WorldWideScience

Sample records for abstract empirical evidence

  1. Empirical Evidence from Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Empirical results reveal that consumption of sugar in. Kenya varies ... experiences in trade in different regions of the world. Some studies ... To assess the relationship between domestic sugar retail prices and sugar sales in ...

  2. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years sp...

  3. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  4. Practice management: observations, issues, and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H M; Braithwaite, J

    2001-02-01

    The primary objective of this study is to provide objective, empirical, evidence-based practice management information. This is a hitherto under-researched area of considerable interest for both the practitioner and educator. A questionnaire eliciting a mix of structured and free text responses was administered to a random sample of 480 practitioners who are members of the American Academy of Periodontology. Potential respondents not in private practice were excluded and the next listed person substituted. The results provide demographic and descriptive information about some of the main issues and problems facing practice managers, central to which are information technology (IT), financial, people management, and marketing. Human resource and marketing management appear to represent the biggest challenges. Periodontists running practices would prefer more information, development, and support in dealing with IT, finance, marketing, and people management. The empirical evidence reported here suggests that although tailored educational programs on key management issues at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels have become ubiquitous, nevertheless some respondents seek further training opportunities. Evidence-based practice management information will be invaluable to the clinician considering strategic and marketing planning, and also for those responsible for the design and conduct of predoctoral and postdoctoral programs.

  5. Computational mate choice: theory and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Sergio; Cadeddu, Giorgia; Cermelli, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The present review is based on the thesis that mate choice results from information-processing mechanisms governed by computational rules and that, to understand how females choose their mates, we should identify which are the sources of information and how they are used to make decisions. We describe mate choice as a three-step computational process and for each step we present theories and review empirical evidence. The first step is a perceptual process. It describes the acquisition of evidence, that is, how females use multiple cues and signals to assign an attractiveness value to prospective mates (the preference function hypothesis). The second step is a decisional process. It describes the construction of the decision variable (DV), which integrates evidence (private information by direct assessment), priors (public information), and value (perceived utility) of prospective mates into a quantity that is used by a decision rule (DR) to produce a choice. We make the assumption that females are optimal Bayesian decision makers and we derive a formal model of DV that can explain the effects of preference functions, mate copying, social context, and females' state and condition on the patterns of mate choice. The third step of mating decision is a deliberative process that depends on the DRs. We identify two main categories of DRs (absolute and comparative rules), and review the normative models of mate sampling tactics associated to them. We highlight the limits of the normative approach and present a class of computational models (sequential-sampling models) that are based on the assumption that DVs accumulate noisy evidence over time until a decision threshold is reached. These models force us to rethink the dichotomy between comparative and absolute decision rules, between discrimination and recognition, and even between rational and irrational choice. Since they have a robust biological basis, we think they may represent a useful theoretical tool for

  6. Analyzing Mathematics Textbooks through a Constructive-Empirical Perspective on Abstraction: The Case of Pythagoras' Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Lin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at analyzing how Pythagoras' theorem is handled in three versions of Taiwanese textbooks using a conceptual framework of a constructive-empirical perspective on abstraction, which comprises three key attributes: the generality of the object, the connectivity of the subject and the functionality of diagrams as the focused semiotic…

  7. Governance and Human Development: Empirical Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study empirically investigates the effects of governance on human development in Nigeria. Using annual time series data covering the period 1998 to 2010, obtained from various sources, and employing the classical least squares estimation technique, the study finds that corruption, foreign aid and government ...

  8. Analogical scaffolding and the learning of abstract ideas in physics: Empirical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah S. Podolefsky

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we proposed a model of student reasoning which combines the roles of representation, analogy, and layering of meaning—analogical scaffolding [Podolefsky and Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 010109 (2007]. The present empirical studies build on this model to examine its utility and demonstrate the vital intertwining of representation, analogy, and conceptual learning in physics. In two studies of student reasoning using analogy, we show that representations couple to students’ existing prior knowledge and also lead to the dynamic formation of new knowledge. Students presented with abstract, concrete, or blended (both abstract and concrete representations produced markedly different response patterns. In the first study, using analogies to scaffold understanding of electromagnetic (EM waves, students in the blend group were more likely to reason productively about EM waves than students in the abstract group by as much as a factor of 3 (73% vs 24% correct, p=0.002. In the second study, examining representation use within one domain (sound waves, the blend group was more likely to reason productively about sound waves than the abstract group by as much as a factor of 2 (48% vs 23% correct, p=0.002. Using the analogical scaffolding model we examine when and why students succeed and fail to use analogies and interpret representations appropriately.

  9. Analogical scaffolding and the learning of abstract ideas in physics: Empirical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah D. Finkelstein

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we proposed a model of student reasoning which combines the roles of representation, analogy, and layering of meaning—analogical scaffolding [Podolefsky and Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 010109 (2007]. The present empirical studies build on this model to examine its utility and demonstrate the vital intertwining of representation, analogy, and conceptual learning in physics. In two studies of student reasoning using analogy, we show that representations couple to students’ existing prior knowledge and also lead to the dynamic formation of new knowledge. Students presented with abstract, concrete, or blended (both abstract and concrete representations produced markedly different response patterns. In the first study, using analogies to scaffold understanding of electromagnetic (EM waves, students in the blend group were more likely to reason productively about EM waves than students in the abstract group by as much as a factor of 3 (73% vs 24% correct, p=0.002 . In the second study, examining representation use within one domain (sound waves, the blend group was more likely to reason productively about sound waves than the abstract group by as much as a factor of 2 (48% vs 23% correct, p=0.002 . Using the analogical scaffolding model we examine when and why students succeed and fail to use analogies and interpret representations appropriately.

  10. Managerial Career Patterns: A Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkenburg, Claartje J.; Weber, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous presence of the term "career patterns" in the discourse about careers, the existing empirical evidence on (managerial) career patterns is rather limited. From this literature review of 33 published empirical studies of managerial and similar professional career patterns found in electronic bibliographic databases, it is…

  11. Managerial Career Patterns: A Review of the Empirical Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkenburg, C.J.; Weber, T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous presence of the term "career patterns" in the discourse about careers, the existing empirical evidence on (managerial) career patterns is rather limited. From this literature review of 33 published empirical studies of managerial and similar professional career patterns found

  12. On the Empirical Evidence of Mutual Fund Strategic Risk Taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goriaev, A.P.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    We reexamine empirical evidence on strategic risk-taking behavior by mutual fund managers.Several studies suggest that fund performance in the first semester of a year influences risk-taking in the second semester.However, we show that previous empirical studies implicitly assume that idiosyncratic

  13. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Western Theories of War Ethics and Contemporary Controversies Li Xiaodong U Ruijing (4) [ Abstract] In the field of international relations, war ethics is a concept with distinct westem ideological color. Due to factors of history and reality, the in

  14. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleakley CM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chris M Bleakley,1 François Bieuzen,2 Gareth W Davison,1 Joseph T Costello3 1Sport and Exercise Science Research Institute, Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland; 2Research Department, Laboratory of Sport, Expertise and Performance, French National Institute of Sport (INSEP, Paris, France; 3School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia Abstract: Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC involves short exposures to air temperatures below –100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable

  15. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    Supplementary Short Board: Orderly Cultivate Housing Leasing Market WANG Guangtao (Former Minister of Ministry of Construction) Abstract: In December 2016, Central Economic Work Conference proposed that to promote the steady and healthy development of the real estate market, it should adhere to the “house is used to live, not used to speculate” position. At present, the development of housing leasing market in China is lagging behind. It is urgent to improve the housing conditions of large cities and promote the urbanization of small and medium-sized cities. Therefore, it is imperative to innovate and supplement the short board to accelerate the development of housing leasing market.

  16. Explaining foreign ownership by comparative and competitive advantage. Empirical evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellak, Christian

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the determinants of foreign ownership in manufacturing industries. Foreign ownership, according to the theory of international production, is the result of the combination of comparative and competitive advantage. An adequate examination of the ownership structure of an industry requires the ability to establish empirically the extent to which international competitiveness of firms rests on comparative and competitive advantage. Analysis is based on a...

  17. Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Strategic Realism: An Option for China' s Grand Strategy Song Dexing (4) [ Abstract] As a non-Western emerging power, China should positively adapt its grand strategy to the strategic psychological traits in the 21st century, maintain a realist tone consistent with the national conditions of China, and avoid adventurist policies while awaring both strategic strength and weakness. In the 21st century, China' s grand strategy should be based on such core values as security, development, peace and justice, especially focusing on development in particular, which we named "strategic realism". Given the profound changes in China and the world, strategic realism encourages active foreign policy to safe- guard the long-term national interests of China. Following the self-help logic and the fun- damental values of security and prosperity, strategic realism concerns national interests as its top-priority. It advocates smart use of power, and aims to achieve its objectives by optimizing both domestic and international conditions. From the perspective of diplomatic phi- losophy, strategic realism is not a summarization of concrete policies but a description of China' s grand strategy orientations in the new century. [ Key Words] China, grand strategy, strategic realism [ Author]Song Dexing, Professor, Ph.D. Supervisor, and Director of the Center for International Strategic Studies, University of International Studies of PLA.

  18. ABSTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Stefano Sabino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe and to analyze the integration observed in the Sintonia project with respect to the comparison of project management processes to the model of the Stage-Gate ®. The literature addresses these issues conceptually, but lack an alignment between them that is evident in practice. As a method was used single case study. The report is as if the Sintonia project, developed by PRODESP - Data Processing Company of São Paulo. The results show the integration of project management processes with the Stage-Gate model developed during the project life cycle. The formalization of the project was defined in stages in which allowed the exploitation of economies of repetition and recombination to the development of new projects. This study contributes to the technical vision in dealing with the integration of project management processes. It was concluded that this system represents an attractive way, in terms of creating economic value and technological innovation for the organization.

  19. Innovation and productivity: empirical evidence for Brazilian industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to carry out an empirical investigation into the relationship between innovation and the productive performance of Brazilian businesses measured by Work Productivity and Total Factor Productivity. Data taken from the Research of Innovation and estimated cross section models and panel data was used. The results suggest that innovation produces an incipient impact on competition in the national industry, reflected in the small magnitude of coefficients associated with the diverse indicators of innovation.

  20. Labor market deregulation and globalization: empirical evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Potrafke , Niklas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper empirically investigates the influence of globalization on various aspects of labor market deregulation. I employ the data set by Bassanini and Duval (2006) on labor market institutions in OECD countries and the KOF index of globalization. The data set covers 20 OECD countries in the 1982?2003 period. The results suggest that globalization did neither influence the unemployment replacement rate, the unemployment benefit length, public expenditures on ALMP, the t...

  1. Factors Affecting Quality of Audit; Empirical Evidence from Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines factors affecting quality of audit using empirical evidence from Iran Quality of audit was seen as the degree to which an audit report is free from deficiencies and distortions which show up later on. The quality of an audit was measured in terms of an auditor's ability to report financial distortions willingly ...

  2. Empirical Evidence or Intuition? An Activity Involving the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overway, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Students need to have basic understanding of scientific method during their introductory science classes and for this purpose an activity was devised which involved a game based on famous Monty Hall game problem. This particular activity allowed students to banish or confirm their intuition based on empirical evidence.

  3. Falling Standards of Education in Nigeria: An Empirical Evidence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Falling Standards of Education in Nigeria: An Empirical Evidence in Delta State of Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... the results are often devastating leading especially to poor quality output and wastage which in ... annual budget, inculcation of the tenets of traditional education, and utilization of research ...

  4. ICT Pathways to Poverty Reduction: Empirical Evidence from East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-01-14

    Jan 14, 2014 ... This book provides new empirical evidence on access to and use of ... English · Français ... Overall, the study concluded that ICTs make a difference to the ... staff of development agencies working on livelihoods for the poor.

  5. Judgments under competition and uncertainty : empirical evidence from online poker

    OpenAIRE

    Engelbergs, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Playing poker has many aspects in common with the making of business decisions. Agents act in a strategically rich, dynamic environment, where they are repeatedly facing competition under uncertain prospects. Their main goal is to maximize their resources. However simple this goal is put down, it is difficult to fulfill. As vast and rich research has shown, heuristics and biases affect human decision-making. This work adds to these findings by providing empirical evidence for behavioral patte...

  6. Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cappers, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Empirical evidence concerning demand response (DR) resources is needed in order to establish baseline conditions, develop standardized methods to assess DR availability and performance, and to build confidence among policymakers, utilities, system operators, and stakeholders that DR resources do offer a viable, cost-effective alternative to supply-side investments. This paper summarizes the existing contribution of DR resources in U.S. electric power markets. In 2008, customers enrolled in ...

  7. Revealing hidden covariation detection: evidence for implicit abstraction at study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossnagel, C S

    2001-09-01

    Four experiments in the brain scans paradigm (P. Lewicki, T. Hill, & I. Sasaki, 1989) investigated hidden covariation detection (HCD). In Experiment 1 HCD was found in an implicit- but not in an explicit-instruction group. In Experiment 2 HCD was impaired by nonholistic perception of stimuli but not by divided attention. In Experiment 3 HCD was eliminated by interspersing stimuli that deviated from the critical covariation. In Experiment 4 a transfer procedure was used. HCD was found with dissimilar test stimuli that preserved the covariation but was almost eliminated with similar stimuli that were neutral as to the covariation. Awareness was assessed both by objective and subjective tests in all experiments. Results suggest that HCD is an effect of implicit rule abstraction and that similarity processing plays only a minor role. HCD might be suppressed by intentional search strategies that induce inappropriate aggregation of stimulus information.

  8. Motives and chances of firm diversification: theory and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briglauer, W.

    2001-11-01

    It is beyond controversy that the majority of the largest companies in the industrialized countries perform to a certain extent product diversification strategies. Tying up to this finding the underlying work firstly deals with alternative theoretical and empirical definitions of corporate diversification. Subsequently the theoretical part mainly elaborates an industrial economic framework for categorizing motives of firm diversification. Despite of some inevitable degree of arbitrariness, a relatively widespread and sufficient categorization can be presented. With regards to the relevant economic literature most explanations of product diversification can be classified appropriately. Observing diversification activities one would prima facie infer a positive relationship between product diversification and firm performance, but both, theory and empirical evidence, yield ambiguous results. The empirical part provides a list of existing studies, classified according to the theoretical categorization. In an overview some stylised facts are filtered and discussed consecutively. Most notably, it was found that related diversification strategies significantly outperform strategies of unrelated diversification. At the end of the empirical section econometric methods are applied to agricultural and industrial economic (relating to telecommunication markets) data sets. For the agricultural studies a significantly positive relationship between product diversification and firm performance was found. In contrast no significant results were obtained for the telecommunication markets. (author)

  9. The Role of Students’ Emotional Intelligence: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalio Extremera Pacheco

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence (EI has attracted great interest in the field of education as a vehicle to improve the socioemotional development of students. The first publications that appeared made a great number of claims about the positive influence of emotional intelligence in the classroom. The only problem was that not all these claims were coupled with empirical research to show, on the one hand, the predictive level of EI, and on the other hand, the actual role of EI in different areas of life. It has been only recently that the effect of a high level of EI exercises on people has been investigated. The object of this article is to examine the most relevant empirical research done within the educational setting, in order to collect the existing evidence for the influence of EI, evaluated by different instruments, in the personal, social and scholastic functioning of students.

  10. Academic Advising Systems: A Systematic Literature Review of Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omiros Iatrellis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive background for understanding current knowledge on Academic Advising Systems (AAS and its impact on learning. It constitutes an overview of empirical evidence behind key objectives of the potential adoption of AAS in generic educational strategic planning. The researchers examined the literature on experimental case studies conducted in the domain during the past ten years (2008–2017. Search terms identified 98 mature pieces of research work, but inclusion criteria limited the key studies to 43. The authors analyzed the research questions, methodology, and findings of these published papers and categorized them accordingly. The results have highlighted three distinct major directions of the AAS empirical research. This paper discusses the emerged added value of AAS research and highlights the significance of further implications. Finally, the authors set their thoughts on possible uncharted key questions to investigate both from pedagogical and technical considerations.

  11. AN APPROACH TO THE EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT THROUGH EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Sanz Labrador

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the empiral evidences of standardized evaluations and explores the aspects of such evaluations more interesting to the educational community, and investigates the effects in implementing those exams on the performance of students. Furthermore, it is analyzed the relationship between external evaluations and teaching to the test , it is seen how it affects the introduction of these evaluations in student learning and their performance in international assessments of different characteristics, and the effect it produces in schools located in disadvantaged areas.

  12. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Chris M; Bieuzen, François; Davison, Gareth W; Costello, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below -100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC.

  13. Persistent Educational Advantage Across Three Generations: Empirical Evidence for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ziefle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP to analyze the persistence of educational attainment across three generations in Germany. I obtain evidence of a robust effect of grandparents' education on respondents' own educational attainment in West Germany, net of parental class, education, occupational status, family income, parents' relationship history, and family size. I also test whether the grandparent effect results from resource compensation or cumulative advantage and find empirical support for both mechanisms. In comparison, the intergenerational association between grandparents' and respondents' education is considerably weaker in East Germany and is also mediated completely by parental education. There are hardly any gender differences in the role of grandparents for respondents’ educational attainment, except for the fact that resource compensation is found to be exclusively relevant for women’s attainment in both West Germany and in East Germany after German reunification and the associated transition to an open educational system.

  14. Legal argumentation and judicial decision making: Empirical evidence from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Castro-Montero

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Legal scholars often analyze argumentation from a formal perspective, mostly applied to judicial decision making. This article presents an alternative approach, as it empirically evaluates the quality of petitioners’ legal argumentation within the context of abstract constitutional review proceedings. The quality of legal argumentation is herein defined as the ability of the petitioner to (i identify the challenged norm and the potentially infringed constitutional norm, (ii present clear and coherent arguments, and (iii justify its arguments upon legal sources, such as jurisprudential precedents or legal doctrine. Original data on forty lawsuits presented before the Ecuadorian Constitutional Court between 2008 and 2016 is used to test whether legal argumentation determines the outcome of a decision. A novel measure of the overall quality of argumentation and strength of cases brought before the Ecuadorian Constitutional Court by both public and private parties is also developed in the form of an expert survey. The main findings suggest that plaintiffs’ legal argumentation quality does not determine the outcome of the final decision of the Ecuadorian Constitutional Court, but rather the type of plaintiff (public or private does.

  15. Selection Bias in Educational Transition Models: Theory and Empirical Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads

    variables. This paper, first, explains theoretically how selection on unobserved variables leads to waning coefficients and, second, illustrates empirically how selection leads to biased estimates of the effect of family background on educational transitions. Our empirical analysis using data from...

  16. Demand response in U.S. electricity markets: Empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Kathan, David

    2010-01-01

    Empirical evidence concerning demand response (DR) resources is needed in order to establish baseline conditions, develop standardized methods to assess DR availability and performance, and to build confidence among policymakers, utilities, system operators, and stakeholders that DR resources do offer a viable, cost-effective alternative to supply-side investments. This paper summarizes the existing contribution of DR resources in U.S. electric power markets. In 2008, customers enrolled in existing wholesale and retail DR programs were capable of providing ∝38,000 MW of potential peak load reductions in the United States. Participants in organized wholesale market DR programs, though, have historically overestimated their likely performance during declared curtailments events, but appear to be getting better as they and their agents gain experience. In places with less developed organized wholesale market DR programs, utilities are learning how to create more flexible DR resources by adapting legacy load management programs to fit into existing wholesale market constructs. Overall, the development of open and organized wholesale markets coupled with direct policy support by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has facilitated new entry by curtailment service providers, which has likely expanded the demand response industry and led to product and service innovation. (author)

  17. Business models of micro businesses: Empirical evidence from creative industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeifer Sanja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Business model describes how a business identifies and creates value for customers and how it organizes itself to capture some of this value in a profitable manner. Previous studies of business models in creative industries have only recently identified the unresolved issues in this field of research. The main objective of this article is to analyse the structure and diversity of business models and to deduce how these components interact or change in the context of micro and small businesses in creative services such as advertising, architecture and design. The article uses a qualitative approach. Case studies and semi-structured, in-depth interviews with six owners/managers of micro businesses in Croatia provide rich data. Structural coding in data analysis has been performed manually. The qualitative analysis has indicative relevance for the assessment and comparison of business models, however, it provides insights into which components of business models seem to be consolidated and which seem to contribute to the diversity of business models in creative industries. The article contributes to the advancement of empirical evidence and conceptual constructs that might lead to more advanced methodological approaches and proposition of the core typologies or classifications of business models in creative industries. In addition, a more detailed mapping of different choices available in managing value creation, value capturing or value networking might be a valuable help for owners/managers who want to change or cross-fertilize their business models.

  18. Information overload, choice deferral, and moderating role of need for cognition: Empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Pilli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Choice deferral due to information overload is an undesirable result of competitive environments. The neoclassical maximization models predict that choice avoidance will not increase as more information is offered to consumers. The theories developed in the consumer behavior field predict that some properties of the environment may lead to behavioral effects and an increase in choice avoidance due to information overload. Based on stimuli generated experimentally and tested among 1,000 consumers, this empirical research provides evidence for the presence of behavioral effects due to information overload and reveals the different effects of increasing the number of options or the number of attributes. This study also finds that the need for cognition moderates these behavioral effects, and it proposes psychological processes that may trigger the effects observed.

  19. Evidence for cross-script abstract identities in learners of Japanese kana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Teresa; Gawthrop, Roderick; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2018-05-07

    The presence of abstract letter identity representations in the Roman alphabet has been well documented. These representations are invariant to letter case (upper vs. lower) and visual appearance. For example, "a" and "A" are represented by the same abstract identity. Recent research has begun to consider whether the processing of non-Roman orthographies also involves abstract orthographic representations. In the present study, we sought evidence for abstract identities in Japanese kana, which consist of two scripts, hiragana and katakana. Abstract identities would be invariant to the script used as well as to the degree of visual similarity. We adapted the cross-case masked-priming letter match task used in previous research on Roman letters, by presenting cross-script kana pairs and testing adult beginning -to- intermediate Japanese second-language (L2) learners (first-language English readers). We found robust cross-script priming effects, which were equal in magnitude for visually similar (e.g., り/リ) and dissimilar (e.g., あ/ア) kana pairs. This pattern was found despite participants' imperfect explicit knowledge of the kana names, particularly for katakana. We also replicated prior findings from Roman abstract letter identities in the same participants. Ours is the first study reporting abstract kana identity priming (in adult L2 learners). Furthermore, these representations were acquired relatively early in our adult L2 learners.

  20. Empirical evidence for site coefficients in building code provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Site-response coefficients, Fa and Fv, used in U.S. building code provisions are based on empirical data for motions up to 0.1 g. For larger motions they are based on theoretical and laboratory results. The Northridge earthquake of 17 January 1994 provided a significant new set of empirical data up to 0.5 g. These data together with recent site characterizations based on shear-wave velocity measurements provide empirical estimates of the site coefficients at base accelerations up to 0.5 g for Site Classes C and D. These empirical estimates of Fa and Fnu; as well as their decrease with increasing base acceleration level are consistent at the 95 percent confidence level with those in present building code provisions, with the exception of estimates for Fa at levels of 0.1 and 0.2 g, which are less than the lower confidence bound by amounts up to 13 percent. The site-coefficient estimates are consistent at the 95 percent confidence level with those of several other investigators for base accelerations greater than 0.3 g. These consistencies and present code procedures indicate that changes in the site coefficients are not warranted. Empirical results for base accelerations greater than 0.2 g confirm the need for both a short- and a mid- or long-period site coefficient to characterize site response for purposes of estimating site-specific design spectra.

  1. Empirical methods for systematic reviews and evidence-based medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Enst, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-Based Medicine is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. Systematic reviews have become the cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, which is reflected in the position systematic reviews have in the pyramid of evidence-based medicine. Systematic

  2. Entrepreneurship Education in Schools: Empirical Evidence on the Teacher's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskovaara, Elena; Pihkala, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Different approaches and methodologies for entrepreneurship education have been introduced for schools. However, a better theoretical and empirical understanding of the antecedents of entrepreneurship education is needed. The authors analyze what entrepreneurship education practices are used in schools and what role the school and the teacher are…

  3. What should we mean by empirical validation in hypnotherapy: evidence-based practice in clinical hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladin, Assen; Sabatini, Linda; Amundson, Jon K

    2007-04-01

    This paper briefly surveys the trend of and controversy surrounding empirical validation in psychotherapy. Empirical validation of hypnotherapy has paralleled the practice of validation in psychotherapy and the professionalization of clinical psychology, in general. This evolution in determining what counts as evidence for bona fide clinical practice has gone from theory-driven clinical approaches in the 1960s and 1970s through critical attempts at categorization of empirically supported therapies in the 1990s on to the concept of evidence-based practice in 2006. Implications of this progression in professional psychology are discussed in the light of hypnosis's current quest for validation and empirical accreditation.

  4. Budget deficit, money growth and inflation: Empirical evidence from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Khieu Van, Hoang

    2014-01-01

    This study empirically examines the nexus among budget deficit, money supply and inflation by using a monthly data set from January 1995 to December 2012 and a SVAR model with five endogenous variables, inflation, money growth, budget deficit growth, real GDP growth and interest rate. Since real GDP and budget deficit are unavailable on the monthly basis, we interpolate those series using Chow and Lin’s (1971) annualized approach from their annual series. Overall, we found that money growth h...

  5. Internationalisation and technological innovation: empirical evidence on their relation

    OpenAIRE

    Filipescu, Diana-Andreea

    2010-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 25 d'octubre de 2011 Internationalisation and innovation of the firms have been considered two of the most important factors determining business success over the last decade (Buckler and Zien, 1996; Wind and Mahajan, 1997; Zahra and George, 2002; Vila and Kuster, 2007). The purpose of this dissertation is to understand better the relation which exists between these two factors. To do so, we undertake empirical investigation which consists of three studies (an ini...

  6. Monetary policy and bank behavior: Empirical evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Saibal

    2006-01-01

    The paper develops an empirical model to explore the role that bank characteristics play in influencing the monetary transmission process. Employing data on Indian commercial banks for the period 1992-2004, the findings indicate that for banks classified according to size and capitalization, a monetary contraction lowers bank lending, although large and well-capitalized banks are able to shield their loan portfolio from monetary shocks.

  7. Empirical evidence of direct rebound effect in Catalonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire Gonzalez, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature concerning the direct rebound effect in households; it briefly analyzes the main theoretical and methodological aspects, and finally estimates the magnitude of direct rebound effect for all energy services using electricity in households of Catalonia (Spain) using econometric techniques. The main results show an estimated direct rebound effect of 35% in the short term and 49% in the long term. The existence of a rebound effect reduces the effectiveness of energy efficiency policies.

  8. Essays in the Economics of Corruption: Experimental and empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Leszczynska, Nastassia

    2018-01-01

    The advent of experimental methodologies have led to decisive progress in the study of corrupt behaviour in the last two decades. Since they can complement survey data and perception indexes with controlled experimental data, scholars and policy makers have reached a better understanding of decision-making in bribery situations and are able to design innovative anticorruption policies.In this thesis, I use experimental and empirical data to contribute to the field of the economics of corrupti...

  9. Sociopolitical Instability and Economic Growth Empirical Evidence from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Changsheng Xu; Santhirasegaram Selvarathinam; Wen X. Li

    2007-01-01

    Sociopolitical instability severely affects economic growth in short and long run. This study analyzes that sociopolitical instability measured by proxy measure; annual growth rate of tourist arrivals in Sri Lanka during 1960-2005 adversely affects economic growth. Our empirical findings based on ordinary lease square econometric estimation, show that sociopolitical instability negatively and significantly affect economic growth. Reduction of economic growth rate (-0.032) due to the sociopoli...

  10. Empirical Evidence for Niss' "Implemented Anticipation" in Mathematising Realistic Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Gloria; Brown, Jill P.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematisation of realistic situations is an on-going focus of research. Classroom data from a Year 9 class participating in a program of structured modelling of real situations was analysed for evidence of Niss's theoretical construct, implemented anticipation, during mathematisation. Evidence was found for two of three proposed aspects. In…

  11. Determinants of Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Ledyaeva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A modification of Barro and Sala-i-Martin empirical framework of growth model is specified to examine determinants of per capita growth in 74 Russian regions during period of 1996-2005. We utilize both panel and cross-sectional data. Results imply that in general regional growth in 1996-2005 is explained by the initial level of region's economic development, the 1998 financial crisis, domestic investments, and exports. Growth convergence between poor and rich regions in Russia was not found for the period studied.

  12. Anomalies and Investor Sentiment: Empirical Evidences in the Brazilian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Correia Xavier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between investor sentiment and value anomalies in Brazil. In addition, it analyzed if pricing deviations caused by investors with optimistic views are different from those caused by pessimistic investors. The sample included all non-financial firms listed on the B3 (Brasil, Bolsa, Balcão stock exchange from July 1999 to June 2014. We used the Principal Component Analysis multivariate technique to capture the component common to four different proxies for investor sentiment. The study empirically tested the index series and its variation on the return series of Long-Short portfolios of 12 anomaly-based strategies. The study found that the measure of the sentiment index had a partial explanatory power for the anomalies only when included in the CAPM. Yet, when using the index sentiment changes as an explanatory variable, the study found a relationship with future returns, robust to all risk factors. Thus, it is possible to relate investor sentiment index to anomaly-based portfolio returns. When analyzing average returns after optimistic and pessimistic periods, the values we found in our empirical test were not statistically significant enough to infer the possible existence of short-sale constraints.

  13. What drives adult personality development? : A comparison of theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, J.; Bleidorn, W.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Hennecke, M.; Hutteman, R.; Luhmann, M.; Orth, U.; Reitz, A.K.; Zimmerman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing numbers of empirical studies provide compelling evidence that personality traits change across the entire lifespan. What initiates this continuing personality development and how does this development proceed? In this paper, we compare six theoretical perspectives that offer testable

  14. AN EMPIRICAL EXAMINATION OF ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION. EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru CONSTANGIOARA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the desired performances and the increased value added to the final consumer, organizations need not only to integrate their core businesses and align them to business strategy but also to develop essential entrepreneurial competences. After presenting the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation and their specificity in a supply chain, we propose an empirical research using a working dataset of 64 firms from various industries to analyze the Romanian entrepreneurial supply chains. Structural equations are employed to estimate the complex relationships between organizational performances and entrepreneurial orientation in supply chains at national level. Results show that entrepreneurial orientation influences organizational competences only in the framework of the supply chain management strategic approach to operational excellence.

  15. The growth of business firms: theoretical framework and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dongfeng; Pammolli, Fabio; Buldyrev, S V; Riccaboni, Massimo; Matia, Kaushik; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Stanley, H Eugene

    2005-12-27

    We introduce a model of proportional growth to explain the distribution P(g)(g) of business-firm growth rates. The model predicts that P(g)(g) is exponential in the central part and depicts an asymptotic power-law behavior in the tails with an exponent zeta = 3. Because of data limitations, previous studies in this field have been focusing exclusively on the Laplace shape of the body of the distribution. In this article, we test the model at different levels of aggregation in the economy, from products to firms to countries, and we find that the predictions of the model agree with empirical growth distributions and size-variance relationships.

  16. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON DYNAMICS OF CREDIT GROWTH AND FOREIGN RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrugan Sinah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a model for looking into the nature of change in foreign reserve from movements in domestic credit. This model is relevant to foreign reserve targeting, small and open economies. The model denotes that measures undertaken by central banks to constraint domestic credit growth with the view of controlling capital outflows will also be detrimental to foreign reserves level. The empirical studies with application of Fourier Transformation technique have been used to build a model, which shows that growth in domestic credit is more biased towards positive swings in foreign reserves, rather than being unfavorable. The small and open economies, particularly, the Pacific Island nations, have the right set up for application of this model to safeguard foreign reserves level.

  17. The rebound effect for heavy industry: Empirical evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Li, Jianglong

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency improvement will reduce the effective price of energy services, and hence at least partially mitigate original expected energy conservation. Therefore, the magnitude of rebound effect is important for the design and timing of an effective energy conservation policy. Under the framework of translog cost share equations, we estimates the direct rebound effect for heavy industry in China for the first time by conducting an empirical research on the relationship between the direct rebound effect and the ease with which energy services can substitute for other inputs. Additionally, asymmetric price responses are specified in the model for the rebound effect estimation. Empirical results in our paper indicate that the rebound effect for heavy industry in China is about 74.3%. This reveals that energy efficiency improvement can save energy to a certain degree since the rebound effect is less than 100% (“back-fire”), but most of the expected reduction in heavy industry energy consumption is mitigated. These findings prove that energy pricing reforms and energy taxes should be further implemented to achieve effective energy conservation in China’s 12th Five Years Plan. - Highlights: • Heavy industry is energy intensive and accounts for over 60% of China’s energy consumption. • Direct rebound effect for heavy industry in China is estimated for the first time. • Asymmetric price responses are specified in the model for the direct rebound effect estimation. • Finding the existence of direct rebound effect in China’s heavy industry with a magnitude of 74.3%. • Proving that energy pricing reforms and energy taxes should be further implemented

  18. Ownership unbundling of gas transmission networks. Empirical evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Growitsch, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Stronzik, Marcus [Scientific Institute for Infrastructure and Communication Services (WIK), Bad Honnef (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The European Commission has intensively discussed the mandatory separation of natural gas transmission from production and services. However, economic theory is ambiguous on the price effects of vertical separation. In this paper, we empirically analyse the effect of ownership unbundling of gas transmission networks as the strongest form of vertical separation on the level of end-user prices. Therefore, we apply different dynamic estimators as system GMM and the bias-corrected least-squares dummy variable or LSDVC estimator on an unbalanced panel out of 18 EU countries over 19 years, allowing us to avoid the endogeneity problem and to estimate the long-run effects of regulation. We introduce a set of regulatory indicators as market entry regulation, ownership structure, vertical separation and market structure and account for structural and economic country specifics. Among these different estimators, we consistently find that ownership unbundling has no impact on natural gas end-user prices, while the more modest legal unbundling reduces them significantly. Furthermore, third-party access, market structure and privatisation show significant influence with the latter leading to higher price levels.

  19. Monetary Policy and Financial Asset Prices: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Umer Chhapra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monetary transmission mechanism assumed to be significantly influenced by the effect of policy decisions on financial markets. However, various previous studies have come up with different outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of monetary policy on different asset classes (shares and bonds in Pakistan. This study using stock price and bond yield as dependent variable and discount rate, money supply, inflation, and exchange rate are independent variables. Data of all variables have collected from 2010 to 2016, and Vector Autoregressive (VAR technique has applied. The empirical results indicate that there is an impact of monetary policy components on both stock and bond market as an increase in policy rate causes decline in stocks prices and bonds yields. The findings of this study will help the potential investors in making long-term (in general and short-term (in particular investment strategies concerning monetary policy.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v7i2.7099

  20. Institutions and growth: theoretical foundations and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A.F.

    2000-09-01

    Institutions and growth rates are strongly linked both theoretically and empirically. They act through 'efficiency of governance'), as institutions of conflict management, and as devices for inter temporal optimization. Contrary to most of the literature, a non-linear (inversely u-shaped) influence of institutions on growth is also formally derived as a general hypothesis; this reflects the widely neglected notion that institutions also bring opportunity costs with them. Systematic econometric evaluations for a world-wide cross-sectional sample and a European Union panel show mixed results: the rule of law, property rights, and contract and law enforcement are consistently positively related to growth. In Europe, a non-linear relationship is often found for these and other institutions. Corporatism and trust are good for growth in Europe; both bring with them significant rent-seeking costs, though. Comparing the results one notes that no easy transfer of knowledge is possible from one sample to the other. This is an important policy conclusion in its own right. (author)

  1. Is a night better than a day: Empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Deshkovski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the portfolio allocation based on time asymmetry of stock characteristics. In particular, we analyzed the empirical data of changes in financial stock prices during the day period and during the night period and have found that characteristics such as mean and variance are different for changes during the day and changes during the night. Also, the portfolio characteristics, such as covariance between stocks, differ on whether we take into account day changes or night changes in prices. That greatly affects the allocation of fund to the portfolio for an investor who trades frequently. The portfolio should be re-balanced every day in order to achieve optimality and much higher return. At the same level of risk the returns on this new portfolio may by several times larger than the returns on a portfolio without everyday re-balancing. We computed numerically the allocation of funds for the stocks from the finance industry and showed that the increase in returns is substantial.

  2. Grasping intentions: from thought experiments to empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eBecchio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Skepticism has been expressed concerning the possibility to understand others’ intentions by simply observing their movements: Since a number of different intentions may have produced a particular action, motor information – it has been argued - might be sufficient to understand what an agent is doing, but not her remote goal in performing that action. Here we challenge this conclusion by showing that in the absence of contextual information, intentions can be inferred from body movement. Based on recent empirical findings, we shall contend that: i intentions translate into differential kinematic patterns; ii observers are especially attuned to kinematic information and can use early differences in visual kinematics to anticipate the intention of an agent in performing a given action; iii during interacting activities, predictions about the future course of others’ actions tune online action planning; iv motor activation during action observation subtends a complementary understanding of what the other is doing. These findings demonstrate that intention understanding is deeply rooted in social interaction: by simply observing others’ movements, we might know what they have in mind to do and how we should act in response.

  3. Taxation of Insolvent Companies: Empirical Evidence in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina dos Santos Arromba Dinis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of taxation of insolvent companies in Portugal, particularly regarding the Portuguese tax on revenue of legal entities (IRC. For this purpose, first, some considerations on the legal framework of insolvent companies are woven and, second, their tax regime is analyzed. Then, a brief review of the main studies that, in the international context, analyze and debate major issues derived from the tax regime of insolvent companies is conducted, particularly in Brazil, Spain, United States, and Italy. Finally, there are the results of an empirical study conducted in Portugal, in 2013, which evaluates and compares the opinions of insolvency administrators (IA, the tax and customs authority (TA, and court magistrates (CM, in order to contribute to a better solution concerning business taxation under this regime. Respondents (IA, TA, CM demonstrate objective thinking about the fact they believe it is very important that the Portuguese Code of Insolvency and Business Recovery (CIRE and the Portuguese Code of Tax on Revenue of Legal Entities (CIRC are modified, now to make clear whether the settlement of property ownership of an insolvent estate is liable to the IRC, then to assign a chapter specifically devoted to the subject of taxation on insolvency in Portugal.

  4. Determinants of Household Poverty: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Majeed, Muhammad Tariq; Malik, Muhammad Nauman

    2014-01-01

    This study examines household characteristics and personal characteristics of the household head as the determinants of poverty in Pakistan. The study decomposes education of the household into different levels: primary, middle, matriculation, intermediate, bachelors and higher studies and finds evidence that poverty is greatest among the less literate households and declines as education level increases. The role of remittances appeared significant in reducing probability of being poor and t...

  5. Are CEOs incentivized to avoid Corporate Taxes? - Empirical Evidence on Managerial Bonus Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Schmittdiel (Heiner)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper, we test empirically whether there is a relationship between corporate income taxes and CEO bonus payments. Using Compustat and ExecuComp data from 1992 to 2010, we find mixed results. Looking at the whole sample, the average bonus contract rewards

  6. Spatial distance effects on incremental semantic interpretation of abstract sentences: evidence from eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ernesto; Knoeferle, Pia

    2014-12-01

    A large body of evidence has shown that visual context information can rapidly modulate language comprehension for concrete sentences and when it is mediated by a referential or a lexical-semantic link. What has not yet been examined is whether visual context can also modulate comprehension of abstract sentences incrementally when it is neither referenced by, nor lexically associated with, the sentence. Three eye-tracking reading experiments examined the effects of spatial distance between words (Experiment 1) and objects (Experiment 2 and 3) on participants' reading times for sentences that convey similarity or difference between two abstract nouns (e.g., 'Peace and war are certainly different...'). Before reading the sentence, participants inspected a visual context with two playing cards that moved either far apart or close together. In Experiment 1, the cards turned and showed the first two nouns of the sentence (e.g., 'peace', 'war'). In Experiments 2 and 3, they turned but remained blank. Participants' reading times at the adjective (Experiment 1: first-pass reading time; Experiment 2: total times) and at the second noun phrase (Experiment 3: first-pass times) were faster for sentences that expressed similarity when the preceding words/objects were close together (vs. far apart) and for sentences that expressed dissimilarity when the preceding words/objects were far apart (vs. close together). Thus, spatial distance between words or entirely unrelated objects can rapidly and incrementally modulate the semantic interpretation of abstract sentences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sleep and academic success: mechanisms, empirical evidence, and interventional strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Wiebe, Sabrina T; Wells, Samantha Ashley; Cassoff, Jamie; Monson, Eva

    2010-12-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that sleep is beneficial for learning, memory, attention, and academic success. However, the importance of sleep in these contexts has rarely been addressed in programs aimed at optimizing academic performance. This review aims to describe the role that sleep plays in processes pertaining to academic achievement. We first describe the basic sleep processes and their role with respect to cognitive and behavioral/emotional systems important for academic performance. We next review studies conducted to assess the association between sleep and academic performance, concluding by describing interventional programs being used to optimize sleep in the context of academic success.

  8. Cycles in deregulated electricity markets: Empirical evidence from two decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango, Santiago; Larsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the 'cycle hypothesis' in electricity generation, which states that the introduction of deregulation in an electricity system might lead to sustained fluctuations of over- and under-capacity. The occurrence of cycles is one of the major threats for electricity markets as it affects the security of supply, and creates uncertainty in both the profitability of electricity companies and in consumer prices. We discuss the background for these cycles using analogies with other capital-intensive industries, along with evidence from the analysis of behavioral simulation models as well as from experimental electricity markets. Using data from the oldest deregulated markets we find support for the hypothesis in the case of the English and Chilean markets, based on an autocorrelation analysis. Evidence from the Nordpool market is more ambiguous, although we might be observing the first half of a cycle in generation capacity. Comparing a simulation of the English market performed in 1992 with the actual performance we can observe that the qualitative behavior of the model is consistent with the actual evolution. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms for damping cycles in electricity generation, such as mothballing, capacity payments, and reliability markets. - Research highlights: → We explore the emergence of cycles in the electricity generation capacity after deregulation. → We discuss the reason for cycles in generation capacity and compare different theories. → Analysis of England and Chile data show strong indications that cycles have emerged.

  9. Does Missing Classes Decelerate Student Exam Performance Progress? Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tin-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A total of 389 business students in undergraduate introductory microeconomics classes in spring 2007, 2009, and 2011, and fall 2012 participated in an exam performance progress study. Empirical evidence suggested that missing classes decelerates and hampers high-performing students' exam performance progress. Nevertheless, the evidence does…

  10. Empirical evidence in consumer law cases: what are 'up to' claims up to?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.; Heiderhoff, B.; Schulze, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution I argue that in certain consumer law cases providing empirical evidence is necessary and that specific standards of proof should then apply. Only through analysing evidence of actual consumer behaviour as well as of trader’s commercial practices courts and enforcement

  11. Heterogeneous Value of Water: Empirical Evidence in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic pressures have exacerbated self-sustaining river services, and growing concerns over sustaining river system become global problematic issues that lead us to implement river restoration projects. Of those projects, governing diverse needs and desires from stakeholders for those who have various water values are key elements of identifying the success of the project. In fact, the Korean government has had concern over restoring the rivers which brings to construct 16 weirs in four major rivers and may fail to achieve main goal of the project, which is to ameliorate water quality. In this study, principle component analysis and multinomial logit model were executed to investigate major socioeconomic variables to influence water values in terms of sustainability in Korea. Evitable evidences have been found that age, income, education level, and city dwelling are the most effective variables to estimate water values. In addition, a monotonous water development project and a myopic view could cause major dejection across the nation and may lead to the failure of water governance. Unfortunately, the latter may be observed in Korea as one of the reasons for the recent amplification of major conflicts.

  12. Abstracts of papers and poster sessions of the 3rd International Evidence Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentation types. Research Papers are full length papers (not to exceed 10 pages that critically discuss completed work demonstrating the application of research in practice. Discussion papers critically exploring issues in the application of evidence based practice to inform professional practice were also welcome. Accepted Research Papers are published on the conference website at: http://conferences.alia.org.au/ebl2005/ Hot Topics are shorter papers (1000 words that critically outline research‐in‐progress. Hot Topics provide an opportunity to discuss, and receive constructive feedback on an ongoing research project. Practical papers that identify and facilitate professional dialogue on key issues within EBL were also welcome. Accepted Hot Topics are published on the conference website at: http://conferences.alia.org.au/ebl2005/ Posters will allow for the presentation of new developments in evidence based practice and work in progress. Posters offer an excellent opportunity for new conference presenters. Accepted Posters abstracts are available on the conference website at: http://conferences.alia.org.au/ebl2005/

  13. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence: the precautionary principle applied to GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops.

  14. Outcome (competency) based education: an exploration of its origins, theoretical basis, and empirical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørcke, Anne Mette; Dornan, Tim; Eika, Berit

    2013-01-01

    and professional attributes as ‘‘competencies’’. OBE has been adopted by consensus in the face of weak empirical evidence. OBE, which has been advocated for over 50 years, can contribute usefully to defining requisite knowledge and skills, and blueprinting assessments. Its applicability to more complex aspects...... greatest benefits. Our aim was to explore the underpinnings of OBE: its historical origins, theoretical basis, and empirical evidence of its effects in order to answer the question: How can predetermined learning outcomes influence undergraduate medical education? This literature review had three...... components: A review of historical landmarks in the evolution of OBE; a review of conceptual frameworks and theories; and a systematic review of empirical publications from 1999 to 2010 that reported data concerning the effects of learning outcomes on undergraduate medical education. OBE had its origins...

  15. Allograph priming is based on abstract letter identities: Evidence from Japanese kana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Schubert, Teresa; Verdonschot, Rinus G

    2018-04-23

    It is well-established that allographs like the uppercase and lowercase forms of the Roman alphabet (e.g., a and A) map onto the same "abstract letter identity," orthographic representations that are independent of the visual form. Consistent with this, in the allograph match task ("Are 'a' and 'A' the same letter?"), priming by a masked letter prime is equally robust for visually dissimilar prime-target pairs (e.g., d and D) and similar pairs (e.g., c and C). However, in principle this pattern of priming is also consistent with the possibility that allograph priming is purely phonological, based on the letter name. Because different allographic forms of the same letter, by definition, share a letter name, it is impossible to rule out this possibility a priori. In the present study, we investigated the influence of shared letter names by taking advantage of the fact that Japanese is written in two distinct writing systems, syllabic kana-that has two parallel forms, hiragana and katakana-and logographic kanji. Using the allograph match task, we tested whether a kanji prime with the same pronunciation as the target kana (e.g., - い, both pronounced /i/) produces the same amount of priming as a kana prime in the opposite kana form (e.g., イ- い). We found that the kana primes produced substantially greater priming than the phonologically identical kanji prime, which we take as evidence that allograph priming is based on abstract kana identity, not purely phonology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Do political or economic factors drive healthcare financing privatisations? Empirical evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wiese, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    This paper adds new empirical evidence to the political economy literature of economic reform. One of the main contributions of this paper is the development of a novel methodology to identify privatisations. The methodology is a combination of the Bai & Perron structural break filter, and validation of the breaks identified by this filter using de jure evidence of reforms. 21 de facto healthcare financing privatisations are identified in a sample of 23 OECD countries. It is analysed which fa...

  17. Learning Analytics and Educational Data Mining in Practice: A Systematic Literature Review of Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamitsiou, Zacharoula; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive background for understanding current knowledge on Learning Analytics (LA) and Educational Data Mining (EDM) and its impact on adaptive learning. It constitutes an overview of empirical evidence behind key objectives of the potential adoption of LA/EDM in generic educational strategic…

  18. Gathering Empirical Evidence Concerning Links between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musta'amal, Aede Hatib; Norman, Eddie; Hodgson, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Discussion is often reported concerning potential links between computer-aided designing and creativity, but there is a lack of systematic enquiry to gather empirical evidence concerning such links. This paper reports an indication of findings from other research studies carried out in contexts beyond general education that have sought evidence…

  19. Educational Leaders and Emotions: An International Review of Empirical Evidence 1992-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Izhak; Eyal, Ori

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to review the international evidence about emotional aspects related to educational leaders. The review focuses on empirical studies published in peer-refereed educational journals between 1992 and 2012. First, we address the importance of researching emotions for understanding educational leaders. Next, we…

  20. Emotional Competence in Children with Autism: Diagnostic Criteria and Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeer, Sander; Koot, Hans M.; Rieffe, Carolien; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Stegge, Hedy

    2008-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include emotional impairments. However, scientific evidence for these impairments is varied and subtle. In this contribution, recent empirical studies that examined the emotional competence in children and adolescents with ASD are reviewed. Four aspects of emotional competence that are…

  1. Do political or economic factors drive healthcare financing privatisations? Empirical evidence from OECD countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiese, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    This paper adds new empirical evidence to the political economy literature of economic reform. One of the main contributions of this paper is the development of a novel methodology to identify privatisations. The methodology is a combination of the Bai & Perron structural break filter, and

  2. Mostly Heterosexual as a Distinct Sexual Orientation Group: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…

  3. Competition and quality indicators in the health care sector : Empirical evidence from the Dutch hospital sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, Ramsis; Krabbe, Yvonne; Mikkers, Misja

    There is much debate about the effect of competition in healthcare and especially the effect of competition on the quality of healthcare, although empirical evidence on this subject is mixed. The Netherlands provides an interesting case in this debate. The Dutch system could be characterized as a

  4. Competition and quality indicators in the health care sector: empirical evidence from the Dutch hospital sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, R.R.; Krabbe-Alkemade, Y.J.F.M.; Mikkers, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThere is much debate about the effect of competition in healthcare and especially the effect of competition on the quality of healthcare, although empirical evidence on this subject is mixed. The Netherlands provides an interesting case in this debate. The Dutch system could be

  5. A Systematic Literature Review of Empirical Evidence on Computer Games and Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Thomas M.; Boyle, Elizabeth A.; MacArthur, Ewan; Hainey, Thomas; Boyle, James M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the literature on computer games and serious games in regard to the potential positive impacts of gaming on users aged 14 years or above, especially with respect to learning, skill enhancement and engagement. Search terms identified 129 papers reporting empirical evidence about the impacts and outcomes of computer games and…

  6. Does risk management contribute to IT project success? A meta-analysis of empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, K.F.C.; Boonstra, A.; Wortmann, J.C.

    The question whether risk management contributes to IT project success is considered relevant by people from both academic and practitioners' communities already for a long time. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the empirical evidence that either supports or opposes the claim that risk

  7. Does Access to Finance Lower Firms’ Cost of Capital? Empirical Evidence from International Manufacturing Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lashitew, Addisu A.

    2011-01-01

    Lack of access to finance is argued to be one of the most binding constraints for firm growth. There is, however, limited empirical evidence on the relationship between access to finance and the cost of capital. This paper uses international manufacturing data to analyze the effect of access to

  8. Early Child Disaster Mental Health Interventions: A Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Nitiéma, Pascal; Tucker, Phebe; Newman, Elana

    2017-01-01

    Background: The need to establish an evidence base for early child disaster interventions has been long recognized. Objective: This paper presents a descriptive analysis of the empirical research on early disaster mental health interventions delivered to children within the first 3 months post event. Methods: Characteristics and findings of the…

  9. Evidence-based Nursing Education - a Systematic Review of Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The project „Evidence-based Nursing Education – Preparatory Stage“, funded by the Landesstiftung Baden-Württemberg within the programme Impulsfinanzierung Forschung (Funding to Stimulate Research), aims to collect information on current research concerned with nursing education and to process existing data. The results of empirical research which has already been carried out were systematically evaluated with aim of identifying further topics, fields and matters of interest for empirical research in nursing education. In the course of the project, the available empirical studies on nursing education were scientifically analysed and systematised. The over-arching aim of the evidence-based training approach – which extends beyond the aims of this project - is the conception, organisation and evaluation of vocational training and educational processes in the caring professions on the basis of empirical data. The following contribution first provides a systematic, theoretical link to the over-arching reference framework, as the evidence-based approach is adapted from thematically related specialist fields. The research design of the project is oriented towards criteria introduced from a selection of studies and carries out a two-stage systematic review of the selected studies. As a result, the current status of research in nursing education, as well as its organisation and structure, and questions relating to specialist training and comparative education are introduced and discussed. Finally, the empirical research on nursing training is critically appraised as a complementary element in educational theory/psychology of learning and in the ethical tradition of research. This contribution aims, on the one hand, to derive and describe the methods used, and to introduce the steps followed in gathering and evaluating the data. On the other hand, it is intended to give a systematic overview of empirical research work in nursing education. In order to preserve a

  10. A Survey on Agricultural Trade Policies in Bangladesh: theoretical Insights and empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayal Talukder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the theoretical insights and empirical evidence on agricultural trade policies and their impacts on the Bangladesh‟s economy, with a view to presenting both, the positive and negative effects of trade liberalization. Theoretically, while advocates of trade liberalization argue that free trade is an engine of growth and protection leads to wasteful use of resources, critics argue that openness has its costs and sometimes it could be detrimental to the economic development. The empirical evidence in Bangladesh was consistent with the ongoing debate on the effects of trade liberalization on economic development. The evidence remained mixed and loaded with criticisms on the grounds of choice of liberalization determinants, model specifications and methodology, as well as other measurement shortcomings. The review suggests that the literature is inconclusive and outcomes are largely case-specific.

  11. A Survey on Agricultural Trade Policies in Bangladesh: theoretical Insights and empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Talukder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the theoretical insights and empirical evidence on agricultural trade policies and their impacts on the Bangladesh’s economy, with a view to presenting both, the positive and negative effects of trade liberalization. Theoretically, while advocates of trade liberalization argue that free trade is an engine of growth and protection leads to wasteful use of resources, critics argue that openness has its costs and sometimes it could be detrimental to the economic development. The empirical evidence in Bangladesh was consistent with the ongoing debate on the effects of trade liberalization on economic development. The evidence remained mixed and loaded with criticisms on the grounds of choice of liberalization determinants, model specifications and methodology, as well as other measurement shortcomings. The review suggests that the literature is inconclusive and outcomes are largely case-specific

  12. Status Concern and Relative Deprivation in China: Measures, Empirical Evidence and Economic and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, CHEN

    2017-01-01

    Status concern and feelings of relative deprivation affect individual behaviour and well-being. Traditional norms and the alarming inequality in China have made relative deprivation increasingly intense for the Chinese population. This article reviews empirical literature on China that attempts to test the relative deprivation hypothesis, and also reviews the origins and pathways of relative deprivation, compares its economic measures in the literature and summarises the scientific findings. Drawing from solid empirical evidence, the author discusses the important policy implications on redistribution, official regulations and grassroots sanctions, and relative poverty alleviation. PMID:29033479

  13. Determinants of Financing Decisions in Innovative Firms: A Review on Theoretical Backgrounds and Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Diaconu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review some of the main aspects highlighted in the literature on financing innovation. Thetheoretical background related to the distinctive features of innovative firms impacting theirfinancing decisions and the empirical evidence is reviewed. The growing literature on the financingof innovation shows that the theoretical and empirical work are not always constant across thevarious samples and situations faced by firms as a result of generating new findings. We highlightthe interaction between financing choices for innovation and changing internal and externalcondition firms operate.

  14. Market power in the Nordic electricity wholesale market: A survey of the empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof; Tangeras, Thomas P.

    2009-01-01

    We review the recent empirical research assessing market power on the Nordic wholesale market for electricity, Nord Pool. The studies find no evidence of systematic exploitation of system level market power on Nord Pool. Local market power arising from transmission constraints seems to be more problematic in some price areas across the Nordic countries. Market power can manifest itself in a number of ways that have so far escaped empirical scrutiny. We discuss investment incentives, vertical integration and buyer power, as well as withholding of base-load (nuclear) capacity.

  15. The Neural Correlates of Abstract and Concrete Words: Evidence from Brain-Damaged Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Papagno, Costanza; Martello, Giorgia; Mattavelli, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychological and activation studies on the neural correlates of abstract and concrete words have produced contrasting results. The present study explores the anatomical substrates of abstract/concrete words in 22 brain-damaged patients with a single vascular lesion either in the right or left hemisphere. One hundred and twenty (60 concrete and 60 abstract) noun triplets were used for a semantic similarity judgment task. We found a significant interaction in word type × group since left ...

  16. How can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection in health insurance markets? Conceptual framework and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Wynand P M M; van Vliet, René C J A; van Kleef, Richard C

    2017-03-01

    If consumers have a choice of health plan, risk selection is often a serious problem (e.g., as in Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, the United States of America, and Switzerland). Risk selection may threaten the quality of care for chronically ill people, and may reduce the affordability and efficiency of healthcare. Therefore, an important question is: how can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection? Although this seems easy, showing such evidence is not straightforward. The novelty of this paper is two-fold. First, we provide a conceptual framework for showing evidence of risk selection in competitive health insurance markets. It is not easy to disentangle risk selection and the insurers' efficiency. We suggest two methods to measure risk selection that are not biased by the insurers' efficiency. Because these measures underestimate the true risk selection, we also provide a list of signals of selection that can be measured and that, in particular in combination, can show evidence of risk selection. It is impossible to show the absence of risk selection. Second, we empirically measure risk selection among the switchers, taking into account the insurers' efficiency. Based on 2-year administrative data on healthcare expenses and risk characteristics of nearly all individuals with basic health insurance in the Netherlands (N > 16 million) we find significant risk selection for most health insurers. This is the first publication of hard empirical evidence of risk selection in the Dutch health insurance market.

  17. Are Abstract and Concrete Concepts Organized Differently? Evidence from the Blocked Translation Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2013-01-01

    Using the blocked-translation paradigm with healthy participants, we examined Crutch and Warrington's hypothesis that concrete and abstract concepts are organized by distinct principles: concrete concepts by semantic similarities and abstract ones by associations. In three experiments we constructed two types of experimental blocking (similar…

  18. The Role of Empirical Evidence for Transferring a New Technology to Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Maria Teresa; Bruno, Giovanni; Caivano, Danilo; Visaggio, Giuseppe

    Technology transfer and innovation diffusion are key success factors for an enterprise. The shift to a new software technology involves, on one hand, inevitable changes to ingrained and familiar processes and, on the other, requires training, changes in practices and commitment on behalf of technical staff and management. Nevertheless, industry is often reluctant to innovation due to the changes it determines. The process of innovation diffusion is easier if the new technology is supported by empirical evidence. In this sense our conjecture is that Empirical Software Engineering (ESE) serves as means for validating and transferring a new technology within production processes. In this paper, the authors report their experience of a method, Multiview Framework, defined in the SERLAB research laboratory as support for designing and managing a goal oriented measurement program that has been validated through various empirical studies before being transferred to an Italian SME. Our discussion points out the important role of empirical evidence for obtaining management commitment and buy-in on behalf of technical staff, and for making technological transfer possible.

  19. Firm productivity, pollution, and output: theory and empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Erzi; Zhang, Jingjing; Haider, Zulfiqar

    2015-11-01

    Using a theoretical model, this paper argues that as firm productivity increases, there is a decrease in firm-level pollution intensity. However, as productivity increases, firms tend to increase their aggregate output, which requires the use of additional resources that increase pollution. Hence, an increase in productivity results in two opposing effects where increased productivity may in fact increase pollution created by a firm. We describe the joint effect of these two mechanisms on pollution emissions as the "productivity dilemma" of pollution emission. Based on firm-level data from China, we also empirically test this productivity dilemma hypothesis. Our empirical results suggest that, in general, firm productivity has a positive and statistically significant impact on pollution emission in China. However, the impact of productivity on pollution becomes negative when we control for increases in firm output. The empirical evidence also confirms the positive influence of productivity on output, which suggests that the main determinant of pollution is the firm's output. The empirical results provide evidence of the existence of, what we describe as, the productivity dilemma of pollution emission.

  20. Board diversity in the perspective of financial distress: Empirical evidence from the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Santen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between board diversity (in gender and in nationality and financial distress. A summary of the theory behind board diversity precedes an overview of the empirical evidence on the relationship between diversity and company performance. The paper presents empirical research on the relationship between a negative performance measure, financial distress, and diversity on the board. The results show a positive relationship between the presence of foreign non-executive directors and financial distress. It is suggested that this is caused by negative communication and misunderstandings. No relationship is found between the gender of a director and financial distress. On a micro-level, the data do not show evidence for the glass cliff hypothesis.

  1. The Neural Correlates of Abstract and Concrete Words: Evidence from Brain-Damaged Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Martello

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological and activation studies on the neural correlates of abstract and concrete words have produced contrasting results. The present study explores the anatomical substrates of abstract/concrete words in 22 brain-damaged patients with a single vascular lesion either in the right or left hemisphere. One hundred and twenty (60 concrete and 60 abstract noun triplets were used for a semantic similarity judgment task. We found a significant interaction in word type × group since left temporal brain-damaged patients performed significantly better with concrete than abstract words. Lesion mapping of patients with predominant temporal damage showed that the left superior and middle temporal gyri and the insula were the areas of major overlapping, while the anterior portion of the left temporal lobe was generally spared. Errors on abstract words mainly concerned (although at a non-significant level semantically associate targets, while in the case of concrete words, coordinate targets were significantly more impaired than associate ones. Our results suggest that the left superior and middle temporal gyri and the insula are crucial regions in processing abstract words. They also confirm the hypothesis of a semantic similarity vs. associative organization of concrete and abstract concepts.

  2. Endogenous Women's Autonomy and the Use of Reproductive Health Services: Empirical Evidence from Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuke Kamiya

    2010-01-01

    Though gender equity is widely considered to be a key to improving maternal health in developing countries, little empirical evidence has been presented to support this claim. This paper investigates whether or not and how female autonomy within the household affects women's use of reproductive health care in Tajikistan, where the situation of maternal health and gender equity is worse compared with neighbouring countries. Estimation is performed using bivariate probit models in which woman's...

  3. The Political Economy of International Emission Trading Scheme Choice: Empirical Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J.T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol allows emissions trading. It does however not specify how this is to take place and the discussion on the design of an emissions trading scheme is ongoing. In this paper, we give some empirical evidence on the preference of industry and environmental organizations for internati...... for international emissions trading scheme. Since they may have an influence on decision makers, their opinion is important. Our conclusion is that both industry and environmental organizations prefer credit trading, although for widely different reasons....

  4. Mergers and Acquisitions in the Spanish Banking Industry: some Empirical Evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Fuentes; Teresa Sastre

    1999-01-01

    Since the late eighties, the Spanish banking system has been undergoing major changes that have affected both its structure and the nature of strategic interaction among banking institutions. Various different strategies have been adopted to tackle the demands of this new operating environment, one such strategy having been consolidation via mergers and acquisitions. This paper attempts to provide some empirical evidence on the impact of the consolidation process on the monetary transmission ...

  5. Why borrowers pay premiums to larger lenders: Empirical evidence from sovereign syndicated loans

    OpenAIRE

    Hallak, Issam

    2002-01-01

    All other terms being equal (e.g. seniority), syndicated loan contracts provide larger lending compensations (in percentage points) to institutions funding larger amounts. This paper explores empirically the motivation for such a price design on a sample of sovereign syndicated loans in the period 1990-1997. I find strong evidence that a larger premium is associated with higher renegotiation probability and information asymmetries. It hardly has any impact on the number of lenders though. Thi...

  6. Empirical Evidence of Stakeholder Management in Sports Clubs: The Impact of the Board of Directors

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve, M.; Di Lorenzo, F.; Inglés, E.; Puig, N.

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for non-profit sports organizations is how to raise resources from their stakeholders. The present article empirically assesses how the management of stakeholders can affect the resources raised by non-profit sports organizations. The moderating effect of particular characteristics of the Board of Directors is also considered. Evidence is obtained by surveying a large sample of sports clubs from Catalonia, Spain. Results indicate how the quality of relations between sports c...

  7. The Measurement of Central Bank Autonomy; Survey of Models, Indicators, and Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard J Laurens; Marco Arnone; Jean-François Segalotto

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the literature on the measurement of central bank autonomy. We distinguish inputs that constitute the building blocks in the literature, and the literature that builds on them. Issues including sensitivity analysis, robustness, and endogeneity are discussed. The review shows that empirical evidence regarding the beneficial effects of central bank autonomy is substantial, although some technical issues still remain for further research. In particular, central ba...

  8. Micro-Credit and Rural Poverty: An Analysis of Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Chavan, P.; Ramakumar, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews empirical evidence on NGO-led micro-credit programmes in several developing countries, and compares them with state-led poverty alleviation schemes in India. It shows that micro-credit programmes have brought about a marginal improvement in the beneficiaries' income, though technological improvements are lacking due to its emphasis on ‘survival skills'. Also, in Bangladesh the practice of repayment of Grameen Bank loans by making fresh loans from moneylenders has resulted ...

  9. GENDER EQUALITY ON CORPORATE BOARDS: TOWARDS A MORE INCLUSIVE AND RESPONSIBLE SOCIETY EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Tipurić, Darko; Lovrinčević, Marina; Lovrinčević Šelamov, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Gender diversity issues are receiving great attention worldwide. Empirical evidence suggests that stronger women representation on boards is positively related to financial performance. Across Europe, initiatives for greater women representation on boards are undertaken. They vary from one country to another and include proposals in national codes, voluntary initiatives, demands for disclosure of nomination policies and legal quotas for women on company boards. Recent data show that women acc...

  10. CSR Disclosures in the Mining Industry: Empirical Evidence from Listed Mining Firms in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rina Asmeri; Tika Alvionita; Ardi Gunardi

    2017-01-01

    Companies that are involved in CSR strive to meet the expectations of stakeholders. Therefore, CSR and CSR reporting are tools of legitimacy to demonstrate its obedience (legitimacy theory). This study aims to look at empirical evidence on the effect of profitability and environmental performance on CSR disclosure. This study examined the target population of mining companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange that included the CSR reporting in the 2010-2014 annual report, obtained a sam...

  11. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS AND THE ROMANIAN STOCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iamandi Irina Eugenia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on empirical studies and theoretical evidence, the paper investigates the relationship between mergers and acquisitions in Romania and Romanian stock market, described by the BET and BET-C indexes. By using the Granger causality test for the number of mergers and acquisitions, the research results suggest that, for the market and period considered, one way and both ways relationships are present.

  12. Compliance costs caused by agency action? Empirical evidence and implications for tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Eichfelder, Sebastian; Kegels, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    The compliance costs of private taxpayers are not only affected by the tax law itself but also by its implementation through the tax authorities. In this paper we analyze the effect of the tax authorities on the burden of complying with tax regulations. Using survey data of Belgian businesses and controlling for potential endogeneity, we find empirical evidence that tax authority behavior is an important cost driver. According to our estimate, a customer-unfriendly tax administration increase...

  13. Exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria in perfect-monitoring repeated games yield correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Dudebout, Nicolas; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proves that exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria (xEEEs) in perfect-monitoring repeated games induce correlated equilibria of the associated one-shot game. An empirical-evidence equilibrium (EEE) is a solution concept for stochastic games. At equilibrium, agents' strategies are optimal with respect to models of their opponents. These models satisfy a consistency condition with respect to the actual behavior of the opponents. As such, EEEs replace the full-rationality requirement of Nash equilibria by a consistency-based bounded-rationality one. In this paper, the framework of empirical evidence is summarized, with an emphasis on perfect-monitoring repeated games. A less constraining notion of consistency is introduced. The fact that an xEEE in a perfect-monitoring repeated game induces a correlated equilibrium on the underlying one-shot game is proven. This result and the new notion of consistency are illustrated on the hawk-dove game. Finally, a method to build specific correlated equilibria from xEEEs is derived.

  14. Exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria in perfect-monitoring repeated games yield correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Dudebout, Nicolas

    2014-12-15

    This paper proves that exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria (xEEEs) in perfect-monitoring repeated games induce correlated equilibria of the associated one-shot game. An empirical-evidence equilibrium (EEE) is a solution concept for stochastic games. At equilibrium, agents\\' strategies are optimal with respect to models of their opponents. These models satisfy a consistency condition with respect to the actual behavior of the opponents. As such, EEEs replace the full-rationality requirement of Nash equilibria by a consistency-based bounded-rationality one. In this paper, the framework of empirical evidence is summarized, with an emphasis on perfect-monitoring repeated games. A less constraining notion of consistency is introduced. The fact that an xEEE in a perfect-monitoring repeated game induces a correlated equilibrium on the underlying one-shot game is proven. This result and the new notion of consistency are illustrated on the hawk-dove game. Finally, a method to build specific correlated equilibria from xEEEs is derived.

  15. It’s Personal: Biology Instructors Prioritize Personal Evidence over Empirical Evidence in Teaching Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Tessa C.; Lemons, Paula P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite many calls for undergraduate biology instructors to incorporate active learning into lecture courses, few studies have focused on what it takes for instructors to make this change. We sought to investigate the process of adopting and sustaining active-learning instruction. As a framework for our research, we used the innovation-decision model, a generalized model of how individuals adopt innovations. We interviewed 17 biology instructors who were attempting to implement case study teaching and conducted qualitative text analysis on interview data. The overarching theme that emerged from our analysis was that instructors prioritized personal experience—rather than empirical evidence—in decisions regarding case study teaching. We identified personal experiences that promote case study teaching, such as anecdotal observations of student outcomes, and those that hinder case study teaching, such as insufficient teaching skills. By analyzing the differences between experienced and new case study instructors, we discovered that new case study instructors need support to deal with unsupportive colleagues and to develop the skill set needed for an active-learning classroom. We generated hypotheses that are grounded in our data about effectively supporting instructors in adopting and sustaining active-learning strategies. We also synthesized our findings with existing literature to tailor the innovation-decision model. PMID:25713092

  16. Some empirical evidence on the relationship between inventory management and social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Elsayed

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the crucial role that inventory plays in supply chain management (SCM, research that examines the relationship between inventory and corporate social responsibility (CSR is rare. This is surprising given the evidence that inventory represents a huge source of cost, a matter that is often reported as a major impediment in practicing social responsibility in SCM. As such, this paper fills this gape in literature by examining directly the effect of inventory management on CSR. Maximum-likelihood ordered logistic regression was performed on a sample of 38 Egyptian listed firms during the period from 2007 to 2010. The results demonstrate that inventory management exerts a positive and significant coefficient on CSR. Further analysis shows that inventory management cannot be safely dropped from model of analysis. Rather, inventory management does add something unique in explaining differences in CSR. For practitioners interested in optimizing their firms’ values, thinking in managing supply chain imperatives, and specially inventory, in terms of social responsibility may guide them to build up a stock of reputational capital that can be used, in turn, to increase the cost of their rivals. This study, to the best of knowledge, is the first one that offers empirical evidence regarding the effect of inventory management on CSR. Moreover, the paper adds to both SCM and CSR literature by providing empirical evidence from Egypt as an emerging market, where much of the existing evidence reflects experience from developed countries.

  17. Are stock market returns related to the weather effects? Empirical evidence from Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsangyao; Nieh, Chien-Chung; Yang, Ming Jing; Yang, Tse-Yu

    2006-05-01

    In this study, we employ a recently developed econometric technique of the threshold model with the GJR-GARCH process on error terms to investigate the relationships between weather factors and stock market returns in Taiwan using daily data for the period of 1 July 1997-22 October 2003. The major weather factors studied include temperature, humidity, and cloud cover. Our empirical evidence shows that temperature and cloud cover are two important weather factors that affect the stock returns in Taiwan. Our empirical findings further support the previous arguments that advocate the inclusion of economically neutral behavioral variables in asset pricing models. These results also have significant implications for individual investors and financial institutions planning to invest in the Taiwan stock market.

  18. Empirical investigation of purchasing power parity for Turkey: Evidence from recent nonlinear unit root tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilem Yıldırım

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the empirical validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP hypothesis between Turkey and its four major trading partners, the European Union, Russia, China and the US. Accounting for the nonlinear nature of real exchange rates, we employ a battery of recently developed nonlinear unit root tests. Our empirical results reveal that nonlinear unit root tests deliver stronger evidence in favour of the PPP hypothesis when compared to the conventional unit root tests only if nonlinearities in real exchange rates are correctly specified. Furthermore, it emerges from our findings that the real exchange rates of the countries having a free trade agreement are more likely to behave as linear stationary processes.

  19. Like grandparents, like parents: Empirical evidence and psychoanalytic thinking on the transmission of parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carli, Pietro; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; Santona, Alessandra; Bonalda, Valentina; Cesari, Paola Elena; Parolin, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The authors discuss the issue of intergenerational transmission of parenting from an empirical and psychoanalytic perspective. After presenting a framework to explain their conception of parenting, they describe intergenerational transmission of parenting as a key to interpreting and eventually changing parenting behaviors. Then they present (1) the empirical approach aimed at determining if there is actually a stability across generations that contributes to harsh parenting and eventually maltreatment and (2) the psyphoanalytic thinking that seeks to explain the continuity in terms of representations and clinical phenomena. The authors also discuss the relationship between the attachment and the caregiving systems and hypothesize a common base for the two systems in childhood experience. Finally, they propose the psychoanalytic perspective as a fruitful theoretical framework to integrate the evidence for the neurophysiological mediators and moderators of intergenerational transmission. Psychoanalytically informed research can provide clinically relevant insights and hypotheses to be tested.

  20. Collective animal navigation and migratory culture: from theoretical models to empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Anthony I.

    2018-01-01

    Animals often travel in groups, and their navigational decisions can be influenced by social interactions. Both theory and empirical observations suggest that such collective navigation can result in individuals improving their ability to find their way and could be one of the key benefits of sociality for these species. Here, we provide an overview of the potential mechanisms underlying collective navigation, review the known, and supposed, empirical evidence for such behaviour and highlight interesting directions for future research. We further explore how both social and collective learning during group navigation could lead to the accumulation of knowledge at the population level, resulting in the emergence of migratory culture. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Collective movement ecology’. PMID:29581394

  1. Abstract Knowledge in the Broken-String Problem: Evidence from Nonhuman Primates and Pre-Schoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Carolina; Call, Josep; Albiach-Serrano, Anna; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Sabbatini, Gloria; Seed, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    There is still large controversy about whether abstract knowledge of physical problems is uniquely human. We presented 9 capuchin monkeys, 6 bonobos, 6 chimpanzees and 48 children with two versions of a broken-string problem. In the standard condition, participants had to choose between an intact and a broken string as means to a reward. In the critical condition, the functional parts of the strings were covered up and replaced by perceptually similar, but non-functional cues. Apes, monkeys and young children performed significantly better in the standard condition in which the cues played a functional role, indicating knowledge of the functional properties involved. Moreover, a control experiment with chimpanzees and young children ruled out that this difference in performance could be accounted for by differences of perceptual feedback in the two conditions. We suggest that, similar to humans, nonhuman primates partly rely on abstract concepts in physical problem-solving. PMID:25272161

  2. Mixed and Complex Mixed Migration during Armed Conflict: Multidimensional Empirical Evidence from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathalie E

    Historically, legal, policy, and academic communities largely ascribed to a dichotomy between forced and voluntary migration, creating a black and white vision that was convenient for legal and policy purposes. More recently, discussions have begun addressing the possibility of mixed migration, acknowledging that there is likely a wide continuum between forced and voluntary, and most migrants likely move with some amount of compulsion and some volition, even during armed conflict. While the mixed migration hypothesis is well-received, empirical evidence is disparate and somewhat blunt at this point. In this article, I contribute a direct theoretical and causal pathway discussion of mixed migration. I also propose the complex mixed migration hypothesis, which argues that not only do non-conflict related factors influence migration during conflict, but they do so differently than during periods of relative peace. I empirically test both hypotheses in the context of the recent armed conflict in Nepal. Using detailed survey data and event history models, results provide strong evidence for both mixed migration and complex mixed migration during conflict hypotheses. These hypotheses and evidence suggest that armed conflict might have substantial impacts on long-term population growth and change, with significant relevance in both academic and policy spheres.

  3. A generalized preferential attachment model for business firms growth rates. I. Empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pammolli, F.; Fu, D.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Riccaboni, M.; Matia, K.; Yamasaki, K.; Stanley, H. E.

    2007-05-01

    We introduce a model of proportional growth to explain the distribution P(g) of business firm growth rates. The model predicts that P(g) is Laplace in the central part and depicts an asymptotic power-law behavior in the tails with an exponent ζ = 3. Because of data limitations, previous studies in this field have been focusing exclusively on the Laplace shape of the body of the distribution. We test the model at different levels of aggregation in the economy, from products, to firms, to countries, and we find that the predictions are in good agreement with empirical evidence on both growth distributions and size-variance relationships.

  4. Effects of Monetary Shocks on Exchange Rate: Empirical Evidence from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Chandan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of monetary policy shocks on exchange rate in a Multiple Indicator Approach (MIA framework. This study has employed a monetary policy index of key monetary policy instruments in India (Bank rate, Cash Reserve Ratio, Repo and Reverse Repo rates. The study finds the empirical evidence for puzzling behavior of price level and exchange rate. Both price and exchange rate increase initially in response to a contractionary policy shock. Policy shocks affect output, inflation and exchange rate to an appreciable extent over a forecasting horizon of one year.

  5. CSR Disclosures in the Mining Industry: Empirical Evidence from Listed Mining Firms in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Asmeri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Companies that are involved in CSR strive to meet the expectations of stakeholders. Therefore, CSR and CSR reporting are tools of legitimacy to demonstrate its obedience (legitimacy theory. This study aims to look at empirical evidence on the effect of profitability and environmental performance on CSR disclosure. This study examined the target population of mining companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange that included the CSR reporting in the 2010-2014 annual report, obtained a sample of 18 companies. By using multiple regression analysis test, there is no significant influence between profitability to CSR disclosure, whilst environmental performance has effect on CSR disclosure.

  6. Bacterial clonal diagnostics as a tool for evidence-based empiric antibiotic selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Tchesnokova

    Full Text Available Despite the known clonal distribution of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria, empiric (pre-culture antibiotic selection still relies heavily on species-level cumulative antibiograms, resulting in overuse of broad-spectrum agents and excessive antibiotic/pathogen mismatch. Urinary tract infections (UTIs, which account for a large share of antibiotic use, are caused predominantly by Escherichia coli, a highly clonal pathogen. In an observational clinical cohort study of urgent care patients with suspected UTI, we assessed the potential for E. coli clonal-level antibiograms to improve empiric antibiotic selection. A novel PCR-based clonotyping assay was applied to fresh urine samples to rapidly detect E. coli and the urine strain's clonotype. Based on a database of clonotype-specific antibiograms, the acceptability of various antibiotics for empiric therapy was inferred using a 20%, 10%, and 30% allowed resistance threshold. The test's performance characteristics and possible effects on prescribing were assessed. The rapid test identified E. coli clonotypes directly in patients' urine within 25-35 minutes, with high specificity and sensitivity compared to culture. Antibiotic selection based on a clonotype-specific antibiogram could reduce the relative likelihood of antibiotic/pathogen mismatch by ≥ 60%. Compared to observed prescribing patterns, clonal diagnostics-guided antibiotic selection could safely double the use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and minimize fluoroquinolone use. In summary, a rapid clonotyping test showed promise for improving empiric antibiotic prescribing for E. coli UTI, including reversing preferential use of fluoroquinolones over trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The clonal diagnostics approach merges epidemiologic surveillance, antimicrobial stewardship, and molecular diagnostics to bring evidence-based medicine directly to the point of care.

  7. Bacterial clonal diagnostics as a tool for evidence-based empiric antibiotic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchesnokova, Veronika; Avagyan, Hovhannes; Rechkina, Elena; Chan, Diana; Muradova, Mariya; Haile, Helen Ghirmai; Radey, Matthew; Weissman, Scott; Riddell, Kim; Scholes, Delia; Johnson, James R; Sokurenko, Evgeni V

    2017-01-01

    Despite the known clonal distribution of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria, empiric (pre-culture) antibiotic selection still relies heavily on species-level cumulative antibiograms, resulting in overuse of broad-spectrum agents and excessive antibiotic/pathogen mismatch. Urinary tract infections (UTIs), which account for a large share of antibiotic use, are caused predominantly by Escherichia coli, a highly clonal pathogen. In an observational clinical cohort study of urgent care patients with suspected UTI, we assessed the potential for E. coli clonal-level antibiograms to improve empiric antibiotic selection. A novel PCR-based clonotyping assay was applied to fresh urine samples to rapidly detect E. coli and the urine strain's clonotype. Based on a database of clonotype-specific antibiograms, the acceptability of various antibiotics for empiric therapy was inferred using a 20%, 10%, and 30% allowed resistance threshold. The test's performance characteristics and possible effects on prescribing were assessed. The rapid test identified E. coli clonotypes directly in patients' urine within 25-35 minutes, with high specificity and sensitivity compared to culture. Antibiotic selection based on a clonotype-specific antibiogram could reduce the relative likelihood of antibiotic/pathogen mismatch by ≥ 60%. Compared to observed prescribing patterns, clonal diagnostics-guided antibiotic selection could safely double the use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and minimize fluoroquinolone use. In summary, a rapid clonotyping test showed promise for improving empiric antibiotic prescribing for E. coli UTI, including reversing preferential use of fluoroquinolones over trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The clonal diagnostics approach merges epidemiologic surveillance, antimicrobial stewardship, and molecular diagnostics to bring evidence-based medicine directly to the point of care.

  8. Why do women choose or reject careers in academic medicine? A narrative review of empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Laurel D; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Shepperd, Sasha; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Frith, Peggy; Roberts, Nia W; Pololi, Linda H; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-12-10

    Women are under-represented in academic medicine. We reviewed the empirical evidence focusing on the reasons for women's choice or rejection of careers in academic medicine. Using a systematic search, we identified 52 studies published between 1985, and 2015. More than half had methodological limitations and most were from North America. Eight main themes were explored in these studies. There was consistent evidence for four of these themes: women are interested in teaching more than in research; participation in research can encourage women into academic medicine; women lack adequate mentors and role models; and women experience gender discrimination and bias. The evidence was conflicting on four themes: women are less interested in research than men; women lose commitment to research as their education and training progress; women are deterred from academic careers by financial considerations; and women are deterred by concerns about work-life balance. Inconsistency of findings across studies suggests significant opportunities to overcome barriers by providing a more enabling environment. We identified substantial gaps in the scientific literature that could form the focus of future research, including shifting the focus from individuals' career choices to the societal and organisational contexts and cultures within which those choices are made; extending the evidence base to include a wider range of countries and settings; and testing the efficacy of interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Laryngeal Features Are Phonetically Abstract: Mismatch Negativity Evidence from Arabic, English, and Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin T. Schluter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many theories of phonology assume that the sound structure of language is made up of distinctive features, but there is considerable debate about how much articulatory detail distinctive features encode in long-term memory. Laryngeal features such as voicing provide a unique window into this question: while many languages have two-way contrasts that can be given a simple binary feature account [±VOICE], the precise articulatory details underlying these contrasts can vary significantly across languages. Here, we investigate a series of two-way voicing contrasts in English, Arabic, and Russian, three languages that implement their voicing contrasts very differently at the articulatory-phonetic level. In three event-related potential experiments contrasting English, Arabic, and Russian fricatives along with Russian stops, we observe a consistent pattern of asymmetric mismatch negativity (MMN effects that is compatible with an articulatorily abstract and cross-linguistically uniform way of marking two-way voicing contrasts, as opposed to an articulatorily precise and cross-linguistically diverse way of encoding them. Regardless of whether a language is theorized to encode [VOICE] over [SPREAD GLOTTIS], the data is consistent with a universal marking of the [SPREAD GLOTTIS] feature.

  10. An empirical research on the influencing factors of regional CO2 emissions: Evidence from Beijing city, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaohua; Yin, Fangchao; Zhang, Yixiang; Zhang, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We adapt STIRPAT model to regional context and conduct PLS regress analysis. ► Energy technology related patent is innovatively used to measure technical factors. ► Urbanization level has the greatest interpretative ability for CO 2 emissions. ► We do not find evidence of Environmental Kuznets Curve in Beijing. ► Beijing should focus more on tertiary industry and residential energy consumption. -- Abstract: In order to further study the realization of carbon intensity target, find the key influencing factors of CO 2 emissions, and explore the path of developing low-carbon economy, this paper empirically studied the influences of urbanization level, economic level, industry proportion, tertiary industry proportion, energy intensity and R and D output on CO 2 emissions in Beijing using improved STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The model is examined using partial least square regression. Results show that urbanization level, economic level and industry proportion positively influence the CO 2 emissions, while tertiary industry proportion, energy intensity and R and D output negatively do. Urbanization level is the main driving factor of CO 2 emissions, and tertiary industry proportion is the main inhibiting factor. In addition, along with the growth of per capita GDP, the increase of CO 2 emissions does not follow the Environmental Kuznets Curve model. Based on these empirical findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, we provide some policy recommendations on how to reduce carbon intensity. Beijing should pay more attention to tertiary industry and residential energy consumption for carbon emission reduction. It is necessary to establish a comprehensive evaluation index of social development. Investing more capital on carbon emission reduction science and technology, and promoting R and D output is also an efficient way to reduce CO 2 emissions.

  11. Religious Europe, Russia and Serbia: Past and present (Arguments of empirical evidence: The case of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The author has envisaged to publish three articles in three issues of "Philosophy and Society" magazine in which, relying on the empirical scientific evidence, plans to reveal the scope and level of religiousness in some European countries, then to study the case of Russia in a separate text and finally to analyze religiousness of people in Serbia and their attachment to the church and religion. This sequence of publication has its own logics looking forward to the empirical research called "European Values Study" - a longitudinal and international comparative survey of human values - in almost all European countries including, for the first time, Serbia in 2008, the author first aims to present results of previous sociological research which are representative for the area of Europe, and then for the Orthodox area in the country with the highest number of Orthodox believers in the world. Therefore, in the last article the author will be able to compare the religious situation in Serbia not only with the (non-religious Europe but the (non-religious Orthodox Russia as well.

  12. The effect of economic development on population health: a review of the empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Simon; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Economic growth is considered an important determinant of population health. Relevant studies investigating the effect of economic growth on health outcomes were identified from Google Scholar and PubMed searches in economics and medical journals. Additional resources generated through economic growth are potentially useful for improving population health. The empirical evidence on the aggregate effect of economic growth on population health is rather mixed and inconclusive. The causal pathways from economic growth to population health are crucial and failure or success in completing the pathways explains differences in empirical findings. Future research should investigate how additional resources can more effectively reach those in need and how additional resources can be used more efficiently. It is particularly relevant to understand why preventive health care in developing countries is very price elastic whereas curative health care is very health inelastic and how this understanding can inform public health policy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Women's autonomy and reproductive health care utilisation: empirical evidence from Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke

    2011-10-01

    Women's autonomy is widely considered to be a key to improving maternal health in developing countries, whereas there is no consistent empirical evidence to support this claim. This paper examines whether or not and how women's autonomy within the household affects the use of reproductive health care, using a household survey data from Tajikistan. Estimation is performed by the bivariate probit model whereby woman's use of health services and the level of women's autonomy are recursively and simultaneously determined. The data is from a sample of women aged 15-49 from the Tajikistan Living Standard Measurement Survey 2007. Women's autonomy as measured by women's decision-making on household financial matters increase the likelihood that a woman receives antenatal and delivery care, whilst it has a negative effect on the probability of attending to four or more antenatal consultations. The hypothesis that women's autonomy and reproductive health care utilisation are independently determined is rejected for most of the estimation specifications, indicating the importance of taking into account the endogenous nature of women's autonomy when assessing its effect on health care use. The empirical results reconfirm the assertion that women's status within the household is closely linked to reproductive health care utilisation in developing countries. Policymakers therefore need not only to implement not only direct health interventions but also to focus on broader social policies which address women's empowerment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Climate change and the collapse of the Akkadian empire: Evidence from the deep sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, H.M.; Menocal, P.B. de; Hemming, S.; Hemming, G.; Brown, F.H.; Guilderson, T.; Sirocko, F.

    2000-04-01

    The Akkadian empire ruled Mesopotamia from the headwaters of the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers to the Persian Gulf during the late third millennium B.C. Archeological evidence has shown that this highly developed civilization collapsed abruptly near 4,170 {+-} 150 calendar yr B.P., perhaps related to a shift to more arid conditions. Detailed paleoclimate records to test this assertion from Mesopotamia are rare, but changes in regional aridity are preserved in adjacent ocean basins. The authors document Holocene changes in regional aridity using mineralogic and geochemical analyses of a marine sediment core from the Gulf of Oman, which is directly downwind of Mesopotamian dust source areas and archeological sites. Results document a very abrupt increase in eolian dust and Mesopotamian aridity, accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dates to 4,025 {+-} 125 calendar yr B.P., which persisted for {approximately} 300 yr. Radiogenic (Nd and Sr) isotope analyses confirm that the observed increase in mineral dust was derived from Mesopotamian source areas. Geochemical correlation of volcanic ash shards between the archeological site and marine sediment record establishes a direct temporal link between Mesopotamian aridification and social collapse, implicating a sudden shift to more arid conditions as a key factor contributing to the collapse of the Akkadian empire.

  15. Sensitivity is not an intrinsic property of a diagnostic test: empirical evidence from histological diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrilho Carla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to provide empirical evidence of how spectrum effects can affect the sensitivity of histological assessment of Helicobacter pylori infection, which may contribute to explain the heterogeneity in prevalence estimates across populations with expectedly similar prevalence. Methods Cross-sectional evaluation of dyspeptic subjects undergoing upper digestive endoscopy, including collection of biopsy specimens from the greater curvature of the antrum for assessment of H. pylori infection by histopathological study and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, from Portugal (n = 106 and Mozambique (n = 102 following the same standardized protocol. Results In the Portuguese sample the prevalence of infection was 95.3% by histological assessment and 98.1% by PCR. In the Mozambican sample the prevalence was 63.7% and 93.1%, respectively. Among those classified as infected by PCR, the sensitivity of histological assessment was 96.2% among the Portuguese and 66.3% among the Mozambican. Among those testing positive by both methods, 5.0% of the Portuguese and 20.6% of the Mozambican had mild density of colonization. Conclusions This study shows a lower sensitivity of histological assessment of H. pylori infection in Mozambican dyspeptic patients compared to the Portuguese, which may be explained by differences in the density of colonization, and may contribute to explain the heterogeneity in prevalence estimates across African settings.

  16. Why autobiographical memories for traumatic and emotional events might differ: theoretical arguments and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotgiu, Igor; Rusconi, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The authors review five arguments supporting the hypothesis that memories for traumatic and nontraumatic emotional events should be considered as qualitatively different recollections. The first argument considers the objective features of traumatic and emotional events and their possible influence on the formation of memories for these events. The second argument assumes that traumatic memories distinguish from emotional ones as trauma exposure is often associated with the development of psychological disorders involving memory disturbances. The third argument is that traumatic experiences are more likely than emotional experiences to be forgotten and recovered. The fourth argument concerns the possibility that emotional memories are socially shared more frequently than traumatic memories. A fifth argument suggests that trauma exposure may impair selected brain systems implicated in memory functions. Theoretical and empirical evidence supporting these claims is reviewed. In the conclusions, the authors illustrate future research directions and discuss some conceptual issues related to the definitions of traumatic event currently employed by memory researchers.

  17. Financial development and economic growth: literature survey and empirical evidence from sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul Kakilli Acaravci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the literature on the finance-growth nexus and investigate the causality between financial development and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa for the period 1975-2005. Using panel co-integration and panel GMM estimation for causality, the results of the panel co-integration analysis provide evidence of no long-run relationship between financial development and economic growth. The empirical findings in the paper show a bi-directional causal relationship between the growth of real GDP per capita and the domestic credit provided by the banking sector for the panels of 24 Sub-Saharan African countries. The findings imply that African countries can accelerate their economic growth by improving their financial systems and vice versa.

  18. Vertical Integration of Hospitals and Physicians: Economic Theory and Empirical Evidence on Spending and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Brady; Buchmueller, Tom; Ryan, Andrew M

    2017-08-01

    Hospital-physician vertical integration is on the rise. While increased efficiencies may be possible, emerging research raises concerns about anticompetitive behavior, spending increases, and uncertain effects on quality. In this review, we bring together several of the key theories of vertical integration that exist in the neoclassical and institutional economics literatures and apply these theories to the hospital-physician relationship. We also conduct a literature review of the effects of vertical integration on prices, spending, and quality in the growing body of evidence ( n = 15) to evaluate which of these frameworks have the strongest empirical support. We find some support for vertical foreclosure as a framework for explaining the observed results. We suggest a conceptual model and identify directions for future research. Based on our analysis, we conclude that vertical integration poses a threat to the affordability of health services and merits special attention from policymakers and antitrust authorities.

  19. The Efficiency of the Chinese Commodity Futures Markets: Development and Empirical Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xin; Gongmeng Chen; Michael Firth

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the efficiency of the Chinese metal futures (i.e. copper and aluminum) traded on China's Shanghai Futures Exchange. First, we thoroughly analyze the development of China's commodity futures markets, which provides a fundamental background. Then we examine the random walk and unbiasedness hypotheses for two metal futures during 1999-2004. Based on the empirical evidence, we argue that China's copper and aluminum futures markets are efficient, and that they aid the process of price discovery because futures prices can be considered as unbiased predictors of future spot prices. We attribute this efficiency to the regulatory changes made in 1999 and the increased financial skills and acumen of the participants in the market.

  20. Innovation in clean coal technologies. Empirical evidence from firm-level patent data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Juergen [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Wetzel, Heike [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Economics

    2016-02-15

    This article empirically analyzes supply-side and demand-side factors expected to a.ect innovation in clean coal technologies. Patent data from 93 national and international patent offices is used to construct new firm-level panel data on 3,648 clean coal innovators over the time period 1978 to 2009. The results indicate that on the supply-side a firm¡¯s history in clean coal patenting and overall propensity to patent positively a.ects clean coal innovation. On the demand-side we find strong evidence that environmental regulation of emissions, that is CO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and SO{sub 2}, induces innovation in both efficiency improving combustion and after pollution control technologies.

  1. Are smokers rational addicts? Empirical evidence from the Indonesian Family Life Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabrany Hasbullah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indonesia is one of the largest consumers of tobacco in the world, however there has been little work done on the economics addiction of tobacco. This study provides an empirical test of a rational addiction (henceforth RA hypothesis of cigarette demand in Indonesia. Methods Four estimators (OLS, 2SLS, GMM, and System-GMM were explored to test the RA hypothesis. The author adopted several diagnostics tests to select the best estimator to overcome econometric problems faced in presence of the past and future cigarette consumption (suspected endogenous variables. A short-run and long-run price elasticities of cigarettes demand was then calculated. The model was applied to individuals pooled data derived from three-waves a panel of the Indonesian Family Life Survey spanning the period 1993-2000. Results The past cigarette consumption coefficients turned out to be a positive with a p-value Conclusions Health policymakers should redesign current public health campaign against cigarette smoking in the country. Given the demand for cigarettes to be more prices sensitive for the long run (and female than the short run (and male, an increase in the price of cigarettes could lead to a significant fall in cigarette consumption in the long run rather than as a constant source of government revenue.

  2. Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxu; Lu, Yongmei; Zhou, Sen; Chen, Lifan; Xu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Climate change refers to long-term shifts in weather conditions and patterns of extreme weather events. It may lead to changes in health threat to human beings, multiplying existing health problems. This review examines the scientific evidences on the impact of climate change on human infectious diseases. It identifies research progress and gaps on how human society may respond to, adapt to, and prepare for the related changes. Based on a survey of related publications between 1990 and 2015, the terms used for literature selection reflect three aspects--the components of infectious diseases, climate variables, and selected infectious diseases. Humans' vulnerability to the potential health impacts by climate change is evident in literature. As an active agent, human beings may control the related health effects that may be effectively controlled through adopting proactive measures, including better understanding of the climate change patterns and of the compound disease-specific health effects, and effective allocation of technologies and resources to promote healthy lifestyles and public awareness. The following adaptation measures are recommended: 1) to go beyond empirical observations of the association between climate change and infectious diseases and develop more scientific explanations, 2) to improve the prediction of spatial-temporal process of climate change and the associated shifts in infectious diseases at various spatial and temporal scales, and 3) to establish locally effective early warning systems for the health effects of predicated climate change. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. A MACROPRUDENTIAL SUPERVISION MODEL. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenca Ioan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the positive effects of the financial crises is the increasing concern of the supervisors regarding the financial system’s stability. There is a need to strengthen the links between different financial components of the financial system and the macroeconomic environment. Banking systems that have an adequate capitalization and liquidity level may face easier economic and financial shocks. The purpose of this empirical study is to identify the main determinants of the banking system’s stability and soundness in the Central and Eastern Europe countries. We asses the impact of different macroeconomic variables on the quality of capital and liquidity conditions and examine the behaviour of these financial stability indicators, by analyzing a sample of 10 banking systems during 2000-2011. The availability of banking capital signals the banking system’s resiliency to shocks. Capital adequacy ratio is the main indicator used to assess the banking fragility. One of the causes of the 2008-2009 financial crisis was the lack of liquidity in the banking system which led to the collapse of several banking institutions and macroeconomic imbalances. Given the importance of liquidity for the banking system, we propose several models in order to determine the macroeconomic variables that have a significant influence on the liquid reserves to total assets ratio. We found evidence that GDP growth, inflation, domestic credit to private sector, as well as the money and quasi money aggregate indicator have significant impact on the banking stability. The empirical regression confirms the high level of interdependence of the real sector with the financial-banking sector. Also, they prove the necessity for an effective macro prudential supervision at country level which enables the supervisory authorities to have an adequate control over the macro prudential indicators and to take appropriate decisions at the right time.

  4. Empirical evidence for multi-scaled controls on wildfire size distributions in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povak, N.; Hessburg, P. F., Sr.; Salter, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Ecological theory asserts that regional wildfire size distributions are examples of self-organized critical (SOC) systems. Controls on SOC event-size distributions by virtue are purely endogenous to the system and include the (1) frequency and pattern of ignitions, (2) distribution and size of prior fires, and (3) lagged successional patterns after fires. However, recent work has shown that the largest wildfires often result from extreme climatic events, and that patterns of vegetation and topography may help constrain local fire spread, calling into question the SOC model's simplicity. Using an atlas of >12,000 California wildfires (1950-2012) and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), we fit four different power-law models and broken-stick regressions to fire-size distributions across 16 Bailey's ecoregions. Comparisons among empirical fire size distributions across ecoregions indicated that most ecoregion's fire-size distributions were significantly different, suggesting that broad-scale top-down controls differed among ecoregions. One-parameter power-law models consistently fit a middle range of fire sizes (~100 to 10000 ha) across most ecoregions, but did not fit to larger and smaller fire sizes. We fit the same four power-law models to patch size distributions of aspect, slope, and curvature topographies and found that the power-law models fit to a similar middle range of topography patch sizes. These results suggested that empirical evidence may exist for topographic controls on fire sizes. To test this, we used neutral landscape modeling techniques to determine if observed fire edges corresponded with aspect breaks more often than expected by random. We found significant differences between the empirical and neutral models for some ecoregions, particularly within the middle range of fire sizes. Our results, combined with other recent work, suggest that controls on ecoregional fire size distributions are multi-scaled and likely are not purely SOC. California

  5. The determinants of domestic water demand. Empirical evidence from Emilia-Romagna municipal data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Montini, Anna

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents empirical evidence on the determinants of water demand for domestic use in one Italian region, the Emilia Romagna, by using municipal data. Two main stems in urban/domestic demand analysis cab be found in the empirical literature. The first deals with the estimation of price or income demand elasticities in the short and the long run. The price demand elasticities can be used for water demand managements purpose while the income price elasticities can be useful in the forecasting process of the water requirements. The second one deals with the estimate of customer willingness to pay increasing in water service quality in holistic sense or concerning single characteristics of the service: safety, flavour, continuity, appearance, pollution rate and cost. The aim of the analysis in this case the elicitation of the direct use, indirect use and non-use values associated to the water resource consumption, by means of direct or indirect techniques. In this paper we focused the analysis in the first stem of the empirical literature in which a cross section data set is required. The paper explores the topic problems of the estimating process whit the analysis of the empirical literature (with particular regard to investigations that use municipal data) and with the analysis of the econometric problems related to the demand estimate. The theoretical model for the water demand analysis is also presented and discussed. Two datasets have been implemented: one with 125 municipalities and four years, the other with 40 municipalities and eleven years. Both the databases bring together municipal water consumption and tariffs data provided by local water utilities and other municipal data (inhabitants, surface, household, income, etc.) stemming from official sources. The econometric analysis is based on both fixed effects, performing better than random effects models, and dynamic panel models. The estimated coefficient of the tariff variable arises always

  6. Empirical evidence about inconsistency among studies in a pair‐wise meta‐analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rebecca M.; Higgins, Julian P. T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how inconsistency (as measured by the I2 statistic) among studies in a meta‐analysis may differ, according to the type of outcome data and effect measure. We used hierarchical models to analyse data from 3873 binary, 5132 continuous and 880 mixed outcome meta‐analyses within the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Predictive distributions for inconsistency expected in future meta‐analyses were obtained, which can inform priors for between‐study variance. Inconsistency estimates were highest on average for binary outcome meta‐analyses of risk differences and continuous outcome meta‐analyses. For a planned binary outcome meta‐analysis in a general research setting, the predictive distribution for inconsistency among log odds ratios had median 22% and 95% CI: 12% to 39%. For a continuous outcome meta‐analysis, the predictive distribution for inconsistency among standardized mean differences had median 40% and 95% CI: 15% to 73%. Levels of inconsistency were similar for binary data measured by log odds ratios and log relative risks. Fitted distributions for inconsistency expected in continuous outcome meta‐analyses using mean differences were almost identical to those using standardized mean differences. The empirical evidence on inconsistency gives guidance on which outcome measures are most likely to be consistent in particular circumstances and facilitates Bayesian meta‐analysis with an informative prior for heterogeneity. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26679486

  7. Is economic growth good or bad for the environment? Empirical evidence from Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jungho; Kim, Hyun Seok

    2013-01-01

    The effects of economic growth on the environment in Korea, for a given level of energy consumption, and fossil fuels and nuclear energy in electricity production, are examined in a dynamic cointegration framework. To that end, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach is used. We find empirical evidence supporting the existence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for Korea; that is, economic growth indeed plays a favorable role in influencing environmental outcomes. It is also found that, in both the short- and long-run, nuclear energy has a beneficial effect on environmental quality, whereas fossil fuels in electricity production and energy consumption have a detrimental effect on the environment. - Highlights: ► We examine the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for Korea. ► The model includes the roles of energy consumption and electricity production. ► We find the existence of the EKC hypothesis for Korea. ► Nuclear energy is found to have a beneficial effect on the environment. ► Fossil fuels and energy consumption have a detrimental effect on the environment

  8. A study of the information seeking behaviour of hospital pharmacists: empirical evidence from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostagiolas, Petros A; Aggelopoulou, Vasiliki A; Niakas, Dimitris

    2011-12-01

    Hospital pharmacists need access to high-quality information in order to constantly update their knowledge and improve their skills. In their modern role, they are expected to address three types of challenges: scientific, organizational and administrative, thus having an increased need for adequate information and library services. This study investigates the information-seeking behaviour of public hospital pharmacists providing evidence from Greece that could be used to encourage the development of effective information hospital services and study the links between the information seeking behaviour of hospital pharmacists and their modern scientific and professional role. An empirical research was conducted between January and February 2010 with the development and distribution of a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was filled in and returned by 88 public hospital pharmacists from a total of 286 working in all Greek public hospitals, providing a response rate of 31%. The hospital pharmacists in Greece are in search of scientific information and, more particularly, pharmaceutical information (e.g., drug indications, storage, dosage and prices). The Internet and the National Organization of Medicines are their main information sources, while the lack of time and organized information are the main obstacles they have to face when seeking information. The modern professional role of hospital pharmacists as invaluable contributors to efficient and safer healthcare services may be further supported through the development of specialized libraries and information services within Greek public hospitals. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  9. The lending channel and budget balance: empirical evidences from Central and Eastern European economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan-Gabriel MOINESCU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to deepen the analysis on the indirect dependence of government budget balance on private sector credit flow in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The added value of this approach consists of two elements. First, the analysis suggests developing the traditional analytical framework of assessing risks to public finance stability by including second round effects of negative fiscal impulses on credit to private sector during recession periods. Second, the study provides empirical evidence on the importance of economic growth transmission channel for the impact of credit accelerator effects on primary deficit. At the same time, nonperforming loans channel proved to be insignificant, especially in relation to the persistency of last year’s budget deficit and the effects of budget allocations pro-cyclicality. However, loan portfolio quality seems to be more relevant in the case of public debt service, through its influence on the evolution of the yield on long-term government securities that is closely related to sovereign risk premium. Nevertheless, strengthening the financial safety net by the introduction of resolution funds will most probably break the link investors saw between credit portfolio quality and the impending increase in budget spending. This expected development across not only CEE countries, but at the EU level also, will facilitate the isolation of sovereign risk premium from non-performing loans’ dynamics.

  10. Literary and Documentary Evidence for Lay Medical Practice in the Roman Republic and Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draycott, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The majority of surviving ancient medical literature was written by medical practitioners and produced for the purpose of ensuring the effective diagnosis and treatment of their patients, suggesting an audience of medical professionals ranging from instructors to students. This has led historians to concentrate on the professional medical practitioner and their theories, methods and practices, rather than on lay medical practitioners, or even patients themselves. This chapter seeks to redress this imbalance, and examine the ancient literary and documentary evidence for lay medical theories, methods and practices in the Roman Republic and Empire in an attempt to reconstruct the experiences of lay medical practitioners and their patients. The Roman agricultural treatises of Cato, Varro and Columella, papyri and ostraca from Egypt, and tablets from Britain are investigated, and it is established that the individual's personal acquisition of knowledge and expertise, not only from medical professionals and works of medical literature, but also from family members and friends, and through trial and error, was considered fundamental to domestic medical practice.

  11. Hypnosis Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of the Empirical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsson, Olafur S

    2015-10-01

    Hypnotherapy has been investigated for 30 years as a treatment for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. There are presently 35 studies in the published empirical literature, including 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have assessed clinical outcomes of such treatment. This body of research is reviewed comprehensively in this article. Twenty-four of the studies have tested hypnotherapy for adult irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 5 have focused on IBS or abdominal pain in children. All IBS hypnotherapy studies have reported significant improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, and 7 out of 10 RCTs in adults and all 3 RCTs in pediatric patient samples found superior outcomes for hypnosis compared to control groups. Collectively this body of research shows unequivocally that for both adults and children with IBS, hypnosis treatment is highly efficacious in reducing bowel symptoms and can offer lasting and substantial symptom relief for a large proportion of patients who do not respond adequately to usual medical treatment approaches. For other GI disorders the evidence is more limited, but preliminary indications of therapeutic potential can be seen in the single randomized controlled trials published to date on hypnotherapy for functional dyspepsia, functional chest pain, and ulcerative colitis. Further controlled hypnotherapy trials in those three disorders should be a high priority. The mechanisms underlying the impact of hypnosis on GI problems are still unclear, but findings from a number of studies suggest that they involve both modulation of gut functioning and changes in the brain's handling of sensory signals from the GI tract.

  12. Energy Innovations-GHG Emissions Nexus: Fresh Empirical Evidence from OECD Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Herránz, Agustín; Balsalobre, Daniel; Cantos, José María; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of improvements in energy research development (ERD) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for 28 OECD countries over the period of 1990–2014. In doing so, we have employed a panel data where public budget in energy research development and demonstration (ERD&D) has transformed into a finite inverted V-lag distribution model developed by De Leeuw (1962). This model considers that energy innovation accumulates in time and presents empirical evidence, how energy innovation contributes in reducing energy intensity and environmental pollution as well. Our results indicate that energy innovation measures require lapses of time to reach their full effect i.e. innovation applied to measures for environmental correction does not reach its whole effect immediately, requiring instead a certain amount of time to pass. Innovation policies have recommended for improving environmental quality. - Highlights: • This study analyses the impact of public budget in energy RD&D for 28 OECD countries on environmental quality. • Energy innovation contributes positively to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • Advances in energy technology seem to be the key of improved environmental quality.

  13. Do modified audit opinions have economic consequences? Empirical evidence based on financial constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Lin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a framework and empirical evidence to explain why, on average, 11% of listed firms in China received modified audit opinions (MAOs between 1992 and 2009. We argue that there are two reasons for this phenomenon: strong earnings management incentives lower firms’ financial reporting quality and soft budget constraints weaken the information and governance roles of audit opinions. We find that firms’ financial constraints eased after receiving MAOs, which suggests that MAOs have limited economic consequences. Further analysis shows that this phenomenon predominantly exists in government-controlled firms and firms that receive MAOs for the first time. We also find that MAOs have not influenced financial constraints after 2006. Finally, we find that MAOs did not affect borrowing cash flows from banks until 2005, suggesting that MAOs did not start affecting bank financing until that year. We also find that firms receive more related-party financing after receiving MAOs. Our results indicate that a limited effect on bank financing and increased related-party financing reduce the effect of MAOs on financial constraints.

  14. More Health Expenditure, Better Economic Performance? Empirical Evidence From OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuhmei

    2015-01-01

    Recent economic downturns have led many countries to reduce health spending dramatically, with the World Health Organization raising concerns over the effects of this, in particular among the poor and vulnerable. With the provision of appropriate health care, the population of a country could have better health, thus strengthening the nation’s human capital, which could contribute to economic growth through improved productivity. How much should countries spend on health care? This study aims to estimate the optimal health care expenditure in a growing economy. Applying the experiences of countries from the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) over the period 1990 to 2009, this research introduces the method of system generalized method of moments (GMM) to derive the design of the estimators of the focal variables. Empirical evidence indicates that when the ratio of health spending to gross domestic product (GDP) is less than the optimal level of 7.55%, increases in health spending effectively lead to better economic performance. Above this, more spending does not equate to better care. The real level of health spending in OECD countries is 5.48% of GDP, with a 1.87% economic growth rate. The question which is posed by this study is a pertinent one, especially in the current context of financially constrained health systems around the world. The analytical results of this work will allow policymakers to better allocate scarce resources to achieve their macroeconomic goals. PMID:26310501

  15. Obstacles to prior art searching by the trilateral patent offices: empirical evidence from International Search Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tetsuo

    Despite many empirical studies having been carried out on examiner patent citations, few have scrutinized the obstacles to prior art searching when adding patent citations during patent prosecution at patent offices. This analysis takes advantage of the longitudinal gap between an International Search Report (ISR) as required by the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and subsequent national examination procedures. We investigate whether several kinds of distance actually affect the probability that prior art is detected at the time of an ISR; this occurs much earlier than in national phase examinations. Based on triadic PCT applications between 2002 and 2005 for the trilateral patent offices (the European Patent Office, the US Patent and Trademark Office, and the Japan Patent Office) and their family-level citations made by the trilateral offices, we find evidence that geographical distance negatively affects the probability of capture of prior patents in an ISR. In addition, the technological complexity of an application negatively affects the probability of capture, whereas the volume of forward citations of prior art affects it positively. These results demonstrate the presence of obstacles to searching at patent offices, and suggest ways to design work sharing by patent offices, such that the duplication of search costs arises only when patent office search horizons overlap.

  16. State ownership and firm performance: Empirical evidence from Chinese listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available While the relationship between state ownership and firm performance has been widely researched, the empirical evidence has provided mixed results. This study applies panel data regression techniques to 10,639 firm-year observations of non-financial Chinese listed firms during 2003–2010 to examine the relationship between state ownership and firm performance. The results show that state ownership has a U-shaped relationship with firm performance. The Split Share Structure Reform in 2005–2006 played a positive role in enhancing the relationship between state ownership and firm profitability ratios. Although state ownership decreased significantly after 2006, it remains high in strategically important industry sectors such as the oil, natural gas and mining sector and the publishing, broadcasting and media sector. The findings reveal that a higher level of state ownership is superior to a dispersed ownership structure due to the benefits of government support and political connections. The Split Share Structure Reform made previously non-tradable shares legally tradable, improving corporate governance and reducing the negative effect of non-tradable state shares.

  17. Competition and quality indicators in the health care sector: empirical evidence from the Dutch hospital sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, R R; Krabbe-Alkemade, Y J F M; Mikkers, M C

    2018-01-01

    There is much debate about the effect of competition in healthcare and especially the effect of competition on the quality of healthcare, although empirical evidence on this subject is mixed. The Netherlands provides an interesting case in this debate. The Dutch system could be characterized as a system involving managed competition and mandatory healthcare insurance. Information about the quality of care provided by hospitals has been publicly available since 2008. In this paper, we evaluate the relationship between quality scores for three diagnosis groups and the market power indicators of hospitals. We estimate the impact of competition on quality in an environment of liberalized pricing. For this research, we used unique price and production data relating to three diagnosis groups (cataract, adenoid and tonsils, bladder tumor) produced by Dutch hospitals in the period 2008-2011. We also used the quality indicators relating to these diagnosis groups. We reveal a negative relationship between market share and quality score for two of the three diagnosis groups studied, meaning that hospitals in competitive markets have better quality scores than those in concentrated markets. We therefore conclude that more competition is associated with higher quality scores.

  18. More Health Expenditure, Better Economic Performance? Empirical Evidence From OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhmei Wang PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent economic downturns have led many countries to reduce health spending dramatically, with the World Health Organization raising concerns over the effects of this, in particular among the poor and vulnerable. With the provision of appropriate health care, the population of a country could have better health, thus strengthening the nation’s human capital, which could contribute to economic growth through improved productivity. How much should countries spend on health care? This study aims to estimate the optimal health care expenditure in a growing economy. Applying the experiences of countries from the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD over the period 1990 to 2009, this research introduces the method of system generalized method of moments (GMM to derive the design of the estimators of the focal variables. Empirical evidence indicates that when the ratio of health spending to gross domestic product (GDP is less than the optimal level of 7.55%, increases in health spending effectively lead to better economic performance. Above this, more spending does not equate to better care. The real level of health spending in OECD countries is 5.48% of GDP, with a 1.87% economic growth rate. The question which is posed by this study is a pertinent one, especially in the current context of financially constrained health systems around the world. The analytical results of this work will allow policymakers to better allocate scarce resources to achieve their macroeconomic goals.

  19. The Effect of Biogas Production on Farmland Rental Prices: Empirical Evidences from Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Demartini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, increased environmental awareness has prompted the adoption of incentives for exploiting renewable energy sources. Among these, biogas production has received a certain attention in developed countries. Nonetheless, the subsidies provided have posed the problem of an activity (the production of bioenergy that engages in direct competition with food and feed production for limited resources, like agricultural land. Even if this competition may be softened by allocating marginal land and/or using dedicated non-agricultural crops, empirical evidence shows that biogas plants have been developed in highly-productive agricultural areas, using increasing amounts of maize silage as feedstock. Thus, studies aimed at measuring the effect of biogas production on agricultural activities are needed in order to avoid this socially undesirable outcome. The paper presents an econometric estimation of the impact of biogas plants on farmland rental values of a Northern Italian rural area. Results show that biogas has a non-linear effect on rental prices, suggesting that incentive schemes specifically accounting for plants’ dimensions and technologies would improve the social sustainability of the bioenergy sector and its coexistence with agricultural activity.

  20. The role of sleep hygiene in promoting public health: A review of empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Leah A; Kline, Christopher E; Gunn, Heather E; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica H

    2015-08-01

    The ineffectiveness of sleep hygiene as a treatment in clinical sleep medicine has raised some interesting questions. If it is known that, individually, each specific component of sleep hygiene is related to sleep, why wouldn't addressing multiple individual components (i.e., sleep hygiene education) improve sleep? Is there still a use for sleep hygiene? Global public health concern over sleep has increased demand for sleep promotion strategies accessible to the population. However, the extent to which sleep hygiene strategies apply outside clinical settings is not well known. The present review sought to evaluate the empirical evidence for sleep hygiene recommendations regarding exercise, stress management, noise, sleep timing, and avoidance of caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, and daytime napping, with a particular emphasis on their public health utility. Thus, our review is not intended to be exhaustive regarding the clinical application of these techniques, but rather to focus on broader applications. Overall, though epidemiologic and experimental research generally supported an association between individual sleep hygiene recommendations and nocturnal sleep, the direct effects of individual recommendations on sleep remains largely untested in the general population. Suggestions for clarification of sleep hygiene recommendations and considerations for the use of sleep hygiene in nonclinical populations are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Schumpeterian Entrepreneur: A Review of the Empirical Evidence on the Antecedents, Behavior, and Consequences of Innovative Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Block (Jörn); C.O. Fisch (Christian); M. van Praag (Mirjam)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractInnovative entrepreneurship is considered an important pillar for economic development and has sparked a lively discussion in academia and practice alike. Oftentimes, however, the debate is not sufficiently grounded on solid empirical evidence. The academic literature is growing but very

  2. The Schumpeterian entrepreneur: a review of the empirical evidence on the antecedents, behavior and consequences of innovative entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Block, J.O.; Fisch, C.O.; van Praag, M.

    2017-01-01

    Innovative entrepreneurship is considered an important pillar for economic development and has sparked a lively discussion in academia and practice alike. Oftentimes, however, the debate is not sufficiently grounded on solid empirical evidence. The academic literature is growing but very scattered

  3. Do People Overestimate Their Information Literacy Skills? A Systematic Review of Empirical Evidence on the Dunning-Kruger Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review has analyzed 53 English language studies that assessed and compared peoples' self-reported and demonstrated information literacy (IL) skills. The objective was to collect empirical evidence on the existence of Dunning-Kruger Effect in the area of information literacy. The findings clearly show that this theory works in this…

  4. E-shopping and its relationship with in-store shopping : empirical evidence from the Netherlands and the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farag, Sendy; Krizek, K.J.; Dijst, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Despite considerable examination of the impact of telecommunications on travel, little empirical evidence sheds light on the impact of e-shopping on travel—a recent and increasingly popular form of telecommunications. This paper analyses determinants of online buying and their relationship with

  5. Health status of and health-care provision to asylum seekers in Germany: protocol for a systematic review and evidence mapping of empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christine; Mohsenpour, Amir; Joos, Stefanie; Bozorgmehr, Kayvan

    2014-11-29

    There are more than 100,000 asylum seekers registered in Germany, who are granted limited access to health services. This study aims to provide a systematic overview of the empirical literature on the health status of and health-care provision to asylum seekers in Germany in order to consolidate knowledge, avoid scientific redundance, and identify research gaps. A systematic review and evidence mapping of empirical literature on the health status of and health-care provision to asylum seekers in Germany will be performed. We will apply a three-tiered search strategy: 1. search in databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, CINAHL, Sowiport, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, MedPilot, DNB), dissertation and theses databases, and the internet (Google); 2. screening references of included studies; 3. contacting authors and civil society organizations for grey literature. Included will be studies which report quantitative and/or qualitative data or review articles on asylum seekers in Germany, published in German or English language. Outcome measures will include physical, mental, or social well-being, and all aspects of health-care provision (access, availability, affordability, and quality). Search results will be screened for eligibility by screening titles, abstracts and full texts. Data extraction comprises information on study characteristics, research aims, and domains of health or health-care services analyzed. The quality of studies will be appraised and documented by appropriate assessment tools. A descriptive evidence map will be drawn by categorizing all included articles by research design and the health conditions and/or domains of health-care provision analyzed. The body of evidence will be evaluated, and a narrative evidence synthesis will be performed by means of a multi-level approach, whereby quantitative and qualitative evidence are analyzed as separate streams and the product

  6. Empirical Evidence for the Outcomes of Therapeutic Video Games for Adolescents With Anxiety Disorders: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Background Extant evidence suggests that the proportion of adolescents suffering from anxiety disorders (ADs) has increased by up to 70% since the mid-1980s, with experience of anxiety at this stage associated with significant negative short- and long-term life outcomes. The existing therapeutic interventions (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy, CBT; attention bias modification, ABM) have proven to have clinically measurable benefits in reducing anxiety, but their efficacy is often compromised by social and practical barriers. The growing discrepancy between demand for, and access to, clinical interventions for anxiety has led to the development of a range of eHealth (health care practice supported by electronic processes and communication) and mHealth (versions of eHealth using mobile devices) interventions. One such protocol is therapeutic games, which aim to provide clinical frameworks in dynamic, adaptable, and personalized virtual environments. Although some evidence exists to suggest therapeutic games are associated with reductions in subjective anxiety and observed stress reactivity, there is currently, to our knowledge, no systematic review of the adherence to, and effectiveness of, therapeutic games for adolescent anxiety. Objective The aim of this review was to establish the effectiveness of therapeutic games in making clinically measurable reductions in anxiety symptoms in adolescent samples. Methods A systematic search of the existing academic literature published between 1990 and July 2017 was conducted using the databases Journal of Medical Internet Research, Journal Storage, Psychology Articles, Psychology Info, ScienceDIRECT, and Scopus. Records linked to empirical papers on therapeutic games for anxiety using adolescent samples were evaluated. Results A total of 5 studies (N=410 participants) met the inclusion criteria, and 3 gamified anxiety interventions for adolescents were identified. The papers included a mixture of randomized controlled trials

  7. Empirical Evidence for the Outcomes of Therapeutic Video Games for Adolescents With Anxiety Disorders: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Steven; Prescott, Julie

    2018-02-28

    Extant evidence suggests that the proportion of adolescents suffering from anxiety disorders (ADs) has increased by up to 70% since the mid-1980s, with experience of anxiety at this stage associated with significant negative short- and long-term life outcomes. The existing therapeutic interventions (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy, CBT; attention bias modification, ABM) have proven to have clinically measurable benefits in reducing anxiety, but their efficacy is often compromised by social and practical barriers. The growing discrepancy between demand for, and access to, clinical interventions for anxiety has led to the development of a range of eHealth (health care practice supported by electronic processes and communication) and mHealth (versions of eHealth using mobile devices) interventions. One such protocol is therapeutic games, which aim to provide clinical frameworks in dynamic, adaptable, and personalized virtual environments. Although some evidence exists to suggest therapeutic games are associated with reductions in subjective anxiety and observed stress reactivity, there is currently, to our knowledge, no systematic review of the adherence to, and effectiveness of, therapeutic games for adolescent anxiety. The aim of this review was to establish the effectiveness of therapeutic games in making clinically measurable reductions in anxiety symptoms in adolescent samples. A systematic search of the existing academic literature published between 1990 and July 2017 was conducted using the databases Journal of Medical Internet Research, Journal Storage, Psychology Articles, Psychology Info, ScienceDIRECT, and Scopus. Records linked to empirical papers on therapeutic games for anxiety using adolescent samples were evaluated. A total of 5 studies (N=410 participants) met the inclusion criteria, and 3 gamified anxiety interventions for adolescents were identified. The papers included a mixture of randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and

  8. Empirical Evidence for the Relation between Customer Satisfaction and Business Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Wiele (Ton); J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); M. Hesselink

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the analysis of empirical data on customer satisfaction and the relationship with hard organisational performance data. The organisation is a Flexcompany with its headquarters in The Netherlands, but also operating in other countries in Europe. The empirical data on

  9. Empirical Evidence of Priming, Transfer, Reinforcement, and Learning in the Real and Virtual Trillium Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, M. C. R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been a debate on the effectiveness of virtual reality used for learning with young children, producing many ideas but little empirical proof. This empirical study compared learning activity in situ of a real environment (Real) and a desktop virtual reality (Virtual) environment, built with video game technology,…

  10. Access to data and material for research: Putting empirical evidence into perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to put into critical perspective the empirical findings on secrecy and withholding in research. In other words, by taking existing empirical literature into account, it is intended that a crucial question is answered: Is secrecy and withholding in research harmful or

  11. Consumer Perceived Risk, Attitude and Online Shopping Behaviour; Empirical Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sylvester, Michele; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ismail, Khalid; Mat Ali, Kamarudin

    2014-06-01

    The development of e-commerce has increased the popularity of online shopping worldwide. In Malaysia, it was reported that online shopping market size was RM1.8 billion in 2013 and it is estimated to reach RM5 billion by 2015. However, online shopping was rated 11th out of 15 purposes of using internet in 2012. Consumers' perceived risks of online shopping becomes a hot topic to research as it will directly influence users' attitude towards online purchasing, and their attitude will have significant impact to the online purchasing behaviour. The conceptualization of consumers' perceived risk, attitude and online shopping behaviour of this study provides empirical evidence in the study of consumer online behaviour. Four types of risks - product risk, financial, convenience and non-delivery risks - were examined in term of their effect on consumers' online attitude. A web-based survey was employed, and a total of 300 online shoppers of a Malaysia largest online marketplace participated in this study. The findings indicated that product risk, financial and non-delivery risks are hazardous and negatively affect the attitude of online shoppers. Convenience risk was found to have positive effect on consumers' attitude, denoting that online buyers of this site trusted the online seller and they encountered less troublesome with the site. It also implies that consumers did not really concern on non-convenience aspect of online shopping, such as handling of returned products and examine the quality of products featured in the online seller website. The online buyers' attitude was significantly and positively affects their online purchasing behaviour. The findings provide useful model for measuring and managing consumers' perceived risk in internet-based transaction to increase their involvement in online shopping and to reduce their cognitive dissonance in the e-commerce setting.

  12. Role of Information Professionals in Knowledge Management Programs: Empirical Evidence from Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    la Ajiferuke

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a knowledge management program in an organization has the potential of im-proving customer services, quickly bringing new products to market, and reducing cost of business operations. Information technologies are often used in knowledge management programs in informing clients and employees of latest innovation/development in the business sector as well as sharing knowledge among the employees. The key professionals involved in knowledge management programs are information technologists and human resource managers but the information professionals also have a role to play as they are traditionally known as good managers of explicit knowledge. Hence, the aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence of the role of information professionals in knowledge management programs. 386 information professionals working in Canadian organizations were selected from the Special Libraries Association's Who's Who in Special Libraries 2001/2002, and a questionnaire with a stamped self-addressed envelope for its return was sent to each one of them. 63 questionnaires were completed and returned, and 8 in-depth interviews conducted. About 59% of the information professionals surveyed are working in organizations that have knowledge management programs with about 86% of these professionals being involved in the programs. Factors such as gender, age, and educational background (i.e. highest educational qualifications and discipline did not seem to have any relationship with involvement in knowledge management programs. Many of those involved in the programs are playing key roles, such as the design of the information architecture, development of taxonomy, or con-tent management of the organization's intranet. Others play lesser roles, such as providing information for the intranet, gathering competitive intelligence, or providing research services as requested by the knowledge management team.

  13. THE LEGAL INDEBTEDNESS CAPACITY OF ROMANIAN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS - THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL EVIDENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilan Irina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The factual, not only formal capacity of local governments to appeal to borrowed resources is, considering the current conditions, a prerequisite for ensuring economic and social development of local communities. In this paper we intend to position the main theoretical and empirical evidences on local governments indebtedness capacity, mainly focusing on its sizing according to Romanian regulatory framework. With respect to previous research, the issue approached is one of great interest as it has not been, in the Romanian literature on local public finances, subject to a separate analysis of proportions. The undertaken analysis comprises a quantitative dimension, based on processed data from the consolidated general budget of Romanian local governments for 2007-2009, in permanent conjunction with monitoring and analysis of the involved qualitative aspects. To ensure the relevance of the research results, the analysis undertaken refers to the legal framework in function throughout the considered period of time, without involving the legislative changes operated in mid-2010. The main conclusions drawn from our analysis indicate that, considering the current Romanian socio-economic environment, under the impact of specific factors of different nature, the legal indebtedness capacity is far from being well valued, thus bringing its benefits to local communities development. This conclusion is valid from a global perspective as well as for different types of local communities. This appears to be inconsistent with the permanently claimed need to fund important local public investments, mainly in infrastructure, indicating, despite the high legal indebtedness capacity, the lack of factual access to borrowed resources. We suggest, therefore, to introduce the concept of effective indebtedness capacity, the result of a particularized correlation for different local governments between legal indebtedness capacity and the manifestation of several factors

  14. Identifying electricity-saving potential in rural China: Empirical evidence from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yihua; Guo, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a fast-growing body of literature examining energy-saving potential in relation to electricity. However, empirical studies focusing on non-Western nations are limited. To fill this gap, this study intends to examine the electricity-saving potential of rural households in China using a unique data set from the China Residential Electricity Consumption Survey (CRECS) in collaboration with the China General Social Survey (CGSS), conducted nationwide at the household level in rural China. We use a stochastic frontier model, which allows us to decompose residential electricity consumption into the minimum necessary amount of consumption based on physical characteristics (e.g. house size, house age, number of televisions or refrigerators) and estimate the consumption slack (i.e. the amount of electricity consumption that could be saved), which depends on various factors. We find that rural households in China are generally efficient in electricity saving and the saving potential is affected by (fast) information feedback and social-demographic characteristics, instead of by the (averaged) electricity price, or energy efficiency labelling signals. In addition, we find no evidence of regional heterogeneity on electricity saving potential for rural households. Policy implications are derived. - Highlights: •Electricity saving potential of rural households in China is examined. •Unique survey data from the CRECS in collaboration with the CGSS are used. •A stochastic frontier model is applied. •Information feedback and social-demographic characteristics matter. •Electricity price or energy efficiency tier rating does not matter.

  15. Intermediation by Banks and Economic Growth: A Review of Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Bađun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of empirical research on the link between financial intermediation by banks and economic growth. Special attention is paid to the issues of causality, non-linearity, time perspective, financial intermediation proxies, and interaction terms. The review shows that there are still quite a few unresolved issues in empirical research, which causes scepticism towards prioritizing financial sector policies in order to cause economic growth. Progress in the finance and growth literature is slow and researchers seem to go round in circles. A possibly fruitful direction for future empirical research is the relationship between government and banks, especially from the standpoint of political economy.

  16. Do authoritarian regimes receive more Chinese development finance than democratic ones? Empirical evidence for Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broich, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    This study is part of an emerging literature that aims to shed light on China's development finance activities in Africa using quantitative estimation techniques. This paper empirically investigates whether African authoritarian regimes receive more Chinese development assistance than democratic

  17. Empirical evidence of design-related bias in studies of diagnostic tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijmer, J. G.; Mol, B. W.; Heisterkamp, S.; Bonsel, G. J.; Prins, M. H.; van der Meulen, J. H.; Bossuyt, P. M.

    1999-01-01

    CONTEXT: The literature contains a large number of potential biases in the evaluation of diagnostic tests. Strict application of appropriate methodological criteria would invalidate the clinical application of most study results. OBJECTIVE: To empirically determine the quantitative effect of study

  18. Working Capital Management and Firm Profitability. Empirical Evidence for the Romanian Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloş Marius Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims on empirically testing the connection between a firm's liquidity, or else a firm's ability to manage short-term liabilities, without undue stress and its profitability. We are using both a static and dynamic measure of firm liquidity: the traditional current liquidity ratio alongside one of the most frequent used working capital management indicator, the cash conversion cycle. An empirical analysis is performed based on 50 listed companies from Bucharest Stock Exchange, covering various industries. The empirical results are confirming the previous research that has confirmed the negative connection between the days sales outstanding (DSO, respectively the days inventory outstanding (DIO and the profitability of the firm, while cash conversion cycle seems to be positively connected with the firm profitability, in contradiction with some of the previous empirical literature.

  19. Price formation and intertemporal arbitrage within a low-liquidity framework. Empirical evidence from European natural gas markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick, Sebastian

    2013-08-15

    In this study, the informational efficiency of the European natural gas market is analyzed by empirically investigating price formation and arbitrage efficiency between spot and futures markets. Econometric approaches are specified that explicitly account for nonlinearities and the low liquidity framework of the considered gas hubs. The empirical results reveal that price discovery takes place on the futures market, while the spot price subsequently follows the futures market price. Furthermore, there is empirical evidence of significant market frictions hampering intertemporal arbitrage. UK's NBP seems to be the hub at which arbitrage opportunities are exhausted most efficiently, although there is convergence in the degree of intertemporal arbitrage efficiency over time at the hubs investigated.

  20. Negotiated forms of worker involvement in the European Company (SE): First empirical evidence and conclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Berndt; Werner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the negotiations on worker involvement in the first almost four years of the European Company SE and their outcomes. First, some basic institutional aspects of the SE itself and its current empirical situation are described and explained. Then, the focus is on questions of employee involvement in this new legal form. Again some main institutional provisions on employee involvement are assessed, before a detailed empirical analysis on specific issues is presented. A final...

  1. Appropriability, Technological Opportunity, Market Demand, and Technical Change - Empirical Evidence from Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Harabi, Najib

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze both theoretically and empirically those factors which underlay the - empirically observable - inter-industry differences in technical progress. At the theoretical level economists agree more and more that technical progress can be explained at the industry level by the following three factors: (1) the technological opportunities, (2) the appropriability conditions, meaning the ability to capture and protect the results of technical innovations and (3) ...

  2. A Formidable Task: Reflections on obtaining legal empirical evidence on human trafficking in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Hayli Millar; Tamara O'Doherty; Katrin Roots

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the experiences, challenges and findings of two empirical research studies examining Canada’s legal efforts to combat human trafficking. The authors outline the methodologies of their respective studies and reflect on some of the difficulties they faced in obtaining empirical data on human trafficking court cases and legal proceedings. Ultimately, the authors found that Canadian trafficking case law developments are in their early stages with very few convictions, despit...

  3. Political instability and economic growth: an empirical evidence from the Baltic states

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislava Grochová; Luděk Kouba

    2011-01-01

    For more than last 20 decades, new political economics has been dealing with theories of economic growth (for example influential contributions by Mancur Olson, Dani Rodrik). However, less attention has been paid to their empirical verification. The new political economics growth theory defines some factors that are necessary for economic growth among which political stability. Our aim is to test the theory focused on political stability empirically in order to enrich the studies with recent ...

  4. The Effect of Private Benefits of Control on Minority Shareholders: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Evidence from State Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of private benefits of control on minority shareholders. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model is established. The empirical analysis includes hand-collected data from a wide range of data sources. OLS and 2SLS regression analysis are applied with Huber-White standard errors. Findings: The theoretical model shows that, while private benefits are generally harmful to minority shareholders, the overall effect depends on the size of large shareholder ownership. The empirical evidence from government ownership is consistent with theoretical analysis. Research limitations/implications: The empirical evidence is based on a small number of hand-collected data sets of government ownership. Further studies can be expanded to other types of ownership, such as family ownership and financial institutional ownership. Originality/value: This study is the first to theoretically analyse and empirically test the effect of private benefits. In general, this study significantly contributes to the understanding of the effect of large shareholder and corporate governance.

  5. Country risk premium: theoretical determinants and empirical evidence for latin american countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmo Aronovich

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behavior of the country risk premium for Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, from June 1997 to September 1998. It shows that the level of country risk premium is determined by different factors: the US dollar bond market structure; restrictions on the acquisition of emerging market bonds imposed by developed nations regulators; the credit risk measured by the notion of implied risk-neutral probability default; the different ways agents react to country risk due to asymmetric and imperfect information. The empirical investigation shows: the worse the country credit rating, the greater is the impact on international borrowing cost, which implies that negative expectations have greater impact on lower rated Latin American nations' bonds; country risk yield spreads overreacted to changes in the US dollar interest rates in the sample period.Este artigo investiga o comportamento do conceito de prêmio de risco-país para Argentina, Brasil e México, de junho de 1997 até setembro de 1998. Mostra-se que tal prêmio é determinado pelos seguintes fatores: a estrutura do mercado de títulos de dívida em dólares norte-americanos; as restrições à aquisição de títulos de dívida impostas por agentes reguladores de países desenvolvidos; o risco de crédito mensurado pelo conceito de probabilidade de inadimplência risco-nêutra implícita; o modo como os agentes reagem à informação assimétrica ou imperfeita. A evidência empírica revela que: quanto pior a classificação de risco de crédito, maior é o impacto esperado sobre as condições de captação externa, implicando que expectativas desfavoráveis afetam de forma mais acentuada países com baixa classificação de crédito; o valor do spread representativo do risco-país mostrou-se superelástico à variação da taxa de juros de longo prazo do Tesouro norte-americano no período da amostra.

  6. A critique on efficient market hypothesis (EMH): Empirical evidence of return anomalies in 12 U.S. industry portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Cheng Hsun George

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on two major arguments the momentum effect and market-learns hypothesis concerning the validity of the Efficient Market Hypothesis are summarized. Six empirical experiments with 12 U.S. Industry Portfolio are conducted. They not only provide the evidence against some of the EMH assumptions, but also aim to address the formation of return anomalies. Of them, three are designed to assess the validity of EMH with different approaches (White Noise, Effectiveness, Forecastibilit...

  7. The urban health transition hypothesis: empirical evidence of an avian influenza Kuznets curve in Vietnam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, James Herbert

    2013-04-01

    The literature on development has focused on the concept of transition in understanding the emergent challenges facing poor but rapidly developing countries. Scholars have focused extensively on the health and urban transitions associated with this change and, in particular, its use for understanding emerging infectious diseases. However, few have developed explicit empirical measures to quantify the extent to which a transitions focus is useful for theory, policy, and practice. Using open source data on avian influenza in 2004 and 2005 and the Vietnam Census of Population and Housing, this paper introduces the Kuznets curve as a tool for empirically estimating transition and disease. Findings suggest that the Kuznets curve is a viable tool for empirically assessing the role of transitional dynamics in the emergence of new infectious diseases.

  8. A Formidable Task: Reflections on obtaining legal empirical evidence on human trafficking in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayli Millar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the experiences, challenges and findings of two empirical research studies examining Canada’s legal efforts to combat human trafficking. The authors outline the methodologies of their respective studies and reflect on some of the difficulties they faced in obtaining empirical data on human trafficking court cases and legal proceedings. Ultimately, the authors found that Canadian trafficking case law developments are in their early stages with very few convictions, despite a growing number of police-reported charges. The authors assert it is difficult to assess the efficacy and effects of Canadian anti-trafficking laws and policies due to the institutional and political limitations to collecting legal data in this highly politicised subject area. They conclude with five recommendations to increase the transparency of Canada’s public claims about its anti-trafficking enforcement efforts and call for more empirically-based law reform.

  9. An Empirical Analysis of the Default Rate of Informal Lending—Evidence from Yiwu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Yu, Xiaobo; Du, Juan; Ji, Feng

    This study empirically analyzes the underlying factors contributing to the default rate of informal lending. This paper adopts snowball sampling interview to collect data and uses the logistic regression model to explore the specific factors. The results of these analyses validate the explanation of how the informal lending differs from the commercial loan. Factors that contribute to the default rate have particular attributes, while sharing some similarities with commercial bank or FICO credit scoring Index. Finally, our concluding remarks draw some inferences from empirical analysis and speculate as to what this may imply for the role of formal and informal financial sectors.

  10. [DGRW-update: neurology--from empirical strategies towards evidence based interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, W

    2011-12-01

    Stroke, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and neuropathies are the most important diseases in neurological rehabilitation financed by the German Pension Insurance. The primary goal is vocational (re)integration. Driven by multiple findings of neuroscience research the traditional holistic approach with mainly empirically derived strategies was developed further and improved by new evidence-based interventions. This process had been, and continues to be, necessary to meet the health-economic pressures for ever shorter and more efficient rehab measures. Evidence-based interventions refer to symptom-oriented measures, to team-management concepts, as well as to education and psychosocial interventions. Drug therapy and/or neurophysiological measures can be added to increase neuroregeneration and neuroplasticity. Evidence-based aftercare concepts support sustainability and steadiness of rehab results.Mirror therapy, robot-assisted training, mental training, task-specific training, and above all constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) can restore motor arm and hand functions. Treadmill training and robot-assisted training improve stance and gait. Botulinum toxine injections in combination with physical and redressing methods are superior in managing spasticity. Guideline-oriented management of associated pain syndromes (myofascial, neuropathic, complex-regional=dystrophic) improve primary outcome and quality of life. Drug therapy with so-called co-analgetics and physical therapy play an important role in pain management. Swallowing disorders lead to higher mortality and morbidity in the acute phase; stepwise diagnostics (screening, endoscopy, radiology) and specific swallowing therapy can reduce these risks and frequently can restore normal eating und drinking.In our modern industrial societies communicative and cognitive disturbances are more impairing than the above mentioned disorders. Speech and language therapy (SLT) is dominant in

  11. Health status convergence at the local level: empirical evidence from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gächter Martin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Health is an important dimension of welfare comparisons across individuals, regions and states. Particularly from a long-term perspective, within-country convergence of the health status has rarely been investigated by applying methods well established in other scientific fields. In the following paper we study the relation between initial levels of the health status and its improvement at the local community level in Austria in the time period 1969-2004. Methods We use age standardized mortality rates from 2381 Austrian communities as an indicator for the health status and analyze the convergence/divergence of overall mortality for (i the whole population, (ii females, (iii males and (iv the gender mortality gap. Convergence/Divergence is studied by applying different concepts of cross-regional inequality (weighted standard deviation, coefficient of variation, Theil-Coefficient of inequality. Various econometric techniques (weighted OLS, Quantile Regression, Kendall's Rank Concordance are used to test for absolute and conditional beta-convergence in mortality. Results Regarding sigma-convergence, we find rather mixed results. While the weighted standard deviation indicates an increase in equality for all four variables, the picture appears less clear when correcting for the decreasing mean in the distribution. However, we find highly significant coefficients for absolute and conditional beta-convergence between the periods. While these results are confirmed by several robustness tests, we also find evidence for the existence of convergence clubs. Conclusions The highly significant beta-convergence across communities might be caused by (i the efforts to harmonize and centralize the health policy at the federal level in Austria since the 1970s, (ii the diminishing returns of the input factors in the health production function, which might lead to convergence, as the general conditions (e.g. income, education etc. improve

  12. The Determinants of Banking Performance: Empirical evidence from Tunisian Listed Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalfaoui Hamdi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the determinants of performance of the Tunisian banking sector. The results found, following an empirical study using panel data of Tunisian banks listed on the stock market over the period 2000-2013, show that credit risk, liquidity, total assets and disclosure of information relating to credit are the main determinants of banking performance.

  13. Innovation Forms and Firm Export Performance: Empirical Evidence from ECA Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Cieślik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this paper is to verify empirically the relationship between various forms of innovation and export performance of firms from European and Central Asian (ECA countries. Research Design & Methods: In our empirical approach we refer to the self-selection hypothesis derived from the Melitz (2003 model which proposed the existence of a positive relationship between firm productivity and the probability of exporting. We argue that innovation activities should be regarded as a key element that can increase the level of firm productivity. We focus our analysis on four forms of innovation activities: product, process, marketing, organizational and managerial innovation. The empirical implementation of our analytical framework is based on the probit model, applied to the fifth edition of the BEEPS firm level dataset covering 2011-2014. Findings: Our empirical results indicate that the probability of exporting is positively related to both product and process innovations. The marketing and managerial innovations do not seem to affect positively export performance of firms from ECA countries. Implications & Recommendations: It is recommended to develop innovation supporting mechanisms that would target both product and process innovations rather than other forms of innovation in the ECA countries. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in the use of the multi-country firm level dataset that allows distinguishing between various forms of innovations in the ECA countries.

  14. Empirically Supported Psychotherapy in Social Work Training Programs: Does the Definition of Evidence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Mullen, Edward J.; Ponniah, Kathryn; Gameroff, Marc J.; Verdeli, Helen; Mufson, Laura; Fitterling, Heidi; Wickramaratne, Priya

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: A national survey finds that 62% of social work programs do not require didactic and clinical supervision in any empirically supported psychotherapy (EST). The authors report the results of analysis of national survey data using two alternative classifications of EST to determine if the results are because of the definition of EST used…

  15. Behavioural processes in marketing channel relationships: Review and integration of empirical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nils Bøgelund; Skytte, Hans

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical research on behavioural processes in marketing channel relationships. Systematically examining nine international journals, we find 49 papers on behavioural processes. On the basis of the hypothesis tests in the papers, we discuss the results and integrate...

  16. Freedom from Racial Barriers: The Empirical Evidence on Vouchers and Segregation. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This report collects the results of all available studies using valid empirical methods to compare segregation in public and private schools, both in general and in the context of school voucher programs. Examining the widespread claims that private schools have high segregation levels and vouchers will lead to greater segregation, this report…

  17. Consumer trust in food safety--a multidisciplinary approach and empirical evidence from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Fang

    2008-12-01

    Food scandals that happened in recent years have increased consumers' risk perceptions of foods and decreased their trust in food safety. A better understanding of the consumer trust in food safety can improve the effectiveness of public policy and allow the development of the best practice in risk communication. This study proposes a research framework from a psychometric approach to investigate the relationships between the consumer's trust in food safety and the antecedents of risk perceptions of foods based on a reflexive modernization perspective and a cultural theory perspective in the hope of benefiting the future empirical study. The empirical results from a structural equation modeling analysis of Taiwan as a case in point reveal that this research framework based on a multidisciplinary perspective can be a valuable tool for a growing understanding of consumer trust in food safety. The antecedents in the psychometric research framework comprised reflexive modernization factors and cultural theory factors have all been supported in this study except the consumer's perception of pessimism toward food. Moreover, the empirical results of repeated measures analysis of variance give more detailed information to grasp empirical implications and to provide some suggestions to the actors and institutions involved in the food supply chain in Taiwan.

  18. An empirical test of stage models of e-government development: evidence from Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooks, G.; Matzat, U.; Sadowski, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we empirically test stage models of e-government development. We use Lee's classification to make a distinction between four stages of e-government: informational, requests, personal, and e-democracy. We draw on a comprehensive data set on the adoption and development of e-government

  19. Empirical evidence on the demand for carve-outs in employment group mental health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkever, David S.; Shinogle, Judith A.

    2000-06-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS OF THE STUDY: The use of specialized behavioral health companies to manage mental/health benefits has become widespread in recent years. Recent studies have reported on the cost and utilization impacts of behavioral health carve-outs. Yet little previous research has examined the factors which lead employer-based health plans to adopt a carve-out strategy for mental health benefits. The examination of these factors is the main focus of our study. Our empirical analysis is also intended to explore several hypotheses (moral hazard, adverse selection, economies of scale and alternate utilization management strategies) that have recently been advanced to explain the popularity of carve-outs. METHODS: The data for this study are from a survey of employers who have long-term disability contracts with one large insurer. The analysis uses data from 248 employers who offer mental health benefits combined with local market information (e.g. health care price proxies, state tax rates etc), state regulations (mental health and substance abuse mandate and parity laws) and employee characteristics. Two different measures of carve-out use were used as dependent variables in the analysis: (1) the fraction of health plans offered by the employer that contained carve-out provisions and (2) a dichotomous indicator for those employers who included a carve-out arrangement in all the health plans they offered. RESULTS: Our results tended to support the general cost-control hypothesis that factors associated with higher use and/or costs of mental health services increase the demand for carve-outs. Our results gave less consistent support to the argument that carve-outs are demanded to control adverse selection, though only a few variables provided a direct test of this hypothesis. The role of economies of scale (i.e., group size) and the effectiveness of alternative strategies for managing moral hazard costs (i.e., HMOs) were confirmed by our results. DISCUSSION: We

  20. Computational and empirical simulations of selective memory impairments: Converging evidence for a single-system account of memory dissociations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Evan T; Jamieson, Randall K

    2018-04-01

    Current theory has divided memory into multiple systems, resulting in a fractionated account of human behaviour. By an alternative perspective, memory is a single system. However, debate over the details of different single-system theories has overshadowed the converging agreement among them, slowing the reunification of memory. Evidence in favour of dividing memory often takes the form of dissociations observed in amnesia, where amnesic patients are impaired on some memory tasks but not others. The dissociations are taken as evidence for separate explicit and implicit memory systems. We argue against this perspective. We simulate two key dissociations between classification and recognition in a computational model of memory, A Theory of Nonanalytic Association. We assume that amnesia reflects a quantitative difference in the quality of encoding. We also present empirical evidence that replicates the dissociations in healthy participants, simulating amnesic behaviour by reducing study time. In both analyses, we successfully reproduce the dissociations. We integrate our computational and empirical successes with the success of alternative models and manipulations and argue that our demonstrations, taken in concert with similar demonstrations with similar models, provide converging evidence for a more general set of single-system analyses that support the conclusion that a wide variety of memory phenomena can be explained by a unified and coherent set of principles.

  1. Analysis of consumption behaviour concerning current income and lags consumption: Empirical evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qayyum Khan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As in other economies, consumption expenditure is the largest component of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of Pakistan economy. The figure has been estimated around 80 percent of the GDP and demonstrates that historically, Pakistan’s economic growth is characterized as consumption-led growth. The present paper aims to explore the relationship between income and consumption using annual time series data for the period: 1975 to 2012 in Pakistan. For empirical investigation the linear regression model and the method of Least Squares is used as analytical techniques. Empirical results support the existence of a significant positive relationship between income and consumption. The finding suggests that long term committed planning is indispensable to enhance the productive capacity of the economy, employment opportunities and reduce poverty levels more effectively.

  2. Subjective social status, social network and health disparities: empirical evidence from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charonis, Antonios; Kyriopoulos, Ilias-Ioannis; Spanakis, Manos; Zavras, Dimitris; Athanasakis, Kostas; Pavi, Elpida; Kyriopoulos, John

    2017-02-27

    Several studies suggest that socioeconomic status affects (SES) affects self-rated health (SRH), both in Greece and internationally. However, prior research mainly uses objective measures of SES, instead of subjective evaluations of individuals' social status. Based on this, this paper aims to examine (a) the impact of the economic dowturn on SRH in Greece and (b) the relationship between subjective social status (SSS), social network and SRH. The descriptive analysis is based on four cross-sectional surveys conducted by the National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece (2002, 2006, 2011, 2015), while the data for the empirical investigation were derived from the 2015 survey (Health + Welfare Survey GR). The empirical strategy is based on an ordinal logistic regression model, aiming to examine how several variables affect SRH. Size of social network and SSS are among the independent variables employed for the empirical analysis RESULTS: According to our findings, average SRH has deteriorated, and the percentage of the population that reports very good/good SRH has also decreased. Moreover, our empirical analysis suggests that age, existence of a chronic disease, size of social network and SSS affect SRH in Greece. Our findings are consistent with the existing literature and confirm a social gradient in health. According to our analysis, health disparities can be largely attributed to socioeconomic inequalities. The adverse economic climate has impact on socioeconomic differences which in turn affect health disparities. Based on these, policy initiatives are necessasy in order to mitigate the negative impact on health and the disparities caused by economic dowturn and the occuring socioeconomic inequalities.

  3. Tax-and-Spend or Spend-and-Tax? Empirical Evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Juat Hong

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates the causal relationships between government spending and revenue for Malaysia. The study uses annual data, a Johansen cointegration test and an error-correction model. A preliminary test shows that government revenue and expenditure are cointegrated. Empirical results support the spend-and-tax hypothesis. Furthermore, they underscore the fact that fiscal policy may not be effective enough to curb the rising budget deficits over the long term and may even reduce private ...

  4. Regional infrastructure and firm investment. Theory and empirical evidence for Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Aiello, Francesco; Iona, Alfonsina; Leonida, Leone

    2009-01-01

    We model the channels through which public expenditure on infrastructure influences firm value and shapes its investment decisions via both adjustment costs and marginal profitability of capital. We test these hypotheses by using a large panel of Italian firms. Empirical results show that infrastructure interacts with revenues and costs in shaping firm's profitability of capital and influences its adjustment costs. Finally we find that infrastructure expenditure contributes to reduce the econ...

  5. Empirical evidence of the game-based learning advantages for online students persistence

    OpenAIRE

    A. Imbellone; G. Marinensi; C.M. Medaglia

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the empirical results obtained from a study conducted on a game-based online course that took place in 2014 with 47 participants. The study evidenced the benefits of the learning games mechanics on learners’ willingness to continue the course. Assuming the interest for the subject of the course as a fundamental condition for student persistence within the course, it is shown how it can be significantly enhanced by the presence of both ludic and narrative game-based elements.

  6. Clustered Pricing in the Corporate Loan Market: Theory and Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bajoori, Elnaz; Nandeibam, Shasikanta; Chaudhry, Sajid Mukhtar

    2016-01-01

    Existing theories explaining security price clustering as well as clustering in the retail depositand mortgage markets are incompatible with the clustering in the corporate loan market. Wedevelop a new theoretical argument that the attitude of the lender toward the uncertaintyabout the quality of the borrower leads to the clustering of spreads. Our empirical resultssupport these arguments and we find that clustering increases with the degree of uncertaintybetween the lender and the borrower. ...

  7. Capital Requirements, Monetary Policy, and Aggregate Bank Lending: Theory and Empirical Evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Thakor, Anjan V

    1996-01-01

    Capital requirements linked solely to credit risk are shown to increase equilibrium credit rationing and lower aggregate lending. The model predicts that the bank's decision to lend will cause an abnormal run-up in the borrower's stock price and that this reaction will be greater the more capital-constrained the bank. The author provides empirical support for this prediction. The model explains the recent inability of the Federal Reserve to stimulate bank lending by increasing the money suppl...

  8. Obstacles to prior art searching by the trilateral patent offices: empirical evidence from International Search Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Despite many empirical studies having been carried out on examiner patent citations, few have scrutinized the obstacles to prior art searching when adding patent citations during patent prosecution at patent offices. This analysis takes advantage of the longitudinal gap between an International Search Report (ISR) as required by the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and subsequent national examination procedures. We investigate whether several kinds of distance actually affect the probability t...

  9. MtB versus VAIC in measuring intellectual capital: Empirical evidence from Italian listed companies

    OpenAIRE

    Forte, W.; Matonti, G.; Tucker, J.; Nicolo, G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – Grounded in the extant theoretical and empirical literature, the purpose of this paper is to compare two of the most employed methods measuring IC value in order to find the most suitable in the context of Italian listed firms. Moreover, this paper also investigates the relationship between Intellectual Capital (IC), measured in terms of the Market to Book (MTB) ratio, and the Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC), and potential key determinants of IC value including intangibl...

  10. The Intergenerational Transmission of Automobile Brand Preferences: Empirical Evidence and Implications for Firm Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Soren T. Anderson; Ryan Kellogg; Ashley Langer; James M. Sallee

    2013-01-01

    We document a strong correlation in the brand of automobile chosen by parents and their adult children, using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. This correlation could represent transmission of brand preferences across generations, or it could result from correlation in family characteristics that determine brand choice. We present a variety of empirical specifications that lend support to the former interpretation and to a mechanism that relies at least in part on state dependence...

  11. Empirical evidence from an inter-industry descriptive analysis of overall materiality measures

    OpenAIRE

    N. Pecchiari; C. Emby; G. Pogliani

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an empirical cross-industry descriptive analysis of overall quantitative materiality measures. We examine the behaviour of four commonly used quantitative materiality measures within and across industries with respect to their size, relative size and stability, over ten years. The sample consists of large- and medium-sized European companies, representing 24 different industry categories for the years 1998 through 2007 (a total sample of over 36,000 data points). Our resul...

  12. The Size and Composition of Corporate Headquarters in Multinational Companies: Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Collis, David J.; Young, David; Goold, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Based on a six-country survey of nearly 250 multinationals (MNCs), this paper is the first empirical analysis to describe the size and composition of MNC headquarters and to account for differences among them. Findings are as follows: MNC corporate headquarters are more involved in "obligatory" and value creating and control functions than in operational activities; there are no systematic differences in the determinants of the size and composition of corporate headquarters between MNCs and p...

  13. The Impact of Financial Dollarization on Inflation Targeting: Empirical Evidence from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabris Nikola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Serbia has applied inflation targeting against the backdrop of financial dollarization for almost a decade. In such circumstances, efficiency of monetary policy instruments decreases and begs the question of efficiency of the monetary regime efficiency issue. Although there is some empirical testing of financial dollarization effects on monetary policy performance in the inflation targeting regime for some countries, such studies for Serbia mostly cover periods of early application of the regime.

  14. Empirical Evidence on Student-t Log-Returns of Diversified World Stock Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Eckhard Platen; Renata Rendek

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to document some empirical facts related to log-returns of diversified world stock indices when these are denominated in different currencies. Motivated by earlier results, we have obtained the estimated distribution of log-returns for a range of world stock indices over long observation periods. We expand previous studies by applying the maximum likelihood ratio test to the large class of generalized hyperbolic distributions, and investigate the log-returns of a vari...

  15. Testing the impact of unemployment on self-employment: empirical evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Halicioglu, Ferda; Yolac, Sema

    2015-01-01

    The impact of unemployment on self-employment is rather an ambiguous issue in economics. According to refugee effect approach, there are two counter arguments: the theory of income choice argument suggests that increased unemployment may lead to increased self-employment activities whereas the counter argument defends the view that an increase in unemployment rates may decrease the endowments of human capital and entrepreneurial talent causing a rise in unemployment rates further. The empiric...

  16. Influencing Factors on Earnings Management, Empirical Evidence from Listed German and Austrian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Dilger; Sabine Graschitz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Since the 1960s earnings management has been a widely researched area and became presumably known by the current accounting scandals. This paper aims at empirically showing which factors affect earnings management. Design/methodology/approach – According to former research literature factors are derived, which might influence the companies' earnings management behavior. These factors are the applied accounting standard, the industry sector and the country of official quotation. ...

  17. The future context of work in the business environment in South Africa: Some empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    PS Nel; AJ Du Plessis; AE Marx

    2014-01-01

    The future is uncertain, but management needs to determine and also be informed about possible change trends. This research, however, reports on empirical results of the views of South African HRM practitioners to identify and prioritise business change trends for 2002 and 2010 in terms of the “hard” or “soft” HRM debate in the literature. All organisations employing HRM practitioners were include and a total of 1640 questionnaires were distributed resulting in 207 useable responses.   ...

  18. Stock Price Volatility and Role of Dividend Policy: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Syed Akif; Noreen, Umara

    2016-01-01

    Despite years of empirical research, the linkage between dividend policy and stock price volatility remains controversial among the researchers and scholars. This research endeavors to figure out the relationship between stock price volatility and dividend policy of listed companies in Pakistan. A sample of fifty firms, based upon consistent dividend paying behavior, listed on Karachi Stock Exchange has been selected from non-financial sectors, for the period of 2005 to 2012. Multiple regress...

  19. How does auditors’ work stress affect audit quality? Empirical evidence from the Chinese stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Huanmin Yan; Shengwen Xie

    2016-01-01

    With reference to the Job Demands–Control Model, we empirically examine the effect of auditors’ work stress on audit quality using a sample of Chinese A-share listed companies and their signature auditors from 2009 to 2013. The results show that (1) there is generally no pervasive deterioration in audit quality resulting from auditors’ work stress; (2) there is a significant negative association between work stress and audit quality in the initial audits of new clients; and (3) the perception...

  20. Long-Run Nexus between Tax Revenue on Economic Performance: Empirical Evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Roshaiza Taha; Nanthakumar Loganathan

    2014-01-01

    Taxation is main source of government income and has direct linkages with economic performance for most of countries. This study attempts to investigate the long-run nexus between economic performance and tax revenue for Malaysia as a developing nation with dynamic economic progress for the last 2 decades. To determine the long-run nexus, we used the structural breaks effects with the conjunction of ARDL cointegration analysis along with causality analysis. The empirical finding successfully ...

  1. Do monetary rewards undermine intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorillo, Damiano

    2007-01-01

    Empirical studies show that intrinsic motivations increase the volunteer labour supply. This paper studies how monetary rewards to volunteers affect their intrinsic motivations. Using a sample of Italian volunteers, allowing to distinguish the type of volunteer, the paper shows that monetary rewards (extrinsic motivations) influence positively the choice to donate voluntary hours, while a low intrinsic motivation seems to decrease hours per week. Moreover, monetary rewards increase the hours ...

  2. Is Malaysia exempted from impossible trinity: empirical evidence from 1991-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Ewe Ghee; Goh, SooKhoon

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines Bank Negara Malaysia’s (BNM) monetary policy autonomy in 1991-2009, a period of volatile capital flows, during which BNM operated under several exchange regimes: managed floating; fixed exchange rates; and fixed exchange rates with selective capital controls. Using a modified version of the Brissimis, Gibson and Tsakalotos (2002) model, the paper’s empirical estimates show that the same-period offset coefficients are significantly less than unity under all regimes, indicat...

  3. Stock Market Volatility Dynamics around National Elections : Empirical Evidence from Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Kon Wah

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a sample of 8 Asian countries to test whether the stock market volatility would be induced higher during national election periods. Our empirical findings show the country-specific component of variance in election periods can easily reach up to 43% higher than the no election periods. It indicates that the investors are shocked with the election outcomes and investors’ sentiments are affected by the political events, no matter how well the preparation is made by inves...

  4. The scale-dependent market trend: Empirical evidences using the lagged DFA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daye; Kou, Zhun; Sun, Qiankun

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we make an empirical research and test the efficiency of 44 important market indexes in multiple scales. A modified method based on the lagged detrended fluctuation analysis is utilized to maximize the information of long-term correlations from the non-zero lags and keep the margin of errors small when measuring the local Hurst exponent. Our empirical result illustrates that a common pattern can be found in the majority of the measured market indexes which tend to be persistent (with the local Hurst exponent > 0.5) in the small time scale, whereas it displays significant anti-persistent characteristics in large time scales. Moreover, not only the stock markets but also the foreign exchange markets share this pattern. Considering that the exchange markets are only weakly synchronized with the economic cycles, it can be concluded that the economic cycles can cause anti-persistence in the large time scale but there are also other factors at work. The empirical result supports the view that financial markets are multi-fractal and it indicates that deviations from efficiency and the type of model to describe the trend of market price are dependent on the forecasting horizon.

  5. THE DYNAMIC INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OBESITY AND SCHOOL PERFORMANCE: NEW EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son; Hoang, Viet-Ngu; Vu, Xuan-Binh; Wilson, Clevo

    2017-12-04

    This paper proposes a new empirical model for examining the relationship between obesity and school performance using the simultaneous equation modelling approach. The lagged effects of both learning and health outcomes were included to capture both the dynamic and inter-relational aspects of the relationship between obesity and school performance. The empirical application of this study used comprehensive data from the first five waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC), which commenced in 2004 (wave 1) and was repeated every two years until 2018. The study sample included 10,000 children, equally divided between two cohorts (infants and children) across Australia. The empirical results show that past learning and obesity status are strongly associated with most indicators of school outcomes, including reading, writing, spelling, grammar and numeracy national tests, and scores from the internationally standardized Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the Matrix Reasoning Test. The main findings of this study are robust due to the choice of obesity indicator and estimation methods.

  6. Does the modified Stroop effect exist in PTSD? Evidence from dissertation abstracts and the peer reviewed literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kimble, Matthew O.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Marks, Libby

    2009-01-01

    The modified Stroop effect (MSE), in which participants show delayed color naming to trauma specific words is one of the most widely cited findings in the literature pertaining to cognitive bias in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study used a novel approach (Dissertation Abstract Review; DAR) to review the presence of the MSE in dissertation abstracts. A review of dissertations that used the modified Stroop task in a PTSD sample revealed that only 8% of the studies found del...

  7. Is the motor system necessary for processing action and abstract emotion words? Evidence from focal brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix R. Dreyer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. In contrast, a possible role of modality-preferential – including sensorimotor – areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. However, recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e.g. love. But are these areas indeed necessary for processing action-related and abstract words? The current study now investigates word processing in two patients suffering from focal brain lesion in the left frontocentral motor system. A speeded lexical decision task (LDT on meticulously matched word groups showed that the recognition of nouns from different semantic categories – related to food, animals, tools and abstract-emotional concepts – was differentially affected. Whereas patient HS with a lesion in dorsolateral central sensorimotor cortex next to the hand area showed a category-specific deficit in recognizing tool words, patient CA suffering from lesion centered in the left SMA was primarily impaired in abstract-emotional word processing. These results point to a causal role of the motor cortex in the semantic processing of both action-related object concepts and abstract-emotional concepts and therefore suggest that the motor areas previously found active in action-related and abstract word processing can serve a meaning-specific necessary role in word recognition. The category-specific nature of the observed dissociations is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensorimotor systems are somehow peripheral or ‘epiphenomenal’ to meaning and concept processing. Rather, our results are consistent with the claim that cognition is grounded in action and perception and based on distributed action perception circuits reaching into sensorimotor areas.

  8. The role of polarity in antonym and synonym conceptual knowledge: evidence from stroke aphasia and multidimensional ratings of abstract words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Williams, Paul; Ridgway, Gerard R; Borgenicht, Laura

    2012-09-01

    This study describes an investigation of different types of semantic relationship among abstract words: antonyms (e.g. good-bad), synonyms (e.g. good-great), non-antonymous, non-synonymous associates (NANSAs; e.g. good-fun) and unrelated words (e.g. good-late). The comprehension and semantic properties of these words were examined using two distinct methodologies. Experiment 1 tested the comprehension of pairs of abstract words in three patients with global aphasia using a spoken word to written word matching paradigm. Contrary to expectations, all three patients showed superior antonym comprehension compared with synonyms or NANSAs, discriminating antonyms with a similar level of accuracy as unrelated words. Experiment 2 aimed to explore the content or semantic attributes of the abstract words used in Experiment 1 through the generation of control ratings across nine cognitive dimensions (sensation, action, thought, emotion, social interaction, space, time, quantity and polarity). Discrepancy analyses revealed that antonyms were as or more similar to one another than synonyms on all but one measure: polarity. The results of Experiment 2 provide a possible explanation for the novel pattern of neuropsychological data observed in Experiment 1, namely that polarity information is more important than other semantic attributes when discriminating the meaning of abstract words. It is argued that polarity is a critical semantic attribute of abstract words, and that simple 'dissimilarity' metrics mask fundamental consistencies in the semantic representation of antonyms. It is also suggested that mapping abstract semantic space requires the identification and quantification of the contribution made to abstract concepts by not only sensorimotor and emotional information but also a host of other cognitive dimensions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DETERMINANTS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS PROFITABILITY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM BULGARIA AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRTESCU BOGDAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on commercial banks which are operating in Bulgaria and Romania, two countries whose banking sectors have registered major structural changes in the transition to a market economy and which are showing some similarities. Similar to other EU countries, the financial system from Bulgaria and Romania is dominated by the banking sector, which holds the largest share of total assets. Thus, we can say that health, strength and performance of the banking sector are of major importance for the sustainable economic development of states, but also for efficient transmission of monetary policy decisions on the real economy. The paper aims to identify the key factors that affect bank profitability and to evaluate empirically their contribution to a sample of 29 commercial banks in Bulgaria and Romania, for the period 2003-2012. Our research is based on data from the Bureau Van Dijk database, the World Bank and the European Central Bank and uses panel data estimation techniques. The dependent variable used in our study is the bank profitability, which is measured by two representative indicators the Return on Average Assets (ROAA and Return on Average Equity (ROAE. Regarding the independent variables, our analysis includes capital adequacy, the loan loss reserve rate, cost to income ratio, the ratio of liquid assets to total assets, the interest expenses to deposits ratio, the non-interest income over total gross revenues, bank size, the GDP per capita growth, inflation rate, domestic bank credit to private sector and banking industry concentration. The results of our empirical study shows that among the variables considered, the loan loss reserve rate, the ratio of cost to income, GDP per capita growth and domestic bank credit to the private sector, have a significant impact on bank profitability, results in line with our expectations, but also with the results of other empirical studies.

  10. Growth-corruption-health triaca and environmental degradation: empirical evidence from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Qayyum

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the impact of economic growth, corruption, health, and poverty on environmental degradation for three countries from ASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand using annual data over the period of 1994-2014. The relationship between environmental degradation (pollution) by carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and economic growth is examined along with some other variables, namely health expenditure, poverty, agriculture value added growth, industrial value added growth, and corruption. The ordinary least squares (OLS) method is applied as an analytical technique for parameter estimation. The empirical results reveal that almost all variables are statistically significant at the 5% level of significance, whereby test rejects the null hypotheses of non-cointegration, indicating that all variables play an important role in affecting the environment across countries. Empirical results also indicate that economic growth has significant positive impact, while health expenditures show significantly negative impact on the environment. Corruption has significant positive effect on environment in the case of Malaysia; while in the case of Indonesia and Thailand, it has insignificant results. However, for the individual analysis across countries, the regression estimate suggests that economic growth has a significant positive relationship with environment for Indonesia, while it is found insignificantly negative and positive in the case of Malaysia and Thailand, respectively, during the period under the study. Empirical findings of the study suggest that policy-makers require to make technological-friendly environment sequentially to surmount unregulated pollution, steady population transfers from rural areas to urban areas are also important, and poverty alleviation and better health provision can also help to improve the environment.

  11. Innovation, Integration and Product Proliferation - Empirical Evidence for the Agri-Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Karantininis, Kostas; Sauer, Johannes; Furtan, William Hartley

    2008-01-01

    While mergers, both horizontal and vertical, have been shaping the landscape of the agri-food industry in Europe, the implications of the changing market structure on the level of innovation has not been studied yet. In this paper we deal with the link between innovation and market structure using the empirical example of the Danish agri-food industry. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First we test for the importance of vertical integration on innovation. While there exist several studi...

  12. Macroeconomic and financial market volatilities: an empirical evidence of factor model

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Choun Yu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we provide two empirical findings. First, exploring 140 monthly macroeconomic and financial variables and applying the principal components method, we find 12 static factors and 8 dynamic factors from 1959 to 2005 in the US. Second, we find the real factor and interest rate factor have been less volatile since the mid 1980s. The price factor and foreign exchange factor, in contrast, became more volatile in the late 1990s. The rest of the factors show no obvious pattern. We find...

  13. Empirical evidence of the game-based learning advantages for online students persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Imbellone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the empirical results obtained from a study conducted on a game-based online course that took place in 2014 with 47 participants. The study evidenced the benefits of the learning games mechanics on learners’ willingness to continue the course. Assuming the interest for the subject of the course as a fundamental condition for student persistence within the course, it is shown how it can be significantly enhanced by the presence of both ludic and narrative game-based elements.

  14. Does corporate governance affect financial communication transparency? Empirical evidence in the Tunisian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maali Kachouri Ben Saad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on investigating the relationship between intentional governance mechanisms (Directors’ boards, Ownership structure and audit quality and financial communication transparency. For this purpose, a model is used and applied to Tunisian firms’ sample observed over the period 2006–2013. The achieved results reveal that intentional governance mechanisms are positively related to a higher transparency level noticeable in financial communication (voluntary disclosure and quality information. In addition, empirical tests indicate that financial communication transparency is highly dependent on the board size, ownership concentration, as well as on audit quality.

  15. A Guide to Visual Multi-Level Interface Design From Synthesis of Empirical Study Evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Displaying multiple levels of data visually has been proposed to address the challenge of limited screen space. Although many previous empirical studies have addressed different aspects of this question, the information visualization research community does not currently have a clearly articulated consensus on how, when, or even if displaying data at multiple levels is effective. To shed more light on this complex topic, we conducted a systematic review of 22 existing multi-level interface studies to extract high-level design guidelines. To facilitate discussion, we cast our analysis findings

  16. Aluminum Pitting Corrosion in Halide Media: A Quantum Model and Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashgari, Mohsen; Kianpour, Effat; Mohammadi, Esmaeil

    2013-12-01

    The phenomenon of localized damage of aluminum oxide surface in the presence of halide anions was scrutinized at an atomistic level, through the cluster approach and density functional theory. The phenomenon was also investigated empirically through Tafel polarization plots and scanning electron microscopy. A distinct behavior witnessed in the fluoride medium was justified through the hard-soft acid-base principle. The atomistic investigations revealed the greatest potency for chloride entrance into the metal oxide lattice and rationalized to the severity of damage. The interaction of halide anions with the oxide surface causing some displacements on the position of Al atoms provides a mechanistic insight of the phenomenon.

  17. Corruption, income, and rule of law: empirical evidence from developing and developed economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Ferreira de Mendonça

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an empirical analysis based on cross-country data concerned with two points regarding corruption: (i its effects on income; and (ii how to mitigate corruption. The findings can be highlighted in two points. Firstly the idea that corruption is intrinsically connected with income is confirmed. Secondly, the traditional argument that an increase in rule of law represents a good strategy in the fight against corruption is valid for developing countries. Furthermore, this study reveals that the search for increasing the human development index represents a rule of thumb for high levels of income and to control corruption.

  18. Banking Regulation and Determinants of Banks’ Profits: Empirical Evidence from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut ERDOGAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The crises that are frequently observed in the banking industries of emerging markets which affect banks’ profits necessitate regulations and supervision of these markets. This paper investigates the determinants of Turkish banks’ profits and the effects of the regulations implemented in this industry on profits. In this research, 468 firm year observations for 36 Turkish banks for the period 1995-2007 were used and analyzed with Prais-Winsten regression method. The empirical findings of the study show positive and statistically significant relations between capital, size, offbalance sheet transactions, liquidity and loans and performance and negative and statistically significant relations between quality of loans, concentration and performance.

  19. AN INSTITUTIONAL AND NETWORK PERSPECTIVE OF ORGANISATIONAL LEGITIMACY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CHINA′S TELECOMMUNICATIONS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Low

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This perspective paper combines institutional and industrial network theory to develop a framework for analysing organisational legitimacy. The main subject, Nokia China, is found to be sensitive to network-legitimating initiatives, with consequences that accommodate multiple, conflicting stakeholders′ interests in China′s politically sensitive and protective telecommunications market. This paper offers new insights into institutional isomorphism that is manifested empirically as incremental conformity to regulative processes, institutional norms and cognitive knowledge and meanings within the environment, thereby extending commonly held views of institutional theory to include organisational legitimacy in industrial networks.

  20. Capital structure in LNG infrastructures and gas pipelines projects: Empirical evidences and methodological issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierru, Axel; Roussanaly, Simon; Sabathier, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG infrastructures and gas pipeline projects, by using data relating to projects whose financial close occurred between June 2004 and March 2011. Most results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. Especially, the projects located in risky countries and larger projects tend to exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. In addition, regasification projects appear to have a more diluted equity ownership. Methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects are also examined from a capital-budgeting perspective. In particular, the equity residual method, usually used by industrial practitioners to value these projects, should be adjusted. - Highlights: • This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG and gas pipeline infrastructures. • Most of our results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. • Projects located in risky countries exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. • Larger projects and regasification projects also have less concentrated equity ownerships. • From a capital-budgeting viewpoint, we examine methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects

  1. DETERMINANTS OF ECONOMIC EXPOSURE: AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE MISCELLANEOUS COMPANIES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabri Abd. Majid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research empirically measures the economic exposure of 11 selected miscellaneous companies in Indonesia. It also attempts to empirically explore the influence of firm size, export, liquidity, and leverage on the economic exposure of those companies. Annual data from 2007 to 2010, which was collected from the www.idx.co.id and www.bi.go.id were used and analyzed by the multiple linear regression to measure the economic exposure and examine the influences of the firm size, export, liquidity, and leverage on the economic exposure. Both partial (t-test and simultaneous (F-test hypotheses were constructed and tested using the software of SPSS for Windows. The research documented that, with the exception of the liquidity, which has a negative and significant effect partially on the economic exposure, all other variables, i.e., the firm size, export, and leverage were found to have insignificant effects. Meanwhile, based on the F-test, the research found that the firm size, export, liquidity, and leverage affected simultaneously and significantly the economic exposure of the companies. These findings imply that in order to manage their economic exposure, the companies should control these variables, especially the liquidity.

  2. Factors Influencing the Identification of Sustainable Opportunities by SMEs: Empirical Evidence from Zambia

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    Progress Choongo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 to examine the factors influencing the identification of sustainable opportunities among SMEs in a developing country, Zambia. The factors under investigation include knowledge of the natural/social environment, perception of threats to the natural/social environment, altruism towards others and entrepreneurial knowledge. We interviewed 220 owner-managers in the trading and service sector who supply goods and services to the mining industry in Zambia. We found that altruism towards others was partially supported by our empirical results while the positive effects of knowledge of the natural/social environment and perception of threats to the natural/social environment on the identification of sustainable opportunities were not supported. Contrary to our expectations, entrepreneurial knowledge does not positively moderate the relationship between explanatory variables and the identification of sustainable opportunities. In sum, we found only limited empirical support for the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 concerning the identification of sustainable opportunities. Our findings contribute to literature on entrepreneurship and sustainable opportunity identification by showing what factors influence the identification of sustainable opportunities. This can help us to create awareness among entrepreneurs regarding the effects of entrepreneurial activities on the environment and society; consequently, stimulating entrepreneurs to identify sustainable opportunities.

  3. An empirical analysis of price expectations formation: Evidence from the crude oil reserves acquisitions market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielhaber, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    Reasons for the recent scant empirical attention to price expectations theory are twofold. First, except for futures markets and the occasional expectations survey, price expectations are rarely documented. Second, results of empirical tests of rational expectations are fundamentally flawed by the subjective input of the researcher. Subjectivity taints the results of the test, first, in the form of model specification and, second, in the form of the identification of the relevant information set. This study addresses each of these shortcomings. First, crude oil price expectations are recovered in the market for reserves by using a standard engineering model commonly used in reserves evaluation. Second, the crude oil futures market is used to estimate an index of information. This index circumvents the need to subjectively identify the elements of the information set, removing a key source of subjective input. The results show that agents involved in the crude oil reserves acquisitions market form expectations of futures prices in a way that does not conform with the adaptive expectations model

  4. Evidence for the Effectiveness of Jungian Psychotherapy: A Review of Empirical Studies

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    Christian Roesler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s several research projects and empirical studies (process and outcome on Jungian Psychotherapy have been conducted mainly in Germany and Switzerland. Prospective, naturalistic outcome studies and retrospective studies using standardized instruments and health insurance data as well as several qualitative studies of aspects of the psychotherapeutic process will be summarized. The studies are diligently designed and the results are well applicable to the conditions of outpatient practice. All the studies show significant improvements not only on the level of symptoms and interpersonal problems, but also on the level of personality structure and in every day life conduct. These improvements remain stable after completion of therapy over a period of up to six years. Several studies show further improvements after the end of therapy, an effect which psychoanalysis has always claimed. Health insurance data show that, after Jungian therapy, patients reduce health care utilization to a level even below the average of the total population. Results of several studies show that Jungian treatment moves patients from a level of severe symptoms to a level where one can speak of psychological health. These significant changes are reached by Jungian therapy with an average of 90 sessions, which makes Jungian psychotherapy an effective and cost-effective method. Process studies support Jungian theories on psychodynamics and elements of change in the therapeutic process. So finally, Jungian psychotherapy has reached the point where it can be called an empirically proven, effective method.

  5. The inflation-output nexus:empirical evidence from India, Brazil and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Paresh Kumar Narayan; Seema Narayan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the relationship between output and inflation for India, Brazil, and South Africa using the EGARCH model. For India and South Africa, we find evidence for: (1) the Cukierman and Meltzer hypothesis that inflation volatility raises inflation; (2) the Friedman hypothesis that inflation raises inflation volatility; and (3) the Black hypothesis that output volatility raises output growth, and that output volatility reduces inflation. For Brazil, we do not find any evidence o...

  6. From the Cover: The growth of business firms: Theoretical framework and empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dongfeng; Pammolli, Fabio; Buldyrev, S. V.; Riccaboni, Massimo; Matia, Kaushik; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2005-12-01

    We introduce a model of proportional growth to explain the distribution Pg(g) of business-firm growth rates. The model predicts that Pg(g) is exponential in the central part and depicts an asymptotic power-law behavior in the tails with an exponent = 3. Because of data limitations, previous studies in this field have been focusing exclusively on the Laplace shape of the body of the distribution. In this article, we test the model at different levels of aggregation in the economy, from products to firms to countries, and we find that the predictions of the model agree with empirical growth distributions and size-variance relationships. proportional growth | preferential attachment | Laplace distribution

  7. Does the U.S. exercise contagion on Italy? A theoretical model and empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueti, Roy; Fenga, Livio; Ventura, Marco

    2018-06-01

    This paper deals with the theme of contagion in financial markets. At this aim, we develop a model based on Mixed Poisson Processes to describe the abnormal returns of financial markets of two considered countries. In so doing, the article defines the theoretical conditions to be satisfied in order to state that one of them - the so-called leader - exercises contagion on the others - the followers. Specifically, we employ an invariant probabilistic result stating that a suitable transformation of a Mixed Poisson Process is still a Mixed Poisson Process. The theoretical claim is validated by implementing an extensive simulation analysis grounded on empirical data. The countries considered are the U.S. (as the leader) and Italy (as the follower) and the period under scrutiny is very large, ranging from 1970 to 2014.

  8. Is migration status a determinant of urban nutrition insecurity? Empirical evidence from Mumbai city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Neetu; Parthasarathy, D

    2009-09-01

    From an economic perspective that understood it as a spillover of development, migration is now also the subject of socioeconomic investigation incorporating the problems of assimilation, relative deprivation and isolation. The corollary is an increased emphasis on economic and social understanding of migration and its consequences. This entails studying migration or migrants in terms of factors beyond income. Health outcome is important among these non-income factors but at the same time remains less studied. Although there have been a few influential studies on health issues as linked to migration status, the issue of malnutrition in this context continues to be under-researched. This paper explores, theoretically and empirically, migration status and malnutrition in Mumbai in India. An econometric analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data gives insight into the dynamics of child and maternal undernutrition as mediated by migration status in Mumbai.

  9. Performance Sustainability and Integrated Reporting: Empirical Evidence from Mandatory and Voluntary Adoption Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Loprevite

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the topic of regulation of integrated reporting for listed companies, with the aim of contributing to the debate on the usefulness of introducing a mandatory regime, both from the perspective of integrated performance sustainability of companies and from that of relevance of information for providers of financial capital. The study is based on empirical research carried out on a sample composed of companies operating in territories where the adoption of integrated reporting is voluntary (Europe and those operating in a country where adoption is mandatory (South Africa. The research shows that (a in voluntary regimes, levels of integrated performance achieved by companies are higher; (b mandatory regulation produces positive effects on integrated performance levels in the medium term; (c integrated performance indicators are value-relevant, though having different levels of relevance under the two regimes examined.

  10. What factors drive interest rate spread of commercial banks? Empirical evidence from Kenya

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    Maureen Were

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper empirically investigates the determinants of interest rate spread in Kenya's banking sector based on panel data analysis. The findings show that bank-specific factors play a significant role in the determination of interest rate spreads. These include bank size, credit risk as measured by non-performing loans to total loans ratio, return on average assets and operating costs, all of which positively influence interest rate spreads. On the other hand, higher bank liquidity ratio has a negative effect on the spreads. On average, big banks have higher spreads compared to small banks. The impact of macroeconomic factors such as real economic growth is insignificant. The effect of the monetary policy rate is positive but not highly significant. The results largely reflect the structure of the banking industry, in which a few big banks control a significant share of the market.

  11. Measuring the gradualist approach to internationalization: Empirical evidence from the wine sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel San Emeterio, Mónica; Fernández-Ortiz, Rubén; Arteaga-Ortiz, Jesús; Dorta-González, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to fill a gap in the literature on internationalization, in relation to the absence of objective and measurable performance indicators for the process of how firms sequentially enter external markets. To that end, this research develops a quantitative tool for use as a performance indicator of gradualness for firms entering external markets at a sectoral level. The performance indicator is based on firms' export volumes, number of years operating in the export market, geographic areas targeted for export and when exports began to each area. The indicator is tested empirically in the wine sector. The main contribution of this study is the creation of a reliable international priority index, which can serve more widely as a valuable tool because of its potential use in other industry sectors and geographic areas, and which would allow the analysis of how geographically differentiated internationalization strategies develop.

  12. Crisis Communication in the Spanish Public Administration: Organizational Culture and Empirical Evidence

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    Ismael Crespo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophes, earthquakes, pandemics, epidemic diseases, emergencies and the disruption of basic services are just a few of the unpredictable events which show how rapidly crises can develop and how important it is for governments and public administrations to manage their crisis communication effectively.Experience from national crises (the politics behind the Ebola crisis, Lorca earthquake, the neighborhood movement of Gamonal in Burgos, the unauthorized strike by air traffic controllers in 2010 or the train crash in Angrois shows that effective communication requires extensive preparation and this article presents one of the first empirical works on the crisis communication of public administrations in Spain.This research aims to describe the state of the practice of crisis communication in the different levels of the Spanish Public Administration (State, Autonomous Communities and municipalities, based on the perceptions of its workers. To achieve this objective, a poll study was developed, with references to crisis cases managed by the Spanish Public Administration.

  13. HOW A SUPPLY CHAIN PROCESS MATTERS IN FIRMS’ PERFORMANCE-AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF PAKISTAN

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    Muhammad Ziaullah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, supply chain processes (i.e. demand management, customer relationship management, and new product development have gained a great importance from academicians and practitioners. Yet, research into the subject of supply chain processes’ effects on performance is nascent. The purpose of this study is to examine the process dimensions’ effects on supply chain (SC partners’ trust and firms’ performance as supply chain processes are essential for firms’ competitiveness. The research framework consists of seven hypotheses. An empirical study was conducted in Pakistan, and the data were collected from 164 supply chain firms. The reliability and validity of the model were examined through the exploratory factor analysis (EFA and Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The results delineate that supply chain processes have a significant relationship with SC partners’ trust and performance. Thus, all hypotheses were supported. This study presents interesting theoretical contributions and managerial implications. At last, limitations regarding future research directions are discussed.

  14. From Strategic Planning to City Branding: Some Empirical Evidence in Italy

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    Paolo Rizzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized world where places compete with each other, the image of the city plays a crucial role to attract tourists and investors, and to make citizens stay with satisfaction and avoid their moving away. By exploring the connections and implications between theory and empirical outcomes of some Italian cities as to its attractiveness for tourists and investors, this paper intends to offer a useful overview both for academicians and practitioners. The purpose is not only to go through the extensive literature on strategic planning place marketing and city branding, but to focus specifically on some Italian cases (Turin, Genoa, Venice, Piacenza, where the application of the above mentionedinstruments has provided interesting results to compare.

  15. A holistic approach to corporate social responsibility as a prerequisite for sustainable development: Empirical evidence

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    Zlatanović Dejana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing importance of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility (CSR for contemporary organizations demands appropriate holistic tools. The paper highlights how Soft Systems Methodology (SSM, a relevant holistic, i.e., soft systems approach, supports the conceptualization and management of the complex issues of CSR and sustainable development. The SSM’s key methodological tools are used: rich picture, root definitions, and conceptual models. Empirical research compares a selected sample of enterprises in the automotive industry in the Republic of Serbia, to identify possible systemically desirable and culturally feasible changes to improve their CSR behaviour through promoting their sustainable development. Some limitations of this research and of SSM application are discussed. Combining SSM with some other systems approaches, such as System Dynamics or Critical Systems Heuristics, is recommended for future research.

  16. The future context of work in the business environment in South Africa: Some empirical evidence

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    PS Nel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The future is uncertain, but management needs to determine and also be informed about possible change trends. This research, however, reports on empirical results of the views of South African HRM practitioners to identify and prioritise business change trends for 2002 and 2010 in terms of the “hard” or “soft” HRM debate in the literature. All organisations employing HRM practitioners were include and a total of 1640 questionnaires were distributed resulting in 207 useable responses.   The results highlight trends such as increased international competition, globalisation and inadequate skills in different rankings for 2002 and 2010. It is concluded that HRM practitioners, are influenced by the “hard” or “soft” approach, when they participate in a strategic management context in organisations.

  17. The relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty. Empirical evidence for the newest EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viorica, Daniela; Jemna, Danut; Pintilescu, Carmen; Asandului, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to verify the hypotheses presented in the literature on the causal relationship between inflation and its uncertainty, for the newest EU countries. To ensure the robustness of the results, in the study four models for inflation uncertainty are estimated in parallel: ARCH (1), GARCH (1,1), EGARCH (1,1,1) and PARCH (1,1,1). The Granger method is used to test the causality between two variables. The working hypothesis is that groups of countries with a similar political and economic background in 1990 and are likely to be characterized by the same causal relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty. Empirical results partially confirm this hypothesis. C22, E31, E37.

  18. How does auditors’ work stress affect audit quality? Empirical evidence from the Chinese stock market

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    Huanmin Yan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With reference to the Job Demands–Control Model, we empirically examine the effect of auditors’ work stress on audit quality using a sample of Chinese A-share listed companies and their signature auditors from 2009 to 2013. The results show that (1 there is generally no pervasive deterioration in audit quality resulting from auditors’ work stress; (2 there is a significant negative association between work stress and audit quality in the initial audits of new clients; and (3 the perception of work stress depends on auditors’ individual characteristics. Auditors from international audit firms and those in the role of partner respond more strongly to work stress than industry experts. Auditors tend to react more intensively when dealing with state-owned companies. We suggest that audit firms attach more importance to auditors’ work stress and rationalize their allocation of audit resources to ensure high audit quality.

  19. The relationship between energy and economic growth: Empirical evidence from 66 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Susan Sunila

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we use dynamic panel data models to examine the impact of electricity and non-electricity variables on economic growth for a global panel consisting of 66 countries. The time component of our dataset is 1986-2005 inclusive. We also estimate this relationship for four regional panels; namely, East/South Asian and the Pacific region, Europe and Central Asian region, Latin America and Caribbean region, and Sub-Saharan, North Africa and Middle Eastern region. In total, we use six proxies for energy. The empirical analysis is based on a sound theoretical framework, in that we draw on growth theory and augment the classical growth model, which consists of inflation, capital stock, labour force and trade, with energy. Generally, the results on the impact of energy are mixed. (author)

  20. Factors influencing the stay-exit intention of small livestock farmers: empirical evidence from southern Chile

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    Luis M. Carter-Leal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the factors driving the stay-exit intention of small livestock farmers located in southern Chile. Technical, economic, and social characteristics from 212 farmers were included in this study. Through an empirical probit model we identified the variables that should be considered when developing rural policies aimed at increasing the likelihood to stay in farming. The results showed that 12 out of the 30 parameters were significant (p<0.10, with an extremely good fit of the model (McFadden pseudo-R2 = 0.25, Count R2 = 75.9%. Particularly, ‘female farmer’, ‘positive expectation about future farming life’, ‘capacity of farm income to cover the expenses of the whole family’, ‘mixed production’, ‘participation in an association’, and ‘distance to the nearest city’ were positively associated with the stay intention. Moreover, our study also indicates that ‘existence of a defined retirement age’, ‘existence of a defined sale price for the farm’, ‘a mixed farm focused on livestock production’, ‘the possibility to make own decisions’, ‘age squared’, and the ‘number of people living at the farm’ were negatively associated with the stay intention. Our empirical findings suggest that farmer characteristics (gender, family size, the farming system (multi-activity production, efficiency, and social aspects of the rural society (associations, protection of agricultural products are also important aspects that should be considered by rural development policies aimed at improving the likelihood of staying, in addition to the technical characteristics of the farming which have been traditionally addressed in developing countries.

  1. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF ISO 9000 CERTIFICATION? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM FRENCH MICRO-DATA

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    Sanja Pekovic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ISO 9000 certification is often associated with quality approach, and activities that are by now widely diffused throughout business. The statistical research shows that quality management practice is one of the most utilized tools because in 1997, more than a third of industrial firms have received the quality certification. Regarded like an investment in a diploma, investment in quality norms can at the same time be a function of improvement of the company's competence and can also make a signal on the market. In our research, we want to understand those two functions of the ISO 9000 certification and to see how they act in the company and on the market. The paper will explore two possible functions of the certification and will analysis the consequences for the firms. The research will use national statistics sources and case research for the empirical investigation to identify the internal characteristics of ISO 9000 adoption. Also, it will use C.O.I database (Organizational Changes and Computerization of 1997 and E.A.E. database (Annual Survey of Industry. In this research, the empirical results show that ISO certification has a part of increase the level of firm's export. Moreover, the firms that have recently adopted the ISO certification invest more in quality than those that have adopted ISO certification more ago. The results show that the firms from same sector of activity "are pushed" to adopt certification. At the end, the results show that, the probability that the firm adopt ISO certification increase with firm's size.

  2. Trust in automation: integrating empirical evidence on factors that influence trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Kevin Anthony; Bashir, Masooda

    2015-05-01

    We systematically review recent empirical research on factors that influence trust in automation to present a three-layered trust model that synthesizes existing knowledge. Much of the existing research on factors that guide human-automation interaction is centered around trust, a variable that often determines the willingness of human operators to rely on automation. Studies have utilized a variety of different automated systems in diverse experimental paradigms to identify factors that impact operators' trust. We performed a systematic review of empirical research on trust in automation from January 2002 to June 2013. Papers were deemed eligible only if they reported the results of a human-subjects experiment in which humans interacted with an automated system in order to achieve a goal. Additionally, a relationship between trust (or a trust-related behavior) and another variable had to be measured. All together, 101 total papers, containing 127 eligible studies, were included in the review. Our analysis revealed three layers of variability in human-automation trust (dispositional trust, situational trust, and learned trust), which we organize into a model. We propose design recommendations for creating trustworthy automation and identify environmental conditions that can affect the strength of the relationship between trust and reliance. Future research directions are also discussed for each layer of trust. Our three-layered trust model provides a new lens for conceptualizing the variability of trust in automation. Its structure can be applied to help guide future research and develop training interventions and design procedures that encourage appropriate trust. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  3. The regulatory treatment of adverse outcomes: Empirical evidence from the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two essays, both of them empirical studies using data from the US electric utility industry. Part I focuses on utilities' investment behavior, while Part II examines regulatory policy toward the industry. The first paper presents an analysis of utilities' decisions about whether to continue or cancel nuclear construction projects. During the seventies and eighties, changes in economic conditions and regulatory policy radically altered the costs and benefits of nuclear power. This study seeks to determine whether regulators pursued policies which induced utilities to employ socially efficient criteria in re-evaluating ongoing projects. The analysis also yields insights into regulators' distributional goals. Results based on data for 1978-84 are consistent with the capture theory hypothesis, which holds that regulators weigh industry interests more heavily than consumer interests. A test for structural change provides no support for the contention that the relative importance of consumer interests increased over this period. These empirical findings are inconsistent with a standard (and essential) assumption of theoretical principal-agent models of rate-of-return regulation, that regulators value consumers' payoffs more than utility profits. The second paper examines regulatory policy toward generating facilities that entered commercial service during the years 1983-88. In a significant departure from past practice, state public utility commissions often denied utilities full recovery of their investments in new plants. Although such ex post disallowances have an important efficiency rationale, they also provide a means for opportunistic regulators to effect transfers between utilities' ratepayers and shareholders. A probit model was used to assess the impact on the probability of a disallowance of firm and project characteristics as well as attributes of a state's political and institutional environment

  4. Political instability and economic growth: an empirical evidence from the Baltic states

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    Ladislava Grochová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than last 20 decades, new political economics has been dealing with theories of economic growth (for example influential contributions by Mancur Olson, Dani Rodrik. However, less attention has been paid to their empirical verification. The new political economics growth theory defines some factors that are necessary for economic growth among which political stability. Our aim is to test the theory focused on political stability empirically in order to enrich the studies with recent European results. The paper uses a single-equation model to reject a hypothesis that political stability is a necessary condition for economic growth finding a relationship between economic growth and political instability. A demonstration that political stability is not a crucial factor for economic development in general then represents the main goal of the contribution. There are distinguished two types of political instability – elite and non-elite – in topical literature. While non-elite political instability concerns about violent coups, riots or civil wars, elite political instability is represented with “soft changes” such as government breakdowns, fragile majority or minority governments. A number of government changes is used as a proxy of elite political instability. The disproof of the hypothesis is demonstrated on data from the Baltic states where number of government changes takes place and still fast economic growth could be seen within last two decades. Since it is shown that political instability has almost no impact on economic growth, we consider the hypothesis regarding a necessity of political stability for economic development to be only a specific non-generalizable case.

  5. Advancing Empirical Approaches to the Concept of Resilience: A Critical Examination of Panarchy, Ecological Information, and Statistical Evidence

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    Ali Kharrazi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its ambiguities, the concept of resilience is of critical importance to researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in dealing with dynamic socio-ecological systems. In this paper, we critically examine the three empirical approaches of (i panarchy; (ii ecological information-based network analysis; and (iii statistical evidence of resilience to three criteria determined for achieving a comprehensive understanding and application of this concept. These criteria are the ability: (1 to reflect a system’s adaptability to shocks; (2 to integrate social and environmental dimensions; and (3 to evaluate system-level trade-offs. Our findings show that none of the three currently applied approaches are strong in handling all three criteria. Panarchy is strong in the first two criteria but has difficulty with normative trade-offs. The ecological information-based approach is strongest in evaluating trade-offs but relies on common dimensions that lead to over-simplifications in integrating the social and environmental dimensions. Statistical evidence provides suggestions that are simplest and easiest to act upon but are generally weak in all three criteria. This analysis confirms the value of these approaches in specific instances but also the need for further research in advancing empirical approaches to the concept of resilience.

  6. Does the modified Stroop effect exist in PTSD? Evidence from dissertation abstracts and the peer reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Matthew O; Frueh, B Christopher; Marks, Libby

    2009-06-01

    The modified Stroop effect (MSE), in which participants show delayed colour naming to trauma-specific words, is one of the most widely cited findings in the literature pertaining to cognitive bias in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study used a novel approach (Dissertation Abstract Review; DAR) to review the presence of the MSE in dissertation abstracts. A review of dissertations that used the modified Stroop task in a PTSD sample revealed that only 8% of the studies found delayed reaction times to trauma-specific words in participants with PTSD. The most common finding (75%) was for no PTSD-specific effects in colour naming trauma-relevant words. This ratio is significantly lower than ratios found in the peer reviewed literature, but even in the peer reviewed literature only 44% of controlled studies found the modified Stroop effect. These data suggest that a reevaluation of the MSE in PTSD is warranted.

  7. Corporate sustainability and asset pricing models: empirical evidence for the Brazilian stock market

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    Vitor Gonçalves de Azevedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper investigates the impact of corporate sustainability on asset prices. For that purpose, we develop a novel corporate sustainability factor and test the extent to which this factor is priced in an augmented four-factor version of the traditional Fama & French (1993 asset pricing model. The corporate sustainability factor is based on a zero-investment portfolio which is long in stocks with high sustainability and short in stocks with low sustainability. We use data on the Brazilian stock market to estimate alternative model specifications with different combinations of four explanatory variables: the corporate sustainability premium, the market risk factor premium, the size factor premium and the book-to-market factor premium. Our results indicate that corporate sustainability is priced and helps to explain the variability in the cross-section of expected stock returns.

  8. Employee benefits in multinational firms: Empirical evidence for Romania and Serbia

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    Caran Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze post-employment benefits provided by multinational firms, focusing on retirement advantages and pension systems in Romania and Serbia from a comparative empirical perspective. Economic literature highlights the essential role played by pension schemes in assuring a proper level of income after retirement, thus reducing poverty and increasing productivity, with significant positive implications upon overall economic activity. our research is based on developing several double-log fixed and random effects models, as well as a dynamic and distributed lags model, using a panel structure over the 2005- 2013 period and a complex set of indicators (national accounts - GDP total and per capita; labor market - employment, unemployment, productivity, earnings; secondary and tertiary education; pension specific data - general beneficiaries, old age and survivor pensioners, total and by gender, and pension expenses as percentage of GDP. The results show that pensions represent an incentive for employees leading to an increase in resource productivity. At the same time, old age pensions are positively shaping economic growth and employment for the two countries considered, significantly reducing the poverty rate for pensioners. Nevertheless, the two pensions systems are modelled by the economic activity, educational background of employees, as well as by the level of net earnings.

  9. Empirical evidences of owners’ managerial behaviour - the case of small companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobontiu, G.; Banica, M.; Ravai-Nagy, S.

    2017-05-01

    In a small firm, the founder or the owner-manager often leaves his or her own personal “stamp” on the way things are done, finding solutions for the multitude of problems the firm faces, and maintaining control over the firm’s operations. The paper aims to investigate the degree to which the owner-managers are controlling the operations of their firm on a day-to-day basis or even getting involved into the management of the functional areas. Our empirical research, conducted on a sample of 200 small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) from the North-Western Romania, Maramures (NUTS3 level - RO114), shows that owner-managers tend to be all-powerful, making decisions based on their experience. Furthermore, the survey highlights the focus of owner-managers on two functional areas, namely the production, and sales and marketing. Finally, the correlation analysis states that in the case of small firms, the owner-manager is more involved in managing the functional areas of the firm, as compared to the medium-ones.

  10. Re-Examining the Finance-Growth Nexus: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia

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    M. Shabri Abd. Majid

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the short- and long-run relationships between financial development and economic growth during the post-1997 financial crisis in Indonesia by employing a battery of times-series techniques, such as Autoregressive Dis-tributed Lag (ARDL model, vector error correction model (VECM, variance decompositions (VDCs, and impulse-response functions (IRFs. Based on the ARDL (2, 0, 1, 2 model, the study finds that there exists a long-run equilibrium between economic growth and financial depth, share of investment, and inflation. In the long run, inflation is found to be the only variable which significantly (negatively affects economic growth, implying a crucial role of maintaining a low rate of inflation in promoting the economic growth in the country. As for the dynamic causalities among the variables, the study finds the bidirectional causation between economic growth and investment, while the unidirectional causation is only found running from financial depth to investment. The finding of independence between economic growth and financial development supports the view of “the independent hypothesis” of Lucas (1988. Finally, based on VDCs and IRFs, the study documents that the variations in the economic growth respond more to shocks in the price stability (inflation, followed by investment and financial development. Our findings indicate that if policy makers want to promote growth, attention should be focused on long-run policies, i.e., maintaining the low rate of inflation.

  11. Empirical Evidence Illuminating Gendered Regimes in UK Higher Education: Developing a New Conceptual Framework

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    Paula Burkinshaw

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Debates on the absence of women in senior organizational roles continue to proliferate but relatively little attention is paid to the Higher Education (HE context in which women in leadership roles are seriously under-represented. However, higher education is now central to UK political discourse given the growing controversy around student fees, vice chancellors’ remuneration’ and Brexit. This paper draws on a collaborative research study on the experiences of 105 senior women leaders across 3 UK Universities, which elicited accounts of constraints, successes and career highlights. Our research findings present empirical insights that expose the continuing gender inequalities most notable in senior Higher Education roles. Women’s accounts include stories of diverse experiences, on-going discriminatory practices and a failure to recognise the embedded gendered inequalities that continue to prevail in these institutions. Through a critical interrogation of the narratives of female professors and building on insights from a seminal paper by Broadbridge and Simpson a conceptual framework is offered as a heuristic device to capture critical and reflexive data in future studies of equality and inequality in leadership roles.

  12. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on the Export Performance: Empirical Evidence for Western Balkan Countries

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    Dr.Sc. Nasir Selimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently there are many authors that have studied and analyzed the impact of foreign direct investments (FDI on the export performance. They have different opinions about the effect of foreign direct investments on the export performance. Some of them in their papers conclude that FDI have positive effect on the export performance and some not. There are also findings that FDI do not have any impact on the export performance. Of course for economic benefit of host country it is not important only the amount of FDI, but also their structure. To measure the effect of FDI on the export performance is not easy. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to analyze empirically the foreign direct investments and exports performance during the period of 1996-2013 in Western Balkan countries. The paper also investigates for the fixed effects and individual heterogeneity across countries and years. Based on the panel regression techniques and Least Square Dummy Variable (LSDV regression method, FDI positively affect export performance in the sample countries in various model specifications. The results and conclusions of this paper we hope that will help everybody who are interested and studying this matter, especially the policy makers.  The last ones have the obligation to facilitate and promote the export if they award confirm that FDI contribute on developing their economy.

  13. Dynamic analysis of interhospital collaboration and competition: empirical evidence from an Italian regional health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascia, Daniele; Di Vincenzo, Fausto; Cicchetti, Americo

    2012-05-01

    Policymakers stimulate competition in universalistic health-care systems while encouraging the formation of service provision networks among hospital organizations. This article addresses a gap in the extant literature by empirically analyzing simultaneous collaboration and competition between hospitals within the Italian National Health Service, where important procompetition reforms have been implemented. To explore how rising competition between hospitals relates to their propensity to collaborate with other local providers. Longitudinal data on interhospital collaboration and competition collected in an Italian region from 2003 to 2007 are analyzed. Social network analysis techniques are applied to study the structure and dynamics of interhospital collaboration. Negative binomial regressions are employed to explore how interhospital competition relates to the collaborative network over time. Competition among providers does not hinder interhospital collaboration. Collaboration is primarily local, with resource complementarity and differentials in the volume of activity and hospital performance explaining the propensity to collaborate. Formation of collaborative networks among hospitals is not hampered by reforms aimed at fostering market forces. Because procompetition reforms elicit peculiar forms of managed competition in universalistic health systems, studies are needed to clarify whether the positive association between interhospital competition and collaboration can be generalized to other health-care settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Empirical Research on Influencing Factors of Sustainable Supply Chain Management—Evidence from Beijing, China

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    Jihui Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The traditional development mode for social and economic progress has resulted in crises and challenges; therefore, various countries have begun to actively explore sustainable development. As a developing country, China has outstanding environmental problems. However, there are not many empirical studies on the influencing factors of sustainable supply chain in domestic enterprises. Therefore, according to the manufacturing industry in China, a hypothesis model of influencing factors of sustainable supply chain management is set up. The sustainable supply chain practice is based on three dimensions: economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, and social sustainability. The influencing factors of sustainable supply chain include internal management cognition, industry pressure, consumer pressure, and government participation. A structural equation model was used to analyze the questionnaire data of 167 enterprises in Beijing, China. The results show that internal management cognition and government participation has a direct effect on the sustainable supply chain management practice, and internal management cognition has a strong positive influence. Consumer pressure and industry pressure have a small positive impact on internal management cognition, while the effect of government participation on industry pressure is very significant.

  15. The impact structure of social capital on corporate performance: Empirical evidence from listed companies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Junwei; FU Haiyan; HU Lijun

    2007-01-01

    Vertical relationships with the government, particular relational capital and organizational social network capital, constitute corporate social capital (CSC). Using the empirical data of 97 listed companies in China, this paper examines the impact of CSC on corporate performance, finds that CSC has a positive impact on sales revenue but an insignificant impact on the improvement of ROA. More specifically, when a firm enlarges its sales revenue, the function of organizational network capital is stronger than that of a particular relational capital and that of governmental connections. The paper also finds that state-owned enterprises (SOEs) have more advantages in using governmental connections, therefore leading to better social status than non-SOEs do, who have fewer advantages in using any particular relational capital. The article suggests that managers should appraise carefully the effectiveness of CSC, and combine it with other resources; firms should distinguish the structure of the impact of CSC on performance improvement in a dynamic way. With respect to the implication of this paper, it could help in analyzing firm behaviors in the transitional China.

  16. Examining empirical evidence of the effect of superfluidity on the fusion barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scamps, Guillaume

    2018-04-01

    Background: Recent time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (TDHFB) calculations predict that superfluidity enhances fluctuations of the fusion barrier. This effect is not fully understood and not yet experimentally revealed. Purpose: The goal of this study is to empirically investigate the effect of superfluidity on the distribution width of the fusion barrier. Method: Two new methods are proposed in the present study. First, the local regression method is introduced and used to determine the barrier distribution. The second method, which requires only the calculation of an integral of the cross section, is developed to determine accurately the fluctuations of the barrier. This integral method, showing the best performance, is systematically applied to 115 fusion reactions. Results: Fluctuations of the barrier for open-shell systems are, on average, larger than those for magic or semimagic nuclei. This is due to the deformation and the superfluidity. To disentangle these two effects, a comparison is made between the experimental width and the width estimated from a model that takes into account the tunneling, the deformation, and the vibration effect. This study reveals that superfluidity enhances the fusion barrier width. Conclusions: This analysis shows that the predicted effect of superfluidity on the width of the barrier is real and is of the order of 1 MeV.

  17. Factors affecting RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry: empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ping; Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an exploratory investigation of factors influencing the adoption of radio frequency identification (RFID) methods in the agricultural product distribution industry. Through a literature review and field research, and based on the technology-organization-environment (TOE) theoretical framework, this paper analyzes factors influencing RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry in reference to three contexts: technological, organizational, and environmental contexts. An empirical analysis of the TOE framework was conducted by applying structural equation modeling based on actual data from a questionnaire survey on the agricultural product distribution industry in China. The results show that employee resistance and uncertainty are not supported by the model. Technological compatibility, perceived effectiveness, organizational size, upper management support, trust between enterprises, technical knowledge, competitive pressure and support from the Chinese government, which are supported by the model, have significantly positive effects on RFID adoption. Meanwhile, organizational size has the strongest positive effect, while competitive pressure levels have the smallest effect. Technological complexities and costs have significantly negative effects on RFID adoption, with cost being the most significantly negative influencing factor. These research findings will afford enterprises in the agricultural products supply chain with a stronger understanding of the factors that influence RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry. In addition, these findings will help enterprises remain aware of how these factors affect RFID adoption and will thus help enterprises make more accurate and rational decisions by promoting RFID application in the agricultural product distribution industry.

  18. Effects of Compact Urban Development on Air Pollution: Empirical Evidence from Korea

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    Hee-Sun Cho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of compact urban development on air pollution, taking into account both the spatial distribution of pollutants resulting from an increase in inner urban densities and the dispersion of pollutants associated with an increase in outer green open spaces. The empirical analysis is based upon a panel data model covering 17 cities in Korea from 1996–2009; this approach is used because urban air pollution is influenced by spatial and temporal changes. Measuring the air pollution level by distance from city centers demonstrates that the spatial concentration of emission sources does not necessarily increase air pollution levels. The two-way fixed effects model, which is employed to control both individual (regional and time effects, shows that SO2 decreases as the proportion of green area increases, while a rise in net density leads to an increase of NO2. Both effects are observed in the case of CO dispersion by green area as well as emission source concentration by high densities. Therefore, there is no clear impact of compact urban development on air quality, which is instead related to pollutant-specific characteristics and the emission source.

  19. Value Creation Mechanism of Social Enterprises in Manufacturing Industry: Empirical Evidence from Korea

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    Hosung Son

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A variety of social enterprises (SEs have recently emerged in many different countries in an effort to resolve diverse social problems. However, the value creation mechanism of SEs has not yet been disclosed. The purpose of this study is to reveal the value creation mechanism of SEs in manufacturing industry. To do so, we verify the role of social entrepreneurship and examine the effects of product innovation attributes and social capital on social value creation and financial performance by using structural equation modelling. Then, we conduct interviews with six experts in SE fields. According to the results of empirical study, the social entrepreneurship works as an antecedent of product innovation and social capital in SEs and the degrees of products’ simplicity, usability and standardization positively affect the social value creation of SEs. In addition, the social value creation works as a complete mediator between the product innovation of SEs and their financial performance. The interviews suggest policy implications for successful social value creation and sustainability of SEs. This research contributes towards further studies on innovation of SEs and provides social entrepreneurs with guidelines in planning their innovation strategy or developing their products.

  20. Does Technology Transfer Help Small and Medium Companies? Empirical Evidence from Korea

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    Dae-Hwan Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We challenge the view that technology transfer from big companies to small and medium (SM size companies helps SM companies to prosper. With a large dataset of SM companies in Korea, we utilize the stochastic production frontier (SPF model to examine the productivity of inputs and the generalized linear model (GLM to compare business performance between two groups of SM companies: SM companies that receive technology transfer and those that do not receive technology transfer from big companies. The empirical results demonstrate that the transfer of technology from big companies to SM companies help SM companies to enjoy productivity of capital. Nonetheless, SM companies receiving technology transfer were found to underperform in terms of labor productivity and profit margin compared to their counterparts. We further investigate the reasons why SM companies receiving technology transfer from big companies underperform relative to their counterparts, and our findings shows that the former do not export much of their product and face more difficulties such as lower price for their products imposed by big companies than the latter. By identifying the negative rather than the conventionally assumed positive effect of technology transfer, this paper contributes to the literature on the relationship between technology transfer and SM companies’ prosperity in the case of Korea. Our findings have important implications for how SM companies should strategize and rethink about the clauses embedded in the transfer of technology that they receive from big companies because technology transfer plays as a barrier to their prosperity.

  1. Impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments: Empirical evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Iyoboyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments (BOP in Nigeria over the period 1961–2012. The analysis is based on a multivariate vector error correction framework. A long-term equilibrium relationship was found between BOP, exchange rate and other associated variables. The empirical results are in favour of bidirectional causality between BOP and other variables employed. Results of the generalized impulse response functions suggest that one standard deviation innovation on exchange rate reduces positive BOP in the medium and long term, while results of the variance decomposition indicate that a significant variation in Nigeria’s BOP is not due to changes in exchange rate movements. The policy implication is that exchange rate depreciation which has been preponderant in Nigeria since the mid-1980s has not been very useful in promoting the country’s positive BOP. It is recommended that growth in the real sector should be improved to enhance exports, create employment, curb inflation and reduce poverty, while cutting non-productive imports, attracting foreign private investment and implementing well coordinated macroeconomic policies that impact inflation positively and stimulate exchange rate stability.

  2. The impact of globalization on economic conditions: empirical evidence from the Mena region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa A. Elsherif

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East and North Africa (MENA is an economically diverse region that includes countries with a common heritage, at various stages of economic development, with vastly different endowment of natural resources and accounts for 6% of the world total population. Despite undertaking economic reforms in many countries, and having considerable success in achieving macroeconomic stability, the region's economic performance in the past 30 years has been below its potential. Some countries that pursued reforms, such as Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia, enjoyed the region's most rapid growth rates, but due to the political instability and turbulences they are still lagged behind. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the impact of globalization in MENA region on the economic performances. This study uses a panel data covers the period 2001–2014 for Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC and non- Gulf Cooperation Council (non-GCC MENA countries and employs Generalized Method of Moments (GMM approach. Results indicate that Globalization is negatively affecting economic conditions in non-GCC and it has no significant effect on non-GCC. This study suggests better policy coordination at all level of government to integrate social, economic and political policies as well all to improve transparency and democratic participation. The paper is outlined as follows- following the introduction, section two reviews the current economic conditions in MENA countries, section three discusses data and methodology, section four presents’ results and interpretation of findings, section five provides conclusions and recommendations.

  3. Evidence-based architectural and space design supports Magnet® empirical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecoff, Laurie; Brown, Caroline E

    2010-12-01

    This department expands nursing leaders' knowledge and competencies in health facility design. The editor of this department, Dr Jaynelle Stichler, asked guest authors, Drs Ecoff and Brown, to describe the process of using the conceptual models of a nursing evidence-based practice model and the Magnet Recognition Program® as a structured process to lead decision making in the planning and design processes and to achieve desired outcomes in hospital design.

  4. BIG data - BIG gains? Empirical evidence on the link between big data analytics and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Niebel, Thomas; Rasel, Fabienne; Viete, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between firms’ use of big data analytics and their innovative performance in terms of product innovations. Since big data technologies provide new data information practices, they create novel decision-making possibilities, which are widely believed to support firms’ innovation process. Applying German firm-level data within a knowledge production function framework we find suggestive evidence that big data analytics is a relevant determinant for the likel...

  5. The effects of evidence bounds on decision-making: theoretical and empirical developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiang eZhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Converging findings from behavioral, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies suggest an integration-to-boundary mechanism governing decision formation and choice selection. This mechanism is supported by sequential sampling models of choice decisions, which can implement statistically optimal decision strategies for selecting between multiple alternative options on the basis of sensory evidence. This review focuses on recent developments in understanding the evidence boundary, an important component of decision-making raised by experimental findings and models. The article starts by reviewing the neurobiology of perceptual decisions and several influential sequential sampling models, in particular the drift-diffusion model, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model and the leaky-competing-accumulator model. In the second part, the article examines how the boundary may affect a model’s dynamics and performance and to what extent it may improve a model’s fits to experimental data. In the third part, the article examines recent findings that support the presence and site of boundaries in the brain. The article considers two questions: 1 whether the boundary is a spontaneous property of neural integrators, or is controlled by dedicated neural circuits; 2 if the boundary is variable, what could be the driving factors behind boundary changes? The review brings together studies using different experimental methods in seeking answers to these questions, highlights psychological and physiological factors that may be associated with the boundary and its changes, and further considers the evidence boundary as a generic mechanism to guide complex behavior.

  6. The linkage between knowledge management practices and company Performance: Empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausheen Syed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study explores the linkage between Knowledge management practices and company performance. Keeping in view the theoretical and empirical importance, the present study examines the predicting linkage of Knowledge management practices (sharing of best practices and building of consistent process, continues employee learning, effective management of knowledge, innovative culture development, and management of core competencies with company performance.Methodology: The study was carried out on purposively selected sample of 412 employees at different managerial positions. They were administered questionnaires including Knowledge Management Practices and company performance. Data was operated by using SPSS version 20.Correlation and regression analysis was done to establish the relationship between various Knowledge management practices and company performance.Findings: Results of this study illustrated that all selected Knowledge management were positively related to company performance. Based on the findings, and management of core competencies was the strongest predictor of company performance, followed by innovative culture development, effective management of knowledge and sharing of best practices and building of consistent process, continues employee learning.Research limitations/implications: The paper focuses on examining the perceptual impacts of Knowledge management (KM practices on company performance. The interpretation of results should be taken with caution.Value: The aim of this research is to investigate the relationship between Knowledge management and company performance, study the importance of Knowledge management as a source of sustainable competitive advantages for companies and to investigate how the introduction of Knowledge management practices facilitates company performance to improve. The practices that have a more positive influence on company performance are also discussed.

  7. Economic institutions and economic growth: Empirical evidence from the Economic Community of West African States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus Z. Wanjuu

    2017-12-01

    Background: Economic institutions are considered as the fundamental cause of economic growth. Economic institutions affect economic growth through allocation of resources like physical and human capital. Unfortunately, there is dearth of empirical studies showing the impact of economic institutions on growth of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS. Aim: This study investigates the impact of economic institutions on economic growth of the ECOWAS. Setting and method: The study applied cause and effect relationship. The study used econometric research techniques of unit root and co-integration tests to establish the time series properties of the data; the vector error correction and co-integration regression models to estimate the population parameters. The research data comprised data obtained from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD, the Transparency International (TI and Heritage Foundation databases. The variables employed were the real gross domestic product (GDP per capita (RGDPPC, corruption perception index (CPI, property rights protection (PROPRGT, private investment per capita (INVESPC, government expenditure per capita (GOEXPPC and trade openness (TRAOPN. Results: The results of the data analysed showed that economic institutions represented by the property rights index engender RGDPPC growth in ECOWAS. The CPI could not stimulate RGDPPC growth in ECOWAS. The results also show that all the other variables stimulated growth except trade openness. Conclusion: The study concludes that good economic institutions, private investments, and government intervention by providing security, economic and social infrastructural facilities are conducive for economic growth in the ECOWAS region. The study recommended that more efforts be made at curbing corruption in the region

  8. Is green energy expensive? Empirical evidence from the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarreta, Aitor; Espinosa, Maria Paz; Pizarro-Irizar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy promotion and its cost are at the heart of the energy policy debate in many countries. The question from an economic perspective is how expensive the promotion of renewable sources through price-based incentive schemes is. This paper addresses this issue empirically. We analyze the Spanish electricity market during the period 2008–2012, where renewable energy production rose by 57%. To determine how expensive it was, we first measure the savings due to the spot price reduction driven by the merit order effect and, second, we compute the amount paid as incentives to green energy by the electricity system; the difference between the two is the net cost of green energy to the electricity markets. We present aggregate results for renewable sources as a whole, as well as individual results for each technology. We show that at the initial stages, when renewable capacity was low, green energy promotion paid for itself (2008–2009); however, from 2010 on, when renewable production reached a relatively high level, it started to impose a positive net cost on the system. Finally, we found substantial differences among technologies: wind energy implied the lowest net cost, while solar photovoltaic was the most expensive. - Highlights: • The combination of feed-in tariffs and premiums has been an effective instrument in the promotion of renewable electricity in Spain. • Significant reduction of the daily market price due to RES-E. • Considering the subsidies to RES-E this energy might seem rather expensive for the Spanish electricity system since 2010. • Substantial differences among technologies: wind energy implied the lowest net cost, while solar photovoltaic was the most expensive

  9. Cloak of compassion, or evidence of elitism? An empirical analysis of white coat ceremonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Frankel, Richard M; Inui, Thomas S

    2013-01-01

    White coat ceremonies (WCCs) are widely prevalent as a celebration of matriculation in medical schools. Critics have questioned whether these ceremonies can successfully combine the themes of professionalism and humanism, as well as whether the white coat is an appropriate symbol. This study aimed to add a process of empirical assessment to the discussion of these criticisms by analysing the content and messages communicated during these ceremonies. Multiple qualitative methods were used to discern the core meanings expressed in a sample of 18 ceremonies through the analysis of artefacts, words, phrases, statements and narratives. Out of a stratified random sample of 25 US schools of medicine conducting WCCs in 2009, 18 schools submitted video, audio and written materials. All ceremonies followed the same general format, but varied in their content, messages and context. Ceremonies included five principal descriptions of what is symbolised by the white coat, including: commitment to humanistic professional care; a reminder of obligations and privileges; power; the student's need to 'grow', and the white coat as a mantle. Statements about obligations were made three times more frequently than statements about privileges. Key words or phrases in WCCs mapped to four domains: professionalism; morality; humanism, and spirituality. Spoken narratives focused on humility and generosity. The WCCs studied did not celebrate the status of an elite class, but marked the beginning of educational, personal and professional formation processes and urged matriculants to develop into doctors 'worthy of trust'. The ceremonies centred on the persons entering the vocation, who were invited to affirm its calling and obligations by donning a symbolic garb, and to join an ancient and modern tradition of healing and immersion in their community. The schools' articulated construct of the white coat situated it as a symbol of humanism. This study's findings may clarify and guide schools

  10. Interpreting the dynamic nexus between energy consumption and economic growth: Empirical evidence from Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuejun

    2011-01-01

    Research on the nexus between energy consumption and economic growth is a fundamental topic for energy policy making and low-carbon economic development. Russia proves the third largest energy consumption country in the world in recent years, while little research has shed light upon its energy consumption issue till now, especially its energy-growth nexus. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates the dynamic nexus of the two variables in Russia based on the state space model. The results indicate that, first of all, Russia's energy consumption is cointegrated with its economic growth in a time-varying way though they do not have static or average cointegration relationship. Hence it is unsuitable to merely portrait the nexus in an average manner. Second, ever since the year of 2000, Russia's energy efficiency has achieved much more promotion compared with that in previous decades, mainly due to the industrial structure adjustment and technology progress. Third, among BRIC countries, the consistency of Russia's energy consumption and economic growth appears the worst, which suggests the complexity of energy-growth nexus in Russia. Finally, there exists bi-directional causality between Russia's energy consumption and economic growth, though their quantitative proportional relation does not have solid foundation according to the cointegration theory. - Research highlights: →This study investigates the dynamic nexus of energy consumption and economic growth in Russia. → Russia's energy consumption is cointegrated with its economic growth in a time-varying way though they do not have static or average cointegration relationship. → Ever since 2000, Russia's energy efficiency has achieved much more promotion compared with that in previous decades. → Among BRIC countries, the consistency of Russia's energy consumption and economic growth appears the worst. → There exists bi-directional causality between Russia's energy consumption and economic growth.

  11. A comparison of usability methods for testing interactive health technologies: methodological aspects and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Monique W M

    2009-05-01

    Usability evaluation is now widely recognized as critical to the success of interactive health care applications. However, the broad range of usability inspection and testing methods available may make it difficult to decide on a usability assessment plan. To guide novices in the human-computer interaction field, we provide an overview of the methodological and empirical research available on the three usability inspection and testing methods most often used. We describe two 'expert-based' and one 'user-based' usability method: (1) the heuristic evaluation, (2) the cognitive walkthrough, and (3) the think aloud. All three usability evaluation methods are applied in laboratory settings. Heuristic evaluation is a relatively efficient usability evaluation method with a high benefit-cost ratio, but requires high skills and usability experience of the evaluators to produce reliable results. The cognitive walkthrough is a more structured approach than the heuristic evaluation with a stronger focus on the learnability of a computer application. Major drawbacks of the cognitive walkthrough are the required level of detail of task and user background descriptions for an adequate application of the latest version of the technique. The think aloud is a very direct method to gain deep insight in the problems end users encounter in interaction with a system but data analyses is extensive and requires a high level of expertise both in the cognitive ergonomics and in computer system application domain. Each of the three usability evaluation methods has shown its usefulness, has its own advantages and disadvantages; no single method has revealed any significant results indicating that it is singularly effective in all circumstances. A combination of different techniques that compliment one another should preferably be used as their collective application will be more powerful than applied in isolation. Innovative mobile and automated solutions to support end-user testing have

  12. The dynamic intensity of CO 2 emissions: empirical evidence for the 20 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO CARNEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The debate around the economic growth and environmental degradation is the hot topic among academics. However, up to a point, all of them embrace the uncontroversial view that tells us that anthropic factors have leverage on global climate. It happens that the so-called greenhouse effect is closely related to the accumulation of certain gases in the atmosphere, e.g., carbon dioxide, whose original source comes from productive sectors. Thus, our purpose in this article is to estimate the rate of emission intensity - here we mean the ratio between CO2 emissions and GDP - which has increased since the early part of the 20th century. To support that idea, this study reports on data from 24 different countries. In terms of C02 emission, the results undoubtedly show that United Kingdom and the United States highlight a negative picture, particularly when both are compared to India. It should be noted the presence of structural changes, which coincide with three major historical events: the World War I (1914-1918, the Great Depression in the 1930s, and finally the Oil-price shocks in the 1970s. As the result of the analysis demonstrates, the amount of emission produced by developing countries is surprisingly low. That the technology reveals its relative merit for reducing the overall emission intensity is transparently obvious.

  13. A novel machine learning approach for estimation of electricity demand: An empirical evidence from Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafavi, Elham Sadat; Mostafavi, Seyyed Iman; Jaafari, Arefeh; Hosseinpour, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid approach is presented for the estimation of the electricity demand. • The proposed method integrates the capabilities of GP and SA. • The GSA model makes accurate predictions of the electricity demand. - Abstract: This study proposes an innovative hybrid approach for the estimation of the long-term electricity demand. A new prediction equation was developed for the electricity demand using an integrated search method of genetic programming and simulated annealing, called GSA. The annual electricity demand was formulated in terms of population, gross domestic product (GDP), stock index, and total revenue from exporting industrial products of the same year. A comprehensive database containing total electricity demand in Thailand from 1986 to 2009 was used to develop the model. The generalization of the model was verified using a separate testing data. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the contribution of the parameters affecting the electricity demand. The GSA model provides accurate predictions of the electricity demand. Furthermore, the proposed model outperforms a regression and artificial neural network-based models

  14. An Empirical Investigation of the Black-Scholes Model: Evidence from the Australian Stock Exchange

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    Zaffar Subedar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the probability of an exchange traded European call option beingexercised on the ASX200 Options Index. Using single-parameter estimates of factors withinthe Black-Scholes model, this paper utilises qualitative regression and a maximum likelihoodapproach. Results indicate that the Black-Scholes model is statistically significant at the 1%level. The results also provide evidence that the use of implied volatility and a jump-diffusionapproach, which increases the tail properties of the underlying lognormal distribution,improves the statistical significance of the Black-Scholes model.

  15. Soccer and stock market risk: empirical evidence from the Istanbul Stock Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, M Hakan; Ceylan, Nildag Basak

    2013-06-01

    There is an emerging but important literature on the effects of sport events such as soccer on stock market returns. After a soccer team's win, agents discount future events more favorably and increase risk tolerance. Similarly, after a loss, risk tolerance decreases. This paper directly assesses risk tolerance after a sports event by using daily data from the three major soccer teams in Turkey (Beşiktaşç Fenerbahge and Galatasaray). Results provide evidence that risk tolerance increases after a win, but similar patterns were not found after a loss.

  16. Risk aversion, time preference and health production: theory and empirical evidence from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    This paper quantifies the relationship between risk aversion and discount rates on the one hand and height and weight on the other. It studies this link in the context of poor households in Cambodia. Evidence is based on an original dataset that contains both experimental measures of risk taking and impatience along with anthropometric measurements of children and adults. The aim of the paper is to (i) explore the importance of risk and time preferences in explaining undernutrition and (ii) compare the evidence stemming from poor households to strikingly similar findings from industrialized countries. It uses an inter-generational approach to explain observed correlations in adults and children that is inspired by the height premium on labor markets. Parents can invest in the health capital of their child to increase future earnings and their consumption when old: better nutrition during infancy translates into better human capital and better wages, and ultimately better financial means to take care of elderly parents. However this investment is subject to considerable uncertainty, since parents neither perfectly foresee economic conditions when the child starts earning nor fully observe the ability to transform nutritional investments into long-term health capital. As a result, risk taking households have taller and heavier children. Conversely, impatience does not affect child health. In the case of adults, only weight and the body mass index (BMI), but not height, are positively and moderately correlated with risk taking and impatience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Weak Form Efficiency of the Insurance Industry: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emenike Kalu Onwukwe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the insurance sector of Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE for evidence weak-form efficiency using daily returns from January 2009 to February 2016. The study employs descriptive analysis, non-parametric runs test and autocorrelation function as well as Ljung-Box Q statistics in conducting the evaluation. Descriptive statistics of the insurance sector return series showed negative skewness and leptokurtic distribution. Estimates from the Jarque-Bera normality test showed that the insurance sector returns did not follow normal distribution. Results of the runs test reject null hypothesis of randomness in the return series of the insurance sector in the period studied. Furthermore, the autocorrelation functions and the Ljung-Box Q tests provide evidence of serial correlation in the stock returns of the insurance sector. Overall results from the study suggested that the insurance sector of NSE is not weak-form efficient. Consequently, technical analysis on the insurance sector of the NSE may not be fruitless.

  18. Healthy Variability in Organizational Behavior: Empirical Evidence and New Steps for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, José; Rueff-Lopes, Rita

    2015-10-01

    The healthy variability thesis suggests that healthy systems function in a complex manner over time. This thesis is well-established in fields like physiology. In the field of organizational behavior, however, this relation is only starting to be explored. The objective of this article is threefold: First, we aim to provide a comprehensive review of the healthy variability thesis including some of the most important findings across different fields, with a focus on evidences from organizational research in work motivation and performance. Second, we discuss an opposite pattern, unhealthy stability, i.e., the relationship between unhealthy behaviors and lower variability. Again, we provide evidence from diverse areas, from affective processes to disruptive organizational comportments like mobbing. Third, we provide a critical evaluation of current methodological trends and highlight what we believe to be the main factors that are stopping organizational research from advancing in the field. Theoretical, methodological and epistemological implications are discussed. To conclude, we draw a compilation of the lessons learned, which hopefully provide insights for prolific research avenues. Our main purpose is to raise awareness of the healthy variability thesis and to enthuse organizational researchers to consider it in order to advance existing knowledge, revisit old theories and create new ones.

  19. Weak-form Efficiency of the Insurance Industry: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emenike Kalu Onwukwe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the insurance sector of Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE for evidence weak-form efficiency using daily returns from January 2009 to February 2016. The study employs descriptive analysis, non-parametric runs test and autocorrelation function as well as Ljung-Box Q statistics in conducting the evaluation. Descriptive statistics of the insurance sector return series show negative skewness and leptokurtic distribution. Estimates from the Jarque-Bera normality test show that the insurance sector returns do not follow a normal distribution. Results of the runs test reject the null hypothesis of randomness in the return series of the insurance sector in the period studied. Furthermore, the autocorrelation functions and the Ljung-Box Q tests provide evidence of serial correlation in the stock returns of the insurance sector. Overall results from the study suggest that the insurance sector of NSE is not weak-form efficient. Consequently, technical analysis on the insurance sector of the NSE may not be fruitless.

  20. Climate change and associated spatial heterogeneity of Pakistan: Empirical evidence using multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ghaffar

    2018-09-01

    Climate change is a multidimensional phenomenon, which has various implications for the environment and socio-economic conditions of the people. Its effects are deeper in an agrarian economy which is susceptible to the vagaries of nature. Therefore, climate change directly impacts the society in different ways, and society must pay the cost. Focusing on this truth, the main objective of this research was to investigate the empirical changes and spatial heterogeneity in the climate of Pakistan in real terms using time series data. Climate change and variability in Pakistan, over time, were estimated from 1961 to 2014 using all the climate variables for the very first time. Several studies were available on climate change impacts, mitigation, and adaptation; however, it was difficult to observe exactly how much change occurred in which province and when. A multidisciplinary approach was utilized to estimate the absolute change through a combination of environmental, econometric, and remote sensing methods. Moreover, the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model was used to ascertain the extent of variability in climate change and information was digitalized through ground truthing. Results showed that the average temperature of Pakistan increased by 2°C between 1960 and 1987 and 4°C between 1988 and 2014, and R 2 was 0.978. The rate of temperature increased 0.09°C between 1960 and 2014. The mean annual precipitation of Pakistan increased by 478mm, and its R 2 were 0.34-0.64. The mean annual humidity of Pakistan increased by 2.94%, and the rate of humidity has been increased by 0.97% from 1988 to 2014. Notably, Sindh and Balochistan provinces have shown a significant spatial heterogeneity regarding the increase in precipitation. Statistically all variables are significant. This would serve as a baseline information for climate change-related studies in Pakistan and its application in different sectors. This would also serve the plant breeders and policymakers of

  1. Influencing Factors on Earnings Management, Empirical Evidence from Listed German and Austrian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Dilger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Since the 1960s earnings management has been a widely researched area and became presumably known by the current accounting scandals. This paper aims at empirically showing which factors affect earnings management. Design/methodology/approach – According to former research literature factors are derived, which might influence the companies' earnings management behavior. These factors are the applied accounting standard, the industry sector and the country of official quotation. Although several measurements for earnings management like abnormal accruals or income smoothing exist, this paper is predominantly using the distribution of net income scaled by total assets (RoA respectively total sales (RoS as earnings management measure. These earnings management measures have been selected as they can measure the frequency of earnings management in reality and no estimates are necessary. Findings – In general, analyses show that the distribution in earnings management intervals differ from the total population. Most noteworthy is that by adoption of principle-based accounting standards (IFRS/US-GAAP, in case of this study no differences of earnings quality was observable. The other two variables yield in mixed results due to the robustness checks, which indeed questions the scaling variables for data-sets including the financial industries. Research limitations/implications – First, according to the chosen measurement parameter no distinct assertion concerning the reasons for execution or non-execution of earnings management can be deduced. Second, the method of earnings management's identification is not dividable and therefore real-, accounting-, legal- and illegal- earnings management cannot be identified. Third, the research results are just partially generalizable concerning representativity (e.g. other countries, non-market listed companies and taken for granted just for similar data-sets. Originality/value – Although prior

  2. Measuring the Level of Industrial Green Development and Exploring Its Influencing Factors: Empirical Evidence from China’s 30 Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofan Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with the green economy becoming mainstream in the world, an industrial revolution as the core of green development has emerged. Based on the empirical evidence from China’s 30 provinces, this study establishes an evaluation index system of China’s industrial green development and applies the analytic hierarchy process to determine the indices’ weights and properties to measure the level of industrial green development in China’s 30 provinces. Then, an empirical study is conducted to explore the relevant factors influencing China’s industrial green development by using the dynamic panel data model and a panel threshold test. The results show that China’s level of industrial green development has the characteristic of typical regional differentiation with a ladder-like distribution from the east and middle to the west, and the eastern region has the highest level on industrial green output, industrial green efficiency and industrial green innovation. Technological progress and innovation can stimulate industrial green development. The impact of environmental regulation and foreign investment on industrial green development presents a nonlinear “N”-type trend, and the positive effects are mainly observed in eastern China. Capital deepening, heavy chemical industries and an unreasonable energy structure are not effective in industrial green development. There is no direct relation between the enterprise scale and industrial green development.

  3. How do dentists and their teams incorporate evidence about preventive care? An empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbaraini, Alexandra; Carter, Stacy Marie; Evans, Robin Wendell; Blinkhorn, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    To identify how dentists and their teams adopt evidence-based preventive care. A qualitative study using grounded theory methodology was conducted. We interviewed 23 participants working in eight dental practices about their experience and work processes, while adopting evidence-based preventive care. During the study, Charmaz's grounded theory methodology was employed to examine the social process of adopting preventive dental care in dental practices. Charmaz's iteration of the constant comparative method was used during the data analysis. This involved coding of interview transcripts, detailed memo-writing and drawing diagrams. The transcripts were analyzed as soon as possible after each round of interviews in each dental practice. Coding was conducted primarily by AS, supported by team meetings and discussions when researchers compared their interpretations. Participants engaged in a slow process of adapting evidence-based protocols and guidelines to the existing logistics of the practices. This process was influenced by practical, philosophical, and historical aspects of dental care, and a range of barriers and facilitators. In particular, dentists spoke spontaneously about two deeply held 'rules' underpinning continued restorative treatment, which acted as barriers to provide preventive care: (i) dentists believed that some patients were too 'unreliable' to benefit from prevention; and (ii) dentists believed that patients thought that only tangible restorative treatment offered 'value for money'. During the adaptation process, some dentists and teams transitioned from their initial state - selling restorative care - through an intermediary stage - learning by doing and educating patients about the importance of preventive care - and finally to a stage where they were offering patients more than just restorative care. Resources were needed for the adaptation process to occur, including: the ability to maintain the financial viability of the practice

  4. Virtuous States and Virtuous Traits: How the Empirical Evidence Regarding the Existence of Broad Traits Saves Virtue Ethics from the Situationist Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawickreme, Eranda; Meindl, Peter; Helzer, Erik G.; Furr, R. Michael; Fleeson, William

    2014-01-01

    A major objection to the study of virtue asserts that the empirical psychological evidence implies traits have little meaningful impact on behavior, as slight changes in situational characteristics appear to lead to large changes in virtuous behavior. We argue in response that the critical evidence is not these effects of situations observed in…

  5. HERDING BEHAVIOR UNDER MARKETS CONDITION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON THE EUROPEAN FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moatemri Ouarda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents four main contributions to the literature of behavior herding. Firstly, it extends the behavioral researches of herding of the investors on a developed market and mainly on a European market as a whole. Secondly, we are interested in examination of herding behavior at the level of sectors by using data at the levels of companies. Thirdly, this document estimates the implications of herding behavior in terms of returns, volatility and volume of transaction. Fourthly, the herding behavior is revealed as well during the period of the recent global financial crisis in 2007-2008 and of Asian crisis. Our results reveal a strong evidence of herding behavior sharply contributed to a bearish situation characterized by a strong volatility and a trading volume. The repercussion of herding during the period of the recent financial crisis is clearly revealed for the sectors of the finance and the technology.

  6. Self-reported versus behavioral self-handicapping: empirical evidence for a theoretical distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, E R; Deppe, R K; Gordon, L J

    1991-12-01

    The present study was an investigation of how Ss would respond when given 2 self-handicapping options, 1 behavioral (withdrawal of practice effort) and 1 self-reported (reporting high levels of stress). Ss anticipating a diagnostic test of intellectual ability were given different instructions regarding the effects of stress and practice on test performance. Ss were told that (a) stress only, (b) practice only, (c) both stress and practice, or (d) neither stress nor practice affected test scores. Ss were then given the opportunity to self-report a handicap on a stress inventory and to behaviorally self-handicap by failing to practice before the test. High self-handicapping men and women showed evidence of self-reported handicapping, but only high self-handicapping men behaviorally self-handicapped. However, when both self-handicaps were viable, both high self-handicapping men and women preferred the self-reported over the behavioral self-handicap.

  7. Empirical Evidence on the Link Between Compliance with Governance of Best Practice and Firms' Operating Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek B. Lama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides robust evidence in support of the agency theory argument that corporate governancematters for a firm’s operating performance. Using the corporate governance ratings as the governance proxyfrom Horwath 2006 Corporate Governance Report (mid-sized Australian ASX companies andMid-CapCorporate Governance Report 2007 (The University of Newcastle 2006; 2007, I examine 60 sample firms toreveal that a firm’s governance is positively and significantly related to firm performance as measured by returnon equity, earning yield and return on assets. This study extends the findings of these two reports which founda disturbing trend in the corporate governance practice of Australian mid-cap companies – both a decrease incompanies with excellent corporate governance, and an increase in companies with significant corporategovernance deficiencies. The findings of this study suggest that those mid-size companies who have allowedcorporate governance to deteriorate have adversely affected their shareholder returns.

  8. How task characteristics and social support relate to managerial learning: empirical evidence from Dutch home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouweneel, A P Else; Taris, Toon W; Van Zolingen, Simone J; Schreurs, Paul J G

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have revealed that managers profit most from informal and on-the-job learning. Moreover, research has shown that task characteristics and social support affect informal learning. On the basis of these insights, the authors examined the effects of task characteristics (psychological job demands, job control) and social support from the supervisor and colleagues on informal on-the-job learning among 1588 managers in the Dutch home-care sector. A regression analysis revealed that high demands, high control, and high colleague and supervisor support were each associated with high levels of informal learning. The authors found no evidence for statistical interactions among the effects of these concepts. They concluded that to promote managers' informal workplace learning, employers should especially increase job control.

  9. When health policy and empirical evidence collide: the case of cigarette package warning labels and economic consumer surplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V; Brown, Paul; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-02-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health.

  10. Practice and effectiveness of internal corporate governance mechanisms in Saudi Arabia Stock Market: A review of empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marai Awidat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to shed light on the Saudi corporate governance code, its practices and effectiveness. To do so, the paper conducted a detailed review of the articles of the code related to internal corporate governance mechanisms and the previous studies regarding its effectiveness in Saudi stock market context. The main finding is that the provisions of Saudi corporate governance code are adequate. Annual reports (2009-2014 show an increase in the level of the compliance by listed companies, indicating that the code is achieving its aims. However, the empirical evidence seems to suggest that the code has an insignificant impact on company's performance and mitigating earnings management. The main reasons behind that are the following: the code is still in its early stages, there is weak legal enforcement, and there are also some social, cultural, and economic factors. Therefore, the code needs more time for good practice and improvement to achieve its purposes.

  11. Redditi turchi et potentiarum nobis. New Evidence Concerning on the Crusade against the Ottoman Empire in the Mid Fifteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes López-Mayán

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The examination of liturgical codex 56-23 in Toledo Cathedral Library has revealed the existence of an exceptionally rich text, hitherto overlooked by researchers. This document contains an exhaustive assessment of the economic and military capabilities of the Turks and the Christian powers, as well as a description of their strengths and weaknesses in combat. Through the analysis of its contents and its materiality, on the one hand this article associates the circumstances of its origin and use with the preparations for the crusading project that Pius II organized against the Ottoman Empire in 1458. On the other it contextualizes and interprets this new evidence as one of the numerous crusading treatises that proliferated in humanist Europe after the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.

  12. When Health Policy and Empirical Evidence Collide: The Case of Cigarette Package Warning Labels and Economic Consumer Surplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V.; Brown, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost “pleasure” smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost “consumer surplus.” Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

  13. Environmental regulation and competitiveness: Empirical evidence on the Porter Hypothesis from European manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubashkina, Yana; Galeotti, Marzio; Verdolini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the “weak” and “strong” versions of Porter Hypothesis (PH) focusing on the manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. The hypothesis that well-crafted and well-enforced regulation would benefit both the environment and the firm was originally proposed by Porter (1991) and Porter and van der Linde (1995). To date, the literature has analyzed the impact of environmental regulation on innovation and on productivity mostly in separate analyses and focusing on the USA. The few existing contributions on Europe study the effect of environmental regulation either on green innovation or on performance indicators such as exports. We instead look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. First, focusing on overall innovative activity allows us to account for potential opportunity costs of induced innovations. Second, productivity impacts are arguably the most relevant indicators for the “strong” PH. As a proxy of environmental policy stringency we use pollution abatement and control expenditures (PACE), one of the few sectoral level indicators available. We remedy upon its main drawback, namely potential endogeneity, by adopting an instrumental variable estimation approach. We find evidence of a positive impact of environmental regulation on the output of innovation activity, as proxied by patents, thus providing support in favor of the “weak” PH. This result is in line with most of the literature. On the other front, we find no evidence in favor of the “strong” PH, as productivity appears to be unaffected by the degree of pollution control and abatement efforts. -- Highlights: •Weak and strong Porter Hypothesis. •Panel of manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. •Look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. •Pollution abatement & control expenditures proxy of environmental policy stringency. •Account for potential endogeneity of PACE by adopting

  14. Effects of Selected Corporate Governance Characteristics on Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence from Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Okoth Ongore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the interrelations among ownership, board and manager characteristics and firm performance in a sample of 54 firms listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE. These governance characteristics, designed to minimize agency problems between principals and agents are operationalized in terms of ownership concentration, ownership identity, board effectiveness and managerial discretion. The typical ownership identities at the NSE are government, foreign, institutional, manager and diverse ownership forms. Firm performance is measured using Return on Assets (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE and Dividend Yield (DY. Using PPMC, Logistic Regression and Stepwise Regression, the paper presents evidence of significant positive relationship between foreign, insider, institutional and diverse ownership forms, and firm performance. However, the relationship between ownership concentration and government, and firm performance was significantly negative. The role of boards was found to be of very little value, mainly due to lack of adherence to board member selection criteria. The results also show significant positive relationship between managerial discretion and performance. Collectively, these results are consistent with pertinent literature with regard to the implications of government, foreign, manager (insider and institutional ownership forms, but significantly differ concerning the effects of ownership concentration and diverse ownership on firm performance.

  15. Globalization and economic growth: empirical evidence on the role of complementarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Parisa; Jenatabadi, Hashem Salarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of economic globalization on economic growth in OIC countries. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of complementary policies on the growth effect of globalization. It also investigated whether the growth effect of globalization depends on the income level of countries. Utilizing the generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach, we provide evidence which suggests that economic globalization has statistically significant impact on economic growth in OIC countries. The results indicate that this positive effect is increased in the countries with better-educated workers and well-developed financial systems. Our finding shows that the effect of economic globalization also depends on the country's level of income. High and middle-income countries benefit from globalization whereas low-income countries do not gain from it. In fact, the countries should receive the appropriate income level to be benefited from globalization. Economic globalization not only directly promotes growth but also indirectly does so via complementary reforms.

  16. Globalization and economic growth: empirical evidence on the role of complementarities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Samimi

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of economic globalization on economic growth in OIC countries. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of complementary policies on the growth effect of globalization. It also investigated whether the growth effect of globalization depends on the income level of countries. Utilizing the generalized method of moments (GMM estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach, we provide evidence which suggests that economic globalization has statistically significant impact on economic growth in OIC countries. The results indicate that this positive effect is increased in the countries with better-educated workers and well-developed financial systems. Our finding shows that the effect of economic globalization also depends on the country's level of income. High and middle-income countries benefit from globalization whereas low-income countries do not gain from it. In fact, the countries should receive the appropriate income level to be benefited from globalization. Economic globalization not only directly promotes growth but also indirectly does so via complementary reforms.

  17. Earnings volatility and the role of cash flows in the capital markets: Empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Melita Charitou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent global financial crisis brought to the forefront of the capital markets the importance of firm fundamentals and especially, the valuation role of cash flows. In this study, we examine the role of earnings and cash flows in two major capital markets, namely, USA and France. We hypothesize that the relationship between cash flows and security returns improves when earnings are transitory and this robustness is country specific. The dataset consists of more than 37,000 USA and French firm-year observations over an eight-year period. Multivariate statistical regression analysis is undertaken to test the major research hypotheses. Results indicate that when earnings are transitory (unstable, investors pay more attention to cash flows and less attention to earnings, a result indicating that investors penalize firms with unstable earnings. In summary, the evidence provided in this study supports that there are substantial differences in the way investors and financial analysts perceive financial information such as earnings and cash flows in France and USA. These results should be of great importance to the major stakeholders such as investors, creditors, financial analysts, especially after the recent global financial crisis and the collapse of giant organizations worldwide.

  18. Location Decisions of U.S. Polluting Plants. Theory, Empirical Evidence, and Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadbegian, R.; Wolverton, A.

    2010-01-01

    Economists have long been interested in explaining the spatial distribution of economic activity, focusing on what factors motivate profit-maximizing firms when they choose to open a new plant or expand an existing facility. We begin our paper with a general discussion of the theory of plant location, including the role of taxes and agglomeration economies. However, our paper focuses on the theory, evidence, and implications of the role of environmental regulations in plant location decisions. On its face, environmental regulation would not necessarily be expected to alter location decisions, since we would expect Federal regulation to affect all locations in the United States essentially equally. It turns out, however, that this is not always the case as some geographic areas are subject to greater stringency. Another source of variation is differences across states in the way they implement and enforce compliance with Federal regulation. In light of these spatial differences in the costs of complying with environmental regulations, we discuss three main questions in this survey: Do environmental regulations affect the location decisions of polluting plants? Do states compete for polluting plants through differences in environmental regulation? And, do firms locate polluting plants disproportionately near poor and minority neighborhoods?.

  19. An Empirical Analysis On How Conservatism Influences Cost Of Equity Capital: Evidence From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Öner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An extensive review of literature focusing on theoretical and analytical studies reveals that equitymarkets will benefit from accounting conservatism due to the increase in overall informationquality. Conditional conservatism, which is evaluated as to the asymmetry between the impact ofgood and bad news on earnings, is regarded to be a substitute of discretionary disclosure. Therefore,as the firms increase the extent of their voluntary disclosures, the cost of raising capital is alleviatedsince this cost depends on how much information is attained by the firms’ potential investors.This study conducts a two stage analysis on a data set of nonfinancial firms listed on Borsa Istanbul2005-2014, inclusive. Accordingly, the existence of conditional conservatism is tested by usingcross-sectional regression based on the asymmetric timeliness model developed by Basu (1997modified by Khan and Watts (2009. Consequently, the resulting firm-year measure of conditionalconservatism is used as the explanatory variable of the panel data analysis. The originality of the paperstems from the fact that it attempts to provide evidence on the economic consequences of discretionaryaccounting practices from Turkey in this specific strand of literature related to the equityinvestors’ required rates of return.

  20. Location Decisions of U.S. Polluting Plants. Theory, Empirical Evidence, and Consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadbegian, R.; Wolverton, A.

    2010-06-15

    Economists have long been interested in explaining the spatial distribution of economic activity, focusing on what factors motivate profit-maximizing firms when they choose to open a new plant or expand an existing facility. We begin our paper with a general discussion of the theory of plant location, including the role of taxes and agglomeration economies. However, our paper focuses on the theory, evidence, and implications of the role of environmental regulations in plant location decisions. On its face, environmental regulation would not necessarily be expected to alter location decisions, since we would expect Federal regulation to affect all locations in the United States essentially equally. It turns out, however, that this is not always the case as some geographic areas are subject to greater stringency. Another source of variation is differences across states in the way they implement and enforce compliance with Federal regulation. In light of these spatial differences in the costs of complying with environmental regulations, we discuss three main questions in this survey: Do environmental regulations affect the location decisions of polluting plants? Do states compete for polluting plants through differences in environmental regulation? And, do firms locate polluting plants disproportionately near poor and minority neighborhoods?.

  1. Testing Capital Asset Pricing Model: Empirical Evidences from Indian Equity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil CHOUDHARY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM for the Indian stock market using monthly stock returns from 278 companies of BSE 500 Index listed on the Bombay stock exchange for the period of January 1996 to December 2009. The findings of this study are not substantiating the theory’s basic result that higher risk (beta is associated with higher levels of return. The model does explain, however, excess returns and thus lends support to the linear structure of the CAPM equation. The theory’s prediction for the intercept is that it should equal zero and the slope should equal the excess returns on the market portfolio. The results of the study lead to negate the above hypotheses and offer evidence against the CAPM. The tests conducted to examine the nonlinearity of the relationship between return and betas bolster the hypothesis that the expected return-beta relationship is linear. Additionally, this study investigates whether the CAPM adequately captures all-important determinants of returns including the residual variance of stocks. The results exhibit that residual risk has no effect on the expected returns of portfolios.

  2. Liquidity and the business cycle: Empirical evidence from the Greek banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogiazas Sophocles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the global financial turmoil the negative market sentiment and the challenging macroeconomic environment in Greece have severely affected the banking sector, which faces funding and liquidity challenges, deteriorating asset quality, and weakening profitability. This paper aims to investigate how banks’ liquidity interacted with solvency and the business cycle during the period 2004-2010. To this end a panel of 17 Greek banks is utilized which, in conjunction with cointegrating techniques and one-way static and dynamic panel models, explores the presence and the strength of the relationship between banks’ liquidity and the business cycle, while allowing for the role of banks’ solvency. Addressing the liquidity risk of the Greek banking sector and the liquidity-solvency nexus remains largely an uncharted area. The results generated provide clear-cut evidence on the linkages between banks’ market liquidity and the business cycle, as reflected in the real GDP and the effective exchange rate. Yet the results display a transmission channel that runs from banks’ solvency to liquidity and from country risk to bank risk.

  3. An Empirical Investigation to Analyze the Brand Equity and Resonance of Banking Services: Evidence from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Gautam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to verify the determinants of brand equityof services based on consumers’ perception of a banking service.The present study is based on customer-based brand equity calledthe Brand Resonance model suggested by Keller (2001, whichcomprises six brand equity constructs, such as: brand resonance;brand judgements; brand feelings; brand performance; brand imagery;brand salience. Exploratory factor analysis was performedto reduce the total number of items to a small number of underlyingfactors, and the results produced six factors, namely: brandresonance; brand judgements; brand feelings; brand performance;brand imagery; brand salience. These alpha coefficients ofthe reliability test were found to be ranging from 0.781 to 0.912for all of the brand equity constructs individually, and for the entirescale the value of alpha was found to be 0.837. Correlationanalysis was performed to find out relationships among variouscomponents of brand equity. From the findings of multiple regressionanalysis it is evident that brand performance emergedas the most important determinant of brand resonance, followedby brand feelings (0.427 and brand judgements (0.306.

  4. Innovation and cooperation in carioca’s tourism: First empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Queiroz Brunelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study that examined the relationship between collaboration and innovation in the tourism industry in order to verify if the collaborative relationships between firms contribute to the development of innovations. Information was collected through a survey conducted with representatives of organizations active in tourism in the city of Rio de Janeiro, a particularly interesting destination due to it is having been chosen to host major events, specifically the FIFA World Cup in 2014, and the Olympic Games in 2016. Analysis and interpretation of data were performed by using statistical techniques. The results showed that the collaborative relationships between the organizations surveyed have contributed significantly to the development of innovations in the tourism destination focused. The results also made evident the latent potential for transformation of tourism in Rio de Janeiro through innovations, by strengthening the partnerships identified in this research, in order to generate products with higher added value and, at the same time, with globally consistent pricing practices.

  5. Is dissonance reduction a special case of fluid compensation? Evidence that dissonant cognitions cause compensatory affirmation and abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randles, Daniel; Inzlicht, Michael; Proulx, Travis; Tullett, Alexa M; Heine, Steven J

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive dissonance theory shares much in common with other perspectives that address anomalies, uncertainty, and general expectancy violations. This has led some theorists to argue that these theories represent overlapping psychological processes. If responding to dissonance and uncertainty occurs through a common psychological process, one should expect that the behavioral outcomes of feeling uncertain would also apply to feelings of dissonance, and vice versa. One specific prediction from the meaning maintenance model would be that cognitive dissonance, like other expectancy violations, should lead to the affirmation of unrelated beliefs, or the abstraction of unrelated schemas when the dissonant event cannot be easily accommodated. This article presents 4 studies (N = 1124) demonstrating that the classic induced-compliance dissonance paradigm can lead not only to a change of attitudes (dissonance reduction), but also to (a) an increased reported belief in God (Study 2), (b) a desire to punish norm-violators (Study 1 and 3), (c) a motivation to detect patterns amid noise (Study 3), and (d) polarizing support of public policies among those already biased toward a particular side (Study 4). These results are congruent with theories that propose content-general fluid compensation following the experience of anomaly, a finding not predicted by dissonance theory. The results suggest that dissonance reduction behaviors may share psychological processes described by other theories addressing violations of expectations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. HRM practices and knowledge processes outcomes: empirical evidence from a quasi-experiment on UK SMEs in the tourism hospitality and leisure sector

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Georgiadis; Christos N. Pitelis

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents empirical evidence of the relationship between human resources practices and the effectiveness of a firm to capitalise on investment in knowledge as measured by the returns to innovation and business development expenditure. The empirical design is based on exploiting a natural experiment provided by a policy intervention that offers human resources-related support to small and medium sized enterprises in the UK Tourism Hospitality and Leisure sector. Our findings suggest ...

  7. Empirical evidence for son-killing X chromosomes and the operation of SA-zygotic drive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Friberg

    Full Text Available Diploid organisms have two copies of all genes, but only one is carried by each haploid gamete and diploid offspring. This causes a fundamental genetic conflict over transmission rate between alternative alleles. Single genes, or gene clusters, only rarely code for the complex phenotypes needed to give them a transmission advantage (drive phenotype. However, all genes on a male's X and Y chromosomes co-segregate, allowing different sex-linked genes to code for different parts of the drive phenotype. Correspondingly, the well-characterized phenomenon of male gametic drive, occurring during haploid gametogenesis, is especially common on sex chromosomes. The new theory of sexually antagonistic zygotic drive of the sex chromosomes (SA-zygotic drive extends the logic of gametic drive into the diploid phase of the lifecycle, whenever there is competition among siblings or harmful sib-sib mating. The X and Y are predicted to gain a transmission advantage by harming offspring of the sex that does not carry them.Here we analyzed a mutant X-chromosome in Drosophila simulans that produced an excess of daughters when transmitted from males. We developed a series of tests to differentiate between gametic and SA-zygotic drive, and provide multiple lines of evidence that SA-zygotic drive is responsible for the sex ratio bias. Driving sires produce about 50% more surviving daughters than sons.Sex-ratio distortion due to genetic conflict has evolved via gametic drive and maternally transmitted endosymbionts. Our data indicate that sex chromosomes can also drive by harming the non-carrier sex of offspring.

  8. Linking energy efficiency and innovation practices: Empirical evidence from the foundry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagno, Enrico; Ramirez-Portilla, Andres; Trianni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The Europe 2020 strategy currently promotes energy efficiency and innovation through disconnected targets focusing on either energy or R&D. Similar policies indicate that in practice, these two concepts are usually perceived as mutually exclusive. Furthermore, evidence in the literature regarding the relationship between R&D and energy efficiency is still highly limited. This exploratory study aims to address this gap by investigating the link between innovation practices and energy efficiency through a multiple case study of 30 foundries in Northern Italy. We analysed the firms' innovativeness, measured by internal R&D and Open Innovation practices (inbound and outbound), and energy efficiency, measured by specific energy consumption, level of adoption of energy-efficient technologies and barriers to energy efficiency. The results seem to show that those foundries complementing internal R&D with inbound practices have a higher level of energy efficiency, a higher level of adoption of available technologies, and a lower perception of barriers to efficiency improvements. This finding suggests that diversifying innovation practices could lead to better performance with respect to all three indicators of energy efficiency analysed. This study contributes to understanding how more innovative firms can be more energy efficient, providing interesting highlights for managers and policymakers. -- Highlights: •The relation between innovation practices and energy efficiency is articulated. •The link between innovation practices and energy efficiency is tested for foundries. •Energy efficiency is measured with three different indicators. •Analyses of the relations between these indicators support the link with innovation. •Concurrent adoption of internal R&D and inbound practices leads to higher efficiency

  9. Empirical evidence for son-killing X chromosomes and the operation of SA-zygotic drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Urban; Stewart, Andrew D; Rice, William R

    2011-01-01

    Diploid organisms have two copies of all genes, but only one is carried by each haploid gamete and diploid offspring. This causes a fundamental genetic conflict over transmission rate between alternative alleles. Single genes, or gene clusters, only rarely code for the complex phenotypes needed to give them a transmission advantage (drive phenotype). However, all genes on a male's X and Y chromosomes co-segregate, allowing different sex-linked genes to code for different parts of the drive phenotype. Correspondingly, the well-characterized phenomenon of male gametic drive, occurring during haploid gametogenesis, is especially common on sex chromosomes. The new theory of sexually antagonistic zygotic drive of the sex chromosomes (SA-zygotic drive) extends the logic of gametic drive into the diploid phase of the lifecycle, whenever there is competition among siblings or harmful sib-sib mating. The X and Y are predicted to gain a transmission advantage by harming offspring of the sex that does not carry them. Here we analyzed a mutant X-chromosome in Drosophila simulans that produced an excess of daughters when transmitted from males. We developed a series of tests to differentiate between gametic and SA-zygotic drive, and provide multiple lines of evidence that SA-zygotic drive is responsible for the sex ratio bias. Driving sires produce about 50% more surviving daughters than sons. Sex-ratio distortion due to genetic conflict has evolved via gametic drive and maternally transmitted endosymbionts. Our data indicate that sex chromosomes can also drive by harming the non-carrier sex of offspring.

  10. Contribution of health workforce to health outcomes: empirical evidence from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Mai Phuong; Mirzoev, Tolib; Le, Thi Minh

    2016-11-16

    In Vietnam, a lower-middle income country, while the overall skill- and knowledge-based quality of health workforce is improving, health workers are disproportionately distributed across different economic regions. A similar trend appears to be in relation to health outcomes between those regions. It is unclear, however, whether there is any relationship between the distribution of health workers and the achievement of health outcomes in the context of Vietnam. This study examines the statistical relationship between the availability of health workers and health outcomes across the different economic regions in Vietnam. We constructed a panel data of six economic regions covering 8 years (2006-2013) and used principal components analysis regressions to estimate the impact of health workforce on health outcomes. The dependent variables representing the outcomes included life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, and under-five mortality rates. Besides the health workforce as our target explanatory variable, we also controlled for key demographic factors including regional income per capita, poverty rate, illiteracy rate, and population density. The numbers of doctors, nurses, midwives, and pharmacists have been rising in the country over the last decade. However, there are notable differences across the different categories. For example, while the numbers of nurses increased considerably between 2006 and 2013, the number of pharmacists slightly decreased between 2011 and 2013. We found statistically significant evidence of the impact of density of doctors, nurses, midwives, and pharmacists on improvement to life expectancy and reduction of infant and under-five mortality rates. Availability of different categories of health workforce can positively contribute to improvements in health outcomes and ultimately extend the life expectancy of populations. Therefore, increasing investment into more equitable distribution of four main categories of health workforce

  11. Dealing with barriers to energy efficiency and SMEs: Some empirical evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, A.; Cagno, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an identification and an analysis of the most relevant barriers to energy efficiency that limit a widespread implementation of the Best Available Technologies and Practices (BAT/Ps) through the investigation of 128 non-energy intensive manufacturing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Northern Italy. The study, starting from the existing literature, performs an investigation of the operational difficulties occurring when it has been decided to undertake the process of investing resources in energy efficiency interventions. The most perceived barriers have been analyzed with respect to several important characteristics (among others, sector and firm’s size). This examination shows also that very much attention should be paid to avoid bundling together SMEs of different sizes and sectors, since different behaviors with respect to the perception of the barriers can be observed. The analysis of the sample presents some interesting trends considering the perception of the barriers with respect to previous experience of the enterprises on energy efficiency. The paper also explores, through a preliminary analysis, the correlations among questions in order to understand the dynamics and the possible effects of a given barrier with respect to others. Several suggestions for future research in this important area have been provided. -- Highlights: ► Evidences of different behaviors with respect to energy efficiency among sectors and firm’s size (within SMEs). ► Importance, for energy efficiency barriers, of avoid bundling SMEs as a whole. ► Preliminary investigation of relationships between barriers in order to understand the dynamics.

  12. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eBigand

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, it has been argued that 1 music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and 2 that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds.

  13. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds.

  14. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds. PMID:24936174

  15. Evidence of a modality-dependent role of the cerebellum in working memory? An fMRI study comparing verbal and abstract n-back tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautzel, Hubertus; Mottaghy, Felix M; Specht, Karsten; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm; Krause, Bernd J

    2009-10-01

    In working memory (WM), functional imaging studies demonstrate cerebellar involvement indicating a cognitive role of the cerebellum. These cognitive contributions were predominantly interpreted as part of the phonological loop within the Baddeley model of WM. However, those underlying investigations were performed in the context of visual verbal WM which could pose a bias when interpreting the results. The aim of this fMRI study was to address the question of whether the cerebellum supports additional aspects of WM in the context of higher cognitive functions. Furthermore, laterality effects were investigated to further disentangle the cerebellar role in the context of the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad. A direct comparison of verbal and abstract visual WM was performed in 17 young volunteers by applying a 2-back paradigm and extracting the % change in BOLD signal from the fMRI data. To minimize potential verbal strategies, Attneave and Arnoult shapes of non-nameable objects were chosen for the abstract condition. The analyses revealed no significant differences in verbal vs. abstract WM. Moreover, no laterality effects were demonstrated in both verbal and abstract WM. These results provide further evidence of a broader cognitive involvement of the cerebellum in WM that is not only confined to the phonological loop but also supports central executive subfunctions. The fact that no lateralization effects are found might be attributed to the characteristics of the n-back paradigm which emphasizes central executive subfunctions over the subsidiary slave systems.

  16. Effects of external debt burden on LDC's investments: empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of external debt burden on LDC's investments: empirical evidence from Nigeria. Michael I Moughalu, Chinedu B Ezirim. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol. 14(2) 2006: 3-18. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  17. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Whither voluntary communities of co-located patients in Vietnam? Empirical evidence from a 2016 medical survey dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Hoang Vuong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical evidence on quality of life of poor patients falls short for policy-making in Vietnam. Financial burdens and isolation give rise to Vietnamese voluntary co-location clusters where patients seek to rely on each other. These communities, although important, have been under-researched. Increasingly, there are questions about their sustainability. Aim & Objectives: This study aims to identify factors that affect sustainability of such co-location clusters, seeking to measure the community prospect through critical determinants as seen by member patients. An in-depth analysis is expected to yield insights that help shape future policies contributing to improvement of healthcare systems.  Material & Method: A dataset containing responses from 336 patients living in four clusters in Hanoi was obtained from a survey during 2015Q4-2016Q1. The processing of data is performed using R 3.2.3, employing baseline category logit models (BCL. Coefficients are estimated to compute empirical probabilities. Results: 1 There is a 50% probability that a patient seeing his/her benefits as unsatisfactory views the community prospect as dim; 2 The more a patient contributes time/effort, the less he/she believes in future growth; 3 There is a 80.8% probability that a patient who makes a significant financial contribution and receives back in-kind benefits predicts no growth. Conclusion: Patients predict community growth when receiving what they need/expect. There exists a kind of “liquidity preference”. Only 14% and 32% make significant financial and labor contributions, respectively. There exists a “risk aversion” attitude, viewing contribution as certain while future benefits to be uncertain.

  19. Evidências empirícas sobre a relação entre EVA e Retorno Acionário nas empresas brasileiras - Empirical evidence on the relationship beween EVA and Stock Returns in brazilian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Ribeiro de Medeiros

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo fornece evidências empíricas sobre a relação entre Valor Econômico Adicionado (EVA e retornos acionários de empresas brasileiras. A relação entre essas variáveis têm sido motivo de controvérsia nos últimos anos, com alguns autores encontrando associações significativas entre elas, enquanto outros não encontrando nenhuma. A hipótese de que o EVA afeta os retornos acionários é testada através de regressão linear, utilizando-se modelos alternativos. A amostra é composta de empresas negociadas na mais importante bolsa de valores brasileira. Uma comparação entre os resultados deste estudo com os de estudos anteriores mostram que resultados significativos dependem da determinação das variáveis apropriadas (retornos acionários versus preços das ações, bem como da correta relação dinâmica entre a variável dependente e a independente. This paper provides empirical evidence on the relationship between Economic Value Added (EVA and stock returns in Brazilian firms. This relationship between these variables has been subject to controversy in recent years, with some authors finding significant associations between them while others find none. The hypothesis that EVA affects stock returns is tested through linear regression, using alternative models. The sample is comprised of companies that are traded on the most important Brazilian stock exchange. A comparison of the outcomes of our study with those of previous studies shows that significant results depend on determination of the appropriate variables (stock returns versus stock prices, as well as of the correct dynamic structure between the dependent and the explanatory variable.

  20. The role of confidence in the evolution of the Spanish economy: empirical evidence from an ARDL model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Castellanos García

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to verify the existence and to determine the nature of long-term relationships between economic agents’ confidence, measured by the Economic Sentiment Index (ESI, with some of the "fundamentals" of the Spanish economy. In particular, by modeling this type of relations, we try to determine whether confidence is a dependent (explained or independent (explanatory variable. Along with confidence, in our model we incorporate variables such as risk premium of sovereign debt, financial market volatility, unemployment, inflation, public and private debt and the net lending/net borrowing of the economy. For the purpose of obtaining some empirical evidence on the exogenous or endogenous character of the above mentioned variables an ARDL (Autoregressive-Distributed Lag model is formulated. The model is estimated with quarterly data of the Spanish economy for the period 1990-2012. Our findings suggest that: (a unemployment is the dependent variable, (b there is an inverse relationship between ESI in Spain and unemployment; and (c the Granger causality goes from confidence to unemployment.

  1. The Relationship Between Company Returns and Leverage Depending on the Business Sector: Empirical Evidence from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stryckova Lenka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to provide up-to-date empirical evidence of relationship between the key indicators of business competitiveness: leverage and corporate performance. The study is based on corporate financial data of selected companies from the Czech Republic within 14 major business sectors according to CZ-NACE which companies published for the year 2014. The results of this study show that leverage (debt ratio has a substantially negative effect on corporate performance when the return on equity (ROE is used as an indicator of corporate performance in the Czech Republic over the period covered by the study. The results of the regression analysis confirmed negative relationship between the company profitability and the use of debt in majority of business sectors (Agriculture, fishery, and forestry; Construction, Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles; Professional, scientific and technical activities; Administrative and support service activities. The opposite relationship was found in one business sector only (Mining and quarrying where positive relationship between the company profitability and leverage was confirmed. Among other things, the results of this study confirm that corporate leverage varies across industries.

  2. Abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Designed for an advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level course, Abstract Algebra provides an example-oriented, less heavily symbolic approach to abstract algebra. The text emphasizes specifics such as basic number theory, polynomials, finite fields, as well as linear and multilinear algebra. This classroom-tested, how-to manual takes a more narrative approach than the stiff formalism of many other textbooks, presenting coherent storylines to convey crucial ideas in a student-friendly, accessible manner. An unusual feature of the text is the systematic characterization of objects by universal

  3. Genetic regulation of parasite infection: empirical evidence of the functional significance of an IL4 gene SNP on nematode infections in wild primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappeler Peter M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to parasite infection affects fitness-related processes, such as mate choice and survival, yet its genetic regulation remains poorly understood. Interleukin-4 (IL4 plays a central role in the humoral immune defence against nematode parasite infections, inducing IgE switch and regulation of worm expulsion from the intestines. The evolutionary and functional significance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IL4-genes is known, yet empirical information on the effect of IL4 SNPs on gastro-intestinal infections is lacking. Using samples from a population of wild red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Primates: Lemuridae, from western Madagascar, we explored the association of IL4-gene promoter polymorphisms with nematode infections and investigated a possible functional role of the IL4 polymorphism on male reproductive success. Results Using sequence analyses of lemur DNA we detected a new SNP in the IL4 gene promoter area. Carriers of the genotype T/T showed higher nematode infection intensities than individuals of genotypes C/T and C/C. Genetic population analyses using data from more than 10 years, suggested higher reproductive success of T/T males than expected. Conclusions Our results suggest a regulatory effect of an IL4 gene promoter polymorphism on the intensity of parasite infections in a natural population of red-fronted lemurs, with a seemingly disadvantageous genotype represented in low frequencies. Long-term population analyses, however, point in the direction of a negative frequency-dependent association, giving a fitness advantage to the rare genotype. Due to low frequencies of the genotype in question conclusive evidence of a functional role of IL4 polymorphism cannot be drawn here; still, we suggest the use of IL4 polymorphism as a new molecular tool for quick assessment of individual genetic constitution with regard to nematode infection intensities, contributing to a better

  4. Article Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Simple learning tools to improve clinical laboratory practical skills training. B Taye, BSc, MPH. Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa, ... concerns about the competence of medical laboratory science graduates. ... standardised practical learning guides and assessment checklists would.

  5. An empirical approach to selecting community-based alcohol interventions: combining research evidence, rural community views and professional opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeshaft Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given limited research evidence for community-based alcohol interventions, this study examines the intervention preferences of rural communities and alcohol professionals, and factors that influence their choices. Method Community preferences were identified by a survey of randomly selected individuals across 20 regional Australian communities. The preferences of alcohol professionals were identified by a survey of randomly selected members of the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs. To identify preferred interventions and the extent of support for them, a budget allocation exercise was embedded in both surveys, asking respondents to allocate a given budget to different interventions. Tobit regression models were estimated to identify the characteristics that explain differences in intervention preferences. Results Community respondents selected school programs most often (88.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by promotion of safer drinking (71.3%, community programs (61.4% and police enforcement of alcohol laws (60.4%. Professionals selected GP training most often (61.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by school programs (36.6%, community programs (33.8% and promotion of safer drinking (31.7%. Community views were susceptible to response bias. There were no significant predictors of professionals' preferences. Conclusions In the absence of sufficient research evidence for effective community-based alcohol interventions, rural communities and professionals both strongly support school programs, promotion of safer drinking and community programs. Rural communities also supported police enforcement of alcohol laws and professionals supported GP training. The impact of a combination of these strategies needs to be rigorously evaluated.

  6. Is Social Categorization Spatially Organized in a "Mental Line"? Empirical Evidences for Spatial Bias in Intergroup Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presaghi, Fabio; Rullo, Marika

    2018-01-01

    Social categorization is the differentiation between the self and others and between one's own group and other groups and it is such a natural and spontaneous process that often we are not aware of it. The way in which the brain organizes social categorization remains an unresolved issue. We present three experiments investigating the hypothesis that social categories are mentally ordered from left to right on an ingroup-outgroup continuum when membership is salient. To substantiate our hypothesis, we consider empirical evidence from two areas of psychology: research on differences in processing of ingroups and outgroups and research on the effects of spatial biases on processing of quantitative information (e.g., time; numbers) which appears to be arranged from left to right on a small-large continuum, an effect known as the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC). In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested the hypothesis that when membership of a social category is activated, people implicitly locate ingroup categories to the left of a mental line whereas outgroup categories are located on the far right of the same mental line. This spatial organization persists even when stimuli are presented on one of the two sides of the screen and their (explicit) position is spatially incompatible with the implicit mental spatial organization of social categories (Experiment 3). Overall the results indicate that ingroups and outgroups are processed differently. The results are discussed with respect to social categorization theory, spatial agency bias, i.e., the effect observed in Western cultures whereby the agent of an action is mentally represented on the left and the recipient on the right, and the SNARC effect.

  7. Is Social Categorization Spatially Organized in a “Mental Line”? Empirical Evidences for Spatial Bias in Intergroup Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Presaghi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Social categorization is the differentiation between the self and others and between one’s own group and other groups and it is such a natural and spontaneous process that often we are not aware of it. The way in which the brain organizes social categorization remains an unresolved issue. We present three experiments investigating the hypothesis that social categories are mentally ordered from left to right on an ingroup–outgroup continuum when membership is salient. To substantiate our hypothesis, we consider empirical evidence from two areas of psychology: research on differences in processing of ingroups and outgroups and research on the effects of spatial biases on processing of quantitative information (e.g., time; numbers which appears to be arranged from left to right on a small–large continuum, an effect known as the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested the hypothesis that when membership of a social category is activated, people implicitly locate ingroup categories to the left of a mental line whereas outgroup categories are located on the far right of the same mental line. This spatial organization persists even when stimuli are presented on one of the two sides of the screen and their (explicit position is spatially incompatible with the implicit mental spatial organization of social categories (Experiment 3. Overall the results indicate that ingroups and outgroups are processed differently. The results are discussed with respect to social categorization theory, spatial agency bias, i.e., the effect observed in Western cultures whereby the agent of an action is mentally represented on the left and the recipient on the right, and the SNARC effect.

  8. How does copayment for health care services affect demand, health and redistribution? A systematic review of the empirical evidence from 1990 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiil, Astrid; Houlberg, Kurt

    2014-11-01

    This article reviews the quantitative evidence on the behavioural effects of copayment within the health area across a wide range of countries. The review distinguishes itself from previous similar reviews by having a high degree of transparency for the search strategy used to identify the studies included in the review as well as the criteria for inclusion and by including the most recent literature. Empirical studies were identified by performing searches in EconLit. The literature search identified a total of 47 studies of the behavioural effects of copayment. Considering the demand effects, the majority of the reviewed studies found that copayment reduces the use of prescription medicine, consultations with general practitioners and specialists, and ambulatory care, respectively. The literature found no significant effects of copayment on the prevalence of hospitalisations. The empirical evidence on whether copayment for some services, but not for others, causes substitution from the services that are subject to copayment to the 'free' services rather than lower total use is sparse and mixed. Likewise, the health effects of copayment have only been analysed empirically in a limited number of studies, of which half did not find any significant effects in the short term. Finally, the empirical evidence on the distributional consequences of copayment indicates that individuals with low income and in particular need of care generally reduce their use relatively more than the remaining population in consequence of copayment. Hence, it is clear that copayment involves some important economic and political trade-offs.

  9. National systems of innovation: determinants and industrial policy measures, empirical evidence for OECD; Sistemas nacionales de innovacion: determinantes y acciones de politica industrial. Evidencia empirica para la OCDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervas, J. L.; Rojas, R.; Sempere, F.; Albors, J.

    2012-11-01

    The paper presents an attempt to tackle the main gaps in the national innovation systems (NIS) literature: the problem specifying the boundaries of the NIS and the lack of connection between theory and empirics. For this purpose, the paper uses 55 countries as sample and constructs an NIS index based on a factor analysis of 28 variables. Empirical evidence shows that a firm's strategies, technology infrastructure, government governance, education and linkages are the main components of the NIS. The implications are important for policy-makers and the academia. (Author) 49 refs.

  10. Inventory Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction as directed by the development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999b) is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M and O 1999c, 1999d). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) (NRC 1999) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [Spent Nuclear Fuel] are released from the EBS [Engineered Barrier System] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the accessible environment. The inventory abstraction is important in assessing system performance because

  11. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M andO 2000e for/ICN--02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M andO 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release

  12. Central bank transparency, private information and the predictability of monetary policy in the financial markets : theoretical, experimental and empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Central banks worldwide have become considerably more communicative about their policies and forecasts. An important reason is that democratic societies expect such transparency from public institutions. Central bankers, supported by a significant body of empirical research, also believe that

  13. Use of Evidence-Based Practice Resources and Empirically Supported Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among University Counseling Center Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Morgen Joray

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to determine the degree to which psychologists at college and university counseling centers (UCCs) utilized empirically supported treatments with their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) clients. In addition, an attempt was made to determine how frequently UCC psychologists utilized a number of…

  14. Interviewer and respondent interaction in survey interviews : Empirical evidence from behavior coding studies and question wording experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, Yfke

    2010-01-01

    This book sheds light on verbal interaction problems in survey interviews. It is shown how behavior coding, i.e., coding the utterances of interviewer and respondent while they are answering survey questions, can be used to detect interactional problems. Several empirical studies using behavior

  15. Organizational Flexibility for Hypercompetitive Markets : Empirical Evidence of the Composition and Context Specificity of Dynamic Capabilities and Organization Design Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P. van der Weerdt (Niels)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis research project, which builds on the conceptual work of Henk Volberda on the flexible firm, empirically investigates four aspects of organizational flexibility. Our analysis of data of over 1900 firms and over 3000 respondents shows (1) that several increasing levels of

  16. Is There Such a Thing as School Quality Culture? In Search of Conceptual Clarity and Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitsch, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of "school quality management culture" in relation to the general notion of "school organizational culture" and to review empirical studies that scrutinised the relation between organisational culture and quality management practices in education and business.…

  17. Some empirical evidence on business-IT alignment processes in the public sector: A case study report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santana Tapia, R.G.; van Oene, L.

    2008-01-01

    An empirical study that explores business-IT alignment processes in a networked organization among the province Overijssel, the municipalities Zwolle and Enschede, the water board district Regge & Dinkel and Royal Grolsch N.V. in The Netherlands, is summarized in this report. The aim of the study

  18. Implementing Geographical Key Concepts: Design of a Symbiotic Teacher Training Course Based on Empirical and Theoretical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fögele, Janis; Mehren, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A central desideratum for the professionalization of qualified teachers is an improved practice of further teacher education. The present work constitutes a course of in-service training, which is built upon both a review of empirical findings concerning the efficacy of in-service training courses for teachers and theoretical assumptions about the…

  19. BALWOIS: Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morell, Morell; Todorovik, Olivija; Dimitrov, Dobri

    2004-01-01

    anthropogenic pressures and international shared water. Here are the 320 abstracts proposed by authors and accepted by the Scientific Committee. More than 200 papers are presented during the Conference on 8 topics related to Hydrology, Climatology and Hydro biology: - Climate and Environment; - Hydrological regimes and water balances; - Droughts and Floods; -Integrated Water Resources Management; -Water bodies Protection and Eco hydrology; -Lakes; -Information Systems for decision support; -Hydrological modelling. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  20. Implanting inequality: empirical evidence of social and ethical risks of implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Torin; Fisher, Jill A

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess empirically the social and ethical risks associated with implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) devices. Qualitative research included observational studies in twenty-three U.S. hospitals that have implemented new patient identification systems and eighty semi-structured interviews about the social and ethical implications of new patient identification systems, including RFID implants. The study identified three primary social and ethical risks associated with RFID implants: (i) unfair prioritization of patients based on their participation in the system, (ii) diminished trust of patients by care providers, and (iii) endangerment of patients who misunderstand the capabilities of the systems. RFID implants may aggravate inequalities in access to care without any clear health benefits. This research underscores the importance of critically evaluating new healthcare technologies from the perspective of both normative ethics and empirical ethics.

  1. Excessive credit growth and countercyclical capital buffers in basel III: an empirical evidence from central and east european countries

    OpenAIRE

    Seidler, Jakub; Gersl, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Excessive credit growth is often considered to be an indicator of future problems in the financial sector. This paper examines the issue of how best to determine whether the observed level of private sector credit is excessive in the context of the “countercyclical capital buffer”, a macroprudential tool proposed in the new regulatory framework of Basel III by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. An empirical analysis of selected Central and Eastern European countries, including the Cz...

  2. IS YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT ASSOCIATED WITH THE LEVEL OF CRIME, MIGRATION, SUICIDE AND DIVORCE? AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Özer, Ufuk; Topal, Mehmet Hanefi

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Youth unemployment is one of the important socio-economic problems in Turkey. Previousstudies on youth unemployment in Turkey focused specifically on the causes and economic influences ofyouth unemployment. Studies on the social consequences of youth unemployment are quite limited. Thisstudy aims to empirically examine whether youth unemployment in Turkey has an effect on other socialproblems such as crime, migration, suicide and divorce.Method: The data of 26 regions (NUTS-2) in Tur...

  3. [Systematic review and evidence mapping of empirical studies on health status and medical care among refugees and asylum seekers in Germany (1990-2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Mohsenpour, Amir; Saure, Daniel; Stock, Christian; Loerbroks, Adrian; Joos, Stefanie; Schneider, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Owing to a lack of routine statistics on the health status and medical care of asylum seekers, empirical studies play a major role in the mapping of these aspects. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the research landscape in this area, synthesizing knowledge from empirical studies and identifying evidence gaps. A three-tiered search strategy included searching for empirical studies in national/international databases and on the internet, screening reference lists, and contacting experts. Studies meeting predefined inclusion criteria were thematically organized and described in a narrative synthesis. The searches generated 1,190 hits; 52 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 41 were quantitative studies (78.9 %), 10 qualitative (19.2 %), and 1 was a review (1.9 %). A total of 30 primary articles (58.9 %) analyzed mental health aspects, followed by infectious diseases (n = 12, 23.5 %). Qualitative studies, mainly ethnographies and case studies, explored mental health and social determinants of health, providing evidence for the impact of living conditions on health and medical care. Few studies analyzed chronic diseases (n = 3) or childhood illnesses (n = 6). No studies analyzed the health needs or medical care of asylum-seeking women during pregnancy and child birth. In 62.7 % of the primary studies, a single sampling point was used to recruit asylum seekers. Nationwide external validity was given in two quantitative studies. The priority research areas identified are chronic diseases and childhood and maternal health. The divergency and heterogeneity of the studies hamper a comprehensive and comparable acquisition of knowledgeand emphasize the  need for collaborative research to close the existing evidence gaps.

  4. Empiric evidence for ceramic sector in Spain; Influencia de los recursos y capacidades territoriales sobre las empresas en un distrito industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervas Oliver, J. L.; Dalmau Porta, J. I.; Albors Garrigos, J.

    2008-07-01

    One of the differences on the firms performance is based on the strategic location on a specific geographic place: the territorial effect. Firstly, we develop a theoretical framework which includes the located assets in an industrial district. Thus, in order to measure the influence of territorial assets over located firms, we analyze quantitatively that district effect or territorial effect on a sample of 343 firms from the Spanish ceramic tile industry in 2000, 1999 and 1998, finding empirical evidence of the existence of externalities shown on different financial and economic indicators in the companies located in the industrial district area compared to the outside (or isolated) companies. (Author) 94 refs.

  5. An empirical study on the institutional factors of energy conservation and emissions reduction: Evidence from listed companies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhaoguo; Jin, Xiaocui; Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Corporate excessive energy consumption and emissions are negative externality problems, with the basic countermeasure of establishing a series of institutional programs to promote corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction. This paper analyzes the influence of institutional factors such as laws, tax policies, credit policies, government subsidies, media supervision and marketization degree on corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction from the institutional perspective. The data, from 84 listed Chinese chemical and steel companies from 2006 to 2010, was analyzed using both a fixed effect model and the generalized method of moments (GMM) model. The empirical results demonstrate that these institutional factors positively affect corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction. Specifically, four factors – tax policies, government subsidies, credit policies and media supervision – have a significant positive relationship with corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction; whereas laws and marketization degree exhibit no significant effects. The research findings are theoretically and practically significant to the Chinese government with regard to improving the institutional environment and promoting corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction. - Highlights: ► Theoretical analysis of the influence of institutional factors based on NIE. ► Empirical analysis of the influence of institutional factors on ECER by regression. ► Economic measures and public opinions have positive influence on ECER in China. ► Laws and the degree of marketization have weak influence on ECER in China

  6. Effects in the network topology due to node aggregation: Empirical evidence from the domestic maritime transportation in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiotas, Dimitrios; Polyzos, Serafeim

    2018-02-01

    This article studies the topological consistency of spatial networks due to node aggregation, examining the changes captured between different network representations that result from nodes' grouping and they refer to the same socioeconomic system. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate what kind of topological information remains unalterable due to node aggregation and, further, to develop a framework for linking the data of an empirical network with data of its socioeconomic environment, when the latter are available for hierarchically higher levels of aggregation, in an effort to promote the interdisciplinary research in the field of complex network analysis. The research question is empirically tested on topological and socioeconomic data extracted from the Greek Maritime Network (GMN) that is modeled as a non-directed multilayer (bilayer) graph consisting of a port-layer, where nodes represent ports, and a prefecture-layer, where nodes represent coastal and insular prefectural groups of ports. The analysis highlights that the connectivity (degree) of the GMN is the most consistent aspect of this multilayer network, which preserves both the topological and the socioeconomic information through node aggregation. In terms of spatial analysis and regional science, such effects illustrate the effectiveness of the prefectural administrative division for the functionality of the Greek maritime transportation system. Overall, this approach proposes a methodological framework that can enjoy further applications about the grouping effects induced on the network topology, providing physical, technical, socioeconomic, strategic or political insights.

  7. Determinants of debt: Empirical evidence on firms in the district of Santarém in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, António José dos Santos Morão; Oliveira, Eduardo Carmo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In recent decades, the theme of the capital structure and its determinants has caused some controversy and aroused great interest in the financial domain. Several theories and studies have emerged applying to this domain. This study aims to test the explanatory power of the determinants of debt which have the greatest support in the financial literature, size, growth, business risk, profitability, tangibility and non-debt tax shields and its validity in accordance with the theories o...

  8. Empirical evidence reveals seasonally dependent reduction in nitrification in coastal sediments subjected to near future ocean acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeckman, U.; Van Colen, C.; Guilini, K.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Soetaert, K.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J.

    2014-01-01

    Research so far has provided little evidence that benthic biogeochemical cycling is affected by ocean acidification under realistic climate change scenarios. We measured nutrient exchange and sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) rates to estimate nitrification in natural coastal permeable

  9. An Empirical Investigation of Risk-Return Relations in Chinese Equity Markets: Evidence from Aggregate and Sectoral Data

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas C. Chiang; Yuanqing Zhang

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the risk-return relations in Chinese equity markets. Based on a TARCH-M model, evidence shows that stock returns are positively correlated with predictable volatility, supporting the risk-return relation in both aggregate and sectoral markets. Evidence finds a positive relation between stock return and intertemporal downside risk, while controlling for sentiment and liquidity. This study suggests that the U.S. stress risk or the world downside risk should be priced int...

  10. Full-text publication of abstracts presented at European Orthodontic Society congresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Ren, Yijin

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Empirical evidence has indicated that only a subsample of studies conducted reach full-text publication and this phenomenon has become known as publication bias. A form of publication bias is the selectively delayed full publication of conference abstracts. The objective of this

  11. Small and Medium Enterprises and the Relation between Social Performance and Financial Performance: Empirical Evidence from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun H. Choi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP and corporate financial performance (CFP have focused on large enterprises and archival tests for SMEs have been relatively few. There is a need for SME studies that are comparable to the research on large enterprises. In this study, we tested the CSP-CFP relationship of SMEs in Korea using a massive archival database. Although common theories on corporate social responsibility (CSR in SMEs describe SMEs as non-strategic performers, we found a strong positive relationship between CSP-CFP for the larger or hi-tech SMEs. Therefore, some SMEs are similar to multinational companies in that they approach CSR effectively. This study makes a contribution to the literature on both CSR and SMEs because it empirically demonstrates the heterogeneity of SMEs and it presents a CSR-SME study that is methodologically comparable to the research on big corporations.

  12. Women’s Empowerment through Self-help Groups and its Impact on Health Issues: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assist. Prof. Sudipta De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an empirical study in West Bengal, this paper attempts toexamine whether women’s involvement in the microcredit programmethrough SHGs makes any positive change on women’s empowerment.From the assessment of various criteria of empowerment(power,autonomy and self-reliance, entitlement, participation and awarenessand capacity-building, the study suggests that if women participatingin the microcredit programme through SHGs sustain for some longerperiod (eight years or more, such programme might contribute tohigher level of women’s empowerment than women’s empowermentunder all types of control group. This paper also finds that women’searnings from saving and credit have positive and significant effect onnutritional status of the children of women members of SHGs and onthe protein-intake for their household compared with that of amongcontrol groups.

  13. Effects of overvaluation and exchange rate volatility over industrial investment: empirical evidence and economic policy proposals for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Oreiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to analyze the recent behavior of real exchange rate in Brazil and its effects over investment per worker in Brazilian manufacturing and extractive industry. Preliminary estimates presented in the article shows an over-valuation of 48% of real exchange rate in Brazil. The reaction between the level (and volatility of real exchange rate and investment (per worker in Brazil is analyzed by means of a panel data econometric model for 30 sectors of Brazilian manufacturing and extractive industry. The empirical results show that the level and volatility of real exchange rate has a strong effect over investment per worker in Brazilian industry. Finally, we conclude the article presenting a proposal for a new macroeconomic regime that aims to produce an acceleration of economic growth of Brazilian economy and, by that, a catching-up process with developed countries.

  14. Empirical Evidence on Time-Varying Hedging Effectiveness of Emissions Allowances under Departures from the Cost-of-Carry Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under departures from the cost-of-carry theory, traded spot prices and conditional volatility disturbed from futures market have significant impacts on futures price of emissions allowances, and then we propose time-varying hedge ratios and hedging effectiveness estimation using ECM-GARCH model. Our empirical results show that conditional variance, conditional covariance, and their correlation between between spot and futures prices exhibit time-varying trends. Conditional volatility of spot prices, conditional volatility disturbed from futures market, and conditional correlation of market noises implied from spot and futures markets have significant effects on time-varying hedge ratios and hedging effectiveness. In the immature emissions allowances market, market participants optimize portfolio sizes between spot and futures assets using historical market information and then achieve higher risk reduction of assets portfolio revenues; accordingly, we can obtain better hedging effectiveness through time-varying hedge ratios with departures from the cost-of-carry theory.

  15. An Empirical Investigation of Risk-Return Relations in Chinese Equity Markets: Evidence from Aggregate and Sectoral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Chiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the risk-return relations in Chinese equity markets. Based on a TARCH-M model, evidence shows that stock returns are positively correlated with predictable volatility, supporting the risk-return relation in both aggregate and sectoral markets. Evidence finds a positive relation between stock return and intertemporal downside risk, while controlling for sentiment and liquidity. This study suggests that the U.S. stress risk or the world downside risk should be priced into the Chinese stocks. The paper concludes that the risk-return tradeoff is present in the GARCH-in-mean, local downside risk-return, and global risk-return relations.

  16. Recent Social Work Practitioners' Understanding and Use of Evidence-Based Practice and Empirically Supported Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Melissa D.; Wike, Traci; Putzu, Caren; Field, Sara; Hill, Jacqueline; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer; Massey, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how [the Council on Social Work Education's] (CSWE's) 2008 shift placing more emphasis on research have affected newly trained social workers' use of evidence-based practice (EBP). This qualitative study examined the educational and practice experiences of newly trained social workers and how those experiences…

  17. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND UNIT-LINKED INSURANCE MARKETS EFFICIENCY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoş Horia Mircea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the impact of the Global financial crisis on the efficiency of four Central and Eastern European emerging unit-linked insurance markets, applying the automatic variance ratio (AVR test of Kim (2009 and variance ratio tests using ranks and signs by Wright (2000 for entire, pre-crisis and crisis periods. This study contributes to the existing literature on efficient market hypothesis with several distinct features: it provides a systematic review of the weak-form market efficiency literature that examines return predictability of the daily ING unit-linked funds prices; also the article aims at monitoring any improvement in the degree of efficiency in time and also examines the relative efficiency of unit-linked insurance markets in pre-crisis and crisis periods. Unit linked insurance are life insurance policies with investment component. In the literature there are few studies investigating the effects of a financial crisis on the potential of predictability and implicitly on the degree of efficiency of financial markets. The occurrence of a market crash or financial crisis is a possible contributing factor of market inefficiency. Most of the studies are focused on the Asian crisis in 1997: Holden et al. (2005 examined the weak-form efficiency of eight emerging Asian stock markets using VR tests before, during and after the Asian crisis; Kim and Shamsuddin (2008 used three different types of multiple VR tests for nine Asian stock markets; the findings reported by Lim et al. (2008 are consistent with those reported by Cheong et al. (2007, in which the highest inefficiency occurs during the crisis period. Todea and Lazar (2010 investigated the effects of the Global crisis on the relative efficiency of ten CEE stock markets, using Generalized Spectral test of Escanciano and Velasco (2006. Wright (2000 proposes the alternative non-parametric variance ratio tests using ranks and signs of return and demonstrates that

  18. Can Environmental Regulations Promote Corporate Environmental Responsibility? Evidence from the Moderated Mediating Effect Model and an Empirical Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benhong Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Stakeholder theory, a moderated mediating effect model is developed to reach the study objective, revealing an important connection that suggests environmental regulations (ERs influence corporate environmental responsibility (CER (Porter Hypothesis. In building the model, the validity of the questionnaire data was analyzed with factor analysis. By employing a two-step approach, a regression analysis is utilized to discuss the mediating effect of altruistic motivation and moderating effect of green innovation, and a structural equation model is used to explore the interactive mechanism of different variables. It is found that altruistic motivation plays a medium role in the relationship between ERs and CER, and green innovation engages a positive coordination in the relationship. The empirical study identifies factors affecting enterprises’ willingness to undertake environmental responsibility, including environment policies, corporate culture, and personal characters among others. It is also revealed that altruistic motivation is conducive to forming a community interests among enterprises and enhancing their resistance to market risks, which explains and corroborates the Stakeholder theory; and the higher the level of green innovation, the more willing enterprises are to implement environmentally friendly operations.

  19. Switching benefits and costs in competitive health insurance markets: A conceptual framework and empirical evidence from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijmelinck, Daniëlle M I D; Mosca, Ilaria; van de Ven, Wynand P M M

    2015-05-01

    Competitive health insurance markets will only enhance cost-containment, efficiency, quality, and consumer responsiveness if all consumers feel free to easily switch insurer. Consumers will switch insurer if their perceived switching benefits outweigh their perceived switching costs. We developed a conceptual framework with potential switching benefits and costs in competitive health insurance markets. Moreover, we used a questionnaire among Dutch consumers (1091 respondents) to empirically examine the relevance of the different switching benefits and costs in consumers' decision to (not) switch insurer. Price, insurers' service quality, insurers' contracted provider network, the benefits of supplementary insurance, and welcome gifts are potential switching benefits. Transaction costs, learning costs, 'benefit loss' costs, uncertainty costs, the costs of (not) switching provider, and sunk costs are potential switching costs. In 2013 most Dutch consumers switched insurer because of (1) price and (2) benefits of supplementary insurance. Nearly half of the non-switchers - and particularly unhealthy consumers - mentioned one of the switching costs as their main reason for not switching. Because unhealthy consumers feel not free to easily switch insurer, insurers have reduced incentives to invest in high-quality care for them. Therefore, policymakers should develop strategies to increase consumer choice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Commuting--a further stress factor for working people: evidence from the European Community. II. An empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G; Pickup, L; Di Martino, V

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the main results of research promoted by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, concerning the impact of commuting on the health and safety of workers. An empirical study, carried out among 1167 industrial Italian workers, shows that "commuters" (workers whose journey from home to work usually does not take less than 45 min in each direction) experienced a more stressed life-style than did "non commuters" (whose journey does not take more than 20 min). Commuting appears for many workers to be a necessity which is imposed by external factors, such as the housing market and job opportunities. Commuting is shown to interfere with patterns of everyday life by restricting free-time and reducing sleeping time. A majority of commuters use public transport mainly because of cost. Public transport commuters have problems due to more changes between modes, idle waiting times and delays leading to late arrival at work. Inside transport modes, commuters suffered discomfort as a result of overcrowding, microclimatic conditions, noise and vibrations. Commuters also reported higher psychological stress scores, more health complaints, essentially of psychosomatic nature, and greater absenteeism from work due to sickness. Commuting, in addition to shiftwork, further increases sleep problems, psychosomatic complaints and difficulties with family and social life. Women commuters were at a greater disadvantage than men, having more family difficulties, more travelling complaints and higher absenteeism.

  1. Simulated vs. empirical weather responsiveness of crop yields: US evidence and implications for the agricultural impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Malcolm N.; Wing, Ian Sue; De Cian, Enrica

    2017-07-01

    Global gridded crop models (GGCMs) are the workhorse of assessments of the agricultural impacts of climate change. Yet the changes in crop yields projected by different models in response to the same meteorological forcing can differ substantially. Through an inter-method comparison, we provide a first glimpse into the origins and implications of this divergence—both among GGCMs and between GGCMs and historical observations. We examine yields of rainfed maize, wheat, and soybeans simulated by six GGCMs as part of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project-Fast Track (ISIMIP-FT) exercise, comparing 1981-2004 hindcast yields over the coterminous United States (US) against US Department of Agriculture (USDA) time series for about 1000 counties. Leveraging the empirical climate change impacts literature, we estimate reduced-form econometric models of crop yield responses to temperature and precipitation exposures for both GGCMs and observations. We find that up to 60% of the variance in both simulated and observed yields is attributable to weather variation. A majority of the GGCMs have difficulty reproducing the observed distribution of percentage yield anomalies, and exhibit aggregate responses that show yields to be more weather-sensitive than in the observational record over the predominant range of temperature and precipitation conditions. This disparity is largely attributable to heterogeneity in GGCMs’ responses, as opposed to uncertainty in historical weather forcings, and is responsible for widely divergent impacts of climate on future crop yields.

  2. Understanding E-Book Continuance Intention: Empirical Evidence from E-Book Users in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduku, Daniel K

    2017-01-01

    The book publishing industry is going through radical transformations that are driven by recent developments in information systems (IS). E-books are merely one of these developments. Notwithstanding the projections in the growth of e-book use, producers of these products contend with the issue of building user retention and loyalty through continued use. Extending the technology acceptance model (TAM), this study examined the impact of factors of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, social influence, and facilitating conditions on e-book continuance intention among users. The subjects of this study were 317 students from five higher institutions of learning in South Africa. Empirical testing of the research model was carried out using structural equation modeling. The results indicate that 42 percent of the variance in e-book users' continuance intention is explained by perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and social influence. Interestingly, facilitating conditions have an influence, although indirectly, through perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and social influence. The study not only contributes to the existing IS literature by extending the TAM to explain continuance intention in the e-book IS domain in a developing country but also makes recommendations to practitioners who attempt to foster continuous use of this technology.

  3. Impact of leadership styles on employees’ attitude towards their leader and performance: Empirical evidence from Pakistani banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asrar-ul-Haq

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of a study examining the impact of managers’ leadership styles on subordinates’ performance. The impact of leadership styles on employee performance outcomes is explored theoretically and tested empirically in the Pakistani banking sector. The sample of the study consisted of 224 full-time employees in the banking sector of Pakistan. Findings of this study reveal that there exists a significant relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance outcomes. However, laissez-faire leadership style showed negative relationship with employee performance outcomes in terms of effectiveness, and employee satisfaction. Banking industry in Pakistan is prone to numerous challenges including employee turnover. Model presented in the study will be helpful for the human resource managers and top management to design effective leadership development programs. HRD department can be established and HRD professionals can be hired to assist the managers in organizing training and development programs. Further, it may help to design strategies to satisfy, retain and motivate the employees. Also, it will help the managers decide, which leadership style they should choose in terms of outcomes.

  4. Measuring the effectiveness of mentoring as a knowledge translation intervention for implementing empirical evidence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ghadah; Rossy, Dianne; Ploeg, Jenny; Davies, Barbara; Higuchi, Kathryn; Sikora, Lindsey; Stacey, Dawn

    2014-10-01

    Mentoring as a knowledge translation (KT) intervention uses social influence among healthcare professionals to increase use of evidence in clinical practice. To determine the effectiveness of mentoring as a KT intervention designed to increase healthcare professionals' use of evidence in clinical practice. A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases (i.e., MEDLINE, CINAHL), grey literature, and hand searching. Eligible studies evaluated mentoring of healthcare professionals responsible for patient care to enhance the uptake of evidence into practice. Mentoring is defined as (a) a mentor more experienced than mentee; (b) individualized support based on mentee's needs; and (c) involved in an interpersonal relationship as indicated by mutual benefit, engagement, and commitment. Two reviewers independently screened citations for eligibility, extracted data, and appraised quality of studies. Data were analyzed descriptively. Of 10,669 citations from 1988 to 2012, 10 studies were eligible. Mentoring as a KT intervention was evaluated in Canada, USA, and Australia. Exposure to mentoring compared to no mentoring improved some behavioral outcomes (one study). Compared to controls or other multifaceted interventions, multifaceted interventions with mentoring improved practitioners' knowledge (four of five studies), beliefs (four of six studies), and impact on organizational outcomes (three of four studies). There were mixed findings for changes in professionals' behaviors and impact on practitioners' and patients' outcomes: some outcomes improved, while others showed no difference. Only one study evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring alone as a KT intervention and showed improvement in some behavioral outcomes. The other nine studies that evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring as part of a multifaceted intervention showed mixed findings, making it difficult to determine the added effect of mentoring. Further research is needed to identify effective

  5. Measuring the Effectiveness of Mentoring as a Knowledge Translation Intervention for Implementing Empirical Evidence: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ghadah; Rossy, Dianne; Ploeg, Jenny; Davies, Barbara; Higuchi, Kathryn; Sikora, Lindsey; Stacey, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Background Mentoring as a knowledge translation (KT) intervention uses social influence among healthcare professionals to increase use of evidence in clinical practice. Aim To determine the effectiveness of mentoring as a KT intervention designed to increase healthcare professionals’ use of evidence in clinical practice. Methods A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases (i.e., MEDLINE, CINAHL), grey literature, and hand searching. Eligible studies evaluated mentoring of healthcare professionals responsible for patient care to enhance the uptake of evidence into practice. Mentoring is defined as (a) a mentor more experienced than mentee; (b) individualized support based on mentee's needs; and (c) involved in an interpersonal relationship as indicated by mutual benefit, engagement, and commitment. Two reviewers independently screened citations for eligibility, extracted data, and appraised quality of studies. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results Of 10,669 citations from 1988 to 2012, 10 studies were eligible. Mentoring as a KT intervention was evaluated in Canada, USA, and Australia. Exposure to mentoring compared to no mentoring improved some behavioral outcomes (one study). Compared to controls or other multifaceted interventions, multifaceted interventions with mentoring improved practitioners’ knowledge (four of five studies), beliefs (four of six studies), and impact on organizational outcomes (three of four studies). There were mixed findings for changes in professionals’ behaviors and impact on practitioners’ and patients’ outcomes: some outcomes improved, while others showed no difference. Linking Evidence to Action Only one study evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring alone as a KT intervention and showed improvement in some behavioral outcomes. The other nine studies that evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring as part of a multifaceted intervention showed mixed findings, making it difficult to determine the added effect

  6. Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Using Images to Create a Concreteness Effect for Abstract Words: Evidence from Beginning L2 Learners of Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Andrew; Pahom, Olga; Ramonda, Kris

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the lexical representation and recall of abstract words by beginning L2 learners of Spanish in the light of the predictions of the dual coding theory (Paivio 1971; Paivio and Desrochers 1980). Ninety-seven learners (forty-four males and fifty-three females) were randomly placed in the picture or non-picture group and taught…

  7. Reporting funding source or conflict of interest in abstracts of randomized controlled trials, no evidence of a large impact on general practitioners' confidence in conclusions, a three-arm randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel du Vaure, Céline; Boutron, Isabelle; Perrodeau, Elodie; Ravaud, Philippe

    2014-04-28

    Systematic reporting of funding sources is recommended in the CONSORT Statement for abstracts. However, no specific recommendation is related to the reporting of conflicts of interest (CoI). The objective was to compare physicians' confidence in the conclusions of abstracts of randomized controlled trials of pharmaceutical treatment indexed in PubMed. We planned a three-arm parallel-group randomized trial. French general practitioners (GPs) were invited to participate and were blinded to the study's aim. We used a representative sample of 75 abstracts of pharmaceutical industry-funded randomized controlled trials published in 2010 and indexed in PubMed. Each abstract was standardized and reported in three formats: 1) no mention of the funding source or CoI; 2) reporting the funding source only; and 3) reporting the funding source and CoI. GPs were randomized according to a computerized randomization on a secure Internet system at a 1:1:1 ratio to assess one abstract among the three formats. The primary outcome was GPs' confidence in the abstract conclusions (0, not at all, to 10, completely confident). The study was planned to detect a large difference with an effect size of 0.5. Between October 2012 and June 2013, among 605 GPs contacted, 354 were randomized, 118 for each type of abstract. The mean difference (95% confidence interval) in GPs' confidence in abstract findings was 0.2 (-0.6; 1.0) (P = 0.84) for abstracts reporting the funding source only versus no funding source or CoI; -0.4 (-1.3; 0.4) (P = 0.39) for abstracts reporting the funding source and CoI versus no funding source and CoI; and -0.6 (-1.5; 0.2) (P = 0.15) for abstracts reporting the funding source and CoI versus the funding source only. We found no evidence of a large impact of trial report abstracts mentioning funding sources or CoI on GPs' confidence in the conclusions of the abstracts. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01679873.

  8. An Investigation of Hayes and Wheelwright’s Practices: Empirical Evidence from The Indonesia’s Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakhid Slamet Ciptono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The research extracts sixty seven Hayes and Wheelwright’s practices from the Hayes and Wheel-wright’s six principles. These items formed the basis of a questionnaire sent to over 2800 managers at the SBUs level in the Indonesia’s oil and gas companies. The empirical result indicates that All Hayes and Wheelwright’s six principles collectively have positive impact on an overall construct that may be termed world-class company (WCC. Result also points out that Hayes and Wheelwright’s six principles can be reduced into four meaningful factors of world-class company—as operations strategies—for the Indonesia’s oil and gas industry— Workforce skills and capabilities, Management technical competence, Competing through quality, and Workforce participation. These meaningful factors of WCC were shown to be reliable and valid, and offer new insights into the understanding of operations strategy implementation in an oil and gas industry.Based on the oil and gas managers (the SBU level, operations strategies (four meaningful factors of WCC can be viewed as the effective use of production and operations capability and technology for achieving business and corporate goals. Operations strategy, therefore, is to help a company’s operations organization define the common ground where it can play a proactive and collaborative role with other company functions or cross-functional relationships (Hayes et al., 1996.  Oil and gas managers in Indonesia can use these meaningful factors in concert with other critical qual-ity management practices to help them in there word-class company initiatives. Researchers can also use these factors to build structural model linking such factors to various organizational performance measures (i.e., Critical Success Factors of TQM, Operational Excellence, Six Sigma Quality Management, and Good Corporate Governance.Keywords: Hayes and wheelwright’s six principles, Hayes and Wheelwright practices, World

  9. The appeal of the green deal: Empirical evidence for the influence of energy efficiency policy on renovating homeowners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettifor, H.; Wilson, C.; Chryssochoidis, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Green Deal is a major new energy policy designed to support the diffusion of energy efficiency measures in UK homes. This paper provides one of the first empirical examinations of the Green Deal′s success in influencing homeowners’ renovation decisions. Using a repeated measures design in which households were questioned before and after the Green Deal′s launch in January 2013, we assess the policy′s success in raising awareness of energy efficiency. In particular, we test the effectiveness of the Green Deal′s positioning to overcome barriers to renovation among homeowners already interested in or considering energy efficiency measures. Using the innovation decision process (Rogers, 2003) as a conceptual framing of the renovation decision process, we examine whether new information on energy efficiency provided by the Green Deal strengthened intentions and its antecedents. We find that (1) energy efficiency is of potential appeal to all renovators regardless of their attitudes about energy efficiency, (2) energy efficiency opportunities need to be identified in the early stages of renovation when homeowners are thinking about ways to improve their home, and (3) homeowners’ intentions towards energy efficiency are weakened by uncertainty about financial benefits, helping to explain the relatively slow uptake of the Green Deal to-date. - Highlights: • Examines the impact of a major new energy policy, the Green Deal, on intentions towards energy efficiency. • 502 households questioned four months prior to, and seven months after the launch. • Renovating itself is mechanism through which households engage with the Green Deal. • Strengthening beliefs in energy savings accelerates intentions to renovate energy efficiently

  10. Empirical evidence for stability of the 405-kiloyear Jupiter-Venus eccentricity cycle over hundreds of millions of years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Dennis V; Olsen, Paul E; Rasmussen, Cornelia; Lepre, Christopher; Mundil, Roland; Irmis, Randall B; Gehrels, George E; Giesler, Dominique; Geissman, John W; Parker, William G

    2018-06-12

    The Newark-Hartford astrochronostratigraphic polarity timescale (APTS) was developed using a theoretically constant 405-kiloyear eccentricity cycle linked to gravitational interactions with Jupiter-Venus as a tuning target and provides a major timing calibration for about 30 million years of Late Triassic and earliest Jurassic time. While the 405-ky cycle is both unimodal and the most metronomic of the major orbital cycles thought to pace Earth's climate in numerical solutions, there has been little empirical confirmation of that behavior, especially back before the limits of orbital solutions at about 50 million years before present. Moreover, the APTS is anchored only at its younger end by U-Pb zircon dates at 201.6 million years before present and could even be missing a number of 405-ky cycles. To test the validity of the dangling APTS and orbital periodicities, we recovered a diagnostic magnetic polarity sequence in the volcaniclastic-bearing Chinle Formation in a scientific drill core from Petrified Forest National Park (Arizona) that provides an unambiguous correlation to the APTS. New high precision U-Pb detrital zircon dates from the core are indistinguishable from ages predicted by the APTS back to 215 million years before present. The agreement shows that the APTS is continuous and supports a stable 405-kiloyear cycle well beyond theoretical solutions. The validated Newark-Hartford APTS can be used as a robust framework to help differentiate provinciality from global temporal patterns in the ecological rise of early dinosaurs in the Late Triassic, amongst other problems.

  11. The effects of customer benefit and regulation on environmental product innovation. Empirical evidence from appliance manufacturers in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammerer, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Environmental product (EP) innovations and their determinants have received increasing attention from researchers during the past years. So far, empirical studies have shown inconsistent results, especially regarding the impact of regulation. In this paper, I seek to advance the understanding of EP-innovation by introducing and testing a novel research framework. First, a novel unit of analysis, the environmental issue level, is applied. EP-innovation is not studied in broad terms but specifically for four environmental issues that are relevant to the electrical and electronic appliances industry: energy efficiency, toxic substances, material efficiency, and electromagnetic fields. Second, the customer benefit, a concept from the green marketing literature, is included as an explanatory variable for EP-innovation for the first time. The argument is that green products which besides their public benefits have private environmental benefits for the customer (e.g., energy savings) will generate stronger consumer demand and can thus constitute the firm's motivation to implement those innovations in the first place. Third, EP-innovation is observed more comprehensively, measuring its extent and level of novelty. I apply this research framework to study EP-innovations of German manufacturers of electrical and electronic appliances. My results support the issue level as unit of analysis. The impact of customer benefit and regulation on EP-innovation is analyzed with logit regression and the results clearly show that both customer benefit and regulation play a key role for EP-innovation. They not only foster the implementation of EP-innovations but also their broad application and their level of novelty. (author)

  12. Boris Hirsch: Monopsonistic Labour Markets and the Gender Pay Gap. Theory and Empirical Evidence. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Jochmann-Döll

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Der mögliche Beitrag monopsonistischer Arbeitsmarktmodelle zur Erklärung der geschlechterbezogenen Entgeltlücke (Gender Pay Gap steht im Zentrum der Dissertation von Boris Hirsch. Nach den Theorien des räumlichen und des dynamischen Monopsons sind Unternehmen deshalb in der Lage, geringere Entgelte an Frauen zu zahlen, weil deren Arbeitsangebot auf Unternehmensebene weniger elastisch ist und sie bei einem Arbeitsplatzwechsel höhere Verluste in Kauf nehmen müssen. Die Ausnutzung der Monopsonmacht und die mit dem Robinson’schen Ansatz beschreibbare Diskriminierung durch die Unternehmen führten zu unterschiedlichen Entgelten zwischen Frauen und Männern. Die von Hirsch getroffenen theoretischen Annahmen werden für den deutschen Arbeitsmarkt empirisch bestätigt; durch sie lässt sich mindestens ein Drittel des Gender Pay Gap erklären.The possible contribution of monopsonistic job market models to the explanation of the gender-based payment gap (Gender Pay Gap is at the center of Boris Hirsch’s dissertation. According to the theories of the regional and the dynamic monopson, companies are able to pay women lower wages because their labor supply on the company level is less flexible and because they have to accept higher losses in the case of a job change. The companies’ abuse of the monopsonistic power and the discrimination, which can be explained with the Robinson approach, lead to unequal wages between men and women. Hirsch’s theoretical hypotheses are validated empirically for the German employment market; with them, at least a third of the Gender Pay Gap can be explained.

  13. Immigration rates in fragmented landscapes--empirical evidence for the importance of habitat amount for species persistence.

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    Thomas Püttker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The total amount of native vegetation is an important property of fragmented landscapes and is known to exert a strong influence on population and metapopulation dynamics. As the relationship between habitat loss and local patch and gap characteristics is strongly non-linear, theoretical models predict that immigration rates should decrease dramatically at low levels of remaining native vegetation cover, leading to patch-area effects and the existence of species extinction thresholds across fragmented landscapes with different proportions of remaining native vegetation. Although empirical patterns of species distribution and richness give support to these models, direct measurements of immigration rates across fragmented landscapes are still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Brazilian Atlantic forest marsupial Gray Slender Mouse Opossum (Marmosops incanus as a model species and estimating demographic parameters of populations in patches situated in three landscapes differing in the total amount of remaining forest, we tested the hypotheses that patch-area effects on population density are apparent only at intermediate levels of forest cover, and that immigration rates into forest patches are defined primarily by landscape context surrounding patches. As expected, we observed a positive patch-area effect on M. incanus density only within the landscape with intermediate forest cover. Density was independent of patch size in the most forested landscape and the species was absent from the most deforested landscape. Specifically, the mean estimated numbers of immigrants into small patches were lower in the landscape with intermediate forest cover compared to the most forested landscape. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal the crucial importance of the total amount of remaining native vegetation for species persistence in fragmented landscapes, and specifically as to the role of variable immigration rates in

  14. Gestão de recursos humanos e desempenho operacional: evidências empíricas Human resource management and operational performance: empirical evidence

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    Charbel José Chiappetta Jabbour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A gestão de recursos humanos é frequentemente apontada como uma variável que influencia positivamente no desempenho das organizações. Enquanto argumentos e proposições teóricas de teor similar se multiplicam na literatura especializada, ainda são raras as pesquisas que lançam luzes sobre essa relação para empresas brasileiras. Nesse sentido, foi realizada uma pesquisa com o objetivo de verificar, empiricamente, se a gestão de recursos humanos influencia de maneira positiva o desempenho de empresas do segmento de autopeças e componentes automotivos em suas operações. Metodologicamente, realizou-se um survey com 75 empresas do setor mencionado, cujos dados foram analisados por meio de modelagem de equações estruturais, uma análise multivariada de segunda geração. A principal hipótese da pesquisa foi confirmada, revelando que, de fato, a gestão de recursos humanos está positivamente relacionada com o desempenho operacional das empresas analisadas.Human resource management is often cited as a variable that positively influences the performance of organizations. Arguments and theoretical proposals of similar content have increased in the literature, yet there is very little research that sheds light on this relationship in Brazilian companies. Accordingly, a survey was conducted in order to check empirically whether the human resource management positively influences the operational performance of companies in the Brazilian automotive industry focusing on the segment of automotive parts and components. Methodologically, a survey of 75 companies in the sector aforementioned was carried out; the data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling, a second-generation multivariate analysis. The main hypothesis was confirmed indicating that human resource management is indeed positively related to the operational performance of the companies studied.

  15. Norms and the development of new knowledge as determinants of climate policy. Theoretical considerations and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schymura, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of long-term effects of climate change in cost-benefit analysis has a long tradition in environmental economics. Since the publication of the ''Stern Review'' in 2006, the debate about the impacts of climate change on the economy and how to compare cost and benefits with each other was revived. The assessment of climate change mitigation policies mainly depends on three not mutually exclusive decisions: First, the discount rate chosen, since costs are incurred today and long-term benefits occur in the future. Second, the uncertainties related to the problem of climate change. This debate was spurred by the literature surrounding Martin Weitzman's ''dismal theorem'', stating that the unknown unknowns could be too large for cost-benefit analysis of long-term climate policy measures. And third, the treatment of technological change in economic models of climate policy. This dissertation contributes to all three mentioned aspects and consists of two interrelated parts. First, I discuss norms, economic welfare criteria, and catastrophic risks in the context of climate change. This first part is closely bound to a discussion of the Stern Review. The second part of the dissertation deals with technological change in its various dimensions and addresses several questions: How is technological change taken into consideration in large-scale environment-economy models? How do certain inputs substitute each other? And how does technology affect energy intensity, a key parameter for meeting targets set by climate policy? Alongside these questions, I also discuss how the production of knowledge takes place in an environmental and resource economics framework and how knowledge production patterns have changed during previous decades. While the first part is of theoretical nature, the second part is mainly empirical. Summing up, I suggest approaches towards long-term evaluation of climate policies and how some methodological drawbacks of the ''Stern Review'' could

  16. “Non-Aviation” activities and the introduction of new thinking and ideas in the airport business: Empirical evidence from an Italian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Fasone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to describe the main changes occurring in the airport industry with particular attention to the increasing relevance of the non-aviation activities. In fact, during the most recent decades, the airport business has evolved into a dynamic and competitive industry. In order to reduce their deficits airport management policies have progressively favoured the commercial aspects in order to produce greater profit margins. In many countries, greater management elasticity in business administration has occurred, and important modifications have been introduced in the national and international regulations according to a market oriented perspective.Design/methodology/approach: The method used is the case study approach and the analysis utilizes empirical data originating from the airport in Olbia.Findings: Findings show how the choice to invest in the non-aviation sector can be ascribed to the strategic orientation adopted by airport managers.Originality/value: Empirical evidence can highlight certain trends in the industry, whose values can lead to a core definition of the new paths of development for the airport business to follow in the non-aviation dimension, and identifying at the same time innovative business ideas for opening up new market scenarios.

  17. THE EFFECT OF E-COMMERCE ON MALAYSIAN TAX SYSTEM: AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM ACADEMICIANS AND MALAYSIAN TAX PRACTITIONERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rizal Palil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The explosion of information technology (IT nowadays has created new phenomena in shopping activities. Consumers can easily buy products via Internet. Within a minute, the products will be delivered instantly and accurately. This scenario is known as e-commerce. The emergence of e-commerce affects consumers' shopping behavior as well as taxation system. The objective of this research is to reveal the effects of e-commerce upon Malaysian taxation system by emphasizing in scope of charge 'derive and remittance'. Research was conducted through questionnaires of 82 tax practitioners and 22 academicians. The research findings shown that derive and remittance basis is no longer appropriate in e-commerce environment. Scope of charge derives and remittances, which are practicing in Malaysia right now, are unable to maximized e-commerce tax revenue. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perkembangan dalam dunia teknologi akhir-akhir ini telah membawa banyak arus perubahan terutamanya dalam aktivitas belanja. Konsumen dapat membeli barang dengan mudah melalui internet. Dalam waktu beberapa menit, barang sampai di tangan konsumen. Skenario demikian dikenal sebagai perdagangan elektronis. Kemunculan perdagangan elektronis mengubah prilaku belanja konsumen serta sistem perpajakan di Malaysia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek perdagangan elektronis terhadap sistem perpajakan di Malaysia dengan penekanan pada pengenaan pajak dan hak pemajakan. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan 82 sample praktisi perpajakan dan 22 akademisi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, bahwa praktek pengenaan pajak dalam perdagangan elektronis belum sesuai dengan aturan yang berlaku, sehingga tidak dapat memaksimalkan penerimaan pajak dari perdagangan elektronis. Kata kunci: sistem perpajakan Malaysia, perdagangan elektronik, akademik, praktisi perpajakan, pengenaan pajak.

  18. A review of the empirical evidence of the value of structuring and coding of clinical information within electronic health records for direct patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Kalra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The case has historically been presented that structured and/or coded electronic health records (EHRs benefit direct patient care, but the evidence base for this is not well documented.Methods We searched for evidence of direct patient care value from the use of structured and/or coded information within EHRs. We interrogated nine international databases from 1990 to 2011. Value was defined using the Institute of Medicine’s six areas for improvement for healthcare systems: effectiveness, safety, patient-centredness, timeliness, efficiency and equitability. We included studies satisfying the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC group criteria.Results Of 5016 potentially eligible papers, 13 studies satisfied our criteria: 10 focused on effectiveness, with eight demonstrating potential for improved proxy and actual clinical outcomes if a structured and/or coded EHR was combined with alerting or advisory systems in a focused clinical domain. Three studies demonstrated improvement in safety outcomes. No studies were found reporting value in relation to patient-centredness, timeliness, efficiency or equitability.Conclusions We conclude that, to date, there has been patchy effort to investigate empirically the value from structuring and coding EHRs for direct patient care. Future investments in structuring and coding of EHRs should be informed by robust evidence as to the clinical scenarios in which patient care benefits may be realised.

  19. Job-related and psychological effects of sexual harassment in the workplace: empirical evidence from two organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K T; Swan, S; Fitzgerald, L F

    1997-06-01

    Previous evidence regarding the outcomes of sexual harassment in the workplace has come mainly from self-selected samples or analogue studies or those using inadequate measures. The sexual harassment experiences, coping responses, and job-related and psychological outcomes of 447 female private-sector employees and 300 female university employees were examined. Discriminant function analyses indicated that women who had not been harassed and women who had experienced low, moderate, and high frequencies of harassment could be distinguished on the basis of both job-related and psychological outcomes. These outcomes could not be attributed to negative affective disposition, attitudes toward harassment, or general job stress. Results suggest that relatively low-level but frequent types of sexual harassment can have significant negative consequences for working women.

  20. Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, we explored the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa among the Tsimane', an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages. We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic, and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane' have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. Although local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane' undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.

  1. Effects of recall time on cause-of-death findings using verbal autopsy: empirical evidence from rural South Africa

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    Laith Hussain-Alkhateeb

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA is a widely used technique for assigning causes to non-medically certified deaths using information gathered from a close caregiver. Both operational and cultural factors may cause delays in follow-up of deaths. The resulting time lag—from death to VA interview—can influence ways in which terminal events are remembered, and thus affect cause-of-death assignment. This study investigates the impact of recall period on causes of death determined by VA. Methods A total of 10,882 deaths from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS with complete VAs, including recall period, were incorporated in this study. To measure seasonal effect, cause specific mortality fractions (CSMFs were calculated and compared by every cause for VAs undertaken within six months of death and those undertaken from six to 12 months of death. All causes were classified into eight broad categories and entered in a multiple logistic regression to explore outcome by recall period in relation to covariates. Results The majority of deaths (83 % had VAs completed within 12 months. There was a tendency towards longer recall periods for deaths of those under one year or over 65 years of age. Only the acute respiratory, diarrhoeal and other unspecified non-communicable disease groups showed a CSMF ratio significantly different from unity at the 99 % confidence level between the two recall periods. Only neonatal deaths showed significantly different OR for recall exceeding 12 months (OR 1.69; p value = 0.004 and this increased when adjusting for background factors (OR 2.58; p value = 0.000. Conclusion A recall period of up to one year between death and VA interview did not have any consequential effects on the cause-of-death patterns derived, with the exception of neonatal causes. This is an important operational consideration given the planned widespread use of the VA approach in civil registration, HDSS sites

  2. Relationship between corporate social responsibility and competitive performance in Spanish SMEs: Empirical evidence from a stakeholders’ perspective

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    Jesús Herrera Madueño

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a financial economic scenario in which the corporate survival of small and medium enterprises (SMEs is more conditioned than ever by competitive performance, this paper aims to show that the strategic incorporation of socially responsible actions, more concerned and engaged with stakeholders, contributes to improve the competitiveness of these organizations. Thus, the existence of a direct or mediated relationship between the development of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR practices and competitive performance has been analyzed from a multi-stakeholder perspective. To accomplish this task, data were collected from a sample of 481 Spanish SMEs and the technique of partial least squares (PLS was used. Outcomes show that the development of CSR practices contributes to increase the competitive performance both directly and indirectly, through the ability of these organizations to manage their stakeholders. This study, therefore, supports the social impact hypothesis and offers evidence about some intangibles such as the relational capacity mediate the causal effect between CSR and competitive performance.

  3. Does Eating Out Make Elderly People Depressed? Empirical Evidence from National Health and Nutrition Survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Hao; Saeliw, Kannika

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the association between eating out and depressive symptoms among elderly people. Potential mediators that may link to elderly eating out and depressive symptoms are also discussed. METHODS: A unique dataset of 1,184 individuals aged 65 and older was drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 2008 in Taiwan. A bivariate probit model and an instrumental variable probit model were estimated to account for correlated, unmeasured factors that may be associated with both the decision and frequency of eating out and depressive symptoms in the elderly. An additional analysis is conducted to check whether the nutrient intakes and body weights can be seen as mediators that link the association between eating out and depressive symptoms of the elderly. RESULTS: Elderly people who eat out are 38 percent points more likely to have depressive symptoms than their counterparts who do not eat out, after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and other factors. A positive association between the frequency of eating out and the likelihood of having depressive symptoms of the elderly is also found. It is evident that one additional meal away from home is associated with an increase of the likelihood of being depressed by 3.8 percentage points. With respect to the mediations, we find that nutrient intakes and body weight are likely to serve as mediators for the positive relationship between eating out and depressive symptoms in the elderly. CONCLUSION: Our results show that elderly who eat out have a higher chance of having depressive symptoms. To prevent depressive symptoms in the elderly, policy makers should be aware of the relationship among psychological status, physical health and nutritional health when assisting the elderly to better manage their food consumption away from home. LIMITATONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: Our study have some caveats. First, the interpretation of our results on the causality issue

  4. How much does it cost to get a dose of vaccine to the service delivery location? Empirical evidence from Vietnam's Expanded Program on Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvundura, Mercy; Kien, Vu Duy; Nga, Nguyen Tuyet; Robertson, Joanie; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Tung, Ho Thanh; Hong, Duong Thi; Levin, Carol

    2014-02-07

    Few studies document the costs of operating vaccine supply chains, but decision-makers need this information to inform cost projections for investments to accommodate new vaccine introduction. This paper presents empirical estimates of vaccine supply chain costs for Vietnam's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) for routine vaccines at each level of the supply chain, before and after the introduction of the pentavalent vaccine. We used micro-costing methods to collect resource-use data associated with storage and transportation of vaccines and immunization supplies at the national store, the four regional stores, and a sample of provinces, districts, and commune health centers. We collected stock ledger data on the total number of doses of vaccines handled by each facility during the assessment year. Total supply chain costs were estimated at approximately US$65,000 at the national store and an average of US$39,000 per region, US$5800 per province, US$2200 per district, and US$300 per commune health center. Across all levels, cold chain equipment capital costs and labor were the largest drivers of costs. The cost per dose delivered was estimated at US$0.19 before the introduction of pentavalent and US$0.24 cents after introduction. At commune health centers, supply chain costs were 104% of the value of vaccines before introduction of pentavalent vaccine and 24% after introduction, mainly due to the higher price per dose of the pentavalent vaccine. The aggregated costs at the last tier of the health system can be substantial because of the large number of facilities. Even in countries with high-functioning systems, empirical evidence on current costs from all levels of the system can help estimate resource requirements for expanding and strengthening resources to meet future immunization program needs. Other low- and middle-income countries can benefit from similar studies, in view of new vaccine introductions that will put strains on existing systems. Copyright

  5. From Abstract Art to Abstracted Artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romi Mikulinsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available What lineage connects early abstract films and machine-generated YouTube videos? Hans Richter’s famous piece Rhythmus 21 is considered to be the first abstract film in the experimental tradition. The Webdriver Torso YouTube channel is composed of hundreds of thousands of machine-generated test patterns designed to check frequency signals on YouTube. This article discusses geometric abstraction vis-à-vis new vision, conceptual art and algorithmic art. It argues that the Webdriver Torso is an artistic marvel indicative of a form we call mathematical abstraction, which is art performed by computers and, quite possibly, for computers.

  6. DNA degradation by bleomycin: evidence for 2'R-proton abstraction and for C-O bond cleavage accompanying base propenal formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajmera, S.; Wu, J.C.; Worth, L. Jr.; Rabow, L.E.; Stubbe, J.; Kozarich, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Reaction of poly(dA-[2'S- 3 H]dU) with activated bleomycin yields [ 3 H] uracil propenal that completely retains the tritium label. In contrast, the authors have previously shown that reaction of poly(dA-[2'R- 3 H]dU) with activated bleomycin affords unlabeled uracil propenal. They have also prepared both cis- and trans-thymine propenals by chemical synthesis and have observed that the trans isomer is the exclusive product of the bleomycin reaction. Moreover, the cis isomer was found to be stable to the conditions of bleomycin-induced DNA degradation. Taken together, these results establish that the formation of trans-uracil propenal occurs via an anti-elimination mechanism with the stereospecific abstraction of the 2R proton. The question of phosphodiester bond cleavage during base propenal formation has also been addressed by the analysis of the fate of oxygen-18 in poly(dA-[3'- 18 O]dT) upon reaction with activated bleomycin. The 5'-monophosphate oligonucleotide ends produced from thymine propenal formation have been converted to inorganic phosphate by the action of alkaline phosphatase, and the phosphate has been analyzed for 18 O content by 31 P NMR spectroscopy. The oxygen-18 is retained in the inorganic phosphate, establishing that the formation of thymine propenal by activated bleomycin proceeds with C-O bond cleavage at the 3-position

  7. Inglorious Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khair, Tabish

    2017-01-01

    Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00......Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00...

  8. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of 25 papers presented at the congress are given. The abstracts cover various topics including radiotherapy, radiopharmaceuticals, radioimmunoassay, health physics, radiation protection and nuclear medicine

  9. Matchmaking in organizational change : does every employee value participatory leadership? An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Rogiest, Sofie; Segers, Jesse; Witteloostuijn, van, Arjen

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Although leadership is generally considered an important lever to increase commitment during organizational change, empirical research has yet to unravel many of the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we propose that the impact of participative leadership on affective commitment to change will be contingent on employees orientation toward leadership. In our empirical study in two police organizations, we find evidence that followers orientation toward leadership is a useful inter...

  10. Contracting between firms: empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, R.; Sautner, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse 185 contracts signed between a buyer and 89 suppliers to test how moral-hazard and hold-up problems affect contract design. Our data allow us to study both static and dynamic effects. If a supplier’s products are more critical to the buyer, contracts contain more clauses that address

  11. Evidence for a Numerosity Category that is Based on Abstract Qualities of ‘Few’ versus ‘Many’ in the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi eYaman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A previous study (Kilian et al., 2003 had demonstrated that bottlenose dolphins can discriminate visual stimuli differing in numerosity. The aim of the present study was twofold: First, we sought to determine if dolphins are able to use a numerical category based on ‘few’ versus ‘many’ when discriminating stimuli according to the number of their constituent patterns. Second, we aimed to extend the previously demonstrated range of numbers, thereby testing the limits of the numerical abilities of bottlenose dolphins. To this end, one adult bottlenose dolphin learned to discriminate between two simultaneously presented stimuli which varied in the number of elements they contained. After initial training, several confounding parameters were excluded to render it likely that discrimination performance indeed depended on numerosity. Subsequently, the animal was tested with new stimuli of intermediate as well as higher numbers of elements. Once discrimination had been achieved, a reversal-training on a subset of stimuli was initiated. Afterwards, the subject generalized the reversal successful to new and unreinforced stimuli. Our results reveal two main findings: Firstly, our data strongly suggest a magnitude and a distance effect. Thus, coding of numerical information in dolphins might follow logarithmic scaling as postulated by the Weber-Fechner law. Secondly, after learning a reversal of contingencies, the dolphin generalized the reversal successful to new and unreinforced stimuli. Thus, within the limits of a study that was conducted with a single individual, our results suggest that dolphins are able to learn and use a numerical category that is based on abstract qualities of ‘few’ versus ‘many’.

  12. Environmental efficiency and labour productivity. Trade-off or joint dynamics? A theoretical investigation and empirical evidence from Italy using NAMEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Zoboli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we test an adapted EKC hypothesis to verify the relationship between 'environmental efficiency' (namely emissions per unit of value added) and labour productivity (value added per employee). We exploit NAMEA data on Italy for 29 sector branches and 6 categories of air emissions for the period 1991-2001. We employ data on capital stock and trade openness to test the robustness of our results. On the basis of the theoretical and empirical analyses focusing on innovation, firm performances and environmental externalities, we would expect a positive correlation between environmental efficiency and labour productivity - a negative correlation between the emissions intensity of value added and labour productivity - which departs from the conventional mainstream view. The hypothesis tested is a critical one within the longstanding debate on the potential trade-off or complementarity between environmental preservation and economic performance, which is strictly associated with the role of technological innovation. We find that for most air emission categories there is a positive relationship between labour productivity and environmental efficiency. Labour productivity dynamics, then, seem to be complementary to a decreasing emissions intensity in the production process. Taking a disaggregate sector perspective, we show that the macro-aggregate evidence is driven by sector dynamics in a non-homogenous way across pollutants. Services tend always to show a 'complementary' relationship, while industry seems to be associated with inverted U-shape dynamics for greenhouse gases and nitrogen oxides. This is in line with our expectations. In any case, EKC shapes appear to drive such productivity links towards complementarity. The extent to which this evidence derives from endogenous market forces, industrial and structural change, and policy effects is discussed by taking an evolutionary perspective to innovation and by referring to impure public goods arguments

  13. The Long-term Impact of Early Life Pain On Adult Responses to Anxiety and Stress: Historical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Nicole C.; Murphy, Anne Z.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 6 infants are born prematurely each year. Typically, these infants spend 25 days in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) where they experience 10–18 painful and inflammatory procedures each day. Remarkably, pre-emptive analgesics and/or anesthesia are administered less than 25% of the time. Unalleviated pain during the perinatal period is associated with permanent decreases in pain sensitivity, blunted cortisol responses and high rates of neuropsychiatric disorders. To date, the mechanism(s) by which these long-term changes in stress and pain behavior occur, and whether such alterations can be prevented by appropriate analgesia at the time of insult, remains unclear. Work in our lab using a rodent model of early life pain suggests that inflammatory pain experienced on the day of birth blunts adult responses to stress- and pain-provoking stimuli, and dysregulates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in part through a permanent upregulation in central endogenous opioid tone. This review focuses on the long-term impact of neonatal inflammatory pain on adult anxiety- and stress-related responses, and underlying neuroanatomical changes in the context of endogenous pain control and the HPA axis. These two systems are in a state of exaggerated developmental plasticity early in postnatal life, and work in concert to respond to noxious or aversive stimuli. We present empirical evidence from animal and clinical studies, and discuss historical perspectives underlying the lack of analgesia/anesthetic use for early life pain in the modern NICU. PMID:26210872

  14. Stereochemical probes of bovine plasma amine oxidase: evidence for mirror image processing and a syn abstraction of hydrogens from C-1 and C-2 of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnum, M.F.; Klinman, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Bovine plasma amine oxidase (PAO) has previously been shown to catalyze a nonstereospecific loss of tritium from [2(R)- 3 H]- and [2(S)- 3 H]dopamines, attributed to multiple, catalytically active binding sites for substrate. Analysis of products formed from incubation of dopamine with PAO in tritiated water indicates a stereospecific, pro-R, incorporation of label at C-2. Thus, tritium washout (random) and washin (pro-R) are not the microscopic reverse of one another. We conclude that the (enamine) intermediates leading to tritium washin are nonequivalently bound. The observation of pro-R incorporation has provided a straightforward synthetic route to [1(R)- 2 H,2(R)- 3 H]- and [1(S)- 2 H,2(R)- 3 H]dopamines, which upon oxidation with PAO are expected to be processed preferentially by 1S and 1R cleavage, respectively. From previously measured isotope effects, we predict the loss of tritium from the 1(R)-2H and 1(S)-2H samples to be 74:8 for a syn relationship between cleavage at C-1 and C-2 vs. 21:90 for an anti relationship. The observation of a 68:18 ratio at 100% conversion provides strong evidence for a syn cleavage. The data support a mechanism in which a single base catalyzes a 1,3-prototrophic shift of hydrogen from C-1 of the substrate to cofactor, followed by exchange from C-2. Additionally, the results confirm the presence of alternate binding modes for dopamine at the active site of bovine plasma amine oxidase. This interaction of dopamine with plasma amine oxidase is a rare example of mirror-image catalysis in which a single substrate has two functional binding orientations on an enzyme surface

  15. Empirical evidence of S-curves in the Colombian Evidencia empírica de la curva S en las balanzas comerciales bilaterales de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Andrea Palacios-Chacón

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Marshall-Lerner condition, the J-curve and S-curve have emerged as theoretical  and empirical foundations developed for the study of the interaction between exchange rates and international patterns of bilateral trade. They have a significant bearing on thedevelopment of public policy, and are of equal interest to the academic and professional communities. The most recently developed of these theories, the S-Curve, is named after the theorized short-run behavior to be found in the cross-correlation function of the real exchange rate and the trade balance. Considering this theoretical context, the paper seeks empirical evidence of the existence of the S-Curve in the bilateral trade in commodity and non-commodity goods between Colombia and the United States and Venezuela, its main trading partners, for the yearly quarters between 1994:1 and 2009:4.La condición Marshall-Lerner la curva J y la curva S han surgido como elementos teóricos y empíricos desarrollados para el estudio de la interacción entre las tasas de cambio y los patrones internacionales de comercio bilateral. Estas poseen una relevancia significativa en el desarrollo de política pública nacional y han sido objeto de estudio por la comunidad académica y profesional. La más reciente de estas teorías, la curva S, se conoce como la conducta que se teoriza hallar en la función de correlación cruzada entre la tasa de cambio real y la balanza comercial a corto plazo. Basado en dicho contexto teórico, este artículo busca evidencia empírica sobre la existencia de la curva S en el intercambio comercial bilateral de bienes commodities y non-commodities entre Colombia y Estados Unidos y Venezuela, sus principales socios comerciales, en los trimestres entre 1994:1 y 2009:4.

  16. What 'empirical turn in bioethics'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia

    2010-10-01

    Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.

  17. Learning abstract algebra with ISETL

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinsky, Ed

    1994-01-01

    Most students in abstract algebra classes have great difficulty making sense of what the instructor is saying. Moreover, this seems to remain true almost independently of the quality of the lecture. This book is based on the constructivist belief that, before students can make sense of any presentation of abstract mathematics, they need to be engaged in mental activities which will establish an experiential base for any future verbal explanation. No less, they need to have the opportunity to reflect on their activities. This approach is based on extensive theoretical and empirical studies as well as on the substantial experience of the authors in teaching astract algebra. The main source of activities in this course is computer constructions, specifically, small programs written in the mathlike programming language ISETL; the main tool for reflections is work in teams of 2-4 students, where the activities are discussed and debated. Because of the similarity of ISETL expressions to standard written mathematics...

  18. Grounded understanding of abstract concepts: The case of STEM learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Justin C; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies. In this review of the literature, we examine evidence suggesting that sensorimotor processes strengthen learning associated with the abstract concepts central to STEM pedagogy. After considering how contemporary theories have defined abstraction in the context of semantic knowledge, we propose our own explanation for how body-centered information, as computed in sensorimotor brain regions and visuomotor association cortex, can form a useful foundation upon which to build an understanding of abstract scientific concepts, such as mechanical force. Drawing from theories in cognitive neuroscience, we then explore models elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in grounding intangible concepts, including Hebbian learning, predictive coding, and neuronal recycling. Empirical data on STEM learning through hands-on instruction are considered in light of these neural models. We conclude the review by proposing three distinct ways in which the field of cognitive neuroscience can contribute to STEM learning by bolstering our understanding of how the brain instantiates abstract concepts in an embodied fashion.

  19. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  20. Priorities for action on the social determinants of health: Empirical evidence on the strongest associations with life expectancy in 54 low-income countries, 1990-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, K; Martin, S; Smith, P C

    2016-10-01

    The WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health set out an impressive collection of policy proposals on the social determinants of health. However, a serious weakness for securing implementation is the difficulty for policymakers in identifying priorities for action. The objective of this study is to determine a small set of the most influential determinants using existing data and an empirical approach. 45 Indicators from the World Bank's World Development Indicators are selected to measure attainment for the determinants proposed by the Commission. Panel data models of life expectancy at birth for 54 low-income countries over the years 1990-2012 (1188 country-years) are estimated. Each determinant is subjected to a robustness test using Extreme Bound Analysis, to determine the stability of its estimated impact on life expectancy. For 20 robust and significant determinants the magnitude of association with life expectancy is determined. The largest average increases in life expectancy at 14.5 months per capita is associated with a one standard deviation reduction in HIV prevalence among children, followed by advances in gender equality at 9.4 months. Improvements in life expectancy between 6 and 9 months are associated with agricultural production, political stability, access to clean water and sanitation, good governance, and primary school enrolment. Improvements below 6 months are associated with increases in private health expenditure and overseas development assistance, and control of armed conflict and HIV prevalence among men. There is no evidence that national income, public spending on healthcare and education, secondary schooling, terms of international trade, employment, debt service and relief, out-of-pocket expenditures, agricultural ex- or imports, lifestock production, foreign investment, urbanization or environmental degradation are robustly associated with population health. Results provide support for the relevance of some proposed

  1. The long-term impact of early life pain on adult responses to anxiety and stress: Historical perspectives and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Nicole C; Murphy, Anne Z

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 6 infants are born prematurely each year. Typically, these infants spend 25 days in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) where they experience 10-18 painful and inflammatory procedures each day. Remarkably, pre-emptive analgesics and/or anesthesia are administered less than 25% of the time. Unalleviated pain during the perinatal period is associated with permanent decreases in pain sensitivity, blunted cortisol responses and high rates of neuropsychiatric disorders. To date, the mechanism(s) by which these long-term changes in stress and pain behavior occur, and whether such alterations can be prevented by appropriate analgesia at the time of insult, remains unclear. Work in our lab using a rodent model of early life pain suggests that inflammatory pain experienced on the day of birth blunts adult responses to stress- and pain-provoking stimuli, and dysregulates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in part through a permanent upregulation in central endogenous opioid tone. This review focuses on the long-term impact of neonatal inflammatory pain on adult anxiety- and stress-related responses, and underlying neuroanatomical changes in the context of endogenous pain control and the HPA axis. These two systems are in a state of exaggerated developmental plasticity early in postnatal life, and work in concert to respond to noxious or aversive stimuli. We present empirical evidence from animal and clinical studies, and discuss historical perspectives underlying the lack of analgesia/anesthetic use for early life pain in the modern NICU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled:Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Physics Education; SANCGASS; Astronomy; Plasma Physics; Physics in Industry; Applied and General Physics

  3. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled:Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Physics Education; SANCGASS; Astronomy; Plasma Physics; Physics in Industry; Applied and General Physics.

  4. Introduction to abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, W Keith

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ". . . an expository masterpiece of the highest didactic value that has gained additional attractivity through the various improvements . . ."-Zentralblatt MATH The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Abstract Algebra continues to provide an accessible approach to the basic structures of abstract algebra: groups, rings, and fields. The book's unique presentation helps readers advance to abstract theory by presenting concrete examples of induction, number theory, integers modulo n, and permutations before the abstract structures are defined. Readers can immediately be

  5. Abstracting Concepts and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borko, Harold; Bernier, Charles L.

    This text provides a complete discussion of abstracts--their history, production, organization, publication--and of indexing. Instructions for abstracting are outlined, and standards and criteria for abstracting are stated. Management, automation, and personnel are discussed in terms of possible economies that can be derived from the introduction…

  6. Empirical likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Art B

    2001-01-01

    Empirical likelihood provides inferences whose validity does not depend on specifying a parametric model for the data. Because it uses a likelihood, the method has certain inherent advantages over resampling methods: it uses the data to determine the shape of the confidence regions, and it makes it easy to combined data from multiple sources. It also facilitates incorporating side information, and it simplifies accounting for censored, truncated, or biased sampling.One of the first books published on the subject, Empirical Likelihood offers an in-depth treatment of this method for constructing confidence regions and testing hypotheses. The author applies empirical likelihood to a range of problems, from those as simple as setting a confidence region for a univariate mean under IID sampling, to problems defined through smooth functions of means, regression models, generalized linear models, estimating equations, or kernel smooths, and to sampling with non-identically distributed data. Abundant figures offer vi...

  7. Transfer and persistence of non-self DNA on hands over time: Using empirical data to evaluate DNA evidence given activity level propositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkuta, Bianca; Ballantyne, Kaye N; Kokshoorn, Bas; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2018-03-01

    Questions relating to how DNA from an individual got to where it was recovered from and the activities associated with its pickup, retention and deposition are increasingly relevant to criminal investigations and judicial considerations. To address activity level propositions, investigators are typically required to assess the likelihood that DNA was transferred indirectly and not deposited through direct contact with an item or surface. By constructing a series of Bayesian networks, we demonstrate their use in assessing activity level propositions derived from a recent legal case involving the alleged secondary transfer of DNA to a surface following a handshaking event. In the absence of data required to perform the assessment, a set of handshaking simulations were performed to obtain probabilities on the persistence of non-self DNA on the hands following a 40min, 5h or 8h delay between the handshake and contact with the final surface (an axe handle). Variables such as time elapsed, and the activities performed and objects contacted between the handshake and contact with the axe handle, were also considered when assessing the DNA results. DNA from a known contributor was transferred to the right hand of an opposing hand-shaker (as a depositor), and could be subsequently transferred to, and detected on, a surface contacted by the depositor 40min to 5h post-handshake. No non-self DNA from the known contributor was detected in deposits made 8h post-handshake. DNA from the depositor was generally detected as the major or only contributor in the profiles generated. Contributions from the known contributor were minor, decreasing in presence and in the strength of support for inclusion as the time between the handshake and transfer event increased. The construction of a series of Bayesian networks based on the case circumstances provided empirical estimations of the likelihood of direct or indirect deposition. The analyses and conclusions presented demonstrate both the

  8. 2018 Congress Poster Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-21

    Each abstract has been indexed according to the first author. Abstracts appear as they were submitted and have not undergone editing or the Oncology Nursing Forum’s review process. Only abstracts that will be presented appear here. Poster numbers are subject to change. For updated poster numbers, visit congress.ons.org or check the Congress guide. Data published in abstracts presented at the ONS 43rd Annual Congress are embargoed until the conclusion of the presentation. Coverage and/or distribution of an abstract, poster, or any of its supplemental material to or by the news media, any commercial entity, or individuals, including the authors of said abstract, is strictly prohibited until the embargo is lifted. Promotion of general topics and speakers is encouraged within these guidelines.

  9. 2018 Congress Podium Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-21

    Each abstract has been indexed according to first author. Abstracts appear as they were submitted and have not undergone editing or the Oncology Nursing Forum’s review process. Only abstracts that will be presented appear here. For Congress scheduling information, visit congress.ons.org or check the Congress guide. Data published in abstracts presented at the ONS 43rd Annual Congress are embargoed until the conclusion of the presentation. Coverage and/or distribution of an abstract, poster, or any of its supplemental material to or by the news media, any commercial entity, or individuals, including the authors of said abstract, is strictly prohibited until the embargo is lifted. Promotion of general topics and speakers is encouraged within these guidelines.

  10. Compilation of Theses Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This publication contains unclassified/unrestricted abstracts of classified or restricted theses submitted for the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Business Administration, Master of Science...

  11. Nuclear medicine. Abstracts; Nuklearmedizin 2000. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-07-01

    This issue of the journal contains the abstracts of the 183 conference papers as well as 266 posters presented at the conference. Subject fields covered are: Neurology, psychology, oncology, pediatrics, radiopharmacy, endocrinology, EDP, measuring equipment and methods, radiological protection, cardiology, and therapy. (orig./CB) [German] Die vorliegende Zeitschrift enthaelt die Kurzfassungen der 183 auf der Tagung gehaltenen Vortraege sowie der 226 praesentierten Poster, die sich mit den folgenden Themen befassten: Neurologie, Psychiatrie, Onkologie, Paediatrie, Radiopharmazie, Endokrinologie, EDV, Messtechnik, Strahlenschutz, Kardiologie sowie Therapie. (MG)

  12. Empirical Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Talman, R.

    1987-01-01

    As proton accelerators get larger, and include more magnets, the conventional tracking programs which simulate them run slower. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method, still under development, in which element-by-element tracking around one turn is replaced by a single man, which can be processed far faster. It is assumed for this method that a conventional program exists which can perform faithful tracking in the lattice under study for some hundreds of turns, with all lattice parameters held constant. An empirical map is then generated by comparison with the tracking program. A procedure has been outlined for determining an empirical Hamiltonian, which can represent motion through many nonlinear kicks, by taking data from a conventional tracking program. Though derived by an approximate method this Hamiltonian is analytic in form and can be subjected to further analysis of varying degrees of mathematical rigor. Even though the empirical procedure has only been described in one transverse dimension, there is good reason to hope that it can be extended to include two transverse dimensions, so that it can become a more practical tool in realistic cases

  13. Data Abstraction in GLISP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Gordon S., Jr.

    GLISP is a high-level computer language (based on Lisp and including Lisp as a sublanguage) which is compiled into Lisp. GLISP programs are compiled relative to a knowledge base of object descriptions, a form of abstract datatypes. A primary goal of the use of abstract datatypes in GLISP is to allow program code to be written in terms of objects,…

  14. Truthful Monadic Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock-Nannestad, Taus; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    indefinitely, finding neither a proof nor a disproof of a given subgoal. In this paper we characterize a family of truth-preserving abstractions from intuitionistic first-order logic to the monadic fragment of classical first-order logic. Because they are truthful, these abstractions can be used to disprove...

  15. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled: Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Plasma Physics; Solar-Terrestrial Physics; Astrophysics and Astronomy; Radioastronomy; General Physics; Applied Physics; Industrial Physics

  16. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Wisniewski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we continue our study on discrete abstractions of dynamical systems. To this end, we use a family of partitioning functions to generate an abstraction. The intersection of sub-level sets of the partitioning functions defines cells, which are regarded as discrete objects. The union of cells makes up the state space of the dynamical systems. Our construction gives rise to a combinatorial object - a timed automaton. We examine sound and complete abstractions. An abstraction is said to be sound when the flow of the time automata covers the flow lines of the dynamical systems. If the dynamics of the dynamical system and the time automaton are equivalent, the abstraction is complete. The commonly accepted paradigm for partitioning functions is that they ought to be transversal to the studied vector field. We show that there is no complete partitioning with transversal functions, even for particular dynamical systems whose critical sets are isolated critical points. Therefore, we allow the directional derivative along the vector field to be non-positive in this work. This considerably complicates the abstraction technique. For understanding dynamical systems, it is vital to study stable and unstable manifolds and their intersections. These objects appear naturally in this work. Indeed, we show that for an abstraction to be complete, the set of critical points of an abstraction function shall contain either the stable or unstable manifold of the dynamical system.

  17. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    To most people the concept of abstract machines is connected to the name of Alan Turing and the development of the modern computer. The Turing machine is universal, axiomatic and symbolic (E.g. operating on symbols). Inspired by Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari extended the concept of abstract...

  18. Check Sample Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, David; Grenache, David G; Bosler, David S; Karcher, Raymond E; Nichols, James; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rauch, Carol; Huddleston, Brent J; Frank, Elizabeth L; Sluss, Patrick M; Lewandrowski, Kent; Eichhorn, John H; Hall, Janet E; Rahman, Saud S; McPherson, Richard A; Kiechle, Frederick L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Pierce, Kristin A; Kloehn, Erica A; Thomas, Patricia A; Walts, Ann E; Madan, Rashna; Schlesinger, Kathie; Nawgiri, Ranjana; Bhutani, Manoop; Kanber, Yonca; Abati, Andrea; Atkins, Kristen A; Farrar, Robert; Gopez, Evelyn Valencerina; Jhala, Darshana; Griffin, Sonya; Jhala, Khushboo; Jhala, Nirag; Bentz, Joel S; Emerson, Lyska; Chadwick, Barbara E; Barroeta, Julieta E; Baloch, Zubair W; Collins, Brian T; Middleton, Owen L; Davis, Gregory G; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Chu, Albert Y; Keylock, Joren B; Ramoso, Robert; Thoene, Cynthia A; Stewart, Donna; Pierce, Arand; Barry, Michelle; Aljinovic, Nika; Gardner, David L; Barry, Michelle; Shields, Lisa B E; Arnold, Jack; Stewart, Donna; Martin, Erica L; Rakow, Rex J; Paddock, Christopher; Zaki, Sherif R; Prahlow, Joseph A; Stewart, Donna; Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Falzon, Andrew L; Hudacki, Rachel; Mazzella, Fermina M; Bethel, Melissa; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Gresik, M Vicky; Gill, Ryan; Karlon, William; Etzell, Joan; Deftos, Michael; Karlon, William J; Etzell, Joan E; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Manion, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nancy; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Tang, Patrick; Petric, Martin; Schade, Andrew E; Hall, Geraldine S; Oethinger, Margret; Hall, Geraldine; Picton, Avis R; Hoang, Linda; Imperial, Miguel Ranoa; Kibsey, Pamela; Waites, Ken; Duffy, Lynn; Hall, Geraldine S; Salangsang, Jo-Anne M; Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Oethinger, Margaret D; Veras, Emanuela; Silva, Elvia; Vicens, Jimena; Silva, Elvio; Keylock, Joren; Hempel, James; Rushing, Elizabeth; Posligua, Lorena E; Deavers, Michael T; Nash, Jason W; Basturk, Olca; Perle, Mary Ann; Greco, Alba; Lee, Peng; Maru, Dipen; Weydert, Jamie Allen; Stevens, Todd M; Brownlee, Noel A; Kemper, April E; Williams, H James; Oliverio, Brock J; Al-Agha, Osama M; Eskue, Kyle L; Newlands, Shawn D; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Puri, Puja K; Royer, Michael C; Rush, Walter L; Tavora, Fabio; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Franks, Teri J; Carter, James Elliot; Kahn, Andrea Graciela; Lozada Muñoz, Luis R; Houghton, Dan; Land, Kevin J; Nester, Theresa; Gildea, Jacob; Lefkowitz, Jerry; Lacount, Rachel A; Thompson, Hannis W; Refaai, Majed A; Quillen, Karen; Lopez, Ana Ortega; Goldfinger, Dennis; Muram, Talia; Thompson, Hannis

    2009-02-01

    The following abstracts are compiled from Check Sample exercises published in 2008. These peer-reviewed case studies assist laboratory professionals with continuing medical education and are developed in the areas of clinical chemistry, cytopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, microbiology, surgical pathology, and transfusion medicine. Abstracts for all exercises published in the program will appear annually in AJCP.

  19. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  20. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    the vector field, which allows the generation of a complete abstraction. To compute the functions that define the subdivision of the state space in an algorithm, we formulate a sum of squares optimization problem. This optimization problem finds the best subdivisioning functions, with respect to the ability......This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...

  1. Scientific meeting abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document is a collection of the scientific meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, different aspects of energy and presents research done in 1999 in these fields

  2. Science meeting. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    the document is a collection of the science meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, material sciences different aspects of energy and presents research done in 2000 in these fields

  3. Mathematical games, abstract games

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Joao Pedro

    2013-01-01

    User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.

  4. Abstracts of contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  5. Empirical Evidence on Relationships between Ex Ante Innovation Pursuit and Post-M&A Performance in the Vietnamese M&A Industry, 2005-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Napier, Nancy K.; Samson, Donaldine E.; Nguyen, Hong Kong

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to communicate new results of empirical investigations to learn about the relationship between determination of controlling an acquired firm’s capital, assets and brand versus its capability of innovation and ex post performance of the rising Vietnamese M&A industry in the 2005-2012 period. The analysis employs a categorical data sample, consisting of 212 M&A cases reported by various information sources, and performs a number of logistic regressions with significant result...

  6. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj......Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  7. Building Safe Concurrency Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent object-oriented programming in Beta is based on semaphores and coroutines and the ability to define high-level concurrency abstractions like monitors, and rendezvous-based communication, and their associated schedulers. The coroutine mechanism of SIMULA has been generalized into the no......Concurrent object-oriented programming in Beta is based on semaphores and coroutines and the ability to define high-level concurrency abstractions like monitors, and rendezvous-based communication, and their associated schedulers. The coroutine mechanism of SIMULA has been generalized...

  8. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  9. A narrative review of the empirical evidence on public attitudes on brain death and vital organ transplantation: the need for better data to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Seema K; Kasper, Kenneth; Miller, Franklin G

    2015-04-01

    Vital organ transplantation is premised on 'the dead donor rule': donors must be declared dead according to medical and legal criteria prior to donation. However, it is controversial whether individuals diagnosed as 'brain dead' are really dead in accordance with the established biological conception of death-the irreversible cessation of the functioning of the organism as a whole. A basic understanding of brain death is also relevant for giving valid, informed consent to serve as an organ donor. There is therefore a need for reliable empirical data on public understanding of brain death and vital organ transplantation. We conducted a review of the empirical literature that identified 43 articles with approximately 18,603 study participants. These data demonstrate that participants generally do not understand three key issues: (1) uncontested biological facts about brain death, (2) the legal status of brain death and (3) that organs are procured from brain dead patients while their hearts are still beating and before their removal from ventilators. These data suggest that, despite scholarly claims of widespread public support for organ donation from brain dead patients, the existing data on public attitudes regarding brain death and organ transplantation reflect substantial public confusion. Our review raises questions about the validity of consent for vital organ transplantation and suggests that existing data are of little assistance in developing policy proposals for organ transplantation from brain dead patients. New approaches to rigorous empirical research with educational components and evaluations of understanding are urgently needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Empirical Support for Perceptual Conceptualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Alejandro Serrano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to show that perceptual conceptualism can be understood as an empirically meaningful position and, furthermore, that there is some degree of empirical support for its main theses. In order to do this, I will start by offering an empirical reading of the conceptualist position, and making three predictions from it. Then, I will consider recent experimental results from cognitive sciences that seem to point towards those predictions. I will conclude that, while the evidence offered by those experiments is far from decisive, it is enough not only to show that conceptualism is an empirically meaningful position but also that there is empirical support for it.

  11. An investigation on the effects of financial management skills, wealth and financial intelligence on investors’ risk tolerance: Empirical evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Aghasi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE has been changed into one of the most popular places to invest and index has been quadrupled in fewer than three years. As a result, many people have been attracted to invest on TSE market. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of investors’ personal characteristics including financial management skills, wealth and financial intelligence on investors’ risk tolerance among 384 randomly chosen investors who were active on TSE market in city of Esfahan, Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined that financial management skills, wealth and financial intelligence influence positively on investors’ risk tolerance.

  12. Nuclear medicine. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    This issue of the journal contains the abstracts of the 183 conference papers as well as 266 posters presented at the conference. Subject fields covered are: Neurology, psychology, oncology, pediatrics, radiopharmacy, endocrinology, EDP, measuring equipment and methods, radiological protection, cardiology, and therapy. (orig./CB) [de

  13. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274])

  14. Annual Conference Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  15. WWNPQFT-2013 - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cessac, B.; Bianchi, E.; Bellon, M.; Fried, H.; Krajewski, T.; Schubert, C.; Barre, J.; Hofmann, R.; Muller, B.; Raffaelli, B.

    2014-01-01

    The object of this Workshop is to consolidate and publicize new efforts in non perturbative-like Field Theories, relying in Functional Methods, Renormalization Group, and Dyson-Schwinger Equations. A presentation deals with effective vertices and photon-photon scattering in SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  16. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  17. Full Abstraction for HOPLA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2003-01-01

    A fully abstract denotational semantics for the higher-order process language HOPLA is presented. It characterises contextual and logical equivalence, the latter linking up with simulation. The semantics is a clean, domain-theoretic description of processes as downwards-closed sets of computation...

  18. Abstraction and art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-07-29

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music.

  19. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  20. Abstract algebra for physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, J.

    1975-06-01

    Certain recent models of composite hadrons involve concepts and theorems from abstract algebra which are unfamiliar to most theoretical physicists. The algebraic apparatus needed for an understanding of these models is summarized here. Particular emphasis is given to algebraic structures which are not assumed to be associative. (2 figures) (auth)

  1. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  2. Abstracts of submitted papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 152 abstracts of presented papers relating to various aspects of personnel dosimetry, the dosimetry of the working and living environment, various types of dosemeters and spectrometers, the use of radionuclides in various industrial fields, the migration of radionuclides on Czechoslovak territory after the Chernobyl accident, theoretical studies of some parameters of ionizing radiation detectors, and their calibration. (M.D.)

  3. The Abstraction Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortescue, Michael David

    The main thesis of this book is that abstraction, far from being confined to higher formsof cognition, language and logical reasoning, has actually been a major driving forcethroughout the evolution of creatures with brains. It is manifest in emotive as well as rationalthought. Wending its way th...

  4. Impredicative concurrent abstract predicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Kasper; Birkedal, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We present impredicative concurrent abstract predicates { iCAP { a program logic for modular reasoning about concurrent, higher- order, reentrant, imperative code. Building on earlier work, iCAP uses protocols to reason about shared mutable state. A key novel feature of iCAP is the ability to dene...

  5. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  6. SPR 2015. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The volume contains the abstracts of the SPR (society for pediatric radiology) 2015 meeting covering the following issues: fetal imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, cardiac imaging, chest imaging, oncologic imaging, tools for process improvement, child abuse, contrast enhanced ultrasound, image gently - update of radiation dose recording/reporting/monitoring - meaningful or useless meaning?, pediatric thoracic imaging, ALARA.

  7. Beyond the abstractions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2006-01-01

      The anniversary of the International Journal of Lifelong Education takes place in the middle of a conceptual landslide from lifelong education to lifelong learning. Contemporary discourses of lifelong learning etc are however abstractions behind which new functions and agendas for adult education...

  8. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  9. Circularity and Lambda Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Thiemann, Peter; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    unknowns from what is done to them, which we lambda-abstract with functions. The circular unknowns then become dead variables, which we eliminate. The result is a strict circu- lar program a la Pettorossi. This transformation is reversible: given a strict circular program a la Pettorossi, we introduce...

  10. SPR 2015. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-01

    The volume contains the abstracts of the SPR (society for pediatric radiology) 2015 meeting covering the following issues: fetal imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, cardiac imaging, chest imaging, oncologic imaging, tools for process improvement, child abuse, contrast enhanced ultrasound, image gently - update of radiation dose recording/reporting/monitoring - meaningful or useless meaning?, pediatric thoracic imaging, ALARA.

  11. Controlling groundwater over abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, Al Majd; Molle, Francois

    2017-01-01

    The control of groundwater over abstraction is a vexing problem worldwide. Jordan is one of the countries facing severe water scarcity which has implemented a wide range of measures and policies over the past 20 years. While the gap between formal legal and policy frameworks and local practices on

  12. Monadic abstract interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergey, Ilya; Devriese, Dominique; Might, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    to instrument an analysis with high-level strategies for improving precision and performance, such as abstract garbage collection and widening. While the paper itself runs the development for continuationpassing style, our generic implementation replays it for direct-style lambda-calculus and Featherweight Java...

  13. An investigation on the determinants of carbon emissions for OECD countries: empirical evidence from panel models robust to heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Eyup; Seker, Fahri

    2016-07-01

    This empirical study analyzes the impacts of real income, energy consumption, financial development and trade openness on CO2 emissions for the OECD countries in the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) model by using panel econometric approaches that consider issues of heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence. Results from the Pesaran CD test, the Pesaran-Yamagata's homogeneity test, the CADF and the CIPS unit root tests, the LM bootstrap cointegration test, the DSUR estimator, and the Emirmahmutoglu-Kose Granger causality test indicate that (i) the panel time-series data are heterogeneous and cross-sectionally dependent; (ii) CO2 emissions, real income, the quadratic income, energy consumption, financial development and openness are integrated of order one; (iii) the analyzed data are cointegrated; (iv) the EKC hypothesis is validated for the OECD countries; (v) increases in openness and financial development mitigate the level of emissions whereas energy consumption contributes to carbon emissions; (vi) a variety of Granger causal relationship is detected among the analyzed variables; and (vii) empirical results and policy recommendations are accurate and efficient since panel econometric models used in this study account for heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence in their estimation procedures.

  14. Empirical Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Talman, R.

    1986-08-01

    As proton accelerators get larger, and include more magnets, the conventional tracking programs which simulate them run slower. At the same time, in order to more carefully optimize the higher cost of the accelerators, they must return more accurate results, even in the presence of a longer list of realistic effects, such as magnet errors and misalignments. For these reasons conventional tracking programs continue to be computationally bound, despite the continually increasing computing power available. This limitation is especially severe for a class of problems in which some lattice parameter is slowly varying, when a faithful description is only obtained by tracking for an exceedingly large number of turns. Examples are synchrotron oscillations in which the energy varies slowly with a period of, say, hundreds of turns, or magnet ripple or noise on a comparably slow time scale. In these cases one may with to track for hundreds of periods of the slowly varying parameter. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method, still under development, in which element-by-element tracking around one turn is replaced by a single map, which can be processed far faster. Similar programs have already been written in which successive elements are ''concatenated'' with truncation to linear, sextupole, or octupole order, et cetera, using Lie algebraic techniques to preserve symplecticity. The method described here is rather more empirical than this but, in principle, contains information to all orders and is able to handle resonances in a more straightforward fashion

  15. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  16. Empirical evidence in the analysis of the environmental and energy policies of a series of industrialised nations, during the period 1960-1997, using widely employed macroeconomic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focacci, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    This article underlines the main implications of the interrelations between the energy problem and that of environmental pollution, using the most widely used macroeconomic indicators in the field of policy analysis. In fact, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission intensity and energy intensity trends may be used to highlight the most important features of economic development over a given time scale in a variety of different countries. The empirical analysis proposed here--covering a time-span of some 40 years in a number of the most highly industrialised nations--seems to be useful if we are to understand the main similarities and differences in the interaction between the energy choices made by different countries and their respective environmental effects. Moreover, by using PPPs, it has been possible to propose a more detailed cross-country analysis for the different international situations

  17. Ghana Science Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entsua-Mensah, C.

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the Ghana Science Abstracts combines in one publication all the country's bibliographic output in science and technology. The objective is to provide a quick reference source to facilitate the work of information professionals, research scientists, lecturers and policy makers. It is meant to give users an idea of the depth and scope and results of the studies and projects carried out. The scope and coverage comprise research outputs, conference proceedings and periodical articles published in Ghana. It does not capture those that were published outside Ghana. Abstracts reported have been grouped under the following subject areas: Agriculture, Biochemistry, Biodiversity conservation, biological sciences, biotechnology, chemistry, dentistry, engineering, environmental management, forestry, information management, mathematics, medicine, physics, nuclear science, pharmacy, renewable energy and science education

  18. Research Abstracts of 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    abscess formation and tissue necrosis, its relationship to periodontal pockets was investigated. Specimens were obtained from maxillary and mandibular...of Organisms and Periodontal Pockets." (Abstract 4853). 10. SIMONSON, Lo Go, LAMDERTS, B. L. and JACROLA, Do R. - "Effects of Dextranases and other...the tip of the periodontal probe rests within epithelium, at or slightly apical to the coronal extent of the junctional epithelium. The purpose of

  19. NPP life management (abstracts)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinskij, L.L.; Barbashev, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers presented at the International conference of the Ukrainian Nuclear Society 'NPP Life Management'. The following problems are considered: modernization of the NPP; NPP life management; waste and spent nuclear fuel management; decommissioning issues; control systems (including radiation and ecological control systems); information and control systems; legal and regulatory framework. State nuclear regulatory control; PR in nuclear power; training of personnel; economics of nuclear power engineering

  20. Research Abstracts of 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Third Molars in Naval Personnel,- (Abstract #1430) 7. A. SEROWSKI* and F. AKER --"The Effect of Marine and Fresh-Water Atmospheric Environments on...record to determine changes in surface coverage or other outcomes -- extraction, endodontic therapy , crown placement -- which occurred over time. The...MR0412002-0443. 0 e5 History of Retention and Extraction of Third Molars in Naval Personnel. D. C. SCHROEDER*, J. C. CECIL and M. E. COHEN. Naval

  1. DEGRO 2017. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-06-15

    The volume includes abstracts of the Annual DEGRO Meeting 2017 covering lectures and poster sessions with the following issues: lymphoma, biology, physics, radioimmunotherapy, sarcomas and rare tumors, prostate carcinoma, lung tumors, benign lesions and new media, mamma carcinoma, gastrointestinal tumors, quality of life, care science and quality assurance, high-technology methods and palliative situation, head-and-neck tumors, brain tumors, central nervous system metastases, guidelines, radiation sensitivity, radiotherapy, radioimmunotherapy.

  2. Medical physics 2013. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treuer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The proceedings of the medical physics conference 2013 include abstract of lectures and poster sessions concerning the following issues: Tele-therapy - application systems, nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, neuromodulation, hearing and technical support, basic dosimetry, NMR imaging -CEST (chemical exchange saturation transfer), medical robotics, magnetic particle imaging, audiology, radiation protection, phase contrast - innovative concepts, particle therapy, brachytherapy, computerized tomography, quantity assurance, hybrid imaging techniques, diffusion and lung NMR imaging, image processing - visualization, cardiac and abdominal NMR imaging.

  3. SPR 2014. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-05-15

    The proceedings of the SPR 2014 meeting include abstracts on the following topics: Body imaging techniques: practical advice for clinic work; thoracic imaging: focus on the lungs; gastrointestinal imaging: focus on the pancreas and bowel; genitourinary imaging: focus on gonadal radiology; muscoskeletal imaging; focus on oncology; child abuse and nor child abuse: focus on radiography; impact of NMR and CT imaging on management of CHD; education and communication: art and practice in pediatric radiology.

  4. SPR 2014. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The proceedings of the SPR 2014 meeting include abstracts on the following topics: Body imaging techniques: practical advice for clinic work; thoracic imaging: focus on the lungs; gastrointestinal imaging: focus on the pancreas and bowel; genitourinary imaging: focus on gonadal radiology; muscoskeletal imaging; focus on oncology; child abuse and nor child abuse: focus on radiography; impact of NMR and CT imaging on management of CHD; education and communication: art and practice in pediatric radiology.

  5. WWNPQFT-2011 - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, E.; Bender, C.; Culetu, H.; Fried, H.; Grossmann, A.; Hofmann, R.; Le Bellac, M.; Martinetti, P.; Muller, B.; Patras, F.; Raffaeli, B.; Vitting Andersen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The object of this workshop is to consolidate and publicize new efforts in non-perturbative field theories. This year the presentations deal with quantum gravity, non-commutative geometry, fat-tailed wave-functions, strongly coupled field theories, space-times two time-like dimensions, and multiplicative renormalization. A presentation is dedicated to the construction of a nucleon-nucleon potential from an analytical, non-perturbative gauge invariant QCD. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  6. Evidence-based care and the case for intuition and tacit knowledge in clinical assessment and decision making in mental health nursing practice: an empirical contribution to the debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, I; Lyons, C M

    2001-08-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence that challenges the view that methods of clinical assessment and decision making should not rely solely on logical positivist approaches. Whilst the National Health Service (NHS) Executive currently takes a hard positivist line on what constitutes evidence-based practice, data reveal that it is not always appropriate to disregard the tacit knowledge and intuition of experienced practitioners when making assessment decisions in mental health nursing practice. Data support the case for a holistic approach which may draw on intuition and tacit knowledge, as well as traditional approaches, to meet the requirements of clients with complex mental health problems. A model based on Schon's notion of reflection in and reflection on practice is proposed which demonstrates the value of intuition and tacit knowledge. This model allows the generation of insights which may ultimately be demonstrated to be acceptable and empirically testable. It is accepted that an element of risk taking is inevitable, but the inclusion of a formal analytical process into the model reduces the likelihood of inappropriate care interventions. The cognitive processes which experienced nurses use to make clinical decisions and their implications for practice will be explored.

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  8. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  9. What is the empirical evidence that hospitals with higher-risk adjusted mortality rates provide poorer quality care? A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mohammed A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing interest and publication of risk-adjusted hospital mortality rates, the relationship with underlying quality of care remains unclear. We undertook a systematic review to ascertain the extent to which variations in risk-adjusted mortality rates were associated with differences in quality of care. Methods We identified studies in which risk-adjusted mortality and quality of care had been reported in more than one hospital. We adopted an iterative search strategy using three databases – Medline, HealthSTAR and CINAHL from 1966, 1975 and 1982 respectively. We identified potentially relevant studies on the basis of the title or abstract. We obtained these papers and included those which met our inclusion criteria. Results From an initial yield of 6,456 papers, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several of these studies considered more than one process-versus-risk-adjusted mortality relationship. In total we found 51 such relationships in a widen range of clinical conditions using a variety of methods. A positive correlation between better quality of care and risk-adjusted mortality was found in under half the relationships (26/51 51% but the remainder showed no correlation (16/51 31% or a paradoxical correlation (9/51 18%. Conclusion The general notion that hospitals with higher risk-adjusted mortality have poorer quality of care is neither consistent nor reliable.

  10. Mathematical Abstraction: Constructing Concept of Parallel Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhasanah, F.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Sabandar, J.; Suryadi, D.

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical abstraction is an important process in teaching and learning mathematics so pre-service mathematics teachers need to understand and experience this process. One of the theoretical-methodological frameworks for studying this process is Abstraction in Context (AiC). Based on this framework, abstraction process comprises of observable epistemic actions, Recognition, Building-With, Construction, and Consolidation called as RBC + C model. This study investigates and analyzes how pre-service mathematics teachers constructed and consolidated concept of Parallel Coordinates in a group discussion. It uses AiC framework for analyzing mathematical abstraction of a group of pre-service teachers consisted of four students in learning Parallel Coordinates concepts. The data were collected through video recording, students’ worksheet, test, and field notes. The result shows that the students’ prior knowledge related to concept of the Cartesian coordinate has significant role in the process of constructing Parallel Coordinates concept as a new knowledge. The consolidation process is influenced by the social interaction between group members. The abstraction process taken place in this group were dominated by empirical abstraction that emphasizes on the aspect of identifying characteristic of manipulated or imagined object during the process of recognizing and building-with.

  11. A Comparison of Evidence-Based Estimates and Empirical Benchmarks of the Appropriate Rate of Use of Radiation Therapy in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackillop, William J.; Kong, Weidong; Brundage, Michael; Hanna, Timothy P.; Zhang-Salomons, Jina; McLaughlin, Pierre-Yves; Tyldesley, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Estimates of the appropriate rate of use of radiation therapy (RT) are required for planning and monitoring access to RT. Our objective was to compare estimates of the appropriate rate of use of RT derived from mathematical models, with the rate observed in a population of patients with optimal access to RT. Methods and Materials: The rate of use of RT within 1 year of diagnosis (RT 1Y ) was measured in the 134,541 cases diagnosed in Ontario between November 2009 and October 2011. The lifetime rate of use of RT (RT LIFETIME ) was estimated by the multicohort utilization table method. Poisson regression was used to evaluate potential barriers to access to RT and to identify a benchmark subpopulation with unimpeded access to RT. Rates of use of RT were measured in the benchmark subpopulation and compared with published evidence-based estimates of the appropriate rates. Results: The benchmark rate for RT 1Y , observed under conditions of optimal access, was 33.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33.0%-34.1%), and the benchmark for RT LIFETIME was 41.5% (95% CI, 41.2%-42.0%). Benchmarks for RT LIFETIME for 4 of 5 selected sites and for all cancers combined were significantly lower than the corresponding evidence-based estimates. Australian and Canadian evidence-based estimates of RT LIFETIME for 5 selected sites differed widely. RT LIFETIME in the overall population of Ontario was just 7.9% short of the benchmark but 20.9% short of the Australian evidence-based estimate of the appropriate rate. Conclusions: Evidence-based estimates of the appropriate lifetime rate of use of RT may overestimate the need for RT in Ontario

  12. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains the program and abstracts of the conference. The following topics are included: metal vapor molecular lasers, magnetohydrodynamics, rare gas halide and nuclear pumped lasers, transfer mechanisms in arcs, kinetic processes in rare gas halide lasers, arcs and flows, XeF kinetics and lasers, fundamental processes in excimer lasers, electrode effects and vacuum arcs, electron and ion transport, ion interactions and mobilities, glow discharges, diagnostics and afterglows, dissociative recombination, electron ionization and excitation, rare gas excimers and group VI lasers, breakdown, novel laser pumping techniques, electrode-related discharge phenomena, photon interactions, attachment, plasma chemistry and infrared lasers, electron scattering, and reactions of excited species

  13. Elements of abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Allan

    1984-01-01

    This concise, readable, college-level text treats basic abstract algebra in remarkable depth and detail. An antidote to the usual surveys of structure, the book presents group theory, Galois theory, and classical ideal theory in a framework emphasizing proof of important theorems.Chapter I (Set Theory) covers the basics of sets. Chapter II (Group Theory) is a rigorous introduction to groups. It contains all the results needed for Galois theory as well as the Sylow theorems, the Jordan-Holder theorem, and a complete treatment of the simplicity of alternating groups. Chapter III (Field Theory)

  14. SPR 2017. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-05-15

    The conference proceedings SPR 2017 include abstracts on the following issues: gastrointestinal radiography - inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular CTA, general muscoskeletal radiology, muscoskeletal congenital development diseases, general pediatric radiology - chest, muscoskeletal imaging - marrow and infectious disorders, state-of-the-art body MR imaging, practical pediatric sonography, quality and professionalism, CT imaging in congenital heart diseases, radiographic courses, body MT techniques, contrast enhanced ultrasound, machine learning, forensic imaging, the radiation dos conundrum - reconciling imaging, imagining and managing, the practice of radiology, interventional radiology, neuroradiology, PET/MR.

  15. Ghana energy abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entsua-Mensah, Clement

    1994-01-01

    Ghana Energy Abstracts 1994 is the first issue of an annual publication of the Energy information Centre. The aim is to combine in one publication the country' s bibliographic output on energy so as to provide a valuable source of reference for policy makers, planners,and researchers. It covers the broad spectrum of energy including; energy conservation, energy resource management, petroleum and renewable energy resources.The documents listed comprise research reports, baseline studies,conference proceedings, periodical articles dissertations and theses. Keywords and author indexes have been provided to facilitate easy reference. (C.E.M)

  16. Parameterized Dataflow (Extended Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Duggan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dataflow networks have application in various forms of stream processing, for example for parallel processing of multimedia data. The description of dataflow graphs, including their firing behavior, is typically non-compositional and not amenable to separate compilation. This article considers a dataflow language with a type and effect system that captures the firing behavior of actors. This system allows definitions to abstract over actor firing rates, supporting the definition and safe composition of actor definitions where firing rates are not instantiated until a dataflow graph is launched.

  17. ESPR 2015. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The volume includes the abstracts of the ESPR 2015 covering the following topics: PCG (post graduate courses): Radiography; fluoroscopy and general issue; nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and hybrid imaging, pediatric CT, pediatric ultrasound; MRI in childhood. Scientific sessions and task force sessions: International aspects; neuroradiology, neonatal imaging, engineering techniques to simulate injury in child abuse, CT - dose and quality, challenges in the chest, cardiovascular and chest, muscoskeletal, oncology, pediatric uroradiology and abdominal imaging, fetal and postmortem imaging, education and global challenges, neuroradiology - head and neck, gastrointestinal and genitourinary.

  18. ABSTRACTION OF DRIFT SEEPAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS MandO 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS MandO 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology, determining uncertainties in seepage, and providing

  19. IPR 2016. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-05-15

    The volume on the meeting of pediatric radiology includes abstract on the following issues: chest, cardiovascular system, neuroradiology, CT radiation DRs (diagnostic reference levels) and dose reporting guidelines, genitourinary imaging, gastrointestinal radiology, oncology an nuclear medicine, whole body imaging, fetal/neonates imaging, child abuse, oncology and hybrid imaging, value added imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, dose and radiation safety, imaging children - immobilization and distraction techniques, information - education - QI and healthcare policy, ALARA, the knowledge skills and competences for a technologist/radiographer in pediatric radiology, full exploitation of new technological features in pediatric CT, image quality issues in pediatrics, abdominal imaging, interventional radiology, MR contrast agents, tumor - mass imaging, cardiothoracic imaging, ultrasonography.

  20. ESPR 2015. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-05-10

    The volume includes the abstracts of the ESPR 2015 covering the following topics: PCG (post graduate courses): Radiography; fluoroscopy and general issue; nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and hybrid imaging, pediatric CT, pediatric ultrasound; MRI in childhood. Scientific sessions and task force sessions: International aspects; neuroradiology, neonatal imaging, engineering techniques to simulate injury in child abuse, CT - dose and quality, challenges in the chest, cardiovascular and chest, muscoskeletal, oncology, pediatric uroradiology and abdominal imaging, fetal and postmortem imaging, education and global challenges, neuroradiology - head and neck, gastrointestinal and genitourinary.