overall solar metallicity is 0.014< Z<0.016. Questions we discuss include: (i) Is the general downward revision of the solar abundances a 3D effect? (ii) How large are the abundance corrections due to horizontal inhomogeneities? (iii) What is the main reason for the differences between the abundances obtained in our study and those derived by Apslund and coworkers? (iv) How large are the uncertainties in the observed solar spectra? (v) What is the reason why the two forbidden oxygen lines, [OI] lambda 630 nm and [OI] lambda 636.3 nm, give significantly different answers for the solar oxygen abundance?

  6. Helium the disappearing element

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Wheeler M

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. “Who cares?” you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not...

  7. Surface abundances of ON stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, F.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Palacios, A.; Howarth, I.; Georgy, C.; Walborn, N. R.; Bouret, J.-C.; Barbá, R.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Massive stars burn hydrogen through the CNO cycle during most of their evolution. When mixing is efficient or when mass transfer in binary systems occurs, chemically processed material is observed at the surface of O and B stars. Aims: ON stars show stronger lines of nitrogen than morphologically normal counterparts. Whether this corresponds to the presence of material processed through the CNO cycle is not known. Our goal is to answer this question. Methods: We performed a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of ON stars with atmosphere models. We determined the fundamental parameters as well as the He, C, N, and O surface abundances. We also measured the projected rotational velocities. We compared the properties of the ON stars to those of normal O stars. Results: We show that ON stars are usually rich in helium. Their CNO surface abundances are fully consistent with predictions of nucleosynthesis. ON stars are more chemically evolved and rotate - on average - faster than normal O stars. Evolutionary models including rotation cannot account for the extreme enrichment observed among ON main sequence stars. Some ON stars are members of binary systems, but others are single stars as indicated by stable radial velocities. Mass transfer is therefore not a simple explanation for the observed chemical properties. Conclusions: We conclude that ON stars show extreme chemical enrichment at their surface, consistent with nucleosynthesis through the CNO cycle. Its origin is not clear at present. Based on observations obtained 1) at the Anglo-Australian Telescope; 2) at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii; 3) at the ESO/La Silla Observatory under programs 081.D-2008, 083.D-0589, 086.D-0997; 4) the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La

  8. Element spots in HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Korhonen, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    A fraction of late B-type stars, the so-called HgMn stars, exhibit enhanced absorption lines of certain chemical elements, notably Hg and Mn, combined with an underabundance of He. For about a decade now the elements with anomalously high abundances in HgMn stars are known to be distributed inhomogeneously over the stellar surface. Temporal evolution of these elemental spots have been reported in a few HgMn stars, first secular evolution of the mercury spots in alpha And, and recently also a fast evolution of yttrium and strontium spots in HD 11753. The fast evolution of spots in HD 11753 is combined with a slower change in the overall abundance of the affected elements. In this paper I review what is known of elemental spots in HgMn stars and their secular and fast temporal evolution.

  9. Investigation of the Puzzling Abundance Pattern in the Stars of the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongjie; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Many works have found unusual characteristics of elemental abundances in nearby dwarf galaxies. This implies that there is a key factor of galactic evolution that is different from that of the Milky Way (MW). The chemical abundances of the stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Fornax dSph) provide excellent information for setting constraints on the models of the galactic chemical evolution. In this work, adopting the five-component approach, we fit the abundances of the Fornax dSph stars, including $\\alpha$ elements, iron group elements and neutron-capture elements. For most sample stars, the relative contributions from the various processes to the elemental abundances are not usually in the MW proportions. We find that the contributions from massive stars to the primary $\\alpha$ elements and iron group elements increase monotonously with increasing [Fe/H]. This means that the effect of the galactic wind is not strong enough to halt star formation and the contributions from massive stars to $\\alpha$ e...

  10. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  11. Chemical Abundance Analysis of the Extremely Metal-Poor Star HE 1300+0157

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, A; Aoki, W; Honda, S; Bessell, M S; Takada-Hidai, M; Beers, T C; Christlieb, N; Frebel, Anna; Norris, John E.; Aoki, Wako; Honda, Satoshi; Bessell, Michael S.; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed chemical abundance analysis of HE 1300+0157, a subgiant with [Fe/H]=-3.9. From a high-resolution, high-S/N Subaru/HDS spectrum we find the star to be enriched in C ([C/Fe]_1D ~ +1.4) and O ([O/Fe]_1D ~ +1.8). With the exception of these species, HE 1300+0157 exhibits an elemental abundance pattern similar to that found in many other very and extremely metal-poor stars. The Li abundance is lower than the Spite-plateau value, in agreement with expectation for its evolutionary status. Of particular interest, no neutron-capture elements are detected in HE 1300+0157. This type of abundance pattern has been found by recent studies in several other metal-poor giants. We suggest that HE 1300+0157 is an unevolved example of this group of stars, which exhibit high C abundances together with low (or absent) abundances of neutron-capture elements. Several potential enrichment scenarios are presented. The low neutron-capture elements, including Sr, Ba, and Pb, suggests that the carbon excess observed...

  12. Abundances and kinematics for ten anticentre open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Cantat-Gaudin, T; Vallenari, A; Sordo, R; Bragaglia, A; Magrini, L

    2016-01-01

    Open clusters are distributed all across the disk and are convenient tracers of its properties. In particular, outer disk clusters bear a key role for the investigation of the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk. The goal of this study is to derive homogeneous elemental abundances for a sample of ten outer disk OCs, and investigate possible links with disk structures such as the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure. We analyse high-resolution spectra of red giants, obtained from the HIRES@Keck and UVES@VLT archives. We derive elemental abundances and stellar atmosphere parameters by means of the classical equivalent width method. We also performed orbit integrations using proper motions. The Fe abundances we derive trace a shallow negative radial metallicity gradient of slope -0.027+/-0.007 dex.kpc-1 in the outer 12 kpc of the disk. The [alpha/Fe] gradient appears flat, with a slope of 0.006+/-0.007 dex.kpc-1 . The two outermost clusters (Be 29 and Sau 1) appear to follow elliptical orbits. Be 20 also ex...

  13. Rotation and surface abundance peculiarities in A-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Yoichi; Kang, Dong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Kim, Kang-Min

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt of clarifying the connection between the photospheric abundance anomalies and the stellar rotation as well as of exploring the nature of "normal A" stars, the abundances of seven elements (C, O, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Ba) and the projected rotational velocity for 46 A-type field stars were determined by applying the spectrum-fitting method to the high-dispersion spectral data obtained with BOES at BOAO. We found that the peculiarities (underabundances of C, O, and Ca; an overabundance of Ba) seen in slow rotators efficiently decrease with an increase of rotation, which almost disappear at v_e sin i > 100 km s^-1. This further suggests that stars with sufficiently large rotational velocity may retain the original composition at the surface without being altered. Considering the subsolar tendency (by several tenths dex below) exhibited by the elemental abundances of such rapidly-rotating (supposedly normal) A stars, we suspect that the gas metallicity may have decreased since our Sun was born, contra...

  14. Element Distributions In The Crab Nebula

    OpenAIRE

    Satterfield, T. J.; Katz, A. M.; Sibley, A. R.; G. M. MacAlpine; Uomoto, A.

    2012-01-01

    Images of the Crab Nebula have been obtained through custom interference filters which transmit emission from the expanding supernova remnant in HI, HeI, HeII, [CI], [NII], [OI], [SII], and [SIII] emission lines. We present both raw and flux-calibrated data. Arrays of 19,440 photoionization models, with extensive input abundance ranges, were matched pixel by pixel to the calibrated data in order to derive corresponding element abundance or mass-fraction distributions for helium, carbon, nitro...

  15. High-resolution abundance analysis of HD 140283

    CERN Document Server

    Siqueira-Mello, C; Barbuy, B; Spite, M; Spite, F; Korotin, S A

    2015-01-01

    HD 140283 is a reference subgiant that is metal poor and confirmed to be a very old star. The abundances of this type of old star can constrain the nature and nucleosynthesis processes that occurred in its (even older) progenitors. The present study may shed light on nucleosynthesis processes yielding heavy elements early in the Galaxy. A detailed abundance analysis of a high-quality spectrum is carried out, with the intent of providing a reference on stellar lines and abundances of a very old, metal-poor subgiant. We aim to derive abundances from most available and measurable spectral lines. The analysis is carried out using high-resolution (R = 81 000) and high signal-to-noise ratio (800 < S/N/pixel < 3400) spectrum, in the wavelength range 3700 - 10475, obtained with a seven-hour exposure time, using the ESPaDOnS at the CFHT. The calculations in LTE were performed with the OSMARCS 1D atmospheric model and the spectrum synthesis code Turbospectrum, while the analysis in NLTE is based on the MULTI code...

  16. Lead abundance in the uranium star CS 31082-001

    CERN Document Server

    Plez, B; Cayrel, R; Spite, M; Barbuy, B; Beers, T C; Bonifacio, P; Primas, F; Nordström, B

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper we were able to measure the abundance of uranium and thorium in the very-metal poor halo giant BPS CS 31082-001, but only obtained an upper limit for the abundance of lead (Pb). We have got from ESO 17 hours of additional exposure on this star in order to secure a detection of the minimum amount of lead expected to be present in CS 31082-001, the amount arising from the decay of the original content of Th and U in the star. We report here this successful detection. We find an LTE abundance log(Pb/H)+12=-0.55 \\pm 0.15 dex, one dex below the upper limits given by other authors for the similar stars CS 22892-052 and BD +17d3248, also enhanced in r-process elements. From the observed present abundances of Th and U in the star, the expected amount of Pb produced by the decay of 232Th, and 238U alone, over 12-15 Gyr is -0.73\\pm 0.17 dex. The decay of 235U is more difficult to estimate, but is probably slightly below the contribution of 238U, making the contribution of the 3 actinides only slight...

  17. The chemical composition of red giants in 47 Tucanae I: Fundamental parameters and chemical abundance patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Thygesen, A O; Andrievsky, S; Korotin, S; Yong, D; Zaggia, S; Ludwig, H -G; Collet, R; Asplund, M; D'Antona, F; Meléndez, J; D'Ercole, A

    2014-01-01

    Context: The study of chemical abundance patterns in globular clusters is of key importance to constrain the different candidates for intra-cluster pollution of light elements. Aims: We aim at deriving accurate abundances for a large range of elements in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) to add new constraints to the pollution scenarios for this particular cluster, expanding the range of previously derived element abundances. Methods: Using tailored 1D LTE atmospheric models together with a combination of equivalent width measurements, LTE, and NLTE synthesis we derive stellar parameters and element abundances from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 13 red giant stars near the tip of the RGB. Results: We derive abundances of a total 27 elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Dy). Departures from LTE were taken into account for Na, Al and Ba. We find a mean [Fe/H] = $-0.78\\pm0.07$ and $[\\alpha/{\\rm Fe}]=0.34\\pm0.03$ in...

  18. Chinese traditional elements in the application of graphic design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹倩倩

    2013-01-01

    Chinese traditional graphic art resources is extremely abundant, this article will from the Chinese tradi-tional culture elements are composed of the Chinese calligraphy, traditional auspicious patterns, national color three aspects, expounds the application of Chinese traditional elements in modern plane design, this paper expounds the application of Chinese traditional elements in modern plane design, research how to dig, change and reform.

  19. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  20. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  1. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE ANALYSIS OF A NEUTRON-CAPTURE ENHANCED RED GIANT IN THE BULGE PLAUT FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); McWilliam, Andrew, E-mail: cijohnson@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: cjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: andy@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present chemical abundances for 27 elements ranging from oxygen to erbium in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] = –1.67) bulge red giant branch star 2MASS 18174532-3353235. The results are based on equivalent width and spectrum synthesis analyses of a high-resolution (R ∼ 30, 000) spectrum obtained with the Magellan-MIKE spectrograph. While the light (Z ∼< 30) element abundance patterns match those of similar metallicity bulge and halo stars, the strongly enhanced heavy element abundances are more similar to 'r-II' halo stars (e.g., CS 22892-052) typically found at [Fe/H] ∼< – 2.5. We find that the heaviest elements (Z ≥ 56) closely follow the scaled-solar r-process abundance pattern. We do not find evidence supporting significant s-process contributions; however, the intermediate mass elements (e.g., Y and Zr) appear to have been produced through a different process than the heaviest elements. The light and heavy element abundance patterns of 2MASS 18174532-3353235 are in good agreement with the more metal-poor r-process enhanced stars CS 22892-052 and BD +17{sup o}3248. 2MASS 18174532-3353235 also shares many chemical characteristics with the similar metallicity but comparatively α-poor Ursa Minor dwarf galaxy giant COS 82. Interestingly, the Mo and Ru abundances of 2MASS 18174532-3353235 are also strongly enhanced and follow a similar trend recently found to be common in moderately metal-poor main-sequence turn-off halo stars.

  2. On the Abundance of Potassium in Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Y; Chen, Y Q; Qiu, H M; Takada-Hidai, M; Takeda, Yoichi; Zhao, Gang; Chen, Yu-Qin; Qiu, Hong-Mei; Takada-Hidai, Masahide

    2001-01-01

    Based on extensive statistical-equilibrium calculations, we performed a non-LTE analysis of the K I 7699 equivalent-width data of metal-deficient stars for the purpose of clarifying the behavior of photospheric potassium abundance in disk/halo stars. While the resulting non-LTE abundance corrections turned out to be considerably large amounting to 0.2-0.7 dex, their effect on the [K/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] relation is not very important, since these corrections do not show any significant metallicity-dependence. Hence, we again confirmed the results of the previous LTE studies that [K/Fe] shows a gradual systematic increase toward a lowered metallicity up to [K/Fe] ~ 0.3-0.5 at [Fe/H] ~ -1 to -2 such like the case of alpha elements. This trend lends support for the theoretical model that K has been synthesized by explosive oxygen burning in high-mass stars.

  3. Lead and uranium group abundances in cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, J. S.; Perelygin, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of Lead and Uranium group abundances in cosmic rays is discussed in understanding their evolution and propagation. The electronic detectors can provide good charge resolution but poor data statistics. The plastic detectors can provide somewhat better statistics but charge resolution deteriorates. The extraterrestrial crystals can provide good statistics but with poor charge resolution. Recent studies of extraterrestrial crystals regarding their calibration to accelerated uranium ion beam and track etch kinetics are discussed. It is hoped that a charge resolution of two charge units can be achieved provided an additional parameter is taken into account. The prospects to study abundances of Lead group, Uranium group and superheavy element in extraterrestrial crystals are discussed, and usefulness of these studies in the light of studies with electronic and plastic detectors is assessed.

  4. Can solid body destruction explain abundance discrepancies in planetary nebulae?

    CERN Document Server

    Henney, William J

    2010-01-01

    In planetary nebulae, abundances of oxygen and other heavy elements derived from optical recombination lines are systematically higher than those derived from collisionally excited lines. We investigate the hypothesis that the destruction of solid bodies may produce pockets of cool, high-metallicity gas that could explain these abundance discrepancies. Under the assumption of maximally efficient radiative ablation, we derive two fundamental constraints that the solid bodies must satisfy in order that their evaporation during the planetary nebula phase should generate a high enough gas phase metallicity. A local constraint implies that the bodies must be larger than tens of meters, while a global constraint implies that the total mass of the solid body reservoir must exceed a few hundredths of a solar mass. This mass greatly exceeds the mass of any population of comets or large debris particles expected to be found orbiting evolved low- to intermediate-mass stars. We therefore conclude that contemporaneous sol...

  5. Iron Abundance Diagnostics in High-Redshift QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Corbin, M R; Freduling, N K W; Corbin, Michael R.; Korista, Kirk T.; Freduling, Nalaka Kodituwakku & Wolfram

    2004-01-01

    The abundance of alpha-process elements such as magnesium and carbon relative to iron measured from the broad emission lines of QSOs can serve as a diagnostic of the star formation and chemical enrichment histories of their host galaxies. We investigate the relationship between Fe/Mg and Fe/C abundance ratios and the resulting Fe II / Mg II 2800A and Fe II / 1900A-blend flux ratios, both of which have been measured in QSOs out to redshifts of approximately six. Using a galactic chemical evolution model based on a starburst in a giant elliptical galaxy, we find that these flux ratios are good tracers of the chemical enrichment of the nuclei. However, the values of these ratios measured in objects at redshifts of approximately six suggest that iron enrichment has occurred more rapidly in these objects than predicted by the assumed elliptical starburst model, under currently favored cosmologies.

  6. Stellar abundances of beryllium and CUBES

    CERN Document Server

    Smiljanic, R

    2014-01-01

    Stellar abundances of beryllium are useful in different areas of astrophysics, including studies of the Galactic chemical evolution, of stellar evolution, and of the formation of globular clusters. Determining Be abundances in stars is, however, a challenging endeavor. The two Be II resonance lines useful for abundance analyses are in the near UV, a region strongly affected by atmospheric extinction. CUBES is a new spectrograph planned for the VLT that will be more sensitive than current instruments in the near UV spectral region. It will allow the observation of fainter stars, expanding the number of targets where Be abundances can be determined. Here, a brief review of stellar abundances of Be is presented together with a discussion of science cases for CUBES. In particular, preliminary simulations of CUBES spectra are presented, highlighting its possible impact in investigations of Be abundances of extremely metal-poor stars and of stars in globular clusters.

  7. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Knouft, Jason H; Anthony, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide va...

  8. Monitoring Butterfly Abundance: Beyond Pollard Walks

    OpenAIRE

    Pellet, Jérôme; Bried, Jason T.; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O.; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly...

  9. Light element evolution resulting from WMAP data

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, D; Matteucci, F; Chiappini, C; Romano, Donatella; Tosi, Monica; Matteucci, Francesca; Chiappini, Cristina

    2003-01-01

    The recent determination of the baryon-to-photon ratio from WMAP data by Spergel et al. (2003) allows one to fix with unprecedented precision the primordial abundances of the light elements D, 3He, 4He and 7Li in the framework of the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis. We adopt these primordial abundances and discuss the implications for Galactic chemical evolution, stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis of the light elements. The model predictions on D, 3He and 4He are in excellent agreement with the available data, while a significant depletion of 7Li in low-metallicity stars is required to reproduce the Spite plateau.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A and F stars abundances in the Hyades (Gebran+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebran, M.; Vick, M.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2010-06-01

    In table 5 and 6, we present the abundances of 15 chemical elements in 16 A and 26 F stars members of the Hyades open cluster. These abundances are relative to hydrogen and to the sun. The abundances derived for procyon are also included. The absolute parameters for the observed stars as the luminosity, effective temperature, mass and fractional age (fraction of time spent on the Main Sequence) are displayed in table 7. Table 8 collects the abundances derived for each transition for each studied element in all A and F stars including Procyon (F5V) which served as control star for the spectral synthesis. In this table, the absolute values are represented (log(X/H)+12) and the wavelengths are in Angstrom. (4 data files).

  11. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic elements are disclosed comprised of first and second silver halide emulsion layers separated by an interposed support capable of transmitting radiation to which the second image portion is responsive. At least the first imaging portion contains a silver halide emulsion in which thin tubular silver halide grains of intermediate aspect ratios (from 5:1 to 8:1) are present. Spectral sensitizing dye is adsorbed to the surface of the tubular grains. Increased photographic speeds can be realized at comparable levels of crossover. (author)

  12. Nitrogen abundances in damped Lyalpha absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, T.; Centurión, M.; Molaro, P.; Péroux, C.; D'Odorico, V.; Vladilo, G.

    Nitrogen is thought to have both primary and secondary origins depending on whether the seed carbon and oxygen are produced by the star itself (primary) or already present in the interstellar medium (secondary) from which star forms. Damped Lyalpha (DLA) and sub-DLA systems with typical metallicities of -3.0≲ Z/Z⊙ ≲ -0.5 are excellent tools to study nitrogen production. We made a search for nitrogen in the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Ultraviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) advanced data products (EUADP) database. In the EUADP database, we find 10 new measurements and 9 upper limits of nitrogen. We further compiled DLA/sub-DLA data from the literature with estimates available of nitrogen and alpha -elements. This yields a total of 98 systems, i.e. the largest nitrogen abundance sample investigated so far. In agreement with previous studies, we indeed find a bimodal [N/alpha ] behaviour: three-quarter systems show a mean value of [N/alpha ] =-0.87 with a scatter of 0.21 dex and one-quarter shows ratios clustered at [N/alpha ] = -1.43 with a lower dispersion of 0.13 dex. The high [N/alpha ] group is consistent with the blue compact dwarves and dwarf irregular galaxies, suggesting primary nitrogen production. The low [N/alpha ] group is the lowest ever observed in any astrophysical site and probably provides an evidence of the primary production by fast rotating massive stars in young sites. Moreover, we find a transition between the two [N/alpha ] groups around [N/H] ≃-2.5. The transition is not abrupt and there are a few systems lying in the transition region. Additional observations of DLAs/sub-DLAs below [N/H] <-2.5 would provide more clues.

  13. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, W. Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Bakker, John D.; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Adler, Peter B.; Collins, Scott L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F.; Stevens, Carly J.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D.; Klein, Julia A.; Fay, Phillip A.; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites - grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community abundance hierarchies, suggesting that suites of introduced species are assembling similarly on different continents. Overall, we found that substantial changes to populations are not necessarily a pre-condition for invasion success and that increases in species abundance are unusual. Instead, abundance at home predicts abundance away, a potentially useful additional criterion for biosecurity programmes.

  14. The Abundance of Circumbinary Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David J.

    2015-12-01

    Circumbinary planets, planets orbiting around binary stars, represent a new angle of information on planet formation theories, showing us how the different processes that form a planet react to the torque of a central host binary. I will present recently published observational constraints on the occurrence rates and orbital element distributions of circumbinary planets. This work utilises the Kepler dataset of ~2000 eclipsing binaries, along with an independently developed tailored search algorithm, to debias the dataset and find the underlying frequency of these planets. We discover that circumbinary planets have a similar occurrence rate to planets around single stars, but only if they are preferentially coplanar with their host binary. If they are more misaligned, they must be significantly more common. This effect is strong enough that following a reductio ad absurdum argument, we confirm the coplanar preference for these planets. Along with these results, we confirm the previously noted tendency for circumbinary planets to not be found around the closest (P(binary) < ~7 days) host binaries. This last result may be a marker of the binary star formation process.

  15. Zinc abundances of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Christina L; Dinerstein, Harriet L

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is a useful surrogate element for measuring Fe/H as, unlike iron, it is not depleted in the gas phase media. Zn/H and O/Zn ratios have been derived using the [Zn IV] emission line at 3.625um for a sample of nine Galactic planetary nebulae, seven of which are based upon new observations using the VLT. Based on photoionization models, O/O++ is the most reliable ionisation correction factor for zinc that can readily be determined from optical emission lines, with an estimated accuracy of 10% or better for all targets in our sample. The majority of the sample is found to be sub-solar in [Zn/H]. [O/Zn] in half of the sample is found to be consistent with Solar within uncertainties, whereas the remaining half are enhanced in [O/Zn]. [Zn/H] and [O/Zn] as functions of Galactocentric distance have been investigated and there is little evidence to support a trend in either case.

  16. Superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, S

    1999-01-01

    The outstanding aim of experimental investigations of heavy nuclei is the exploration of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). On the basis of the nuclear shell model, the next double magic shell-closure beyond sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb is predicted at proton numbers between Z=114 and 126 and at neutron number N=184. All experimental efforts aiming at identifying SHEs (Z>=114) were negative so far. A highly sensitive search experiment was performed in November-December 1995 at SHIP. The isotope sup 2 sup 9 sup 0 116 produced by 'radiative capture' was searched for in the course of a 33 days irradiation of a sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb target with sup 8 sup 2 Se projectiles, however, only cross-section limits were measured. Positive results were obtained in experiments searching for elements from 110 to 112 using cold fusion and the 1n evaporation channel. The produced isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of alpha-alpha correlations. Not fission, but alpha emission is the dominant decay mode. The measurement ...

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chemical abundances of zeta Reticuly (Adibekyan+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibekyan, V.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Figueira, P.; Sousa, S. G.; Santos, N. C.; Faria, J. P.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J. I.; Israelian, G.; Harutyunyan, G.; Suarez-Andres, L.; Hakobyan, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The file table1.dat lists stellar parameters, S/N, and observation dates of zeta1 Ret and zeta2 Ret derived from individual and combined spectra The file ew.dat lists the equivalent widths (EW) of all the spectral lines. The file s_lines.dat lists the lines that were used in this study. The file abund.dat lists the derived abundances of the elements for each star and spectra. (4 data files).

  18. Transition Region Abundance Measurements During Impulsive Heating Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Harry P.; Brooks, David H.; Doschek, George A.; Feldman, Uri

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that elemental abundances vary in the solar atmosphere and that this variation is organized by first ionization potential (FIP). Previous studies have shown that in the solar corona, low-FIP elements such as Fe, Si, Mg, and Ca, are generally enriched relative to high-FIP elements such as C, N, O, Ar, and Ne. In this paper we report on measurements of plasma composition made during impulsive heating events observed at transition region temperatures with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode. During these events the intensities of O iv, v, and vi emission lines are enhanced relative to emission lines from Mg v, vi, and vii and Si vi and vii, and indicate a composition close to that of the photosphere. Long-lived coronal fan structures, in contrast, show an enrichment of low-FIP elements. We conjecture that the plasma composition is an important signature of the coronal heating process, with impulsive heating leading to the evaporation of unfractionated material from the lower layers of the solar atmosphere and higher-frequency heating leading to long-lived structures and the accumulation of low-FIP elements in the corona.

  19. HE1327-2326, an unevolved star with [Fe/H]<-5.0. I. A Comprehensive Abundance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, W; Christlieb, N; Norris, J E; Beers, T C; Minezaki, T; Barklem, P S; Honda, S; Takada-Hidai, M; Asplund, M; Ryan, S G; Tsangarides, S A; Eriksson, K; Steinhauer, A; Deliyannis, C P; Nomoto, K; Fujimoto, M Y; Ando, H; Yoshii, Y; Kajino, T

    2006-01-01

    We present the elemental abundances of HE1327-2326, the most iron-deficient star known, determined from a comprehensive analysis of spectra obtained with the Subaru Telescope High Dispersion Spectrograph.

  20. Thorium Abundances in Solar Twins and Analogues: Implications for the Habitability of Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Unterborn, Cayman T; Panero, Wendy R

    2015-01-01

    We present the first investigation of Th abundances in Solar twins and analogues to understand the possible range of this radioactive element and its effect on rocky planet interior dynamics and potential habitability. The abundances of the radioactive elements Th and U are key components of a planet's energy budget, making up 30% to 50% of the Earth's (Korenaga 2008; All\\`egre et al. 2001; Schubert et al. 1980; Lyubetskaya & Korenaga 2007; The KamLAND Collaboration 2011; Huang et al. 2013). Radiogenic heat drives interior mantle convection and surface plate tectonics, which sustains a deep carbon and water cycle and thereby aides in creating Earth's habitable surface. Unlike other heat sources that are dependent on the planet's specific formation history, the radiogenic heat budget is directly related to the mantle concentration of these nuclides. As a refractory element, the stellar abundance of Th is faithfully reflected in the terrestrial planet's concentration. We find that log eps Th varies from 59%...

  1. The abundances of neon, sulfur, and argon in planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, S. C.; Lacy, J. H.; Townes, C. H.; Aller, L. H.; Geballe, T. R.; Baas, F.

    1981-01-01

    New infrared observations of Ne II, Ar III, and S IV are used in optical observations of other ionization states of the considered elements to evaluate the abundances of neon, argon, and sulfur in 18 planetary nebulae. Attention is also given to one or more of the infrared lines in 18 other nebulae. It is pointed out that S IV was detected in approximately 90% of the observed objects, while Ar III was found in about 80%, and Ne II in roughly one-third. It is noted that optical observations typically include only a limited region of the nebula, while the infrared measurements frequently involve integration over the entire nebular image.

  2. Observational effects of magnetism in O stars: surface nitrogen abundances

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, F.; Escolano, C.; Wade, G. A.; Donati, J.-F.; Bouret, J. -C.; collaboration, the MiMeS

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the surface nitrogen content of the six magnetic O stars known to date as well as of the early B-type star tau Sco. We compare these abundances to predictions of evolutionary models to isolate the effects of magnetic field on the transport of elements in stellar interiors. We conduct a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the sample stars with state-of-the-art atmosphere models. We rely on high signal-to-noise ratio, high resolution optical spectra obtained with ESPADONS at C...

  3. Deuterium/hydrogen natural isotopic abundance in fruit juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable isotopic analyses of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are currently applied for the authentification of naturalness of fruit juices. Deuterium is particularly of interest because of the wide variation of its abundance. Due to evaporation-transpiration the deuterium content of the water in fruit juices is enriched compared to local ground water. In the case of our investigation on apple, another fractionation, originating in technological process, was observed. The concentrated juice water is enriched by 6o/oo as compared to natural fruit juice water. (authors)

  4. Abundance determinations for the F dwarfs members of the Hyades from SOPHIE high resolution spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıçǧlu, T.; Monier, R.; Gebran, M.

    2015-12-01

    The mean chemical composition of open clusters can be derived from the chemical abundance analysis of F-type main-sequence stars, as they have convective layers which homogenize the material in their outer layers and thus keep track of the initial composition of the cluster. We present a preliminary abundance analysis of 5 F-type members of the Hyades open cluster using the high resolution spectra retrieved from SOPHIE archive. Our aim is to derive the elemental abundances of these stars as well as the mean abundance distribution of the cluster. The analysis was carried out by iteratively adjusting LTE synthetic spectra for several chemical elements: C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd. This is the first abundance determination of the Lanthanides in the Hyades F dwarfs. Each element was found to be marginally/slightly overabundant relative to solar, except for Zn, Ga, Y, and Pr which are solar, and for Sr, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, and Gd which are overabundant. The mean iron abundance of the cluster is found to be [Fe/H] = 0.21 dex.

  5. Discovery of secular variations in the atmospheric abundances of magnetic Ap stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J. D.; Landstreet, J. D.; Bagnulo, S.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The stars of the middle main sequence have relatively quiescent outer layers, and unusual chemical abundance patterns may develop in their atmospheres. The presence of chemical peculiarities reveal the action of such subsurface phenomena as gravitational settling and radiatively driven levitation of trace elements, and their competition with mixing processes such as turbulent diffusion. At present, little is known about the time evolution of these anomalous abundances, nor about the role that diffusion may play in maintaining them, during the main sequence lifetime of such a star. Aims: We want to establish whether abundance peculiarities change as stars evolve on the main sequence, and provide observational constraints to diffusion theory. Methods: We have performed spectral analysis of 15 magnetic Bp stars that are members of open clusters (and thus have well-known ages), with masses between about 3 and 4 M⊙. For each star, we measured the abundances of He, O, Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe, Pr and Nd. Results: We have discovered the systematic time evolution of trace elements through the main-sequence lifetime of magnetic chemically peculiar stars as their atmospheres cool and evolve towards lower gravity. During the main sequence lifetime, we observe clear and systematic variations in the atmospheric abundances of He, Ti, Cr, Fe, Pr and Nd. For all these elements, except He, the atmospheric abundances decrease with age. The abundances of Fe-peak elements converge towards solar values, while the rare-earth elements converge towards values at least 100 times more abundant than in the Sun. Helium is always underabundant compared to the Sun, evolving from about 1% up to 10% of the solar He abundance. We have attempted to interpret the observed abundance variations in the context of radiatively driven diffusion theory, which appears to provide a framework to understand some, but not all, of the anomalous abundance levels and variations that we observe. Based in part

  6. Element spots in HgMn stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, H.

    2014-11-01

    A fraction of late B-type stars, the so-called HgMn stars, exhibit enhanced absorption lines of certain chemical elements, notably Hg and Mn, combined with an underabundance of He. For about a decade it has been known that the elements with anomalously high abundances in HgMn stars are distributed inhomogeneously over the stellar surface. Observation of the temporal evolution of those spots has been reported in a few HgMn stars, first of a secular evolution of the mercury spots in α And, and more recently of a fast evolution of yttrium and strontium spots in HD 11753. The fast evolution of spots in HD 11753 is combined with a slower change in the overall abundance of the elements affected. In this paper I review what is known about these ``elemental spots'' in HgMn stars and their secular and fast temporal evolution.

  7. Rubidium and lead abundances in giant stars of the globular clusters M 13 and NGC 6752

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, David; Aoki, Wako; Lambert, David L.; Paulson, Diane B.

    2005-01-01

    We present measurements of the neutron-capture elements Rb and Pb in five giant stars of the globular cluster NGC 6752 and Pb measurements in four giants of the globular cluster M 13. The abundances were derived by comparing synthetic spectra with high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra obtained using HDS on the Subaru telescope and MIKE on the Magellan telescope. The program stars span the range of the O-Al abundance variation. In NGC 6752, the mean abundances are [Rb/Fe] = -0.17...

  8. Abundance determination of A, Am and F stars in the Pleiades and Coma Berenices clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebran, M.; Monier, R.; Richard, O.

    2008-04-01

    Abundances of 18 chemical elements have been derived for 27 A/Am and 16 F stars members of the Pleiades and Coma Berenices open clusters. We have specifically computed, with the Montrèal code, a series of evolutionary models for two A star members of these two clusters. None of the models reproduces entirely the overall shape of the abundance patterns. The inclusion of competing processes such as rotational mixing in the radiative zones of these stars seems necessary to improve the agreement between observed and predicted abundance patterns.

  9. Abundances determination of A, Am and F stars in the Pleiades and Coma Berenices clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Gebran, M; Richard, O

    2008-01-01

    Abundances of 18 chemical elements have been derived for 27 A/Am and 16 F stars members of the Pleiades and Coma Berenices open clusters. We have specifically computed, with the Montr\\'eal code, a series of evolutionary models for two A stars members of these two clusters. None of the models reproduces entirely the overall shape of the abundances patterns. The inclusion of competing processes such as rotational mixing in the radiative zones of these stars seems necessary to improve the agreement between observed and predicted abundances patterns.

  10. Sodium and Oxygen Abundances in the Open Cluster NGC 6791 from APOGEE H-Band Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Bergemann, Maria; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Souto, Diogo; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Frinchaboy, Peter; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Holtzman, Jon; Perez, Ana E. Garcia; Majewski, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    The open cluster NGC 6791 is among the oldest, most massive and metal-rich open clusters in the Galaxy. High-resolution $H$-band spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) of 11 red giants in NGC 6791 are analyzed for their chemical abundances of iron, oxygen, and sodium. The abundances of these three elements are found to be homogeneous (with abundance dispersions at the level of $\\sim$ 0.05 - 0.07 dex) in these cluster red giants, which span much of the...

  11. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouft, Jason H; Anthony, Melissa M

    2016-06-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide variation in population abundance associated with environmental conditions has been investigated in terrestrial species, the relationship between climate and local abundance in freshwater taxa across species' distributions is not well understood. We used GIS-based temperature and precipitation data to determine the relationships between climatic conditions and range-wide variation in local abundance for 19 species of North American freshwater fishes. Climate predicted a portion of the variation in local abundance among populations for 18 species. In addition, the relationship between climatic conditions and local abundance varied among species, which is expected as lineages partition the environment across geographical space. The influence of local habitat quality on species persistence is well documented; however, our results also indicate the importance of climate in regulating population sizes across a species geographical range, even in aquatic taxa. PMID:27429769

  12. Taking species abundance distributions beyond individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morlon, Helene; White, Ethan P.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Green, Jessica L.; Ostling, Annette; Alonso, David; Enquist, Brian J.; He, Fangliang; Hurlbert, Allen; Magurran, Anne E.; Maurer, Brian A.; McGill, Brian J.; Olff, Han; Storch, David; Zillio, Tommaso; Chave, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    The species abundance distribution (SAD) is one of the few universal patterns in ecology. Research on this fundamental distribution has primarily focused on the study of numerical counts, irrespective of the traits of individuals. Here we show that considering a set of Generalized Species Abundance

  13. Metal Abundances in the Hot Interstellar Medium in Early-Type Galaxies Observed with ASCA

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, K; Makishima, K; Matsushita, Kyoko; Ohashi, Takaya; Makishima, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    We have analyzed ASCA data of 27 early-type galaxies, and studied the properties of their X-ray emitting ISM (Inter Stellar Medium) in detail. We found that overlapping lines and free-bound continuum cause strong coupling in the derived abundances of various elements. The abundance determination is also difficult due to the uncertainties in the Fe-L atomic physics, because Fe-L lines couple with O and Ne K-lines. However, when abundances of $\\alpha$-elements are fixed, all the plasma codes give similar Fe abundances with a scattering of only 20-30%. To relax the strong coupling among the elements, we included 20% systematic errors in the Fe-L region of the spectra. Then, in X-ray luminous galaxies, the derived abundance of Fe and $\\alpha$-elements both became $\\sim 1$ solar within a factor of 2. This result relaxes the previous severe discrepancy between the ISM and stellar metallicities. The ISM metallicity in X-ray fainter galaxies is still uncertain, but we can at least constrain that contribution from typ...

  14. HE0107-5240, A Chemically Ancient Star.I. A Detailed Abundance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Christlieb, N; Korn, A J; Barklem, P S; Beers, T C; Bessell, M S; Karlsson, T; Mizuno-Wiedner, M

    2004-01-01

    We report a detailed abundance analysis for HE0107-5240, a halo giant with [Fe/H]_NLTE=-5.3. This star was discovered in the course of follow-up medium-resolution spectroscopy of extremely metal-poor candidates selected from the digitized Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey. On the basis of high-resolution VLT/UVES spectra, we derive abundances for 8 elements (C, N, Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Fe, and Ni), and upper limits for another 12 elements. A plane-parallel LTE model atmosphere has been specifically tailored for the chemical composition of {\\he}. Scenarios for the origin of the abundance pattern observed in the star are discussed. We argue that HE0107-5240 is most likely not a post-AGB star, and that the extremely low abundances of the iron-peak, and other elements, are not due to selective dust depletion. The abundance pattern of HE0107-5240 can be explained by pre-enrichment from a zero-metallicity type-II supernova of 20-25M_Sun, plus either self-enrichment with C and N, or production of these elements in the AG...

  15. Astrophysical Origins for the Unusual Chemical Abundance of the Globular Cluster Palomar 1

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, Ping; Zhang, Bo; Xie, Geying

    2015-01-01

    We study the abundances of {\\alpha} elements, Fe-peak elements, and neutron-capture elements in Pal 1. We found that the abundances of the SNe Ia and main s-process components of Pal 1 are larger than those of the disk stars and the abundances of the primary component of Pal 1 are smaller than those of the disk stars with similar metallicity. The Fe abundances of Pal 1 and the disk stars mainly originate from the SNe Ia and the primary component, respectively. Although the {\\alpha} abundances dominantly produced by the primary process for the disk stars and Pal 1, the contributions of the primary component to Pal 1 are smaller than the corresponding contributions to the disk stars. The Fe-peak elements V and Co mainly originate from the primary and secondary components for the disk stars and Pal 1, but the contributions of the massive stars to Pal 1 are lower than those of the massive stars to the disk stars. The Yabundances mainly originate from the weak r-component for the disk stars. However, the contribut...

  16. Iron-Group Abundances in the Metal-Poor Main Sequence Turnoff Star HD~84937

    CERN Document Server

    Sneden, Christopher; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Pignatari, Marco; Lawler, James E; Hartog, Elizabeth A Den; Wood, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    We have derived new very accurate abundances of the Fe-group elements Sc through Zn (Z = 21-30) in the bright main-sequence turnoff star HD 84937, based on high-resolution spectra covering the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. New or recent laboratory transition data for 14 species of seven elements have been used. Abundances from more than 600 lines of non-Fe species have been combined with about 550 Fe lines in HD 84937 to yield abundance ratios of high precision. The abundances have been determined from both neutral and ionized transitions, which generally are in agreement with each other. We find no substantial departures from standard LTE Saha ionization balance in this [Fe/H] = -2.32 star. Noteworthy among the abundances are: [Co/Fe] = 0.14 and [Cu/Fe] = -0.83, in agreement with past studies abundance trends in this and other low metallicity stars; and = 0.31, which has not been noted previously. A detailed examination of scandium, titanium, and vanadium abundances in large-sample spectroscopic...

  17. Meteoritic component rich in volatile elements: its characterization and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unusual carbon-rich material found in the Abee meteorite is highly enriched in volatile elements, by factors of 104 relative to the case for nonvolatile elements. Volatile-rich material of this type might form in the solar nebula toward the end of accretion, when small amounts of residual dust acquire all the uncondensed volatile elements. The mercury enrichment factor of 8500 could explain the paradox of the excess abundance of this element in meteorites

  18. High-resolution abundance analysis of very metal-poor r-I stars

    CERN Document Server

    Siqueira-Mello, C; Barbuy, B; Spite, M; Spite, F; Beers, T C; Caffau, E; Bonifacio, P; Cayrel, R; François, P; Schatz, H; Wanajo, S

    2014-01-01

    Moderately r-process-enriched stars (r-I) are at least four times as common as those that are greatly enriched in r-process elements (r-II), and the abundances in their atmospheres are important tools for obtaining a better understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the origin of the elements beyond the iron peak. The main aim of this work is to derive abundances for a sample of seven metal-poor stars with classified as r-I stars, to understand the role of these stars for constraining the astrophysical nucleosynthesis event(s) that is(are) responsible for the production of the r-process, and to investigate whether they differ, in any significant way, from the r-II stars. We carried out a detailed abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the VLT/UVES spectrograph. The OSMARCS LTE 1D model atmosphere grid was employed, along with the spectrum synthesis code Turbospectrum. We have derived abundances of light elements Li, C, and N, alpha-elements, odd-Z elements, iron-...

  19. Silicon abundances in population I giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1992-01-01

    Silicon to carbon abundance ratios for population I giants were determined from emission lines originating in the transition layers between stellar chromospheres and coronae. For effective temperatures larger than 6200 K we find a group of stars with increased silicon to carbon but normal nitrogen to carbon abundance ratios. These stars are presumably descendents from Ap stars with increased surface silicon to carbon abundance ratios. For G stars this anomaly disappears as is to be expected due to the increased depth of the convection zone and therefore deeper mixing which dilutes the surface overabundances. The disappearance of the abundance anomalies proves that the anomalous abundances observed for the F giants are indeed only a surface phenomenon. It also proves that the same holds for their progenitors, the Ap and Am stars, as has been generally believed. Unexplained is the increased silicon to carbon abundance ratio observed for several stars cooler than 5100 L. RS CVn and related stars do not show this increased abundance ratio. There are also some giants which appear to be enriched in carbon, perhaps due to a helium flash with some mixing if the star is a clump star.

  20. Stellar Chemical Abundances: In Pursuit of the Highest Achievable Precision

    CERN Document Server

    Bedell, M; Bean, J; Ramirez, I; Leite, P; Asplund, M

    2014-01-01

    The achievable level of precision on photospheric abundances of stars is a major limiting factor on investigations of exoplanet host star characteristics, the chemical histories of star clusters, and the evolution of the Milky Way and other galaxies. While model-induced errors can be minimized through the differential analysis of spectrally similar stars, the maximum achievable precision of this technique has been debated. As a test, we derive differential abundances of 19 elements from high-quality asteroid-reflected solar spectra taken using a variety of instruments and conditions. We treat the solar spectra as being from unknown stars and use the resulting differential abundances, which are expected to be zero, as a diagnostic of the error in our measurements. Our results indicate that the relative resolution of the target and reference spectra is a major consideration, with use of different instruments to obtain the two spectra leading to errors up to 0.04 dex. Use of the same instrument at different epoc...

  1. Chemical abundances of giant stars in the Crater stellar system

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Zaggia, S; François, P; Sbordone, L; Andrievsky, S M; Korotin, S A

    2015-01-01

    We obtained spectra for two giants of Crater (Crater J113613-105227 and Crater J113615-105244) using X-Shooter at the VLT. The spectra have been analysed with the MyGIsFoS code using a grid of synthetic spectra computed from one dimensional, Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) model atmospheres. Effective temperature and surface gravity have been derived from photometry measured from images obtained by the Dark Energy Survey. The radial velocities are 144.3+-4.0 km/s for Crater J113613-105227 and and 134.1+-4.0 km/s for Crater J113615-105244. The metallicities are [Fe/H]=-1.73 and [Fe/H]=-1.67, respectively. Beside the iron abundance we could determine abundances for nine elements: Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni and Ba. For Na and Ba we took into account deviations from LTE, since the corrections are significant. The abundance ratios are similar in the two stars and resemble those of Galactic stars of the same metallicity. On the deep photometric images we could detect several stars that lie to the blue of t...

  2. Abundances of metal-weak thick-disc candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Molaro, P

    1999-01-01

    High resolution spectra of 5 candidate metal-weak thick-disc stars suggested by Beers & Sommer-Larsen (1995) are analyzed to determine their chemical abundances. The low abundance of all the objects has been confirmed with metallicity reaching [Fe/H]=-2.9. However, for three objects, the astrometric data from the Hipparcos catalogue suggests they are true halo members. The remaining two, for which proper-motion data are not available, may have disc-like kinematics. It is therefore clear that it is useful to address properties of putative metal-weak thick-disc stars only if they possess full kinematic data. For CS 22894-19 the abundance pattern similar to those of typical halo stars is found, suggesting that chemical composition is not a useful discriminant between thick-disc and halo stars. CS 29529-12 is found to be C enhanced with [C/Fe]=+1.0; other chemical peculiarities involve the s process elements: [Sr/Fe]=-0.65 and [Ba/Fe]=+0.62, leading to a high [Ba/Sr] considerably larger than what is found in ...

  3. ASPCAP: The APOGEE Stellar Parameter and Chemical Abundances Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Pérez, Ana E.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Holtzman, Jon A.; Shetrone, Matthew; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Carrera, Ricardo; Cunha, Katia; García-Hernández, D. A.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Shane, Neville; Smith, Verne V.; Sobeck, Jennifer; Troup, Nicholas; Zamora, Olga; Weinberg, David H.; Bovy, Jo; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Feuillet, Diane; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Hayden, Michael R.; Hearty, Fred R.; Nguyen, Duy C.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail

    2016-06-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) has built the largest moderately high-resolution (R ≈ 22,500) spectroscopic map of the stars across the Milky Way, and including dust-obscured areas. The APOGEE Stellar Parameter and Chemical Abundances Pipeline (ASPCAP) is the software developed for the automated analysis of these spectra. ASPCAP determines atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances from observed spectra by comparing observed spectra to libraries of theoretical spectra, using χ2 minimization in a multidimensional parameter space. The package consists of a fortran90 code that does the actual minimization and a wrapper IDL code for book-keeping and data handling. This paper explains in detail the ASPCAP components and functionality, and presents results from a number of tests designed to check its performance. ASPCAP provides stellar effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities precise to 2%, 0.1 dex, and 0.05 dex, respectively, for most APOGEE stars, which are predominantly giants. It also provides abundances for up to 15 chemical elements with various levels of precision, typically under 0.1 dex. The final data release (DR12) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III contains an APOGEE database of more than 150,000 stars. ASPCAP development continues in the SDSS-IV APOGEE-2 survey.

  4. Carbon and Oxygen Abundances in Low Metallicity Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Henry, Richard B. C.; Erb, Dawn K.; Carigi, Leticia

    2016-08-01

    The study of carbon and oxygen abundances yields information on the time evolution and nucleosynthetic origins of these elements, yet they remain relatively unexplored. At low metallicities, (12+log(O/H) complemented by optical SDSS spectra, from which we measured the nebular physical conditions and oxygen abundances using the direct method. At low metallicity, (12+log(O/H) < 8.0), no clear trend is evident in C/O versus O/H for the present sample given the large dispersion observed. When combined with recombination line observations at higher values of O/H, a general trend of increasing C/O with increasing O/H is also viable but with some significant outliers. Additionally, we find the C/N ratio appears to be constant (but with significant scatter) over a large range in oxygen abundance, indicating that carbon is predominantly produced by similar nucleosynthetic mechanisms as nitrogen. If true, and our current understanding of nitrogen production is correct, this would indicate that primary production of carbon (a flat trend) dominates at low metallicity, but quasi-secondary production (an increasing trend) becomes prominent at higher metallicities. A larger sample will be needed to determine the true nature and dispersion of the relation.

  5. Binarity and the abundance discrepancy problem in planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Corradi, Romano; Jones, David; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs) is a major unresolved problem in nebular astrophysics. We show here that the largest abundance discrepancies are reached in planetary nebulae with close binary central stars. This is illustrated by deep spectroscopy of three nebulae with a post common-envelope (CE) binary star. Abell 46 and Ou5 have O++/H+ abundance discrepancy factors larger than 50, and as high as 300 in the inner regions of Abell 46. Abell 63 has a smaller discrepancy factor around 10, but still above the typical values in ionized nebulae. Our spectroscopic analysis supports previous conclusions that, in addition to "standard" hot (Te~10000 K) gas, a colder (Te~1000 K) ionized component that is highly enriched in heavy elements also exists. These nebulae have low ionized masses, between 0.001 and 0.1 solar masses depending on the adopted electron densities and temperatures. Since the much more massive red-giant envelo...

  6. Transition Region Abundance Measurements During Impulsive Heating Events

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Harry P; Doschek, George A; Feldman, Uri

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that elemental abundances vary in the solar atmosphere and that this variation is organized by first ionization potential (FIP). Previous studies have shown that in the solar corona low-FIP elements, such as Fe, Si, Mg, and Ca, are generally enriched relative to high-FIP elements, such as C, N, O, Ar, and Ne. In this paper we report on measurements of plasma composition made during impulsive heating events observed at transition region temperatures with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode. During these events the intensities of O IV, V, and VI emission lines are enhanced relative to emission lines from Mg V, VI, and VII and Si VI and VII and indicate a composition close to that of the photosphere. Long-lived coronal fan structures, in contrast, show an enrichment of low-FIP elements. We conjecture that the plasma composition is an important signature of the coronal heating process, with impulsive heating leading to the evaporation of unfractionated material from...

  7. Study of the primordial lithium abundance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Lithium isotopes have attracted an intense interest because the abundance of both 6Li and 6Li from big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is one of the puzzles in nuclear astrophysics. Many investigations of both astrophysical observation and nucleosynthesis calculation have been carried out to solve the puzzle, but it is not solved yet. Several nuclear reactions involving lithium have been indirectly measured at China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing. The Standard BBN (SBBN) network calculations are then performed to investigate the primordial Lithium abundance. The result shows that these nuclear reactions have minimal effect on the SBBN abundances of 6Li and 7Li.

  8. Lithium Abundance of Metal-poor Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Wei Zhang; Gang Zhao

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra have been obtained for 32 metal-poor stars. The equivalent widths of Li λ6708A were measured and the lithium abundances were derived. The average lithium abundance of 21 stars on the lithium plateau is 2.33±0.02 dex. The Lithium plateau exhibits a marginal trend along metallicity, dA(Li)/d[Fe/H] = 0.12±0.06, and no clear trend with the effective temperature. The trend indicates that the abundance of lithium plateau may not be primordial and that a part of the lithium was produced in Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE).

  9. Abundance analysis of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi (2006 outburst)

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ramkrishna

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of elemental abundances of ejecta of the recurrent nova RS Oph using published optical and near-infrared spectra during the 2006 outburst. We use the CLOUDY photoionization code to generate synthetic spectra by varying several parameters, the model generated spectra are then matched with the observed emission line spectra obtained at two epochs. We obtain the best fit model parameters through the $\\chi^{2}$ minimization technique. Our model results fit well with observed optical and near-infrared spectra. The best-fit model parameters are compatible with a hot white dwarf source with T$_{BB}$ of 5.5 - 5.8 $\\times$ 10$^{5}$ K and roughly constant a luminosity of 6 - 8 $\\times$ 10$^{36}$ ergs s$^{-1}$. From the analysis we find the following abundances (by number) of elements with respect to solar: He/H = 1.8 $\\pm$ 0.1, N/H = 12.0 $\\pm$ 1.0, O/H = 1.0 $\\pm$ 0.4, Ne/H = 1.5 $\\pm$ 0.1, Si/H = 0.4 $\\pm$ 0.1, Fe/H = 3.2 $\\pm$ 0.2, Ar/H = 5.1 $\\pm$ 0.1, and Al/H = 1.0 $\\pm$ 0.1, all other elem...

  10. Statistical analysis of Fe abundances gradients in the Galaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI; Chenzhou

    2001-01-01

    [1]Shaver, P. A., McGee, R. X., Newton, L. M. et al., The galactic abundance gradient, MNRAS, 983, 204: 53.[2]Amnuel, P. R., The features of chemical abundances in Galactic planetary nebulae, MNRAS, 993, 26: 263.[3]Maciel, W. J., Kǒppen, J., Abundance gradents from disk planetary nebulae: O, Ne, S and Ar, A&A, 994, 282, 436.[4]Maciel, W. J., Abundance gradients from planetary nebulae in the galactic disk, IAU Samp., 997, 80: 397.[5]Maciel, W. J., Quireza, C., Abundance gradients in the outer galactic disk from planetary nebulae, A&A, 999, 345: 629.[6]Lennon, D. J., Dufton, P. L., Fitzsimmons, A. et al., Dolidze 25: a metal-deficient galactic open cluster, A&A, 990, 240: 349.[7]Fitzsimmons, A., Dufton, P. L., Rolleston, W. R. J., A comparison of oxygen and nitrogen abundances in young clusters and associations and in the interstellar gas, MNRAS, 992, 259: 489.[8]Kilian, J., Montenbruck, O., Nissen, P. E., The galactic distribution of chemical elements as derived from B-stars in open clusters, A&A, 994, 284: 437.[9]Kaufer, A., Szeifert, T., Krenzin, R. et al., The galactic abundance gradients traced by B-type stars, A&A, 994, 289: 740.[10]Smartt, S. J., Dufton, P. L., Rolleston, W. R. J., A metal deficient early B-type star near the edge of the galactic disk, A&A, 996, 305: 64.[11]Smartt, S. J., Dufton, P. L., Rolleston, W. R. J., The chemical composition towards the galactic anti-centre, A&A, 996, 30: 23.[12]Binette, L., Dopita, M. A., D'Odorico, S. et al., The galactic abundance gradient from supernova remnant observations, A&A, 982, 5: 35.[13]Dauphole, B., Geffert, M., Colin, J. et al., The kinematics of globular clusters, apocentric distances and a halo metallicity gradient, A&A, 996, 33: 9.[14]Marsakov, V. A., Shevelev, Y. G., Catalogue of ages, metallicities, orbital elements and other parameters for nearby F stars, BICDS, 995, 47: 3.[15]Cayrel de Strobel, G., Soubiran, C., Friel, E. D. et al., A

  11. On the origin of central abundances in the hot intra-cluster medium - I. Individual and average abundance ratios from XMM-Newton EPIC

    CERN Document Server

    Mernier, François; Pinto, Ciro; Kaastra, Jelle S; Kosec, Peter; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Mao, Junjie; Werner, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) is rich in metals, which are synthesized by supernovae (SNe) explosions and accumulate over time into the deep gravitational potential well of clusters of galaxies. Since most of the elements visible in X-rays are formed by type Ia (SNIa) and/or core-collapse (SNcc) supernovae, measuring their abundances gives us direct information on the nucleosynthesis products of billions of SNe since the epoch of the star formation peak (z ~ 2-3). In this study, we use the EPIC and RGS instruments onboard XMM-Newton to measure the abundances of 9 elements (O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe and Ni) from a sample of 44 nearby cool-core galaxy clusters, groups, and elliptical galaxies. We find that the Fe abundance shows a large scatter (~20-40%) over the sample, within 0.2$r_{500}$ and, especially, 0.05$r_{500}$. Unlike the absolute Fe abundance, the abundance ratios (X/Fe) are quite uniform over the considered temperature range (~0.6-8 keV), and with a limited scatter. In addition to a unprece...

  12. Iron abundance in the atmosphere of Arcturus

    CERN Document Server

    Sheminova, V A

    2015-01-01

    Abundance of iron in the atmosphere of Arcturus has been determined from the profiles or regions of the profiles of the weak lines sensitive to iron abundance. The selected lines of Fe I and Fe II were synthesized with the MARCS theoretical models of the atmosphere. From the observed profiles of lines available with a high spectral resolution in the atlas by Hinkle and Wallace (2005), the values of the iron abundance $A = 6.95 \\pm 0.03$ and the radial-tangential macroturbulent velocity $5.6 \\pm 0.2$ km/s were obtained for Arcturus. The same physical quantities were found for the Sun as a star; they are $7.42 \\pm 0.02$ and $3.4 \\pm 0.3$ km/s, respectively. For Arcturus, the iron abundance relative to the solar one was determined with the differential method as [Fe/H] $=-0.48 \\pm 0.02$.

  13. SWFSC/MMTD: Vaquita Abundance Survey 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1997, the Southwest Fisheries Science Center (SWFSC) conducted a survey designed to estimate the abundance of vaquita, the Gulf of California harbor porpoise...

  14. Chinook Abundance - Linear Features [ds181

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The dataset 'ds181_Chinook_ln' is a product of the CalFish Adult Salmonid Abundance Database. Data in this shapefile are collected from stream sections or reaches...

  15. Testing Relationships between Energy and Vertebrate Abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding what drives variation in the abundance of organisms is fundamental to evolutionary ecology and wildlife management. Yet despite its importance, there is still great uncertainty about the main factors influencing variation in vertebrate abundance across taxa. We believe valuable knowledge and increased predictive power could be gained by taking into account both the intrinsic factors of species and the extrinsic factors related to environmental surroundings in the commonly cited RQ model, which provides a simple conceptual framework valid at both the interspecific and the intraspecific scales. Approaches comparing studies undertaken at different spatial and taxonomic scales could be key to our ability to better predict abundance, and thanks to the increased availability of population size data, global geographic datasets, and improved comparative methods, there might be unprecedented opportunities to (1) gain a greater understanding of vertebrate abundance patterns and (2) test existing theories on free-ranging animals.

  16. Estimating whale abundance using sparse hydrophone arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Danielle Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring has been used to investigate many aspects of marine mammal ecology, although methods to estimate absolute abundance and density using acoustic data have only been developed in recent years. The instrument configuration in an acoustic survey determines which abundance estimation methods can be used. Sparsely distributed arrays of instruments are useful because wide geographic areas can be covered. However, instrument spacing in sparse arrays is such that the same...

  17. Spatial scaling of species abundance distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Borda-de-Água, Luís; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Pereira, Henrique M

    2012-01-01

    Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Ecography © 2012 Nordic Society Oikos. Species abundance distributions are an essential tool in describing the biodiversity of ecological communities. We now know that their shape changes as a function of the size of area sampled. Here we analyze the scaling properties of species abundance distributions by using the moments of the logarithmically transformed number of individuals. We find that the moments as a function of area size are well fitted by power law...

  18. How selection structures species abundance distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Magurran, A.E; Henderson, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    How do species divide resources to produce the characteristic species abundance distributions seen in nature? One way to resolve this problem is to examine how the biomass (or capacity) of the spatial guilds that combine to produce an abundance distribution is allocated among species. Here we argue that selection on body size varies across guilds occupying spatially distinct habitats. Using an exceptionally well-characterized estuarine fish community, we show that biomass is concentrated in l...

  19. The origin of the chemical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is discussed in relation to the composition of initially created matter and changes which have occurred during the life history of the universe, with particular reference to our galaxy and nearby galaxies. Headings are: observations of element abundances (stars, gas clouds in our own and nearby galaxies, hot gas in galaxy clusters, the solar system); the originally created matter (Big Bang theory and early nuclear reactions); processes changing observed composition (galactic evolution; nuclear fusion reactions in stellar interiors; chemical composition of a highly evolved massive star); supernovae (production of heavy elements); chemical evolution of the galaxy; production of very heavy elements (s process, r process). (U.K.)

  20. Element spots in HgMn stars

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    A fraction of late B-type stars, the so-called HgMn stars, exhibit enhanced absorption lines of certain chemical elements, notably Hg and Mn, combined with an underabundance of He. For about a decade now the elements with anomalously high abundances in HgMn stars are known to be distributed inhomogeneously over the stellar surface. Temporal evolution of these elemental spots have been reported in a few HgMn stars, first secular evolution of the mercury spots in alpha And, and recently also a ...

  1. The GAPS Programme with HARPS-N at TNG. IX. Differential abundances in the XO-2 planet hosting binary

    CERN Document Server

    Biazzo, K; Desidera, S; Lucatello, S; Sozzetti, A; Bonomo, A S; Damasso, M; Gandolfi, D; Affer, L; Boccato, C; Borsa, F; Claudi, R; Cosentino, R; Covino, E; Knapic, C; Lanza, A F; Maldonado, J; Marzari, F; Micela, G; Molaro, P; Pagano, I; Pedani, M; Pillitteri, I; Piotto, G; Poretti, E; Rainer, M; Santos, N C; Scandariato, G; Sanchez, R Zanmar

    2015-01-01

    Binary stars hosting exoplanets are a unique laboratory where chemical tagging can be performed to measure with high accuracy the elemental abundances of both stellar components, with the aim to investigate the formation of planets and their subsequent evolution. Here, we present a high-precision differential abundance analysis of the XO-2 wide stellar binary based on high resolution HARPS-N@TNG spectra. Both components are very similar K-dwarfs and host planets. Since they formed presumably within the same molecular cloud, we expect they should possess the same initial elemental abundances. We investigate if the presence of planets can cause some chemical imprints in the stellar atmospheric abundances. We measure abundances of 25 elements for both stars with a range of condensation temperature $T_{\\rm C}=40-1741$ K, achieving typical precisions of $\\sim 0.07$ dex. The North component shows abundances in all elements higher by $+0.067 \\pm 0.032$ dex on average, with a mean difference of +0.078 dex for element...

  2. Modelling Void Abundance in Modified Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Voivodic, Rodrigo; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F

    2016-01-01

    We use a spherical model and an extended excursion set formalism with drifting diffusive barriers to predict the abundance of cosmic voids in the context of general relativity as well as f(R) and symmetron models of modified gravity. We detect spherical voids from a suite of N-body simulations of these gravity theories and compare the measured void abundance to theory predictions. We find that our model correctly describes the abundance of both dark matter and galaxy voids, providing a better fit than previous proposals in the literature based on static barriers. We use the simulation abundance results to fit for the abundance model free parameters as a function of modified gravity parameters, and show that counts of dark matter voids can provide interesting constraints on modified gravity. For galaxy voids, more closely related to optical observations, we find that constraining modified gravity from void abundance alone may be significantly more challenging. In the context of current and upcoming galaxy surv...

  3. Report on carbon and nitrogen abundance studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the proposal was to determine the nitrogen to carbon abundance ratios from transition layer lines in stars with different T(sub eff) and luminosities. The equations which give the surface emission line fluxes and the measured ratio of the NV to CIV emission line fluxes are presented and explained. The abundance results are compared with those of photospheric abundance studies for stars in common with the photospheric investigations. The results show that the analyses are at least as accurate as the photospheric determinations. These studies can be extended to F and early G stars for which photospheric abundance determinations for giants are hard to do because molecular bands become too weak. The abundance determination in the context of stellar evolution is addressed. The N/C abundance ratio increases steeply at the point of evolution for which the convection zone reaches deepest. Looking at the evolution of the rotation velocities v sin i, a steep decrease in v sin i is related to the increasing depth of the convection zone. It is concluded that the decrease in v sin i for T(sub eff) less than or approximately = 5800 K is most probably due to the rearrangement of the angular momentum in the stars due to deep convective mixing. It appears that the convection zone is rotating with nearly depth independent angular momentum. Other research results and ongoing projects are discussed.

  4. Abundances in a sample of turnoff and subgiant stars in NGC 6121 (M4)

    CERN Document Server

    Spite, Monique; Gallagher, Andrew J; Monaco, Lorenzo; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Caffau, Elisabetta; Villanova, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    {The aim of this work is to investigate the relations between the abundances of different elements in the globular cluster M4, selected for its uniform deficiency of iron, to explore the best models explaining the pattern of these observed abundances. Moreover, in turnoff stars, the abundances of the elements are not suspected to be affected by internal mixing. In M4, using low and moderate resolution spectra obtained for 91 turnoff (and subgiant) stars with the ESO FLAMES-Giraffe spectrograph, we have extended previous measurements of abundances (of Li, C and Na) to other elements (C, Si, Ca, Sr and Ba), using model atmosphere analysis. We have also studied the influence of the choice of the microturbulent velocity. Firstly, the peculiar turnoff star found to be very Li-rich in a previous paper does not show any other abundance anomalies relative to the other turnoff stars in M4. ~Secondly, an anti-correlation between C and Na has been detected, the slope being significative at more than $3\\sigma$. This rela...

  5. Origin of central abundances in the hot intra-cluster medium. I. Individual and average abundance ratios from XMM-Newton EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernier, F.; de Plaa, J.; Pinto, C.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kosec, P.; Zhang, Y.-Y.; Mao, J.; Werner, N.

    2016-08-01

    The hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) is rich in metals, which are synthesised by supernovae (SNe) explosions and accumulate over time into the deep gravitational potential well of clusters of galaxies. Since most of the elements visible in X-rays are formed by type Ia (SNIa) and/or core-collapse (SNcc) supernovae, measuring their abundances gives us direct information on the nucleosynthesis products of billions of SNe since the epoch of the star formation peak (z ~ 2-3). In this study, we use the EPIC and RGS instruments on board XMM-Newton to measure the abundances of nine elements (O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, and Ni) from a sample of 44 nearby cool-core galaxy clusters, groups, and elliptical galaxies. We find that the Fe abundance shows a large scatter (~20-40%) over the sample, within 0.2r500 and especially 0.05r500. Unlike the absolute Fe abundance, the abundance ratios (X/Fe) are uniform over the considered temperature range (~0.6-8 keV) and with a limited scatter. In addition to an unprecedented treatment of systematic uncertainties, we provide the most accurate abundance ratios measured so far in the ICM, including Cr/Fe and Mn/Fe which we firmly detected (>4σ with MOS and pn independently). We find that Cr/Fe, Mn/Fe, and Ni/Fe differ significantly from the proto-solar values. However, the large uncertainties in the proto-solar abundances prevent us from making a robust comparison between the local and the intra-cluster chemical enrichments. We also note that, interestingly, and despite the large net exposure time (~4.5 Ms) of our dataset, no line emission feature is seen around ~3.5 keV.

  6. Chemical Abundances in the Secondary Star of the Neutron Star Binary Centaurus X-4

    CERN Document Server

    Hern'andez, J I G; Israelian, G; Casares, J; Maeda, K; Bonifacio, P; Molaro, P; Hern\\'andez, Jonay I. Gonz\\'alez; Rebolo, Rafael; Israelian, Garik; Casares, Jorge; Maeda, Keiichi; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Molaro, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Using a high resolution spectrum of the secondary star in the neutron star binary {Cen X-4}, we have derived the stellar parameters and veiling caused by the accretion disk in a consistent way. We have used a $\\chi^{2}$ minimization procedure to explore a grid of 1 500 000 LTE synthetic spectra computed for a plausible range of both stellar and veiling parameters. Adopting the best model parameters found, we have determined atmospheric abundances of Fe, Ca, Ti, Ni and Al. These element abundances are super solar ($\\mathrm{[Fe/H]}=0.23 \\pm 0.10$), but only the abundance of Ti and Ni appear to be moderately enhanced ($\\ge1\\sigma$) as compared with the average values of stars of similar iron content. These element abundances can be explained if the secondary star captured a significant amount of matter ejected from a spherically symmetric supernova explosion of a 4 {$M_\\odot$} He core progenitor and assuming solar abundances as primordial abundances in the secondary star. The kinematic properties of the system i...

  7. Planetary Nebula Abundances and Morphology: Probing the Chemical Evolution of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Stanghellini, L; Cunha, K; Manchado, A; Villaver, E

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a homogeneous study of abundances in a sample of 79 northern galactic planetary nebulae whose morphological classes have been uniformly determined. Ionic abundances and plasma diagnostics were derived from selected optical line strengths in the literature, and elemental abundances were estimated with the Ionization Correction Factor developed by Kingsbourgh & Barlow (1994). We compare the elemental abundances to the final yields obtained from stellar evolution models of low-and intermediate-mass stars, and we confirm that most Bipolar planetary nebulae have high nitrogen and helium abundance, and are the likely progeny of stars with main-sequence mass larger than 3 solar masses. We derive =0.27, and discuss the implication of such a high ratio in connection with the solar neon abundance. We determine the galactic gradients of oxygen and neon, and found Delta log (O/H)/Delta R=-0.01 dex/kpc$ and Delta log (Ne/H)/Delta R=-0.01 dex/kpc. These flat PN gradients do not reconcile with galact...

  8. Abundances, Stellar Parameters, and Spectra From the SDSS-III/APOGEE Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Holtzman, Jon A; Johnson, Jennifer A; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Anders, Friedrich; Andrews, Brett; Beers, Timothy C; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanton, Michael R; Bovy, Jo; Carrera, Ricardo; Cunha, Katia; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Feuillet, Diane; Frinchaboy, Peter M; Galbraith-Frew, Jessica; Perez, Ana E Garcia; Hernandez, D Anibal Garcia; Hasselquist, Sten; Hayden, Michael R; Hearty, Fred R; Ivans, Inese; Majewski, Steven R; Martell, Sarah; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Muna, Demitri; Nidever, David L; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; O'Connell, Robert W; Pan, Kaike; Pinsonneault, Marc; Robin, Annie C; Schiavon, Ricardo P; Shane, Neville; Sobeck, Jennifer; Smith, Verne V; Troup, Nicholas; Weinberg, David H; Wilson, John C; Wood-Vasey, W M; Zamora, Olga; Zasowski, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The SDSS-III/APOGEE survey operated from 2011-2014 using the APOGEE spectrograph, which collects high-resolution (R~22,500), near-IR (1.51-1.70 microns) spectra with a multiplexing (300 fiber-fed objects) capability. We describe the survey data products that are publicly available, which include catalogs with radial velocity, stellar parameters, and 15 elemental abundances for over 150,000 stars, as well as the more than 500,000 spectra from which these quantities are derived. Calibration relations for the stellar parameters (Teff, log g, [M/H], [alpha/M]) and abundances (C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni) are presented and discussed. The internal scatter of the abundances within clusters indicates that abundance precision is generally between 0.05 and 0.09 dex across a broad temperature range; within more limited ranges and at high S/N, it is smaller for some elemental abundances. We assess the accuracy of the abundances using comparison of mean cluster metallicities with literature values...

  9. Abundance analysis of the supergiant stars HD 80057 and HD 80404 based on their UVES Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrıverdi, T.; Baştürk, Ö.

    2016-08-01

    This study presents elemental abundances of the early A-type supergiant HD 80057 and the late A-type supergiant HD 80404. High resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra published by the UVES Paranal Observatory Project (Bagnulo et al., 2003)1

  10. Diversity, activity, and abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in saline nad hypersaline soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foti, M.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Lomans, B.P.; Mussman, M.; Zacharova, E.E.; Pimenov, N.V.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muyzer, G.

    2007-01-01

    Soda lakes are naturally occurring highly alkaline and saline environments. Although the sulfur cycle is one of the most active element cycles in these lakes, little is known about the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In this study we investigated the diversity, activity, and abundance of SRB in sed

  11. Corotation its influence on the chemical abundance pattern of the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Mishurov, Y N; Acharova, I A; Mishurov, Yu.N.

    2002-01-01

    A simple theory for the chemical enrichment of the Galaxy which takes into account the effects of spiral arms on heavy elements output was developed. In the framework of the model with the corotation close to the position of the Sun in the Galaxy the observed abundance features are explained.

  12. Discovery of secular variations in the atmospheric abundances of magnetic Ap stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, J D; Bagnulo, S

    2013-01-01

    The stars of the middle main sequence have relatively quiescent outer layers, and unusual chemical abundance patterns may develop in their atmospheres. The presence of chemical peculiarities reveal the action of such subsurface phenomena as gravitational settling and radiatively driven levitation of trace elements, and their competition with mixing processes such as turbulent diffusion. We want to establish whether abundance peculiarities change as stars evolve on the main sequence, and provide observational constraints to diffusion theory. We have performed spectral analysis of 15 magnetic Bp stars that are members of open clusters (and thus have well-known ages), with masses between about 3 and 4 M_sun. For each star, we measured the abundances of He, O, Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe, Pr and Nd. We have discovered the systematic time evolution of trace elements through the main-sequence lifetime of magnetic chemically peculiar stars as their atmospheres cool and evolve toward lower gravity. During the main sequence li...

  13. Bimodal abundances in the energetic particles of solar and interplanetary origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.

    1988-01-01

    This letter reports the first results from an examination of the daily-averaged abundances of the elements from H through Fe as well as electrons and isotopes of He in energetic particles observed in interplanetary space by the ISEE 3 spacecraft over an 8.5 yr period. The abundances of heavy elements such as Fe/O show, for the first time, clear evidence of the presence of two distinct populations of particles. Earlier observations could be interpreted as extreme variations within a single population. The population with enhanced Fe/O shows correlated enhancements in He-3/He-4, p/e, and He/H. This population is consistent with material that has been processed to high temperatures in the impulsively heated regions of solar flares. The second population, with more normal abundances, is probably accelerated from ambient material by coronal and interplanetary shocks.

  14. Clonal growth and plant species abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Zuzana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Both regional and local plant abundances are driven by species' dispersal capacities and their abilities to exploit new habitats and persist there. These processes are affected by clonal growth, which is difficult to evaluate and compare across large numbers of species. This study assessed the influence of clonal reproduction on local and regional abundances of a large set of species and compared the predictive power of morphologically defined traits of clonal growth with data on actual clonal growth from a botanical garden. The role of clonal growth was compared with the effects of seed reproduction, habitat requirements and growth, proxied both by LHS (leaf–height–seed) traits and by actual performance in the botanical garden. Methods Morphological parameters of clonal growth, actual clonal reproduction in the garden and LHS traits (leaf-specific area – height – seed mass) were used as predictors of species abundance, both regional (number of species records in the Czech Republic) and local (mean species cover in vegetation records) for 836 perennial herbaceous species. Species differences in habitat requirements were accounted for by classifying the dataset by habitat type and also by using Ellenberg indicator values as covariates. Key Results After habitat differences were accounted for, clonal growth parameters explained an important part of variation in species abundance, both at regional and at local levels. At both levels, both greater vegetative growth in cultivation and greater lateral expansion trait values were correlated with higher abundance. Seed reproduction had weaker effects, being positive at the regional level and negative at the local level. Conclusions Morphologically defined traits are predictive of species abundance, and it is concluded that simultaneous investigation of several such traits can help develop hypotheses on specific processes (e.g. avoidance of self-competition, support of offspring) potentially

  15. Detailed chemical abundances of extragalactic globular clusters using high resolution, integrated light spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Janet E.

    Globular clusters (GCs) are luminous, observationally accessible objects that are good tracers of the total star formation and evolutionary history of galaxies. We present the first detailed chemical abundances for GCs in M31 using a new abundance analysis technique designed for high resolution, integrated light (IL) spectra of GCs. This technique has recently been developed using a training set of old GCS in the Milky Way (MW), and makes possible detailed chemical evolution studies of distant galaxies, where high resolution abundance analysis of individual stars are not obtainable. For the 5 M31 GCs presented here, we measure abundances of 14 elements: Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Y, and Ba. We find the M31 GCs have ages (>10 Gyr) and chemical properties similar to MW GCs, including an enhancement in the alpha-elements Ca, Ti and Si of [alpha/Fe]˜ +0.4. In this thesis, we also further develop this IL abundance analysis method to include GCs of ages 10 Myr--12 Gyrs using GCs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which contains the necessary sample of clusters over this wide age range. This work demonstrates for the first time that this IL abundance analysis method can be used on clusters of all ages, and that ages can be constrained to within 1--2 Gyr for clusters with ages of ˜2 Gyr and within a few 100 Myr for clusters with ages chemical abundances of 22 elements are reported for six LMC clusters.

  16. Abundance analysis of an extended sample of open clusters: A search for chemical inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Giridhar, Sunetra; Lambert, David L.

    We have initiated a program to explore the presence of chemical inhomogeneities in the Galactic disk using the open clusters as ideal probes. We have analyzed high-dispersion echelle spectra (R ≥ 55,000) of red giant members for eleven open clusters to derive abundances for many elements. The membership to the cluster has been confirmed through their radial velocities and proper motions. The spread in temperatures and gravities being very small among the red giants, nearly the same stellar lines were employed thereby reducing the random errors. The errors of average abundance for the cluster were generally in 0.02 to 0.07 dex range. Our present sample covers galactocentric distances of 8.3 to 11.3 kpc and an age range of 0.2 to 4.3 Gyrs. Our earlier analysis of four open clusters (Reddy A.B.S. et al., 2012, MNRAS, 419,1350) indicate that abundances relative to Fe for elements from Na to Eu are equal within measurement uncertainties to published abundances for thin disk giants in the field. This supports the view that field stars come from disrupted open clusters. In the enlarged sample of eleven open clusters we find cluster to cluster abundance variations for some s- and r- process elements, with certain elements such as Zr and Ba showing large variation. These differences mark the signatures that these clusters had formed under different environmental conditions (Type II SN, Type Ia SN, AGB stars or a mixture of any of these) unique to the time and site of formation. These eleven clusters support the widely held impression that there is an abundance gradient such that the metallicity [Fe/H] at the solar galactocentric distance decreases outwards at about -0.1 dex per kpc.

  17. A semi-automatic procedure for abundance determination of A- and F-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hekker, S; Lampens, P; De Cat, P; Niemczura, E; Creevey, O L; Zorec, J

    2009-01-01

    A variety of physical processes leading to different types of pulsations and chemical compositions is observed among A- and F-type stars. To investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for these processes in stars with similar locations in the H-R diagram, an accurate abundance determination is needed, among others. Here, we describe a semi-automatic procedure developed to determine chemical abundances of various elements ranging from helium to mercury for this type of stars. We test our procedure on synthetic spectra, demonstrating that our procedure provides abundances consistent with the input values, even when the stellar parameters are offset by reasonable observational errors. For a fast-rotating star such as Vega, our analysis is consistent with those carried out with other plane-parallel model atmospheres. Simulations show that the offsets from the input abundances increase for stars with low inclination angle of about 4 degrees. For this inclination angle, we also show that the distribution of ...

  18. A sulphur abundance study of NGC 300 by an empirical calibration method

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, T; Gammelgaard, P; Christensen, Tina; Petersen, Lars; Gammelgaard, Peter

    1996-01-01

    We propose an empirical sulphur abundance determination method based on the strong sulphur emission lines, [S II] 6716, 6731 and [S III] 9069, 9531 in H II regions. From a compilation of literature data we have made a calibration of sulphur abundance versus ([S II] + [S III])/Hbeta, similar to what has been widely used for the more easily observable iso-electronic element oxygen. This enables abundance determinations in extragalactic H II regions without measurements of weak temperature sensitive lines for use in model calculations. As a first application of the empirical calibration 15 spectra covering the wavelength range 3650-10000 AA have been obtained of H II regions at various galactocentric distances in the spiral galaxy NGC 300, by employing specially designed multiaperture slitmasks which allow simultaneous observations of several H II regions. Sulphur and oxygen abundances are determined and an oxygen gradient in agreement with previously published work is found as well as a somewhat steeper sulphur...

  19. Abundance distributions over the surfaces of magnetic ApBp stars: theoretical predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Alecian, G

    2015-01-01

    Recently published empirical abundance maps, obtained through (Zeeman) Doppler mapping (ZDM), do not currently agree with the abundance structures predicted by means of numerical models of atomic diffusion in magnetic atmospheres of ApBp stars. In a first step towards the resolution of these discrepancies, we present a state of the art grid of equilibrium abundance stratifications in the atmosphere of a magnetic Ap star with T_eff = 10000 K and log g = 4.0. A description of the behaviour of 16 chemical elements including predictions concerning the over- and/or under-abundances over the stellar surface is followed by a discussion of the possible influence of presently neglected physical processes.

  20. Coronal Abundance Anomalies in Solar-Like Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, John

    We propose to model the trend of coronal abundance anomalies observed in a sample of solar-like stars by Wood & Linsky (2010). Dwarf stars of similar spectral type to the Sun show what has become known as a FIP (First Ionization Potential) Effect, where elements with first ionization potential below about 10 eV are enhanced in abundance in the corona by a factor of about 3 - 4. Stars of later spectral type show a diminished FIP effect, with the anomaly disappearing at about K5 spectral type. Beyond this, M dwarf stars show an inverse FIP effect, with the low FIP ions becoming depleted in the stellar corona, by factors of order 2.5 - 3. The solar case of positive FIP effect has been successfully interpreted as being due to the action of the ponderomotive force associated with chromospheric Alfven waves. In conditions in which upgoing Alfven waves are transmitted into coronal loops, or in which coronally generated waves reflect at loop footpoints, the ponderomotive force is directed upwards, and accelerates chromospheric ions (the low FIP elements) into the corona. Neutral atoms are not affected. The inverse FIP effect can arise when upward propagating chromospheric Alfven waves are reflected back down again at coronal loop footpoints, due to a mismatch between the wave frequency and the loop resonance. We propose to study stars for which parameters like asteroseismic oscillation frequencies, coronal abundance anomalies, and chromospheric structure are known. As well as constraining coronal magnetic fields and loop resonances in these stars, we expect important insights into the nature of stellar dynamos since the M dwarfs in the sample (with inverse FIP effect) are at or near the fully convective limit. Finally, we will be able to assess potential fractionation in the O/Ne abundance ratio. Drake & Testa (2005) argued that Ne is depleted in the solar corona relative to O, but not in the coronae of more active stars. Our FIP models provide some support for this in the

  1. Linking species abundance distributions in numerical abundance and biomass through simple assumptions about community structure

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Peter A.; Magurran, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Species abundance distributions (SADs) are widely used as a tool for summarizing ecological communities but may have different shapes, depending on the currency used to measure species importance. We develop a simple plotting method that links SADs in the alternative currencies of numerical abundance and biomass and is underpinned by testable predictions about how organisms occupy physical space. When log numerical abundance is plotted against log biomass, the species lie within an approximat...

  2. High-resolution abundance analysis of very metal-poor R-I stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The moderately r-process enriched stars (r-I; +0.3 ≤ [Eu/Fe] ≤ +1.0) are, at least, four times as common as those that are greatly enriched in r-process elements (r-II; [Eu/Fe] > +1.0), and the abundances in their atmospheres are important tools for obtaining better understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the origin of the elements beyond the iron peak. In this contribution, we derived abundances for a sample of 7 metal-poor stars with -3.4 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -2.4 classified as r-I stars, in order to understand the role of such stars for constraining the astrophysical nucleosynthesis event(s) responsible for the production of the r-process, and to investigate whether they differ, in any significant way, from the r-II stars. Based on high resolution spectra obtained with the VLT/UVES spectrograph, we have obtained abundances of the light elements Li, C and N, the alpha-elements Mg, Si, S, Ca and Ti, the odd-Z elements Al, K, and Sc, the iron-peak elements V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, and the trans-iron elements from the first peak (Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, and Pd), the second peak (Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb), the third peak (Os and Ir, as upper limits), and the actinides (Th) regions. The results are compared with values for these elements for r-II and 'normal' very and extremely metal-poor stars reported in the literature, ages based on radioactive chronometry are explored using different models, and a number of conclusions about the r-process and the r-I stars are presented. Hydrodynamical models were used for some elements and general behaviors for the 3D corrections were presented. Although the abundance ratios of the second r-process peak elements (usually associated with the main r-process) appear nearly identical for r-I and r-II stars, the first r-process peak abundance ratios (probably associated with the weak r-process) appear enhanced in r-I stars compared with r-II stars, suggesting that differing

  3. The iron abundance of the Magellanic Bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Dufton, P L; Thompson, H M A; Street, R A

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution HST ultra-violet spectra for five B-type stars in the Magellanic Bridge and in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds have been analysed to estimate their iron abundances. Those for the Clouds are lower than estimates obtained from late-type stars or the optical lines in B-type stars by approximately 0.5 dex. This may be due to systematic errors possibly arising from non-LTE effects or from errors in the atomic data as similar low Fe abundances having previously been reported from the analysis of the ultra-violet spectra of Galactic early-type stars. The iron abundance estimates for all three Bridge targets appear to be significantly lower than those found for the SMC and LMC by approximately -0.5 dex and -0.8 dex respectively and these differential results should not be affected by any systematic errors present in the absolute abundance estimates. These differential iron abundance estimates are consistent with the underabundances for C, N, O, Mg and Si of approximately -1.1 dex relative to our...

  4. Oxygen abundance maps of CALIFA galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zinchenko, I A; Grebel, E K; Sanchez, S F; Vilchez, J M

    2016-01-01

    We construct maps of the oxygen abundance distribution across the disks of 88 galaxies using CALIFA data release 2 (DR2) spectra. The position of the center of a galaxy (coordinates on the plate) were also taken from the CALIFA DR2. The galaxy inclination, the position angle of the major axis, and the optical radius were determined from the analysis of the surface brightnesses in the SDSS $g$ and $r$ bands of the photometric maps of SDSS data release 9. We explore the global azimuthal abundance asymmetry in the disks of the CALIFA galaxies and the presence of a break in the radial oxygen abundance distribution. We found that there is no significant global azimuthal asymmetry for our sample of galaxies, i.e., the asymmetry is small, usually lower than 0.05 dex. The scatter in oxygen abundances around the abundance gradient has a comparable value, $\\lesssim 0.05$ dex. A significant (possibly dominant) fraction of the asymmetry can be attributed to the uncertainties in the geometrical parameters of these galaxie...

  5. Good abundances from bad spectra; 1, techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bryn, J; Wyse, R F G; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F G

    1995-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract true iron abundances and surface gravities from spectra of the type provided by the multiple-object fibre-fed spectroscopic radial-velocity surveys underway with 2dF, HYDRA, NESSIE, and the forthcoming Sloan survey. Our method is optimised for low S/N, intermediate resolution blue spectra of G stars. Spectroscopic indices sensitive to iron abundance and gravity are defined from a set of narrow (few Angstrom) wavelength intervals, and calibrated using synthetic spectra. We have also defined a single abundance indicator which is able to provide useful iron abundance information from spectra having S/N ratios as low as 10 per Angstrom. The theoretical basis and calibration using synthetic spectra are described in this paper. The empirical calibration of these techniques by application to observational data is described in Jones, Wyse and Gilmore (PASP July 1995). The technique provides precise iron abundances, with zero-point correct to \\sim 0.1 dex, and is reliable, with ...

  6. Why is Trichodesmium abundant in the Kuroshio?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozaki, T.; Takeda, S.; Itoh, S.; Kodama, T.; Liu, X.; Hashihama, F.; Furuya, K.

    2015-12-01

    The genus Trichodesmium is recognized as an abundant and major diazotroph in the Kuroshio, but the reason for this remains unclear. The present study investigated the abundance of Trichodesmium spp. and nitrogen fixation together with concentrations of dissolved iron and phosphate in the Kuroshio and its marginal seas. We performed the observations near the Miyako Islands, which form part of the Ryukyu Islands, situated along the Kuroshio, since our satellite analysis suggested that material transport could occur from the islands to the Kuroshio. Trichodesmium spp. bloomed (> 20 000 filaments L-1) near the Miyako Islands, abundance was high in the Kuroshio and the Kuroshio bifurcation region of the East China Sea, but was low in the Philippine Sea. The abundance of Trichodesmium spp. was significantly correlated with the total nitrogen fixation activity. The surface concentrations of dissolved iron (0.19-0.89 nM) and phosphate (differences in Trichodesmium spp. abundance and nitrogen fixation. Numerical particle-tracking experiments simulated the transportation of water around the Ryukyu Islands to the Kuroshio. Our results indicate that Trichodesmium growing around the Ryukyu Islands could be advected into the Kuroshio.

  7. Abundances of Molecular Species in Barnard 68

    CERN Document Server

    Francesco, J D; Welch, W J; Bergin, E A; Francesco, James Di; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.; Welch, William J.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2002-01-01

    Abundances for 5 molecules (C18O, CS, NH3, H2CO, and C3H2) and 1 molecular ion (N2H+) and upper limits for the abundances of 1 molecule (13CO) and 1 molecular ion (HCO+) are derived for gas within the Bok globule Barnard 68 (B68). The abundances were determined using our own BIMA millimeter interferometer data and single-dish data gathered from the literature, in conjunction with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. Since B68 is the only starless core to have its density structure strongly constrained via extinction mapping, a major uncertainty has been removed from these determinations. All abundances for B68 are lower than those derived for translucent and cold dense clouds, but perhaps only significantly for N2H+, NH3, and C3H2. Depletion of CS toward the extinction peak of B68 is hinted at by the large offset between the extinction peak and the position of maximum CS line brightness. Abundances derived here for C18O and N2H+ are consistent with other, recently determined values at positions observed in...

  8. Chemical abundances in LMC stellar populations. II. The bar sample

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Swaelmen, M; Primas, F; Cole, A A

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the chemical evolution of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to that of the Milky Way (MW) and investigates the relation between the bar and the inner disc of the LMC in the context of the formation of the bar. We obtained high-resolution and mid signal-to-noise ratio spectra with FLAMES/GIRAFFE at ESO/VLT and performed a detailed chemical analysis of 106 and 58 LMC field red giant stars (mostly older than 1 Gyr), located in the bar and the disc of the LMC respectively. We measured elemental abundances for O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Na, Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Y, Zr, Ba, La and Eu. We find that the {\\alpha}-element ratios [Mg/Fe] and [O/Fe] are lower in the LMC than in the MW while the LMC has similar [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe] to the MW. As for the heavy elements, [Ba,La/Eu] exhibit a strong increase with increasing metallicity starting from [Fe/H]=-0.8 dex, and the LMC has lower [Y+Zr/Ba+La] ratios than the MW. Cu is almost constant over all metallicities and about 0.5 dex lower in the LMC than ...

  9. An accurate and self-consistent chemical abundance catalogue for the APOGEE/Kepler sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, K.; Masseron, T.; Jofré, P.; Gilmore, G.; Elsworth, Y.; Hekker, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The APOGEE survey has obtained high-resolution infrared spectra of more than 100 000 stars. Deriving chemical abundances patterns of these stars is paramount to piecing together the structure of the Milky Way. While the derived chemical abundances have been shown to be precise for most stars, some calibration problems have been reported, in particular for more metal-poor stars. Aims: In this paper, we aim to (1) re-determine the chemical abundances of the APOGEE+Kepler stellar sample (APOKASC) with an independent procedure, line list and line selection, and high-quality surface gravity information from asteroseismology; and (2) extend the abundance catalogue by including abundances that are not currently reported in the most recent APOGEE release (DR12). Methods: We fixed the Teff and log g to those determined using spectrophotometric and asteroseismic techniques, respectively. We made use of the Brussels Automatic Stellar Parameter (BACCHUS) code to derive the metallicity and broadening parameters for the APOKASC sample. In addition, we derived differential abundances with respect to Arcturus. Results: We have validated the BACCHUS code on APOGEE data using several well-known stars, and stars from open and globular clusters. We also provide the abundances of C, N, O, Mg, Ca, Si, Ti, S, Al, Na, Ni, Mn, Fe, K, and V for every star and line, and show the impact of line selection on the final abundances. Improvements have been made for some elements (e.g. Ti, Si, V). Additionally, we measure new abundance ratios not found in the current APOGEE release including P, Cu, Rb, and Yb, which are only upper limits at this time, as well as Co and Cr which are promising. Conclusions: In this paper, we present an independent analysis of the APOKASC sample and provide abundances of up to 21 elements. This catalogue can be used not only to study chemical abundance patterns of the Galaxy but also to train data driven spectral approaches which can improve the abundance

  10. Metal Abundances of Subdwarf B Stars from SPY - a Pattern Emerges

    CERN Document Server

    Geier, S; Napiwotzki, R

    2008-01-01

    The formation of sdBs is still puzzling, as is the chemical composition of their atmospheres. While helium and other light elements are depleted relative to solar values, heavy elements are highly enriched. Diffusion processes in the hot, radiative atmosphere of these stars are the most likely explanation. Although several attempts were made, it was not yet possible to model all the observed features of sdB atmospheres. A setback of most prior studies was the small sample size. We present a detailed abundance analysis of 68 sdBs. From high resolution spectra obtained with the VLT/UVES instrument in the course of the ESO Supernova Progenitor Survey (SPY) we measured elemental abundances of up to 24 different ions per star. A general trend of enrichment was found with increasing temperature for most of the heavier elements. The lighter elements like carbon, oxygen and nitrogen are depleted irrespective of the temperature. Although there is considerable scatter from one star to another, the general abundance pat...

  11. Abundances in a sample of turnoff and subgiant stars in NGC 6121 (M 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Gallagher, A. J.; Monaco, L.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Villanova, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The stellar abundances observed in globular clusters show complex structures, currently not yet understood. Aims: The aim of this work is to investigate the relations between the abundances of different elements in the globular cluster M 4, selected for its uniform deficiency of iron, to explore the best models explaining the pattern of these observed abundances. Moreover, in turnoff stars, the abundances of the elements are not suspected to be affected by internal mixing. Methods: In M 4, using low and moderate resolution spectra obtained for 91 turnoff (and subgiant) stars with the ESO FLAMES-Giraffe spectrograph, we have extended previous measurements of abundances (of Li, C and Na) to other elements (C, Si, Ca, Sr and Ba), using model atmosphere analysis. We have also studied the influence of the choice of the microturbulent velocity. Results: Firstly, the peculiar turnoff star found to be very Li-rich in a previous paper does not show any other abundance anomalies relative to the other turnoff stars in M 4. Secondly, an anti-correlation between C and Na has been detected, the slope being significative at more than 3σ. This relation between C and Na is in perfect agreement with the relation found in giant stars selected below the RGB bump. Thirdly, the strong enrichment of Si and of the neutron-capture elements Sr and Ba, already observed in the giants in M 4, is confirmed. Finally, the relations between Li, C, Na, Sr and Ba constrain the enrichment processes of the observed stars. Conclusions: The abundances of the elements in the turnoff stars appear to be compatible with production processes by massive AGBs, but are also compatible with the production of second generation elements (like Na) and low Li produced by, for example, fast rotating massive stars. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 085.D-0537(A).Full Tables 3 and 4 are only available at the

  12. Hans A. Bethe Prize Lecture: The Primordial Helium Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimbert, Manuel

    2012-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the production of the light elements (He, D, and Li) during the early stages of the expansion of the Universe is one of the three pillars of the Big Bang theory. The main results obtained from the observational determination of the primordial helium abundance, Yp, and its comparison with the value predicted by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis will be presented, in particular: a) the recognition that galaxies form with Yp in the 0.24 to 0.26 range, b) that Yp was produced during the Big Bang, c) that Yp is fundamental as a critical test for cosmological theories and the baryonic content of the Universe, and d) that the value of Yp provides an observational constraint on the number of light neutrino species, which is smaller than four and probably equal to three. In addition, the present status of the observationally determined Yp value based on extragalactic H II regions will be discussed.

  13. Chemical Abundances of the magnetic CP star HD 168733

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, A.; López-García, Z.

    2009-04-01

    A detailed abundance analysis has been carried out for the magnetic CP star HD 168733 using high-resolution spectra obtained with the EBASIM echelle spectrograph at the 2.1 m CASLEO telescope in Argentina. The spectral coverage is 382-700 nm. It is neither a silicon nor a mercury-manganese star. Compared to the Sun, C and N are slightly overabundant, while Mg and S are deficient, Si is normal and P and Cl are overabundant. The iron peak elements Sc, Ti, Cr and Fe are overabundant. Lines of Ti III and Fe III are also identified. HD 168733 shows a great overabundance of Ga, Sr, Y, Zr, Xe, Pt, Hg and of some rare earths.

  14. Abundance analysis of barium and mild barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Smiljanic, R; Silva, L

    2007-01-01

    High signal to noise, high resolution spectra were obtained for a sample of normal, mild barium, and barium giants. Atmospheric parameters were determined from the FeI and FeII lines. Abundances for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd, were determined from equivalent widths and model atmospheres in a differential analysis, with the red giant Eps Vir as the standard star. The different levels of s-process overabundances of barium and mild barium stars were earlier suggested to be related to the stellar metallicity. Contrary to this suggestion, we found in this work no evidence for barium and mild barium to have a different range in metallicity. However, comparing the ratio of abundances of heavy to light s-process elements, we found some evidence that they do not share the same neutron exposure parameter. The exact mechanism controlling this difference is still not clear. As a by-product of this analysis we identify two normal red giants misclass...

  15. Atmospheric parameters and carbon abundance for hot DB white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Koester, Detlev; Gänsicke, Boris T

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters for hot DB (helium atmosphere) white dwarfs near effective temperatures of 25000K are extremely difficult to determine from optical spectroscopy. This is particularly unfortunate, because this is the range of variable DBV or V777 Her stars. Accurate atmospheric parameters are needed to help or confirm the asteroseismic analysis of these objects. Another important aspect is the new class of white dwarfs - the hot DQ - detected by Dufour et al. (2007), with spectra dominated by carbon lines. The analysis shows that their atmospheres are pure carbon. The origin of these stars is not yet understood, but they may have an evolutionary link with the hotter DBs as studied here. Our aim is to determine accurate atmospheric parameters and element abundances and study the implications for the evolution white dwarfs of spectral classes DB and hot DQ. High resolution UV spectra of five DBs are studied with model atmospheres. We determine stellar parameters and abundances or upper limits of C and Si....

  16. Carbon and Oxygen Abundances in Low Metallicity Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Danielle A; Henry, Richard B C; Erb, Dawn K; Carigi, Leticia

    2016-01-01

    The study of carbon and oxygen abundances yields information on the time evolution and nucleosynthetic origins of these elements, yet remains relatively unexplored. At low metallicities (12+log(O/H) < 8.0), nebular carbon measurements are limited to rest-frame UV collisionally excited emission lines. Therefore, we present UV spectrophotometry of 12 nearby, low-metallicity, high-ionization HII regions in dwarf galaxies obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We present the first analysis of the C/O ratio in local galaxies based solely on simultaneous significant detections of the UV O^+2 and C^+2 collisionally excited lines in seven of our targets and five objects from the literature, to create a final sample of 12 significant detections. Our sample is complemented by optical SDSS spectra, from which we measured the nebular physical conditions and oxygen abundances using the direct method. At low metallicity (12+log(O/H) < 8.0), no clear trend is evident in C/O vs. O/...

  17. How accurately can the deuterium abundance be determined?

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Takahara, F

    1997-01-01

    By using a Reverse Monte Carlo technique aimed at the inverse problem in the analysis of the H+D Ly-a absorption from QSO spectra we have estimated the physical parameters of the gas and the large-scale line of sight velocity structure towards Q1009+2956 at z = 2.504 (observations by Burles and Tytler, astro-ph/9603070). We show that for a precise evaluation of the column densities, the detailed velocity field structure is to be determined simultaneously. Our study of the z = 2.504 system yields D/H = (3.75 +/- 0.85)*10^{-5} (2sigma) which gives good agreement between the standard BBN predictions and observational constraints on extra-galactic 4He mass fraction and 7Li abundances in the atmospheres of population II (halo) starts. We conclude that the discordance of D/H with the light element abundances discussed in the literature is a consequence of the assumption of microturbulence (i.e. completely uncorrelated bulk motions) in the analysis of line profiles. The generalized model accounting for a finite corr...

  18. CNO abundances in the Damped Ly-alpha clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Molaro, P

    2003-01-01

    Damped Ly alpha clouds provide information on the chemistry of distant and metal poor regions of the universe. In these clouds for observational difficulties N and O are among the last elements to be measured, and C has still to be measured with precision. In combining the extant CNO abundances, we avail of a sample which includes 33 N measurements or significant limits, a dozen of O measurements, and only few tentative measurements for C. O is found to track both S and Si rather closely without signatures of any peculiar behaviour and the few [O/Zn] ratios available show a mild alpha/iron-peak enhancement which reinforces earlier evidence. The few tentative C measurements point to roughly solar [C/Zn] and [C/Si] ratios. N abundances are rather complex with N/alpha ratios showing a bimodal distribution. The majority of the values form a first plateau at [N/Si]=-0.82 (+/- 0.13) and about 25 % form a second plateau at [N/Si]= -1.45 (+/- 0.05). The high values are at the level of the Blue Compact Dwarfs but they...

  19. Ages and chemical abundances in dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Smecker-Hane, T A; Smecker-Hane, Tammy; William, Andrew Mc

    1999-01-01

    The dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) in the Local Group are excellent systems on which we can test theories of galaxy formation and evolution. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) containing many thousands of stars from the asymptotic giant branch to well below the oldest main-sequence turnoff are being used to infer their star-formation histories, and surprisingly complex evolutionary histories have been deduced. Spectroscopy of individual red giant stars in the dSphs is being used to determine the distribution of chemical abundances in them. By combining photometry and spectroscopy, we can overcome the age-metallicity degeneracy inherent in CMDs and determine the evolution of dSphs with unprecedented accuracy. We report on recent progress and discuss a new and exciting avenue of research, high-dispersion spectroscopy that yields abundances for numerous chemical elements. The later allows us to estimate the enrichment from both Type Ia and Type II supernovae (SNe) and places new limits on how much of the Galaxy ...

  20. Relative nuclear abundances inside ISS with ALTEA-Space experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaconte, Veronica; Casolino, Marco; di Fino, Luca; La Tessa, Chiara; Larosa, Marianna; Narici, Livio; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Rinaldi, Adele; Sannita, Walter G.

    ALTEA (Anomalous Long Term Effects on Astronauts) is a multidisciplinary project aimed at studying the cosmic rays and their effects on the astronauts during the space missions, with a focus on the Light Flashes phenomenon. The ALTEA-Space is the main space experiment of the ALTEA project and its goal is the characterization of the radiation environment inside the International Space Station (ISS). It includes a stack of six silicon telescope particle detectors arranged in a 3D structure, capable to determine the energy loss and the trajectory of the cosmic ray ions. ALTEA-Space is on board the ISS since July 2006 and collected data continuously between August 2006 and July 2007. The first analysis has been performed on particles that release almost constant energy inside the detectors and provides spectra of the quasi relativistic radiation making possible the identification of ions from Boron to Iron. Relative nuclear abundances and absolute fluxes for all discriminated elements are presented, both total and divided into the different geomagnetic regions (polar, equatorial and South Atlantic Anomaly). Abundances are compared with literature values and with data from previous experiments.

  1. Simulation of arthropod abundance from plant composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between arthropod abundance and plant composition is extremely complex. It is very hard to develop a mechanistic model to describe the relationship. This study aimed to simulate arthropod abundance from plant composition on grassland using an artificial neural network developed by the author, and to compare simulation performances between the neural network and conventional models. The results revealed that there were complex interactions between plants and arthropods, and the arthropod abundance on grassland was significantly determined of plant families and their cover-degrees rather than plant species and their cover-degrees. Neural network exhibited a better simulation performance than multivariate regression and response surface model. Cross validation indicated that prediction performance of neural network was also superior to these models. It was concluded that neural network is an effective tool to model arthropod abundance from plant composition on grassland. A moderate dimensionality for input space may be determined to produce a reasonably trained neural network. Such procedures for dimensionality reduction as PCE, etc., were suggested being used in the data treatment in neural network modeling. A high dimensionality for input space and a few samples in the input set would result in the deficient learning of neural network. Randomization procedure for sample submission would help to eliminate the sequence correlation but may result in a worse performance in simulation and prediction. It was suggested that randomization procedure could be used to the sample submission for these situations with a lot of samples and a lower dimensionality.

  2. North Sea Elasmobranchs: distribution, abundance and biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, N.; Heessen, H.J.L.; Hofstede, ter R.

    2005-01-01

    Based on data from various international and national surveys, an overview is given of the fine-scale distribution (resolution of 20¿longitude * 10¿ latitude; ¿ 10*10 nm) and trends in abundance of elasmobranch species reported from the North Sea. Presence-absence maps are produced based on 4 survey

  3. The Galactic Thick Disk Stellar Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Prochaska, J X; Carney, B W; McWilliam, A; Wolfe, A M; Prochaska, Jason X.; Naumov, Sergei O.; Carney, Bruce W.; William, Andrew Mc; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    2000-01-01

    We present first results from a program to measure the chemical abundances of a large (N>30) sample of thick disk stars with the principal goal of investigating the formation history of the Galactic thick disk. Our analysis confirms previous studies of O and Mg in the thick disk stars which reported enhancements in excess of the thin disk population. Furthermore, the observations of Si, Ca, Ti, Mn, Co, V, Zn, Al, and Eu all argue that the thick disk population has a distinct chemical history from the thin disk. With the exception of V and Co, the thick disk abundance patterns match or tend towards the values observed for halo stars with [Fe/H]~-1. This suggests that the thick disk stars had a chemical enrichment history similar to the metal-rich halo stars. With the possible exception of Si, the thick disk abundance patterns are in excellent agreement with the chemical abundances observed in the metal-poor bulge stars suggesting the two populations formed from the same gas reservoir at a common epoch. We disc...

  4. Nitrous Oxide Production by Abundant Benthic Macrofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    that do not ingest large quantities of microorganisms produced insignificant amounts of nitrous oxide. Ephemera danica, a very abundant mayfly larva, was monitored monthly in a nitrate-polluted stream. Nitrous oxide production by this filter-feeder was highly dependent on nitrate availability...

  5. The Abundance of Large Arcs From CLASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingxiao; Postman, Marc; Meneghetti, Massimo; Coe, Dan A.; Clash Team

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an automated arc-finding algorithm to perform a rigorous comparison of the observed and simulated abundance of large lensed background galaxies (a.k.a arcs). We use images from the CLASH program to derive our observed arc abundance. Simulated CLASH images are created by performing ray tracing through mock clusters generated by the N-body simulation calibrated tool -- MOKA, and N-body/hydrodynamic simulations -- MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH X-ray selected sample. We derive a lensing efficiency of 15 ± 3 arcs per cluster for the X-ray selected CLASH sample and 4 ± 2 arcs per cluster for the simulated sample. The marginally significant difference (3.0 σ) between the results for the observations and the simulations can be explained by the systematically smaller area with magnification larger than 3 (by a factor of ˜4) in both MOKA and MUSIC mass models relative to those derived from the CLASH data. Accounting for this difference brings the observed and simulated arc statistics into full agreement. We find that the source redshift distribution does not have big impact on the arc abundance but the arc abundance is very sensitive to the concentration of the dark matter halos. Our results suggest that the solution to the "arc statistics problem" lies primarily in matching the cluster dark matter distribution.

  6. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  7. Abundance of Terrestrial Planets by Microlensing

    OpenAIRE

    Yock, Philip

    2000-01-01

    Terrestrial planets may be detected using the gravitational microlensing technique. This was demonstrated in the high magnification event MACHO-98-BLG-35. Observing strategies aimed at measuring the abundance of terrestrial planets are discussed, using both existing telescopes and planned telescopes.

  8. Chemical Abundances in 35 Metal-Poor Stars. I. Basic Data

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jeong-Deok; Kim, Kang-Min

    2008-01-01

    We carried out a homogeneous abundance study for various elements, including $\\alpha$-elements, iron peak elements and $n$-capture elements for 35 metal-poor stars with a wide metallicity range ($-3.0\\lesssim$[Fe/H]$\\lesssim-0.5$). High-resolution ($R\\simeq30$k), high signal-to-noise($S/N\\geq110$) spectra with a wavelength range of 3800 to 10500 \\AA using the Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph (BOES). Equivalent widths were measured by means of the Gaussian-fitting method for numerous isolated weak lines of elements. Atmospheric parameters were determined by a self-consistent LTE analysis technique using Fe I and Fe II lines. In this study, we present the EWs of lines and atmospheric parameters for 35 metal-poor stars.

  9. Non-Salmonid Abundance - Line Features [ds186

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The CalFish Abundance Database contains a comprehensive collection of anadromous fisheries abundance information. The "Other Fish" category contains data collected...

  10. Abundances of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars as constraints on their formation

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, C J; Hansen, T T; Kennedy, C R; Placco, V M; Beers, T C; Andersen, J; Cescutti, G; Chiappini, C

    2015-01-01

    An increasing fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars is found as their iron abundance, [Fe/H], decreases below [Fe/H] = -2.0. The CEMP-s stars have the highest absolute carbon abundances, [C/H], and are thought to owe their enrichment in carbon and the slow neutron-capture (s-process) elements to mass transfer from a former asymptotic giant-branch (AGB) binary companion. The most Fe-poor CEMP stars are normally single, exhibit somewhat lower [C/H] than CEMP-s stars, but show no s-process element enhancement (CEMP-no stars). CNO abundance determinations offer clues to their formation sites. C, N, Sr, and Ba abundances (or limits) and 12C/13C ratios where possible are derived for a sample of 27 faint metal-poor stars for which the X-shooter spectra have sufficient S/N ratios. These moderate resolution, low S/N (~10-40) spectra prove sufficient to perform limited chemical tagging and enable assignment of these stars into the CEMP sub-classes (CEMP-s and CEMP-no). According to the derived abundances,...

  11. Boron Abundances Across the "Li-Be Dip" in the Hyades

    CERN Document Server

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; King, Jeremy R; Pinsonneault, Marc H; Somers, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic deficiencies of Li in the mid-F dwarf stars of the Hyades cluster were discovered by Boesgaard & Tripicco. Boesgaard & King discovered corresponding, but smaller, deficiencies in Be in the same narrow temperature region in the Hyades. With the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope we investigate B abundances in the Hyades F stars to look for a potential B dip using the B I resonance line at 2496.8 A. The light elements, Li, Be, and B, are destroyed inside stars at increasingly hotter temperatures: 2.5, 3.5, and 5x10^6 K respectively. Consequently, these elements survive to increasingly greater depths in a star and their surface abundances indicate the depth and thoroughness of mixing in the star. We have (re)determined Li abundances/upper limits for 79 Hyades dwarfs, Be for 43 stars, and B in five stars. We find evidence for a small drop in the B abundance across the Li-Be dip. The B abundances for the four stars in the temperature range 6100-6730 K fit the B-Be c...

  12. Chemical abundance analysis of the Open Clusters Berkeley 32, NGC 752, Hyades and Praesepe

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, R

    2011-01-01

    Context. Open clusters are ideal test particles to study the chemical evolution of the Galactic disc. However the existing high-resolution abundance determinations, not only of [Fe/H], but also of other key elements, is largely insufficient at the moment. Aims. To increase the number of Galactic open clusters with high quality abundance determinations, and to gather all the literature determinations published so far. Methods. Using high-resolution (R~30000), high-quality (S/N$>60 per pixel), we obtained spectra for twelve stars in four open clusters with the fiber spectrograph FOCES, at the 2.2 Calar Alto Telescope in Spain. We use the classical equivalent widths analysis to obtain accurate abundances of sixteen elements: Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Mg, Na, Nd, Ni, Sc, Si, Ti, V, Y. Oxygen abundances have been derived through spectral synthesis of the 6300 A forbidden line. Results. We provide the first determination of abundance ratios other than Fe for NGC 752 giants, and ratios in agreement with the litera...

  13. Chemical Abundances for 855 Giants in the Globular Cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139)

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Christian I

    2010-01-01

    We present elemental abundances for 855 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the globular cluster Omega Centauri (w Cen) from spectra obtained with the Blanco 4m telescope and Hydra multifiber spectrograph. The sample includes nearly all RGB stars brighter than V=13.5, and span's w Cen's full metallicity range. The heavy alpha elements (Si, Ca, and Ti) are generally enhanced by ~+0.3 dex, and exhibit a metallicity dependent morphology that may be attributed to mass and metallicity dependent Type II supernova (SN) yields. The heavy alpha and Fe-peak abundances suggest minimal contributions from Type Ia SNe. The light elements (O, Na, and Al) exhibit >0.5 dex abundance dispersions at all metallicities, and a majority of stars with [Fe/H]>-1.6 have [O/Fe], [Na/Fe], and [Al/Fe] abundances similar to those in monometallic globular clusters, as well as O-Na, O-Al anticorrelations and the Na-Al correlation in all but the most metal-rich stars. A combination of pollution from intermediate mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB...

  14. Gradient in the IMF slope and Sodium abundance of M87 with MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiniello, C.; Sarzi, M.; Krajnovic, D.

    2016-06-01

    We present evidence for a radial variation of the stellar initial mass function IMF) in the giant elliptical NGC~4486 based on integral-field MUSE data acquired during the first Science Verification run for this instrument. A steepening of the low-mass end of the IMF towards the centre of this galaxy is necessary to explain the increasing strength of several of the optical IMF sensitive features introduced by Spiniello et al., which we observe in high-quality spectra extracted in annular apertures. The need for a varying slope of the IMF emerges when the strength of these IMF-sensitive features, together with that other classical Lick indices mostly sensitive to stellar metallicity and the bundance of α-elements, are fitted with the state-of-the-art stellar population models from Conroy & van Dokkum and Vazdekis et al., which we modified in order to allow variations in IMF slope, metallicity and α-elements abundance. More specifically, adopting 13-Gyr-old, single-age stellar population models and an unimodal IMF we find that the slope of the latter increases from x=1.8 to x=2.6 in the central 25 arcsec of NGC~4486. Varying IMF accompanied by a metallicity gradient, whereas the abundance of α-element appears constant throughout the MUSE field of view. We found metallicity and α-element abundance gradients perfectly consistent with the literature. A sodium over-abundance is necessary (according to CvD12 models) at all the distances (for all the apertures) and a slight gradient of increasing [Na/Fe] ratio towards the center can be inferred. However, in order to completely break the degeneracies between Na-abundance, total metallicity and IMF variation a more detailed investigation that includes the redder NaI line is required.

  15. Boron Abundances Across the “Li–Be Dip” in the Hyades Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Lum, Michael G.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.; King, Jeremy R.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Somers, Garrett

    2016-10-01

    Dramatic deficiencies of Li in the mid-F dwarf stars of the Hyades cluster were discovered by Boesgaard & Tripicco. Boesgaard & King discovered corresponding, but smaller, deficiencies in Be in the same narrow temperature region in the Hyades. Using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, we investigate B abundances in the Hyades F stars to look for a potential B dip using the B i resonance line at 2496.8 Å. The light elements Li, Be, and B are destroyed inside stars at increasingly hotter temperatures: 2.5, 3.5, and 5 × 106 K, respectively. Consequently, these elements survive to increasingly greater depths in a star and their surface abundances indicate the depth and thoroughness of mixing in the star. We have (re)determined Li abundances/upper limits for 79 Hyades dwarfs, Be for 43 stars, and B for 5 stars. We find evidence for a small drop in the B abundance across the Li–Be dip. The B abundances for the four stars in the temperature range 6100–6730 K fit the B–Be correlation found previously by Boesgaard et al. Models of rotational mixing produce good agreement with the relative depletions of Be and B in the dip region. We have compared our nLTE B abundances for the three high B stars on either side of the Li–Be dip with those found by Duncan et al. for the two Hyades giants. This confirms the factor of 10 decline in the B abundance in the Hyades giants as predicted by dilution due to the deepening of the surface convection zone. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #HST-G0-12294.

  16. Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disk LV2 (Orion): clues to the causes of the abundance anomaly in HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Tsamis, Y G; Vílchez, J M; Péquignot, D

    2010-01-01

    Optical integral field spectroscopy of the archetype protoplanetary disk LV2 in the Orion Nebula is presented, taken with the VLT FLAMES/Argus fibre array. The detection of recombination lines of CII and OII from this class of objects is reported, and the lines are utilized as abundance diagnostics. The study is complemented with the analysis of HST Faint Object Spectrograph ultraviolet and optical spectra of the target contained within the Argus field of view. By subtracting the local nebula background the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd is obtained and its elemental composition is derived for the first time. The proplyd is found to be overabundant in carbon, oxygen and neon compared to the Orion Nebula and the sun. The simultaneous coverage over LV2 of the CIII] 1908-A and [OIII] 5007-A collisionally excited lines (CELs) and CII and OII recombination lines (RLs) has enabled us to measure the abundances of C++ and O++ for LV2 with both sets of lines. The two methods yield consistent results for the intrins...

  17. Rubidium and lead abundances in giant stars of the globular clusters M4 and M5

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, David; Lambert, David L.; Paulson, Diane B.; Carney, Bruce W.

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of the neutron-capture elements Rb and Pb for bright giants in the globular clusters M4 and M5. The clusters are of similar metallicity ([Fe/H] = -1.2) but M4 is decidedly s-process enriched relative to M5: [Ba/Fe] = +0.6 for M4 but 0.0 for M5. The Rb and Pb abundances were derived by comparing synthetic spectra with high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra obtained with MIKE on the Magellan telescope. Abundances of Y, Zr, La, and Eu were also obtained. In M...

  18. A DETAILED LOOK AT CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES IN MAGELLANIC CLOUD PLANETARY NEBULAE. I. THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of elemental abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S, and Ar in Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae (PNe) and focus initially on 14 PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We derive the abundances from a combination of deep, high-dispersion optical spectra, as well as mid-infrared (IR) spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope. A detailed comparison with prior SMC PN studies shows that significant variations in relative emission-line flux determinations among the authors, lead to systematic discrepancies in derived elemental abundances between studies that are ∼>0.15 dex, in spite of similar analysis methods. We use ionic abundances derived from IR emission lines, including those from ionization stages not observable in the optical, to examine the accuracy of some commonly used recipes for ionization correction factors (ICFs). These ICFs, which were developed for ions observed in the optical and ultraviolet, relate ionic abundances to total elemental abundances. We find that most of these ICFs work very well even in the limit of substantially sub-solar metallicities, except for PNe with very high ionization. Our abundance analysis shows enhancements of He and N that are predicted from prior dredge-up processes of the progenitors on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), as well as the well-known correlations among O, Ne, S, and Ar that are little affected by nucleosynthesis in this mass range. We identify MG 8 as an interesting limiting case of a PN central star with a ∼3.5 Msun progenitor in which hot-bottom burning did not occur in its prior AGB evolution. We find no evidence for O depletion in the progenitor AGB stars via the O-N cycle, which is consistent with predictions for lower-mass stars. We also find low S/O ratios relative to SMC H II regions, with a deficit comparable to what has been found for Galactic PNe. Finally, the elemental abundances of one object, SMP-SMC 11, are more typical of SMC H II regions, which raises some doubt about its

  19. Electron Density and Temperature Measurements, and Abundance Anomalies in the Solar Atmosphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anita Mohan; Bhola N. Dwivedi; Enrico Landi

    2000-09-01

    Using spectra obtained from the SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) spectrograph on the spacecraft SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), we investigate the height dependence of electron density, temperature and abundance anomalies in the solar atmosphere. In particular, we present the behaviour of the solar FIP effect (the abundance enhancement of elements with first ionization potential < 10 eV in the corona with respect to photospheric values) with height above an active region observed at the solar limb, with emphasis on the so-called transition region lines.

  20. The chemical composition of red giants in 47 Tucanae. I. Fundamental parameters and chemical abundance patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thygesen, A. O.; Sbordone, L.; Andrievsky, S.; Korotin, S.; Yong, D.; Zaggia, S.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Collet, R.; Asplund, M.; Ventura, P.; D'Antona, F.; Meléndez, J.; D'Ercole, A.

    2014-12-01

    Context. The study of chemical abundance patterns in globular clusters is key importance to constraining the different candidates for intracluster pollution of light elements. Aims: We aim at deriving accurate abundances for a wide range of elements in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) to add new constraints to the pollution scenarios for this particular cluster, expanding the range of previously derived element abundances. Methods: Using tailored 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) atmospheric models, together with a combination of equivalent width measurements, LTE, and NLTE synthesis, we derive stellar parameters and element abundances from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 13 red giant stars near the tip of the RGB. Results: We derive abundances of a total 27 elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Dy). Departures from LTE were taken into account for Na, Al, and Ba. We find a mean [Fe/H] = -0.78 ± 0.07 and [ α/ Fe ] = 0.34 ± 0.03 in good agreement with previous studies. The remaining elements show good agreement with the literature, but including NLTE for Al has a significant impact on the behavior of this key element. Conclusions: We confirm the presence of an Na-O anti-correlation in 47 Tucanae found by several other works. Our NLTE analysis of Al shifts the [Al/Fe] to lower values, indicating that this may be overestimated in earlier works. No evidence of an intrinsic variation is found in any of the remaining elements. Based on observations made with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile (Programmes 084.B-0810 and 086.B-0237).Full Tables 2, 5, and 9 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A108Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Element Distributions In The Crab Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Satterfield, T J; Sibley, A R; MacAlpine, G M; Uomoto, A

    2012-01-01

    Images of the Crab Nebula have been obtained through custom interference filters which transmit emission from the expanding supernova remnant in HI, HeI, HeII, [CI], [NII], [OI], [SII], and [SIII] emission lines. We present both raw and flux-calibrated data. Arrays of 19,440 photoionization models, with extensive input abundance ranges, were matched pixel by pixel to the calibrated data in order to derive corresponding element abundance or mass-fraction distributions for helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. These maps show distinctive structure, and they illustrate regions of gas in which various stages of nucleosynthesis have apparently occurred, including the CNO-cycle, helium-burning, carbon-burning, and oxygen-burning. It is hoped that the calibrated observations and chemical abundance distribution maps will be useful for developing a better understanding of the precursor star evolution and the supernova explosive process.

  2. Deuterium Abundance in Consciousness and Current Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Elizabeth A.

    We utilize the deuterium-hydrogen abundances and their role in setting limits on the mass and other conditions of cosmogenesis and cosmological evolution. We calculate the dependence of a set of physical variables such as density, temperature, energy mass, entropy and other physical variable parameters through the evolution of the universe under the Schwarzschild conditions as a function from early to present time. Reconciliation with the 3°K and missing mass is made. We first examine the Schwarzschild condition; second, the geometrical constraints of a multidimensional Cartesian space on closed cosmologies, and third we will consider the cosmogenesis and evolution of the universe in a multidimensional Cartesian space, obeying the Schwarzschild condition. Implications of this model for matter creation are made. We also examine experimental evidence for closed versus open cosmologies; x-ray detection of the "missing mass" density. Also the interstellar deuterium abundance, along with the value of the Hubble constant set a general criterion on the value of the curvature constant, k. Once the value of the Hubble constant, H is determined, the deuterium abundance sets stringent restrictions on the value of the curvature constant k by an detailed discussion is presented. The experimental evidences for the determination of H and the primary set of coupled equations to determine D abundance is given. 'The value of k for an open, closed, or flat universe will be discussed in terms of the D abundance which will affect the interpretation of the Schwarzschild, black hole universe. We determine cosmology solutions to Einstein's field obeying the Schwarzschild solutions condition. With this model, we can form a reconciliation of the black hole, from galactic to cosmological scale. Continuous creation occurs at the dynamic blackhole plasma field. We term this new model the multiple big bang or "little whimper model". We utilize the deuteriumhydrogen abundances and their role in

  3. The GAPS programme with HARPS-N at TNG. X. Differential abundances in the XO-2 planet-hosting binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazzo, K.; Gratton, R.; Desidera, S.; Lucatello, S.; Sozzetti, A.; Bonomo, A. S.; Damasso, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Affer, L.; Boccato, C.; Borsa, F.; Claudi, R.; Cosentino, R.; Covino, E.; Knapic, C.; Lanza, A. F.; Maldonado, J.; Marzari, F.; Micela, G.; Molaro, P.; Pagano, I.; Pedani, M.; Pillitteri, I.; Piotto, G.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Santos, N. C.; Scandariato, G.; Zanmar Sanchez, R.

    2015-11-01

    Binary stars hosting exoplanets are a unique laboratory where chemical tagging can be performed to measure the elemental abundances of both stellar components with high accuracy, with the aim to investigate the formation of planets and their subsequent evolution. Here, we present a high-precision differential abundance analysis of the XO-2 wide stellar binary based on high-resolution HARPS-N at TNG spectra. Both components are very similar K-dwarfs and host planets. Since they formed presumably within the same molecular cloud, we expect that they possess the same initial elemental abundances. We investigated whether planets can cause some chemical imprints in the stellar atmospheric abundances. We measure abundances of 25 elements for both stars with a range of condensation temperature TC = 40-1741 K, achieving typical precisions of ~0.07 dex. The northern component shows abundances in all elements higher by +0.067 ± 0.032 dex on average, with a mean difference of +0.078 dex for elements with TC > 800 K. The significance of the XO-2N abundance difference relative to XO-2S is at the 2σ level for almost all elements. We discuss that this result might be interpreted as the signature of the ingestion of material by XO-2N or depletion in XO-2S that is due to locking of heavy elements by the planetary companions. We estimate a mass of several tens of M⊕ in heavy elements. The difference in abundances between XO-2N and XO-2S shows a positive correlation with the condensation temperatures of the elements, with a slope of (4.7 ± 0.9) × 10-5 dex K-1, which could mean that both components have not formed terrestrial planets, but first experienced the accretion of rocky core interior to the subsequent giant planets. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), operated on the island of La Palma by the INAF - Fundación Galileo Galilei at the Roche de los Muchachos Observatory of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) in the

  4. Globular Cluster Abundances from High-Resolution Integrated Light Spectra, I: 47 Tuc

    CERN Document Server

    McWilliam, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    We describe the detailed chemical abundance analysis of a high-resolution (R~30,000), integrated-light (IL), spectrum of the core of the Galactic globular cluster (GC) 47 Tuc. This is the first paper in a series in which we develop and demonstrate a method for measuring detailed abundances in spatial unresolved extragalactic GCs. The echelle spectra were taken with the du Pont telescope at Las Campanas observatory. We have computed elemental abundances for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Nd and Eu. Our mean [Fe/H] value (-0.75 +/- 0.03 dex) is in good agreement with the mean of 5 recent high resolution abundance studies of individual stars in 47 Tuc (-0.70 dex). Our typical random errors on [X/Fe] ratios are in the 0.07--0.10 dex range, similar to the dispersion between the different abundance studies of individual stars in 47 Tuc. Only our Na and Al abundances differ from results of these previous studies: Na and Al are enhanced in the IL spectrum, which may reflect prot...

  5. Chemical Abundances in a Sample of Red Giants in the Open Cluster NGC 2420 from APOGEE

    CERN Document Server

    Souto, Diogo; Smith, Verne; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Pinsonneault, Marc; Zamora, Olga; García-Hernández, D Anibal; Bovy, Szabolcs Meszaros Jo; Pérez, Ana Elia García; Anders, Friedrich; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Carrera, Ricardo; Frinchaboy, Peter; Holtzman, Jon; Ivans, Inese; Majewski, Steve; Shetrone, Matthew; Sobeck, Jennifer; Pan, Kaike; Tang, Baitian; Villanova, Sandro; Geisler, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    NGC 2420 is a $\\sim$2 Gyr-old well-populated open cluster that lies about 2 kpc beyond the solar circle, in the general direction of the Galactic anti-center. Most previous abundance studies have found this cluster to be mildly metal-poor, but with a large scatter in the obtained metallicities for this open cluster. Detailed chemical abundance distributions are derived for 12 red-giant members of NGC 2420 via a manual abundance analysis of high-resolution (R = 22,500) near-infrared ($\\lambda$1.5 - 1.7$\\mu$m) spectra obtained from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. The sample analyzed contains 6 stars that are identified as members of the first-ascent red giant branch (RGB), as well as 6 members of the red clump (RC). We find small scatter in the star-to-star abundances in NGC 2420, with a mean cluster abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.16 $\\pm$ 0.04 for the 12 red giants. The internal abundance dispersion for all elements (C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni...

  6. Chemical Abundances of Seven Irregular and Three Tidal Dwarf Galaxies in the M81 Group

    CERN Document Server

    Croxall, Kevin V; Lee, Henry; Skillman, Evan D; Lee, Janice C; Côté, Stéphanie; Kennicutt, Robert C; Miller, Bryan W; 10.1088/0004-637X/705/1/723

    2009-01-01

    We have derived nebular abundances for 10 dwarf galaxies belonging to the M81 Group, including several galaxies which do not have abundances previously reported in the literature. For each galaxy, multiple H \\ii regions were observed with GMOS-N at the Gemini Observatory in order to determine abundances of several elements (oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, neon, and argon). For seven galaxies, at least one H \\ii region had a detection of the temperature sensitive [OIII] $\\lambda$4363 line, allowing a "direct" determination of the oxygen abundance. No abundance gradients were detected in the targeted galaxies and the observed oxygen abundances are typically in agreement with the well known metallicity-luminosity relation. However, three candidate "tidal dwarf" galaxies lie well off this relation, UGC 5336, Garland, and KDG 61. The nature of these systems suggests that UGC 5336 and Garland are indeed recently formed systems, whereas KDG 61 is most likely a dwarf spheroidal galaxy which lies along the same line of sigh...

  7. Stokes IQUV magnetic Doppler imaging of Ap stars - III. Next generation chemical abundance mapping of α2 CVn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G. A.

    2014-10-01

    In a previous paper, we presented an updated magnetic field map for the chemically peculiar star α2 CVn using ESPaDOnS and Narval time-resolved high-resolution Stokes IQUV spectra. In this paper, we focus on mapping various chemical element distributions on the surface of α2 CVn. With the new magnetic field map and new chemical abundance distributions, we can investigate the interplay between the chemical abundance structures and the magnetic field topology on the surface of α2 CVn. Previous attempts at chemical abundance mapping of α2 CVn relied on lower resolution data. With our high-resolution (R = 65 000) data set, we present nine chemical abundance maps for the elements O, Si, Cl, Ti, Cr, Fe, Pr, Nd and Eu. We also derive an updated magnetic field map from Fe and Cr lines in Stokes IQUV and O and Cl in Stokes IV. These new maps are inferred from line profiles in Stokes IV using the magnetic Doppler imaging code INVERS10. We examine these new chemical maps and investigate correlations with the magnetic topology of α2 CVn. We show that chemical abundance distributions vary between elements, with two distinct groups of elements; one accumulates close to the negative part of the radial field, whilst the other group shows higher abundances located where the radial magnetic field is of the order of 2 kG regardless of the polarity of the radial field component. We compare our results with previous works which have mapped chemical abundance structures of Ap stars. With the exception of Cr and Fe, we find no clear trend between what we reconstruct and other mapping results. We also find a lack of agreement with theoretical predictions. This suggests that there is a gap in our theoretical understanding of the formation of horizontal chemical abundance structures and the connection to the magnetic field in Ap stars.

  8. Elemental composition of human and animal milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the elemental composition of human and animal milk with special reference to trace elements determined through nuclear techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA). In the joint IAEA/WHO research project, 16 of the 24 elements under investigation have been analysed by NAA with the aid of advanced research nuclear reactors. Literature data are discussed and tabulated in 50 separate tables (one for each element) mainly for the period after 1950. Each table uses a standard format comprising 10 columns indicating (1) source of milk (e.g. human or animal), (2) status of the milk (colostrum, transitional or mature), (3) country of origin, (4) year of data publication, (5) mean concentration, (6) range of single values or standard deviation of the mean, (7) number of samples analysed, (8) analytical technique employed, (9) literature source of the data, and (10) relevant remarks, if any. The most abundant data refer to the minor elements Ca, Cl, K, Mg, N, Na, P and S and to the trace elements Cu, Fe and Zn. Fewer data are available for Cd, Hg, I, Mn, Pb and Se. For the remaining elements, including such biologically important trace elements as As, Co, Cr, F, Mo, Ni, Si and Sn, very few reliable data so far appear to exist

  9. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements. PMID:20547408

  10. Elemental composition of cosmic ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report first summarizes some data that have been obtained so far from observation of isotopes and elements in cosmic rays in the low energy region. Then, objectives of studies planned to be carried out with Astromag are outlined and the number of incident particles expected to be measured by baloon observation is estimated. Heavy elements with atomic numbers of greater than 30 are considered to be formed through neutron absorption reactions by the s- or r-process. Observations show that products of the r-process is abundant in cosmic ray sources. The escape length depends on energy. In relation to this, it has been reported that the ratios Ar-Fe and Ca-Fe increase above 200 GeV-n while such a tendency is not observed for K, Sc, Ti or V. Thus, no satisfactory models are available at present which can fully explain the changes in the escape length. The ratio 3He-4He in the range of 5 - 10 GeV-n is inconsistent with the general theory that interprets the escape length of heavy elements. Some models, including the supermetallicity model and Wolf Rayet theory, have been proposed to explain unusual ratios of isotopes in cosmic rays, but more measurements are required to verify them. It is expected that Astromag can serve to make observations that can clarify these points. (Nogami, K.)

  11. The primordial deuterium abundance problems and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Kegel, W H; Levshakov, Sergei A.; Takahara, Fumio; Kegel, Wilhelm H.

    1997-01-01

    The current status of extragalactic deuterium abundance is discussed using two examples of `low' and `high' D/H measurements. We show that the discordance of these two types of D abundances may be a consequence of the spatial correlations in the stochastic velocity field. Within the framework of the generalized procedure (accounting for such effects) one finds good agreement between different observations and the theoretical predictions for standard big bang nucleosynthesis (SBBN). In particular, we show that the deuterium absorption seen at z = 2.504 toward Q1009+2956 and the H+D Ly-alpha profile observed at z = 0.701 toward Q1718+4807 are compatible with D/H $\\sim 4.1 - 4.6\\times10^{-5}$. This result supports SBBN and, thus, no inhomogeneity is needed. The problem of precise D/H measurements is discussed.

  12. Attenuation of species abundance distributions by sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Darnell, Ross

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying biodiversity aspects such as species presence/ absence, richness and abundance is an important challenge to answer scientific and resource management questions. In practice, biodiversity can only be assessed from biological material taken by surveys, a difficult task given limited time and resources. A type of random sampling, or often called sub-sampling, is a commonly used technique to reduce the amount of time and effort for investigating large quantities of biological samples. However, it is not immediately clear how (sub-)sampling affects the estimate of biodiversity aspects from a quantitative perspective. This paper specifies the effect of (sub-)sampling as attenuation of the species abundance distribution (SAD), and articulates how the sampling bias is induced to the SAD by random sampling. The framework presented also reveals some confusion in previous theoretical studies. PMID:26064626

  13. The primordial helium abundance from updated emissivities

    CERN Document Server

    Aver, Erik; Porter, R L; Skillman, Evan D

    2013-01-01

    Observations of metal-poor extragalactic H II regions allow the determination of the primordial helium abundance, Y_p. The He I emissivities are the foundation of the model of the H II region's emission. Porter, Ferland, Storey, & Detisch (2012) have recently published updated He I emissivities based on improved photoionization cross-sections. We incorporate these new atomic data and update our recent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of the dataset published by Izotov, Thuan, & Stasinska (2007). As before, cuts are made to promote quality and reliability, and only solutions which fit the data within 95% confidence level are used to determine the primordial He abundance. The previously qualifying dataset is almost entirely retained and with strong concordance between the physical parameters. Overall, an upward bias from the new emissivities leads to a decrease in Y_p. In addition, we find a general trend to larger uncertainties in individual objects (due to changes in the emissivities) and an increase...

  14. NGC 6778: Strengthening the link between extreme abundance discrepancy factors and central star binarity in planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, David; García-Rojas, Jorge; Corradi, Romano L M; Boffin, Henri M J

    2015-01-01

    We present new optical spectra of the nearby, bright, planetary nebula NGC 6778. The nebula has been known to emit strong recombination lines for more than 40 years but this is the first detailed study of its abundances. Heavy element abundances derived from recombination lines are found to exceed those from collisionally excited lines by a factor of ~20 in an integrated spectrum of the nebula, which is among the largest known abundance discrepancy factors. Spatial analysis of the spectra shows that the abundance discrepancy factor is strongly, centrally peaked, reaching ~40 close to the central star. The central star of NGC 6778 is known to be a short period binary, further strengthening the link between high nebular abundance discrepancy factors and central star binarity.

  15. Advances in Atomic Data for Neutron-Capture Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, N C; Esteves, D A; Stancil, P C; Kilcoyne, A L D; Bilodeau, R C; Aguilar, A

    2011-01-01

    Neutron(n)-capture elements (atomic number Z>30), which can be produced in planetary nebula (PN) progenitor stars via s-process nucleosynthesis, have been detected in nearly 100 PNe. This demonstrates that nebular spectroscopy is a potentially powerful tool for studying the production and chemical evolution of trans-iron elements. However, significant challenges must be addressed before this goal can be achieved. One of the most substantial hurdles is the lack of atomic data for n-capture elements, particularly that needed to solve for their ionization equilibrium (and hence to convert ionic abundances to elemental abundances). To address this need, we have computed photoionization cross sections and radiative and dielectronic recombination rate coefficients for the first six ions of Se and Kr. The calculations were benchmarked against experimental photoionization cross section measurements. In addition, we computed charge transfer (CT) rate coefficients for ions of six n-capture elements. These efforts will ...

  16. Water Abundance in Molecular Cloud Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Snell, R L; Ashby, M L N; Bergin, E A; Chin, G; Erickson, N R; Goldsmith, P F; Harwit, M; Kleiner, S C; Koch, D G; Neufeld, D A; Patten, B M; Plume, R; Schieder, R; Stauffer, J R; Tolls, V; Wang, Z; Winnewisser, G; Zhang, Y F; Melnick, G J

    2000-01-01

    We present Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) observations of the 1_{10}-1_{01} transition of ortho-water at 557 GHz toward 12 molecular cloud cores. The water emission was detected in NGC 7538, Rho Oph A, NGC 2024, CRL 2591, W3, W3(OH), Mon R2, and W33, and was not detected in TMC-1, L134N, and B335. We also present a small map of the water emission in S140. Observations of the H_2^{18}O line were obtained toward S140 and NGC 7538, but no emission was detected. The abundance of ortho-water relative to H_2 in the giant molecular cloud cores was found to vary between 6x10^{-10} and 1x10^{-8}. Five of the cloud cores in our sample have previous water detections; however, in all cases the emission is thought to arise from hot cores with small angular extents. The water abundance estimated for the hot core gas is at least 100 times larger than in the gas probed by SWAS. The most stringent upper limit on the ortho-water abundance in dark clouds is provided in TMC-1, where the 3-sigma upper limit on the ...

  17. The shape of terrestrial abundance distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, John

    2015-09-01

    Ecologists widely accept that the distribution of abundances in most communities is fairly flat but heavily dominated by a few species. The reason for this is that species abundances are thought to follow certain theoretical distributions that predict such a pattern. However, previous studies have focused on either a few theoretical distributions or a few empirical distributions. I illustrate abundance patterns in 1055 samples of trees, bats, small terrestrial mammals, birds, lizards, frogs, ants, dung beetles, butterflies, and odonates. Five existing theoretical distributions make inaccurate predictions about the frequencies of the most common species and of the average species, and most of them fit the overall patterns poorly, according to the maximum likelihood-related Kullback-Leibler divergence statistic. Instead, the data support a low-dominance distribution here called the "double geometric." Depending on the value of its two governing parameters, it may resemble either the geometric series distribution or the lognormal series distribution. However, unlike any other model, it assumes both that richness is finite and that species compete unequally for resources in a two-dimensional niche landscape, which implies that niche breadths are variable and that trait distributions are neither arrayed along a single dimension nor randomly associated. The hypothesis that niche space is multidimensional helps to explain how numerous species can coexist despite interacting strongly. PMID:26601249

  18. Stellar Mixing and the Primordial Lithium Abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Pinsonneault, M H; Walker, T P; Narayanan, V K

    2002-01-01

    We compare the properties of recent samples of the lithium abundances in halo stars to one another and to the predictions of theoretical models including rotational mixing, and we examine the data for trends with metal abundance. We find from a KS test that in the absence of any correction for chemical evolution, the Ryan, Norris, & Beers (1999} sample is fully consistent with mild rotational mixing induced depletion and, therefore, with an initial lithium abundance higher than the observed value. Tests for outliers depend sensitively on the threshold for defining their presence, but we find a 10$--$45% probability that the RNB sample is drawn from the rotationally mixed models with a 0.2 dex median depletion (with lower probabilities corresponding to higher depletion factors). When chemical evolution trends (Li/H versus Fe/H) are treated in the linear plane we find that the dispersion in the RNB sample is not explained by chemical evolution; the inferred bounds on lithium depletion from rotational mixing...

  19. How selection structures species abundance distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magurran, Anne E.; Henderson, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    How do species divide resources to produce the characteristic species abundance distributions seen in nature? One way to resolve this problem is to examine how the biomass (or capacity) of the spatial guilds that combine to produce an abundance distribution is allocated among species. Here we argue that selection on body size varies across guilds occupying spatially distinct habitats. Using an exceptionally well-characterized estuarine fish community, we show that biomass is concentrated in large bodied species in guilds where habitat structure provides protection from predators, but not in those guilds associated with open habitats and where safety in numbers is a mechanism for reducing predation risk. We further demonstrate that while there is temporal turnover in the abundances and identities of species that comprise these guilds, guild rank order is conserved across our 30-year time series. These results demonstrate that ecological communities are not randomly assembled but can be decomposed into guilds where capacity is predictably allocated among species. PMID:22787020

  20. Aerial survey estimates of fallow deer abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogan, Peter J.; Gates, Natalie B.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Pettit, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the distribution and abundance of an ungulate species is essential prior to establishing and implementing a management program. We used ground surveys to determine distribution and ground and aerial surveys and individually marked deer to estimate the abundance of fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-coastal California. Fallow deer had limited distribution and heterogeneous densities. Estimated post-rut densities across 4 annual surveys ranged from a low of 1.4 (SE=0.2) deer/km2 to a high of 3.3 (se=0.5) deer/km2 in a low density stratum and from 49.0 (SE=8.3) deer/km2 to 111.6 deer/km2 in a high density stratum. Sightability was positively influenced by the presence of white color-phase deer in a group and group size, and varied between airial and ground-based observers and by density strata. Our findings underscore the utility of double-observer surveys and aerial surveys with individually marked deer, both incorporating covariates to model sightability, to estimate deer abundance.

  1. CH abundance gradient in TMC-1

    CERN Document Server

    Suutarinen, Aleksi; Harju, Jorma; Heikkilä, Arto; Hotzel, Stephan; Juvela, Mika; Millar, Tom J; Walsh, Catherina; Wouterloot, Jan Gerard Amos

    2011-01-01

    We observed the 9-cm Lambda-doubling lines of CH along the dense filament of TMC-1. The CH column densities were compared with the total H2 column densities derived using the 2MASS NIR data and previously published SCUBA maps and with OH column densities derived using previous observations with Effelsberg. We also modelled the chemical evolution of TMC-1 adopting physical conditions typical of dark clouds using the UMIST Database for Astrochemistry gas-phase reaction network to aid the interpretation of the observed OH/CH abundance ratios. The CH column density has a clear peak in the vicinity of the cyanopolyyne maximum of TMC-1. The fractional CH abundance relative to H2 increases steadily from the northwestern end of the filament where it lies around 1.0e-8, to the southeast where it reaches a value of 2.0e-8. The OH and CH column densities are well correlated, and we obtained OH/CH abundance ratios of ~ 16 - 20. These values are clearly larger than what has been measured recently in diffuse interstellar g...

  2. Genesis of the heaviest elements in the Milky Way Galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J

    2003-01-01

    We review the origin and evolution of the heavy elements, those with atomic numbers greater than 30, in the early history of the Milky Way. There is a large star-to-star bulk scatter in the concentrations of heavy elements with respect to the lighter metals, which suggests an early chemically unmixed and inhomogeneous Galaxy. The relative abundance patterns among the heavy elements are often very different from the solar system mix, revealing the characteristics of the first element donors in the Galaxy. Abundance comparisons among several halo stars show that the heaviest neutron-capture elements (including barium and heavier) are consistent with a scaled solar system rapid neutron-capture abundance distribution, whereas the lighter such elements do not conform to the solar pattern. The stellar abundances indicate an increasing contribution from the slow neutron-capture process (s-process) at higher metallicities in the Galaxy. The detection of thorium in halo and globular cluster stars offers a promising, independent age-dating technique that can put lower limits on the age of the Galaxy.

  3. Galactic abundance gradients from Cepheids : On the iron abundance gradient around 10-12 kpc

    OpenAIRE

    Lemasle, B.; Francois, P.; Piersimoni, A.; Pedicelli, S.; Bono, G.; Laney, C. D.; Primas, F.; Romaniello, M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Classical Cepheids can be adopted to trace the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk since their distances can be estimated with very high accuracy. Aims: Homogeneous iron abundance measurements for 33 Galactic Cepheids located in the outer disk together with accurate distance determinations based on near-infrared photometry are adopted to constrain the Galactic iron gradient beyond 10 kpc. Methods: Iron abundances were determined using high resolution Cepheid spectra collected wit...

  4. H{sub 2}O ABUNDANCES IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF THREE HOT JUPITERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Hedges, Christina [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Crouzet, Nicolas; McCullough, Peter R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: nmadhu@ast.cam.ac.uk [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    The core accretion theory for giant planet formation predicts enrichment of elemental abundances in planetary envelopes caused by runaway accretion of planetesimals, which is consistent with measured super-solar abundances of C, N, P, S, Xe, and Ar in Jupiter's atmosphere. However, the abundance of O, which is expected to be the most dominant constituent of planetesimals, is unknown for solar system giant planets, owing to the condensation of water in their ultra-cold atmospheres, thereby posing a key unknown in solar system formation. On the other hand, hundreds of extrasolar ''hot Jupiters'' are known with very high temperatures (≥1000 K), making them excellent targets to measure H{sub 2}O abundances and, hence, oxygen in their atmospheres. We constrain the atmospheric H{sub 2}O abundances in three hot Jupiters (HD 189733b, HD 209458b, and WASP-12b), spanning a wide temperature range (1200-2500 K), using their near-infrared transmission spectra obtained using the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We report conclusive measurements of H{sub 2}O in HD 189733b and HD 209458b, while that in WASP-12b is not well constrained by present data. The data allow nearly solar as well as significantly sub-solar abundances in HD 189733b and WASP-12b. However, for HD 209458b, we report the most precise H{sub 2}O measurement in an exoplanet to date that suggests a ∼20-135 × sub-solar H{sub 2}O abundance. We discuss the implications of our results on the formation conditions of hot Jupiters and on the likelihood of clouds in their atmospheres. Our results highlight the critical importance of high-precision spectra of hot Jupiters for deriving their H{sub 2}O abundances.

  5. The Ekamanganese elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent study tends to revalidate the search for element 43 done in 1925. In ores with properties similar to the hypothetical chemical properties of the missing elements 43 and 75, the unknown elements were concentrated by chemical means. Roentgen-ray spectroscopy was applied in order to observe the characteristic Roentgen L lines for element 75 and K lines for element 43. Element 43 was observed in sperrylith, gadolinit, fergusonit and columbit. The name masurium was proposed. Similarly, element 75 was observed in tantalit, wolframit and platinit. The name rhenium was chosen. (MCB)

  6. Abundant Solar Nebula Solids in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Clemett, S.

    2016-01-01

    Comets have been proposed to consist of unprocessed interstellar materials together with a variable amount of thermally annealed interstellar grains. Recent studies of cometary solids in the laboratory have shown that comets instead consist of a wide range of materials from across the protoplanetary disk, in addition to a minor complement of interstellar materials. These advances were made possible by the return of direct samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 coma dust by the NASA Stardust mission and recent advances in microscale analytical techniques. Isotopic studies of 'cometary' chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and comet 81P/Wild 2 Stardust samples show that preserved interstellar materials are more abundant in comets than in any class of meteorite. Identified interstellar materials include sub-micron-sized presolar silicates, oxides, and SiC dust grains and some fraction of the organic material that binds the samples together. Presolar grain abundances reach 1 weight percentage in the most stardust-rich CP-IDPs, 50 times greater than in meteorites. Yet, order of magnitude variations in presolar grain abundances among CP-IDPs suggest cometary solids experienced significant variations in the degree of processing in the solar nebula. Comets contain a surprisingly high abundance of nebular solids formed or altered at high temperatures. Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples include 10-40 micron-sized, refractory Ca- Al-rich inclusion (CAI)-, chondrule-, and ameboid olivine aggregate (AOA)-like materials. The O isotopic compositions of these refractory materials are remarkably similar to their meteoritic counterparts, ranging from 5 percent enrichments in (sup 16) O to near-terrestrial values. Comet 81P/Wild 2 and CP-IDPs also contain abundant Mg-Fe crystalline and amorphous silicates whose O isotopic compositions are also consistent with Solar System origins. Unlike meteorites, that are dominated by locally-produced materials, comets appear to be composed of

  7. ISO spectroscopy of compact HII regions in the Galaxy - II. Ionization and elemental abundances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; Peeters, E; Morisset, C; Tielens, AGGM; Cox, P; Roelfsema, PR; Baluteau, JP; Schaerer, D; Mathis, JS; Damour, F; Churchwell, E; Kessler, MF

    2002-01-01

    Based on the ISO spectral catalogue of compact H II regions by Peeters et al. (2002), we present a first analysis of the hydrogen recombination and atomic fine-structure lines originated in the ionized gas. The sample consists of 34 H II regions located at galactocentric distances between R-Gal = 0

  8. Dependence of Nebular Heavy-element Abundance on H I Content for Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Paul; Shields, Gregory A.; Davé, Romeel; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Wright, Audrey

    2013-08-01

    We analyze the galactic H I content and nebular log (O/H) for 60 spiral galaxies in the Moustakas et al. (2006a) spectral catalog. After correcting for the mass-metallicity relationship, we show that the spirals in cluster environments show a positive correlation for log (O/H) on DEF, the galactic H I deficiency parameter, extending the results of previous analyses of the Virgo and Pegasus I clusters. Additionally, we show for the first time that galaxies in the field obey a similar dependence. The observed relationship between H I deficiency and galactic metallicity resembles similar trends shown by cosmological simulations of galaxy formation including inflows and outflows. These results indicate the previously observed metallicity-DEF correlation has a more universal interpretation than simply a cluster's effects on its member galaxies. Rather, we observe in all environments the stochastic effects of metal-poor infall as minor mergers and accretion help to build giant spirals.

  9. Dependence of Nebular Heavy-Element Abundance on H I Content for Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Paul; Davé, Romeel; Blanc, Guillermo A; Wright, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the galactic H I content and nebular log(O/H) for 60 spiral galaxies in the Moustakas et al. (2006) spectral catalog. After correcting for the mass-metallicity relationship, we show that the spirals in cluster environments show a positive correlation for log(O/H) on DEF, the galactic H I deficiency parameter, extending the results of previous analyses of the Virgo and Pegasus I clusters. Additionally, we show for the first time that galaxies in the field obey a similar dependence. The observed relationship between H I deficiency and galactic metallicity resembles similar trends shown by cosmological simulations of galaxy formation including inflows and outflows. These results indicate the previously observed metallicity-DEF correlation has a more universal interpretation than simply a cluster's effects on its member galaxies. Rather, we observe in all environments the stochastic effects of metal-poor infall as minor mergers and accretion help to build giant spirals.

  10. Elemental Abundances in the Broad Emission Line Region of Quasars at Redshifts larger than 4

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Hamann, F; Heidt, J; Jäger, K; Vestergaard, M; Wagner, S J

    2003-01-01

    We present observations of 11 high redshift quasars ($3.9 \\la z \\la 5.0$) observed with low spectral resolution in the restframe ultraviolet using FORS 1 at the VLT UT 1. The emission-line fluxes of strong permitted and intercombination ultraviolet emission lines are measured to estimate the chemical composition of the line emitting gas. Comparisons to photoionization calculations indicate gas metallicities in the broad emission line region in the range of solar to several times solar. The average of the mean metallicity of each high-z quasar in this sample is $Z/Z_\\odot = 4.3 \\pm 0.3$. Assuming a chemical evolution time scale of $\\tau_{evol} \\simeq 0.5 - 0.8$ Gyrs, we derive a redshift of $z_f \\simeq 6 {\\rm to} 8$ for the onset of the first major star formation episode (H$_o = 65$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, $\\Omega_M = 0.3$, $\\Omega_\\Lambda = 0.7$), corresponding to an age of the universe of several $10^8$ yrs at this epoch. We note that this epoch is also supposed to be the era of re-ionization of the universe...

  11. Elemental Abundances in the Broad Emission Line Region of Quasars at Redshifts larger than 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Appenzeller, I.; Hamann, F.;

    2003-01-01

    We present observations of 11 high redshift quasars ($3.9 \\la z \\la 5.0$) observed with low spectral resolution in the restframe ultraviolet using FORS 1 at the VLT UT 1. The emission-line fluxes of strong permitted and intercombination ultraviolet emission lines are measured to estimate the chem......We present observations of 11 high redshift quasars ($3.9 \\la z \\la 5.0$) observed with low spectral resolution in the restframe ultraviolet using FORS 1 at the VLT UT 1. The emission-line fluxes of strong permitted and intercombination ultraviolet emission lines are measured to estimate...

  12. Abundances of rare earth elements in crude oils and their partitions in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterns of the entire range of REE in crude oils and coexisting water, collected from mud volcanoes in Xinjiang Province of China, are reported here for the first time. Crude oils show light REE enriched patterns with flat or depleted patterns in heavy REE, when normalized to chondrite. The REE concentrations in crude oils are larger than those in coexisting water by a factor of more than one hundred. Considering the hydrophobicity of oil and the high ionic characteristics of REE, it is strongly suggested that REE form complexes with ligands present in the crude oils. Based on the 13C NMR spectroscopy, it is found that small amounts of phenol and carboxyl groups are contained in the crude oil samples, which could possibly provide complexing sites for REE. REE patterns of crude oils are similar to those of coexisting mud samples collected from the same mud volcanoes, which suggests that the REE in crude oils are derived from rocks and sediments where crude oils were generated. (author)

  13. Elemental Abundances in the Possible Type Ia Supernova Remnant G344.7-0.1

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Tanaka, Masaomi; Maeda, Keiichi; Slane, Patrick O.; Foster, Adam; Smith, Randall K.; Katsuda, Satoru; Yoshii, Rie

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G344.7-0.1 have commonly claimed its origin to be a core-collapse supernova (SN) explosion, based on its highly asymmetric morphology and/or proximity to a star forming region. In this paper, however, we present an X-ray spectroscopic study of this SNR using Suzaku, which is supportive of a Type Ia origin. Strong K-shell emission from lowly ionized Fe has clearly been detected, and its origin is determined, for the first time, to be the F...

  14. Spectroscopic Studies of Extremly Metal-Poor Stars with Subaru/HDS:II.The r-process Elements, Including Thorium

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, S; Kajino, T; Ando, H; Beers, T C; Izumiura, H; Sadakane, K; Takada-Hidai, M

    2004-01-01

    We present the abundance analyses for the neutron-capture elements, and discuss the observed abundance distributions in very metal-poor stars with excesses of r-process elements. As has been found by previous abundance studies, the star-to-star scatter in the abundances of neutron-capture elements are very large. The abundance patterns of the heavy neutron-capture elements (56 $\\leq$ Z $\\leq$ 70) in seven objects with moderate to large excesses of the neutron-capture elements are similar to that of the solar system r-process component. These results strongly suggest that the heavy neutron-capture elements in these objects are primarily synthesized by the r-process. On the other hand, the abundance ratios of the light neutron-capture elements (38 $\\leq$ Z $\\leq$ 46) exhibit a rather large dispersion. Our inspection of the correlation between Sr and Ba abundances in very metal-poor stars reveals that the dispersion of the Sr abundances clearly decreases with increasing Ba abundance. This results support previou...

  15. Opacity of Hot and Dense Stellar Material: Flexible for Changes in Composition and Abundance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菲鹿; 赵刚; 袁建民

    2003-01-01

    Opacity of stellar materials with the composition and relative abundance specified according to sun has been calculated by using an average-atom scheme, which is designed to treat electronic structures of atoms and ions in a mixture. Different relative abundances of the metallic elements are considered. Comparisons between the present results and those of OPAL are made for the opacity to show that the difference is less than 10% for most cases and less than 30% for the largest point with the density of 1.0g/cm3 and temperatures from 50 to 6000eV.In view of the simplicity of the present approach, it is quite flexible to apply the method to different models of the stellar materials with changes in composition as well as in relative abundance.

  16. Detecting X-ray Synchrotron Emission in Supernova Remnants Implications for Abundances and Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dyer, K K; Borkowski, K J; Petre, R; Dyer, Kristy K.; Reynolds, Stephen P; Borkowski, Kazik J.; Petre, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The 10^51 ergs released in a supernova have far reaching consequences in the galaxy, determining elemental abundances, accelerating cosmic rays, and affecting the makeup of the interstellar medium. Recently the spectra of several supernova remnants have been found to be dominated by nonthermal emission. Separating the thermal and nonthermal components is important not only for the understanding of cosmic-ray acceleration and shock microphysics properties but for accurate assessment of the temperatures and line strengths. New models designed to model spatially resolved synchrotron X-rays from type Ia supernovae can contribute to the understanding of both the thermal physics (dynamics, abundances) and nonthermal physics (shock acceleration, magnetic-field amplification) of supernova remnants. I will describe model fits to SN 1006, emphasizing the physical constraints that can be placed on SNRs, abundances, and the cosmic-ray acceleration process.

  17. Non-explosive hydrogen and helium burnings: abundance predictions from the NACRE reaction rate compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.; Jorissen, A.

    1999-07-01

    The abundances of the isotopes of the elements from C to Al produced by the non-explosive CNO, NeNa and MgAl modes of hydrogen burning, as well as by helium burning, are calculated with the thermonuclear rates recommended by the European compilation of reaction rates for astrophysics (NACRE). The impact of nuclear physics uncertainties on the derived abundances is discussed in the framework of a simple parametric astrophysical model. These calculations have the virtue of being a guide in the selection of the nuclear uncertainties that have to be duly analyzed in detailed model stars, particularly in order to perform meaningful confrontations between abundance observations and predictions. They are also hoped to help nuclear astrophysicists pinpointing the rate uncertainties that have to be reduced most urgently. An electronic version of this paper, with colour figures, is available at {\\it http://astro.ulb.ac.be}

  18. Chemical abundances of the high-latitude Herbig Ae Star PDS2

    CERN Document Server

    Cowley, C R; Przybilla, N

    2014-01-01

    The Herbig Ae star PDS2 (CD -53 251) is unusual in several ways. It has a high Galactic latitude, unrelated to any known star-forming region. It is at the cool end of the Herbig Ae sequence, where favorable circumstances facilitate the determination of stellar parameters and chemical abundances. We find $T_{\\rm eff} = 6500$ K, and $\\log(g) = 3.5$. The relatively low $v\\cdot\\sin(i) = 12\\pm2$ \\kms made it possible to use mostly weak lines for the abundances. PDS2 appears to belong to the class of Herbig Ae stars with normal volatile and depleted involatile elements. This pattern is seen not only in $\\lambda$ Boo stars, but in some post AGB and RV Tauri stars. The appearance of the same abundance pattern in young stars and highly evolved giants strengthens the hypothesis of gas-grain separation for its origin. The intermediate volatile zinc can violate the pattern of depleted volatiles.

  19. HST/STIS abundances in the uranium rich metal poor star CS 31082-001: Constraints on the r-Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Mello, C.; Spite, M.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, F.; Caffau, E.; Hill, V.; Wanajo, S.; Primas, F.; Plez, B.; Cayrel, R.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Sneden, C.; Beers, T. C.; Bonifacio, P.; François, P.; Molaro, P.

    2016-01-01

    As a brief revision, the origin of heavy elements and the role of abundances in extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars are presented. Heavy element abundances in the EMP uranium-rich star CS 31082-001 based mainly on near-UV spectra from STIS/HST are presented. These results should be useful for a better characterisation of the neutron exposure(s) that produced the r-process elements in this star, as well as a guide for improving nuclear data and astrophysical site modelling, given that the new element abundances not available in previous works (Ge, Mo, Lu, Ta, W, Re, Pt, Au, and Bi) make CS 31082-001 the most completely well studied r-II object, with a total of 37 detections of n-capture elements.

  20. New insights on Ba over-abundance in open clusters. Evidence for the intermediate neutron-capture process at play?

    CERN Document Server

    Mishenina, T; Carraro, G; Kovtyukh, V; Monaco, L; Korotin, S; Shereta, E; Yegorova, I; Herwig, F

    2014-01-01

    Recently an increasing number of studies were devoted to measure the abundances of neutron-capture elements heavier than iron in stars belonging to Galactic Open Clusters (OCs). OCs span a sizeable range in metallicity -0.6<[Fe/H]<+0.4), and they show abundances of light elements similar to disk stars of the same age. A different pattern is observed for heavy elements. A large scatter is observed for Ba, with most OCs showing [Ba/Fe] and [Ba/La] overabundant with respect to the Sun. The origin of this overabundance is not clearly understood. With the goal of providing new observational insights we determined radial velocities, atmospheric parameters and chemical composition of 27 giant stars members of five OCs: Cr 110, Cr 261, NGC 2477, NGC 2506 and NGC 5822. We used high-resolution spectra obtained with the UVES spectrograph at ESO Paranal. We perform a detailed spectroscopic analysis of these stars to measure the abundance of up to 22 elements per star. We study the dependence of element abundance on...