WorldWideScience

Sample records for abstract empirical evidence

  1. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  2. A Quantitative Empirical Analysis of the Abstract/Concrete Distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Felix; Korhonen, Anna; Bentz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study presents original evidence that abstract and concrete concepts are organized and represented differently in the mind, based on analyses of thousands of concepts in publicly available data sets and computational resources. First, we show that abstract and concrete concepts have differing patterns of association with other concepts.…

  3. Corruption and Education: Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Dridi

    2014-01-01

    Corruption is widely believed to be detrimental to economic performance. However, little empirical evidence has been presented to assess its consequences on education.Using various education indicators, this paper aims to examine the effects of corruption on education both from a quantitative and qualitative point of view. The cross - country regression analysis shows a strong link between corruption and secondary school enrollment rates, but the relationship between corruption and education ...

  4. Supporting graduation programs through empirical evidence and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting graduation programs through empirical evidence and leadership promotion. This project will support the scaling up of locally-tested interventions aimed at improving the livelihoods of women and youth in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. It targets special interventions for people who have fallen through the cracks ...

  5. Intuitive Expertise: Theories and Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteis, Christian; Billett, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Intuition has been long seen as an element of effective human performance in demanding tasks (i.e. expertise). But its form, constitutive elements and development remain subject to diverse explanations. This paper discusses these elements and explores theories and empirical evidence about what constitutes intuitive expertise, and offers an account…

  6. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  7. Analyzing Mathematics Textbooks through a Constructive-Empirical Perspective on Abstraction: The Case of Pythagoras' Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Lin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at analyzing how Pythagoras' theorem is handled in three versions of Taiwanese textbooks using a conceptual framework of a constructive-empirical perspective on abstraction, which comprises three key attributes: the generality of the object, the connectivity of the subject and the functionality of diagrams as the focused semiotic…

  8. Governance and Human Development: Empirical Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study empirically investigates the effects of governance on human development in Nigeria. Using annual time series data covering the period 1998 to 2010, obtained from various sources, and employing the classical least squares estimation technique, the study finds that corruption, foreign aid and government ...

  9. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University Health Services. Ahmadu Bella University, Zaria, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. Phywieo-chemical methods were used to analyse the commonly used lcualt samples bought from Zaria and Kano local markets. Blood-leadaoncentrations in ltuali ...

  10. Analogical scaffolding and the learning of abstract ideas in physics: Empirical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah S. Podolefsky

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we proposed a model of student reasoning which combines the roles of representation, analogy, and layering of meaning—analogical scaffolding [Podolefsky and Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 010109 (2007]. The present empirical studies build on this model to examine its utility and demonstrate the vital intertwining of representation, analogy, and conceptual learning in physics. In two studies of student reasoning using analogy, we show that representations couple to students’ existing prior knowledge and also lead to the dynamic formation of new knowledge. Students presented with abstract, concrete, or blended (both abstract and concrete representations produced markedly different response patterns. In the first study, using analogies to scaffold understanding of electromagnetic (EM waves, students in the blend group were more likely to reason productively about EM waves than students in the abstract group by as much as a factor of 3 (73% vs 24% correct, p=0.002. In the second study, examining representation use within one domain (sound waves, the blend group was more likely to reason productively about sound waves than the abstract group by as much as a factor of 2 (48% vs 23% correct, p=0.002. Using the analogical scaffolding model we examine when and why students succeed and fail to use analogies and interpret representations appropriately.

  11. Analogical scaffolding and the learning of abstract ideas in physics: Empirical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah D. Finkelstein

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we proposed a model of student reasoning which combines the roles of representation, analogy, and layering of meaning—analogical scaffolding [Podolefsky and Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 010109 (2007]. The present empirical studies build on this model to examine its utility and demonstrate the vital intertwining of representation, analogy, and conceptual learning in physics. In two studies of student reasoning using analogy, we show that representations couple to students’ existing prior knowledge and also lead to the dynamic formation of new knowledge. Students presented with abstract, concrete, or blended (both abstract and concrete representations produced markedly different response patterns. In the first study, using analogies to scaffold understanding of electromagnetic (EM waves, students in the blend group were more likely to reason productively about EM waves than students in the abstract group by as much as a factor of 3 (73% vs 24% correct, p=0.002 . In the second study, examining representation use within one domain (sound waves, the blend group was more likely to reason productively about sound waves than the abstract group by as much as a factor of 2 (48% vs 23% correct, p=0.002 . Using the analogical scaffolding model we examine when and why students succeed and fail to use analogies and interpret representations appropriately.

  12. Empirical Evidence from Kaduna State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Madukwe

    Department of Agricultural Economics/Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Abuja, Nigeria (juliusajah2@yahoo.com). Abstract. The main objective of the study was to determine if significant difference existed in gender daily wage rates (wage rate/day) in farm production activities. Multi-stage technique was used for ...

  13. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francis

    Abstract. Aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts from the leaves of Ficus religiosa, Thespesia populnea and Hibiscus tiliaceus were completely screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity. The chloroform extract of F. religiosa possessed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity with a zone of inhibition of 10 to 21 ...

  14. Abstract,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract·. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of overso~ing legumes on ~a~gela~d pe'rtormance in. Shinyanga'region, Tanzania. Four leguminous species namely Centrosema pubescence, Clito-':iii ternatea,. cMacroptilium atropurpureum and Stylosanthes hamata were Qversown in. a"natural ran,geland in a.

  15. Abstract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    Abstract. For well over three hundred years, the monsoon has been considered to be a gigantic land-sea breeze driven by the land-ocean contrast in surface temperature. In this paper, this hypothesis ..... primary driver of the monsoon in many papers and most textbooks (e.g. Lau and Li, 1984,. Webster 1987a, Meehl 1994, ...

  16. ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Email: jameskigera@yahoo.co.uk. ABSTRACT. Background: Implant orthopaedic surgery is associated with a risk of post operative Surgical Site. Infection (SSI). This can have devastating consequences in the case of arthroplasty. Due to the less than ideal circumstances under which surgery is conducted in Africa, there are ...

  17. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WORKERS ON THEIR JOB PERFORMANCE IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA. NGOZI OKEREKE AND no. ONU. ABSTRACT. The study focused on the. efl'ect of socioeconomic characteristics of field extension workers on their job performance in.1mo state agricultural development programme, Nigeria. Data was collected with the ...

  18. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    Abstract. Many mathematical models of stochastic dynamical systems were based on the assumption that the drift and volatility coefficients were linear function of the solution. In this work, we arrive at the drift and the volatility by observing the dynamics of change in the selected stocks in a sufficiently small interval t∆ .

  19. Influence of Religiosity on Turnover Intention: Empirical Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Religiosity on Turnover Intention: Empirical Evidence from Selected Employees in Lagos and Ogun States. Elizabeth I. Olowookere, Olujide A. Adekeye, Gbadebo O. Adejumo, Benedict. C. Agoha, Muyiwa A. Sholarin ...

  20. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    viral activity has been observed for halofantrine, amodiaquine and mepacrine.” The clinical significance of these findings is uncertain“"”-. There is some evidence that HIV protease inhibitors may alter disease outcomes of colnfected patients.

  1. Return migration: theory and empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Dustmann, C.; Weiss, Y.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss forms of migration that are non-permanent. We focus on temporary migrations where the decision to return is taken by the immigrant. These migrations are likely to be frequent, and we provide some evidence for the UK. We then develop a simple model which rationalizes the decision of a migrant to return to his home country, despite a persistently higher wage in the host country. We consider three motives for a temporary migration: Differences in relative prices in host-...

  2. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleakley CM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chris M Bleakley,1 François Bieuzen,2 Gareth W Davison,1 Joseph T Costello3 1Sport and Exercise Science Research Institute, Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland; 2Research Department, Laboratory of Sport, Expertise and Performance, French National Institute of Sport (INSEP, Paris, France; 3School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia Abstract: Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC involves short exposures to air temperatures below –100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable

  3. ABSTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Stefano Sabino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe and to analyze the integration observed in the Sintonia project with respect to the comparison of project management processes to the model of the Stage-Gate ®. The literature addresses these issues conceptually, but lack an alignment between them that is evident in practice. As a method was used single case study. The report is as if the Sintonia project, developed by PRODESP - Data Processing Company of São Paulo. The results show the integration of project management processes with the Stage-Gate model developed during the project life cycle. The formalization of the project was defined in stages in which allowed the exploitation of economies of repetition and recombination to the development of new projects. This study contributes to the technical vision in dealing with the integration of project management processes. It was concluded that this system represents an attractive way, in terms of creating economic value and technological innovation for the organization.

  4. Innovation and productivity: empirical evidence for Brazilian industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to carry out an empirical investigation into the relationship between innovation and the productive performance of Brazilian businesses measured by Work Productivity and Total Factor Productivity. Data taken from the Research of Innovation and estimated cross section models and panel data was used. The results suggest that innovation produces an incipient impact on competition in the national industry, reflected in the small magnitude of coefficients associated with the diverse indicators of innovation.

  5. Credit risk determinants analysis: Empirical evidence from Chinese commercial banks

    OpenAIRE

    LU, ZONGQI

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In order to investigate the potential determinants of credit risk in Chinese commercial banks, a panel dataset includes 342 bank-year observations from 2003 to 2012 in Chinese commercial banks are used to quantify the relationship between the selected variables and Chinese bank’s credit risk. Based on several robust test, the empirical results suggest the inflation rate and loan loss provision is significantly positive to Chinese commercial banks’ credit risk, on the other hand, m...

  6. Factors Affecting Quality of Audit; Empirical Evidence from Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines factors affecting quality of audit using empirical evidence from Iran Quality of audit was seen as the degree to which an audit report is free from deficiencies and distortions which show up later on. The quality of an audit was measured in terms of an auditor's ability to report financial distortions willingly ...

  7. A Review of Empirical Evidence on Scaffolding for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Shu-Sheng; Changlai, Maio-Li; Yang, Kun-Yuan; Lai, Ting-Ling

    2012-01-01

    This content analysis of articles in the Social Science Citation Index journals from 1995 to 2009 was conducted to provide science educators with empirical evidence regarding the effects of scaffolding on science learning. It clarifies the definition, design, and implementation of scaffolding in science classrooms and research studies. The results…

  8. Empirical Evidence or Intuition? An Activity Involving the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overway, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Students need to have basic understanding of scientific method during their introductory science classes and for this purpose an activity was devised which involved a game based on famous Monty Hall game problem. This particular activity allowed students to banish or confirm their intuition based on empirical evidence.

  9. ICT Pathways to Poverty Reduction: Empirical Evidence from East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This book provides new empirical evidence on access to and use of ICTs and their effect on poor households in four East African countries: Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania ... Adera, Timothy M. Waema, Julian May, Ophelia Mascarenhas, and Kathleen Diga. Maison(s) d'édition : Practical Action Publishing, IDRC. 14 janvier 2014.

  10. Farm household risk balancing: empirical evidence from Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mey, de Yann; Wauters, E.; Schmid, D.; Passel, van S.; Vancauteren, Mark; Lips, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the first empirical evidence on household risk balancing behavior, i.e., strategic off-farm decisions in response to changes in expected business risk. Using Swiss FADN data, we estimate a fixed effects seemingly unrelated regression model to analyze how farm households jointly

  11. Decentralised Governance, Transparency and Accountability: Empirical Evidence from West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Md Nazrul Islam

    2004-01-01

    Decentralised governance has been conceived as an instrument for promoting development. It is expected to facilitate effective people’s participation, enhance degree of transparency and ensure greater accountability. This paper examines the relationship between decentralised governance and transparency as well as accountability in the light of empirical evidence. The study reveals that transparency and accountability can be enhanced at the grass roots level by strengthening institutions of de...

  12. Judgments under competition and uncertainty : empirical evidence from online poker

    OpenAIRE

    Engelbergs, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Playing poker has many aspects in common with the making of business decisions. Agents act in a strategically rich, dynamic environment, where they are repeatedly facing competition under uncertain prospects. Their main goal is to maximize their resources. However simple this goal is put down, it is difficult to fulfill. As vast and rich research has shown, heuristics and biases affect human decision-making. This work adds to these findings by providing empirical evidence for behavioral patte...

  13. Abstract: Making Evidence Based Changes on the Labor Ward of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All these things can lead to increased maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. ... Important evidence based changes in clinical care have been made at Muhima hospital by having staff research the internet and teach each other both didactic and clinical content with the support of advanced students and USI HRH ...

  14. Motives and chances of firm diversification: theory and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briglauer, W.

    2001-11-01

    It is beyond controversy that the majority of the largest companies in the industrialized countries perform to a certain extent product diversification strategies. Tying up to this finding the underlying work firstly deals with alternative theoretical and empirical definitions of corporate diversification. Subsequently the theoretical part mainly elaborates an industrial economic framework for categorizing motives of firm diversification. Despite of some inevitable degree of arbitrariness, a relatively widespread and sufficient categorization can be presented. With regards to the relevant economic literature most explanations of product diversification can be classified appropriately. Observing diversification activities one would prima facie infer a positive relationship between product diversification and firm performance, but both, theory and empirical evidence, yield ambiguous results. The empirical part provides a list of existing studies, classified according to the theoretical categorization. In an overview some stylised facts are filtered and discussed consecutively. Most notably, it was found that related diversification strategies significantly outperform strategies of unrelated diversification. At the end of the empirical section econometric methods are applied to agricultural and industrial economic (relating to telecommunication markets) data sets. For the agricultural studies a significantly positive relationship between product diversification and firm performance was found. In contrast no significant results were obtained for the telecommunication markets. (author)

  15. The Role of Students’ Emotional Intelligence: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalio Extremera Pacheco

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence (EI has attracted great interest in the field of education as a vehicle to improve the socioemotional development of students. The first publications that appeared made a great number of claims about the positive influence of emotional intelligence in the classroom. The only problem was that not all these claims were coupled with empirical research to show, on the one hand, the predictive level of EI, and on the other hand, the actual role of EI in different areas of life. It has been only recently that the effect of a high level of EI exercises on people has been investigated. The object of this article is to examine the most relevant empirical research done within the educational setting, in order to collect the existing evidence for the influence of EI, evaluated by different instruments, in the personal, social and scholastic functioning of students.

  16. NEW EVIDENCE FOR AN INFRASTRUCTURAL INVESTMENT CYCLE (ABSTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Malone

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the theoretical origins of an infrastructural investment cycle in the works of Marx, Kondratieff, and Schumpeter, and examines evidence of a cyclical pattern in federal spending for transportation infrastructure in nineteenth century America. Investments of this type, given the large-scale of capital formation required in the development of transportation systems, are distinguished by their considerable durability and irregular placement and replacement. A cycle running over a twenty to fifty year interval from the creation to the final depreciation of transportation infrastructure is suggested, but never substantiated, by these renowned theorists of the business cycle.New time series data for total federal expenditures for roads and canals, light houses, and rivers and harbors from 1800 to 1882 in the United States unambiguously show that investments in these major transportation systems increase dramatically at the onset of trough phases in the business cycle overthe same period of time. Nineteenth century federal expenditures for transportation thus point to the potential rewards of pursuing further research on the possibility that such countercydical public spending was deliberate on the part of the United States government, before the birth of Lord Keynes.

  17. AN APPROACH TO THE EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT THROUGH EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Sanz Labrador

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the empiral evidences of standardized evaluations and explores the aspects of such evaluations more interesting to the educational community, and investigates the effects in implementing those exams on the performance of students. Furthermore, it is analyzed the relationship between external evaluations and teaching to the test , it is seen how it affects the introduction of these evaluations in student learning and their performance in international assessments of different characteristics, and the effect it produces in schools located in disadvantaged areas.

  18. Phillips and Wage Curves: Empirical Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Omerčević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an empirical examination of the existence and characteristics of the Phillips curve and the wage curve in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The findings indicate that there is no evidence of the existence of the short-term Phillips curve. Instead, the data suggests that in the short-term an increase in inflation leads to an increase in unemployment. The estimated wage curves indicate that only increases in real payment increase employment. The conclusion of this study is that increases in inflation might have a negative short-term impact on the level of employment in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  19. Evidence-based ethics? On evidence-based practice and the "empirical turn" from normative bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Maya J

    2005-11-08

    The increase in empirical methods of research in bioethics over the last two decades is typically perceived as a welcomed broadening of the discipline, with increased integration of social and life scientists into the field and ethics consultants into the clinical setting, however it also represents a loss of confidence in the typical normative and analytic methods of bioethics. The recent incipiency of "Evidence-Based Ethics" attests to this phenomenon and should be rejected as a solution to the current ambivalence toward the normative resolution of moral problems in a pluralistic society. While "evidence-based" is typically read in medicine and other life and social sciences as the empirically-adequate standard of reasonable practice and a means for increasing certainty, I propose that the evidence-based movement in fact gains consensus by displacing normative discourse with aggregate or statistically-derived empirical evidence as the "bottom line". Therefore, along with wavering on the fact/value distinction, evidence-based ethics threatens bioethics' normative mandate. The appeal of the evidence-based approach is that it offers a means of negotiating the demands of moral pluralism. Rather than appealing to explicit values that are likely not shared by all, "the evidence" is proposed to adjudicate between competing claims. Quantified measures are notably more "neutral" and democratic than liberal markers like "species normal functioning". Yet the positivist notion that claims stand or fall in light of the evidence is untenable; furthermore, the legacy of positivism entails the quieting of empirically non-verifiable (or at least non-falsifiable) considerations like moral claims and judgments. As a result, evidence-based ethics proposes to operate with the implicit normativity that accompanies the production and presentation of all biomedical and scientific facts unchecked. The "empirical turn" in bioethics signals a need for reconsideration of the methods used

  20. Persistent Educational Advantage Across Three Generations: Empirical Evidence for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ziefle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP to analyze the persistence of educational attainment across three generations in Germany. I obtain evidence of a robust effect of grandparents' education on respondents' own educational attainment in West Germany, net of parental class, education, occupational status, family income, parents' relationship history, and family size. I also test whether the grandparent effect results from resource compensation or cumulative advantage and find empirical support for both mechanisms. In comparison, the intergenerational association between grandparents' and respondents' education is considerably weaker in East Germany and is also mediated completely by parental education. There are hardly any gender differences in the role of grandparents for respondents’ educational attainment, except for the fact that resource compensation is found to be exclusively relevant for women’s attainment in both West Germany and in East Germany after German reunification and the associated transition to an open educational system.

  1. Business models of micro businesses: Empirical evidence from creative industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeifer Sanja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Business model describes how a business identifies and creates value for customers and how it organizes itself to capture some of this value in a profitable manner. Previous studies of business models in creative industries have only recently identified the unresolved issues in this field of research. The main objective of this article is to analyse the structure and diversity of business models and to deduce how these components interact or change in the context of micro and small businesses in creative services such as advertising, architecture and design. The article uses a qualitative approach. Case studies and semi-structured, in-depth interviews with six owners/managers of micro businesses in Croatia provide rich data. Structural coding in data analysis has been performed manually. The qualitative analysis has indicative relevance for the assessment and comparison of business models, however, it provides insights into which components of business models seem to be consolidated and which seem to contribute to the diversity of business models in creative industries. The article contributes to the advancement of empirical evidence and conceptual constructs that might lead to more advanced methodological approaches and proposition of the core typologies or classifications of business models in creative industries. In addition, a more detailed mapping of different choices available in managing value creation, value capturing or value networking might be a valuable help for owners/managers who want to change or cross-fertilize their business models.

  2. Endogenizing technological change. Matching empirical evidence to modeling needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizer, William A. [Resources for the Future, 1616 P Street NW, Washington, DC, 20009 (United States); Popp, David [Department of Public Administration, Center for Policy Research, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University, 426 Eggers Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244-1020 (United States); National Bureau of Economic Research (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Given that technologies to significantly reduce fossil fuel emissions are currently unavailable or only available at high cost, technological change will be a key component of any long-term strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In light of this, the amount of research on the pace, direction, and benefits of environmentally-friendly technological change has grown dramatically in recent years. This research includes empirical work estimating the magnitude of these effects, and modeling exercises designed to simulate the importance of endogenous technological change in response to climate policy. Unfortunately, few attempts have been made to connect these two streams of research. This paper attempts to bridge that gap. We review both the empirical and modeling literature on technological change. Our focus includes the research and development process, learning by doing, the role of public versus private research, and technology diffusion. Our goal is to provide an agenda for how both empirical and modeling research in these areas can move forward in a complementary fashion. In doing so, we discuss both how models used for policy evaluation can better capture empirical phenomena, and how empirical research can better address the needs of models used for policy evaluation. (author)

  3. Endogenizing technological change: Matching empirical evidence to modeling needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizer, William A. [Resources for the Future, 1616 P Street NW, Washington, DC, 20009 (United States)], E-mail: pizer@rff.org; Popp, David [Department of Public Administration, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University, 426 Eggers Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244-1020 (United States); National Bureau of Economic Research (United States)], E-mail: dcpopp@maxwell.syr.edu

    2008-11-15

    Given that technologies to significantly reduce fossil fuel emissions are currently unavailable or only available at high cost, technological change will be a key component of any long-term strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In light of this, the amount of research on the pace, direction, and benefits of environmentally-friendly technological change has grown dramatically in recent years. This research includes empirical work estimating the magnitude of these effects, and modeling exercises designed to simulate the importance of endogenous technological change in response to climate policy. Unfortunately, few attempts have been made to connect these two streams of research. This paper attempts to bridge that gap. We review both the empirical and modeling literature on technological change. Our focus includes the research and development process, learning by doing, the role of public versus private research, and technology diffusion. Our goal is to provide an agenda for how both empirical and modeling research in these areas can move forward in a complementary fashion. In doing so, we discuss both how models used for policy evaluation can better capture empirical phenomena, and how empirical research can better address the needs of models used for policy evaluation.

  4. Empirical evidence for site coefficients in building code provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Site-response coefficients, Fa and Fv, used in U.S. building code provisions are based on empirical data for motions up to 0.1 g. For larger motions they are based on theoretical and laboratory results. The Northridge earthquake of 17 January 1994 provided a significant new set of empirical data up to 0.5 g. These data together with recent site characterizations based on shear-wave velocity measurements provide empirical estimates of the site coefficients at base accelerations up to 0.5 g for Site Classes C and D. These empirical estimates of Fa and Fnu; as well as their decrease with increasing base acceleration level are consistent at the 95 percent confidence level with those in present building code provisions, with the exception of estimates for Fa at levels of 0.1 and 0.2 g, which are less than the lower confidence bound by amounts up to 13 percent. The site-coefficient estimates are consistent at the 95 percent confidence level with those of several other investigators for base accelerations greater than 0.3 g. These consistencies and present code procedures indicate that changes in the site coefficients are not warranted. Empirical results for base accelerations greater than 0.2 g confirm the need for both a short- and a mid- or long-period site coefficient to characterize site response for purposes of estimating site-specific design spectra.

  5. Entrepreneurship Education in Schools: Empirical Evidence on the Teacher's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskovaara, Elena; Pihkala, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Different approaches and methodologies for entrepreneurship education have been introduced for schools. However, a better theoretical and empirical understanding of the antecedents of entrepreneurship education is needed. The authors analyze what entrepreneurship education practices are used in schools and what role the school and the teacher are…

  6. The Role of Empirical Evidence in Modeling Speech Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Choosing specific implementational details is one of the most important aspects of creating and evaluating a model. In order to properly model cognitive processes, choices for these details must be made based on empirical research. Unfortunately, modelers are often forced to make decisions in the absence of relevant data. My work investigates the…

  7. What should we mean by empirical validation in hypnotherapy: evidence-based practice in clinical hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladin, Assen; Sabatini, Linda; Amundson, Jon K

    2007-04-01

    This paper briefly surveys the trend of and controversy surrounding empirical validation in psychotherapy. Empirical validation of hypnotherapy has paralleled the practice of validation in psychotherapy and the professionalization of clinical psychology, in general. This evolution in determining what counts as evidence for bona fide clinical practice has gone from theory-driven clinical approaches in the 1960s and 1970s through critical attempts at categorization of empirically supported therapies in the 1990s on to the concept of evidence-based practice in 2006. Implications of this progression in professional psychology are discussed in the light of hypnosis's current quest for validation and empirical accreditation.

  8. Corporate Governance and Firm Value: Empirical Evidence in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Mabel Yunn Ru

    2009-01-01

    Well governed firms have been noted to have higher firm performance. However, this is still an empirical question in the context of Malaysia. This paper aims to examine the effect of corporate governance practices on firm value among 151 public listed companies on Bursa Malaysia Main Board between 2006 and 2008. We use the overall governance practice scores (CGS) to measure the level of compliance carried out by the sample firms. The results find that better corporate governance is highly cor...

  9. Does Political Reservation Affect Voting Behavior? Empirical Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Yuko; Kurosaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of political reservation for disadvantaged groups on voting behavior. Using microdata from the National Election Study of the 2004 parliamentary elections in India, we find that in a reserved constituency, where only members of the disadvantaged castes can stand for election, voters of the disadvantaged castes are encouraged to vote. On the other hand, the system of constituency reservation does not have any impact on the turnout of voters belonging ...

  10. Empirical evidence of direct rebound effect in Catalonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire Gonzalez, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature concerning the direct rebound effect in households; it briefly analyzes the main theoretical and methodological aspects, and finally estimates the magnitude of direct rebound effect for all energy services using electricity in households of Catalonia (Spain) using econometric techniques. The main results show an estimated direct rebound effect of 35% in the short term and 49% in the long term. The existence of a rebound effect reduces the effectiveness of energy efficiency policies.

  11. Climate Change and Maize Production: Empirical Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Madukwe

    Abstract. The study examined the adaptation strategies to climate change in Oke. Ogun Area of South Western Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select two of the ten local government areas in the area, two wards in each LGA,6 communities in each ward, from which a total of. 160 out of 800 food crop ...

  12. Determinants of Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Ledyaeva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A modification of Barro and Sala-i-Martin empirical framework of growth model is specified to examine determinants of per capita growth in 74 Russian regions during period of 1996-2005. We utilize both panel and cross-sectional data. Results imply that in general regional growth in 1996-2005 is explained by the initial level of region's economic development, the 1998 financial crisis, domestic investments, and exports. Growth convergence between poor and rich regions in Russia was not found for the period studied.

  13. What drives adult personality development? : A comparison of theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, J.; Bleidorn, W.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Hennecke, M.; Hutteman, R.; Luhmann, M.; Orth, U.; Reitz, A.K.; Zimmerman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing numbers of empirical studies provide compelling evidence that personality traits change across the entire lifespan. What initiates this continuing personality development and how does this development proceed? In this paper, we compare six theoretical perspectives that offer testable

  14. Emotional competence in children with autism: Diagnostic criteria and empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begeer, S.; Koot, H.M.; Rieffe, C.J.; Meerum Terwogt, M.; Stegge, G.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include emotional impairments. However, scientific evidence for these impairments is varied and subtle. In this contribution, recent empirical studies that examined the emotional competence in children and adolescents with ASD are reviewed.

  15. The growth of business firms: theoretical framework and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dongfeng; Pammolli, Fabio; Buldyrev, S V; Riccaboni, Massimo; Matia, Kaushik; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Stanley, H Eugene

    2005-12-27

    We introduce a model of proportional growth to explain the distribution P(g)(g) of business-firm growth rates. The model predicts that P(g)(g) is exponential in the central part and depicts an asymptotic power-law behavior in the tails with an exponent zeta = 3. Because of data limitations, previous studies in this field have been focusing exclusively on the Laplace shape of the body of the distribution. In this article, we test the model at different levels of aggregation in the economy, from products to firms to countries, and we find that the predictions of the model agree with empirical growth distributions and size-variance relationships.

  16. AN EMPIRICAL EXAMINATION OF ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION. EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru CONSTANGIOARA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the desired performances and the increased value added to the final consumer, organizations need not only to integrate their core businesses and align them to business strategy but also to develop essential entrepreneurial competences. After presenting the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation and their specificity in a supply chain, we propose an empirical research using a working dataset of 64 firms from various industries to analyze the Romanian entrepreneurial supply chains. Structural equations are employed to estimate the complex relationships between organizational performances and entrepreneurial orientation in supply chains at national level. Results show that entrepreneurial orientation influences organizational competences only in the framework of the supply chain management strategic approach to operational excellence.

  17. Infrastructure and inequality: An empirical evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amien Makmuri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is an attempt to study the empirical relationship between infrastructure and income inequality in Indonesia. It uses regression analysis with panel data set covering 32 provinces in the period of 2007–2013 in order to estimate whether the infrastructure has positive or negative effects on income inequality. We use a conventional income inequality measure, Gini index. The model is estimated by simple pooled OLS, fixed-effect and random-effect models. To overcome the endogeneity problem, infrastructures quantity and quality indicators enter the regressions with one-year lag. We find that road and telecommunication quantities tend to boost income inequality, while electricity quantity, airport quantity, and airport quality have a favorable impact on the distribution of income and help to alleviate income inequality. Whereas, when these different categories of infrastructure are formed as synthetic indices, the relation between these indices and income inequality lends support to the idea that infrastructure increases income inequality.

  18. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON DYNAMICS OF CREDIT GROWTH AND FOREIGN RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrugan Sinah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a model for looking into the nature of change in foreign reserve from movements in domestic credit. This model is relevant to foreign reserve targeting, small and open economies. The model denotes that measures undertaken by central banks to constraint domestic credit growth with the view of controlling capital outflows will also be detrimental to foreign reserves level. The empirical studies with application of Fourier Transformation technique have been used to build a model, which shows that growth in domestic credit is more biased towards positive swings in foreign reserves, rather than being unfavorable. The small and open economies, particularly, the Pacific Island nations, have the right set up for application of this model to safeguard foreign reserves level.

  19. The rebound effect for heavy industry: Empirical evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Li, Jianglong

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency improvement will reduce the effective price of energy services, and hence at least partially mitigate original expected energy conservation. Therefore, the magnitude of rebound effect is important for the design and timing of an effective energy conservation policy. Under the framework of translog cost share equations, we estimates the direct rebound effect for heavy industry in China for the first time by conducting an empirical research on the relationship between the direct rebound effect and the ease with which energy services can substitute for other inputs. Additionally, asymmetric price responses are specified in the model for the rebound effect estimation. Empirical results in our paper indicate that the rebound effect for heavy industry in China is about 74.3%. This reveals that energy efficiency improvement can save energy to a certain degree since the rebound effect is less than 100% (“back-fire”), but most of the expected reduction in heavy industry energy consumption is mitigated. These findings prove that energy pricing reforms and energy taxes should be further implemented to achieve effective energy conservation in China’s 12th Five Years Plan. - Highlights: • Heavy industry is energy intensive and accounts for over 60% of China’s energy consumption. • Direct rebound effect for heavy industry in China is estimated for the first time. • Asymmetric price responses are specified in the model for the direct rebound effect estimation. • Finding the existence of direct rebound effect in China’s heavy industry with a magnitude of 74.3%. • Proving that energy pricing reforms and energy taxes should be further implemented

  20. Monetary Policy and Financial Asset Prices: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Umer Chhapra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monetary transmission mechanism assumed to be significantly influenced by the effect of policy decisions on financial markets. However, various previous studies have come up with different outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of monetary policy on different asset classes (shares and bonds in Pakistan. This study using stock price and bond yield as dependent variable and discount rate, money supply, inflation, and exchange rate are independent variables. Data of all variables have collected from 2010 to 2016, and Vector Autoregressive (VAR technique has applied. The empirical results indicate that there is an impact of monetary policy components on both stock and bond market as an increase in policy rate causes decline in stocks prices and bonds yields. The findings of this study will help the potential investors in making long-term (in general and short-term (in particular investment strategies concerning monetary policy.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v7i2.7099

  1. Is a night better than a day: Empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Deshkovski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the portfolio allocation based on time asymmetry of stock characteristics. In particular, we analyzed the empirical data of changes in financial stock prices during the day period and during the night period and have found that characteristics such as mean and variance are different for changes during the day and changes during the night. Also, the portfolio characteristics, such as covariance between stocks, differ on whether we take into account day changes or night changes in prices. That greatly affects the allocation of fund to the portfolio for an investor who trades frequently. The portfolio should be re-balanced every day in order to achieve optimality and much higher return. At the same level of risk the returns on this new portfolio may by several times larger than the returns on a portfolio without everyday re-balancing. We computed numerically the allocation of funds for the stocks from the finance industry and showed that the increase in returns is substantial.

  2. Taxation of Insolvent Companies: Empirical Evidence in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina dos Santos Arromba Dinis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of taxation of insolvent companies in Portugal, particularly regarding the Portuguese tax on revenue of legal entities (IRC. For this purpose, first, some considerations on the legal framework of insolvent companies are woven and, second, their tax regime is analyzed. Then, a brief review of the main studies that, in the international context, analyze and debate major issues derived from the tax regime of insolvent companies is conducted, particularly in Brazil, Spain, United States, and Italy. Finally, there are the results of an empirical study conducted in Portugal, in 2013, which evaluates and compares the opinions of insolvency administrators (IA, the tax and customs authority (TA, and court magistrates (CM, in order to contribute to a better solution concerning business taxation under this regime. Respondents (IA, TA, CM demonstrate objective thinking about the fact they believe it is very important that the Portuguese Code of Insolvency and Business Recovery (CIRE and the Portuguese Code of Tax on Revenue of Legal Entities (CIRC are modified, now to make clear whether the settlement of property ownership of an insolvent estate is liable to the IRC, then to assign a chapter specifically devoted to the subject of taxation on insolvency in Portugal.

  3. Delayed implantation in giant pandas: the first comprehensive empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Wang, Chendong; Hull, Vanessa

    2009-12-01

    Successful conservation of an endangered species relies on a good understanding of its reproductive biology, but there are large knowledge gaps. For example, many questions remain unanswered with regard to gestation and fetal development in the giant panda. We take advantage of a sample size that is unprecedented for this species (n=13) to explore patterns in reproductive development across individuals at the China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda. We use ultrasound techniques on multiple giant pandas for the first time to empirically confirm what has long been suspected that pandas exhibit delayed implantation of the embryo. We also show that the duration of postfetal detection period is remarkably similar across individuals (16.85+/-1.34 days). Detection of fetus by ultrasound was strongly correlated to the peak in urinary progesterone (r=0.96, t=8.48, d.f.=8, P=0.0001) and swelling in the mammary glands (r=0.79, t=3.61, d.f.=8, P=0.007) and vulva (r=0.91, t=6.40, d.f.=8, P=0.0002) of adult females. When controlling for both the duration of the total gestation period and the postfetal detection period, infant birth weight was only significantly predicted by the latter (beta=11.25, s.e.m.=4.98, t=2.26, P=0.05), suggesting that delayed implantation increases flexibility in the timing of birth but is not important in dictating infant growth. This study informs reproductive biology by exploring the little-studied phenomenon of delayed implantation in relationship to physiological changes in pregnant giant panda females.

  4. Sleep and academic success: mechanisms, empirical evidence, and interventional strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Wiebe, Sabrina T; Wells, Samantha Ashley; Cassoff, Jamie; Monson, Eva

    2010-12-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that sleep is beneficial for learning, memory, attention, and academic success. However, the importance of sleep in these contexts has rarely been addressed in programs aimed at optimizing academic performance. This review aims to describe the role that sleep plays in processes pertaining to academic achievement. We first describe the basic sleep processes and their role with respect to cognitive and behavioral/emotional systems important for academic performance. We next review studies conducted to assess the association between sleep and academic performance, concluding by describing interventional programs being used to optimize sleep in the context of academic success.

  5. Cycles in deregulated electricity markets: Empirical evidence from two decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango, Santiago; Larsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the 'cycle hypothesis' in electricity generation, which states that the introduction of deregulation in an electricity system might lead to sustained fluctuations of over- and under-capacity. The occurrence of cycles is one of the major threats for electricity markets as it affects the security of supply, and creates uncertainty in both the profitability of electricity companies and in consumer prices. We discuss the background for these cycles using analogies with other capital-intensive industries, along with evidence from the analysis of behavioral simulation models as well as from experimental electricity markets. Using data from the oldest deregulated markets we find support for the hypothesis in the case of the English and Chilean markets, based on an autocorrelation analysis. Evidence from the Nordpool market is more ambiguous, although we might be observing the first half of a cycle in generation capacity. Comparing a simulation of the English market performed in 1992 with the actual performance we can observe that the qualitative behavior of the model is consistent with the actual evolution. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms for damping cycles in electricity generation, such as mothballing, capacity payments, and reliability markets. - Research highlights: → We explore the emergence of cycles in the electricity generation capacity after deregulation. → We discuss the reason for cycles in generation capacity and compare different theories. → Analysis of England and Chile data show strong indications that cycles have emerged.

  6. Cycles in deregulated electricity markets: Empirical evidence from two decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arango, Santiago, E-mail: saarango@unal.edu.c [Institute of Management, University of Lugano, Via Buffi 13, CH-6904 Lugano (Switzerland); Complexity Center CeiBa, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Colombia); Larsen, Erik, E-mail: saarango@unal.edu.c [Institute of Management, University of Lugano, Via Buffi 13, CH-6904 Lugano (Switzerland)

    2011-05-15

    In this article, we discuss the 'cycle hypothesis' in electricity generation, which states that the introduction of deregulation in an electricity system might lead to sustained fluctuations of over- and under-capacity. The occurrence of cycles is one of the major threats for electricity markets as it affects the security of supply, and creates uncertainty in both the profitability of electricity companies and in consumer prices. We discuss the background for these cycles using analogies with other capital-intensive industries, along with evidence from the analysis of behavioral simulation models as well as from experimental electricity markets. Using data from the oldest deregulated markets we find support for the hypothesis in the case of the English and Chilean markets, based on an autocorrelation analysis. Evidence from the Nordpool market is more ambiguous, although we might be observing the first half of a cycle in generation capacity. Comparing a simulation of the English market performed in 1992 with the actual performance we can observe that the qualitative behavior of the model is consistent with the actual evolution. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms for damping cycles in electricity generation, such as mothballing, capacity payments, and reliability markets. - Research highlights: {yields} We explore the emergence of cycles in the electricity generation capacity after deregulation. {yields} We discuss the reason for cycles in generation capacity and compare different theories. {yields} Analysis of England and Chile data show strong indications that cycles have emerged.

  7. Does Missing Classes Decelerate Student Exam Performance Progress? Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tin-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A total of 389 business students in undergraduate introductory microeconomics classes in spring 2007, 2009, and 2011, and fall 2012 participated in an exam performance progress study. Empirical evidence suggested that missing classes decelerates and hampers high-performing students' exam performance progress. Nevertheless, the evidence does…

  8. Empirical evidence of study design biases in randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Page, Matthew J.; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Clayton, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    search September 2012), and searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for studies indexed from Jan 2012-May 2015. Data were extracted by one author and verified by another. We combined estimates of average bias (e.g. ratio of odds ratios (ROR) or difference in standardised mean differences (dSMD)) in meta......-analyses using the random-effects model. Analyses were stratified by type of outcome ("mortality" versus "other objective" versus "subjective"). Direction of effect was standardised so that ROR ...) characteristic. Results: We included 24 studies. The available evidence suggests that intervention effect estimates may be exaggerated in trials with inadequate/unclear (versus adequate) sequence generation (ROR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99; 7 studies) and allocation concealment (ROR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97; 7...

  9. Heterogeneous Value of Water: Empirical Evidence in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic pressures have exacerbated self-sustaining river services, and growing concerns over sustaining river system become global problematic issues that lead us to implement river restoration projects. Of those projects, governing diverse needs and desires from stakeholders for those who have various water values are key elements of identifying the success of the project. In fact, the Korean government has had concern over restoring the rivers which brings to construct 16 weirs in four major rivers and may fail to achieve main goal of the project, which is to ameliorate water quality. In this study, principle component analysis and multinomial logit model were executed to investigate major socioeconomic variables to influence water values in terms of sustainability in Korea. Evitable evidences have been found that age, income, education level, and city dwelling are the most effective variables to estimate water values. In addition, a monotonous water development project and a myopic view could cause major dejection across the nation and may lead to the failure of water governance. Unfortunately, the latter may be observed in Korea as one of the reasons for the recent amplification of major conflicts.

  10. The institutional determinants of CEO compensation: An international empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhfakh, H.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance literature suggests that the relationship between CEO effort and outcomes such as firm performance is highly uncertain due to the influence of numerous organizational and environmental contingencies that are outside CEOs’ control. The major focus of this study is to determine whether institutional factors explain cross-sectional differences in CEO pay structure and sensitivity to performance and luck. Thus, we address three ultimate questions; Are CEOs rewarded for luck? Does institutional features matter for CEO pay for luck? How do systematic incentive effect is sensitive to luck’s nature? Ordinary Least Squares (OLS and Instrumental Variables (I.V. estimations based on a sample of 300 publicly traded firms covering four countries from the Anglo-American and Euro-Continental corporate governance models between 2004 and 2008 show that the answers to the two first questions are a surrounding yes. Robustness check tests relying to the third question provide evidence that pay for luck is asymmetric. That is, executives are rewarded for good luck but they are safe of bad luck.

  11. It's personal: biology instructors prioritize personal evidence over empirical evidence in teaching decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Tessa C; Lemons, Paula P

    2015-03-02

    Despite many calls for undergraduate biology instructors to incorporate active learning into lecture courses, few studies have focused on what it takes for instructors to make this change. We sought to investigate the process of adopting and sustaining active-learning instruction. As a framework for our research, we used the innovation-decision model, a generalized model of how individuals adopt innovations. We interviewed 17 biology instructors who were attempting to implement case study teaching and conducted qualitative text analysis on interview data. The overarching theme that emerged from our analysis was that instructors prioritized personal experience-rather than empirical evidence-in decisions regarding case study teaching. We identified personal experiences that promote case study teaching, such as anecdotal observations of student outcomes, and those that hinder case study teaching, such as insufficient teaching skills. By analyzing the differences between experienced and new case study instructors, we discovered that new case study instructors need support to deal with unsupportive colleagues and to develop the skill set needed for an active-learning classroom. We generated hypotheses that are grounded in our data about effectively supporting instructors in adopting and sustaining active-learning strategies. We also synthesized our findings with existing literature to tailor the innovation-decision model. © 2015 T. C. Andrews and P. P. Lemons. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence: the precautionary principle applied to GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops.

  13. Productivity and employment growth : an empirical review of long and medium run evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, H.H.; Frankema, E.H.P.; Duteweerd, Hedwig

    2004-01-01

    This study argues that the creation of productive jobs is the key to economic growth, social development and improvements in living standards. The study provides extensive empirical evidence showing that the long run trend has been towards simultaneous growth in per capita income, productivity and

  14. Do political or economic factors drive healthcare financing privatisations? Empirical evidence from OECD countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiese, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    This paper adds new empirical evidence to the political economy literature of economic reform. One of the main contributions of this paper is the development of a novel methodology to identify privatisations. The methodology is a combination of the Bai & Perron structural break filter, and

  15. Does risk management contribute to IT project success? A meta-analysis of empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, K.F.C.; Boonstra, A.; Wortmann, J.C.

    The question whether risk management contributes to IT project success is considered relevant by people from both academic and practitioners' communities already for a long time. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the empirical evidence that either supports or opposes the claim that risk

  16. Gathering Empirical Evidence Concerning Links between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musta'amal, Aede Hatib; Norman, Eddie; Hodgson, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Discussion is often reported concerning potential links between computer-aided designing and creativity, but there is a lack of systematic enquiry to gather empirical evidence concerning such links. This paper reports an indication of findings from other research studies carried out in contexts beyond general education that have sought evidence…

  17. A Systematic Literature Review of Empirical Evidence on Computer Games and Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Thomas M.; Boyle, Elizabeth A.; MacArthur, Ewan; Hainey, Thomas; Boyle, James M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the literature on computer games and serious games in regard to the potential positive impacts of gaming on users aged 14 years or above, especially with respect to learning, skill enhancement and engagement. Search terms identified 129 papers reporting empirical evidence about the impacts and outcomes of computer games and…

  18. Mostly Heterosexual as a Distinct Sexual Orientation Group: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…

  19. Changes in Anatomy Instruction and USMLE Performance: Empirical Evidence on the Absence of a Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Monica M.; Swanson, David B.; Drake, Richard L.; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy instruction has evolved over the past two decades as many medical schools have undergone various types of curricular reform. To provide empirical evidence about whether or not curricular changes impact the acquisition and retention of anatomy knowledge, this study investigated the effect of variation in gross anatomy course hours,…

  20. Competition and quality indicators in the health care sector : Empirical evidence from the Dutch hospital sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, Ramsis; Krabbe, Yvonne; Mikkers, Misja

    There is much debate about the effect of competition in healthcare and especially the effect of competition on the quality of healthcare, although empirical evidence on this subject is mixed. The Netherlands provides an interesting case in this debate. The Dutch system could be characterized as a

  1. Evidence-based Nursing Education - a Systematic Review of Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The project "Evidence-based Nursing Education - Preparatory Stage", funded by the Landesstiftung Baden-Württemberg within the programme Impulsfinanzierung Forschung (Funding to Stimulate Research), aims to collect information on current research concerned with nursing education and to process existing data. The results of empirical research which has already been carried out were systematically evaluated with aim of identifying further topics, fields and matters of interest for empirical research in nursing education. In the course of the project, the available empirical studies on nursing education were scientifically analysed and systematised. The over-arching aim of the evidence-based training approach - which extends beyond the aims of this project - is the conception, organisation and evaluation of vocational training and educational processes in the caring professions on the basis of empirical data. The following contribution first provides a systematic, theoretical link to the over-arching reference framework, as the evidence-based approach is adapted from thematically related specialist fields. The research design of the project is oriented towards criteria introduced from a selection of studies and carries out a two-stage systematic review of the selected studies. As a result, the current status of research in nursing education, as well as its organisation and structure, and questions relating to specialist training and comparative education are introduced and discussed. Finally, the empirical research on nursing training is critically appraised as a complementary element in educational theory/psychology of learning and in the ethical tradition of research.This contribution aims, on the one hand, to derive and describe the methods used, and to introduce the steps followed in gathering and evaluating the data. On the other hand, it is intended to give a systematic overview of empirical research work in nursing education. In order to preserve a holistic

  2. Status Concern and Relative Deprivation in China: Measures, Empirical Evidence and Economic and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, CHEN

    2017-01-01

    Status concern and feelings of relative deprivation affect individual behaviour and well-being. Traditional norms and the alarming inequality in China have made relative deprivation increasingly intense for the Chinese population. This article reviews empirical literature on China that attempts to test the relative deprivation hypothesis, and also reviews the origins and pathways of relative deprivation, compares its economic measures in the literature and summarises the scientific findings. Drawing from solid empirical evidence, the author discusses the important policy implications on redistribution, official regulations and grassroots sanctions, and relative poverty alleviation. PMID:29033479

  3. Market power in the Nordic electricity wholesale market: A survey of the empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof; Tangeras, Thomas P.

    2009-01-01

    We review the recent empirical research assessing market power on the Nordic wholesale market for electricity, Nord Pool. The studies find no evidence of systematic exploitation of system level market power on Nord Pool. Local market power arising from transmission constraints seems to be more problematic in some price areas across the Nordic countries. Market power can manifest itself in a number of ways that have so far escaped empirical scrutiny. We discuss investment incentives, vertical integration and buyer power, as well as withholding of base-load (nuclear) capacity.

  4. A Survey on Agricultural Trade Policies in Bangladesh: theoretical Insights and empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Talukder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the theoretical insights and empirical evidence on agricultural trade policies and their impacts on the Bangladesh’s economy, with a view to presenting both, the positive and negative effects of trade liberalization. Theoretically, while advocates of trade liberalization argue that free trade is an engine of growth and protection leads to wasteful use of resources, critics argue that openness has its costs and sometimes it could be detrimental to the economic development. The empirical evidence in Bangladesh was consistent with the ongoing debate on the effects of trade liberalization on economic development. The evidence remained mixed and loaded with criticisms on the grounds of choice of liberalization determinants, model specifications and methodology, as well as other measurement shortcomings. The review suggests that the literature is inconclusive and outcomes are largely case-specific

  5. A Survey on Agricultural Trade Policies in Bangladesh: theoretical Insights and empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayal Talukder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the theoretical insights and empirical evidence on agricultural trade policies and their impacts on the Bangladesh‟s economy, with a view to presenting both, the positive and negative effects of trade liberalization. Theoretically, while advocates of trade liberalization argue that free trade is an engine of growth and protection leads to wasteful use of resources, critics argue that openness has its costs and sometimes it could be detrimental to the economic development. The empirical evidence in Bangladesh was consistent with the ongoing debate on the effects of trade liberalization on economic development. The evidence remained mixed and loaded with criticisms on the grounds of choice of liberalization determinants, model specifications and methodology, as well as other measurement shortcomings. The review suggests that the literature is inconclusive and outcomes are largely case-specific.

  6. Are Abstract and Concrete Concepts Organized Differently? Evidence from the Blocked Translation Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Han, Zaizhu; Bi, Yanchao

    2013-01-01

    Using the blocked-translation paradigm with healthy participants, we examined Crutch and Warrington's hypothesis that concrete and abstract concepts are organized by distinct principles: concrete concepts by semantic similarities and abstract ones by associations. In three experiments we constructed two types of experimental blocking (similar…

  7. How can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection in health insurance markets? Conceptual framework and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Wynand P M M; van Vliet, René C J A; van Kleef, Richard C

    2017-03-01

    If consumers have a choice of health plan, risk selection is often a serious problem (e.g., as in Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, the United States of America, and Switzerland). Risk selection may threaten the quality of care for chronically ill people, and may reduce the affordability and efficiency of healthcare. Therefore, an important question is: how can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection? Although this seems easy, showing such evidence is not straightforward. The novelty of this paper is two-fold. First, we provide a conceptual framework for showing evidence of risk selection in competitive health insurance markets. It is not easy to disentangle risk selection and the insurers' efficiency. We suggest two methods to measure risk selection that are not biased by the insurers' efficiency. Because these measures underestimate the true risk selection, we also provide a list of signals of selection that can be measured and that, in particular in combination, can show evidence of risk selection. It is impossible to show the absence of risk selection. Second, we empirically measure risk selection among the switchers, taking into account the insurers' efficiency. Based on 2-year administrative data on healthcare expenses and risk characteristics of nearly all individuals with basic health insurance in the Netherlands (N > 16 million) we find significant risk selection for most health insurers. This is the first publication of hard empirical evidence of risk selection in the Dutch health insurance market.

  8. Mergers and Acquisitions in the Spanish Banking Industry: some Empirical Evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Fuentes; Teresa Sastre

    1999-01-01

    Since the late eighties, the Spanish banking system has been undergoing major changes that have affected both its structure and the nature of strategic interaction among banking institutions. Various different strategies have been adopted to tackle the demands of this new operating environment, one such strategy having been consolidation via mergers and acquisitions. This paper attempts to provide some empirical evidence on the impact of the consolidation process on the monetary transmission ...

  9. Endogenous Women's Autonomy and the Use of Reproductive Health Services: Empirical Evidence from Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuke Kamiya

    2010-01-01

    Though gender equity is widely considered to be a key to improving maternal health in developing countries, little empirical evidence has been presented to support this claim. This paper investigates whether or not and how female autonomy within the household affects women's use of reproductive health care in Tajikistan, where the situation of maternal health and gender equity is worse compared with neighbouring countries. Estimation is performed using bivariate probit models in which woman's...

  10. The Political Economy of International Emission Trading Scheme Choice: Empirical Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J.T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol allows emissions trading. It does however not specify how this is to take place and the discussion on the design of an emissions trading scheme is ongoing. In this paper, we give some empirical evidence on the preference of industry and environmental organizations for internati...... for international emissions trading scheme. Since they may have an influence on decision makers, their opinion is important. Our conclusion is that both industry and environmental organizations prefer credit trading, although for widely different reasons....

  11. CSR Disclosures in the Mining Industry: Empirical Evidence from Listed Mining Firms in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rina Asmeri; Tika Alvionita; Ardi Gunardi

    2017-01-01

    Companies that are involved in CSR strive to meet the expectations of stakeholders. Therefore, CSR and CSR reporting are tools of legitimacy to demonstrate its obedience (legitimacy theory). This study aims to look at empirical evidence on the effect of profitability and environmental performance on CSR disclosure. This study examined the target population of mining companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange that included the CSR reporting in the 2010-2014 annual report, obtained a sam...

  12. Predicting Juno Evidence for a Solid Methane Gas Hydrate Jupiter J. Ackerman Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, J. A., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Predicting Juno Evidence for a Solid Methane Gas Hydrate Jupiter J. Ackerman AbstractDeuterium enhancements of 1010 observed in LDNs and heavy elements detected by the Galileo probe (C, O, S, Ar, Kr and Xe) suggest the giant planets accreted slow and cold from snowflakes and dust at their current orbits, forming frozen, highly deuterated Methane Gas Hydrate (d=0.9) bodies, together comprising > 300 earth masses of water. Jupiter also incorporated most of the heavy elements in the nascent solar system as dust grains (d=1.33). A recent (6,000 years BP) high energy impact on heavily deuterated Jupiter triggered a massive nuclear fusion explosion which ejected the Galilean moons, initiating a flaming plasma plume originally extending 2 x106 km, beyond Callisto. The rapidly rotating plume produced the physical differences observed on the Galilean moons and the remainder condensed ejecting millions of asteroids similar to 67P as it slowly diminished over 5000 years. The fusion reaction has diminished to d + p > 3He+ + γ, but is still producing Jupiter's atmospheric temperature excess, >5x1017 watts, and driving the multiple zonal wind vortices constrained below by Jupiter's solid surface. The mass being ejected by the plume measurably slowed the rotation of the giant Jupiter up until 1937. The highly energetic 3He+ ions from the fusion reaction that exit Jupiter through the Great Red Spot were sensed by Ulysses, Cassini and Galileo at distances greater than 11 Jupiter radii, with the period of Jupiter's rotation. The Juno JEDI particle detector will measure the speed and density of the 3He+ 'blizzard' exiting the GRS, for which there is no other explanation. The Micro Wave Radiometer (MWR) system will confirm the hot vortex extending below the cloud tops from the fusion reaction on the surface westward to the Great Red Spot at 22o S latitude, due to its estimated 115 degree longitudinal extent. The high intensity of the 3He+ particulate radiation at 4000 km directly

  13. Exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria in perfect-monitoring repeated games yield correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Dudebout, Nicolas

    2014-12-15

    This paper proves that exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria (xEEEs) in perfect-monitoring repeated games induce correlated equilibria of the associated one-shot game. An empirical-evidence equilibrium (EEE) is a solution concept for stochastic games. At equilibrium, agents\\' strategies are optimal with respect to models of their opponents. These models satisfy a consistency condition with respect to the actual behavior of the opponents. As such, EEEs replace the full-rationality requirement of Nash equilibria by a consistency-based bounded-rationality one. In this paper, the framework of empirical evidence is summarized, with an emphasis on perfect-monitoring repeated games. A less constraining notion of consistency is introduced. The fact that an xEEE in a perfect-monitoring repeated game induces a correlated equilibrium on the underlying one-shot game is proven. This result and the new notion of consistency are illustrated on the hawk-dove game. Finally, a method to build specific correlated equilibria from xEEEs is derived.

  14. [Evidence and recommendation of empirical antimicrobial treatment in pyogenic spondylodiscitis: systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Delgado, David Agustín; Moheno-Gallardo, Alfredo Javier; Torres-González, Rubén; Mata-Hernández, Argenis; Elizalde-Martínez, Eulalio; Pérez-Atanasio, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Pyogenic spondylodiscitis is the infectious process that affects the vertebral body and the intervertebral disc. It has an incidence between 2 and 7%. To prescribe antibiotic treatment, it is required to identify the causative organism on the basis of the epidemiology of the etiologic agent, as well as the ability of the antibiotic to penetrate the bone tissue and the intervertebral disc. The objective was to identify the level of evidence and the grade of recommendation for the empiric initial treatment. A systematic review was conducted based on the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) criteria. PubMed articles were evaluated to assess their level of evidence and the grade of recommendation according to the Jadad scale and the classification of Sackett. On the basis of those two scales, it was analyzed the agreement by two observers and a Kappa value of 0.750 (p = 0.0001) was considered statistically significant. 642 studies were analyzed, out of which only 19 met the inclusion criteria. In these it was identified a level of evidence 4 and a degree of recommendation C for the use of fluoroquinolones in association with rifampicin in the empirical treatment of pyogenic spondylodiscitis and the use of vancomycin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant strains. There is not enough information concerning the use of empiric antibiotics in pyogenic spondylodiscitis; however, the existing information is favorable, even though it is not conclusive.

  15. Qualitatively different semantic representations for abstract and concrete words: further evidence from the semantic reading errors of deep dyslexic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the hypothesis that conceptual knowledge for abstract and concrete items is underpinned by qualitatively different representational frameworks (Crutch and Warrington, 2005a). A re-analysis of the semantic reading errors of four deep dyslexic patients is presented, examining the incidence of semantically associated and semantically similar errors in response to abstract and concrete target words. The results demonstrate that abstract target words elicit a greater proportion of associative than similar errors, while concrete words show the reverse pattern. These findings provide evidence which converges with that previously documented for a semantic refractory access dysphasic to suggest that abstract concepts are represented in an associative network while concrete concepts are represented in a categorical framework.

  16. It’s Personal: Biology Instructors Prioritize Personal Evidence over Empirical Evidence in Teaching Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Tessa C.; Lemons, Paula P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite many calls for undergraduate biology instructors to incorporate active learning into lecture courses, few studies have focused on what it takes for instructors to make this change. We sought to investigate the process of adopting and sustaining active-learning instruction. As a framework for our research, we used the innovation-decision model, a generalized model of how individuals adopt innovations. We interviewed 17 biology instructors who were attempting to implement case study teaching and conducted qualitative text analysis on interview data. The overarching theme that emerged from our analysis was that instructors prioritized personal experience—rather than empirical evidence—in decisions regarding case study teaching. We identified personal experiences that promote case study teaching, such as anecdotal observations of student outcomes, and those that hinder case study teaching, such as insufficient teaching skills. By analyzing the differences between experienced and new case study instructors, we discovered that new case study instructors need support to deal with unsupportive colleagues and to develop the skill set needed for an active-learning classroom. We generated hypotheses that are grounded in our data about effectively supporting instructors in adopting and sustaining active-learning strategies. We also synthesized our findings with existing literature to tailor the innovation-decision model. PMID:25713092

  17. Outcome (competency) based education: an exploration of its origins, theoretical basis, and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcke, Anne Mette; Dornan, Tim; Eika, Berit

    2013-10-01

    Outcome based or competency based education (OBE) is so firmly established in undergraduate medical education that it might not seem necessary to ask why it was included in recommendations for the future, like the Flexner centenary report. Uncritical acceptance may not, however, deliver its greatest benefits. Our aim was to explore the underpinnings of OBE: its historical origins, theoretical basis, and empirical evidence of its effects in order to answer the question: How can predetermined learning outcomes influence undergraduate medical education? This literature review had three components: A review of historical landmarks in the evolution of OBE; a review of conceptual frameworks and theories; and a systematic review of empirical publications from 1999 to 2010 that reported data concerning the effects of learning outcomes on undergraduate medical education. OBE had its origins in behaviourist theories of learning. It is tightly linked to the assessment and regulation of proficiency, but less clearly linked to teaching and learning activities. Over time, there have been cycles of advocacy for, then criticism of, OBE. A recurring critique concerns the place of complex personal and professional attributes as "competencies". OBE has been adopted by consensus in the face of weak empirical evidence. OBE, which has been advocated for over 50 years, can contribute usefully to defining requisite knowledge and skills, and blueprinting assessments. Its applicability to more complex aspects of clinical performance is not clear. OBE, we conclude, provides a valuable approach to some, but not all, important aspects of undergraduate medical education.

  18. Some empirical evidence on the relationship between inventory management and social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Elsayed

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the crucial role that inventory plays in supply chain management (SCM, research that examines the relationship between inventory and corporate social responsibility (CSR is rare. This is surprising given the evidence that inventory represents a huge source of cost, a matter that is often reported as a major impediment in practicing social responsibility in SCM. As such, this paper fills this gape in literature by examining directly the effect of inventory management on CSR. Maximum-likelihood ordered logistic regression was performed on a sample of 38 Egyptian listed firms during the period from 2007 to 2010. The results demonstrate that inventory management exerts a positive and significant coefficient on CSR. Further analysis shows that inventory management cannot be safely dropped from model of analysis. Rather, inventory management does add something unique in explaining differences in CSR. For practitioners interested in optimizing their firms’ values, thinking in managing supply chain imperatives, and specially inventory, in terms of social responsibility may guide them to build up a stock of reputational capital that can be used, in turn, to increase the cost of their rivals. This study, to the best of knowledge, is the first one that offers empirical evidence regarding the effect of inventory management on CSR. Moreover, the paper adds to both SCM and CSR literature by providing empirical evidence from Egypt as an emerging market, where much of the existing evidence reflects experience from developed countries.

  19. Like grandparents, like parents: Empirical evidence and psychoanalytic thinking on the transmission of parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carli, Pietro; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; Santona, Alessandra; Bonalda, Valentina; Cesari, Paola Elena; Parolin, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The authors discuss the issue of intergenerational transmission of parenting from an empirical and psychoanalytic perspective. After presenting a framework to explain their conception of parenting, they describe intergenerational transmission of parenting as a key to interpreting and eventually changing parenting behaviors. Then they present (1) the empirical approach aimed at determining if there is actually a stability across generations that contributes to harsh parenting and eventually maltreatment and (2) the psyphoanalytic thinking that seeks to explain the continuity in terms of representations and clinical phenomena. The authors also discuss the relationship between the attachment and the caregiving systems and hypothesize a common base for the two systems in childhood experience. Finally, they propose the psychoanalytic perspective as a fruitful theoretical framework to integrate the evidence for the neurophysiological mediators and moderators of intergenerational transmission. Psychoanalytically informed research can provide clinically relevant insights and hypotheses to be tested.

  20. Outcome (competency) based education: an exploration of its origins, theoretical basis, and empirical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørcke, Anne Mette; Dornan, Tim; Eika, Berit

    2013-01-01

    Outcome based or competency based education (OBE) is so firmly established in undergraduate medical education that it might not seem necessary to ask why it was included in recommendations for the future, like the Flexner centenary report. Uncritical acceptance may not, however, deliver its...... greatest benefits. Our aim was to explore the underpinnings of OBE: its historical origins, theoretical basis, and empirical evidence of its effects in order to answer the question: How can predetermined learning outcomes influence undergraduate medical education? This literature review had three...... components: A review of historical landmarks in the evolution of OBE; a review of conceptual frameworks and theories; and a systematic review of empirical publications from 1999 to 2010 that reported data concerning the effects of learning outcomes on undergraduate medical education. OBE had its origins...

  1. Abstract Knowledge in the Broken-String Problem: Evidence from Nonhuman Primates and Pre-Schoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Carolina; Call, Josep; Albiach-Serrano, Anna; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Sabbatini, Gloria; Seed, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    There is still large controversy about whether abstract knowledge of physical problems is uniquely human. We presented 9 capuchin monkeys, 6 bonobos, 6 chimpanzees and 48 children with two versions of a broken-string problem. In the standard condition, participants had to choose between an intact and a broken string as means to a reward. In the critical condition, the functional parts of the strings were covered up and replaced by perceptually similar, but non-functional cues. Apes, monkeys and young children performed significantly better in the standard condition in which the cues played a functional role, indicating knowledge of the functional properties involved. Moreover, a control experiment with chimpanzees and young children ruled out that this difference in performance could be accounted for by differences of perceptual feedback in the two conditions. We suggest that, similar to humans, nonhuman primates partly rely on abstract concepts in physical problem-solving. PMID:25272161

  2. Do young readers have fast access to abstract lexical representations? Evidence from masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Gomez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Although there is consensus that adult readers have fast access to abstract letter/word representations, the developmental trajectory of such access has not been mapped out yet. To examine whether developmental readers have rapid access to abstract representations during the early stages of word processing, we conducted a masked priming lexical decision experiment with two groups of young readers (third and fifth graders) and a group of young adults. We selected two types of words: (a) words composed of cross-case letters that are visually dissimilar (DIS words; e.g., arte/ARTE [Spanish for art]) and (b) words composed of cross-case letters that are visually similar (SIM words; e.g., vivo/VIVO [Spanish for alive]). For young adults and fifth graders, response times for DIS and SIM words were very similar in the matched- and mismatched-case identity priming conditions, which in turn produced shorter responses than the unrelated condition (i.e., ARTE-ARTE=arte-ARTEARTE). This is consistent with the idea that there is fast access to abstract representations. In contrast, this process does not seem to be fully operative in third graders, as revealed by the pattern of data with DIS words (ARTE-ARTEarte-ARTE=edad-ARTE). These findings have relevant implications for developmental models of visual word recognition and for the use of masked priming experiments with developmental readers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Monetary Shocks on Exchange Rate: Empirical Evidence from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Chandan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of monetary policy shocks on exchange rate in a Multiple Indicator Approach (MIA framework. This study has employed a monetary policy index of key monetary policy instruments in India (Bank rate, Cash Reserve Ratio, Repo and Reverse Repo rates. The study finds the empirical evidence for puzzling behavior of price level and exchange rate. Both price and exchange rate increase initially in response to a contractionary policy shock. Policy shocks affect output, inflation and exchange rate to an appreciable extent over a forecasting horizon of one year.

  4. CSR Disclosures in the Mining Industry: Empirical Evidence from Listed Mining Firms in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Asmeri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Companies that are involved in CSR strive to meet the expectations of stakeholders. Therefore, CSR and CSR reporting are tools of legitimacy to demonstrate its obedience (legitimacy theory. This study aims to look at empirical evidence on the effect of profitability and environmental performance on CSR disclosure. This study examined the target population of mining companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange that included the CSR reporting in the 2010-2014 annual report, obtained a sample of 18 companies. By using multiple regression analysis test, there is no significant influence between profitability to CSR disclosure, whilst environmental performance has effect on CSR disclosure.

  5. Bacterial clonal diagnostics as a tool for evidence-based empiric antibiotic selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Tchesnokova

    Full Text Available Despite the known clonal distribution of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria, empiric (pre-culture antibiotic selection still relies heavily on species-level cumulative antibiograms, resulting in overuse of broad-spectrum agents and excessive antibiotic/pathogen mismatch. Urinary tract infections (UTIs, which account for a large share of antibiotic use, are caused predominantly by Escherichia coli, a highly clonal pathogen. In an observational clinical cohort study of urgent care patients with suspected UTI, we assessed the potential for E. coli clonal-level antibiograms to improve empiric antibiotic selection. A novel PCR-based clonotyping assay was applied to fresh urine samples to rapidly detect E. coli and the urine strain's clonotype. Based on a database of clonotype-specific antibiograms, the acceptability of various antibiotics for empiric therapy was inferred using a 20%, 10%, and 30% allowed resistance threshold. The test's performance characteristics and possible effects on prescribing were assessed. The rapid test identified E. coli clonotypes directly in patients' urine within 25-35 minutes, with high specificity and sensitivity compared to culture. Antibiotic selection based on a clonotype-specific antibiogram could reduce the relative likelihood of antibiotic/pathogen mismatch by ≥ 60%. Compared to observed prescribing patterns, clonal diagnostics-guided antibiotic selection could safely double the use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and minimize fluoroquinolone use. In summary, a rapid clonotyping test showed promise for improving empiric antibiotic prescribing for E. coli UTI, including reversing preferential use of fluoroquinolones over trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The clonal diagnostics approach merges epidemiologic surveillance, antimicrobial stewardship, and molecular diagnostics to bring evidence-based medicine directly to the point of care.

  6. Bacterial clonal diagnostics as a tool for evidence-based empiric antibiotic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchesnokova, Veronika; Avagyan, Hovhannes; Rechkina, Elena; Chan, Diana; Muradova, Mariya; Haile, Helen Ghirmai; Radey, Matthew; Weissman, Scott; Riddell, Kim; Scholes, Delia; Johnson, James R; Sokurenko, Evgeni V

    2017-01-01

    Despite the known clonal distribution of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria, empiric (pre-culture) antibiotic selection still relies heavily on species-level cumulative antibiograms, resulting in overuse of broad-spectrum agents and excessive antibiotic/pathogen mismatch. Urinary tract infections (UTIs), which account for a large share of antibiotic use, are caused predominantly by Escherichia coli, a highly clonal pathogen. In an observational clinical cohort study of urgent care patients with suspected UTI, we assessed the potential for E. coli clonal-level antibiograms to improve empiric antibiotic selection. A novel PCR-based clonotyping assay was applied to fresh urine samples to rapidly detect E. coli and the urine strain's clonotype. Based on a database of clonotype-specific antibiograms, the acceptability of various antibiotics for empiric therapy was inferred using a 20%, 10%, and 30% allowed resistance threshold. The test's performance characteristics and possible effects on prescribing were assessed. The rapid test identified E. coli clonotypes directly in patients' urine within 25-35 minutes, with high specificity and sensitivity compared to culture. Antibiotic selection based on a clonotype-specific antibiogram could reduce the relative likelihood of antibiotic/pathogen mismatch by ≥ 60%. Compared to observed prescribing patterns, clonal diagnostics-guided antibiotic selection could safely double the use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and minimize fluoroquinolone use. In summary, a rapid clonotyping test showed promise for improving empiric antibiotic prescribing for E. coli UTI, including reversing preferential use of fluoroquinolones over trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The clonal diagnostics approach merges epidemiologic surveillance, antimicrobial stewardship, and molecular diagnostics to bring evidence-based medicine directly to the point of care.

  7. StemTextSearch: Stem cell gene database with evidence from abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chou-Cheng; Ho, Chung-Liang

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have used many methods to find biomarkers in stem cells, including text mining, experimental data and image storage. However, no text-mining methods have yet been developed which can identify whether a gene plays a positive or negative role in stem cells. StemTextSearch identifies the role of a gene in stem cells by using a text-mining method to find combinations of gene regulation, stem-cell regulation and cell processes in the same sentences of biomedical abstracts. The dataset includes 5797 genes, with 1534 genes having positive roles in stem cells, 1335 genes having negative roles, 1654 genes with both positive and negative roles, and 1274 with an uncertain role. The precision of gene role in StemTextSearch is 0.66, and the recall is 0.78. StemTextSearch is a web-based engine with queries that specify (i) gene, (ii) category of stem cell, (iii) gene role, (iv) gene regulation, (v) cell process, (vi) stem-cell regulation, and (vii) species. StemTextSearch is available through http://bio.yungyun.com.tw/StemTextSearch.aspx. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Laryngeal Features Are Phonetically Abstract: Mismatch Negativity Evidence from Arabic, English, and Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin T. Schluter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many theories of phonology assume that the sound structure of language is made up of distinctive features, but there is considerable debate about how much articulatory detail distinctive features encode in long-term memory. Laryngeal features such as voicing provide a unique window into this question: while many languages have two-way contrasts that can be given a simple binary feature account [±VOICE], the precise articulatory details underlying these contrasts can vary significantly across languages. Here, we investigate a series of two-way voicing contrasts in English, Arabic, and Russian, three languages that implement their voicing contrasts very differently at the articulatory-phonetic level. In three event-related potential experiments contrasting English, Arabic, and Russian fricatives along with Russian stops, we observe a consistent pattern of asymmetric mismatch negativity (MMN effects that is compatible with an articulatorily abstract and cross-linguistically uniform way of marking two-way voicing contrasts, as opposed to an articulatorily precise and cross-linguistically diverse way of encoding them. Regardless of whether a language is theorized to encode [VOICE] over [SPREAD GLOTTIS], the data is consistent with a universal marking of the [SPREAD GLOTTIS] feature.

  9. The effect of economic development on population health: a review of the empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Simon; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Economic growth is considered an important determinant of population health. Relevant studies investigating the effect of economic growth on health outcomes were identified from Google Scholar and PubMed searches in economics and medical journals. Additional resources generated through economic growth are potentially useful for improving population health. The empirical evidence on the aggregate effect of economic growth on population health is rather mixed and inconclusive. The causal pathways from economic growth to population health are crucial and failure or success in completing the pathways explains differences in empirical findings. Future research should investigate how additional resources can more effectively reach those in need and how additional resources can be used more efficiently. It is particularly relevant to understand why preventive health care in developing countries is very price elastic whereas curative health care is very health inelastic and how this understanding can inform public health policy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Women's autonomy and reproductive health care utilisation: empirical evidence from Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke

    2011-10-01

    Women's autonomy is widely considered to be a key to improving maternal health in developing countries, whereas there is no consistent empirical evidence to support this claim. This paper examines whether or not and how women's autonomy within the household affects the use of reproductive health care, using a household survey data from Tajikistan. Estimation is performed by the bivariate probit model whereby woman's use of health services and the level of women's autonomy are recursively and simultaneously determined. The data is from a sample of women aged 15-49 from the Tajikistan Living Standard Measurement Survey 2007. Women's autonomy as measured by women's decision-making on household financial matters increase the likelihood that a woman receives antenatal and delivery care, whilst it has a negative effect on the probability of attending to four or more antenatal consultations. The hypothesis that women's autonomy and reproductive health care utilisation are independently determined is rejected for most of the estimation specifications, indicating the importance of taking into account the endogenous nature of women's autonomy when assessing its effect on health care use. The empirical results reconfirm the assertion that women's status within the household is closely linked to reproductive health care utilisation in developing countries. Policymakers therefore need not only to implement not only direct health interventions but also to focus on broader social policies which address women's empowerment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Relationship between Sustainability– Oriented Innovation Practices and Organizational Performance: Empirical Evidence from Slovenian Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maletič Matjaž

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to empirically analyse the effects of sustainability-oriented innovation practices on the overall organizational performance. Further, this paper also aims to advance understanding of the measurement of corporate sustainability practices with the focus on innovation dimensions. Design/Methodology/Approach - The study uses data obtained from a survey of 116 organizations encompassing both the manufacturing and service industries in Slovenia. Descriptive statistics were used in order to determine the level of sustainability-oriented innovation practices deployment. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to extract the underlying factors and to provide a basis for assessing their reliability and validity. In addition, regression analysis was used to quantify the effect of sustainability practices on the organizational performance. Results - Data analysis result showed that sustainability-oriented innovation practices are significantly associated with organizational performance. Therefore, empirical evidence from this research confirmed the premise that building innovation competencies and integrating innovation activities in organization’s processes lead to performance benefits. This contributes to the debate about the potential for organizations to be sustainable and competitive. Conclusion - The presented research on corporate sustainability provides important theoretical and practical insights on which the deployment of sustainability-oriented innovation practices are conducive to fostering a broader set of performance benefits. As such, managers should increase organizations’ capacity for innovation which can be beneficial in terms of performance implications and achieving sustainability goals

  12. Religious Europe, Russia and Serbia: Past and present (Arguments of empirical evidence: The case of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The author has envisaged to publish three articles in three issues of "Philosophy and Society" magazine in which, relying on the empirical scientific evidence, plans to reveal the scope and level of religiousness in some European countries, then to study the case of Russia in a separate text and finally to analyze religiousness of people in Serbia and their attachment to the church and religion. This sequence of publication has its own logics looking forward to the empirical research called "European Values Study" - a longitudinal and international comparative survey of human values - in almost all European countries including, for the first time, Serbia in 2008, the author first aims to present results of previous sociological research which are representative for the area of Europe, and then for the Orthodox area in the country with the highest number of Orthodox believers in the world. Therefore, in the last article the author will be able to compare the religious situation in Serbia not only with the (non-religious Europe but the (non-religious Orthodox Russia as well.

  13. Review. Theoretical and empirical evidence for the impact of inductive biases on cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas L; Kalish, Michael L; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2008-11-12

    The question of how much the outcomes of cultural evolution are shaped by the cognitive capacities of human learners has been explored in several disciplines, including psychology, anthropology and linguistics. We address this question through a detailed investigation of transmission chains, in which each person passes information to another along a chain. We review mathematical and empirical evidence that shows that under general conditions, and across experimental paradigms, the information passed along transmission chains will be affected by the inductive biases of the people involved-the constraints on learning and memory, which influence conclusions from limited data. The mathematical analysis considers the case where each person is a rational Bayesian agent. The empirical work consists of behavioural experiments in which human participants are shown to operate in the manner predicted by the Bayesian framework. Specifically, in situations in which each person's response is used to determine the data seen by the next person, people converge on concepts consistent with their inductive biases irrespective of the information seen by the first member of the chain. We then relate the Bayesian analysis of transmission chains to models of biological evolution, clarifying how chains of individuals correspond to population-level models and how selective forces can be incorporated into our models. Taken together, these results indicate how laboratory studies of transmission chains can provide information about the dynamics of cultural evolution and illustrate that inductive biases can have a significant impact on these dynamics.

  14. Climate change and the collapse of the Akkadian empire: Evidence from the deep sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, H.M.; Menocal, P.B. de; Hemming, S.; Hemming, G.; Brown, F.H.; Guilderson, T.; Sirocko, F.

    2000-04-01

    The Akkadian empire ruled Mesopotamia from the headwaters of the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers to the Persian Gulf during the late third millennium B.C. Archeological evidence has shown that this highly developed civilization collapsed abruptly near 4,170 {+-} 150 calendar yr B.P., perhaps related to a shift to more arid conditions. Detailed paleoclimate records to test this assertion from Mesopotamia are rare, but changes in regional aridity are preserved in adjacent ocean basins. The authors document Holocene changes in regional aridity using mineralogic and geochemical analyses of a marine sediment core from the Gulf of Oman, which is directly downwind of Mesopotamian dust source areas and archeological sites. Results document a very abrupt increase in eolian dust and Mesopotamian aridity, accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dates to 4,025 {+-} 125 calendar yr B.P., which persisted for {approximately} 300 yr. Radiogenic (Nd and Sr) isotope analyses confirm that the observed increase in mineral dust was derived from Mesopotamian source areas. Geochemical correlation of volcanic ash shards between the archeological site and marine sediment record establishes a direct temporal link between Mesopotamian aridification and social collapse, implicating a sudden shift to more arid conditions as a key factor contributing to the collapse of the Akkadian empire.

  15. Financial development and economic growth: literature survey and empirical evidence from sub-Saharan African countries

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    Songul Kakilli Acaravci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the literature on the finance-growth nexus and investigate the causality between financial development and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa for the period 1975-2005. Using panel co-integration and panel GMM estimation for causality, the results of the panel co-integration analysis provide evidence of no long-run relationship between financial development and economic growth. The empirical findings in the paper show a bi-directional causal relationship between the growth of real GDP per capita and the domestic credit provided by the banking sector for the panels of 24 Sub-Saharan African countries. The findings imply that African countries can accelerate their economic growth by improving their financial systems and vice versa.

  16. Innovation in clean coal technologies. Empirical evidence from firm-level patent data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Juergen [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Wetzel, Heike [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Economics

    2016-02-15

    This article empirically analyzes supply-side and demand-side factors expected to a.ect innovation in clean coal technologies. Patent data from 93 national and international patent offices is used to construct new firm-level panel data on 3,648 clean coal innovators over the time period 1978 to 2009. The results indicate that on the supply-side a firm¡¯s history in clean coal patenting and overall propensity to patent positively a.ects clean coal innovation. On the demand-side we find strong evidence that environmental regulation of emissions, that is CO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and SO{sub 2}, induces innovation in both efficiency improving combustion and after pollution control technologies.

  17. Evaluation of Urban Infrastructure Investment Efficiency: Empirical Evidence from Heilongjiang Province, China

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    Xiaodong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of urban infrastructure investment in China has brought with it some serious problems that cannot be ignored, such as low investment efficiency and faulty investment decision-making. Therefore, based on the latest research findings related to infrastructure efficiency evaluation theory and evaluation methods, this paper uses empirical evidence from Heilongjiang province to analyze urban infrastructure investment efficiency. To analyze investment efficiency in the province, a new infrastructure investment efficiency evaluation model is developed known as the SDEA-Malmquist model. The model reveals that urban infrastructure investment projects in Heilongjiang province are relatively effective and stable but that the efficiency of such investments varies according to the city in which they are made. Overall efficiency is consistent with the TFC (total final consumption index, but the index fluctuates within a narrow range between cities due to technological differences.

  18. Why autobiographical memories for traumatic and emotional events might differ: theoretical arguments and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotgiu, Igor; Rusconi, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The authors review five arguments supporting the hypothesis that memories for traumatic and nontraumatic emotional events should be considered as qualitatively different recollections. The first argument considers the objective features of traumatic and emotional events and their possible influence on the formation of memories for these events. The second argument assumes that traumatic memories distinguish from emotional ones as trauma exposure is often associated with the development of psychological disorders involving memory disturbances. The third argument is that traumatic experiences are more likely than emotional experiences to be forgotten and recovered. The fourth argument concerns the possibility that emotional memories are socially shared more frequently than traumatic memories. A fifth argument suggests that trauma exposure may impair selected brain systems implicated in memory functions. Theoretical and empirical evidence supporting these claims is reviewed. In the conclusions, the authors illustrate future research directions and discuss some conceptual issues related to the definitions of traumatic event currently employed by memory researchers.

  19. Issues concerning plaussiblity and empirical evidence in recent scientific study of religion

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    Lluis Oviedo Torró, OFM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Science of Religion (CSR has developed for almost twenty years naturalistic explanations on religious mind and behavior, opening that field to scientific scrutiny. Scholars used to study religion from a more humanistic tradition or a hermeneutic approach could feel surprised by the application of biological-evolutionary, cognitive and neurological means to better explain religion. Not too confident with the new approach, many traditional students of religion, like theologians, religion philosophers, phenomenologists, and even psychologists, were often dazzled by the exhibition of new terms, concepts and ways to understand religion, beyond the traditional frames. Time is ripe for an assessment on the plausibility that these new theories exhibit, taking into account their respective frameworks and the reported empirical evidence.

  20. Vertical Integration of Hospitals and Physicians: Economic Theory and Empirical Evidence on Spending and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Brady; Buchmueller, Tom; Ryan, Andrew M

    2017-08-01

    Hospital-physician vertical integration is on the rise. While increased efficiencies may be possible, emerging research raises concerns about anticompetitive behavior, spending increases, and uncertain effects on quality. In this review, we bring together several of the key theories of vertical integration that exist in the neoclassical and institutional economics literatures and apply these theories to the hospital-physician relationship. We also conduct a literature review of the effects of vertical integration on prices, spending, and quality in the growing body of evidence ( n = 15) to evaluate which of these frameworks have the strongest empirical support. We find some support for vertical foreclosure as a framework for explaining the observed results. We suggest a conceptual model and identify directions for future research. Based on our analysis, we conclude that vertical integration poses a threat to the affordability of health services and merits special attention from policymakers and antitrust authorities.

  1. Does trade promote growth in developing countries? Empirical evidence from Nigeria

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    Oluwasola Omoju

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of trade on economic growth using in Nigeria as a case study. Theoretical postulations assert the positive effect of trade on economic growth, but empirical evidences are inconclusive. While some studies find trade to be beneficial to all countries engaging in it, others argue that trade has only benefitted developed countries at the expense of less developed ones. Contributing to this argument is the core of this study. This study makes use of the ordinary least square techniques to examine the effect of trade on economic growth in Nigeria using data from 1980 to 2010. The result of the study shows that trade, foreign direct investment, government expenditure and exchange rate have a significant positive impact on economic growth in Nigeria. Based on the finding, we recommend that government should create an enabling environment that would facilitate trade and foreign direct investment. Efforts should also be geared towards improving expenditure and ensuring exchange rate stability.

  2. Role of non-traditional locations for seasonal flu vaccination: Empirical evidence and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namhoon; Mountain, Travis P

    2017-05-19

    This study investigated the role of non-traditional locations in the decision to vaccinate for seasonal flu. We measured individuals' preferred location for seasonal flu vaccination by examining the National H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS) conducted from late 2009 to early 2010. Our econometric model estimated the probabilities of possible choices by varying individual characteristics, and predicted the way in which the probabilities are expected to change given the specific covariates of interest. From this estimation, we observed that non-traditional locations significantly influenced the vaccination of certain individuals, such as those who are high-income, educated, White, employed, and living in a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), by increasing the coverage. Thus, based on the empirical evidence, our study suggested that supporting non-traditional locations for vaccination could be effective in increasing vaccination coverage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensitivity is not an intrinsic property of a diagnostic test: empirical evidence from histological diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

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    Carrilho Carla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to provide empirical evidence of how spectrum effects can affect the sensitivity of histological assessment of Helicobacter pylori infection, which may contribute to explain the heterogeneity in prevalence estimates across populations with expectedly similar prevalence. Methods Cross-sectional evaluation of dyspeptic subjects undergoing upper digestive endoscopy, including collection of biopsy specimens from the greater curvature of the antrum for assessment of H. pylori infection by histopathological study and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, from Portugal (n = 106 and Mozambique (n = 102 following the same standardized protocol. Results In the Portuguese sample the prevalence of infection was 95.3% by histological assessment and 98.1% by PCR. In the Mozambican sample the prevalence was 63.7% and 93.1%, respectively. Among those classified as infected by PCR, the sensitivity of histological assessment was 96.2% among the Portuguese and 66.3% among the Mozambican. Among those testing positive by both methods, 5.0% of the Portuguese and 20.6% of the Mozambican had mild density of colonization. Conclusions This study shows a lower sensitivity of histological assessment of H. pylori infection in Mozambican dyspeptic patients compared to the Portuguese, which may be explained by differences in the density of colonization, and may contribute to explain the heterogeneity in prevalence estimates across African settings.

  4. A Review on Attachment and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Empirical Evidence and Implications for Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Andreas; Bröning, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the relation of attachment and substance use disorders (SUD) in adolescence. Based on a theoretical introduction, we review evidence for a possible general link between SUD and insecure attachment, for links between specific forms of SUD and specific patterns of attachment, and for studies on family patterns of attachment in adolescence. Using medical and psychological databases, we identified 10 studies on adolescent SUD and another 13 studies on adult SUD. Empirical evidence strongly supports the assumption of insecure attachment in SUD samples. With regard to specific patterns of attachment, results mainly point towards fearful and dismissing-avoidance, whereas single studies report preoccupied and unresolved patterns. Results indicate different patterns of attachment in different groups of substance abusers, that is, fearful-avoidant attachment in heroin addicts and more heterogeneous results in abusers of other substances. Explorative data suggest different types of insecure family attachment patterns, which might imply different functions of substance abuse and lead to different treatment recommendations. Methodological problems such as poor assessment of SUD and the use of different measures of attachment limit comparability. Although a lot of research is still needed to address the unknowns in the relation between attachment and SUD, there is strong evidence for a general link between SUD and insecure attachment. Data on connections between different patterns of attachment and different pathways towards SUD are less conclusive but mainly point to disorganized and externalizing pathways. Evidence suggests that fostering attachment security might improve the outcome of state-of-the-art approaches in both early interventional treatment and prevention. Implications for individual and family approaches are outlined.

  5. Are smokers rational addicts? Empirical evidence from the Indonesian Family Life Survey

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    Thabrany Hasbullah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indonesia is one of the largest consumers of tobacco in the world, however there has been little work done on the economics addiction of tobacco. This study provides an empirical test of a rational addiction (henceforth RA hypothesis of cigarette demand in Indonesia. Methods Four estimators (OLS, 2SLS, GMM, and System-GMM were explored to test the RA hypothesis. The author adopted several diagnostics tests to select the best estimator to overcome econometric problems faced in presence of the past and future cigarette consumption (suspected endogenous variables. A short-run and long-run price elasticities of cigarettes demand was then calculated. The model was applied to individuals pooled data derived from three-waves a panel of the Indonesian Family Life Survey spanning the period 1993-2000. Results The past cigarette consumption coefficients turned out to be a positive with a p-value Conclusions Health policymakers should redesign current public health campaign against cigarette smoking in the country. Given the demand for cigarettes to be more prices sensitive for the long run (and female than the short run (and male, an increase in the price of cigarettes could lead to a significant fall in cigarette consumption in the long run rather than as a constant source of government revenue.

  6. Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxu; Lu, Yongmei; Zhou, Sen; Chen, Lifan; Xu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Climate change refers to long-term shifts in weather conditions and patterns of extreme weather events. It may lead to changes in health threat to human beings, multiplying existing health problems. This review examines the scientific evidences on the impact of climate change on human infectious diseases. It identifies research progress and gaps on how human society may respond to, adapt to, and prepare for the related changes. Based on a survey of related publications between 1990 and 2015, the terms used for literature selection reflect three aspects--the components of infectious diseases, climate variables, and selected infectious diseases. Humans' vulnerability to the potential health impacts by climate change is evident in literature. As an active agent, human beings may control the related health effects that may be effectively controlled through adopting proactive measures, including better understanding of the climate change patterns and of the compound disease-specific health effects, and effective allocation of technologies and resources to promote healthy lifestyles and public awareness. The following adaptation measures are recommended: 1) to go beyond empirical observations of the association between climate change and infectious diseases and develop more scientific explanations, 2) to improve the prediction of spatial-temporal process of climate change and the associated shifts in infectious diseases at various spatial and temporal scales, and 3) to establish locally effective early warning systems for the health effects of predicated climate change. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Solar Radiation Alters Toxicity of Carbofuran: Evidence from Empirical Trials with Duttaphyrnus melanostictus

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    M.R.Wijesinghe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the potential of natural solar radiation to alter the toxicity of a commonly used carbamate pesticide, carbofuran, on tadpoles of the Common Asian Toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus. A single exposure trial was conducted over 96 hrs with three concentrations (150, 250 and 500 µgl-1 of photo-irradiated and non-irradiated carbofuran. Results show that photo-irradiation markedly reduced the toxicity of carbofuran as evident by its effects on three end points, i.e. mortality, growth and swimming activity. The mortality of tadpoles exposed to irradiated carbofuran was significantly lower than those exposed to the non-irradiated pesticide. Both treatment and control tadpoles showed a hormetic response for mortality. Tadpoles in irradiated tanks were also larger and more active than those in the control tanks. Photo-altered toxicity was evident at all three tested concentrations. The results of this study therefore signals caution when directly linking results of empirical trials to field scenarios and highlight the necessity to evaluate toxic effects of compounds under variable environmental conditions.

  8. Solar Radiation Alters Toxicity of Carbofuran: Evidence from Empirical Trials with Duttaphyrnus melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Wijesinghe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the potential of natural solar radiation to alter the toxicity of a commonly used carbamate pesticide, carbofuran, on tadpoles of the Common Asian Toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus. A single exposure trial was conducted over 96 hrs with three concentrations (150, 250 and 500 µgl-1 of photo-irradiated and non-irradiated carbofuran. Results show that photo-irradiation markedly reduced the toxicity of carbofuran as evident by its effects on three end points, i.e. mortality, growth and swimming activity. The mortality of tadpoles exposed to irradiated carbofuran was significantly lower than those exposed to the non-irradiated pesticide. Both treatment and control tadpoles showed a hormetic response for mortality. Tadpoles in irradiated tanks were also larger and more active than those in the control tanks. Photo-altered toxicity was evident at all three tested concentrations. The results of this study therefore signals caution when directly linking  results of empirical trials to field scenarios and highlight the necessity to evaluate toxic effects of compounds under variable environmental conditions.Keywords: Carbofuran, Duttaphrynus melanostictus, photo-degradation, tadpoles, toxicity

  9. A MACROPRUDENTIAL SUPERVISION MODEL. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenca Ioan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the positive effects of the financial crises is the increasing concern of the supervisors regarding the financial system’s stability. There is a need to strengthen the links between different financial components of the financial system and the macroeconomic environment. Banking systems that have an adequate capitalization and liquidity level may face easier economic and financial shocks. The purpose of this empirical study is to identify the main determinants of the banking system’s stability and soundness in the Central and Eastern Europe countries. We asses the impact of different macroeconomic variables on the quality of capital and liquidity conditions and examine the behaviour of these financial stability indicators, by analyzing a sample of 10 banking systems during 2000-2011. The availability of banking capital signals the banking system’s resiliency to shocks. Capital adequacy ratio is the main indicator used to assess the banking fragility. One of the causes of the 2008-2009 financial crisis was the lack of liquidity in the banking system which led to the collapse of several banking institutions and macroeconomic imbalances. Given the importance of liquidity for the banking system, we propose several models in order to determine the macroeconomic variables that have a significant influence on the liquid reserves to total assets ratio. We found evidence that GDP growth, inflation, domestic credit to private sector, as well as the money and quasi money aggregate indicator have significant impact on the banking stability. The empirical regression confirms the high level of interdependence of the real sector with the financial-banking sector. Also, they prove the necessity for an effective macro prudential supervision at country level which enables the supervisory authorities to have an adequate control over the macro prudential indicators and to take appropriate decisions at the right time.

  10. Empirical evidence for multi-scaled controls on wildfire size distributions in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povak, N.; Hessburg, P. F., Sr.; Salter, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Ecological theory asserts that regional wildfire size distributions are examples of self-organized critical (SOC) systems. Controls on SOC event-size distributions by virtue are purely endogenous to the system and include the (1) frequency and pattern of ignitions, (2) distribution and size of prior fires, and (3) lagged successional patterns after fires. However, recent work has shown that the largest wildfires often result from extreme climatic events, and that patterns of vegetation and topography may help constrain local fire spread, calling into question the SOC model's simplicity. Using an atlas of >12,000 California wildfires (1950-2012) and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), we fit four different power-law models and broken-stick regressions to fire-size distributions across 16 Bailey's ecoregions. Comparisons among empirical fire size distributions across ecoregions indicated that most ecoregion's fire-size distributions were significantly different, suggesting that broad-scale top-down controls differed among ecoregions. One-parameter power-law models consistently fit a middle range of fire sizes (~100 to 10000 ha) across most ecoregions, but did not fit to larger and smaller fire sizes. We fit the same four power-law models to patch size distributions of aspect, slope, and curvature topographies and found that the power-law models fit to a similar middle range of topography patch sizes. These results suggested that empirical evidence may exist for topographic controls on fire sizes. To test this, we used neutral landscape modeling techniques to determine if observed fire edges corresponded with aspect breaks more often than expected by random. We found significant differences between the empirical and neutral models for some ecoregions, particularly within the middle range of fire sizes. Our results, combined with other recent work, suggest that controls on ecoregional fire size distributions are multi-scaled and likely are not purely SOC. California

  11. The determinants of domestic water demand. Empirical evidence from Emilia-Romagna municipal data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Montini, Anna

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents empirical evidence on the determinants of water demand for domestic use in one Italian region, the Emilia Romagna, by using municipal data. Two main stems in urban/domestic demand analysis cab be found in the empirical literature. The first deals with the estimation of price or income demand elasticities in the short and the long run. The price demand elasticities can be used for water demand managements purpose while the income price elasticities can be useful in the forecasting process of the water requirements. The second one deals with the estimate of customer willingness to pay increasing in water service quality in holistic sense or concerning single characteristics of the service: safety, flavour, continuity, appearance, pollution rate and cost. The aim of the analysis in this case the elicitation of the direct use, indirect use and non-use values associated to the water resource consumption, by means of direct or indirect techniques. In this paper we focused the analysis in the first stem of the empirical literature in which a cross section data set is required. The paper explores the topic problems of the estimating process whit the analysis of the empirical literature (with particular regard to investigations that use municipal data) and with the analysis of the econometric problems related to the demand estimate. The theoretical model for the water demand analysis is also presented and discussed. Two datasets have been implemented: one with 125 municipalities and four years, the other with 40 municipalities and eleven years. Both the databases bring together municipal water consumption and tariffs data provided by local water utilities and other municipal data (inhabitants, surface, household, income, etc.) stemming from official sources. The econometric analysis is based on both fixed effects, performing better than random effects models, and dynamic panel models. The estimated coefficient of the tariff variable arises always

  12. Energy Innovations-GHG Emissions Nexus: Fresh Empirical Evidence from OECD Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Herránz, Agustín; Balsalobre, Daniel; Cantos, José María; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of improvements in energy research development (ERD) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for 28 OECD countries over the period of 1990–2014. In doing so, we have employed a panel data where public budget in energy research development and demonstration (ERD&D) has transformed into a finite inverted V-lag distribution model developed by De Leeuw (1962). This model considers that energy innovation accumulates in time and presents empirical evidence, how energy innovation contributes in reducing energy intensity and environmental pollution as well. Our results indicate that energy innovation measures require lapses of time to reach their full effect i.e. innovation applied to measures for environmental correction does not reach its whole effect immediately, requiring instead a certain amount of time to pass. Innovation policies have recommended for improving environmental quality. - Highlights: • This study analyses the impact of public budget in energy RD&D for 28 OECD countries on environmental quality. • Energy innovation contributes positively to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • Advances in energy technology seem to be the key of improved environmental quality.

  13. State ownership and firm performance: Empirical evidence from Chinese listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available While the relationship between state ownership and firm performance has been widely researched, the empirical evidence has provided mixed results. This study applies panel data regression techniques to 10,639 firm-year observations of non-financial Chinese listed firms during 2003–2010 to examine the relationship between state ownership and firm performance. The results show that state ownership has a U-shaped relationship with firm performance. The Split Share Structure Reform in 2005–2006 played a positive role in enhancing the relationship between state ownership and firm profitability ratios. Although state ownership decreased significantly after 2006, it remains high in strategically important industry sectors such as the oil, natural gas and mining sector and the publishing, broadcasting and media sector. The findings reveal that a higher level of state ownership is superior to a dispersed ownership structure due to the benefits of government support and political connections. The Split Share Structure Reform made previously non-tradable shares legally tradable, improving corporate governance and reducing the negative effect of non-tradable state shares.

  14. The lending channel and budget balance: empirical evidences from Central and Eastern European economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan-Gabriel MOINESCU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to deepen the analysis on the indirect dependence of government budget balance on private sector credit flow in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The added value of this approach consists of two elements. First, the analysis suggests developing the traditional analytical framework of assessing risks to public finance stability by including second round effects of negative fiscal impulses on credit to private sector during recession periods. Second, the study provides empirical evidence on the importance of economic growth transmission channel for the impact of credit accelerator effects on primary deficit. At the same time, nonperforming loans channel proved to be insignificant, especially in relation to the persistency of last year’s budget deficit and the effects of budget allocations pro-cyclicality. However, loan portfolio quality seems to be more relevant in the case of public debt service, through its influence on the evolution of the yield on long-term government securities that is closely related to sovereign risk premium. Nevertheless, strengthening the financial safety net by the introduction of resolution funds will most probably break the link investors saw between credit portfolio quality and the impending increase in budget spending. This expected development across not only CEE countries, but at the EU level also, will facilitate the isolation of sovereign risk premium from non-performing loans’ dynamics.

  15. Hypnosis Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of the Empirical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsson, Olafur S

    2015-10-01

    Hypnotherapy has been investigated for 30 years as a treatment for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. There are presently 35 studies in the published empirical literature, including 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have assessed clinical outcomes of such treatment. This body of research is reviewed comprehensively in this article. Twenty-four of the studies have tested hypnotherapy for adult irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 5 have focused on IBS or abdominal pain in children. All IBS hypnotherapy studies have reported significant improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, and 7 out of 10 RCTs in adults and all 3 RCTs in pediatric patient samples found superior outcomes for hypnosis compared to control groups. Collectively this body of research shows unequivocally that for both adults and children with IBS, hypnosis treatment is highly efficacious in reducing bowel symptoms and can offer lasting and substantial symptom relief for a large proportion of patients who do not respond adequately to usual medical treatment approaches. For other GI disorders the evidence is more limited, but preliminary indications of therapeutic potential can be seen in the single randomized controlled trials published to date on hypnotherapy for functional dyspepsia, functional chest pain, and ulcerative colitis. Further controlled hypnotherapy trials in those three disorders should be a high priority. The mechanisms underlying the impact of hypnosis on GI problems are still unclear, but findings from a number of studies suggest that they involve both modulation of gut functioning and changes in the brain's handling of sensory signals from the GI tract.

  16. Competition and quality indicators in the health care sector: empirical evidence from the Dutch hospital sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, R R; Krabbe-Alkemade, Y J F M; Mikkers, M C

    2018-01-01

    There is much debate about the effect of competition in healthcare and especially the effect of competition on the quality of healthcare, although empirical evidence on this subject is mixed. The Netherlands provides an interesting case in this debate. The Dutch system could be characterized as a system involving managed competition and mandatory healthcare insurance. Information about the quality of care provided by hospitals has been publicly available since 2008. In this paper, we evaluate the relationship between quality scores for three diagnosis groups and the market power indicators of hospitals. We estimate the impact of competition on quality in an environment of liberalized pricing. For this research, we used unique price and production data relating to three diagnosis groups (cataract, adenoid and tonsils, bladder tumor) produced by Dutch hospitals in the period 2008-2011. We also used the quality indicators relating to these diagnosis groups. We reveal a negative relationship between market share and quality score for two of the three diagnosis groups studied, meaning that hospitals in competitive markets have better quality scores than those in concentrated markets. We therefore conclude that more competition is associated with higher quality scores.

  17. The Effect of Biogas Production on Farmland Rental Prices: Empirical Evidences from Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Demartini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, increased environmental awareness has prompted the adoption of incentives for exploiting renewable energy sources. Among these, biogas production has received a certain attention in developed countries. Nonetheless, the subsidies provided have posed the problem of an activity (the production of bioenergy that engages in direct competition with food and feed production for limited resources, like agricultural land. Even if this competition may be softened by allocating marginal land and/or using dedicated non-agricultural crops, empirical evidence shows that biogas plants have been developed in highly-productive agricultural areas, using increasing amounts of maize silage as feedstock. Thus, studies aimed at measuring the effect of biogas production on agricultural activities are needed in order to avoid this socially undesirable outcome. The paper presents an econometric estimation of the impact of biogas plants on farmland rental values of a Northern Italian rural area. Results show that biogas has a non-linear effect on rental prices, suggesting that incentive schemes specifically accounting for plants’ dimensions and technologies would improve the social sustainability of the bioenergy sector and its coexistence with agricultural activity.

  18. The Role of Sleep Hygiene in Promoting Public Health: A Review of Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Leah A.; Kline, Christopher E.; Gunn, Heather E.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Hall, Martica H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The ineffectiveness of sleep hygiene as a treatment in clinical sleep medicine has raised some interesting questions. If it is known that, individually, each specific component of sleep hygiene is related to sleep, why wouldn't addressing multiple individual components (i.e., sleep hygiene education) result in improved sleep? Is there still a use for sleep hygiene? Global public health concern over poor sleep has increased the demand for effective sleep promotion strategies that are easily accessible to the general population. However, the extent to which sleep hygiene principles and strategies apply outside of clinical settings is not well known. The present review sought to evaluate the empirical evidence for several common sleep hygiene recommendations, including regular exercise, stress management, noise reduction, sleep timing regularity, and avoidance of caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, and daytime napping, with a particular emphasis on their public health utility. Thus, our review is not intended to be exhaustive regarding the clinical application of these techniques, but rather to focus on broader applications. Overall, though epidemiologic and experimental research generally supported an association between individual sleep hygiene recommendations and nocturnal sleep, the direct effects of individual recommendations on sleep remains largely untested in the general population. Suggestions for further clarification of sleep hygiene recommendations and considerations for the use of sleep hygiene in nonclinical populations are discussed. PMID:25454674

  19. Literary and Documentary Evidence for Lay Medical Practice in the Roman Republic and Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draycott, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The majority of surviving ancient medical literature was written by medical practitioners and produced for the purpose of ensuring the effective diagnosis and treatment of their patients, suggesting an audience of medical professionals ranging from instructors to students. This has led historians to concentrate on the professional medical practitioner and their theories, methods and practices, rather than on lay medical practitioners, or even patients themselves. This chapter seeks to redress this imbalance, and examine the ancient literary and documentary evidence for lay medical theories, methods and practices in the Roman Republic and Empire in an attempt to reconstruct the experiences of lay medical practitioners and their patients. The Roman agricultural treatises of Cato, Varro and Columella, papyri and ostraca from Egypt, and tablets from Britain are investigated, and it is established that the individual's personal acquisition of knowledge and expertise, not only from medical professionals and works of medical literature, but also from family members and friends, and through trial and error, was considered fundamental to domestic medical practice.

  20. Do People Overestimate Their Information Literacy Skills? A Systematic Review of Empirical Evidence on the Dunning-Kruger Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review has analyzed 53 English language studies that assessed and compared peoples' self-reported and demonstrated information literacy (IL) skills. The objective was to collect empirical evidence on the existence of Dunning-Kruger Effect in the area of information literacy. The findings clearly show that this theory works in this…

  1. E-shopping and its relationship with in-store shopping : empirical evidence from the Netherlands and the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farag, Sendy; Krizek, K.J.; Dijst, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Despite considerable examination of the impact of telecommunications on travel, little empirical evidence sheds light on the impact of e-shopping on travel—a recent and increasingly popular form of telecommunications. This paper analyses determinants of online buying and their relationship with

  2. The Schumpeterian Entrepreneur: A Review of the Empirical Evidence on the Antecedents, Behavior, and Consequences of Innovative Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Block (Jörn); C.O. Fisch (Christian); M. van Praag (Mirjam)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractInnovative entrepreneurship is considered an important pillar for economic development and has sparked a lively discussion in academia and practice alike. Oftentimes, however, the debate is not sufficiently grounded on solid empirical evidence. The academic literature is growing but very

  3. The Schumpeterian entrepreneur: a review of the empirical evidence on the antecedents, behavior and consequences of innovative entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Block, J.O.; Fisch, C.O.; van Praag, M.

    2017-01-01

    Innovative entrepreneurship is considered an important pillar for economic development and has sparked a lively discussion in academia and practice alike. Oftentimes, however, the debate is not sufficiently grounded on solid empirical evidence. The academic literature is growing but very scattered

  4. Empirical Evidence for the Outcomes of Therapeutic Video Games for Adolescents With Anxiety Disorders: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Steven; Prescott, Julie

    2018-02-28

    Extant evidence suggests that the proportion of adolescents suffering from anxiety disorders (ADs) has increased by up to 70% since the mid-1980s, with experience of anxiety at this stage associated with significant negative short- and long-term life outcomes. The existing therapeutic interventions (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy, CBT; attention bias modification, ABM) have proven to have clinically measurable benefits in reducing anxiety, but their efficacy is often compromised by social and practical barriers. The growing discrepancy between demand for, and access to, clinical interventions for anxiety has led to the development of a range of eHealth (health care practice supported by electronic processes and communication) and mHealth (versions of eHealth using mobile devices) interventions. One such protocol is therapeutic games, which aim to provide clinical frameworks in dynamic, adaptable, and personalized virtual environments. Although some evidence exists to suggest therapeutic games are associated with reductions in subjective anxiety and observed stress reactivity, there is currently, to our knowledge, no systematic review of the adherence to, and effectiveness of, therapeutic games for adolescent anxiety. The aim of this review was to establish the effectiveness of therapeutic games in making clinically measurable reductions in anxiety symptoms in adolescent samples. A systematic search of the existing academic literature published between 1990 and July 2017 was conducted using the databases Journal of Medical Internet Research, Journal Storage, Psychology Articles, Psychology Info, ScienceDIRECT, and Scopus. Records linked to empirical papers on therapeutic games for anxiety using adolescent samples were evaluated. A total of 5 studies (N=410 participants) met the inclusion criteria, and 3 gamified anxiety interventions for adolescents were identified. The papers included a mixture of randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and

  5. Health status of and health-care provision to asylum seekers in Germany: protocol for a systematic review and evidence mapping of empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christine; Mohsenpour, Amir; Joos, Stefanie; Bozorgmehr, Kayvan

    2014-11-29

    There are more than 100,000 asylum seekers registered in Germany, who are granted limited access to health services. This study aims to provide a systematic overview of the empirical literature on the health status of and health-care provision to asylum seekers in Germany in order to consolidate knowledge, avoid scientific redundance, and identify research gaps. A systematic review and evidence mapping of empirical literature on the health status of and health-care provision to asylum seekers in Germany will be performed. We will apply a three-tiered search strategy: 1. search in databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, CINAHL, Sowiport, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, MedPilot, DNB), dissertation and theses databases, and the internet (Google); 2. screening references of included studies; 3. contacting authors and civil society organizations for grey literature. Included will be studies which report quantitative and/or qualitative data or review articles on asylum seekers in Germany, published in German or English language. Outcome measures will include physical, mental, or social well-being, and all aspects of health-care provision (access, availability, affordability, and quality). Search results will be screened for eligibility by screening titles, abstracts and full texts. Data extraction comprises information on study characteristics, research aims, and domains of health or health-care services analyzed. The quality of studies will be appraised and documented by appropriate assessment tools. A descriptive evidence map will be drawn by categorizing all included articles by research design and the health conditions and/or domains of health-care provision analyzed. The body of evidence will be evaluated, and a narrative evidence synthesis will be performed by means of a multi-level approach, whereby quantitative and qualitative evidence are analyzed as separate streams and the product

  6. Empirical Evidence for the Relation between Customer Satisfaction and Business Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Wiele (Ton); J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); M. Hesselink

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the analysis of empirical data on customer satisfaction and the relationship with hard organisational performance data. The organisation is a Flexcompany with its headquarters in The Netherlands, but also operating in other countries in Europe. The empirical data on

  7. Empirical Evidence of Priming, Transfer, Reinforcement, and Learning in the Real and Virtual Trillium Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, M. C. R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been a debate on the effectiveness of virtual reality used for learning with young children, producing many ideas but little empirical proof. This empirical study compared learning activity in situ of a real environment (Real) and a desktop virtual reality (Virtual) environment, built with video game technology,…

  8. Reflexivity, expectations feedback and almost self-fulfilling equilibria: economic theory, empirical evidence and laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss recent work on bounded rationality and learning in relation to Soros’ principle of reflexivity and stress the empirical importance of non-rational, almost selffulfilling equilibria in positive feedback systems. As an empirical example, we discuss a behavioral asset pricing model with

  9. Access to data and material for research: Putting empirical evidence into perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to put into critical perspective the empirical findings on secrecy and withholding in research. In other words, by taking existing empirical literature into account, it is intended that a crucial question is answered: Is secrecy and withholding in research harmful or

  10. Role of Information Professionals in Knowledge Management Programs: Empirical Evidence from Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    la Ajiferuke

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a knowledge management program in an organization has the potential of im-proving customer services, quickly bringing new products to market, and reducing cost of business operations. Information technologies are often used in knowledge management programs in informing clients and employees of latest innovation/development in the business sector as well as sharing knowledge among the employees. The key professionals involved in knowledge management programs are information technologists and human resource managers but the information professionals also have a role to play as they are traditionally known as good managers of explicit knowledge. Hence, the aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence of the role of information professionals in knowledge management programs. 386 information professionals working in Canadian organizations were selected from the Special Libraries Association's Who's Who in Special Libraries 2001/2002, and a questionnaire with a stamped self-addressed envelope for its return was sent to each one of them. 63 questionnaires were completed and returned, and 8 in-depth interviews conducted. About 59% of the information professionals surveyed are working in organizations that have knowledge management programs with about 86% of these professionals being involved in the programs. Factors such as gender, age, and educational background (i.e. highest educational qualifications and discipline did not seem to have any relationship with involvement in knowledge management programs. Many of those involved in the programs are playing key roles, such as the design of the information architecture, development of taxonomy, or con-tent management of the organization's intranet. Others play lesser roles, such as providing information for the intranet, gathering competitive intelligence, or providing research services as requested by the knowledge management team.

  11. THE LEGAL INDEBTEDNESS CAPACITY OF ROMANIAN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS - THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL EVIDENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilan Irina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The factual, not only formal capacity of local governments to appeal to borrowed resources is, considering the current conditions, a prerequisite for ensuring economic and social development of local communities. In this paper we intend to position the main theoretical and empirical evidences on local governments indebtedness capacity, mainly focusing on its sizing according to Romanian regulatory framework. With respect to previous research, the issue approached is one of great interest as it has not been, in the Romanian literature on local public finances, subject to a separate analysis of proportions. The undertaken analysis comprises a quantitative dimension, based on processed data from the consolidated general budget of Romanian local governments for 2007-2009, in permanent conjunction with monitoring and analysis of the involved qualitative aspects. To ensure the relevance of the research results, the analysis undertaken refers to the legal framework in function throughout the considered period of time, without involving the legislative changes operated in mid-2010. The main conclusions drawn from our analysis indicate that, considering the current Romanian socio-economic environment, under the impact of specific factors of different nature, the legal indebtedness capacity is far from being well valued, thus bringing its benefits to local communities development. This conclusion is valid from a global perspective as well as for different types of local communities. This appears to be inconsistent with the permanently claimed need to fund important local public investments, mainly in infrastructure, indicating, despite the high legal indebtedness capacity, the lack of factual access to borrowed resources. We suggest, therefore, to introduce the concept of effective indebtedness capacity, the result of a particularized correlation for different local governments between legal indebtedness capacity and the manifestation of several factors

  12. Consumer Perceived Risk, Attitude and Online Shopping Behaviour; Empirical Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sylvester, Michele; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ismail, Khalid; Mat Ali, Kamarudin

    2014-06-01

    The development of e-commerce has increased the popularity of online shopping worldwide. In Malaysia, it was reported that online shopping market size was RM1.8 billion in 2013 and it is estimated to reach RM5 billion by 2015. However, online shopping was rated 11th out of 15 purposes of using internet in 2012. Consumers' perceived risks of online shopping becomes a hot topic to research as it will directly influence users' attitude towards online purchasing, and their attitude will have significant impact to the online purchasing behaviour. The conceptualization of consumers' perceived risk, attitude and online shopping behaviour of this study provides empirical evidence in the study of consumer online behaviour. Four types of risks - product risk, financial, convenience and non-delivery risks - were examined in term of their effect on consumers' online attitude. A web-based survey was employed, and a total of 300 online shoppers of a Malaysia largest online marketplace participated in this study. The findings indicated that product risk, financial and non-delivery risks are hazardous and negatively affect the attitude of online shoppers. Convenience risk was found to have positive effect on consumers' attitude, denoting that online buyers of this site trusted the online seller and they encountered less troublesome with the site. It also implies that consumers did not really concern on non-convenience aspect of online shopping, such as handling of returned products and examine the quality of products featured in the online seller website. The online buyers' attitude was significantly and positively affects their online purchasing behaviour. The findings provide useful model for measuring and managing consumers' perceived risk in internet-based transaction to increase their involvement in online shopping and to reduce their cognitive dissonance in the e-commerce setting.

  13. Brokerage in commercialised healthcare systems: A conceptual framework and empirical evidence from Uttar Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Benjamin M

    2018-03-02

    In many contexts there are a range of individuals and organisations offering healthcare services that differ widely in cost, quality and outcomes. This complexity is exacerbated by processes of healthcare commercialisation. Yet reliable information on healthcare provision is often limited, and progress to and through the healthcare system may depend on knowledge drawn from prior experiences, social networks and the providers themselves. It is in these contexts that healthcare brokerage emerges and third-party actors facilitate access to healthcare. This article presents a novel framework for studying brokerage of access to healthcare, and empirical evidence on healthcare brokerage in urban slums in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. The framework comprises six areas of interest that have been derived from sociological and political science literature on brokerage. A framework approach was used to group observational and interview data into six framework charts (one for each area of interest) to facilitate close thematic analysis. A cadre of women in Lucknow's urban slums performed healthcare brokerage by encouraging use of particular healthcare services, organising travel, and mediating communications and fee negotiations with providers. The women emphasised their personal role in facilitating access to care and encouraged dependency on their services by withholding information from users. They received commission payments from healthcare programmes, and sometimes from users and hospitals as well, but were blamed for issues beyond their control. Disruption to their ability to facilitate low-cost healthcare meant some women lost their positions as brokers, while others adapted by leveraging old and new relationships with hospital managers. Brokerage analysis reveals how people capitalise on the complexity of healthcare systems by positioning themselves as intermediaries. Commercialised healthcare systems offer a fertile environment for such behaviours, which can undermine

  14. Identifying electricity-saving potential in rural China: Empirical evidence from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yihua; Guo, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a fast-growing body of literature examining energy-saving potential in relation to electricity. However, empirical studies focusing on non-Western nations are limited. To fill this gap, this study intends to examine the electricity-saving potential of rural households in China using a unique data set from the China Residential Electricity Consumption Survey (CRECS) in collaboration with the China General Social Survey (CGSS), conducted nationwide at the household level in rural China. We use a stochastic frontier model, which allows us to decompose residential electricity consumption into the minimum necessary amount of consumption based on physical characteristics (e.g. house size, house age, number of televisions or refrigerators) and estimate the consumption slack (i.e. the amount of electricity consumption that could be saved), which depends on various factors. We find that rural households in China are generally efficient in electricity saving and the saving potential is affected by (fast) information feedback and social-demographic characteristics, instead of by the (averaged) electricity price, or energy efficiency labelling signals. In addition, we find no evidence of regional heterogeneity on electricity saving potential for rural households. Policy implications are derived. - Highlights: •Electricity saving potential of rural households in China is examined. •Unique survey data from the CRECS in collaboration with the CGSS are used. •A stochastic frontier model is applied. •Information feedback and social-demographic characteristics matter. •Electricity price or energy efficiency tier rating does not matter.

  15. Intermediation by Banks and Economic Growth: A Review of Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Bađun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of empirical research on the link between financial intermediation by banks and economic growth. Special attention is paid to the issues of causality, non-linearity, time perspective, financial intermediation proxies, and interaction terms. The review shows that there are still quite a few unresolved issues in empirical research, which causes scepticism towards prioritizing financial sector policies in order to cause economic growth. Progress in the finance and growth literature is slow and researchers seem to go round in circles. A possibly fruitful direction for future empirical research is the relationship between government and banks, especially from the standpoint of political economy.

  16. Rate My Sleep: Examining the Information, Function, and Basis in Empirical Evidence Within Sleep Applications for Mobile Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Tobin, Peta A; Ogeil, Rowan P; Savic, Michael; Lubman, Dan I

    2017-11-15

    Sleep applications (apps) have proliferated in online spaces, but few studies have examined the validity of the information contained within the apps. This study aimed to examine the information and functions found within sleep apps, determine if the information is based on empirical evidence, and whether or not user ratings were affected by these factors. Sleep apps found in the Google Play store (n = 76) were coded using content analysis to examine the types of information, functions, and evidence base of each app. Only 32.9% of sleep apps contained empirical evidence supporting their claims, 15.8% contained clinical input, and 13.2% contained links to sleep literature. Apps also contained information on how sleep is affected by alcohol or drugs (23.7%), food (13.2%), daily activities (13.2), and stress (13.2%). A mean difference in average user rating was found between apps that contained at least one source of information compared those that did not. App user ratings were not associated with an app having multiple functions, or from an app drawing on multiple sources of evidence (except for sleep literature only). Last, there was a higher average user rating among apps that contained a sleep tip function. Sleep apps are increasingly popular, demonstrated by the large number of downloads in the Google Play store. Users favored apps that contained sleep tips; however, these tips and other information in the apps were generally not based on empirical evidence. Future research in the area of sleep apps should consider constructing sleep apps derived from empirical evidence and examining their effectiveness. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  17. Do authoritarian regimes receive more Chinese development finance than democratic ones? Empirical evidence for Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broich, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    This study is part of an emerging literature that aims to shed light on China's development finance activities in Africa using quantitative estimation techniques. This paper empirically investigates whether African authoritarian regimes receive more Chinese development assistance than democratic

  18. Price formation and intertemporal arbitrage within a low-liquidity framework. Empirical evidence from European natural gas markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick, Sebastian

    2013-08-15

    In this study, the informational efficiency of the European natural gas market is analyzed by empirically investigating price formation and arbitrage efficiency between spot and futures markets. Econometric approaches are specified that explicitly account for nonlinearities and the low liquidity framework of the considered gas hubs. The empirical results reveal that price discovery takes place on the futures market, while the spot price subsequently follows the futures market price. Furthermore, there is empirical evidence of significant market frictions hampering intertemporal arbitrage. UK's NBP seems to be the hub at which arbitrage opportunities are exhausted most efficiently, although there is convergence in the degree of intertemporal arbitrage efficiency over time at the hubs investigated.

  19. Institutions and foreign direct investment (FDI) in Malaysia: empirical evidence using ARDL model

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Karim, Zulkefly; Zaidi, Mohd Azlan Shah; Ismail, Mohd Adib; Abdul Karim, Bakri

    2011-01-01

    Since 1990’s, institution factors have been regarded as playing important roles in stimulating foreign direct investments (FDI). However, empirical studies on their importance in affecting FDI are still lacking especially for small open economies. This paper attempts to investigate the role of institutions upon the inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI) in a small open economy of Malaysia. Using bounds testing approach (ARDL model), the empirical findings reveal that there exists a long ru...

  20. The Effect of Private Benefits of Control on Minority Shareholders: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Evidence from State Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of private benefits of control on minority shareholders. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model is established. The empirical analysis includes hand-collected data from a wide range of data sources. OLS and 2SLS regression analysis are applied with Huber-White standard errors. Findings: The theoretical model shows that, while private benefits are generally harmful to minority shareholders, the overall effect depends on the size of large shareholder ownership. The empirical evidence from government ownership is consistent with theoretical analysis. Research limitations/implications: The empirical evidence is based on a small number of hand-collected data sets of government ownership. Further studies can be expanded to other types of ownership, such as family ownership and financial institutional ownership. Originality/value: This study is the first to theoretically analyse and empirically test the effect of private benefits. In general, this study significantly contributes to the understanding of the effect of large shareholder and corporate governance.

  1. Is Project Based Learning More Effective than Direct Instruction in School Science Classrooms? An Analysis of the Empirical Research Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Clifford

    An increasingly loud call by parents, school administrators, teachers, and even business leaders for "authentic learning", emphasizing both group-work and problem solving, has led to growing enthusiasm for inquiry-based learning over the past decade. Although "inquiry" can be defined in many ways, a curriculum called "project-based learning" has recently emerged as the inquiry practice-of-choice with roots in the educational constructivism that emerged in the mid-twentieth century. Often, project-based learning is framed as an alternative instructional strategy to direct instruction for maximizing student content knowledge. This study investigates the empirical evidence for such a comparison while also evaluating the overall quality of the available studies in the light of accepted standards for educational research. Specifically, this thesis investigates what the body of quantitative research says about the efficacy of project-based learning vs. direct instruction when considering student acquisition of content knowledge in science classrooms. Further, existing limitations of the research pertaining to project based learning and secondary school education are explored. The thesis concludes with a discussion of where and how we should focus our empirical efforts in the future. The research revealed that the available empirical research contains flaws in both design and instrumentation. In particular, randomization is poor amongst all the studies considered. The empirical evidence indicates that project-based learning curricula improved student content knowledge but that, while the results were statistically significant, increases in raw test scores were marginal.

  2. An empirical investigation of Lead-time reduction in purchasing groups: evidence from SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghaderi, H.; Dullaert, W.E.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to empirically examine the impact of horizontal cooperation in purchasing on the lead times of the orders from suppliers. Two groups of SMEs participating in purchasing groups were investigated for a ninemonth period of data collection. However, for one of the groups involved in

  3. The Determinants of Banking Performance: Empirical evidence from Tunisian Listed Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalfaoui Hamdi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the determinants of performance of the Tunisian banking sector. The results found, following an empirical study using panel data of Tunisian banks listed on the stock market over the period 2000-2013, show that credit risk, liquidity, total assets and disclosure of information relating to credit are the main determinants of banking performance.

  4. Labor market participation of Chinese agricultural households: Empirical evidence from Zhejiang province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glauben, T.; Herzfeld, T.; Wang, X.

    2008-01-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of the different labor market participation regimes of Chinese farm households over the reform process in the 1980s and 1990s. Using household data over the period 1986¿2002 from the province Zhejiang, we apply a multinomial logit model to empirically examine

  5. Behavioural processes in marketing channel relationships: Review and integration of empirical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nils Bøgelund; Skytte, Hans

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical research on behavioural processes in marketing channel relationships. Systematically examining nine international journals, we find 49 papers on behavioural processes. On the basis of the hypothesis tests in the papers, we discuss the results and integrate...

  6. Innovation Forms and Firm Export Performance: Empirical Evidence from ECA Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Cieślik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this paper is to verify empirically the relationship between various forms of innovation and export performance of firms from European and Central Asian (ECA countries. Research Design & Methods: In our empirical approach we refer to the self-selection hypothesis derived from the Melitz (2003 model which proposed the existence of a positive relationship between firm productivity and the probability of exporting. We argue that innovation activities should be regarded as a key element that can increase the level of firm productivity. We focus our analysis on four forms of innovation activities: product, process, marketing, organizational and managerial innovation. The empirical implementation of our analytical framework is based on the probit model, applied to the fifth edition of the BEEPS firm level dataset covering 2011-2014. Findings: Our empirical results indicate that the probability of exporting is positively related to both product and process innovations. The marketing and managerial innovations do not seem to affect positively export performance of firms from ECA countries. Implications & Recommendations: It is recommended to develop innovation supporting mechanisms that would target both product and process innovations rather than other forms of innovation in the ECA countries. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in the use of the multi-country firm level dataset that allows distinguishing between various forms of innovations in the ECA countries.

  7. Matching tactical sourcing levers with the Kraljič matrix: Empirical evidence on purchasing portfolios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesping, Frank; Schiele, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Purchasing portfolio models, above all the Kraljič matrix, are widely adopted to recommend generic strategies and tactics for different categories of purchases. However, little has been done to empirically validate if conceptual and normative recommendations hold true. Does the application of

  8. Policy, competence and participation: empirical evidence for a multilevel health promotion model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rütten, A.; Lengerke, T. von; Abel, T.; Kannas, L.; Lüschen, G.; Rodríguez Diaz, J.A.; Vinck, J.; Zee, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    This paper uses data from a European health promotion evaluation study (MAREPS) to empirically test some fundamental assumptions of health promotion theory. Analysis shows that both the competence of individual actors and the opportunities provided for by health-promoting policies are significant

  9. Health status convergence at the local level: empirical evidence from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gächter Martin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Health is an important dimension of welfare comparisons across individuals, regions and states. Particularly from a long-term perspective, within-country convergence of the health status has rarely been investigated by applying methods well established in other scientific fields. In the following paper we study the relation between initial levels of the health status and its improvement at the local community level in Austria in the time period 1969-2004. Methods We use age standardized mortality rates from 2381 Austrian communities as an indicator for the health status and analyze the convergence/divergence of overall mortality for (i the whole population, (ii females, (iii males and (iv the gender mortality gap. Convergence/Divergence is studied by applying different concepts of cross-regional inequality (weighted standard deviation, coefficient of variation, Theil-Coefficient of inequality. Various econometric techniques (weighted OLS, Quantile Regression, Kendall's Rank Concordance are used to test for absolute and conditional beta-convergence in mortality. Results Regarding sigma-convergence, we find rather mixed results. While the weighted standard deviation indicates an increase in equality for all four variables, the picture appears less clear when correcting for the decreasing mean in the distribution. However, we find highly significant coefficients for absolute and conditional beta-convergence between the periods. While these results are confirmed by several robustness tests, we also find evidence for the existence of convergence clubs. Conclusions The highly significant beta-convergence across communities might be caused by (i the efforts to harmonize and centralize the health policy at the federal level in Austria since the 1970s, (ii the diminishing returns of the input factors in the health production function, which might lead to convergence, as the general conditions (e.g. income, education etc. improve

  10. The relation of auditor tenure to audit quality: Empirical evidence from the German audit market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Krauß

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether and how the length of an auditor-client relationship affects audit quality. Using a sample of 1,071 firm observations of large listed companies for the sample period of 2005 to 2011, the study is one of the first to empirically analyze this auditing issue for the German audit market. The empirical results demonstrate that neither short term nor long term audit firm tenure seems to be a significant factor with regard to audit quality in Germany. In the wake of the ongoing discussion in the European Union regarding the optimal audit tenure length for the quality of the conducted statutory audits, our findings do not support the idea of a mandatory audit firm rotation rule.

  11. Relationship between Fiscal Subsidies and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Cross-Country Empirical Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchidananda Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries disburse subsidies with various motivations, for example, to promote industrial development, facilitate innovation, support national champions, and ensure redistribution. The devolution of subsidies may however also encourage economic activities leading to climate change related concerns, reflected through higher greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions, if such activities are conducted beyond sustainable point. Through a cross-country empirical analysis involving 131 countries over 1990–2010, the present analysis observes that higher proportional devolution of budgetary subsidies leads to higher CO2 emissions. The countries with higher CO2 emissions are also characterized by higher per capita GDP, greater share of manufacturing sector in their GDP, and higher level of urbanization. In addition, the empirical findings underline the importance of the type of government subsidy devolution on CO2 emission pattern. The analysis underlines the importance of limiting provision of subsidies both in developed and developing countries.

  12. MtB versus VAIC in measuring intellectual capital: Empirical evidence from Italian listed companies

    OpenAIRE

    Forte, W.; Matonti, G.; Tucker, J.; Nicolo, G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – Grounded in the extant theoretical and empirical literature, the purpose of this paper is to compare two of the most employed methods measuring IC value in order to find the most suitable in the context of Italian listed firms. Moreover, this paper also investigates the relationship between Intellectual Capital (IC), measured in terms of the Market to Book (MTB) ratio, and the Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC), and potential key determinants of IC value including intangibl...

  13. Determinants of Bank Profitability and Basel Capital Regulation: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ozili, Peterson, K

    2015-01-01

    This study, empirically, investigates the determinants of bank profitability. Overall, I find that the Basel capital regime had no significant effect on bank profitability. This result is significant because it lends support to the view that modified Basel accord in different countries might be aimed to meet other prudential objectives other than the intended objective - to reduce excessive bank risk-taking. Second, after employing NIM and ROA profitability metrics, I find that the determinan...

  14. The Intergenerational Transmission of Automobile Brand Preferences: Empirical Evidence and Implications for Firm Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Soren T. Anderson; Ryan Kellogg; Ashley Langer; James M. Sallee

    2013-01-01

    We document a strong correlation in the brand of automobile chosen by parents and their adult children, using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. This correlation could represent transmission of brand preferences across generations, or it could result from correlation in family characteristics that determine brand choice. We present a variety of empirical specifications that lend support to the former interpretation and to a mechanism that relies at least in part on state dependence...

  15. The impact of global forces on the individual: empirical evidence from the German clothing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nierling, Linda; Krings, Bettina-Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Starting from theoretical perspectives on globalisation, the following article analyses how current working conditions are affected by globalisation processes. For this purpose, recent developments in the German clothing sector are traced back to the power of economic globalisation processes. Characterising the German clothing sector as pioneer in economic globalisation, we use empirical findings to illustrate how current processes of globalisation influence the work place: At organisational ...

  16. Empirical Evidence on Student-t Log-Returns of Diversified World Stock Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Eckhard Platen; Renata Rendek

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to document some empirical facts related to log-returns of diversified world stock indices when these are denominated in different currencies. Motivated by earlier results, we have obtained the estimated distribution of log-returns for a range of world stock indices over long observation periods. We expand previous studies by applying the maximum likelihood ratio test to the large class of generalized hyperbolic distributions, and investigate the log-returns of a vari...

  17. Tax-and-Spend or Spend-and-Tax? Empirical Evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Juat Hong

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates the causal relationships between government spending and revenue for Malaysia. The study uses annual data, a Johansen cointegration test and an error-correction model. A preliminary test shows that government revenue and expenditure are cointegrated. Empirical results support the spend-and-tax hypothesis. Furthermore, they underscore the fact that fiscal policy may not be effective enough to curb the rising budget deficits over the long term and may even reduce private ...

  18. Testing the impact of unemployment on self-employment: empirical evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Halicioglu, Ferda; Yolac, Sema

    2015-01-01

    The impact of unemployment on self-employment is rather an ambiguous issue in economics. According to refugee effect approach, there are two counter arguments: the theory of income choice argument suggests that increased unemployment may lead to increased self-employment activities whereas the counter argument defends the view that an increase in unemployment rates may decrease the endowments of human capital and entrepreneurial talent causing a rise in unemployment rates further. The empiric...

  19. Influencing Factors on Earnings Management, Empirical Evidence from Listed German and Austrian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Dilger; Sabine Graschitz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Since the 1960s earnings management has been a widely researched area and became presumably known by the current accounting scandals. This paper aims at empirically showing which factors affect earnings management. Design/methodology/approach – According to former research literature factors are derived, which might influence the companies' earnings management behavior. These factors are the applied accounting standard, the industry sector and the country of official quotation. ...

  20. CAN QUALITY STANDARDS INDIRECTLY IMPROVE EMPLOYEE'S WAGE: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCES FROM MONTENEGRO

    OpenAIRE

    Tatjana Stanovcic; Djurdjica Perovic; Ilija Moric; Sanja Pekovic

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the indirect effect of ISO 9000 adoption on employees' wage. Actually, the adoption of quality standards induces firm's re-organization, underlying improvement of work environment and employees' involvement. Therefore, in this paper, we analyze how work environment and employees' involvement are associated with employees' wage. Our empirical results based on Montenegrin employee database from two quality certified firms indicate that better work environment has no...

  1. The demand for gambling: Empirical evidence from state-operated lotteries and football pools in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Carcedo, Leví

    2010-01-01

    There are several arguments why the economic analysis of gambling seems to be very interesting. Gambling is a very important economic industry from which either local or national governments obtain resources due to some sort of fiscal imposition on gambling participation. On the other hand, the consumption of gambling seems to violate the premises of economic theory (risk aversion, maximizing and rational conduct). The empirical literature on this field has tried to answer several questions t...

  2. ICT diffusion, innovation systems, globalisation and regional economic dynamics: Theory and empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Charlie; Maier, Gunther; Trippl, Michaela; Siedschlag, Iulia; Owen, Robert; Murphy, Gavin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the relevant theoretical and empirical literature to provide a conceptual and methodological background for the analysis of the consequences of ICT use and globalisation on the regional economies in the European Union. We highlight the key aspects of ICT as a general purpose technology, discuss the economic impacts of ICT diffusion from a macro as well as from a micro perspective, and examine the spatial consequences of ICT diffusion. We focus on regio...

  3. Long-Run Nexus between Tax Revenue on Economic Performance: Empirical Evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Roshaiza Taha; Nanthakumar Loganathan

    2014-01-01

    Taxation is main source of government income and has direct linkages with economic performance for most of countries. This study attempts to investigate the long-run nexus between economic performance and tax revenue for Malaysia as a developing nation with dynamic economic progress for the last 2 decades. To determine the long-run nexus, we used the structural breaks effects with the conjunction of ARDL cointegration analysis along with causality analysis. The empirical finding successfully ...

  4. The Impact of Financial Dollarization on Inflation Targeting: Empirical Evidence from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabris Nikola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Serbia has applied inflation targeting against the backdrop of financial dollarization for almost a decade. In such circumstances, efficiency of monetary policy instruments decreases and begs the question of efficiency of the monetary regime efficiency issue. Although there is some empirical testing of financial dollarization effects on monetary policy performance in the inflation targeting regime for some countries, such studies for Serbia mostly cover periods of early application of the regime.

  5. Subjective social status, social network and health disparities: empirical evidence from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charonis, Antonios; Kyriopoulos, Ilias-Ioannis; Spanakis, Manos; Zavras, Dimitris; Athanasakis, Kostas; Pavi, Elpida; Kyriopoulos, John

    2017-02-27

    Several studies suggest that socioeconomic status affects (SES) affects self-rated health (SRH), both in Greece and internationally. However, prior research mainly uses objective measures of SES, instead of subjective evaluations of individuals' social status. Based on this, this paper aims to examine (a) the impact of the economic dowturn on SRH in Greece and (b) the relationship between subjective social status (SSS), social network and SRH. The descriptive analysis is based on four cross-sectional surveys conducted by the National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece (2002, 2006, 2011, 2015), while the data for the empirical investigation were derived from the 2015 survey (Health + Welfare Survey GR). The empirical strategy is based on an ordinal logistic regression model, aiming to examine how several variables affect SRH. Size of social network and SSS are among the independent variables employed for the empirical analysis RESULTS: According to our findings, average SRH has deteriorated, and the percentage of the population that reports very good/good SRH has also decreased. Moreover, our empirical analysis suggests that age, existence of a chronic disease, size of social network and SSS affect SRH in Greece. Our findings are consistent with the existing literature and confirm a social gradient in health. According to our analysis, health disparities can be largely attributed to socioeconomic inequalities. The adverse economic climate has impact on socioeconomic differences which in turn affect health disparities. Based on these, policy initiatives are necessasy in order to mitigate the negative impact on health and the disparities caused by economic dowturn and the occuring socioeconomic inequalities.

  6. Can salaries and re-election prevent political corruption? An empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardino Benito; María-Dolores Guillamón; Ana-María Ríos; Francisco Bastida

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives: This paper mainly focuses on decisions taken by politicians that may affect the level of municipal corruption. Specifically, we study whether local politicians’ incentives to be corrupt are influenced by the wages they receive and/or their intention to run for next elections. This issue has hardly been empirically tackled before at local level. Method and data: Our sample comprises 358 Spanish municipalities of over 20,000 inhabitants for the period 2004–2009. We...

  7. THE DYNAMIC INTER-RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OBESITY AND SCHOOL PERFORMANCE: NEW EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son; Hoang, Viet-Ngu; Vu, Xuan-Binh; Wilson, Clevo

    2017-12-04

    This paper proposes a new empirical model for examining the relationship between obesity and school performance using the simultaneous equation modelling approach. The lagged effects of both learning and health outcomes were included to capture both the dynamic and inter-relational aspects of the relationship between obesity and school performance. The empirical application of this study used comprehensive data from the first five waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC), which commenced in 2004 (wave 1) and was repeated every two years until 2018. The study sample included 10,000 children, equally divided between two cohorts (infants and children) across Australia. The empirical results show that past learning and obesity status are strongly associated with most indicators of school outcomes, including reading, writing, spelling, grammar and numeracy national tests, and scores from the internationally standardized Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the Matrix Reasoning Test. The main findings of this study are robust due to the choice of obesity indicator and estimation methods.

  8. Health and safety implications of virtual reality: a review of empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Sarah; Patel, Harshada

    2002-05-01

    For the last 10 years a number of papers have been written that discuss human factors issues associated with virtual reality (VR). The nature of these papers has gradually evolved from speculation and anecdotal report to empirical research. Despite developments in VR technology, some participants still experience health and safety problems associated with VR use-termed VR-induced symptoms and effects (VRISE). The key concern from the literature is VR-induced sickness, experienced by a large proportion of VR participants, but for the majority these effects are mild and subside quickly. This paper makes a number of recommendations regarding the future direction of research into health and safety implications of VR, including the need to take into account the way in which VR is being used when conducting empirical research: first, to ensure that studies consider both effects and their consequences, second, to ensure that empirical trials reflect the actual likely context of VR use; third, to consider interactions between effects: and finally, to consider ways in which effects can be managed.

  9. The scale-dependent market trend: Empirical evidences using the lagged DFA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daye; Kou, Zhun; Sun, Qiankun

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we make an empirical research and test the efficiency of 44 important market indexes in multiple scales. A modified method based on the lagged detrended fluctuation analysis is utilized to maximize the information of long-term correlations from the non-zero lags and keep the margin of errors small when measuring the local Hurst exponent. Our empirical result illustrates that a common pattern can be found in the majority of the measured market indexes which tend to be persistent (with the local Hurst exponent > 0.5) in the small time scale, whereas it displays significant anti-persistent characteristics in large time scales. Moreover, not only the stock markets but also the foreign exchange markets share this pattern. Considering that the exchange markets are only weakly synchronized with the economic cycles, it can be concluded that the economic cycles can cause anti-persistence in the large time scale but there are also other factors at work. The empirical result supports the view that financial markets are multi-fractal and it indicates that deviations from efficiency and the type of model to describe the trend of market price are dependent on the forecasting horizon.

  10. The role of polarity in antonym and synonym conceptual knowledge: evidence from stroke aphasia and multidimensional ratings of abstract words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Williams, Paul; Ridgway, Gerard R; Borgenicht, Laura

    2012-09-01

    This study describes an investigation of different types of semantic relationship among abstract words: antonyms (e.g. good-bad), synonyms (e.g. good-great), non-antonymous, non-synonymous associates (NANSAs; e.g. good-fun) and unrelated words (e.g. good-late). The comprehension and semantic properties of these words were examined using two distinct methodologies. Experiment 1 tested the comprehension of pairs of abstract words in three patients with global aphasia using a spoken word to written word matching paradigm. Contrary to expectations, all three patients showed superior antonym comprehension compared with synonyms or NANSAs, discriminating antonyms with a similar level of accuracy as unrelated words. Experiment 2 aimed to explore the content or semantic attributes of the abstract words used in Experiment 1 through the generation of control ratings across nine cognitive dimensions (sensation, action, thought, emotion, social interaction, space, time, quantity and polarity). Discrepancy analyses revealed that antonyms were as or more similar to one another than synonyms on all but one measure: polarity. The results of Experiment 2 provide a possible explanation for the novel pattern of neuropsychological data observed in Experiment 1, namely that polarity information is more important than other semantic attributes when discriminating the meaning of abstract words. It is argued that polarity is a critical semantic attribute of abstract words, and that simple 'dissimilarity' metrics mask fundamental consistencies in the semantic representation of antonyms. It is also suggested that mapping abstract semantic space requires the identification and quantification of the contribution made to abstract concepts by not only sensorimotor and emotional information but also a host of other cognitive dimensions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Is the motor system necessary for processing action and abstract emotion words? Evidence from focal brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix R. Dreyer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. In contrast, a possible role of modality-preferential – including sensorimotor – areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. However, recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e.g. love. But are these areas indeed necessary for processing action-related and abstract words? The current study now investigates word processing in two patients suffering from focal brain lesion in the left frontocentral motor system. A speeded lexical decision task (LDT on meticulously matched word groups showed that the recognition of nouns from different semantic categories – related to food, animals, tools and abstract-emotional concepts – was differentially affected. Whereas patient HS with a lesion in dorsolateral central sensorimotor cortex next to the hand area showed a category-specific deficit in recognizing tool words, patient CA suffering from lesion centered in the left SMA was primarily impaired in abstract-emotional word processing. These results point to a causal role of the motor cortex in the semantic processing of both action-related object concepts and abstract-emotional concepts and therefore suggest that the motor areas previously found active in action-related and abstract word processing can serve a meaning-specific necessary role in word recognition. The category-specific nature of the observed dissociations is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensorimotor systems are somehow peripheral or ‘epiphenomenal’ to meaning and concept processing. Rather, our results are consistent with the claim that cognition is grounded in action and perception and based on distributed action perception circuits reaching into sensorimotor areas.

  12. Growth-corruption-health triaca and environmental degradation: empirical evidence from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Qayyum

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the impact of economic growth, corruption, health, and poverty on environmental degradation for three countries from ASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand using annual data over the period of 1994-2014. The relationship between environmental degradation (pollution) by carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and economic growth is examined along with some other variables, namely health expenditure, poverty, agriculture value added growth, industrial value added growth, and corruption. The ordinary least squares (OLS) method is applied as an analytical technique for parameter estimation. The empirical results reveal that almost all variables are statistically significant at the 5% level of significance, whereby test rejects the null hypotheses of non-cointegration, indicating that all variables play an important role in affecting the environment across countries. Empirical results also indicate that economic growth has significant positive impact, while health expenditures show significantly negative impact on the environment. Corruption has significant positive effect on environment in the case of Malaysia; while in the case of Indonesia and Thailand, it has insignificant results. However, for the individual analysis across countries, the regression estimate suggests that economic growth has a significant positive relationship with environment for Indonesia, while it is found insignificantly negative and positive in the case of Malaysia and Thailand, respectively, during the period under the study. Empirical findings of the study suggest that policy-makers require to make technological-friendly environment sequentially to surmount unregulated pollution, steady population transfers from rural areas to urban areas are also important, and poverty alleviation and better health provision can also help to improve the environment.

  13. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DETERMINANTS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS PROFITABILITY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM BULGARIA AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRTESCU BOGDAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on commercial banks which are operating in Bulgaria and Romania, two countries whose banking sectors have registered major structural changes in the transition to a market economy and which are showing some similarities. Similar to other EU countries, the financial system from Bulgaria and Romania is dominated by the banking sector, which holds the largest share of total assets. Thus, we can say that health, strength and performance of the banking sector are of major importance for the sustainable economic development of states, but also for efficient transmission of monetary policy decisions on the real economy. The paper aims to identify the key factors that affect bank profitability and to evaluate empirically their contribution to a sample of 29 commercial banks in Bulgaria and Romania, for the period 2003-2012. Our research is based on data from the Bureau Van Dijk database, the World Bank and the European Central Bank and uses panel data estimation techniques. The dependent variable used in our study is the bank profitability, which is measured by two representative indicators the Return on Average Assets (ROAA and Return on Average Equity (ROAE. Regarding the independent variables, our analysis includes capital adequacy, the loan loss reserve rate, cost to income ratio, the ratio of liquid assets to total assets, the interest expenses to deposits ratio, the non-interest income over total gross revenues, bank size, the GDP per capita growth, inflation rate, domestic bank credit to private sector and banking industry concentration. The results of our empirical study shows that among the variables considered, the loan loss reserve rate, the ratio of cost to income, GDP per capita growth and domestic bank credit to the private sector, have a significant impact on bank profitability, results in line with our expectations, but also with the results of other empirical studies.

  14. Factors Determining the Mode of Overseas R&D by Multinationals: Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    ITO Banri; WAKASUGI Ryuhei

    2007-01-01

    The large expansion of MNCs' overseas R&D is noteworthy. This paper investigates the factors affecting the expansion of support-oriented R&D and knowledge sourcing R&D by using qualitative data which indicate the modes of R&D conducted at a plant site and a laboratory. The empirical results suggest that (1) the export propensity of affiliate firms, relative abundance of human resources for R&D, and accumulated technological knowledge have a positive effect on both the modes of R&D at a plant ...

  15. Macroeconomic and financial market volatilities: an empirical evidence of factor model

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Choun Yu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we provide two empirical findings. First, exploring 140 monthly macroeconomic and financial variables and applying the principal components method, we find 12 static factors and 8 dynamic factors from 1959 to 2005 in the US. Second, we find the real factor and interest rate factor have been less volatile since the mid 1980s. The price factor and foreign exchange factor, in contrast, became more volatile in the late 1990s. The rest of the factors show no obvious pattern. We find...

  16. CAN QUALITY STANDARDS INDIRECTLY IMPROVE EMPLOYEE'S WAGE: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCES FROM MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Stanovcic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the indirect effect of ISO 9000 adoption on employees' wage. Actually, the adoption of quality standards induces firm's re-organization, underlying improvement of work environment and employees' involvement. Therefore, in this paper, we analyze how work environment and employees' involvement are associated with employees' wage. Our empirical results based on Montenegrin employee database from two quality certified firms indicate that better work environment has no influence on employees' wage while employee involvement is positively associated with higher wages.

  17. Institutional quality and economic growth: Empirical evidence from the Sudanese economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexiou Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the extent to which conventional methods used in the majority of relevant growth studies can successfully interpret the economic performance of a highly underdeveloped African country such as Sudan. Applying an ARDL boundstesting approach to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001, we look into the short-run as well as long-run relationships between institutional and various other key economic variables and economic growth over the period 1972-2008. The empirical results obtained suggest that, for the Sudanese economy, the quality of the institutional environment is one of the most important factors in defining economic prosperity.

  18. AN INSTITUTIONAL AND NETWORK PERSPECTIVE OF ORGANISATIONAL LEGITIMACY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CHINA′S TELECOMMUNICATIONS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Low

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This perspective paper combines institutional and industrial network theory to develop a framework for analysing organisational legitimacy. The main subject, Nokia China, is found to be sensitive to network-legitimating initiatives, with consequences that accommodate multiple, conflicting stakeholders′ interests in China′s politically sensitive and protective telecommunications market. This paper offers new insights into institutional isomorphism that is manifested empirically as incremental conformity to regulative processes, institutional norms and cognitive knowledge and meanings within the environment, thereby extending commonly held views of institutional theory to include organisational legitimacy in industrial networks.

  19. Innovation, Integration and Product Proliferation - Empirical Evidence for the Agri-Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Karantininis, Kostas; Sauer, Johannes; Furtan, William Hartley

    2008-01-01

    While mergers, both horizontal and vertical, have been shaping the landscape of the agri-food industry in Europe, the implications of the changing market structure on the level of innovation has not been studied yet. In this paper we deal with the link between innovation and market structure using the empirical example of the Danish agri-food industry. The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First we test for the importance of vertical integration on innovation. While there exist several studi...

  20. Empirical evidence of the game-based learning advantages for online students persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Imbellone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the empirical results obtained from a study conducted on a game-based online course that took place in 2014 with 47 participants. The study evidenced the benefits of the learning games mechanics on learners’ willingness to continue the course. Assuming the interest for the subject of the course as a fundamental condition for student persistence within the course, it is shown how it can be significantly enhanced by the presence of both ludic and narrative game-based elements.

  1. A Guide to Visual Multi-Level Interface Design From Synthesis of Empirical Study Evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Displaying multiple levels of data visually has been proposed to address the challenge of limited screen space. Although many previous empirical studies have addressed different aspects of this question, the information visualization research community does not currently have a clearly articulated consensus on how, when, or even if displaying data at multiple levels is effective. To shed more light on this complex topic, we conducted a systematic review of 22 existing multi-level interface studies to extract high-level design guidelines. To facilitate discussion, we cast our analysis findings

  2. Determinants of Credit Risk: Empirical Evidence from Asia-Pacific Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Weihan

    2013-01-01

    This thesis carries out an empirical analysis of the determinants of credit risk based on Asia-Pacific banks. It has been debated for a number of years that the banks in that region are healthier than those in the US and the Europe. Presently, there are many papers available on the topic of credit risk determinants, but only a limited number of them focus on Asia-Pacific banks. Furthermore, these papers are generally based on some particular Asia-Pacific countries and none of these papers suc...

  3. Evidence for the Effectiveness of Jungian Psychotherapy: A Review of Empirical Studies

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    Christian Roesler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s several research projects and empirical studies (process and outcome on Jungian Psychotherapy have been conducted mainly in Germany and Switzerland. Prospective, naturalistic outcome studies and retrospective studies using standardized instruments and health insurance data as well as several qualitative studies of aspects of the psychotherapeutic process will be summarized. The studies are diligently designed and the results are well applicable to the conditions of outpatient practice. All the studies show significant improvements not only on the level of symptoms and interpersonal problems, but also on the level of personality structure and in every day life conduct. These improvements remain stable after completion of therapy over a period of up to six years. Several studies show further improvements after the end of therapy, an effect which psychoanalysis has always claimed. Health insurance data show that, after Jungian therapy, patients reduce health care utilization to a level even below the average of the total population. Results of several studies show that Jungian treatment moves patients from a level of severe symptoms to a level where one can speak of psychological health. These significant changes are reached by Jungian therapy with an average of 90 sessions, which makes Jungian psychotherapy an effective and cost-effective method. Process studies support Jungian theories on psychodynamics and elements of change in the therapeutic process. So finally, Jungian psychotherapy has reached the point where it can be called an empirically proven, effective method.

  4. The ascent of man: Theoretical and empirical evidence for blatant dehumanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kteily, Nour; Bruneau, Emile; Waytz, Adam; Cotterill, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Dehumanization is a central concept in the study of intergroup relations. Yet although theoretical and methodological advances in subtle, "everyday" dehumanization have progressed rapidly, blatant dehumanization remains understudied. The present research attempts to refocus theoretical and empirical attention on blatant dehumanization, examining when and why it provides explanatory power beyond subtle dehumanization. To accomplish this, we introduce and validate a blatant measure of dehumanization based on the popular depiction of evolutionary progress in the "Ascent of Man." We compare blatant dehumanization to established conceptualizations of subtle and implicit dehumanization, including infrahumanization, perceptions of human nature and human uniqueness, and implicit associations between ingroup-outgroup and human-animal concepts. Across 7 studies conducted in 3 countries, we demonstrate that blatant dehumanization is (a) more strongly associated with individual differences in support for hierarchy than subtle or implicit dehumanization, (b) uniquely predictive of numerous consequential attitudes and behaviors toward multiple outgroup targets, (c) predictive above prejudice, and (d) reliable over time. Finally, we show that blatant-but not subtle-dehumanization spikes immediately after incidents of real intergroup violence and strongly predicts support for aggressive actions like torture and retaliatory violence (after the Boston Marathon bombings and Woolwich attacks in England). This research extends theory on the role of dehumanization in intergroup relations and intergroup conflict and provides an intuitive, validated empirical tool to reliably measure blatant dehumanization. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Factors Influencing the Identification of Sustainable Opportunities by SMEs: Empirical Evidence from Zambia

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    Progress Choongo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 to examine the factors influencing the identification of sustainable opportunities among SMEs in a developing country, Zambia. The factors under investigation include knowledge of the natural/social environment, perception of threats to the natural/social environment, altruism towards others and entrepreneurial knowledge. We interviewed 220 owner-managers in the trading and service sector who supply goods and services to the mining industry in Zambia. We found that altruism towards others was partially supported by our empirical results while the positive effects of knowledge of the natural/social environment and perception of threats to the natural/social environment on the identification of sustainable opportunities were not supported. Contrary to our expectations, entrepreneurial knowledge does not positively moderate the relationship between explanatory variables and the identification of sustainable opportunities. In sum, we found only limited empirical support for the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 concerning the identification of sustainable opportunities. Our findings contribute to literature on entrepreneurship and sustainable opportunity identification by showing what factors influence the identification of sustainable opportunities. This can help us to create awareness among entrepreneurs regarding the effects of entrepreneurial activities on the environment and society; consequently, stimulating entrepreneurs to identify sustainable opportunities.

  6. The Role of Expenditure Components in Determination of Import Demand: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

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    Muhammad Irfan Chani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at in-depth empirical analysis of impact of final expenditure components on import demand in Pakistan. ARDL bound testing approach to cointegration is used to analyze the long run relationship of import demand, relative prices of imports and components of final expenditure like household consumption,investment, exports and government consumption expenditures. Empirical results show that there exists a long run relationship between import demand and the macro components of final expenditure and relative prices. Long run coefficients indicate thatelasticity of import demand with respect to different macro components of final expenditure is different. The impact of the all expenditure components on import demand is positive and significant. The relative prices have negative but insignificant relationshipwith import demand in Pakistan. For the analysis of Short Run dynamics, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM has been used. The results show that all expenditure components have positive and significant impact on import demand in Pakistan while theeffect of relative prices is also statistically insignificant in short run.

  7. Bank Specific and Macroeconomic Determinants of Commercial Bank Profitability: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

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    Oluwaseyi Ebenezer Olalere

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants of banks profitability in Nigeria analyzing audited financial reports of selected sixteen (16 commercial banks over the period of 2010 to 2015 making up to 96 observations. The study identified that existing studies are sketchy in developing economies even though many studies have emerge in developed economies. The bank profitability is measured by return on assets and return on equity as function of bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants. Using the balanced panel data set, the empirical results of the study shows that capital adequacy and liquidity have a positive and significant effect on bank profitability. However, efficiency ratio have a negative and significant effect on bank profitability. With regards to macroeconomic variable, GDP growth also have a positive and significant impact on banks profitability. The empirical results of the study suggested that banks can improve their profitability through increasing capital and liquidity, decreasing operating cost with conscious effort to maintain transparency in their operations. In addition, a good economic environment for financial institutions foster increase in bank profitability. Hence, the study recommends that further studies can expand the scope while extending to other industries as well.

  8. HETEROGENEOUS BANK LENDING RESPONSES TO MONETARY POLICY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM RUSSIA

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    Zlata Kovtun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy affects the regional economy through interest rates and its main parameter the Bank of Russia key rate. But do all the banks in the regions respond uniformly to monetary policy changes? The effects of monetary policy actions can vary across the regions within an economic entity, depending on the regional industrial output, the financial structure, household incomes, lending activity, etc. The analysis of the article aims to determine the monetary policy instruments that influence the development or degradation of the regional banking sector in Russia. This helps to identify the heterogeneous commercial bank responses to changes in conducted monetary policy. In order to assess the effects of macroeconomic shocks and instruments of banking supervision on lending activity, the Ordinary Least Squares estimator and Generalized Least Squares technique were applied. The Taylor rule was used to calculate the desired level of interest rate for the each region and, then, to compare the results with the Central Bank interest rate. The empirical results, described in the context of the regional analysis, demonstrate that Central Bank’s interest rate does not affect the lending activity in most of the regions. Finally, the author summarizes conclusions one can draw from the results and provides recommendations for economic policy makers, based on the results of empirical analysis.

  9. Capital structure in LNG infrastructures and gas pipelines projects: Empirical evidences and methodological issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierru, Axel; Roussanaly, Simon; Sabathier, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG infrastructures and gas pipeline projects, by using data relating to projects whose financial close occurred between June 2004 and March 2011. Most results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. Especially, the projects located in risky countries and larger projects tend to exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. In addition, regasification projects appear to have a more diluted equity ownership. Methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects are also examined from a capital-budgeting perspective. In particular, the equity residual method, usually used by industrial practitioners to value these projects, should be adjusted. - Highlights: • This paper provides new empirical insights on the capital structure of project-financed LNG and gas pipeline infrastructures. • Most of our results are consistent with the basic view of risk-averse funds suppliers. • Projects located in risky countries exhibit lower debt ratios and less-concentrated equity ownerships. • Larger projects and regasification projects also have less concentrated equity ownerships. • From a capital-budgeting viewpoint, we examine methodological issues raised by the financing of these projects

  10. Abstract Conceptual Feature Ratings Predict Gaze within Written Word Arrays: Evidence from a Visual Wor(l)d Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primativo, Silvia; Reilly, Jamie; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2017-01-01

    The Abstract Conceptual Feature (ACF) framework predicts that word meaning is represented within a high-dimensional semantic space bounded by weighted contributions of perceptual, affective, and encyclopedic information. The ACF, like latent semantic analysis, is amenable to distance metrics between any two words. We applied predictions of the ACF…

  11. Special Affects? Nationalist and Cosmopolitan Discourses Through the Transmission of Emotions: Empirical Evidence from London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Mark; Rolf, Niklas; Siklodi, Nora

    2016-01-01

    International sporting and mega-events such as London 2012 provide a pertinent case study through which to explore contemporary approaches to nationalism and cosmopolitanism. Using original focus group evidence from participants with expertise in the Olympics, this article provides an insight into how nationalist and cosmopolitan discourses emerge in dialogue between informed individuals set against an emotionally charged background. The evidence indicates that the transmission of emotions mi...

  12. HOW A SUPPLY CHAIN PROCESS MATTERS IN FIRMS’ PERFORMANCE-AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ziaullah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, supply chain processes (i.e. demand management, customer relationship management, and new product development have gained a great importance from academicians and practitioners. Yet, research into the subject of supply chain processes’ effects on performance is nascent. The purpose of this study is to examine the process dimensions’ effects on supply chain (SC partners’ trust and firms’ performance as supply chain processes are essential for firms’ competitiveness. The research framework consists of seven hypotheses. An empirical study was conducted in Pakistan, and the data were collected from 164 supply chain firms. The reliability and validity of the model were examined through the exploratory factor analysis (EFA and Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The results delineate that supply chain processes have a significant relationship with SC partners’ trust and performance. Thus, all hypotheses were supported. This study presents interesting theoretical contributions and managerial implications. At last, limitations regarding future research directions are discussed.

  13. What factors drive interest rate spread of commercial banks? Empirical evidence from Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Were

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper empirically investigates the determinants of interest rate spread in Kenya's banking sector based on panel data analysis. The findings show that bank-specific factors play a significant role in the determination of interest rate spreads. These include bank size, credit risk as measured by non-performing loans to total loans ratio, return on average assets and operating costs, all of which positively influence interest rate spreads. On the other hand, higher bank liquidity ratio has a negative effect on the spreads. On average, big banks have higher spreads compared to small banks. The impact of macroeconomic factors such as real economic growth is insignificant. The effect of the monetary policy rate is positive but not highly significant. The results largely reflect the structure of the banking industry, in which a few big banks control a significant share of the market.

  14. The future context of work in the business environment in South Africa: Some empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PS Nel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The future is uncertain, but management needs to determine and also be informed about possible change trends. This research, however, reports on empirical results of the views of South African HRM practitioners to identify and prioritise business change trends for 2002 and 2010 in terms of the “hard” or “soft” HRM debate in the literature. All organisations employing HRM practitioners were include and a total of 1640 questionnaires were distributed resulting in 207 useable responses.   The results highlight trends such as increased international competition, globalisation and inadequate skills in different rankings for 2002 and 2010. It is concluded that HRM practitioners, are influenced by the “hard” or “soft” approach, when they participate in a strategic management context in organisations.

  15. Open Innovation: A New Mechanism For Adoption Of Organizational Innovation Empirical Evidence From Algerian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayra Aichouche

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the openness degree of companies and organizational innovation. The openness degree is defined as the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal Innovation, and to expend markets for external use of innovation (Chesbrough, 2006. The research utilizes causality models and suggests a conceptual schema subsequent to a comprehensive analysis of the literature linked to open innovation field. A sample of 120 managers and employees of Algerian pharmaceutical company is used. The SEM is used to analyze and approve the proposal of the conceptual schema. Results of the empirical research show that open innovation is positively and significantly related to organizational innovation, on the other hand, these results indicate that there is a positive and significant impact of organizational innovation on organizational performance.

  16. Time to Reject the Privileging of Economic Theory over Empirical Evidence? A Reply to Lawson (2009)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    features of the data. Furthermore, I argue that a strong empirical methodology that allows data to speak freely about economic mechanisms, such as the CVAR, would ensure that important information in the data is not over heard when needed. Adequately applied such models would provide us with an early......The present financial and economic crisis has revealed a systemic failure of academic economics and emphasized the need to re-think how to model economic phenomena. Lawson (2009) seems concerned that critics of standard models now will fill academic journals with contributions that make the same...... methodological mistakes, albeit in slightly different guise.  In particular, he is rather sceptical to use of mathematical statistical models, such as the CVAR approach, as a way of learning about economic mechanisms. In this paper I discuss whether this is a relevant claim and argue that it is likely...

  17. The relationship between energy and economic growth: Empirical evidence from 66 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Susan Sunila

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we use dynamic panel data models to examine the impact of electricity and non-electricity variables on economic growth for a global panel consisting of 66 countries. The time component of our dataset is 1986-2005 inclusive. We also estimate this relationship for four regional panels; namely, East/South Asian and the Pacific region, Europe and Central Asian region, Latin America and Caribbean region, and Sub-Saharan, North Africa and Middle Eastern region. In total, we use six proxies for energy. The empirical analysis is based on a sound theoretical framework, in that we draw on growth theory and augment the classical growth model, which consists of inflation, capital stock, labour force and trade, with energy. Generally, the results on the impact of energy are mixed. (author)

  18. Time to reject the privileging of economic theory over empirical evidence? A reply to Lawson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    these strong features of the data. Furthermore, I argue that a strong empirical methodology that allows data to speak freely about economic mechanisms, such as the CVAR, would ensure that important signals in the data are not silenced by prior restrictions. Adequately applied such models would provide us......The present financial and economic crisis has revealed a systemic failure of academic economics and emphasised the need to re-think how to model economic phenomena. Tony Lawson seems concerned that critics of standard models now will fill academic journals with contributions that make the same...... methodological mistakes, albeit in a slightly different guise. In particular, he is rather sceptical of the usefulness of mathematical statistical models, such as the Cointegrated VAR model, as a way of learning about economic mechanisms. In this paper I discuss whether this is a relevant claim and argue...

  19. How does auditors’ work stress affect audit quality? Empirical evidence from the Chinese stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanmin Yan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With reference to the Job Demands–Control Model, we empirically examine the effect of auditors’ work stress on audit quality using a sample of Chinese A-share listed companies and their signature auditors from 2009 to 2013. The results show that (1 there is generally no pervasive deterioration in audit quality resulting from auditors’ work stress; (2 there is a significant negative association between work stress and audit quality in the initial audits of new clients; and (3 the perception of work stress depends on auditors’ individual characteristics. Auditors from international audit firms and those in the role of partner respond more strongly to work stress than industry experts. Auditors tend to react more intensively when dealing with state-owned companies. We suggest that audit firms attach more importance to auditors’ work stress and rationalize their allocation of audit resources to ensure high audit quality.

  20. From Strategic Planning to City Branding: Some Empirical Evidence in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Rizzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized world where places compete with each other, the image of the city plays a crucial role to attract tourists and investors, and to make citizens stay with satisfaction and avoid their moving away. By exploring the connections and implications between theory and empirical outcomes of some Italian cities as to its attractiveness for tourists and investors, this paper intends to offer a useful overview both for academicians and practitioners. The purpose is not only to go through the extensive literature on strategic planning place marketing and city branding, but to focus specifically on some Italian cases (Turin, Genoa, Venice, Piacenza, where the application of the above mentionedinstruments has provided interesting results to compare.

  1. Is migration status a determinant of urban nutrition insecurity? Empirical evidence from Mumbai city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Neetu; Parthasarathy, D

    2009-09-01

    From an economic perspective that understood it as a spillover of development, migration is now also the subject of socioeconomic investigation incorporating the problems of assimilation, relative deprivation and isolation. The corollary is an increased emphasis on economic and social understanding of migration and its consequences. This entails studying migration or migrants in terms of factors beyond income. Health outcome is important among these non-income factors but at the same time remains less studied. Although there have been a few influential studies on health issues as linked to migration status, the issue of malnutrition in this context continues to be under-researched. This paper explores, theoretically and empirically, migration status and malnutrition in Mumbai in India. An econometric analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data gives insight into the dynamics of child and maternal undernutrition as mediated by migration status in Mumbai.

  2. The relationship between energy and economic growth: Empirical evidence from 66 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Susan Sunila [School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Faculty of Business and Law, 70 Elgar Road, Burwood, 3125 Victoria, Melbourne (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, we use dynamic panel data models to examine the impact of electricity and non-electricity variables on economic growth for a global panel consisting of 66 countries. The time component of our dataset is 1986-2005 inclusive. We also estimate this relationship for four regional panels; namely, East/South Asian and the Pacific region, Europe and Central Asian region, Latin America and Caribbean region, and Sub-Saharan, North Africa and Middle Eastern region. In total, we use six proxies for energy. The empirical analysis is based on a sound theoretical framework, in that we draw on growth theory and augment the classical growth model, which consists of inflation, capital stock, labour force and trade, with energy. Generally, the results on the impact of energy are mixed. (author)

  3. Uncoupling of reading and IQ over time: empirical evidence for a definition of dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Emilio; Shaywitz, Bennett A; Holahan, John M; Marchione, Karen; Shaywitz, Sally E

    2010-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is defined as an unexpected difficulty in reading in individuals who otherwise possess the intelligence and motivation considered necessary for fluent reading, and who also have had reasonable reading instruction. Identifying factors associated with normative and impaired reading development has implications for diagnosis, intervention, and prevention. We show that in typical readers, reading and IQ development are dynamically linked over time. Such mutual interrelationships are not perceptible in dyslexic readers, which suggests that reading and cognition develop more independently in these individuals. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first empirical demonstration of a coupling between cognition and reading in typical readers and a developmental uncoupling between cognition and reading in dyslexic readers. This uncoupling was the core concept of the initial description of dyslexia and remains the focus of the current definitional model of this learning disability.

  4. The relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty. Empirical evidence for the newest EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viorica, Daniela; Jemna, Danut; Pintilescu, Carmen; Asandului, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to verify the hypotheses presented in the literature on the causal relationship between inflation and its uncertainty, for the newest EU countries. To ensure the robustness of the results, in the study four models for inflation uncertainty are estimated in parallel: ARCH (1), GARCH (1,1), EGARCH (1,1,1) and PARCH (1,1,1). The Granger method is used to test the causality between two variables. The working hypothesis is that groups of countries with a similar political and economic background in 1990 and are likely to be characterized by the same causal relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty. Empirical results partially confirm this hypothesis. C22, E31, E37.

  5. A holistic approach to corporate social responsibility as a prerequisite for sustainable development: Empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanović Dejana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing importance of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility (CSR for contemporary organizations demands appropriate holistic tools. The paper highlights how Soft Systems Methodology (SSM, a relevant holistic, i.e., soft systems approach, supports the conceptualization and management of the complex issues of CSR and sustainable development. The SSM’s key methodological tools are used: rich picture, root definitions, and conceptual models. Empirical research compares a selected sample of enterprises in the automotive industry in the Republic of Serbia, to identify possible systemically desirable and culturally feasible changes to improve their CSR behaviour through promoting their sustainable development. Some limitations of this research and of SSM application are discussed. Combining SSM with some other systems approaches, such as System Dynamics or Critical Systems Heuristics, is recommended for future research.

  6. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF ISO 9000 CERTIFICATION? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM FRENCH MICRO-DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Pekovic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ISO 9000 certification is often associated with quality approach, and activities that are by now widely diffused throughout business. The statistical research shows that quality management practice is one of the most utilized tools because in 1997, more than a third of industrial firms have received the quality certification. Regarded like an investment in a diploma, investment in quality norms can at the same time be a function of improvement of the company's competence and can also make a signal on the market. In our research, we want to understand those two functions of the ISO 9000 certification and to see how they act in the company and on the market. The paper will explore two possible functions of the certification and will analysis the consequences for the firms. The research will use national statistics sources and case research for the empirical investigation to identify the internal characteristics of ISO 9000 adoption. Also, it will use C.O.I database (Organizational Changes and Computerization of 1997 and E.A.E. database (Annual Survey of Industry. In this research, the empirical results show that ISO certification has a part of increase the level of firm's export. Moreover, the firms that have recently adopted the ISO certification invest more in quality than those that have adopted ISO certification more ago. The results show that the firms from same sector of activity "are pushed" to adopt certification. At the end, the results show that, the probability that the firm adopt ISO certification increase with firm's size.

  7. Trust in automation: integrating empirical evidence on factors that influence trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Kevin Anthony; Bashir, Masooda

    2015-05-01

    We systematically review recent empirical research on factors that influence trust in automation to present a three-layered trust model that synthesizes existing knowledge. Much of the existing research on factors that guide human-automation interaction is centered around trust, a variable that often determines the willingness of human operators to rely on automation. Studies have utilized a variety of different automated systems in diverse experimental paradigms to identify factors that impact operators' trust. We performed a systematic review of empirical research on trust in automation from January 2002 to June 2013. Papers were deemed eligible only if they reported the results of a human-subjects experiment in which humans interacted with an automated system in order to achieve a goal. Additionally, a relationship between trust (or a trust-related behavior) and another variable had to be measured. All together, 101 total papers, containing 127 eligible studies, were included in the review. Our analysis revealed three layers of variability in human-automation trust (dispositional trust, situational trust, and learned trust), which we organize into a model. We propose design recommendations for creating trustworthy automation and identify environmental conditions that can affect the strength of the relationship between trust and reliance. Future research directions are also discussed for each layer of trust. Our three-layered trust model provides a new lens for conceptualizing the variability of trust in automation. Its structure can be applied to help guide future research and develop training interventions and design procedures that encourage appropriate trust. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  8. The regulatory treatment of adverse outcomes: Empirical evidence from the electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two essays, both of them empirical studies using data from the US electric utility industry. Part I focuses on utilities' investment behavior, while Part II examines regulatory policy toward the industry. The first paper presents an analysis of utilities' decisions about whether to continue or cancel nuclear construction projects. During the seventies and eighties, changes in economic conditions and regulatory policy radically altered the costs and benefits of nuclear power. This study seeks to determine whether regulators pursued policies which induced utilities to employ socially efficient criteria in re-evaluating ongoing projects. The analysis also yields insights into regulators' distributional goals. Results based on data for 1978-84 are consistent with the capture theory hypothesis, which holds that regulators weigh industry interests more heavily than consumer interests. A test for structural change provides no support for the contention that the relative importance of consumer interests increased over this period. These empirical findings are inconsistent with a standard (and essential) assumption of theoretical principal-agent models of rate-of-return regulation, that regulators value consumers' payoffs more than utility profits. The second paper examines regulatory policy toward generating facilities that entered commercial service during the years 1983-88. In a significant departure from past practice, state public utility commissions often denied utilities full recovery of their investments in new plants. Although such ex post disallowances have an important efficiency rationale, they also provide a means for opportunistic regulators to effect transfers between utilities' ratepayers and shareholders. A probit model was used to assess the impact on the probability of a disallowance of firm and project characteristics as well as attributes of a state's political and institutional environment

  9. Evidenzbasierte Pflegeausbildung - ein systematisches Review zur empirischen Forschungslage [Evidence-based Nursing Education - a Systematic Review of Empirical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiber, Karin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] The project „Evidence-based Nursing Education – Preparatory Stage“, funded by the Baden-Württemberg within the programme (Funding to Stimulate Research, aims to collect information on current research concerned with nursing education and to process existing data. The results of empirical research which has already been carried out were systematically evaluated with aim of identifying further topics, fields and matters of interest for empirical research in nursing education. In the course of the project, the available empirical studies on nursing education were scientifically analysed and systematised. The over-arching aim of the evidence-based training approach – which extends beyond the aims of this project - is the conception, organisation and evaluation of vocational training and educational processes in the caring professions on the basis of empirical data. The following contribution first provides a systematic, theoretical link to the over-arching reference framework, as the evidence-based approach is adapted from thematically related specialist fields. The research design of the project is oriented towards criteria introduced from a selection of studies and carries out a two-stage systematic review of the selected studies. As a result, the current status of research in nursing education, as well as its organisation and structure, and questions relating to specialist training and comparative education are introduced and discussed. Finally, the empirical research on nursing training is critically appraised as a complementary element in educational theory/psychology of learning and in the ethical tradition of research.This contribution aims, on the one hand, to derive and describe the methods used, and to introduce the steps followed in gathering and evaluating the data. On the other hand, it is intended to give a systematic overview of empirical research work in nursing education. In order to preserve a holistic view of

  10. Advancing Empirical Approaches to the Concept of Resilience: A Critical Examination of Panarchy, Ecological Information, and Statistical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kharrazi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its ambiguities, the concept of resilience is of critical importance to researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers in dealing with dynamic socio-ecological systems. In this paper, we critically examine the three empirical approaches of (i panarchy; (ii ecological information-based network analysis; and (iii statistical evidence of resilience to three criteria determined for achieving a comprehensive understanding and application of this concept. These criteria are the ability: (1 to reflect a system’s adaptability to shocks; (2 to integrate social and environmental dimensions; and (3 to evaluate system-level trade-offs. Our findings show that none of the three currently applied approaches are strong in handling all three criteria. Panarchy is strong in the first two criteria but has difficulty with normative trade-offs. The ecological information-based approach is strongest in evaluating trade-offs but relies on common dimensions that lead to over-simplifications in integrating the social and environmental dimensions. Statistical evidence provides suggestions that are simplest and easiest to act upon but are generally weak in all three criteria. This analysis confirms the value of these approaches in specific instances but also the need for further research in advancing empirical approaches to the concept of resilience.

  11. Chemistry of the t-butoxyl radical: evidence that most hydrogen abstractions from carbon are entropy-controlled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Meghan; Friedline, Robert; Suleman, N Kamrudin; Wohl, Christopher J; Tanko, James M

    2004-06-23

    Absolute rate constants and Arrhenius parameters for hydrogen abstractions (from carbon) by the t-butoxyl radical ((t) BuO.) are reported for several hydrocarbons and tertiary amines in solution. Combined with data already in the literature, an analysis of all the available data reveals that most hydrogen abstractions (from carbon) by (t) BuO. are entropy controlled (i.e., TdeltaS > deltaH, in solution at room temperature). For substrates with C-H bond dissociation energies (BDEs) > 92 kcal/mol, the activation energy for hydrogen abstraction decreases with decreasing BDE in accord with the Evans-Polanyi equation, with alpha approximately 0.3. For substrates with C-H BDEs in the range from 79 to 92 kcal/mol, the activation energy does not vary significantly with C-H BDE. The implications of these results in the context of the use of (t) BuO. as a chemical model for reactive oxygen-centered radicals is discussed.

  12. Empirical evidence for differential organ reductions during trans-oceanic bird flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, PF; Piersma, T; Dietz, MW; Tang, SX; Dekinga, A; Hulsman, K

    2000-01-01

    Since the early 1960s it has been held that migrating birds deposit and use only fat as fuel during migratory flight, with the non-fat portion of the body remaining homeostatic. Recent evidence from field studies has shown large changes in organ sizes in fuelling birds, and theory on fuel use

  13. The Impact of Skills Development on Competitiveness: Empirical Evidence from a Cross-Country Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsomu, Eldah N.; Ngware, Moses W.; Manda, Damiano K.

    2010-01-01

    In the past half-century, most countries have emphasized the development of human capital as an instrument for economic growth, sustainable development, and improved global competitiveness. However, limited evidence exists on the link between skills development and a country's competitiveness. This paper examines the contribution and association…

  14. Evidence for benefit? Reviewing empirical research on the use of digital tools in mathematics education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijvers, P.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    A recent OECD study has raised the question of which evidence we have for the benefit of using digital technology in mathematics education. To investigate this, we focus on experimental and quantitative studies, and revisit the main recent review studies in this domain. The results show significant

  15. Examining empirical evidence of the effect of superfluidity on the fusion barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scamps, Guillaume

    2018-04-01

    Background: Recent time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (TDHFB) calculations predict that superfluidity enhances fluctuations of the fusion barrier. This effect is not fully understood and not yet experimentally revealed. Purpose: The goal of this study is to empirically investigate the effect of superfluidity on the distribution width of the fusion barrier. Method: Two new methods are proposed in the present study. First, the local regression method is introduced and used to determine the barrier distribution. The second method, which requires only the calculation of an integral of the cross section, is developed to determine accurately the fluctuations of the barrier. This integral method, showing the best performance, is systematically applied to 115 fusion reactions. Results: Fluctuations of the barrier for open-shell systems are, on average, larger than those for magic or semimagic nuclei. This is due to the deformation and the superfluidity. To disentangle these two effects, a comparison is made between the experimental width and the width estimated from a model that takes into account the tunneling, the deformation, and the vibration effect. This study reveals that superfluidity enhances the fusion barrier width. Conclusions: This analysis shows that the predicted effect of superfluidity on the width of the barrier is real and is of the order of 1 MeV.

  16. Maastricht Criteria Targeting and Credit Growth: Empirical Evidences for the New EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan-Gabriel Moinescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the impact of credit growth on the Maastricht criteria targeting process in the new member states of the European Union. The methodological framework is based on a two-compenent transmission mechanism represented by the output gap and the nonperforming loans. The empirical analysis consists of a set of simplified econometric models, built by panel estimates using annual data from 2000 to 2011. Statistical results revealed the existence of a reaction of long term interest rates to the developments in sovereign risk premium, determined, in turn, by the impact of the mutual reinforcing between lending rate and output gap on the loan portfolio quality dynamics. Strengthening prudential conduct of monetary policy with a conservative macro-prudential policy is a critical need for increased resilience of nominal convergence to exogenous shocks, given that containing the volatility of economic activity depends in a decisive way, on succeding to maintain credit growth levels close to economic growth potential.

  17. Does Technology Transfer Help Small and Medium Companies? Empirical Evidence from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hwan Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We challenge the view that technology transfer from big companies to small and medium (SM size companies helps SM companies to prosper. With a large dataset of SM companies in Korea, we utilize the stochastic production frontier (SPF model to examine the productivity of inputs and the generalized linear model (GLM to compare business performance between two groups of SM companies: SM companies that receive technology transfer and those that do not receive technology transfer from big companies. The empirical results demonstrate that the transfer of technology from big companies to SM companies help SM companies to enjoy productivity of capital. Nonetheless, SM companies receiving technology transfer were found to underperform in terms of labor productivity and profit margin compared to their counterparts. We further investigate the reasons why SM companies receiving technology transfer from big companies underperform relative to their counterparts, and our findings shows that the former do not export much of their product and face more difficulties such as lower price for their products imposed by big companies than the latter. By identifying the negative rather than the conventionally assumed positive effect of technology transfer, this paper contributes to the literature on the relationship between technology transfer and SM companies’ prosperity in the case of Korea. Our findings have important implications for how SM companies should strategize and rethink about the clauses embedded in the transfer of technology that they receive from big companies because technology transfer plays as a barrier to their prosperity.

  18. The impact of globalization on economic conditions: empirical evidence from the Mena region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa A. Elsherif

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East and North Africa (MENA is an economically diverse region that includes countries with a common heritage, at various stages of economic development, with vastly different endowment of natural resources and accounts for 6% of the world total population. Despite undertaking economic reforms in many countries, and having considerable success in achieving macroeconomic stability, the region's economic performance in the past 30 years has been below its potential. Some countries that pursued reforms, such as Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia, enjoyed the region's most rapid growth rates, but due to the political instability and turbulences they are still lagged behind. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the impact of globalization in MENA region on the economic performances. This study uses a panel data covers the period 2001–2014 for Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC and non- Gulf Cooperation Council (non-GCC MENA countries and employs Generalized Method of Moments (GMM approach. Results indicate that Globalization is negatively affecting economic conditions in non-GCC and it has no significant effect on non-GCC. This study suggests better policy coordination at all level of government to integrate social, economic and political policies as well all to improve transparency and democratic participation. The paper is outlined as follows- following the introduction, section two reviews the current economic conditions in MENA countries, section three discusses data and methodology, section four presents’ results and interpretation of findings, section five provides conclusions and recommendations.

  19. Empirical evidence for the relationship between cognitive workload and attentional reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquess, Kyle J; Gentili, Rodolphe J; Lo, Li-Chuan; Oh, Hyuk; Zhang, Jing; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Miller, Matthew W; Tan, Ying Ying; Hatfield, Bradley D

    2017-11-01

    While the concepts of cognitive workload and attentional reserve have been thought to have an inverse relationship for some time, such a relationship has never been empirically tested. This was the purpose of the present study. Aspects of the electroencephalogram were used to assess both cognitive workload and attentional reserve. Specifically, spectral measures of cortical activation were used to assess cognitive workload, while amplitudes of the event-related potential from the presentation of unattended "novel" sounds were used to assess attentional reserve. The relationship between these two families of measures was assessed using canonical correlation. Twenty-seven participants performed a flight simulator task under three levels of challenge. Verification of manipulation was performed using self-report measures of task demand, objective task performance, and heart rate variability using electrocardiography. Results revealed a strong, negative relationship between the spectral measures of cortical activation, believed to be representative of cognitive workload, and ERP amplitudes, believed to be representative of attentional reserve. This finding provides support for the theoretical and intuitive notion that cognitive workload and attentional reserve are inversely related. The practical implications of this result include improved state classification using advanced machine learning techniques, enhanced personnel selection/recruitment/placement, and augmented learning/training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Empirical evidences of owners’ managerial behaviour - the case of small companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobontiu, G.; Banica, M.; Ravai-Nagy, S.

    2017-05-01

    In a small firm, the founder or the owner-manager often leaves his or her own personal “stamp” on the way things are done, finding solutions for the multitude of problems the firm faces, and maintaining control over the firm’s operations. The paper aims to investigate the degree to which the owner-managers are controlling the operations of their firm on a day-to-day basis or even getting involved into the management of the functional areas. Our empirical research, conducted on a sample of 200 small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) from the North-Western Romania, Maramures (NUTS3 level - RO114), shows that owner-managers tend to be all-powerful, making decisions based on their experience. Furthermore, the survey highlights the focus of owner-managers on two functional areas, namely the production, and sales and marketing. Finally, the correlation analysis states that in the case of small firms, the owner-manager is more involved in managing the functional areas of the firm, as compared to the medium-ones.

  1. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on the Export Performance: Empirical Evidence for Western Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nasir Selimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently there are many authors that have studied and analyzed the impact of foreign direct investments (FDI on the export performance. They have different opinions about the effect of foreign direct investments on the export performance. Some of them in their papers conclude that FDI have positive effect on the export performance and some not. There are also findings that FDI do not have any impact on the export performance. Of course for economic benefit of host country it is not important only the amount of FDI, but also their structure. To measure the effect of FDI on the export performance is not easy. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to analyze empirically the foreign direct investments and exports performance during the period of 1996-2013 in Western Balkan countries. The paper also investigates for the fixed effects and individual heterogeneity across countries and years. Based on the panel regression techniques and Least Square Dummy Variable (LSDV regression method, FDI positively affect export performance in the sample countries in various model specifications. The results and conclusions of this paper we hope that will help everybody who are interested and studying this matter, especially the policy makers.  The last ones have the obligation to facilitate and promote the export if they award confirm that FDI contribute on developing their economy.

  2. Are smokers rational addicts? Empirical evidence from the Indonesian Family Life Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Budi; Thabrany, Hasbullah

    2011-02-23

    Indonesia is one of the largest consumers of tobacco in the world, however there has been little work done on the economics addiction of tobacco. This study provides an empirical test of a rational addiction (henceforth RA) hypothesis of cigarette demand in Indonesia. Four estimators (OLS, 2SLS, GMM, and System-GMM) were explored to test the RA hypothesis. The author adopted several diagnostics tests to select the best estimator to overcome econometric problems faced in presence of the past and future cigarette consumption (suspected endogenous variables). A short-run and long-run price elasticities of cigarettes demand was then calculated. The model was applied to individuals pooled data derived from three-waves a panel of the Indonesian Family Life Survey spanning the period 1993-2000. The past cigarette consumption coefficients turned out to be a positive with a p-value Health policymakers should redesign current public health campaign against cigarette smoking in the country. Given the demand for cigarettes to be more prices sensitive for the long run (and female) than the short run (and male), an increase in the price of cigarettes could lead to a significant fall in cigarette consumption in the long run rather than as a constant source of government revenue.

  3. Re-Examining the Finance-Growth Nexus: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabri Abd. Majid

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the short- and long-run relationships between financial development and economic growth during the post-1997 financial crisis in Indonesia by employing a battery of times-series techniques, such as Autoregressive Dis-tributed Lag (ARDL model, vector error correction model (VECM, variance decompositions (VDCs, and impulse-response functions (IRFs. Based on the ARDL (2, 0, 1, 2 model, the study finds that there exists a long-run equilibrium between economic growth and financial depth, share of investment, and inflation. In the long run, inflation is found to be the only variable which significantly (negatively affects economic growth, implying a crucial role of maintaining a low rate of inflation in promoting the economic growth in the country. As for the dynamic causalities among the variables, the study finds the bidirectional causation between economic growth and investment, while the unidirectional causation is only found running from financial depth to investment. The finding of independence between economic growth and financial development supports the view of “the independent hypothesis” of Lucas (1988. Finally, based on VDCs and IRFs, the study documents that the variations in the economic growth respond more to shocks in the price stability (inflation, followed by investment and financial development. Our findings indicate that if policy makers want to promote growth, attention should be focused on long-run policies, i.e., maintaining the low rate of inflation.

  4. Effects of Compact Urban Development on Air Pollution: Empirical Evidence from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Sun Cho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of compact urban development on air pollution, taking into account both the spatial distribution of pollutants resulting from an increase in inner urban densities and the dispersion of pollutants associated with an increase in outer green open spaces. The empirical analysis is based upon a panel data model covering 17 cities in Korea from 1996–2009; this approach is used because urban air pollution is influenced by spatial and temporal changes. Measuring the air pollution level by distance from city centers demonstrates that the spatial concentration of emission sources does not necessarily increase air pollution levels. The two-way fixed effects model, which is employed to control both individual (regional and time effects, shows that SO2 decreases as the proportion of green area increases, while a rise in net density leads to an increase of NO2. Both effects are observed in the case of CO dispersion by green area as well as emission source concentration by high densities. Therefore, there is no clear impact of compact urban development on air quality, which is instead related to pollutant-specific characteristics and the emission source.

  5. Impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments: Empirical evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Iyoboyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the impact of exchange rate depreciation on the balance of payments (BOP in Nigeria over the period 1961–2012. The analysis is based on a multivariate vector error correction framework. A long-term equilibrium relationship was found between BOP, exchange rate and other associated variables. The empirical results are in favour of bidirectional causality between BOP and other variables employed. Results of the generalized impulse response functions suggest that one standard deviation innovation on exchange rate reduces positive BOP in the medium and long term, while results of the variance decomposition indicate that a significant variation in Nigeria’s BOP is not due to changes in exchange rate movements. The policy implication is that exchange rate depreciation which has been preponderant in Nigeria since the mid-1980s has not been very useful in promoting the country’s positive BOP. It is recommended that growth in the real sector should be improved to enhance exports, create employment, curb inflation and reduce poverty, while cutting non-productive imports, attracting foreign private investment and implementing well coordinated macroeconomic policies that impact inflation positively and stimulate exchange rate stability.

  6. Factors affecting RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry: empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ping; Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an exploratory investigation of factors influencing the adoption of radio frequency identification (RFID) methods in the agricultural product distribution industry. Through a literature review and field research, and based on the technology-organization-environment (TOE) theoretical framework, this paper analyzes factors influencing RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry in reference to three contexts: technological, organizational, and environmental contexts. An empirical analysis of the TOE framework was conducted by applying structural equation modeling based on actual data from a questionnaire survey on the agricultural product distribution industry in China. The results show that employee resistance and uncertainty are not supported by the model. Technological compatibility, perceived effectiveness, organizational size, upper management support, trust between enterprises, technical knowledge, competitive pressure and support from the Chinese government, which are supported by the model, have significantly positive effects on RFID adoption. Meanwhile, organizational size has the strongest positive effect, while competitive pressure levels have the smallest effect. Technological complexities and costs have significantly negative effects on RFID adoption, with cost being the most significantly negative influencing factor. These research findings will afford enterprises in the agricultural products supply chain with a stronger understanding of the factors that influence RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry. In addition, these findings will help enterprises remain aware of how these factors affect RFID adoption and will thus help enterprises make more accurate and rational decisions by promoting RFID application in the agricultural product distribution industry.

  7. Safety regulation in professional football: Empirical evidence of intended and unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrew; Jolly, Nicholas A; Peterson, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    In response to increasing public awareness and negative long-term health effects of concussions, the National Football League implemented the "Crown-of-the-Helmet Rule" (CHR). The CHR imposes penalties on players who initiate contact using the top of the helmet. This paper examines the intended effect of this policy and its potential for unintended consequences. We find evidence supporting the intended effect of the policy- a reduction in weekly concussion reports among defensive players by as much as 32% (34% for all head and neck injuries), but also evidence of an increase in weekly lower extremity injury reports for offensive players by as much as 34%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence-based architectural and space design supports Magnet® empirical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecoff, Laurie; Brown, Caroline E

    2010-12-01

    This department expands nursing leaders' knowledge and competencies in health facility design. The editor of this department, Dr Jaynelle Stichler, asked guest authors, Drs Ecoff and Brown, to describe the process of using the conceptual models of a nursing evidence-based practice model and the Magnet Recognition Program® as a structured process to lead decision making in the planning and design processes and to achieve desired outcomes in hospital design.

  9. The effects of evidence bounds on decision-making: theoretical and empirical developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiang eZhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Converging findings from behavioral, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies suggest an integration-to-boundary mechanism governing decision formation and choice selection. This mechanism is supported by sequential sampling models of choice decisions, which can implement statistically optimal decision strategies for selecting between multiple alternative options on the basis of sensory evidence. This review focuses on recent developments in understanding the evidence boundary, an important component of decision-making raised by experimental findings and models. The article starts by reviewing the neurobiology of perceptual decisions and several influential sequential sampling models, in particular the drift-diffusion model, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model and the leaky-competing-accumulator model. In the second part, the article examines how the boundary may affect a model’s dynamics and performance and to what extent it may improve a model’s fits to experimental data. In the third part, the article examines recent findings that support the presence and site of boundaries in the brain. The article considers two questions: 1 whether the boundary is a spontaneous property of neural integrators, or is controlled by dedicated neural circuits; 2 if the boundary is variable, what could be the driving factors behind boundary changes? The review brings together studies using different experimental methods in seeking answers to these questions, highlights psychological and physiological factors that may be associated with the boundary and its changes, and further considers the evidence boundary as a generic mechanism to guide complex behavior.

  10. Economic institutions and economic growth: Empirical evidence from the Economic Community of West African States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus Z. Wanjuu

    2017-12-01

    Background: Economic institutions are considered as the fundamental cause of economic growth. Economic institutions affect economic growth through allocation of resources like physical and human capital. Unfortunately, there is dearth of empirical studies showing the impact of economic institutions on growth of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS. Aim: This study investigates the impact of economic institutions on economic growth of the ECOWAS. Setting and method: The study applied cause and effect relationship. The study used econometric research techniques of unit root and co-integration tests to establish the time series properties of the data; the vector error correction and co-integration regression models to estimate the population parameters. The research data comprised data obtained from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD, the Transparency International (TI and Heritage Foundation databases. The variables employed were the real gross domestic product (GDP per capita (RGDPPC, corruption perception index (CPI, property rights protection (PROPRGT, private investment per capita (INVESPC, government expenditure per capita (GOEXPPC and trade openness (TRAOPN. Results: The results of the data analysed showed that economic institutions represented by the property rights index engender RGDPPC growth in ECOWAS. The CPI could not stimulate RGDPPC growth in ECOWAS. The results also show that all the other variables stimulated growth except trade openness. Conclusion: The study concludes that good economic institutions, private investments, and government intervention by providing security, economic and social infrastructural facilities are conducive for economic growth in the ECOWAS region. The study recommended that more efforts be made at curbing corruption in the region

  11. City Green Economy Evaluation: Empirical Evidence from 15 Sub-Provincial Cities in China

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    Baofeng Shi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available City green economy plays an important role in the development of low-carbon economy and the achievement of sustainable development of economy, society and ecological environment. From the perspective of economy, society, environment and resources, the evaluation of the green economy in urban areas tends to offer us a new insight into the green economy of cities. This paper is about the creation of a novel urban green economy evaluation model and its application. First of all, we established a city green economy evaluation index system based on R cluster analysis and coefficient of variation. Secondly, based on the nonlinear weighted utilizing entropy weight method, a city green economy evaluation model is established based on inferior constraints. Thirdly, by comparing the differences between evaluation rankings under inferior constraints and non-inferior constraints, the advantageous factors and the disadvantageous ones in urban green economy development are obtained. The proposed model has been verified with the data on 15 sub-provincial cities in China. Empirical analysis results show that: (1 The proposed approach can accurately find out the advantageous and disadvantageous factors for each sub-provincial city; (2 In the evaluation of green economy development, the order of importance of the three criterion layers is X1 Economy development > X2 Social livelihood of the people > X3 Resources and environment; (3 Local governments should implement differential, reasonable policies in order to improve their green economy development. Moreover, our research is not only significant for developing green economy in China’s sub-provincial cities, but also serves as a reference for the development of green economy in other cities in the world.

  12. Interpreting the dynamic nexus between energy consumption and economic growth: Empirical evidence from Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuejun

    2011-01-01

    Research on the nexus between energy consumption and economic growth is a fundamental topic for energy policy making and low-carbon economic development. Russia proves the third largest energy consumption country in the world in recent years, while little research has shed light upon its energy consumption issue till now, especially its energy-growth nexus. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates the dynamic nexus of the two variables in Russia based on the state space model. The results indicate that, first of all, Russia's energy consumption is cointegrated with its economic growth in a time-varying way though they do not have static or average cointegration relationship. Hence it is unsuitable to merely portrait the nexus in an average manner. Second, ever since the year of 2000, Russia's energy efficiency has achieved much more promotion compared with that in previous decades, mainly due to the industrial structure adjustment and technology progress. Third, among BRIC countries, the consistency of Russia's energy consumption and economic growth appears the worst, which suggests the complexity of energy-growth nexus in Russia. Finally, there exists bi-directional causality between Russia's energy consumption and economic growth, though their quantitative proportional relation does not have solid foundation according to the cointegration theory. - Research highlights: →This study investigates the dynamic nexus of energy consumption and economic growth in Russia. → Russia's energy consumption is cointegrated with its economic growth in a time-varying way though they do not have static or average cointegration relationship. → Ever since 2000, Russia's energy efficiency has achieved much more promotion compared with that in previous decades. → Among BRIC countries, the consistency of Russia's energy consumption and economic growth appears the worst. → There exists bi-directional causality between Russia's energy consumption and economic growth.

  13. Is green energy expensive? Empirical evidence from the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarreta, Aitor; Espinosa, Maria Paz; Pizarro-Irizar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy promotion and its cost are at the heart of the energy policy debate in many countries. The question from an economic perspective is how expensive the promotion of renewable sources through price-based incentive schemes is. This paper addresses this issue empirically. We analyze the Spanish electricity market during the period 2008–2012, where renewable energy production rose by 57%. To determine how expensive it was, we first measure the savings due to the spot price reduction driven by the merit order effect and, second, we compute the amount paid as incentives to green energy by the electricity system; the difference between the two is the net cost of green energy to the electricity markets. We present aggregate results for renewable sources as a whole, as well as individual results for each technology. We show that at the initial stages, when renewable capacity was low, green energy promotion paid for itself (2008–2009); however, from 2010 on, when renewable production reached a relatively high level, it started to impose a positive net cost on the system. Finally, we found substantial differences among technologies: wind energy implied the lowest net cost, while solar photovoltaic was the most expensive. - Highlights: • The combination of feed-in tariffs and premiums has been an effective instrument in the promotion of renewable electricity in Spain. • Significant reduction of the daily market price due to RES-E. • Considering the subsidies to RES-E this energy might seem rather expensive for the Spanish electricity system since 2010. • Substantial differences among technologies: wind energy implied the lowest net cost, while solar photovoltaic was the most expensive

  14. A comparison of usability methods for testing interactive health technologies: methodological aspects and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Monique W M

    2009-05-01

    Usability evaluation is now widely recognized as critical to the success of interactive health care applications. However, the broad range of usability inspection and testing methods available may make it difficult to decide on a usability assessment plan. To guide novices in the human-computer interaction field, we provide an overview of the methodological and empirical research available on the three usability inspection and testing methods most often used. We describe two 'expert-based' and one 'user-based' usability method: (1) the heuristic evaluation, (2) the cognitive walkthrough, and (3) the think aloud. All three usability evaluation methods are applied in laboratory settings. Heuristic evaluation is a relatively efficient usability evaluation method with a high benefit-cost ratio, but requires high skills and usability experience of the evaluators to produce reliable results. The cognitive walkthrough is a more structured approach than the heuristic evaluation with a stronger focus on the learnability of a computer application. Major drawbacks of the cognitive walkthrough are the required level of detail of task and user background descriptions for an adequate application of the latest version of the technique. The think aloud is a very direct method to gain deep insight in the problems end users encounter in interaction with a system but data analyses is extensive and requires a high level of expertise both in the cognitive ergonomics and in computer system application domain. Each of the three usability evaluation methods has shown its usefulness, has its own advantages and disadvantages; no single method has revealed any significant results indicating that it is singularly effective in all circumstances. A combination of different techniques that compliment one another should preferably be used as their collective application will be more powerful than applied in isolation. Innovative mobile and automated solutions to support end-user testing have

  15. A novel machine learning approach for estimation of electricity demand: An empirical evidence from Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafavi, Elham Sadat; Mostafavi, Seyyed Iman; Jaafari, Arefeh; Hosseinpour, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid approach is presented for the estimation of the electricity demand. • The proposed method integrates the capabilities of GP and SA. • The GSA model makes accurate predictions of the electricity demand. - Abstract: This study proposes an innovative hybrid approach for the estimation of the long-term electricity demand. A new prediction equation was developed for the electricity demand using an integrated search method of genetic programming and simulated annealing, called GSA. The annual electricity demand was formulated in terms of population, gross domestic product (GDP), stock index, and total revenue from exporting industrial products of the same year. A comprehensive database containing total electricity demand in Thailand from 1986 to 2009 was used to develop the model. The generalization of the model was verified using a separate testing data. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the contribution of the parameters affecting the electricity demand. The GSA model provides accurate predictions of the electricity demand. Furthermore, the proposed model outperforms a regression and artificial neural network-based models

  16. The dynamic intensity of CO 2 emissions: empirical evidence for the 20 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO CARNEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The debate around the economic growth and environmental degradation is the hot topic among academics. However, up to a point, all of them embrace the uncontroversial view that tells us that anthropic factors have leverage on global climate. It happens that the so-called greenhouse effect is closely related to the accumulation of certain gases in the atmosphere, e.g., carbon dioxide, whose original source comes from productive sectors. Thus, our purpose in this article is to estimate the rate of emission intensity - here we mean the ratio between CO2 emissions and GDP - which has increased since the early part of the 20th century. To support that idea, this study reports on data from 24 different countries. In terms of C02 emission, the results undoubtedly show that United Kingdom and the United States highlight a negative picture, particularly when both are compared to India. It should be noted the presence of structural changes, which coincide with three major historical events: the World War I (1914-1918, the Great Depression in the 1930s, and finally the Oil-price shocks in the 1970s. As the result of the analysis demonstrates, the amount of emission produced by developing countries is surprisingly low. That the technology reveals its relative merit for reducing the overall emission intensity is transparently obvious.

  17. Soccer and stock market risk: empirical evidence from the Istanbul Stock Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, M Hakan; Ceylan, Nildag Basak

    2013-06-01

    There is an emerging but important literature on the effects of sport events such as soccer on stock market returns. After a soccer team's win, agents discount future events more favorably and increase risk tolerance. Similarly, after a loss, risk tolerance decreases. This paper directly assesses risk tolerance after a sports event by using daily data from the three major soccer teams in Turkey (Beşiktaşç Fenerbahge and Galatasaray). Results provide evidence that risk tolerance increases after a win, but similar patterns were not found after a loss.

  18. An Empirical Investigation of the Black-Scholes Model: Evidence from the Australian Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaffar Subedar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the probability of an exchange traded European call option beingexercised on the ASX200 Options Index. Using single-parameter estimates of factors withinthe Black-Scholes model, this paper utilises qualitative regression and a maximum likelihoodapproach. Results indicate that the Black-Scholes model is statistically significant at the 1%level. The results also provide evidence that the use of implied volatility and a jump-diffusionapproach, which increases the tail properties of the underlying lognormal distribution,improves the statistical significance of the Black-Scholes model.

  19. Incorporating innovation subsidies in the CDM framework: Empirical evidence from Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Delanote, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This paper integrates innovation input and output effects of R&D subsidies into a modified Crépon–Duguet–Mairesse (CDM) model. Our results largely confirm insights of the input additionality literature, i.e. public subsidies complement private R&D investment. In addition, results point to positive output effects of both purely privately funded and subsidy–induced R&D. Furthermore, we do not find evidence of a premium or discount of subsidy–induced R&D in terms of its marginal contrib...

  20. Sex based subgroup differences in randomized controlled trials: empirical evidence from Cochrane meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Joshua D; Sullivan, Patrick G; Trepanowski, John F; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-11-24

     To evaluate the frequency, validity, and relevance of statistically significant (PUpToDate, an online physician-authored clinical decision support resource, suggested differential management of men and women for one of these sex-treatment interactions.  Statistically significant sex-treatment interactions are only slightly more frequent than what would be expected by chance and there is little evidence of subsequent corroboration or clinical relevance of sex-treatment interactions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Influencing Factors on Earnings Management, Empirical Evidence from Listed German and Austrian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Dilger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Since the 1960s earnings management has been a widely researched area and became presumably known by the current accounting scandals. This paper aims at empirically showing which factors affect earnings management. Design/methodology/approach – According to former research literature factors are derived, which might influence the companies' earnings management behavior. These factors are the applied accounting standard, the industry sector and the country of official quotation. Although several measurements for earnings management like abnormal accruals or income smoothing exist, this paper is predominantly using the distribution of net income scaled by total assets (RoA respectively total sales (RoS as earnings management measure. These earnings management measures have been selected as they can measure the frequency of earnings management in reality and no estimates are necessary. Findings – In general, analyses show that the distribution in earnings management intervals differ from the total population. Most noteworthy is that by adoption of principle-based accounting standards (IFRS/US-GAAP, in case of this study no differences of earnings quality was observable. The other two variables yield in mixed results due to the robustness checks, which indeed questions the scaling variables for data-sets including the financial industries. Research limitations/implications – First, according to the chosen measurement parameter no distinct assertion concerning the reasons for execution or non-execution of earnings management can be deduced. Second, the method of earnings management's identification is not dividable and therefore real-, accounting-, legal- and illegal- earnings management cannot be identified. Third, the research results are just partially generalizable concerning representativity (e.g. other countries, non-market listed companies and taken for granted just for similar data-sets. Originality/value – Although prior

  2. Climate change and associated spatial heterogeneity of Pakistan: Empirical evidence using multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ghaffar

    2018-04-04

    Climate change is a multidimensional phenomenon, which has various implications for the environment and socio-economic conditions of the people. Its effects are deeper in an agrarian economy which is susceptible to the vagaries of nature. Therefore, climate change directly impacts the society in different ways, and society must pay the cost. Focusing on this truth, the main objective of this research was to investigate the empirical changes and spatial heterogeneity in the climate of Pakistan in real terms using time series data. Climate change and variability in Pakistan, over time, were estimated from 1961 to 2014 using all the climate variables for the very first time. Several studies were available on climate change impacts, mitigation, and adaptation; however, it was difficult to observe exactly how much change occurred in which province and when. A multidisciplinary approach was utilized to estimate the absolute change through a combination of environmental, econometric, and remote sensing methods. Moreover, the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model was used to ascertain the extent of variability in climate change and information was digitalized through ground truthing. Results showed that the average temperature of Pakistan increased by 2°C between 1960 and 1987 and 4°C between 1988 and 2014, and R 2 was 0.978. The rate of temperature increased 0.09°C between 1960 and 2014. The mean annual precipitation of Pakistan increased by 478mm, and its R 2 were 0.34-0.64. The mean annual humidity of Pakistan increased by 2.94%, and the rate of humidity has been increased by 0.97% from 1988 to 2014. Notably, Sindh and Balochistan provinces have shown a significant spatial heterogeneity regarding the increase in precipitation. Statistically all variables are significant. This would serve as a baseline information for climate change-related studies in Pakistan and its application in different sectors. This would also serve the plant breeders and policymakers of

  3. ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH NEXUS: NEW EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele Pereowei Abalaba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the trend of energy consumption, real output, financial development, monetary policy rate and consumer prices and also examined the long-run relationship and direction of causality between energy consumption and economic growth with consideration for financial development, monetary policy rate and consumer prices. These were with a view to examining the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Nigeria during the period 1971-2010. The result showed that all the variables used in the study are characterized by a positive trend. Also, it was found that variables followed a I(1 process. The study provides weak evidence in support of long-run relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. The study further revealed that energy consumption among other variables positively and significantly influenced output growth in the short-run. Using the first three lags, we found no causal evidence one way or two way between energy consumption and economic growth. The study concluded that energy consumption only has short-run positive impact on the economy but has not enhanced long-run economic growth in Nigeria during the period under investigation.

  4. Healthy Variability in Organizational Behavior: Empirical Evidence and New Steps for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, José; Rueff-Lopes, Rita

    2015-10-01

    The healthy variability thesis suggests that healthy systems function in a complex manner over time. This thesis is well-established in fields like physiology. In the field of organizational behavior, however, this relation is only starting to be explored. The objective of this article is threefold: First, we aim to provide a comprehensive review of the healthy variability thesis including some of the most important findings across different fields, with a focus on evidences from organizational research in work motivation and performance. Second, we discuss an opposite pattern, unhealthy stability, i.e., the relationship between unhealthy behaviors and lower variability. Again, we provide evidence from diverse areas, from affective processes to disruptive organizational comportments like mobbing. Third, we provide a critical evaluation of current methodological trends and highlight what we believe to be the main factors that are stopping organizational research from advancing in the field. Theoretical, methodological and epistemological implications are discussed. To conclude, we draw a compilation of the lessons learned, which hopefully provide insights for prolific research avenues. Our main purpose is to raise awareness of the healthy variability thesis and to enthuse organizational researchers to consider it in order to advance existing knowledge, revisit old theories and create new ones.

  5. Virtuous States and Virtuous Traits: How the Empirical Evidence Regarding the Existence of Broad Traits Saves Virtue Ethics from the Situationist Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawickreme, Eranda; Meindl, Peter; Helzer, Erik G.; Furr, R. Michael; Fleeson, William

    2014-01-01

    A major objection to the study of virtue asserts that the empirical psychological evidence implies traits have little meaningful impact on behavior, as slight changes in situational characteristics appear to lead to large changes in virtuous behavior. We argue in response that the critical evidence is not these effects of situations observed in…

  6. Empirically Founded Teaching in Psychology--An Example for the Combination of Evidence-Based Teaching and the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Julia; Scherer, Sonja; Kuchta, Kathrin; Wenzel, S. Franziska C.; Horz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    To improve teaching in higher education, teachers in psychology are encouraged to use evidence-based teaching, that is, to apply empirical findings regarding learning and teaching, when designing learning opportunities. This report illustrates the combination of evidence-based teaching and the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in teaching…

  7. Practice and effectiveness of internal corporate governance mechanisms in Saudi Arabia Stock Market: A review of empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marai Awidat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to shed light on the Saudi corporate governance code, its practices and effectiveness. To do so, the paper conducted a detailed review of the articles of the code related to internal corporate governance mechanisms and the previous studies regarding its effectiveness in Saudi stock market context. The main finding is that the provisions of Saudi corporate governance code are adequate. Annual reports (2009-2014 show an increase in the level of the compliance by listed companies, indicating that the code is achieving its aims. However, the empirical evidence seems to suggest that the code has an insignificant impact on company's performance and mitigating earnings management. The main reasons behind that are the following: the code is still in its early stages, there is weak legal enforcement, and there are also some social, cultural, and economic factors. Therefore, the code needs more time for good practice and improvement to achieve its purposes.

  8. When health policy and empirical evidence collide: the case of cigarette package warning labels and economic consumer surplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V; Brown, Paul; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-02-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health.

  9. When Health Policy and Empirical Evidence Collide: The Case of Cigarette Package Warning Labels and Economic Consumer Surplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V.; Brown, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost “pleasure” smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost “consumer surplus.” Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

  10. HERDING BEHAVIOR UNDER MARKETS CONDITION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON THE EUROPEAN FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moatemri Ouarda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents four main contributions to the literature of behavior herding. Firstly, it extends the behavioral researches of herding of the investors on a developed market and mainly on a European market as a whole. Secondly, we are interested in examination of herding behavior at the level of sectors by using data at the levels of companies. Thirdly, this document estimates the implications of herding behavior in terms of returns, volatility and volume of transaction. Fourthly, the herding behavior is revealed as well during the period of the recent global financial crisis in 2007-2008 and of Asian crisis. Our results reveal a strong evidence of herding behavior sharply contributed to a bearish situation characterized by a strong volatility and a trading volume. The repercussion of herding during the period of the recent financial crisis is clearly revealed for the sectors of the finance and the technology.

  11. Empirical Evidence on the Link Between Compliance with Governance of Best Practice and Firms' Operating Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek B. Lama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study provides robust evidence in support of the agency theory argument that corporate governancematters for a firm’s operating performance. Using the corporate governance ratings as the governance proxyfrom Horwath 2006 Corporate Governance Report (mid-sized Australian ASX companies andMid-CapCorporate Governance Report 2007 (The University of Newcastle 2006; 2007, I examine 60 sample firms toreveal that a firm’s governance is positively and significantly related to firm performance as measured by returnon equity, earning yield and return on assets. This study extends the findings of these two reports which founda disturbing trend in the corporate governance practice of Australian mid-cap companies – both a decrease incompanies with excellent corporate governance, and an increase in companies with significant corporategovernance deficiencies. The findings of this study suggest that those mid-size companies who have allowedcorporate governance to deteriorate have adversely affected their shareholder returns.

  12. Investigating the Simultaneity of Corporate Hedging and Debt Policies: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Sofian Suriawinata

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the simultaneity of corporate hedging and debt policies. Using a pooled sample of Indonesian non-financial listed firms covering the periods of 1996-2001, the present study finds evidence that corporate hedging and debt policies are simultaneously determined. That is, the use of debts motivate firms to hedge; but simultaneously, hedging increases debt capacity and induces firms to borrow more in order to take advantage of the tax benefits arising from additional debt capacity. Another important finding is that financially distressed firms –as indicated by their debt restructuring programs– are less motivated to hedge, because such firms will see that the option values of their equity will increase as their cash-flow volatilities increase. Therefore, financially distressed firms tend not to hedge; or at least, hedge lesser compared to those of firms that do not experience financial distress.

  13. Environmental regulation and competitiveness: Empirical evidence on the Porter Hypothesis from European manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubashkina, Yana; Galeotti, Marzio; Verdolini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the “weak” and “strong” versions of Porter Hypothesis (PH) focusing on the manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. The hypothesis that well-crafted and well-enforced regulation would benefit both the environment and the firm was originally proposed by Porter (1991) and Porter and van der Linde (1995). To date, the literature has analyzed the impact of environmental regulation on innovation and on productivity mostly in separate analyses and focusing on the USA. The few existing contributions on Europe study the effect of environmental regulation either on green innovation or on performance indicators such as exports. We instead look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. First, focusing on overall innovative activity allows us to account for potential opportunity costs of induced innovations. Second, productivity impacts are arguably the most relevant indicators for the “strong” PH. As a proxy of environmental policy stringency we use pollution abatement and control expenditures (PACE), one of the few sectoral level indicators available. We remedy upon its main drawback, namely potential endogeneity, by adopting an instrumental variable estimation approach. We find evidence of a positive impact of environmental regulation on the output of innovation activity, as proxied by patents, thus providing support in favor of the “weak” PH. This result is in line with most of the literature. On the other front, we find no evidence in favor of the “strong” PH, as productivity appears to be unaffected by the degree of pollution control and abatement efforts. -- Highlights: •Weak and strong Porter Hypothesis. •Panel of manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. •Look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. •Pollution abatement & control expenditures proxy of environmental policy stringency. •Account for potential endogeneity of PACE by adopting

  14. Empirical Evidence of Study Design Biases in Randomized Trials: Systematic Review of Meta-Epidemiological Studies.

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    Matthew J Page

    Full Text Available To synthesise evidence on the average bias and heterogeneity associated with reported methodological features of randomized trials.Systematic review of meta-epidemiological studies.We retrieved eligible studies included in a recent AHRQ-EPC review on this topic (latest search September 2012, and searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for studies indexed from Jan 2012-May 2015. Data were extracted by one author and verified by another. We combined estimates of average bias (e.g. ratio of odds ratios (ROR or difference in standardised mean differences (dSMD in meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Analyses were stratified by type of outcome ("mortality" versus "other objective" versus "subjective". Direction of effect was standardised so that ROR < 1 and dSMD < 0 denotes a larger intervention effect estimate in trials with an inadequate or unclear (versus adequate characteristic.We included 24 studies. The available evidence suggests that intervention effect estimates may be exaggerated in trials with inadequate/unclear (versus adequate sequence generation (ROR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99; 7 studies and allocation concealment (ROR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97; 7 studies. For these characteristics, the average bias appeared to be larger in trials of subjective outcomes compared with other objective outcomes. Also, intervention effects for subjective outcomes appear to be exaggerated in trials with lack of/unclear blinding of participants (versus blinding (dSMD -0.37, 95% CI -0.77 to 0.04; 2 studies, lack of/unclear blinding of outcome assessors (ROR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.96; 1 study and lack of/unclear double blinding (ROR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93; 1 study. The influence of other characteristics (e.g. unblinded trial personnel, attrition is unclear.Certain characteristics of randomized trials may exaggerate intervention effect estimates. The average bias appears to be greatest in trials of subjective outcomes. More research on several

  15. Is dissonance reduction a special case of fluid compensation? Evidence that dissonant cognitions cause compensatory affirmation and abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randles, Daniel; Inzlicht, Michael; Proulx, Travis; Tullett, Alexa M; Heine, Steven J

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive dissonance theory shares much in common with other perspectives that address anomalies, uncertainty, and general expectancy violations. This has led some theorists to argue that these theories represent overlapping psychological processes. If responding to dissonance and uncertainty occurs through a common psychological process, one should expect that the behavioral outcomes of feeling uncertain would also apply to feelings of dissonance, and vice versa. One specific prediction from the meaning maintenance model would be that cognitive dissonance, like other expectancy violations, should lead to the affirmation of unrelated beliefs, or the abstraction of unrelated schemas when the dissonant event cannot be easily accommodated. This article presents 4 studies (N = 1124) demonstrating that the classic induced-compliance dissonance paradigm can lead not only to a change of attitudes (dissonance reduction), but also to (a) an increased reported belief in God (Study 2), (b) a desire to punish norm-violators (Study 1 and 3), (c) a motivation to detect patterns amid noise (Study 3), and (d) polarizing support of public policies among those already biased toward a particular side (Study 4). These results are congruent with theories that propose content-general fluid compensation following the experience of anomaly, a finding not predicted by dissonance theory. The results suggest that dissonance reduction behaviors may share psychological processes described by other theories addressing violations of expectations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Globalization and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence on the Role of Complementarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Parisa; Jenatabadi, Hashem Salarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of economic globalization on economic growth in OIC countries. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of complementary policies on the growth effect of globalization. It also investigated whether the growth effect of globalization depends on the income level of countries. Utilizing the generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach, we provide evidence which suggests that economic globalization has statistically significant impact on economic growth in OIC countries. The results indicate that this positive effect is increased in the countries with better-educated workers and well-developed financial systems. Our finding shows that the effect of economic globalization also depends on the country’s level of income. High and middle-income countries benefit from globalization whereas low-income countries do not gain from it. In fact, the countries should receive the appropriate income level to be benefited from globalization. Economic globalization not only directly promotes growth but also indirectly does so via complementary reforms. PMID:24721896

  17. Earnings volatility and the role of cash flows in the capital markets: Empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Melita Charitou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent global financial crisis brought to the forefront of the capital markets the importance of firm fundamentals and especially, the valuation role of cash flows. In this study, we examine the role of earnings and cash flows in two major capital markets, namely, USA and France. We hypothesize that the relationship between cash flows and security returns improves when earnings are transitory and this robustness is country specific. The dataset consists of more than 37,000 USA and French firm-year observations over an eight-year period. Multivariate statistical regression analysis is undertaken to test the major research hypotheses. Results indicate that when earnings are transitory (unstable, investors pay more attention to cash flows and less attention to earnings, a result indicating that investors penalize firms with unstable earnings. In summary, the evidence provided in this study supports that there are substantial differences in the way investors and financial analysts perceive financial information such as earnings and cash flows in France and USA. These results should be of great importance to the major stakeholders such as investors, creditors, financial analysts, especially after the recent global financial crisis and the collapse of giant organizations worldwide.

  18. Globalization and economic growth: empirical evidence on the role of complementarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Parisa; Jenatabadi, Hashem Salarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of economic globalization on economic growth in OIC countries. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of complementary policies on the growth effect of globalization. It also investigated whether the growth effect of globalization depends on the income level of countries. Utilizing the generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach, we provide evidence which suggests that economic globalization has statistically significant impact on economic growth in OIC countries. The results indicate that this positive effect is increased in the countries with better-educated workers and well-developed financial systems. Our finding shows that the effect of economic globalization also depends on the country's level of income. High and middle-income countries benefit from globalization whereas low-income countries do not gain from it. In fact, the countries should receive the appropriate income level to be benefited from globalization. Economic globalization not only directly promotes growth but also indirectly does so via complementary reforms.

  19. Globalization and economic growth: empirical evidence on the role of complementarities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Samimi

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of economic globalization on economic growth in OIC countries. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of complementary policies on the growth effect of globalization. It also investigated whether the growth effect of globalization depends on the income level of countries. Utilizing the generalized method of moments (GMM estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach, we provide evidence which suggests that economic globalization has statistically significant impact on economic growth in OIC countries. The results indicate that this positive effect is increased in the countries with better-educated workers and well-developed financial systems. Our finding shows that the effect of economic globalization also depends on the country's level of income. High and middle-income countries benefit from globalization whereas low-income countries do not gain from it. In fact, the countries should receive the appropriate income level to be benefited from globalization. Economic globalization not only directly promotes growth but also indirectly does so via complementary reforms.

  20. Innovation and cooperation in carioca’s tourism: First empirical evidence

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    Mariana de Queiroz Brunelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study that examined the relationship between collaboration and innovation in the tourism industry in order to verify if the collaborative relationships between firms contribute to the development of innovations. Information was collected through a survey conducted with representatives of organizations active in tourism in the city of Rio de Janeiro, a particularly interesting destination due to it is having been chosen to host major events, specifically the FIFA World Cup in 2014, and the Olympic Games in 2016. Analysis and interpretation of data were performed by using statistical techniques. The results showed that the collaborative relationships between the organizations surveyed have contributed significantly to the development of innovations in the tourism destination focused. The results also made evident the latent potential for transformation of tourism in Rio de Janeiro through innovations, by strengthening the partnerships identified in this research, in order to generate products with higher added value and, at the same time, with globally consistent pricing practices.

  1. IS IT WORTH GOING GREEN IN CROATIA? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM SMEs

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    Dubravka Pekanov Starčević

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress and innovations in production are the basis for increasing productivity and reducing operating costs. On the other hand, rapid development accompanied by neglected environmental issues has resulted in adverse effects on the environment, and thus on the entire society. The consequences on the environment occur in the form of natural disasters, climate change and global warming. In order to reduce the adverse effects on the environment, states have introduced legal provisions, such as pollution charges. Such charges represent the costs incurred by the company that consequently burden its financial result. On the other hand, those charges can be lower for companies that apply more efficient production methods. The question is whether it is worth for a company to be “green” and hence pay a lower charge, or not to take into account “green business” and pay a higher charge for using inefficient production methods. This paper will explore whether it is worth being green, i.e. whether improving production efficiency results in a reduction of production costs. The emphasis is thereby placed on small and medium-sized enterprises as generators of economic growth and green jobs. In order to give an adequate review of green business and green market in Croatia, authors will analyse the Eurobarometer survey Flash Eurobarometer 426, focusing on Croatian data (n=502. It is evident that “green business” is one of the main business areas in the context of sustainable and socially responsible business.

  2. An Empirical Investigation to Analyze the Brand Equity and Resonance of Banking Services: Evidence from India

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    Vikas Gautam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to verify the determinants of brand equityof services based on consumers’ perception of a banking service.The present study is based on customer-based brand equity calledthe Brand Resonance model suggested by Keller (2001, whichcomprises six brand equity constructs, such as: brand resonance;brand judgements; brand feelings; brand performance; brand imagery;brand salience. Exploratory factor analysis was performedto reduce the total number of items to a small number of underlyingfactors, and the results produced six factors, namely: brandresonance; brand judgements; brand feelings; brand performance;brand imagery; brand salience. These alpha coefficients ofthe reliability test were found to be ranging from 0.781 to 0.912for all of the brand equity constructs individually, and for the entirescale the value of alpha was found to be 0.837. Correlationanalysis was performed to find out relationships among variouscomponents of brand equity. From the findings of multiple regressionanalysis it is evident that brand performance emergedas the most important determinant of brand resonance, followedby brand feelings (0.427 and brand judgements (0.306.

  3. Location Decisions of U.S. Polluting Plants. Theory, Empirical Evidence, and Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadbegian, R.; Wolverton, A.

    2010-01-01

    Economists have long been interested in explaining the spatial distribution of economic activity, focusing on what factors motivate profit-maximizing firms when they choose to open a new plant or expand an existing facility. We begin our paper with a general discussion of the theory of plant location, including the role of taxes and agglomeration economies. However, our paper focuses on the theory, evidence, and implications of the role of environmental regulations in plant location decisions. On its face, environmental regulation would not necessarily be expected to alter location decisions, since we would expect Federal regulation to affect all locations in the United States essentially equally. It turns out, however, that this is not always the case as some geographic areas are subject to greater stringency. Another source of variation is differences across states in the way they implement and enforce compliance with Federal regulation. In light of these spatial differences in the costs of complying with environmental regulations, we discuss three main questions in this survey: Do environmental regulations affect the location decisions of polluting plants? Do states compete for polluting plants through differences in environmental regulation? And, do firms locate polluting plants disproportionately near poor and minority neighborhoods?.

  4. Liquidity and the business cycle: Empirical evidence from the Greek banking sector

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    Vogiazas Sophocles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the global financial turmoil the negative market sentiment and the challenging macroeconomic environment in Greece have severely affected the banking sector, which faces funding and liquidity challenges, deteriorating asset quality, and weakening profitability. This paper aims to investigate how banks’ liquidity interacted with solvency and the business cycle during the period 2004-2010. To this end a panel of 17 Greek banks is utilized which, in conjunction with cointegrating techniques and one-way static and dynamic panel models, explores the presence and the strength of the relationship between banks’ liquidity and the business cycle, while allowing for the role of banks’ solvency. Addressing the liquidity risk of the Greek banking sector and the liquidity-solvency nexus remains largely an uncharted area. The results generated provide clear-cut evidence on the linkages between banks’ market liquidity and the business cycle, as reflected in the real GDP and the effective exchange rate. Yet the results display a transmission channel that runs from banks’ solvency to liquidity and from country risk to bank risk.

  5. Testing Capital Asset Pricing Model: Empirical Evidences from Indian Equity Market

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    Kapil CHOUDHARY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM for the Indian stock market using monthly stock returns from 278 companies of BSE 500 Index listed on the Bombay stock exchange for the period of January 1996 to December 2009. The findings of this study are not substantiating the theory’s basic result that higher risk (beta is associated with higher levels of return. The model does explain, however, excess returns and thus lends support to the linear structure of the CAPM equation. The theory’s prediction for the intercept is that it should equal zero and the slope should equal the excess returns on the market portfolio. The results of the study lead to negate the above hypotheses and offer evidence against the CAPM. The tests conducted to examine the nonlinearity of the relationship between return and betas bolster the hypothesis that the expected return-beta relationship is linear. Additionally, this study investigates whether the CAPM adequately captures all-important determinants of returns including the residual variance of stocks. The results exhibit that residual risk has no effect on the expected returns of portfolios.

  6. Deficits in domains of social cognition in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of the empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savla, Gauri N; Vella, Lea; Armstrong, Casey C; Penn, David L; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2013-09-01

    Social cognition is strongly associated with functional outcome in schizophrenia, making it an important target for treatment. Our goal was to examine the average magnitude of differences between schizophrenia patients (SCs) and normal comparison (NCs) patients across multiple domains of social cognition recognized by the recent NIMH consensus statement: theory of mind (ToM), social perception, social knowledge, attributional bias, emotion perception, and emotion processing. We conducted a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed studies of social cognition in schizophrenia, published between 1980 and November, 2011. 112 studies reporting results from 3908 SCs and 3570 NCs met our inclusion criteria. SCs performed worse than NCs across all domains, with large effects for social perception (g = 1.04), ToM (g = 0.96), emotion perception (g = 0.89), and emotion processing (g = 0.88). Regression analyses showed that statistically significant heterogeneity in effects within domains was not explained by age, education, or gender. Greater deficits in social and emotion perception were associated with inpatient status, and greater deficits in emotion processing were associated with longer illness duration. Despite the limitations of existing studies, including lack of standardization or psychometric validation of measures, the evidence for deficits across multiple social cognitive domains in schizophrenia is clear. Future research should examine the role of neurobiological and psychosocial factors in models linking various aspects of deficit in schizophrenia, including social cognition, in order to identify targets for intervention.

  7. Moral hazard and supplier-induced demand: empirical evidence in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Christel E; van den Berg, Bernard; Verheij, Robert A; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Groenewegen, Peter P; de Bakker, Dinny H

    2013-03-01

    Changes in cost sharing and remuneration system in the Netherlands in 2006 led to clear changes in financial incentives faced by both consumers and general practitioner (GPs). For privately insured consumers, cost sharing was abolished, whereas those socially insured never faced cost sharing. The separate remuneration systems for socially insured consumers (capitation) and privately insured consumers (fee-for-service) changed to a combined system of capitation and fee-for-service for both groups. Our first hypothesis was that privately insured consumers had a higher increase in patient-initiated GP contact rates compared with socially insured consumers. Our second hypothesis was that socially insured consumers had a higher increase in physician-initiated contact rates. Data were used from electronic medical records from 32 GP-practices and 35336 consumers in 2005-2007. A difference-in-differences approach was applied to study the effect of changes in cost sharing and remuneration system on contact rates. Abolition of cost sharing led to a higher increase in patient-initiated utilisation for privately insured consumers in persons aged 65 and older. Introduction of fee-for-service for socially insured consumers led to a higher increase in physician-initiated utilisation. This was most apparent in persons aged 25 to 54. Differences in the trend in physician-initiated utilisation point to an effect of supplier-induced demand. Differences in patient-initiated utilisation indicate limited evidence for moral hazard. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Fornix Structural Connectivity and Allostatic Load: Empirical Evidence From Schizophrenia Patients and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savransky, Anya; Chiappelli, Joshua; Rowland, Laura M; Wisner, Krista; Shukla, Dinesh K; Kochunov, Peter; Hong, L Elliot

    2017-09-01

    The fornix is a white matter tract carrying the fibers connecting the hippocampus and the hypothalamus, two essential stress-regulatory structures of the brain. We tested the hypothesis that allostatic load (AL), derived from a battery of peripheral biomarkers indexing the cumulative effects of stress, is associated with abnormalities in brain white matter microstructure, especially the fornix, and that higher AL may help explain the white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. Using 13 predefined biomarkers, we tested AL in 44 schizophrenic patients and 33 healthy controls. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the fornix and other white matter tracts. AL scores were significantly elevated in patients compared with controls (F(3,77) = 7.87, p = .006). AL was significantly and inversely correlated with FA of fornix in both controls (r = -.58, p = .001) and patients (r = -.36, p = .023). Several nominally significant (p fornix was the only tract exhibiting a correlation with AL in both groups. These results provide initial evidence that allostatic processes are linked to fornix microstructure in clinical participants.

  9. Empirical Evidence of Study Design Biases in Randomized Trials: Systematic Review of Meta-Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Matthew J.; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Clayton, Gemma; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Savović, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Objective To synthesise evidence on the average bias and heterogeneity associated with reported methodological features of randomized trials. Design Systematic review of meta-epidemiological studies. Methods We retrieved eligible studies included in a recent AHRQ-EPC review on this topic (latest search September 2012), and searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for studies indexed from Jan 2012-May 2015. Data were extracted by one author and verified by another. We combined estimates of average bias (e.g. ratio of odds ratios (ROR) or difference in standardised mean differences (dSMD)) in meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Analyses were stratified by type of outcome (“mortality” versus “other objective” versus “subjective”). Direction of effect was standardised so that ROR ROR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99; 7 studies) and allocation concealment (ROR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97; 7 studies). For these characteristics, the average bias appeared to be larger in trials of subjective outcomes compared with other objective outcomes. Also, intervention effects for subjective outcomes appear to be exaggerated in trials with lack of/unclear blinding of participants (versus blinding) (dSMD -0.37, 95% CI -0.77 to 0.04; 2 studies), lack of/unclear blinding of outcome assessors (ROR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.96; 1 study) and lack of/unclear double blinding (ROR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93; 1 study). The influence of other characteristics (e.g. unblinded trial personnel, attrition) is unclear. Conclusions Certain characteristics of randomized trials may exaggerate intervention effect estimates. The average bias appears to be greatest in trials of subjective outcomes. More research on several characteristics, particularly attrition and selective reporting, is needed. PMID:27398997

  10. Empirical evidence for son-killing X chromosomes and the operation of SA-zygotic drive.

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    Urban Friberg

    Full Text Available Diploid organisms have two copies of all genes, but only one is carried by each haploid gamete and diploid offspring. This causes a fundamental genetic conflict over transmission rate between alternative alleles. Single genes, or gene clusters, only rarely code for the complex phenotypes needed to give them a transmission advantage (drive phenotype. However, all genes on a male's X and Y chromosomes co-segregate, allowing different sex-linked genes to code for different parts of the drive phenotype. Correspondingly, the well-characterized phenomenon of male gametic drive, occurring during haploid gametogenesis, is especially common on sex chromosomes. The new theory of sexually antagonistic zygotic drive of the sex chromosomes (SA-zygotic drive extends the logic of gametic drive into the diploid phase of the lifecycle, whenever there is competition among siblings or harmful sib-sib mating. The X and Y are predicted to gain a transmission advantage by harming offspring of the sex that does not carry them.Here we analyzed a mutant X-chromosome in Drosophila simulans that produced an excess of daughters when transmitted from males. We developed a series of tests to differentiate between gametic and SA-zygotic drive, and provide multiple lines of evidence that SA-zygotic drive is responsible for the sex ratio bias. Driving sires produce about 50% more surviving daughters than sons.Sex-ratio distortion due to genetic conflict has evolved via gametic drive and maternally transmitted endosymbionts. Our data indicate that sex chromosomes can also drive by harming the non-carrier sex of offspring.

  11. Linking energy efficiency and innovation practices: Empirical evidence from the foundry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagno, Enrico; Ramirez-Portilla, Andres; Trianni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The Europe 2020 strategy currently promotes energy efficiency and innovation through disconnected targets focusing on either energy or R&D. Similar policies indicate that in practice, these two concepts are usually perceived as mutually exclusive. Furthermore, evidence in the literature regarding the relationship between R&D and energy efficiency is still highly limited. This exploratory study aims to address this gap by investigating the link between innovation practices and energy efficiency through a multiple case study of 30 foundries in Northern Italy. We analysed the firms' innovativeness, measured by internal R&D and Open Innovation practices (inbound and outbound), and energy efficiency, measured by specific energy consumption, level of adoption of energy-efficient technologies and barriers to energy efficiency. The results seem to show that those foundries complementing internal R&D with inbound practices have a higher level of energy efficiency, a higher level of adoption of available technologies, and a lower perception of barriers to efficiency improvements. This finding suggests that diversifying innovation practices could lead to better performance with respect to all three indicators of energy efficiency analysed. This study contributes to understanding how more innovative firms can be more energy efficient, providing interesting highlights for managers and policymakers. -- Highlights: •The relation between innovation practices and energy efficiency is articulated. •The link between innovation practices and energy efficiency is tested for foundries. •Energy efficiency is measured with three different indicators. •Analyses of the relations between these indicators support the link with innovation. •Concurrent adoption of internal R&D and inbound practices leads to higher efficiency

  12. Contribution of health workforce to health outcomes: empirical evidence from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Mai Phuong; Mirzoev, Tolib; Le, Thi Minh

    2016-11-16

    In Vietnam, a lower-middle income country, while the overall skill- and knowledge-based quality of health workforce is improving, health workers are disproportionately distributed across different economic regions. A similar trend appears to be in relation to health outcomes between those regions. It is unclear, however, whether there is any relationship between the distribution of health workers and the achievement of health outcomes in the context of Vietnam. This study examines the statistical relationship between the availability of health workers and health outcomes across the different economic regions in Vietnam. We constructed a panel data of six economic regions covering 8 years (2006-2013) and used principal components analysis regressions to estimate the impact of health workforce on health outcomes. The dependent variables representing the outcomes included life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, and under-five mortality rates. Besides the health workforce as our target explanatory variable, we also controlled for key demographic factors including regional income per capita, poverty rate, illiteracy rate, and population density. The numbers of doctors, nurses, midwives, and pharmacists have been rising in the country over the last decade. However, there are notable differences across the different categories. For example, while the numbers of nurses increased considerably between 2006 and 2013, the number of pharmacists slightly decreased between 2011 and 2013. We found statistically significant evidence of the impact of density of doctors, nurses, midwives, and pharmacists on improvement to life expectancy and reduction of infant and under-five mortality rates. Availability of different categories of health workforce can positively contribute to improvements in health outcomes and ultimately extend the life expectancy of populations. Therefore, increasing investment into more equitable distribution of four main categories of health workforce

  13. Total factor productivity change in dairy farming: Empirical evidence from southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Víctor H; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E

    2016-10-01

    Despite the importance of productivity growth, many studies carried out at the farm level focus primarily on the technical efficiency (TE) component of farm productivity. Therefore, the general purpose of this paper is to measure total factor productivity change and then to decompose this change into several distinct elements. The data were an unbalanced panel for the period from 2005 to 2010 containing 477 farms and 1,426 observations obtained from TODOAGRO, a farm-management center created in 1996 in the southern part of Chile. The region where the data come from accounts for 20% of the total milk processed in the country. Stochastic production frontiers along with the translog functional form were used to analyze total factor productivity change. The econometric evidence indicates that farms exhibit decreasing returns to size implying that costs of production rise as farm size increases, which suggests that the motivation for farm growth stems from the search for income rather than from lowering costs. The main results indicated that productivity gains through TE improvements are limited, with an average TE for the whole sample of 91.0%, and average technical efficiency change of 0.05% per year. By contrast, average technological progress at the sample mean was rather high at 1.90%, which suggests that additional investments in research and subsequent adoption of improved technologies would have a positive effect on productivity growth. The findings also revealed that farm size is not associated with productivity growth for the dairy farms in the sample. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Systematic review of the empirical evidence of study publication bias and outcome reporting bias - an updated review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Dwan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increased use of meta-analysis in systematic reviews of healthcare interventions has highlighted several types of bias that can arise during the completion of a randomised controlled trial. Study publication bias and outcome reporting bias have been recognised as a potential threat to the validity of meta-analysis and can make the readily available evidence unreliable for decision making. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this update, we review and summarise the evidence from cohort studies that have assessed study publication bias or outcome reporting bias in randomised controlled trials. Twenty studies were eligible of which four were newly identified in this update. Only two followed the cohort all the way through from protocol approval to information regarding publication of outcomes. Fifteen of the studies investigated study publication bias and five investigated outcome reporting bias. Three studies have found that statistically significant outcomes had a higher odds of being fully reported compared to non-significant outcomes (range of odds ratios: 2.2 to 4.7. In comparing trial publications to protocols, we found that 40-62% of studies had at least one primary outcome that was changed, introduced, or omitted. We decided not to undertake meta-analysis due to the differences between studies. CONCLUSIONS: This update does not change the conclusions of the review in which 16 studies were included. Direct empirical evidence for the existence of study publication bias and outcome reporting bias is shown. There is strong evidence of an association between significant results and publication; studies that report positive or significant results are more likely to be published and outcomes that are statistically significant have higher odds of being fully reported. Publications have been found to be inconsistent with their protocols. Researchers need to be aware of the problems of both types of bias and efforts should be

  15. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds.

  16. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eBigand

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, it has been argued that 1 music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and 2 that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds.

  17. Effects of external debt burden on LDC's investments: empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of external debt burden on LDC's investments: empirical evidence from Nigeria. Michael I Moughalu, Chinedu B Ezirim. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol. 14(2) 2006: 3-18. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  18. Relationship between sport knowledge, sport performance and academic ability: empirical evidence from GCSE Physical Education. General Certificate of Secondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, T

    1999-04-01

    The literature concerning links between sport knowledge, sport performance and academic ability is reviewed and related to empirical evidence obtained from a GCSE examination in Physical Education, together with GCSE Mathematics and GCSE English grades. For most sports examined, there was a small but significant positive correlation between sport performance and GCSE Mathematics and English grades, confirming the findings of most previous research. Using a multilevel multivariate model, average sport performance, academic ability and sex were important explanatory variables for sport knowledge, yet only academic ability was an important explanatory variable for the concept of physical education knowledge. Ability in game sports, rather than athletics, were related to sport knowledge. Males scored higher for sport knowledge than females, after taking into account sport performance and academic ability. The effects of sport performance and academic ability on sport knowledge were stable across schools, but there was some evidence that the effect of sex varied across schools. These findings support theories of a role for sport knowledge in sport performance; that such a role should be greater in game sports; that academic ability is important for gaining such knowledge; and they highlight differences in sport knowledge between the sexes.

  19. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Whither voluntary communities of co-located patients in Vietnam? Empirical evidence from a 2016 medical survey dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan-Hoang Vuong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical evidence on quality of life of poor patients falls short for policy-making in Vietnam. Financial burdens and isolation give rise to Vietnamese voluntary co-location clusters where patients seek to rely on each other. These communities, although important, have been under-researched. Increasingly, there are questions about their sustainability. Aim & Objectives: This study aims to identify factors that affect sustainability of such co-location clusters, seeking to measure the community prospect through critical determinants as seen by member patients. An in-depth analysis is expected to yield insights that help shape future policies contributing to improvement of healthcare systems.  Material & Method: A dataset containing responses from 336 patients living in four clusters in Hanoi was obtained from a survey during 2015Q4-2016Q1. The processing of data is performed using R 3.2.3, employing baseline category logit models (BCL. Coefficients are estimated to compute empirical probabilities. Results: 1 There is a 50% probability that a patient seeing his/her benefits as unsatisfactory views the community prospect as dim; 2 The more a patient contributes time/effort, the less he/she believes in future growth; 3 There is a 80.8% probability that a patient who makes a significant financial contribution and receives back in-kind benefits predicts no growth. Conclusion: Patients predict community growth when receiving what they need/expect. There exists a kind of “liquidity preference”. Only 14% and 32% make significant financial and labor contributions, respectively. There exists a “risk aversion” attitude, viewing contribution as certain while future benefits to be uncertain.

  1. Evidências empirícas sobre a relação entre EVA e Retorno Acionário nas empresas brasileiras - Empirical evidence on the relationship beween EVA and Stock Returns in brazilian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Ribeiro de Medeiros

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo fornece evidências empíricas sobre a relação entre Valor Econômico Adicionado (EVA e retornos acionários de empresas brasileiras. A relação entre essas variáveis têm sido motivo de controvérsia nos últimos anos, com alguns autores encontrando associações significativas entre elas, enquanto outros não encontrando nenhuma. A hipótese de que o EVA afeta os retornos acionários é testada através de regressão linear, utilizando-se modelos alternativos. A amostra é composta de empresas negociadas na mais importante bolsa de valores brasileira. Uma comparação entre os resultados deste estudo com os de estudos anteriores mostram que resultados significativos dependem da determinação das variáveis apropriadas (retornos acionários versus preços das ações, bem como da correta relação dinâmica entre a variável dependente e a independente. This paper provides empirical evidence on the relationship between Economic Value Added (EVA and stock returns in Brazilian firms. This relationship between these variables has been subject to controversy in recent years, with some authors finding significant associations between them while others find none. The hypothesis that EVA affects stock returns is tested through linear regression, using alternative models. The sample is comprised of companies that are traded on the most important Brazilian stock exchange. A comparison of the outcomes of our study with those of previous studies shows that significant results depend on determination of the appropriate variables (stock returns versus stock prices, as well as of the correct dynamic structure between the dependent and the explanatory variable.

  2. Abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Designed for an advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level course, Abstract Algebra provides an example-oriented, less heavily symbolic approach to abstract algebra. The text emphasizes specifics such as basic number theory, polynomials, finite fields, as well as linear and multilinear algebra. This classroom-tested, how-to manual takes a more narrative approach than the stiff formalism of many other textbooks, presenting coherent storylines to convey crucial ideas in a student-friendly, accessible manner. An unusual feature of the text is the systematic characterization of objects by universal

  3. Empirical Evidence from Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... pricing, which influences performance of the locally manufactured sugar from the six (n=6) manufacturing ... study concludes that price related factors significantly contribute to poor performance of local ..... Evans J. D (1992) Managerial Economics –Analysis and Strategy; -Prentice. Hall. Vol. 5 (1), Serial No.

  4. Article Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Simple learning tools to improve clinical laboratory practical skills training. B Taye, BSc, MPH. Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa, ... concerns about the competence of medical laboratory science graduates. ... standardised practical learning guides and assessment checklists would.

  5. Abstract Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Cyclic ovarian activity and plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations were assessed for 179 days in 5. (free grazing) and 6 (free grazing + high energy and protein-supplemented) normocyclic donkeys. In addition, plasma p4 and cortisol were measured in blood samples collected at J5·min intervals in the.

  6. Abstract Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    Abstract. Hemoglobin is a tetrameric protein which is able to dissociate into dimers. The dimers can in turn dissociate into tetramers. It has been found that dimers are more reactive than tetramers. The difference in the reactivity of these two species has been used to determine the tetramer- dimer dissociation constant of ...

  7. The Relationship Between Company Returns and Leverage Depending on the Business Sector: Empirical Evidence from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stryckova Lenka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to provide up-to-date empirical evidence of relationship between the key indicators of business competitiveness: leverage and corporate performance. The study is based on corporate financial data of selected companies from the Czech Republic within 14 major business sectors according to CZ-NACE which companies published for the year 2014. The results of this study show that leverage (debt ratio has a substantially negative effect on corporate performance when the return on equity (ROE is used as an indicator of corporate performance in the Czech Republic over the period covered by the study. The results of the regression analysis confirmed negative relationship between the company profitability and the use of debt in majority of business sectors (Agriculture, fishery, and forestry; Construction, Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles; Professional, scientific and technical activities; Administrative and support service activities. The opposite relationship was found in one business sector only (Mining and quarrying where positive relationship between the company profitability and leverage was confirmed. Among other things, the results of this study confirm that corporate leverage varies across industries.

  8. The role of confidence in the evolution of the Spanish economy: empirical evidence from an ARDL model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Castellanos García

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to verify the existence and to determine the nature of long-term relationships between economic agents’ confidence, measured by the Economic Sentiment Index (ESI, with some of the "fundamentals" of the Spanish economy. In particular, by modeling this type of relations, we try to determine whether confidence is a dependent (explained or independent (explanatory variable. Along with confidence, in our model we incorporate variables such as risk premium of sovereign debt, financial market volatility, unemployment, inflation, public and private debt and the net lending/net borrowing of the economy. For the purpose of obtaining some empirical evidence on the exogenous or endogenous character of the above mentioned variables an ARDL (Autoregressive-Distributed Lag model is formulated. The model is estimated with quarterly data of the Spanish economy for the period 1990-2012. Our findings suggest that: (a unemployment is the dependent variable, (b there is an inverse relationship between ESI in Spain and unemployment; and (c the Granger causality goes from confidence to unemployment.

  9. Enhancing Sustainability of Cotton Production Systems in West Africa: A Summary of Empirical Evidence from Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Vitale

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Africa has been hesitant to adopt agricultural biotechnology, lagging behind global trends over the past decade. One exception is Burkina Faso, a West African country that commercially released 125,000 ha of Bt cotton in 2009. Bt cotton may serve as a working example of how African countries can enhance sustainability using modern, science-driven technology to increase production levels while reducing input use and energy consumption. This paper reports the potential impact that Bt cotton can have on sustainability in Burkina Faso’s cotton sector based by summarizing empirical evidence from previously published studies. Based on the summary of published data collected from six years of field trials and producer surveys, Bt cotton increased cotton yields by an average of 21.3% and raised income by $106.14 per ha. Using an energy balance model, the introduction of Bt cotton would also result in a 6.6% saving in energy use. The significant increase in productivity and economic returns could be the catalyst for Burkina Faso, and other African countries, to emerge from the decade or so of stagnation and regain their competitive stance in world cotton markets while providing environmental and social benefits.

  10. Genetic regulation of parasite infection: empirical evidence of the functional significance of an IL4 gene SNP on nematode infections in wild primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappeler Peter M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to parasite infection affects fitness-related processes, such as mate choice and survival, yet its genetic regulation remains poorly understood. Interleukin-4 (IL4 plays a central role in the humoral immune defence against nematode parasite infections, inducing IgE switch and regulation of worm expulsion from the intestines. The evolutionary and functional significance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IL4-genes is known, yet empirical information on the effect of IL4 SNPs on gastro-intestinal infections is lacking. Using samples from a population of wild red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Primates: Lemuridae, from western Madagascar, we explored the association of IL4-gene promoter polymorphisms with nematode infections and investigated a possible functional role of the IL4 polymorphism on male reproductive success. Results Using sequence analyses of lemur DNA we detected a new SNP in the IL4 gene promoter area. Carriers of the genotype T/T showed higher nematode infection intensities than individuals of genotypes C/T and C/C. Genetic population analyses using data from more than 10 years, suggested higher reproductive success of T/T males than expected. Conclusions Our results suggest a regulatory effect of an IL4 gene promoter polymorphism on the intensity of parasite infections in a natural population of red-fronted lemurs, with a seemingly disadvantageous genotype represented in low frequencies. Long-term population analyses, however, point in the direction of a negative frequency-dependent association, giving a fitness advantage to the rare genotype. Due to low frequencies of the genotype in question conclusive evidence of a functional role of IL4 polymorphism cannot be drawn here; still, we suggest the use of IL4 polymorphism as a new molecular tool for quick assessment of individual genetic constitution with regard to nematode infection intensities, contributing to a better

  11. How language enables abstraction: a study in computational cultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Yair; Turney, Peter; Cohen, Yohai

    2012-06-01

    The idea that language mediates our thoughts and enables abstract cognition has been a key idea in socio-cultural psychology. However, it is not clear what mechanisms support this process of abstraction. Peirce argued that one mechanism by which language enables abstract thought is hypostatic abstraction, the process through which a predicate (e.g., dark) turns into an object (e.g., darkness). By using novel computational tools we tested Peirce's idea. Analysis of the data provides empirical support for Peirce's mechanism and evidence of the way the use of signs enables abstraction. These conclusions are supported by the in-depth analysis of two case studies concerning the abstraction of sweet and dark. The paper concludes by discussing the findings from a broad and integrative theoretical perspective and by pointing to computational cultural psychology as a promising perspective for addressing long-lasting questions of the field.

  12. An empirical approach to selecting community-based alcohol interventions: combining research evidence, rural community views and professional opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeshaft Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given limited research evidence for community-based alcohol interventions, this study examines the intervention preferences of rural communities and alcohol professionals, and factors that influence their choices. Method Community preferences were identified by a survey of randomly selected individuals across 20 regional Australian communities. The preferences of alcohol professionals were identified by a survey of randomly selected members of the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs. To identify preferred interventions and the extent of support for them, a budget allocation exercise was embedded in both surveys, asking respondents to allocate a given budget to different interventions. Tobit regression models were estimated to identify the characteristics that explain differences in intervention preferences. Results Community respondents selected school programs most often (88.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by promotion of safer drinking (71.3%, community programs (61.4% and police enforcement of alcohol laws (60.4%. Professionals selected GP training most often (61.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by school programs (36.6%, community programs (33.8% and promotion of safer drinking (31.7%. Community views were susceptible to response bias. There were no significant predictors of professionals' preferences. Conclusions In the absence of sufficient research evidence for effective community-based alcohol interventions, rural communities and professionals both strongly support school programs, promotion of safer drinking and community programs. Rural communities also supported police enforcement of alcohol laws and professionals supported GP training. The impact of a combination of these strategies needs to be rigorously evaluated.

  13. How does copayment for health care services affect demand, health and redistribution? A systematic review of the empirical evidence from 1990 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiil, Astrid; Houlberg, Kurt

    2014-11-01

    This article reviews the quantitative evidence on the behavioural effects of copayment within the health area across a wide range of countries. The review distinguishes itself from previous similar reviews by having a high degree of transparency for the search strategy used to identify the studies included in the review as well as the criteria for inclusion and by including the most recent literature. Empirical studies were identified by performing searches in EconLit. The literature search identified a total of 47 studies of the behavioural effects of copayment. Considering the demand effects, the majority of the reviewed studies found that copayment reduces the use of prescription medicine, consultations with general practitioners and specialists, and ambulatory care, respectively. The literature found no significant effects of copayment on the prevalence of hospitalisations. The empirical evidence on whether copayment for some services, but not for others, causes substitution from the services that are subject to copayment to the 'free' services rather than lower total use is sparse and mixed. Likewise, the health effects of copayment have only been analysed empirically in a limited number of studies, of which half did not find any significant effects in the short term. Finally, the empirical evidence on the distributional consequences of copayment indicates that individuals with low income and in particular need of care generally reduce their use relatively more than the remaining population in consequence of copayment. Hence, it is clear that copayment involves some important economic and political trade-offs.

  14. National systems of innovation: determinants and industrial policy measures, empirical evidence for OECD; Sistemas nacionales de innovacion: determinantes y acciones de politica industrial. Evidencia empirica para la OCDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervas, J. L.; Rojas, R.; Sempere, F.; Albors, J.

    2012-11-01

    The paper presents an attempt to tackle the main gaps in the national innovation systems (NIS) literature: the problem specifying the boundaries of the NIS and the lack of connection between theory and empirics. For this purpose, the paper uses 55 countries as sample and constructs an NIS index based on a factor analysis of 28 variables. Empirical evidence shows that a firm's strategies, technology infrastructure, government governance, education and linkages are the main components of the NIS. The implications are important for policy-makers and the academia. (Author) 49 refs.

  15. Beyond the abstractions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2006-01-01

      The anniversary of the International Journal of Lifelong Education takes place in the middle of a conceptual landslide from lifelong education to lifelong learning. Contemporary discourses of lifelong learning etc are however abstractions behind which new functions and agendas for adult education...... are set. The ideological discourse of recent policies seems to neglect the fact that history and resources for lifelong learning are different across Europe, and also neglects the multiplicity of adult learners. Instead of refusing the new agendas, however, adult education research should try to dissolve...... learning. Adult education research must fulfil it's potential conversion from normative philosophy to critical and empirical social science....

  16. Successful empirical antifungal therapy of intravenous itraconazole with pharmacokinetic evidence in pediatric cancer patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyery; Shin, Donghoon; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Lee, Ji Won; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Min Sun; Song, Eun Sun; Jang, Mi Kyoung; Park, June Dong; Jang, In-Jin; Park, Kyung Duk; Shin, Hee Young; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2015-07-01

    Empirical antifungal therapy prevents invasive fungal infections in patients with cancer. This study assessed the empirical efficacy of intravenous itraconazole in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and investigated the pharmacokinetics and clinical implications. Oral itraconazole syrup was started (2.5 mg/kg twice daily) for prophylaxis, and patients with persistent neutropenic fever for more than 2 days were switched to intravenous itraconazole (5 mg/kg twice daily for 2 days for induction and 5 mg/kg daily for maintenance) as empirical treatment. Empirical antifungal efficacy was assessed retrospectively in 159 transplantations, and a full pharmacokinetic study was prospectively conducted in six of these patients. Successful antifungal efficacy was defined as the fulfillment of all components of a five-part composite end point. The overall empirical antifungal success rate fulfilling all criteria was 42.1 %. No death or drug-related serious adverse events occurred during the study. Mean trough plasma concentration of itraconazole after oral prophylaxis and intravenous induction were 577.2 and 1659.7 μg/L, respectively. Mean area under the concentration-time curve of itraconazole and its metabolite at steady state were 42,837 ± 24,746 μg·h/L and 63,094 ± 19,255 μg·h/L. Intravenous itraconazole was effective and safe as an empirical antifungal agent in pediatric patients; this was due to the fast and satisfactory increase in drug concentration by switching from oral to intravenous therapy.

  17. BALWOIS: Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morell, Morell; Todorovik, Olivija; Dimitrov, Dobri

    2004-01-01

    anthropogenic pressures and international shared water. Here are the 320 abstracts proposed by authors and accepted by the Scientific Committee. More than 200 papers are presented during the Conference on 8 topics related to Hydrology, Climatology and Hydro biology: - Climate and Environment; - Hydrological regimes and water balances; - Droughts and Floods; -Integrated Water Resources Management; -Water bodies Protection and Eco hydrology; -Lakes; -Information Systems for decision support; -Hydrological modelling. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  18. Is There Such a Thing as School Quality Culture? In Search of Conceptual Clarity and Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitsch, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of "school quality management culture" in relation to the general notion of "school organizational culture" and to review empirical studies that scrutinised the relation between organisational culture and quality management practices in education and business.…

  19. Effects of Work Environment on Transfer of Training: Empirical Evidence from Master of Business Administration Programs in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Nga T. P.; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2013-01-01

    Practical application of newly gained knowledge and skills, also referred to as transfer of training, is an issue of great concern in training issues generally and in Master of Business Administration (MBA) programs particularly. This empirical study examined the influence of the trainees' work environment on their transfer of training, taking…

  20. Organizational Flexibility for Hypercompetitive Markets : Empirical Evidence of the Composition and Context Specificity of Dynamic Capabilities and Organization Design Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P. van der Weerdt (Niels)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis research project, which builds on the conceptual work of Henk Volberda on the flexible firm, empirically investigates four aspects of organizational flexibility. Our analysis of data of over 1900 firms and over 3000 respondents shows (1) that several increasing levels of

  1. Implanting inequality: empirical evidence of social and ethical risks of implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Torin; Fisher, Jill A

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess empirically the social and ethical risks associated with implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) devices. Qualitative research included observational studies in twenty-three U.S. hospitals that have implemented new patient identification systems and eighty semi-structured interviews about the social and ethical implications of new patient identification systems, including RFID implants. The study identified three primary social and ethical risks associated with RFID implants: (i) unfair prioritization of patients based on their participation in the system, (ii) diminished trust of patients by care providers, and (iii) endangerment of patients who misunderstand the capabilities of the systems. RFID implants may aggravate inequalities in access to care without any clear health benefits. This research underscores the importance of critically evaluating new healthcare technologies from the perspective of both normative ethics and empirical ethics.

  2. Women’s Empowerment through Self-help Groups and its Impact on Health Issues: Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Debnarayan Sarker

    2011-01-01

    Based on an empirical study in West Bengal, this paper attempts to examine whether women’s involvement in the microcredit programme through SHGs makes any positive change on women’s empowerment. From the assessment of various criteria of empowerment(power, autonomy and self-reliance, entitlement, participation and awareness and capacity-building), the study suggests that if women participating in the microcredit programme through SHGs sustain for some longer period (eight years or more), such...

  3. Vertical Specialization of Production: Critical Review and Empirical Evidence for the Mexican Manufacturing Industries 1994-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Sotomayor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys Vertical Specialization (VS from different empirical approaches, including the various conceptualizations of VS, the problems with its quantification, and a case study. The empirical estimation of this paper refers to the Mexican manufacturing industry and the in-bond industry (also known as maquiladora. The purpose of this paper is to compare VS, through the application of the Vertical Intra-Industry Trade (VIIT indexes, for maquiladora and non-maquiladora industries and to contrast the degree to which the maquiladora industry is integrated with the global value chain relative to the non-maquiladora activities for the 1994-2006 period. Furthermore, this paper quantifies VIIT for the post-maquiladora period (2007-2014 in order to discuss if there have been changes in the VIIT since the conclusion of the maquiladora program in 2006. In particular, this paper tests if the quality ladder hypothesis applies to Mexico for its bilateral trade with the United States and Canada. The empirical estimations show the remarkable differences between maquiladora and non-maquiladora VS and the impacts that changes in the NAFTA tariff schedule for the automotive industry have had on the bilateral trade pattern.

  4. Who are the Relevants Stakeholders to the Local Government Context? Empirical Evidences on Environmental Influences in the Decision-Making Process of English Local Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Corrêa Gomes

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents empirical evidence of stakeholding in the local government context. It is the result of a survey carried out with English Local Authorities in 2001. It outlines the arena in which local government make decisions by pinpointing the relevant stakeholders in the process as well as the amount of power they areperceived to represent by chief executives. The investigation has its theoretical basis in resource dependence and institutional theories, which are commonly used for explaining an organization’s behaviour and performance as influenced by its environment. As an empirical contribution, the article proposes a stakeholder map for any kind of local government organizations that will help in identifying strategies for managing stakeholders.

  5. Temporal derivative of Total Solar Irradiance and anomalous Indian summer monsoon: An empirical evidence for a Sun–climate connection

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Agnihotri, R.; Dutta, K.; Soon, W.

    . Agnihotri et al. / Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 73 (2011) 1980–1987 1981 researchers to reconstruct the annual variability in TSI over the last few centuries (Hoyt and Schatten, 1993; Lean et al., 2002; Krivova et al., 2007; Y.M. Wang... in the UV wavelength (200–400 nm), up to almost 10 times larger than the extrapolation from the model of Lean (2000). This empirical result adds another layer of complexity in the physical processes involved in how the Earth’s climate system responds...

  6. Effects in the network topology due to node aggregation: Empirical evidence from the domestic maritime transportation in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiotas, Dimitrios; Polyzos, Serafeim

    2018-02-01

    This article studies the topological consistency of spatial networks due to node aggregation, examining the changes captured between different network representations that result from nodes' grouping and they refer to the same socioeconomic system. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate what kind of topological information remains unalterable due to node aggregation and, further, to develop a framework for linking the data of an empirical network with data of its socioeconomic environment, when the latter are available for hierarchically higher levels of aggregation, in an effort to promote the interdisciplinary research in the field of complex network analysis. The research question is empirically tested on topological and socioeconomic data extracted from the Greek Maritime Network (GMN) that is modeled as a non-directed multilayer (bilayer) graph consisting of a port-layer, where nodes represent ports, and a prefecture-layer, where nodes represent coastal and insular prefectural groups of ports. The analysis highlights that the connectivity (degree) of the GMN is the most consistent aspect of this multilayer network, which preserves both the topological and the socioeconomic information through node aggregation. In terms of spatial analysis and regional science, such effects illustrate the effectiveness of the prefectural administrative division for the functionality of the Greek maritime transportation system. Overall, this approach proposes a methodological framework that can enjoy further applications about the grouping effects induced on the network topology, providing physical, technical, socioeconomic, strategic or political insights.

  7. An empirical study on the institutional factors of energy conservation and emissions reduction: Evidence from listed companies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhaoguo; Jin, Xiaocui; Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Corporate excessive energy consumption and emissions are negative externality problems, with the basic countermeasure of establishing a series of institutional programs to promote corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction. This paper analyzes the influence of institutional factors such as laws, tax policies, credit policies, government subsidies, media supervision and marketization degree on corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction from the institutional perspective. The data, from 84 listed Chinese chemical and steel companies from 2006 to 2010, was analyzed using both a fixed effect model and the generalized method of moments (GMM) model. The empirical results demonstrate that these institutional factors positively affect corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction. Specifically, four factors – tax policies, government subsidies, credit policies and media supervision – have a significant positive relationship with corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction; whereas laws and marketization degree exhibit no significant effects. The research findings are theoretically and practically significant to the Chinese government with regard to improving the institutional environment and promoting corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction. - Highlights: ► Theoretical analysis of the influence of institutional factors based on NIE. ► Empirical analysis of the influence of institutional factors on ECER by regression. ► Economic measures and public opinions have positive influence on ECER in China. ► Laws and the degree of marketization have weak influence on ECER in China

  8. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  9. Empirical evidence reveals seasonally dependent reduction in nitrification in coastal sediments subjected to near future ocean acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeckman, U.; Van Colen, C.; Guilini, K.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Soetaert, K.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J.

    2014-01-01

    Research so far has provided little evidence that benthic biogeochemical cycling is affected by ocean acidification under realistic climate change scenarios. We measured nutrient exchange and sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) rates to estimate nitrification in natural coastal permeable

  10. Women’s Empowerment through Self-help Groups and its Impact on Health Issues: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assist. Prof. Sudipta De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an empirical study in West Bengal, this paper attempts toexamine whether women’s involvement in the microcredit programmethrough SHGs makes any positive change on women’s empowerment.From the assessment of various criteria of empowerment(power,autonomy and self-reliance, entitlement, participation and awarenessand capacity-building, the study suggests that if women participatingin the microcredit programme through SHGs sustain for some longerperiod (eight years or more, such programme might contribute tohigher level of women’s empowerment than women’s empowermentunder all types of control group. This paper also finds that women’searnings from saving and credit have positive and significant effect onnutritional status of the children of women members of SHGs and onthe protein-intake for their household compared with that of amongcontrol groups.

  11. Empirical Evidence on Time-Varying Hedging Effectiveness of Emissions Allowances under Departures from the Cost-of-Carry Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under departures from the cost-of-carry theory, traded spot prices and conditional volatility disturbed from futures market have significant impacts on futures price of emissions allowances, and then we propose time-varying hedge ratios and hedging effectiveness estimation using ECM-GARCH model. Our empirical results show that conditional variance, conditional covariance, and their correlation between between spot and futures prices exhibit time-varying trends. Conditional volatility of spot prices, conditional volatility disturbed from futures market, and conditional correlation of market noises implied from spot and futures markets have significant effects on time-varying hedge ratios and hedging effectiveness. In the immature emissions allowances market, market participants optimize portfolio sizes between spot and futures assets using historical market information and then achieve higher risk reduction of assets portfolio revenues; accordingly, we can obtain better hedging effectiveness through time-varying hedge ratios with departures from the cost-of-carry theory.

  12. Abstracts and Abstracting in Knowledge Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Maria; Lancaster, F. W.

    1999-01-01

    Presents various levels of criteria for judging the quality of abstracts and abstracting. Requirements for abstracts to be read by humans are compared with requirements for those to be searched by computer. Concludes that the wide availability of complete text in electronic form does not reduce the value of abstracts for information retrieval.…

  13. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND UNIT-LINKED INSURANCE MARKETS EFFICIENCY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoş Horia Mircea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the impact of the Global financial crisis on the efficiency of four Central and Eastern European emerging unit-linked insurance markets, applying the automatic variance ratio (AVR test of Kim (2009 and variance ratio tests using ranks and signs by Wright (2000 for entire, pre-crisis and crisis periods. This study contributes to the existing literature on efficient market hypothesis with several distinct features: it provides a systematic review of the weak-form market efficiency literature that examines return predictability of the daily ING unit-linked funds prices; also the article aims at monitoring any improvement in the degree of efficiency in time and also examines the relative efficiency of unit-linked insurance markets in pre-crisis and crisis periods. Unit linked insurance are life insurance policies with investment component. In the literature there are few studies investigating the effects of a financial crisis on the potential of predictability and implicitly on the degree of efficiency of financial markets. The occurrence of a market crash or financial crisis is a possible contributing factor of market inefficiency. Most of the studies are focused on the Asian crisis in 1997: Holden et al. (2005 examined the weak-form efficiency of eight emerging Asian stock markets using VR tests before, during and after the Asian crisis; Kim and Shamsuddin (2008 used three different types of multiple VR tests for nine Asian stock markets; the findings reported by Lim et al. (2008 are consistent with those reported by Cheong et al. (2007, in which the highest inefficiency occurs during the crisis period. Todea and Lazar (2010 investigated the effects of the Global crisis on the relative efficiency of ten CEE stock markets, using Generalized Spectral test of Escanciano and Velasco (2006. Wright (2000 proposes the alternative non-parametric variance ratio tests using ranks and signs of return and demonstrates that

  14. The Relative Importance of Industry and Size Effect in Corporate Capital Structure Empirical Evidence from the EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Koralun-Bereznicka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate the relative importance of the industry-specific factors and the sizespecific factors in relation to their impact on the corporate capital structure in certain countries of the European Union. The first, theoretical part of the study provides a literature review on the industry and the size as capital structure determinants. The following empirical research includes 9 EU countries, where the importance of the two factors is compared both for the aggregated data, as well as in individual countries separately. The source of the data is the BACH-ESD database. The applied methodology involves the analysis of variance and cluster analysis. The contribution of this paper is two-fold. First, it prioritizes the two factors in question, whereas most of the hitherto studies only identify the significance of various determinants of leverage. The second contribution is that this study is based on non-public firms – unlike the majority of studies which verify the capital structure theories using mainly samples of large listed companies.

  15. Commuting--a further stress factor for working people: evidence from the European Community. II. An empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G; Pickup, L; Di Martino, V

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the main results of research promoted by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, concerning the impact of commuting on the health and safety of workers. An empirical study, carried out among 1167 industrial Italian workers, shows that "commuters" (workers whose journey from home to work usually does not take less than 45 min in each direction) experienced a more stressed life-style than did "non commuters" (whose journey does not take more than 20 min). Commuting appears for many workers to be a necessity which is imposed by external factors, such as the housing market and job opportunities. Commuting is shown to interfere with patterns of everyday life by restricting free-time and reducing sleeping time. A majority of commuters use public transport mainly because of cost. Public transport commuters have problems due to more changes between modes, idle waiting times and delays leading to late arrival at work. Inside transport modes, commuters suffered discomfort as a result of overcrowding, microclimatic conditions, noise and vibrations. Commuters also reported higher psychological stress scores, more health complaints, essentially of psychosomatic nature, and greater absenteeism from work due to sickness. Commuting, in addition to shiftwork, further increases sleep problems, psychosomatic complaints and difficulties with family and social life. Women commuters were at a greater disadvantage than men, having more family difficulties, more travelling complaints and higher absenteeism.

  16. Evidence for a temperature acclimation mechanism in bacteria: an empirical test of a membrane-mediated trade-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward K.; Singer, Gabriel A.; Kainz, Martin J.; Lennon, Jay T.

    2010-01-01

    1. Shifts in bacterial community composition along temporal and spatial temperature gradients occur in a wide range of habitats and have potentially important implications for ecosystem functioning. However, it is often challenging to empirically link an adaptation or acclimation that defines environmental niche or biogeography with a quantifiable phenotype, especially in micro-organisms. 2. Here we evaluate a possible mechanistic explanation for shifts in bacterioplankton community composition in response to temperature by testing a previously hypothesized membrane mediated trade-off between resource acquisition and respiratory costs. 3. We isolated two strains of Flavobacterium sp. at two temperatures (cold isolate and warm isolate) from the epilimnion of a small temperate lake in North Central Minnesota. 4. Compared with the cold isolate the warm isolate had higher growth rate, higher carrying capacity, lower lag time and lower respiration at the high temperature and lower phosphorus uptake at the low temperature. We also observed significant differences in membrane lipid composition between isolates and between environments that were consistent with adjustments necessary to maintain membrane fluidity at different temperatures. 5. Our results suggest that temperature acclimation in planktonic bacteria is, in part, a resource-dependent membrane-facilitated phenomenon. This study provides an explicit example of how a quantifiable phenotype can be linked through physiology to competitive ability and environmental niche.

  17. Can Environmental Regulations Promote Corporate Environmental Responsibility? Evidence from the Moderated Mediating Effect Model and an Empirical Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benhong Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Stakeholder theory, a moderated mediating effect model is developed to reach the study objective, revealing an important connection that suggests environmental regulations (ERs influence corporate environmental responsibility (CER (Porter Hypothesis. In building the model, the validity of the questionnaire data was analyzed with factor analysis. By employing a two-step approach, a regression analysis is utilized to discuss the mediating effect of altruistic motivation and moderating effect of green innovation, and a structural equation model is used to explore the interactive mechanism of different variables. It is found that altruistic motivation plays a medium role in the relationship between ERs and CER, and green innovation engages a positive coordination in the relationship. The empirical study identifies factors affecting enterprises’ willingness to undertake environmental responsibility, including environment policies, corporate culture, and personal characters among others. It is also revealed that altruistic motivation is conducive to forming a community interests among enterprises and enhancing their resistance to market risks, which explains and corroborates the Stakeholder theory; and the higher the level of green innovation, the more willing enterprises are to implement environmentally friendly operations.

  18. How Biomedical Misconceptions May Arise and Affect Medical Students׳ Learning: A Review of Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmi Badenhorst

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate on whether biomedical knowledge contributes significantly to the clinical reasoning process is on-going. Despite this debate, one cannot underestimate that subjects such as anatomy and physiology play a key role in the understanding of the human body. Misconceptions that exist or arise in biomedical subjects, such as physiology and anatomy, can impact on the learning processes of medical students. The present paper presents an overview of research in the field of biomedical misconceptions and consists of two parts. First, the authors draw on three theoretical frameworks, constructivism, concept formation and element interactivity in complex reasoning, to offer insight as to why misconceptions in biomedical subjects could potentially arise and exist. In the second part, the authors synthesize empirical studies on biomedical misconceptions that draw on similar theoretical frameworks. The limited research available in this field suggests that the three theories discussed in this paper do provide valuable insights into how misconceptions in anatomy and physiology can hamper coherent knowledge construction, and potentially play an obstructive role when students are required to perform complex cognitive tasks such as clinical reasoning.

  19. Impact of leadership styles on employees’ attitude towards their leader and performance: Empirical evidence from Pakistani banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asrar-ul-Haq

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of a study examining the impact of managers’ leadership styles on subordinates’ performance. The impact of leadership styles on employee performance outcomes is explored theoretically and tested empirically in the Pakistani banking sector. The sample of the study consisted of 224 full-time employees in the banking sector of Pakistan. Findings of this study reveal that there exists a significant relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance outcomes. However, laissez-faire leadership style showed negative relationship with employee performance outcomes in terms of effectiveness, and employee satisfaction. Banking industry in Pakistan is prone to numerous challenges including employee turnover. Model presented in the study will be helpful for the human resource managers and top management to design effective leadership development programs. HRD department can be established and HRD professionals can be hired to assist the managers in organizing training and development programs. Further, it may help to design strategies to satisfy, retain and motivate the employees. Also, it will help the managers decide, which leadership style they should choose in terms of outcomes.

  20. Empirical evidence reveals seasonally dependent reduction in nitrification in coastal sediments subjected to near future ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Braeckman, U.; Van Colen, C.; Guilini, K.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Soetaert, K.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J.

    2014-01-01

    Research so far has provided little evidence that benthic biogeochemical cycling is affected by ocean acidification under realistic climate change scenarios. We measured nutrient exchange and sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) rates to estimate nitrification in natural coastal permeable and fine sandy sediments under pre-phytoplankton bloom and bloom conditions. Ocean acidification, as mimicked in the laboratory by a realistic pH decrease of 0.3, significantly reduced SCOC on averag...

  1. Measuring the Effectiveness of Mentoring as a Knowledge Translation Intervention for Implementing Empirical Evidence: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ghadah; Rossy, Dianne; Ploeg, Jenny; Davies, Barbara; Higuchi, Kathryn; Sikora, Lindsey; Stacey, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Background Mentoring as a knowledge translation (KT) intervention uses social influence among healthcare professionals to increase use of evidence in clinical practice. Aim To determine the effectiveness of mentoring as a KT intervention designed to increase healthcare professionals’ use of evidence in clinical practice. Methods A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases (i.e., MEDLINE, CINAHL), grey literature, and hand searching. Eligible studies evaluated mentoring of healthcare professionals responsible for patient care to enhance the uptake of evidence into practice. Mentoring is defined as (a) a mentor more experienced than mentee; (b) individualized support based on mentee's needs; and (c) involved in an interpersonal relationship as indicated by mutual benefit, engagement, and commitment. Two reviewers independently screened citations for eligibility, extracted data, and appraised quality of studies. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results Of 10,669 citations from 1988 to 2012, 10 studies were eligible. Mentoring as a KT intervention was evaluated in Canada, USA, and Australia. Exposure to mentoring compared to no mentoring improved some behavioral outcomes (one study). Compared to controls or other multifaceted interventions, multifaceted interventions with mentoring improved practitioners’ knowledge (four of five studies), beliefs (four of six studies), and impact on organizational outcomes (three of four studies). There were mixed findings for changes in professionals’ behaviors and impact on practitioners’ and patients’ outcomes: some outcomes improved, while others showed no difference. Linking Evidence to Action Only one study evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring alone as a KT intervention and showed improvement in some behavioral outcomes. The other nine studies that evaluated the effectiveness of mentoring as part of a multifaceted intervention showed mixed findings, making it difficult to determine the added effect

  2. Boris Hirsch: Monopsonistic Labour Markets and the Gender Pay Gap. Theory and Empirical Evidence. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Jochmann-Döll

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Der mögliche Beitrag monopsonistischer Arbeitsmarktmodelle zur Erklärung der geschlechterbezogenen Entgeltlücke (Gender Pay Gap steht im Zentrum der Dissertation von Boris Hirsch. Nach den Theorien des räumlichen und des dynamischen Monopsons sind Unternehmen deshalb in der Lage, geringere Entgelte an Frauen zu zahlen, weil deren Arbeitsangebot auf Unternehmensebene weniger elastisch ist und sie bei einem Arbeitsplatzwechsel höhere Verluste in Kauf nehmen müssen. Die Ausnutzung der Monopsonmacht und die mit dem Robinson’schen Ansatz beschreibbare Diskriminierung durch die Unternehmen führten zu unterschiedlichen Entgelten zwischen Frauen und Männern. Die von Hirsch getroffenen theoretischen Annahmen werden für den deutschen Arbeitsmarkt empirisch bestätigt; durch sie lässt sich mindestens ein Drittel des Gender Pay Gap erklären.The possible contribution of monopsonistic job market models to the explanation of the gender-based payment gap (Gender Pay Gap is at the center of Boris Hirsch’s dissertation. According to the theories of the regional and the dynamic monopson, companies are able to pay women lower wages because their labor supply on the company level is less flexible and because they have to accept higher losses in the case of a job change. The companies’ abuse of the monopsonistic power and the discrimination, which can be explained with the Robinson approach, lead to unequal wages between men and women. Hirsch’s theoretical hypotheses are validated empirically for the German employment market; with them, at least a third of the Gender Pay Gap can be explained.

  3. The effects of customer benefit and regulation on environmental product innovation. Empirical evidence from appliance manufacturers in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammerer, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Environmental product (EP) innovations and their determinants have received increasing attention from researchers during the past years. So far, empirical studies have shown inconsistent results, especially regarding the impact of regulation. In this paper, I seek to advance the understanding of EP-innovation by introducing and testing a novel research framework. First, a novel unit of analysis, the environmental issue level, is applied. EP-innovation is not studied in broad terms but specifically for four environmental issues that are relevant to the electrical and electronic appliances industry: energy efficiency, toxic substances, material efficiency, and electromagnetic fields. Second, the customer benefit, a concept from the green marketing literature, is included as an explanatory variable for EP-innovation for the first time. The argument is that green products which besides their public benefits have private environmental benefits for the customer (e.g., energy savings) will generate stronger consumer demand and can thus constitute the firm's motivation to implement those innovations in the first place. Third, EP-innovation is observed more comprehensively, measuring its extent and level of novelty. I apply this research framework to study EP-innovations of German manufacturers of electrical and electronic appliances. My results support the issue level as unit of analysis. The impact of customer benefit and regulation on EP-innovation is analyzed with logit regression and the results clearly show that both customer benefit and regulation play a key role for EP-innovation. They not only foster the implementation of EP-innovations but also their broad application and their level of novelty. (author)

  4. Immigration rates in fragmented landscapes--empirical evidence for the importance of habitat amount for species persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Püttker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The total amount of native vegetation is an important property of fragmented landscapes and is known to exert a strong influence on population and metapopulation dynamics. As the relationship between habitat loss and local patch and gap characteristics is strongly non-linear, theoretical models predict that immigration rates should decrease dramatically at low levels of remaining native vegetation cover, leading to patch-area effects and the existence of species extinction thresholds across fragmented landscapes with different proportions of remaining native vegetation. Although empirical patterns of species distribution and richness give support to these models, direct measurements of immigration rates across fragmented landscapes are still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Brazilian Atlantic forest marsupial Gray Slender Mouse Opossum (Marmosops incanus as a model species and estimating demographic parameters of populations in patches situated in three landscapes differing in the total amount of remaining forest, we tested the hypotheses that patch-area effects on population density are apparent only at intermediate levels of forest cover, and that immigration rates into forest patches are defined primarily by landscape context surrounding patches. As expected, we observed a positive patch-area effect on M. incanus density only within the landscape with intermediate forest cover. Density was independent of patch size in the most forested landscape and the species was absent from the most deforested landscape. Specifically, the mean estimated numbers of immigrants into small patches were lower in the landscape with intermediate forest cover compared to the most forested landscape. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal the crucial importance of the total amount of remaining native vegetation for species persistence in fragmented landscapes, and specifically as to the role of variable immigration rates in

  5. An Investigation of Hayes and Wheelwright’s Practices: Empirical Evidence from The Indonesia’s Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakhid Slamet Ciptono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The research extracts sixty seven Hayes and Wheelwright’s practices from the Hayes and Wheel-wright’s six principles. These items formed the basis of a questionnaire sent to over 2800 managers at the SBUs level in the Indonesia’s oil and gas companies. The empirical result indicates that All Hayes and Wheelwright’s six principles collectively have positive impact on an overall construct that may be termed world-class company (WCC. Result also points out that Hayes and Wheelwright’s six principles can be reduced into four meaningful factors of world-class company—as operations strategies—for the Indonesia’s oil and gas industry— Workforce skills and capabilities, Management technical competence, Competing through quality, and Workforce participation. These meaningful factors of WCC were shown to be reliable and valid, and offer new insights into the understanding of operations strategy implementation in an oil and gas industry.Based on the oil and gas managers (the SBU level, operations strategies (four meaningful factors of WCC can be viewed as the effective use of production and operations capability and technology for achieving business and corporate goals. Operations strategy, therefore, is to help a company’s operations organization define the common ground where it can play a proactive and collaborative role with other company functions or cross-functional relationships (Hayes et al., 1996.  Oil and gas managers in Indonesia can use these meaningful factors in concert with other critical qual-ity management practices to help them in there word-class company initiatives. Researchers can also use these factors to build structural model linking such factors to various organizational performance measures (i.e., Critical Success Factors of TQM, Operational Excellence, Six Sigma Quality Management, and Good Corporate Governance.Keywords: Hayes and wheelwright’s six principles, Hayes and Wheelwright practices, World

  6. Reporting funding source or conflict of interest in abstracts of randomized controlled trials, no evidence of a large impact on general practitioners' confidence in conclusions, a three-arm randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel du Vaure, Céline; Boutron, Isabelle; Perrodeau, Elodie; Ravaud, Philippe

    2014-04-28

    Systematic reporting of funding sources is recommended in the CONSORT Statement for abstracts. However, no specific recommendation is related to the reporting of conflicts of interest (CoI). The objective was to compare physicians' confidence in the conclusions of abstracts of randomized controlled trials of pharmaceutical treatment indexed in PubMed. We planned a three-arm parallel-group randomized trial. French general practitioners (GPs) were invited to participate and were blinded to the study's aim. We used a representative sample of 75 abstracts of pharmaceutical industry-funded randomized controlled trials published in 2010 and indexed in PubMed. Each abstract was standardized and reported in three formats: 1) no mention of the funding source or CoI; 2) reporting the funding source only; and 3) reporting the funding source and CoI. GPs were randomized according to a computerized randomization on a secure Internet system at a 1:1:1 ratio to assess one abstract among the three formats. The primary outcome was GPs' confidence in the abstract conclusions (0, not at all, to 10, completely confident). The study was planned to detect a large difference with an effect size of 0.5. Between October 2012 and June 2013, among 605 GPs contacted, 354 were randomized, 118 for each type of abstract. The mean difference (95% confidence interval) in GPs' confidence in abstract findings was 0.2 (-0.6; 1.0) (P = 0.84) for abstracts reporting the funding source only versus no funding source or CoI; -0.4 (-1.3; 0.4) (P = 0.39) for abstracts reporting the funding source and CoI versus no funding source and CoI; and -0.6 (-1.5; 0.2) (P = 0.15) for abstracts reporting the funding source and CoI versus the funding source only. We found no evidence of a large impact of trial report abstracts mentioning funding sources or CoI on GPs' confidence in the conclusions of the abstracts. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01679873.

  7. Tax Accounting and Reporting Behavior: Empirical Evidence on the Effects of Book-Tax Conformity and Current Trends in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Ina

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the topic of of Book-Tax Conformity, i.e. the degree to which book and tax accounting should be aligned. The aim is to provide further evidence on the research question of the true effects and characteristics of one-book and two-book systems and their effects on firms reporting behavior as well as to derive propositions on the appropriate degree of book-tax conformity. In addition, supranational trends and economic influencing factors which might prospectively aff...

  8. Norms and the development of new knowledge as determinants of climate policy. Theoretical considerations and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schymura, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of long-term effects of climate change in cost-benefit analysis has a long tradition in environmental economics. Since the publication of the ''Stern Review'' in 2006, the debate about the impacts of climate change on the economy and how to compare cost and benefits with each other was revived. The assessment of climate change mitigation policies mainly depends on three not mutually exclusive decisions: First, the discount rate chosen, since costs are incurred today and long-term benefits occur in the future. Second, the uncertainties related to the problem of climate change. This debate was spurred by the literature surrounding Martin Weitzman's ''dismal theorem'', stating that the unknown unknowns could be too large for cost-benefit analysis of long-term climate policy measures. And third, the treatment of technological change in economic models of climate policy. This dissertation contributes to all three mentioned aspects and consists of two interrelated parts. First, I discuss norms, economic welfare criteria, and catastrophic risks in the context of climate change. This first part is closely bound to a discussion of the Stern Review. The second part of the dissertation deals with technological change in its various dimensions and addresses several questions: How is technological change taken into consideration in large-scale environment-economy models? How do certain inputs substitute each other? And how does technology affect energy intensity, a key parameter for meeting targets set by climate policy? Alongside these questions, I also discuss how the production of knowledge takes place in an environmental and resource economics framework and how knowledge production patterns have changed during previous decades. While the first part is of theoretical nature, the second part is mainly empirical. Summing up, I suggest approaches towards long-term evaluation of climate policies and how some methodological drawbacks of the ''Stern Review'' could

  9. “Non-Aviation” activities and the introduction of new thinking and ideas in the airport business: Empirical evidence from an Italian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Fasone

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to describe the main changes occurring in the airport industry with particular attention to the increasing relevance of the non-aviation activities. In fact, during the most recent decades, the airport business has evolved into a dynamic and competitive industry. In order to reduce their deficits airport management policies have progressively favoured the commercial aspects in order to produce greater profit margins. In many countries, greater management elasticity in business administration has occurred, and important modifications have been introduced in the national and international regulations according to a market oriented perspective.Design/methodology/approach: The method used is the case study approach and the analysis utilizes empirical data originating from the airport in Olbia.Findings: Findings show how the choice to invest in the non-aviation sector can be ascribed to the strategic orientation adopted by airport managers.Originality/value: Empirical evidence can highlight certain trends in the industry, whose values can lead to a core definition of the new paths of development for the airport business to follow in the non-aviation dimension, and identifying at the same time innovative business ideas for opening up new market scenarios.

  10. Stimulus-response bindings code both abstract and specific representations of stimuli: evidence from a classification priming design that reverses multiple levels of response representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, A J; Henson, R N

    2011-11-01

    Repetition priming can be caused by the rapid retrieval of previously encoded stimulus-response (S-R) bindings. S-R bindings have recently been shown to simultaneously code multiple levels of response representation, from specific Motor-actions to more abstract Decisions ("yes"/"no") and Classifications (e.g., "man-made"/"natural"). Using an experimental design that reverses responses at all of these levels, we assessed whether S-R bindings also code multiple levels of stimulus representation. Across two experiments, we found effects of response reversal on priming when switching between object pictures and object names, consistent with S-R bindings that code stimuli at an abstract level. Nonetheless, the size of this reversal effect was smaller for such across-format (e.g., word-picture) repetition than for within-format (e.g., picture-picture) repetition, suggesting additional coding of format-specific stimulus representations. We conclude that S-R bindings simultaneously represent both stimuli and responses at multiple levels of abstraction.

  11. THE EFFECT OF E-COMMERCE ON MALAYSIAN TAX SYSTEM: AN EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM ACADEMICIANS AND MALAYSIAN TAX PRACTITIONERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rizal Palil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The explosion of information technology (IT nowadays has created new phenomena in shopping activities. Consumers can easily buy products via Internet. Within a minute, the products will be delivered instantly and accurately. This scenario is known as e-commerce. The emergence of e-commerce affects consumers' shopping behavior as well as taxation system. The objective of this research is to reveal the effects of e-commerce upon Malaysian taxation system by emphasizing in scope of charge 'derive and remittance'. Research was conducted through questionnaires of 82 tax practitioners and 22 academicians. The research findings shown that derive and remittance basis is no longer appropriate in e-commerce environment. Scope of charge derives and remittances, which are practicing in Malaysia right now, are unable to maximized e-commerce tax revenue. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perkembangan dalam dunia teknologi akhir-akhir ini telah membawa banyak arus perubahan terutamanya dalam aktivitas belanja. Konsumen dapat membeli barang dengan mudah melalui internet. Dalam waktu beberapa menit, barang sampai di tangan konsumen. Skenario demikian dikenal sebagai perdagangan elektronis. Kemunculan perdagangan elektronis mengubah prilaku belanja konsumen serta sistem perpajakan di Malaysia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek perdagangan elektronis terhadap sistem perpajakan di Malaysia dengan penekanan pada pengenaan pajak dan hak pemajakan. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan 82 sample praktisi perpajakan dan 22 akademisi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, bahwa praktek pengenaan pajak dalam perdagangan elektronis belum sesuai dengan aturan yang berlaku, sehingga tidak dapat memaksimalkan penerimaan pajak dari perdagangan elektronis. Kata kunci: sistem perpajakan Malaysia, perdagangan elektronik, akademik, praktisi perpajakan, pengenaan pajak.

  12. A review of the empirical evidence of the value of structuring and coding of clinical information within electronic health records for direct patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Kalra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The case has historically been presented that structured and/or coded electronic health records (EHRs benefit direct patient care, but the evidence base for this is not well documented.Methods We searched for evidence of direct patient care value from the use of structured and/or coded information within EHRs. We interrogated nine international databases from 1990 to 2011. Value was defined using the Institute of Medicine’s six areas for improvement for healthcare systems: effectiveness, safety, patient-centredness, timeliness, efficiency and equitability. We included studies satisfying the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC group criteria.Results Of 5016 potentially eligible papers, 13 studies satisfied our criteria: 10 focused on effectiveness, with eight demonstrating potential for improved proxy and actual clinical outcomes if a structured and/or coded EHR was combined with alerting or advisory systems in a focused clinical domain. Three studies demonstrated improvement in safety outcomes. No studies were found reporting value in relation to patient-centredness, timeliness, efficiency or equitability.Conclusions We conclude that, to date, there has been patchy effort to investigate empirically the value from structuring and coding EHRs for direct patient care. Future investments in structuring and coding of EHRs should be informed by robust evidence as to the clinical scenarios in which patient care benefits may be realised.

  13. Job-related and psychological effects of sexual harassment in the workplace: empirical evidence from two organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K T; Swan, S; Fitzgerald, L F

    1997-06-01

    Previous evidence regarding the outcomes of sexual harassment in the workplace has come mainly from self-selected samples or analogue studies or those using inadequate measures. The sexual harassment experiences, coping responses, and job-related and psychological outcomes of 447 female private-sector employees and 300 female university employees were examined. Discriminant function analyses indicated that women who had not been harassed and women who had experienced low, moderate, and high frequencies of harassment could be distinguished on the basis of both job-related and psychological outcomes. These outcomes could not be attributed to negative affective disposition, attitudes toward harassment, or general job stress. Results suggest that relatively low-level but frequent types of sexual harassment can have significant negative consequences for working women.

  14. The Empire Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micklitz, Hans-W.; Pałka, Przemysław; Panagis, Yannis

    2017-01-01

    The authors argue that it is possible to partly automate the process of abstract control of fairness of clauses in online consumer contracts. The authors present a theoretical and empirical argument for this claim, including a brief presentation of the software they have designed. This type...

  15. Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Guèze, Maximilien; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, this work explores the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm ( Geonoma deversa ) amongst the Tsimane', an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists ( n = 296 adults in 13 villages). We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane' have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. While local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane' undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.

  16. Local perceptions as a guide for the sustainable management of natural resources: empirical evidence from a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, we explored the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa among the Tsimane', an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages. We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic, and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane' have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. Although local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane' undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.

  17. Effects of recall time on cause-of-death findings using verbal autopsy: empirical evidence from rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Hussain-Alkhateeb

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA is a widely used technique for assigning causes to non-medically certified deaths using information gathered from a close caregiver. Both operational and cultural factors may cause delays in follow-up of deaths. The resulting time lag—from death to VA interview—can influence ways in which terminal events are remembered, and thus affect cause-of-death assignment. This study investigates the impact of recall period on causes of death determined by VA. Methods A total of 10,882 deaths from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS with complete VAs, including recall period, were incorporated in this study. To measure seasonal effect, cause specific mortality fractions (CSMFs were calculated and compared by every cause for VAs undertaken within six months of death and those undertaken from six to 12 months of death. All causes were classified into eight broad categories and entered in a multiple logistic regression to explore outcome by recall period in relation to covariates. Results The majority of deaths (83 % had VAs completed within 12 months. There was a tendency towards longer recall periods for deaths of those under one year or over 65 years of age. Only the acute respiratory, diarrhoeal and other unspecified non-communicable disease groups showed a CSMF ratio significantly different from unity at the 99 % confidence level between the two recall periods. Only neonatal deaths showed significantly different OR for recall exceeding 12 months (OR 1.69; p value = 0.004 and this increased when adjusting for background factors (OR 2.58; p value = 0.000. Conclusion A recall period of up to one year between death and VA interview did not have any consequential effects on the cause-of-death patterns derived, with the exception of neonatal causes. This is an important operational consideration given the planned widespread use of the VA approach in civil registration, HDSS sites

  18. Empirical Evidence Reveals Seasonally Dependent Reduction in Nitrification in Coastal Sediments Subjected to Near Future Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeckman, Ulrike; Van Colen, Carl; Guilini, Katja; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Soetaert, Karline; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Research so far has provided little evidence that benthic biogeochemical cycling is affected by ocean acidification under realistic climate change scenarios. We measured nutrient exchange and sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) rates to estimate nitrification in natural coastal permeable and fine sandy sediments under pre-phytoplankton bloom and bloom conditions. Ocean acidification, as mimicked in the laboratory by a realistic pH decrease of 0.3, significantly reduced SCOC on average by 60% and benthic nitrification rates on average by 94% in both sediment types in February (pre-bloom period), but not in April (bloom period). No changes in macrofauna functional community (density, structural and functional diversity) were observed between ambient and acidified conditions, suggesting that changes in benthic biogeochemical cycling were predominantly mediated by changes in the activity of the microbial community during the short-term incubations (14 days), rather than by changes in engineering effects of bioturbating and bio-irrigating macrofauna. As benthic nitrification makes up the gross of ocean nitrification, a slowdown of this nitrogen cycling pathway in both permeable and fine sediments in winter, could therefore have global impacts on coupled nitrification-denitrification and hence eventually on pelagic nutrient availability. PMID:25329898

  19. Relationship between corporate social responsibility and competitive performance in Spanish SMEs: Empirical evidence from a stakeholders’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Herrera Madueño

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a financial economic scenario in which the corporate survival of small and medium enterprises (SMEs is more conditioned than ever by competitive performance, this paper aims to show that the strategic incorporation of socially responsible actions, more concerned and engaged with stakeholders, contributes to improve the competitiveness of these organizations. Thus, the existence of a direct or mediated relationship between the development of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR practices and competitive performance has been analyzed from a multi-stakeholder perspective. To accomplish this task, data were collected from a sample of 481 Spanish SMEs and the technique of partial least squares (PLS was used. Outcomes show that the development of CSR practices contributes to increase the competitive performance both directly and indirectly, through the ability of these organizations to manage their stakeholders. This study, therefore, supports the social impact hypothesis and offers evidence about some intangibles such as the relational capacity mediate the causal effect between CSR and competitive performance.

  20. Determinants of Obesity and Associated Population Attributability, South Africa: Empirical Evidence from a National Panel Survey, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Benn; Veerman, Lennert J; Manyema, Mercy; Chola, Lumbwe; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for emerging non-communicable diseases (NCDS) in middle income countries including South Africa (SA). Understanding the multiple and complex determinants of obesity and their true population attributable impact is critical for informing and developing effective prevention efforts using scientific based evidence. This study identified contextualised high impact factors associated with obesity in South Africa. Analysis of three national cross sectional (repeated panel) surveys, using a multilevel logistic regression and population attributable fraction estimation allowed for identification of contextualised high impact factors associated with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2) among adults (15 years+). Obesity prevalence increased significantly from 23.5% in 2008 to 27.2% in 2012, with a significantly (p-valuecrime areas, African/White ethnicity, married, not exercising, in a higher socio-economic category and/or living in households with proportionate higher spending on food (and unhealthy food options) were significantly more likely to be obese. The identified determinants appeared to account for 75% and 43% of male and female obesity respectively. White males had the highest relative gain in obesity from 2008 to 2012. The rising prevalence of obesity in South Africa is significant and over the past 5 years the rising prevalence of Type-2 diabetes has mirrored this pattern, especially among females. Targeting young adolescent girls should be a priority. Addressing determinants of obesity will involve a multifaceted strategy and requires at individual and population levels. With rising costs in the private and public sector to combat obesity related NCDS, this analysis can inform culturally sensitive mass communications and wellness campaigns. Knowledge of social determinants is critical to develop "best buys".

  1. Determinants of Obesity and Associated Population Attributability, South Africa: Empirical Evidence from a National Panel Survey, 2008-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benn Sartorius

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor for emerging non-communicable diseases (NCDS in middle income countries including South Africa (SA. Understanding the multiple and complex determinants of obesity and their true population attributable impact is critical for informing and developing effective prevention efforts using scientific based evidence. This study identified contextualised high impact factors associated with obesity in South Africa.Analysis of three national cross sectional (repeated panel surveys, using a multilevel logistic regression and population attributable fraction estimation allowed for identification of contextualised high impact factors associated with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2 among adults (15 years+.Obesity prevalence increased significantly from 23.5% in 2008 to 27.2% in 2012, with a significantly (p-value<0.001 higher prevalence among females (37.9% in 2012 compared to males (13.3% in 2012. Living in formal urban areas, white ethnicity, being married, not exercising and/or in higher socio-economic category were significantly associated with male obesity. Females living in formal or informal urban areas, higher crime areas, African/White ethnicity, married, not exercising, in a higher socio-economic category and/or living in households with proportionate higher spending on food (and unhealthy food options were significantly more likely to be obese. The identified determinants appeared to account for 75% and 43% of male and female obesity respectively. White males had the highest relative gain in obesity from 2008 to 2012.The rising prevalence of obesity in South Africa is significant and over the past 5 years the rising prevalence of Type-2 diabetes has mirrored this pattern, especially among females. Targeting young adolescent girls should be a priority. Addressing determinants of obesity will involve a multifaceted strategy and requires at individual and population levels. With rising costs in the private and public sector to

  2. Does Eating Out Make Elderly People Depressed? Empirical Evidence from National Health and Nutrition Survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Hao; Saeliw, Kannika

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the association between eating out and depressive symptoms among elderly people. Potential mediators that may link to elderly eating out and depressive symptoms are also discussed. METHODS: A unique dataset of 1,184 individuals aged 65 and older was drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 2008 in Taiwan. A bivariate probit model and an instrumental variable probit model were estimated to account for correlated, unmeasured factors that may be associated with both the decision and frequency of eating out and depressive symptoms in the elderly. An additional analysis is conducted to check whether the nutrient intakes and body weights can be seen as mediators that link the association between eating out and depressive symptoms of the elderly. RESULTS: Elderly people who eat out are 38 percent points more likely to have depressive symptoms than their counterparts who do not eat out, after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and other factors. A positive association between the frequency of eating out and the likelihood of having depressive symptoms of the elderly is also found. It is evident that one additional meal away from home is associated with an increase of the likelihood of being depressed by 3.8 percentage points. With respect to the mediations, we find that nutrient intakes and body weight are likely to serve as mediators for the positive relationship between eating out and depressive symptoms in the elderly. CONCLUSION: Our results show that elderly who eat out have a higher chance of having depressive symptoms. To prevent depressive symptoms in the elderly, policy makers should be aware of the relationship among psychological status, physical health and nutritional health when assisting the elderly to better manage their food consumption away from home. LIMITATONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: Our study have some caveats. First, the interpretation of our results on the causality issue

  3. Research & writing basics: elements of the abstract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasner, D; Van Rijswijk, L

    1995-04-01

    Writing an abstract is a challenging skill that requires precision and care. Criteria for well-formulated abstracts and abstract guidelines for 2 types of articles (empirical studies and reviews or theoretical articles) as well as a description of the content of a structured abstract are presented. Details were gleaned from a review of the literature including the American Medical Association Manual of Style, Eighth Edition and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fourth Edition. A good abstract is like a crystal: it is a clear, sharp synthesis that elucidates meaning for the reader.

  4. From Abstract Art to Abstracted Artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romi Mikulinsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available What lineage connects early abstract films and machine-generated YouTube videos? Hans Richter’s famous piece Rhythmus 21 is considered to be the first abstract film in the experimental tradition. The Webdriver Torso YouTube channel is composed of hundreds of thousands of machine-generated test patterns designed to check frequency signals on YouTube. This article discusses geometric abstraction vis-à-vis new vision, conceptual art and algorithmic art. It argues that the Webdriver Torso is an artistic marvel indicative of a form we call mathematical abstraction, which is art performed by computers and, quite possibly, for computers.

  5. How much does it cost to get a dose of vaccine to the service delivery location? Empirical evidence from Vietnam's Expanded Program on Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvundura, Mercy; Kien, Vu Duy; Nga, Nguyen Tuyet; Robertson, Joanie; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Tung, Ho Thanh; Hong, Duong Thi; Levin, Carol

    2014-02-07

    Few studies document the costs of operating vaccine supply chains, but decision-makers need this information to inform cost projections for investments to accommodate new vaccine introduction. This paper presents empirical estimates of vaccine supply chain costs for Vietnam's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) for routine vaccines at each level of the supply chain, before and after the introduction of the pentavalent vaccine. We used micro-costing methods to collect resource-use data associated with storage and transportation of vaccines and immunization supplies at the national store, the four regional stores, and a sample of provinces, districts, and commune health centers. We collected stock ledger data on the total number of doses of vaccines handled by each facility during the assessment year. Total supply chain costs were estimated at approximately US$65,000 at the national store and an average of US$39,000 per region, US$5800 per province, US$2200 per district, and US$300 per commune health center. Across all levels, cold chain equipment capital costs and labor were the largest drivers of costs. The cost per dose delivered was estimated at US$0.19 before the introduction of pentavalent and US$0.24 cents after introduction. At commune health centers, supply chain costs were 104% of the value of vaccines before introduction of pentavalent vaccine and 24% after introduction, mainly due to the higher price per dose of the pentavalent vaccine. The aggregated costs at the last tier of the health system can be substantial because of the large number of facilities. Even in countries with high-functioning systems, empirical evidence on current costs from all levels of the system can help estimate resource requirements for expanding and strengthening resources to meet future immunization program needs. Other low- and middle-income countries can benefit from similar studies, in view of new vaccine introductions that will put strains on existing systems. Copyright

  6. Inglorious Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khair, Tabish

    2017-01-01

    Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00......Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00...

  7. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of 25 papers presented at the congress are given. The abstracts cover various topics including radiotherapy, radiopharmaceuticals, radioimmunoassay, health physics, radiation protection and nuclear medicine

  8. DNA degradation by bleomycin: evidence for 2'R-proton abstraction and for C-O bond cleavage accompanying base propenal formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajmera, S.; Wu, J.C.; Worth, L. Jr.; Rabow, L.E.; Stubbe, J.; Kozarich, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Reaction of poly(dA-[2'S- 3 H]dU) with activated bleomycin yields [ 3 H] uracil propenal that completely retains the tritium label. In contrast, the authors have previously shown that reaction of poly(dA-[2'R- 3 H]dU) with activated bleomycin affords unlabeled uracil propenal. They have also prepared both cis- and trans-thymine propenals by chemical synthesis and have observed that the trans isomer is the exclusive product of the bleomycin reaction. Moreover, the cis isomer was found to be stable to the conditions of bleomycin-induced DNA degradation. Taken together, these results establish that the formation of trans-uracil propenal occurs via an anti-elimination mechanism with the stereospecific abstraction of the 2R proton. The question of phosphodiester bond cleavage during base propenal formation has also been addressed by the analysis of the fate of oxygen-18 in poly(dA-[3'- 18 O]dT) upon reaction with activated bleomycin. The 5'-monophosphate oligonucleotide ends produced from thymine propenal formation have been converted to inorganic phosphate by the action of alkaline phosphatase, and the phosphate has been analyzed for 18 O content by 31 P NMR spectroscopy. The oxygen-18 is retained in the inorganic phosphate, establishing that the formation of thymine propenal by activated bleomycin proceeds with C-O bond cleavage at the 3-position

  9. Matchmaking in organizational change : does every employee value participatory leadership? An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Rogiest, Sofie; Segers, Jesse; Witteloostuijn, van, Arjen

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Although leadership is generally considered an important lever to increase commitment during organizational change, empirical research has yet to unravel many of the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we propose that the impact of participative leadership on affective commitment to change will be contingent on employees orientation toward leadership. In our empirical study in two police organizations, we find evidence that followers orientation toward leadership is a useful inter...

  10. Effects and processes linking social support to caregiver health among HIV/AIDS-affected carer-child dyads: a critical review of the empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Marisa; Wild, Lauren

    2013-06-01

    There is evidence to suggest that social support may be an important resource for the mental and physical health of caregivers and children affected by HIV/AIDS, especially in HIV-endemic areas of the developing world. Drawing from theory on social relations and health, in this paper we argue that it is important to assess not only the existence and direction of associations, but also the effects and processes explaining these. We refer to House et al's (in Annu Rev Sociol 14;293-318, 1988) theoretical framework on social support structures and processes as a guide to present and discuss findings of a systematic review of literature assessing the relationship between social support and health among caregivers living with HIV or caring for HIV/AIDS-affected children. Findings confirm the importance of social support for health among this population, but also expose the absence of empirical work deriving from the developing world, as well as the need for further investigation on the biopsychosocial processes explaining observed effects.

  11. The Long-term Impact of Early Life Pain On Adult Responses to Anxiety and Stress: Historical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Nicole C.; Murphy, Anne Z.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 6 infants are born prematurely each year. Typically, these infants spend 25 days in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) where they experience 10–18 painful and inflammatory procedures each day. Remarkably, pre-emptive analgesics and/or anesthesia are administered less than 25% of the time. Unalleviated pain during the perinatal period is associated with permanent decreases in pain sensitivity, blunted cortisol responses and high rates of neuropsychiatric disorders. To date, the mechanism(s) by which these long-term changes in stress and pain behavior occur, and whether such alterations can be prevented by appropriate analgesia at the time of insult, remains unclear. Work in our lab using a rodent model of early life pain suggests that inflammatory pain experienced on the day of birth blunts adult responses to stress- and pain-provoking stimuli, and dysregulates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in part through a permanent upregulation in central endogenous opioid tone. This review focuses on the long-term impact of neonatal inflammatory pain on adult anxiety- and stress-related responses, and underlying neuroanatomical changes in the context of endogenous pain control and the HPA axis. These two systems are in a state of exaggerated developmental plasticity early in postnatal life, and work in concert to respond to noxious or aversive stimuli. We present empirical evidence from animal and clinical studies, and discuss historical perspectives underlying the lack of analgesia/anesthetic use for early life pain in the modern NICU. PMID:26210872

  12. Environmental efficiency and labour productivity. Trade-off or joint dynamics? A theoretical investigation and empirical evidence from Italy using NAMEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Zoboli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we test an adapted EKC hypothesis to verify the relationship between 'environmental efficiency' (namely emissions per unit of value added) and labour productivity (value added per employee). We exploit NAMEA data on Italy for 29 sector branches and 6 categories of air emissions for the period 1991-2001. We employ data on capital stock and trade openness to test the robustness of our results. On the basis of the theoretical and empirical analyses focusing on innovation, firm performances and environmental externalities, we would expect a positive correlation between environmental efficiency and labour productivity - a negative correlation between the emissions intensity of value added and labour productivity - which departs from the conventional mainstream view. The hypothesis tested is a critical one within the longstanding debate on the potential trade-off or complementarity between environmental preservation and economic performance, which is strictly associated with the role of technological innovation. We find that for most air emission categories there is a positive relationship between labour productivity and environmental efficiency. Labour productivity dynamics, then, seem to be complementary to a decreasing emissions intensity in the production process. Taking a disaggregate sector perspective, we show that the macro-aggregate evidence is driven by sector dynamics in a non-homogenous way across pollutants. Services tend always to show a 'complementary' relationship, while industry seems to be associated with inverted U-shape dynamics for greenhouse gases and nitrogen oxides. This is in line with our expectations. In any case, EKC shapes appear to drive such productivity links towards complementarity. The extent to which this evidence derives from endogenous market forces, industrial and structural change, and policy effects is discussed by taking an evolutionary perspective to innovation and by referring to impure public goods arguments

  13. Empirical evidence of S-curves in the Colombian Evidencia empírica de la curva S en las balanzas comerciales bilaterales de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Andrea Palacios-Chacón

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Marshall-Lerner condition, the J-curve and S-curve have emerged as theoretical  and empirical foundations developed for the study of the interaction between exchange rates and international patterns of bilateral trade. They have a significant bearing on thedevelopment of public policy, and are of equal interest to the academic and professional communities. The most recently developed of these theories, the S-Curve, is named after the theorized short-run behavior to be found in the cross-correlation function of the real exchange rate and the trade balance. Considering this theoretical context, the paper seeks empirical evidence of the existence of the S-Curve in the bilateral trade in commodity and non-commodity goods between Colombia and the United States and Venezuela, its main trading partners, for the yearly quarters between 1994:1 and 2009:4.La condición Marshall-Lerner la curva J y la curva S han surgido como elementos teóricos y empíricos desarrollados para el estudio de la interacción entre las tasas de cambio y los patrones internacionales de comercio bilateral. Estas poseen una relevancia significativa en el desarrollo de política pública nacional y han sido objeto de estudio por la comunidad académica y profesional. La más reciente de estas teorías, la curva S, se conoce como la conducta que se teoriza hallar en la función de correlación cruzada entre la tasa de cambio real y la balanza comercial a corto plazo. Basado en dicho contexto teórico, este artículo busca evidencia empírica sobre la existencia de la curva S en el intercambio comercial bilateral de bienes commodities y non-commodities entre Colombia y Estados Unidos y Venezuela, sus principales socios comerciales, en los trimestres entre 1994:1 y 2009:4.

  14. What 'empirical turn in bioethics'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia

    2010-10-01

    Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.

  15. Learning abstract algebra with ISETL

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinsky, Ed

    1994-01-01

    Most students in abstract algebra classes have great difficulty making sense of what the instructor is saying. Moreover, this seems to remain true almost independently of the quality of the lecture. This book is based on the constructivist belief that, before students can make sense of any presentation of abstract mathematics, they need to be engaged in mental activities which will establish an experiential base for any future verbal explanation. No less, they need to have the opportunity to reflect on their activities. This approach is based on extensive theoretical and empirical studies as well as on the substantial experience of the authors in teaching astract algebra. The main source of activities in this course is computer constructions, specifically, small programs written in the mathlike programming language ISETL; the main tool for reflections is work in teams of 2-4 students, where the activities are discussed and debated. Because of the similarity of ISETL expressions to standard written mathematics...

  16. Grounded understanding of abstract concepts: The case of STEM learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Justin C; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies. In this review of the literature, we examine evidence suggesting that sensorimotor processes strengthen learning associated with the abstract concepts central to STEM pedagogy. After considering how contemporary theories have defined abstraction in the context of semantic knowledge, we propose our own explanation for how body-centered information, as computed in sensorimotor brain regions and visuomotor association cortex, can form a useful foundation upon which to build an understanding of abstract scientific concepts, such as mechanical force. Drawing from theories in cognitive neuroscience, we then explore models elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in grounding intangible concepts, including Hebbian learning, predictive coding, and neuronal recycling. Empirical data on STEM learning through hands-on instruction are considered in light of these neural models. We conclude the review by proposing three distinct ways in which the field of cognitive neuroscience can contribute to STEM learning by bolstering our understanding of how the brain instantiates abstract concepts in an embodied fashion.

  17. The Economics and Empirics of Tax Competition: A Survey and Lessons for the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Baskaran (Thushyanthan); M. Lopes da Fonseca (Maria)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We survey the theoretical and empirical literature on local and international tax competition in Economics. On the basis of this survey, we discuss whether EU countries should harmonise tax policies to prevent a race to the bottom. Much of the evidence suggests that

  18. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled:Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Physics Education; SANCGASS; Astronomy; Plasma Physics; Physics in Industry; Applied and General Physics

  19. The long-term impact of early life pain on adult responses to anxiety and stress: Historical perspectives and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Nicole C; Murphy, Anne Z

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 6 infants are born prematurely each year. Typically, these infants spend 25 days in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) where they experience 10-18 painful and inflammatory procedures each day. Remarkably, pre-emptive analgesics and/or anesthesia are administered less than 25% of the time. Unalleviated pain during the perinatal period is associated with permanent decreases in pain sensitivity, blunted cortisol responses and high rates of neuropsychiatric disorders. To date, the mechanism(s) by which these long-term changes in stress and pain behavior occur, and whether such alterations can be prevented by appropriate analgesia at the time of insult, remains unclear. Work in our lab using a rodent model of early life pain suggests that inflammatory pain experienced on the day of birth blunts adult responses to stress- and pain-provoking stimuli, and dysregulates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in part through a permanent upregulation in central endogenous opioid tone. This review focuses on the long-term impact of neonatal inflammatory pain on adult anxiety- and stress-related responses, and underlying neuroanatomical changes in the context of endogenous pain control and the HPA axis. These two systems are in a state of exaggerated developmental plasticity early in postnatal life, and work in concert to respond to noxious or aversive stimuli. We present empirical evidence from animal and clinical studies, and discuss historical perspectives underlying the lack of analgesia/anesthetic use for early life pain in the modern NICU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Priorities for action on the social determinants of health: Empirical evidence on the strongest associations with life expectancy in 54 low-income countries, 1990-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, K; Martin, S; Smith, P C

    2016-10-01

    The WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health set out an impressive collection of policy proposals on the social determinants of health. However, a serious weakness for securing implementation is the difficulty for policymakers in identifying priorities for action. The objective of this study is to determine a small set of the most influential determinants using existing data and an empirical approach. 45 Indicators from the World Bank's World Development Indicators are selected to measure attainment for the determinants proposed by the Commission. Panel data models of life expectancy at birth for 54 low-income countries over the years 1990-2012 (1188 country-years) are estimated. Each determinant is subjected to a robustness test using Extreme Bound Analysis, to determine the stability of its estimated impact on life expectancy. For 20 robust and significant determinants the magnitude of association with life expectancy is determined. The largest average increases in life expectancy at 14.5 months per capita is associated with a one standard deviation reduction in HIV prevalence among children, followed by advances in gender equality at 9.4 months. Improvements in life expectancy between 6 and 9 months are associated with agricultural production, political stability, access to clean water and sanitation, good governance, and primary school enrolment. Improvements below 6 months are associated with increases in private health expenditure and overseas development assistance, and control of armed conflict and HIV prevalence among men. There is no evidence that national income, public spending on healthcare and education, secondary schooling, terms of international trade, employment, debt service and relief, out-of-pocket expenditures, agricultural ex- or imports, lifestock production, foreign investment, urbanization or environmental degradation are robustly associated with population health. Results provide support for the relevance of some proposed

  1. Empirical likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Art B

    2001-01-01

    Empirical likelihood provides inferences whose validity does not depend on specifying a parametric model for the data. Because it uses a likelihood, the method has certain inherent advantages over resampling methods: it uses the data to determine the shape of the confidence regions, and it makes it easy to combined data from multiple sources. It also facilitates incorporating side information, and it simplifies accounting for censored, truncated, or biased sampling.One of the first books published on the subject, Empirical Likelihood offers an in-depth treatment of this method for constructing confidence regions and testing hypotheses. The author applies empirical likelihood to a range of problems, from those as simple as setting a confidence region for a univariate mean under IID sampling, to problems defined through smooth functions of means, regression models, generalized linear models, estimating equations, or kernel smooths, and to sampling with non-identically distributed data. Abundant figures offer vi...

  2. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  3. Compilation of Theses Abstracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This publication contains unclassified/unrestricted abstracts of classified or restricted theses submitted for the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Business Administration, Master of Science...

  4. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating......In this paper we discuss computational abstraction steps as a way to create class abstractions from concrete objects, and from examples. Computational abstraction steps are regarded as symmetric counterparts to computational concretisation steps, which are well-known in terms of function calls...

  5. Nuclear medicine. Abstracts; Nuklearmedizin 2000. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-07-01

    This issue of the journal contains the abstracts of the 183 conference papers as well as 266 posters presented at the conference. Subject fields covered are: Neurology, psychology, oncology, pediatrics, radiopharmacy, endocrinology, EDP, measuring equipment and methods, radiological protection, cardiology, and therapy. (orig./CB) [German] Die vorliegende Zeitschrift enthaelt die Kurzfassungen der 183 auf der Tagung gehaltenen Vortraege sowie der 226 praesentierten Poster, die sich mit den folgenden Themen befassten: Neurologie, Psychiatrie, Onkologie, Paediatrie, Radiopharmazie, Endokrinologie, EDV, Messtechnik, Strahlenschutz, Kardiologie sowie Therapie. (MG)

  6. Empirical Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Talman, R.

    1987-01-01

    As proton accelerators get larger, and include more magnets, the conventional tracking programs which simulate them run slower. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method, still under development, in which element-by-element tracking around one turn is replaced by a single man, which can be processed far faster. It is assumed for this method that a conventional program exists which can perform faithful tracking in the lattice under study for some hundreds of turns, with all lattice parameters held constant. An empirical map is then generated by comparison with the tracking program. A procedure has been outlined for determining an empirical Hamiltonian, which can represent motion through many nonlinear kicks, by taking data from a conventional tracking program. Though derived by an approximate method this Hamiltonian is analytic in form and can be subjected to further analysis of varying degrees of mathematical rigor. Even though the empirical procedure has only been described in one transverse dimension, there is good reason to hope that it can be extended to include two transverse dimensions, so that it can become a more practical tool in realistic cases

  7. Neighbourhood Abstraction in GROOVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo; De Lara, J.; Varro, D.

    2011-01-01

    Important classes of graph grammars have infinite state spaces and therefore cannot be verified with traditional model checking techniques. One way to address this problem is to perform graph abstraction, which allows us to generate a finite abstract state space that over-approximates the original

  8. Truthful Monadic Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock-Nannestad, Taus; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    indefinitely, finding neither a proof nor a disproof of a given subgoal. In this paper we characterize a family of truth-preserving abstractions from intuitionistic first-order logic to the monadic fragment of classical first-order logic. Because they are truthful, these abstractions can be used to disprove...

  9. Check Sample Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, David; Grenache, David G; Bosler, David S; Karcher, Raymond E; Nichols, James; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rauch, Carol; Huddleston, Brent J; Frank, Elizabeth L; Sluss, Patrick M; Lewandrowski, Kent; Eichhorn, John H; Hall, Janet E; Rahman, Saud S; McPherson, Richard A; Kiechle, Frederick L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Pierce, Kristin A; Kloehn, Erica A; Thomas, Patricia A; Walts, Ann E; Madan, Rashna; Schlesinger, Kathie; Nawgiri, Ranjana; Bhutani, Manoop; Kanber, Yonca; Abati, Andrea; Atkins, Kristen A; Farrar, Robert; Gopez, Evelyn Valencerina; Jhala, Darshana; Griffin, Sonya; Jhala, Khushboo; Jhala, Nirag; Bentz, Joel S; Emerson, Lyska; Chadwick, Barbara E; Barroeta, Julieta E; Baloch, Zubair W; Collins, Brian T; Middleton, Owen L; Davis, Gregory G; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Chu, Albert Y; Keylock, Joren B; Ramoso, Robert; Thoene, Cynthia A; Stewart, Donna; Pierce, Arand; Barry, Michelle; Aljinovic, Nika; Gardner, David L; Barry, Michelle; Shields, Lisa B E; Arnold, Jack; Stewart, Donna; Martin, Erica L; Rakow, Rex J; Paddock, Christopher; Zaki, Sherif R; Prahlow, Joseph A; Stewart, Donna; Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Falzon, Andrew L; Hudacki, Rachel; Mazzella, Fermina M; Bethel, Melissa; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Gresik, M Vicky; Gill, Ryan; Karlon, William; Etzell, Joan; Deftos, Michael; Karlon, William J; Etzell, Joan E; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Manion, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nancy; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Tang, Patrick; Petric, Martin; Schade, Andrew E; Hall, Geraldine S; Oethinger, Margret; Hall, Geraldine; Picton, Avis R; Hoang, Linda; Imperial, Miguel Ranoa; Kibsey, Pamela; Waites, Ken; Duffy, Lynn; Hall, Geraldine S; Salangsang, Jo-Anne M; Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Oethinger, Margaret D; Veras, Emanuela; Silva, Elvia; Vicens, Jimena; Silva, Elvio; Keylock, Joren; Hempel, James; Rushing, Elizabeth; Posligua, Lorena E; Deavers, Michael T; Nash, Jason W; Basturk, Olca; Perle, Mary Ann; Greco, Alba; Lee, Peng; Maru, Dipen; Weydert, Jamie Allen; Stevens, Todd M; Brownlee, Noel A; Kemper, April E; Williams, H James; Oliverio, Brock J; Al-Agha, Osama M; Eskue, Kyle L; Newlands, Shawn D; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Puri, Puja K; Royer, Michael C; Rush, Walter L; Tavora, Fabio; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Franks, Teri J; Carter, James Elliot; Kahn, Andrea Graciela; Lozada Muñoz, Luis R; Houghton, Dan; Land, Kevin J; Nester, Theresa; Gildea, Jacob; Lefkowitz, Jerry; Lacount, Rachel A; Thompson, Hannis W; Refaai, Majed A; Quillen, Karen; Lopez, Ana Ortega; Goldfinger, Dennis; Muram, Talia; Thompson, Hannis

    2009-02-01

    The following abstracts are compiled from Check Sample exercises published in 2008. These peer-reviewed case studies assist laboratory professionals with continuing medical education and are developed in the areas of clinical chemistry, cytopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, microbiology, surgical pathology, and transfusion medicine. Abstracts for all exercises published in the program will appear annually in AJCP.

  10. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers given at the conference are presented. The abstracts are arranged under sessions entitled: Theoretical Physics; Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics; Spectroscopy; Plasma Physics; Solar-Terrestrial Physics; Astrophysics and Astronomy; Radioastronomy; General Physics; Applied Physics; Industrial Physics

  11. How good is the evidence for the recommended empirical antimicrobial treatment of patients hospitalized because of community-acquired pneumonia? : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterheert, J J; Bonten, M J M; Hak, E; Schneider, M M E; Hoepelman, I M

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For years, monotherapy with a beta-lactam antibiotic (penicillin, amoxicillin or second-generation cephalosporin) was recommended as empirical therapy for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A combination of a beta-lactam and a macrolide antibiotic was only recommended for

  12. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    the vector field, which allows the generation of a complete abstraction. To compute the functions that define the subdivision of the state space in an algorithm, we formulate a sum of squares optimization problem. This optimization problem finds the best subdivisioning functions, with respect to the ability......This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...

  13. Volume II: Compendium Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Tensile Test Methodology for UHMWPE Laminates Krus, Tyler Laminates made from high performance ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers...for Adatoms in Growth of Quantum Dots Ramsey , James This work uses molecular statics simulations to estimate the performance of empirical potentials

  14. From Abstraction to Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribers, Bjørn

    . On basis of the empirical findings the author argues that it is the interplay between the students’ personal narrative, practice experience and theoretical reflection with teachers and co-workers, which constitute the social workers’ ethical perception. When the social welfare practitioners experience...

  15. Science meeting. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    the document is a collection of the science meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, material sciences different aspects of energy and presents research done in 2000 in these fields

  16. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    To most people the concept of abstract machines is connected to the name of Alan Turing and the development of the modern computer. The Turing machine is universal, axiomatic and symbolic (E.g. operating on symbols). Inspired by Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari extended the concept of abstract...... machines to singular, non-axiomatic and diagrammatic machines. That is: Machines which constitute becomings. This presentation gives a survey of the development of the concept of abstract machines in the philosophy of Deleuze and Guatari and the function of these abstract machines in the creation of works...... of art. From Difference and Repetition to Anti-Oedipus, the machines are conceived as binary machines based on the exclusive or inclusive use respectively of the three syntheses: conexa, disjuncta and conjuncta. The machines have a twofold embedment: In the desiring-production and in the social...

  17. Mathematical games, abstract games

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Joao Pedro

    2013-01-01

    User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.

  18. Introduction to abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jonathan D H

    2008-01-01

    Taking a slightly different approach from similar texts, Introduction to Abstract Algebra presents abstract algebra as the main tool underlying discrete mathematics and the digital world. It helps students fully understand groups, rings, semigroups, and monoids by rigorously building concepts from first principles. A Quick Introduction to Algebra The first three chapters of the book show how functional composition, cycle notation for permutations, and matrix notation for linear functions provide techniques for practical computation. The author also uses equivalence relations to introduc

  19. Abstract Storage Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Robert; Maurer, Ueli; Tessaro, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    A quantum storage device differs radically from a conventional physical storage device. Its state can be set to any value in a certain (infinite) state space, but in general every possible read operation yields only partial information about the stored state. The purpose of this paper is to initiate the study of a combinatorial abstraction, called abstract storage device (ASD), which models deterministic storage devices with the property that only partial information about the state can be re...

  20. Abstracts of contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  1. an empirical study exploring body perception and apparel fit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Diversifying clothing research in Southern Africa, Vol 2, 2017. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY EXPLORING BODY PERCEPTION AND APPAREL FIT. PREFERENCES FOR SOUTH AFRICAN WOMEN. Reena Pandarum*, Simon C Harlock & Lawrance Hunter. ABSTRACT. This empirical study examines the body shapes.

  2. Empirical Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Organization: Evidence Based Research, Inc. (EBR) Address: 7207 Gordons Road, Falls Church , VA 22043 Telephone: 703-533-8449 E-Mail: rehayes@ebrinc.com...ADDRESS(ES) Evidence Based Research, Inc. (EBR),7207 Gordons Road,Falls Church ,VA,22043 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...beginning in its primitive form (Chimpanzee behavior) and down through the ages including Biblical, Greek , Chinese, Italian, German, French, British

  3. Does the Fiscal Decentralization Promote Public Safety? Evidence from United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, J.E.; Rider, M.; Wang, R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Abstract This paper empirically investigates the effect of fiscal decentralization on public safety, which is widely taken as an important issue in evaluating the performance of public service. In addition, we provide evidence to the transmission channels of the decentralization effect. In

  4. Policy impacts estimates are sensitive to data selection in empirical analysis: evidence from the United States – Canada softwood lumber trade dispute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daowei Zhang; Rajan Parajuli

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we use the U.S. softwood lumber import demand model as a case study to show that the effects of past trade policies are sensitive to the data sample used in empirical analyses.  We conclude that, to be consistent with the purpose of analysis of policy and to ensure all else being equal, policy impacts can only be judged by using data up to the time when...

  5. How do distinct firm characteristics affect behavioural additionalities of public R&D subsidies? Empirical evidence from a binary regression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Iris Wanzenböck; Thomas Scherngell; Fischer Manfred

    2011-01-01

    In the recent past, interest of Science, Technology, and Innovation (STI) policies to influence the innovation behaviour of firms has been increased considerably. This gives rise to the notion of behavioural additionality, broadening traditional evaluation concepts of input and output additionality. Though there is empirical work measuring behavioural additionalities, we know little about what role distinct firm characteristics play for their occurrence. The objective is to estimate how disti...

  6. Empire Redux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel

    from the legacies of empire. Taking decolonization as a starting point, this thesis demonstrates how the idea of a ‘British world’ gained a new lease of life vis-à-vis the Falklands, as the Islanders adopted the rhetorical mantle of ‘abandoned Britons’. Yet this new momentum was partial and fractured......The Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism and permeated with imperial rhetoric, imagery and memories, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship and belonging. The current dispute, moreover, is frequently framed in terms of national identity, and accusations of imperialism......, as evinced by the developments triggered by the Argentine invasion in 1982. Despite the apparent firmness of the British government’s commitment to the Islands, cracks and fissures over the meaning of Britishness were simultaneously magnified. The perceived temporal dislocation of defending loyal Britons...

  7. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj......Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...

  8. Empirical Support for Perceptual Conceptualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Alejandro Serrano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to show that perceptual conceptualism can be understood as an empirically meaningful position and, furthermore, that there is some degree of empirical support for its main theses. In order to do this, I will start by offering an empirical reading of the conceptualist position, and making three predictions from it. Then, I will consider recent experimental results from cognitive sciences that seem to point towards those predictions. I will conclude that, while the evidence offered by those experiments is far from decisive, it is enough not only to show that conceptualism is an empirically meaningful position but also that there is empirical support for it.

  9. Monadic abstract interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergey, Ilya; Devriese, Dominique; Might, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    -insensitive analysis. To achieve this unification, we develop a systematic method for transforming a concrete semantics into a monadically-parameterized abstract machine. Changing the monad changes the behavior of the machine. By changing the monad, we recover a spectrum of machines—from the original concrete...

  10. WWNPQFT-2013 - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cessac, B.; Bianchi, E.; Bellon, M.; Fried, H.; Krajewski, T.; Schubert, C.; Barre, J.; Hofmann, R.; Muller, B.; Raffaelli, B.

    2014-01-01

    The object of this Workshop is to consolidate and publicize new efforts in non perturbative-like Field Theories, relying in Functional Methods, Renormalization Group, and Dyson-Schwinger Equations. A presentation deals with effective vertices and photon-photon scattering in SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  11. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  12. The Abstraction Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortescue, Michael David

    The main thesis of this book is that abstraction, far from being confined to higher formsof cognition, language and logical reasoning, has actually been a major driving forcethroughout the evolution of creatures with brains. It is manifest in emotive as well as rationalthought. Wending its way th...

  13. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  14. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  15. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274])

  16. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  17. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj...

  18. Abstracts of submitted papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 152 abstracts of presented papers relating to various aspects of personnel dosimetry, the dosimetry of the working and living environment, various types of dosemeters and spectrometers, the use of radionuclides in various industrial fields, the migration of radionuclides on Czechoslovak territory after the Chernobyl accident, theoretical studies of some parameters of ionizing radiation detectors, and their calibration. (M.D.)

  19. Metaphors in Abstract Thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Boot (Inge)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the dissertation was to investigate the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT, Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 1999).The CMT proposes that abstract concepts are partly structured by concrete concepts through the mechanism of metaphorical mapping. In Chapter 2 we wanted to investigate the

  20. SPR 2015. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-01

    The volume contains the abstracts of the SPR (society for pediatric radiology) 2015 meeting covering the following issues: fetal imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, cardiac imaging, chest imaging, oncologic imaging, tools for process improvement, child abuse, contrast enhanced ultrasound, image gently - update of radiation dose recording/reporting/monitoring - meaningful or useless meaning?, pediatric thoracic imaging, ALARA.

  1. Reflective Abstraction and Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Philip

    Piaget's theory of reflective abstraction can supplement cognitive science models of representation by specifying both the act of construction and the component steps through which knowers pass as they acquire knowledge. But, while approaches suggested by cognitive science supplement Piaget by awakening researchers to the role of auxiliary factors…

  2. Building Safe Concurrency Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent object-oriented programming in Beta is based on semaphores and coroutines and the ability to define high-level concurrency abstractions like monitors, and rendezvous-based communication, and their associated schedulers. The coroutine mechanism of SIMULA has been generalized into the no...

  3. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  4. Abstract Introduction Materials & Methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plzfg

    Abstract. Oral administration to male rats of 200mg kg-1 body weight of an extract of Calendula officinalis flowers every day for 60 days did not cause loss of body weight, but decreased significantly the weight of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced ...

  5. Testing abstract behavioral specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.Y.H. Wong; R. Bubel (Richard); F.S. de Boer (Frank); C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); M. Gómez-Zamalloa; R Haehnle; K. Meinke; M.A. Sindhu

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present a range of testing techniques for the Abstract Behavioral Specification (ABS) language and apply them to an industrial case study. ABS is a formal modeling language for highly variable, concurrent, component-based systems. The nature of these systems makes them susceptible to

  6. Impredicative concurrent abstract predicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Kasper; Birkedal, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We present impredicative concurrent abstract predicates { iCAP { a program logic for modular reasoning about concurrent, higher- order, reentrant, imperative code. Building on earlier work, iCAP uses protocols to reason about shared mutable state. A key novel feature of iCAP is the ability to dene...

  7. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  8. Circularity and Lambda Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Thiemann, Peter; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    unknowns from what is done to them, which we lambda-abstract with functions. The circular unknowns then become dead variables, which we eliminate. The result is a strict circu- lar program a la Pettorossi. This transformation is reversible: given a strict circular program a la Pettorossi, we introduce...

  9. A narrative review of the empirical evidence on public attitudes on brain death and vital organ transplantation: the need for better data to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Seema K; Kasper, Kenneth; Miller, Franklin G

    2015-04-01

    Vital organ transplantation is premised on 'the dead donor rule': donors must be declared dead according to medical and legal criteria prior to donation. However, it is controversial whether individuals diagnosed as 'brain dead' are really dead in accordance with the established biological conception of death-the irreversible cessation of the functioning of the organism as a whole. A basic understanding of brain death is also relevant for giving valid, informed consent to serve as an organ donor. There is therefore a need for reliable empirical data on public understanding of brain death and vital organ transplantation. We conducted a review of the empirical literature that identified 43 articles with approximately 18,603 study participants. These data demonstrate that participants generally do not understand three key issues: (1) uncontested biological facts about brain death, (2) the legal status of brain death and (3) that organs are procured from brain dead patients while their hearts are still beating and before their removal from ventilators. These data suggest that, despite scholarly claims of widespread public support for organ donation from brain dead patients, the existing data on public attitudes regarding brain death and organ transplantation reflect substantial public confusion. Our review raises questions about the validity of consent for vital organ transplantation and suggests that existing data are of little assistance in developing policy proposals for organ transplantation from brain dead patients. New approaches to rigorous empirical research with educational components and evaluations of understanding are urgently needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  11. Students' Abstraction in Recognizing, Building with and Constructing a Quadrilateral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarto, Mega Teguh; Rahaju, Endah Budi; Hartono, Sugi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to implement empirically students' abstraction with socio-cultural background of Indonesia. Abstraction is an activity that involves a vertical reorganization of previously constructed mathematics into a new mathematical structure. The principal components of the model are three dynamic nested epistemic actions: recognizing,…

  12. DEGRO 2017. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-06-15

    The volume includes abstracts of the Annual DEGRO Meeting 2017 covering lectures and poster sessions with the following issues: lymphoma, biology, physics, radioimmunotherapy, sarcomas and rare tumors, prostate carcinoma, lung tumors, benign lesions and new media, mamma carcinoma, gastrointestinal tumors, quality of life, care science and quality assurance, high-technology methods and palliative situation, head-and-neck tumors, brain tumors, central nervous system metastases, guidelines, radiation sensitivity, radiotherapy, radioimmunotherapy.

  13. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    in emphasis from the three syntheses to mappings and rhizomatic diagrams that cut across semiotics or “blow apart regimes of signs”. The aim here is the absolute deterritorialization. Deleuze has shown how abstract machines operate in the philosophy of Foucault, the literature of Proust and Kafka......, and the painting of Bacon. We will finish our presentation by showing how these machines apply to architecture....

  14. SPR 2014. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-05-15

    The proceedings of the SPR 2014 meeting include abstracts on the following topics: Body imaging techniques: practical advice for clinic work; thoracic imaging: focus on the lungs; gastrointestinal imaging: focus on the pancreas and bowel; genitourinary imaging: focus on gonadal radiology; muscoskeletal imaging; focus on oncology; child abuse and nor child abuse: focus on radiography; impact of NMR and CT imaging on management of CHD; education and communication: art and practice in pediatric radiology.

  15. SPR 2014. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The proceedings of the SPR 2014 meeting include abstracts on the following topics: Body imaging techniques: practical advice for clinic work; thoracic imaging: focus on the lungs; gastrointestinal imaging: focus on the pancreas and bowel; genitourinary imaging: focus on gonadal radiology; muscoskeletal imaging; focus on oncology; child abuse and nor child abuse: focus on radiography; impact of NMR and CT imaging on management of CHD; education and communication: art and practice in pediatric radiology.

  16. WWNPQFT-2011 - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, E.; Bender, C.; Culetu, H.; Fried, H.; Grossmann, A.; Hofmann, R.; Le Bellac, M.; Martinetti, P.; Muller, B.; Patras, F.; Raffaeli, B.; Vitting Andersen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The object of this workshop is to consolidate and publicize new efforts in non-perturbative field theories. This year the presentations deal with quantum gravity, non-commutative geometry, fat-tailed wave-functions, strongly coupled field theories, space-times two time-like dimensions, and multiplicative renormalization. A presentation is dedicated to the construction of a nucleon-nucleon potential from an analytical, non-perturbative gauge invariant QCD. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  17. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  18. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  19. Empirical evidence in the analysis of the environmental and energy policies of a series of industrialised nations, during the period 1960-1997, using widely employed macroeconomic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focacci, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    This article underlines the main implications of the interrelations between the energy problem and that of environmental pollution, using the most widely used macroeconomic indicators in the field of policy analysis. In fact, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission intensity and energy intensity trends may be used to highlight the most important features of economic development over a given time scale in a variety of different countries. The empirical analysis proposed here--covering a time-span of some 40 years in a number of the most highly industrialised nations--seems to be useful if we are to understand the main similarities and differences in the interaction between the energy choices made by different countries and their respective environmental effects. Moreover, by using PPPs, it has been possible to propose a more detailed cross-country analysis for the different international situations

  20. Evidence-based care and the case for intuition and tacit knowledge in clinical assessment and decision making in mental health nursing practice: an empirical contribution to the debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, I; Lyons, C M

    2001-08-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence that challenges the view that methods of clinical assessment and decision making should not rely solely on logical positivist approaches. Whilst the National Health Service (NHS) Executive currently takes a hard positivist line on what constitutes evidence-based practice, data reveal that it is not always appropriate to disregard the tacit knowledge and intuition of experienced practitioners when making assessment decisions in mental health nursing practice. Data support the case for a holistic approach which may draw on intuition and tacit knowledge, as well as traditional approaches, to meet the requirements of clients with complex mental health problems. A model based on Schon's notion of reflection in and reflection on practice is proposed which demonstrates the value of intuition and tacit knowledge. This model allows the generation of insights which may ultimately be demonstrated to be acceptable and empirically testable. It is accepted that an element of risk taking is inevitable, but the inclusion of a formal analytical process into the model reduces the likelihood of inappropriate care interventions. The cognitive processes which experienced nurses use to make clinical decisions and their implications for practice will be explored.

  1. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains the program and abstracts of the conference. The following topics are included: metal vapor molecular lasers, magnetohydrodynamics, rare gas halide and nuclear pumped lasers, transfer mechanisms in arcs, kinetic processes in rare gas halide lasers, arcs and flows, XeF kinetics and lasers, fundamental processes in excimer lasers, electrode effects and vacuum arcs, electron and ion transport, ion interactions and mobilities, glow discharges, diagnostics and afterglows, dissociative recombination, electron ionization and excitation, rare gas excimers and group VI lasers, breakdown, novel laser pumping techniques, electrode-related discharge phenomena, photon interactions, attachment, plasma chemistry and infrared lasers, electron scattering, and reactions of excited species

  2. ESPR 2015. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The volume includes the abstracts of the ESPR 2015 covering the following topics: PCG (post graduate courses): Radiography; fluoroscopy and general issue; nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and hybrid imaging, pediatric CT, pediatric ultrasound; MRI in childhood. Scientific sessions and task force sessions: International aspects; neuroradiology, neonatal imaging, engineering techniques to simulate injury in child abuse, CT - dose and quality, challenges in the chest, cardiovascular and chest, muscoskeletal, oncology, pediatric uroradiology and abdominal imaging, fetal and postmortem imaging, education and global challenges, neuroradiology - head and neck, gastrointestinal and genitourinary.

  3. ESPR 2015. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-05-10

    The volume includes the abstracts of the ESPR 2015 covering the following topics: PCG (post graduate courses): Radiography; fluoroscopy and general issue; nuclear medicine, interventional radiology and hybrid imaging, pediatric CT, pediatric ultrasound; MRI in childhood. Scientific sessions and task force sessions: International aspects; neuroradiology, neonatal imaging, engineering techniques to simulate injury in child abuse, CT - dose and quality, challenges in the chest, cardiovascular and chest, muscoskeletal, oncology, pediatric uroradiology and abdominal imaging, fetal and postmortem imaging, education and global challenges, neuroradiology - head and neck, gastrointestinal and genitourinary.

  4. IPR 2016. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-05-15

    The volume on the meeting of pediatric radiology includes abstract on the following issues: chest, cardiovascular system, neuroradiology, CT radiation DRs (diagnostic reference levels) and dose reporting guidelines, genitourinary imaging, gastrointestinal radiology, oncology an nuclear medicine, whole body imaging, fetal/neonates imaging, child abuse, oncology and hybrid imaging, value added imaging, muscoskeletal imaging, dose and radiation safety, imaging children - immobilization and distraction techniques, information - education - QI and healthcare policy, ALARA, the knowledge skills and competences for a technologist/radiographer in pediatric radiology, full exploitation of new technological features in pediatric CT, image quality issues in pediatrics, abdominal imaging, interventional radiology, MR contrast agents, tumor - mass imaging, cardiothoracic imaging, ultrasonography.

  5. SPR 2017. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-05-15

    The conference proceedings SPR 2017 include abstracts on the following issues: gastrointestinal radiography - inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular CTA, general muscoskeletal radiology, muscoskeletal congenital development diseases, general pediatric radiology - chest, muscoskeletal imaging - marrow and infectious disorders, state-of-the-art body MR imaging, practical pediatric sonography, quality and professionalism, CT imaging in congenital heart diseases, radiographic courses, body MT techniques, contrast enhanced ultrasound, machine learning, forensic imaging, the radiation dos conundrum - reconciling imaging, imagining and managing, the practice of radiology, interventional radiology, neuroradiology, PET/MR.

  6. Parameterized Dataflow (Extended Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Duggan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dataflow networks have application in various forms of stream processing, for example for parallel processing of multimedia data. The description of dataflow graphs, including their firing behavior, is typically non-compositional and not amenable to separate compilation. This article considers a dataflow language with a type and effect system that captures the firing behavior of actors. This system allows definitions to abstract over actor firing rates, supporting the definition and safe composition of actor definitions where firing rates are not instantiated until a dataflow graph is launched.

  7. ABSTRACTION OF DRIFT SEEPAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS MandO 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS MandO 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology, determining uncertainties in seepage, and providing

  8. What is the empirical evidence that hospitals with higher-risk adjusted mortality rates provide poorer quality care? A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mohammed A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing interest and publication of risk-adjusted hospital mortality rates, the relationship with underlying quality of care remains unclear. We undertook a systematic review to ascertain the extent to which variations in risk-adjusted mortality rates were associated with differences in quality of care. Methods We identified studies in which risk-adjusted mortality and quality of care had been reported in more than one hospital. We adopted an iterative search strategy using three databases – Medline, HealthSTAR and CINAHL from 1966, 1975 and 1982 respectively. We identified potentially relevant studies on the basis of the title or abstract. We obtained these papers and included those which met our inclusion criteria. Results From an initial yield of 6,456 papers, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several of these studies considered more than one process-versus-risk-adjusted mortality relationship. In total we found 51 such relationships in a widen range of clinical conditions using a variety of methods. A positive correlation between better quality of care and risk-adjusted mortality was found in under half the relationships (26/51 51% but the remainder showed no correlation (16/51 31% or a paradoxical correlation (9/51 18%. Conclusion The general notion that hospitals with higher risk-adjusted mortality have poorer quality of care is neither consistent nor reliable.

  9. Reviewer agreement trends from four years of electronic submissions of conference abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blitz Sandra

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the inter-rater agreement between reviewers on the quality of abstract submissions to an annual national scientific meeting (Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians; CAEP to identify factors associated with low agreement. Methods All abstracts were submitted using an on-line system and assessed by three volunteer CAEP reviewers blinded to the abstracts' source. Reviewers used an on-line form specific for each type of study design to score abstracts based on nine criteria, each contributing from two to six points toward the total (maximum 24. The final score was determined to be the mean of the three reviewers' scores using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC. Results 495 Abstracts were received electronically during the four-year period, 2001 – 2004, increasing from 94 abstracts in 2001 to 165 in 2004. The mean score for submitted abstracts over the four years was 14.4 (95% CI: 14.1–14.6. While there was no significant difference between mean total scores over the four years (p = 0.23, the ICC increased from fair (0.36; 95% CI: 0.24–0.49 to moderate (0.59; 95% CI: 0.50–0.68. Reviewers agreed less on individual criteria than on the total score in general, and less on subjective than objective criteria. Conclusion The correlation between reviewers' total scores suggests general recognition of "high quality" and "low quality" abstracts. Criteria based on the presence/absence of objective methodological parameters (i.e., blinding in a controlled clinical trial resulted in higher inter-rater agreement than the more subjective and opinion-based criteria. In future abstract competitions, defining criteria more objectively so that reviewers can base their responses on empirical evidence may lead to increased consistency of scoring and, presumably, increased fairness to submitters.

  10. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  11. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  12. An Analysis of Business Professors' and Their Students' Perceptions of Excellence in Teaching at a Business School-Empirical Evidence from New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anim, Stephen Kwasi

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study used evidence gleaned from business professors and their students and compared it with the Measure of Effective Teaching model (MET, 2013). The research is based on a qualitative research design with the aim of collecting data from multiple sources such as interviews, focus group, document analysis and observation to develop…

  13. A Comparison of Evidence-Based Estimates and Empirical Benchmarks of the Appropriate Rate of Use of Radiation Therapy in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackillop, William J.; Kong, Weidong; Brundage, Michael; Hanna, Timothy P.; Zhang-Salomons, Jina; McLaughlin, Pierre-Yves; Tyldesley, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Estimates of the appropriate rate of use of radiation therapy (RT) are required for planning and monitoring access to RT. Our objective was to compare estimates of the appropriate rate of use of RT derived from mathematical models, with the rate observed in a population of patients with optimal access to RT. Methods and Materials: The rate of use of RT within 1 year of diagnosis (RT 1Y ) was measured in the 134,541 cases diagnosed in Ontario between November 2009 and October 2011. The lifetime rate of use of RT (RT LIFETIME ) was estimated by the multicohort utilization table method. Poisson regression was used to evaluate potential barriers to access to RT and to identify a benchmark subpopulation with unimpeded access to RT. Rates of use of RT were measured in the benchmark subpopulation and compared with published evidence-based estimates of the appropriate rates. Results: The benchmark rate for RT 1Y , observed under conditions of optimal access, was 33.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33.0%-34.1%), and the benchmark for RT LIFETIME was 41.5% (95% CI, 41.2%-42.0%). Benchmarks for RT LIFETIME for 4 of 5 selected sites and for all cancers combined were significantly lower than the corresponding evidence-based estimates. Australian and Canadian evidence-based estimates of RT LIFETIME for 5 selected sites differed widely. RT LIFETIME in the overall population of Ontario was just 7.9% short of the benchmark but 20.9% short of the Australian evidence-based estimate of the appropriate rate. Conclusions: Evidence-based estimates of the appropriate lifetime rate of use of RT may overestimate the need for RT in Ontario

  14. The role of financial and non-financial evaluation measures in the process of management control over foreign subsidiaries – Empirical evidence in Slovene multinational companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zaman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the last 10 years, the number of foreign subsidiaries, established by Slovene multinational companies during the internationalization process, has increased substantially. At the same time, active involvement of Slovene companies into the internationalization process has caused an increased interest in the field of co-ordination of domestic and international activities, as well as control over foreign subsidiaries. In the process of evaluation of their performance, financial as well as non-financial evaluation measures should be taken into consideration to prevent the short-term financial results being earned at the cost of long-term success of the subsidiary. Although numerous empirical studies related to management control over foreign subsidiaries have been carried out in the USA, as well as many European countries and elsewhere, extensive research in this field has not yet been carried out among Slovene multinational companies. The purpose of our research, carried out in 2003 among medium-sized and large Slovene multinational companies, was to find out to what extent the field of management control over foreign subsidiaries, with an emphasis on the role of financial and non-financial evaluation measures, has already evolved in these companies and to what extent they follow theoretical recommendations in the field of research.

  15. Perceptions and attitudes with regard to public international law: empirical evidence from law students in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Kamiyama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article empirically examines, by means of a survey conducted at four universities in São Paulo, two issues related to the teaching of international law in Brazil: (1 what law students think of the discipline as a material branch of the law (its effectiveness, legitimacy etc. and (2 what they think of the discipline as a component of the law school curriculum. The first part draws upon the semiological concept of “myth” in order to paint a picture of students’ views about the place of international law in the world, as well as upon quantitative data to assess their understandings about compliance with international norms. The second part, which also relies on quantitative and qualitative data, describes students’ ideas about how international law should be taught (if at all. The responses paint a picture of mild student scepticism and dissatisfaction with teaching methods that invite a number of questions for reflection, which are raised in the final part. 

  16. Product Attributes and Purchasing Behaviour: How Parents' Food Choices Can Act on Their Children's BMI? Empirical Evidence from a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telese, Antonietta; Scarpato, Debora; Rotondo, Giacomo; Simeone, Mariarosaria

    2016-01-01

    Given the epidemic proportions and economic costs associated with nutrition related diseases in Western countries, an empirical study was carried-out between September and December 2014 in Campania, the Italian region with the highest prevalence of obese children. The survey was conducted in a secondary school and involved 145 children, aged 11 to 14, and their parents, with the ultimate aim of studying the relationship between the behaviour of parents regarding the use of nutrition labels, the attention to product quality and the body weight of their children. The results from our study showed that unhealthy diet concerned stems from the misguided food choices of their parents, who are responsible for their children's dietary habits, lifestyle and body weight. In order to incentivise adults and young people to change their food choices and eating behaviour in favour of healthy and sustainable lifestyles, some useful measures could involve the improvement of political marketing and advertising, labelling clarity and better information and awareness campaigns to do sport and eat healthily. Finally some recent patents related to healthy reformulated food products and communication strategies, with specific regard to healthy eating, have been reviewed.

  17. Abstract and concrete sentences, embodiment and languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eScorolli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges of embodied theories is accounting for meanings of abstract words. The most common explanation is that abstract words, like concrete ones, are grounded in perception and action systems. According to other explanations, abstract words, differently from concrete ones, would activate situations and introspection; alternatively, they would be represented through metaphoric mapping. However, evidence provided so far pertains to specific domains. To be able to account for abstract words in their variety we argue it is necessary to take into account not only the fact that language is grounded in the sensorimotor system, but also that language represents a linguistic-social experience. To study abstractness as a continuum we combined a concrete (C verb with both a concrete and an abstract (A noun; and an abstract verb with the same nouns previously used (grasp vs. describe a flower vs. a concept. To disambiguate between the semantic meaning and the grammatical class of the words, we focused on two syntactically different languages: German and Italian. Compatible combinations (CC, AA were processed faster than mixed ones (CA, AC. This is in line with the idea that abstract and concrete words are processed preferentially in parallel systems - abstract in the language system and concrete more in the motor system, thus costs of processing within one system are the lowest. This parallel processing takes place most probably within different anatomically predefined routes. With mixed combinations, when the concrete word preceded the abstract one (CA, participants were faster, regardless of the grammatical class and the spoken language. This is probably due to the peculiar mode of acquisition of abstract words, as they are acquired more linguistically than perceptually. Results confirm embodied theories which assign a crucial role to both perception-action and linguistic experience for abstract words.

  18. Abstract and concrete sentences, embodiment, and languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorolli, Claudia; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Roberto; Riggio, Lucia; Borghi, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges of embodied theories is accounting for meanings of abstract words. The most common explanation is that abstract words, like concrete ones, are grounded in perception and action systems. According to other explanations, abstract words, differently from concrete ones, would activate situations and introspection; alternatively, they would be represented through metaphoric mapping. However, evidence provided so far pertains to specific domains. To be able to account for abstract words in their variety we argue it is necessary to take into account not only the fact that language is grounded in the sensorimotor system, but also that language represents a linguistic-social experience. To study abstractness as a continuum we combined a concrete (C) verb with both a concrete and an abstract (A) noun; and an abstract verb with the same nouns previously used (grasp vs. describe a flower vs. a concept). To disambiguate between the semantic meaning and the grammatical class of the words, we focused on two syntactically different languages: German and Italian. Compatible combinations (CC, AA) were processed faster than mixed ones (CA, AC). This is in line with the idea that abstract and concrete words are processed preferentially in parallel systems - abstract in the language system and concrete more in the motor system, thus costs of processing within one system are the lowest. This parallel processing takes place most probably within different anatomically predefined routes. With mixed combinations, when the concrete word preceded the abstract one (CA), participants were faster, regardless of the grammatical class and the spoken language. This is probably due to the peculiar mode of acquisition of abstract words, as they are acquired more linguistically than perceptually. Results confirm embodied theories which assign a crucial role to both perception-action and linguistic experience for abstract words.

  19. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  20. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference

  1. Problems in abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Wadsworth, A R

    2017-01-01

    This is a book of problems in abstract algebra for strong undergraduates or beginning graduate students. It can be used as a supplement to a course or for self-study. The book provides more variety and more challenging problems than are found in most algebra textbooks. It is intended for students wanting to enrich their learning of mathematics by tackling problems that take some thought and effort to solve. The book contains problems on groups (including the Sylow Theorems, solvable groups, presentation of groups by generators and relations, and structure and duality for finite abelian groups); rings (including basic ideal theory and factorization in integral domains and Gauss's Theorem); linear algebra (emphasizing linear transformations, including canonical forms); and fields (including Galois theory). Hints to many problems are also included.

  2. ICENES 2007 Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this book Conference Program and Abstracts were included 13th International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems which held between 03-08 June 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The main objective of International Conference series on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems (ICENES) is to provide an international scientific and technical forum for scientists, engineers, industry leaders, policy makers, decision makers and young professionals who will shape future energy supply and technology , for a broad review and discussion of various advanced, innovative and non-conventional nuclear energy production systems. The main topics of 159 accepted papers from 35 countries are fusion science and technology, fission reactors, accelerator driven systems, transmutation, laser in nuclear technology, radiation shielding, nuclear reactions, hydrogen energy, solar energy, low energy physics and societal issues

  3. The didactic letters prefacing Marcellus' on drugs as evidence for the expertise and reputation of doctors in the late Roman empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilliers, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The didactic letters prefacing Marcellus's On Drugs are examined. It appears that one reason for writing such didactic letters was to equip the addressee with sufficient knowledge to enable him to avoid consulting a doctor, since there was great dissatisfaction with the quality of service rendered and the fees charged by doctors. The letters in the collection will be shown to represent various levels of healers, from the professional city doctor, to the army doctor, to the educated layman. They will also be scrutinized for evidence of the level of expertise of doctors in the late fourth and fifth centuries. Finally, the evidence will be compared with the criteria set some two centuries earlier by Galen in his blueprint for the examination of physicians.

  4. The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction And Life Satisfaction: Empirical Evidence From Logistics Practitioners In A South African Steel-Making Company

    OpenAIRE

    Chengedzai Mafini

    2014-01-01

    There has been an explosion of research interests centered upon the job satisfaction-life satisfaction nexus within organizations. Be that as it may, there is a relative paucity of research on the job satisfaction of logistics practitioners in general and limited evidence of studies that specifically address the issue of job satisfaction in the steel-making industry in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the structural relationships between job satisfaction and life...

  5. Strengthening advocacy efforts with empirical evidence: A case example of the conduct, uptake and utilisation of research in drug policy decision-making in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Thu; Ritter, Alison; Nguyen, Nhu; Ali, Robert

    2017-11-01

    During the last decade, international aid agencies and advocates have been working with Southeast Asian governments to move away from punitive responses towards people who use drugs to more public health, humane approaches. The lack of local scientific evidence about the effectiveness of different treatment approaches has made this advocacy work more challenging. This paper reflects on a generation of treatment research evidence and how it can assist advocacy efforts. The case example is the cost-effectiveness research, comparing centre-based compulsory treatment with community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment in Vietnam (2012-2015). Using our long-term and on-going connections with key Vietnamese decision-makers and government agencies, our collective experiences in drug policy advocacy and our unique insight into the working of government in Vietnam, we have used strategies to maximise opportunities for research to inform policy discussions. We have made an assessment here about the extent to which study findings have contributed to policy change in Vietnam and the challenges that impede progressive policy implementation. In doing this, we hope to make a contribution to the research evidence use literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporal stability in the genetic structure of Sarcoptes scabiei under the host-taxon law: empirical evidences from wildlife-derived Sarcoptes mite in Asturias, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Luca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implicitly, parasite molecular studies assume temporal genetic stability. In this study we tested, for the first time to our knowledge, the extent of changes in genetic diversity and structure of Sarcoptes mite populations from Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica in Asturias (Spain, using one multiplex of 9 microsatellite markers and Sarcoptes samples from sympatric Pyrenean chamois, red deer (Cervus elaphus, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Results The analysis of an 11-years interval period found little change in the genetic diversity (allelic diversity, and observed and expected heterozygosity. The temporal stability in the genetic diversity was confirmed by population structure analysis, which was not significantly variable over time. Population structure analysis revealed temporal stability in the genetic diversity of Sarcoptes mite under the host-taxon law (herbivore derived- and carnivore derived-Sarcoptes mite among the sympatric wild animals from Asturias. Conclusions The confirmation of parasite temporal genetic stability is of vital interest to allow generalizations to be made, which have further implications regarding the genetic structure, epidemiology and monitoring protocols of the ubiquitous Sarcoptes mite. This could eventually be applied to other parasite species.

  7. Oil prices and speculative bubbles: empirical evidence from WTI markets; Precos do petroleo e bolhas especulativas: algumas evidencias para o mercado de WTI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Mileno [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Economia; PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to gather some evidence about the relationship between crude prices and speculation in oil futures and options markets focusing on WTI markets. In order to shed some light on this link, a brief characterization of what a speculative bubble is and how it works is given. It is also shown that the major reason behind the great inflow of capital into oil derivatives markets is that they became much more attractive to investors than other financial markets (i.e. stocks and bonds) between 2000 and 2007. The reasoning behind the speculative bubble argument is stated and a brief discussion about the strategies commercials and non-commercials adopted in WTI futures and options markets during 1995-2007 period is made. We confront this reasoning with the evidence from the non-commercial net positions and WTI prices from 2003 to 2007 and make some econometric tests for the hypotheses that changes in these positions affect prices and for the presence of a speculative bubble in WTI markets. Our analysis shows no clear linkage between oil prices and non-commercials net positions in the way the 'bubble theory' argues and points to a possible problem of asymmetric information in the oil markets. (author)

  8. Household air pollution from solid fuel use and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the empirical evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeladza K Amegah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: About 41% of households globally, mainly in developing countries rely on solid fuels for cooking with consequences for fetal growth and development. Previous reviews were limited in scope, assessing only two outcomes (birth weight, stillbirth. With important evidence accumulating, there is a need to improve the previous estimates and assess additional outcomes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the quality and strength of available evidence on household air pollution (HAP and the whole range of adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: PubMed, Ovid Medline, Scopus and CINAHL were searched from their inception to the end of April 2013. All epidemiological study designs were eligible for inclusion in the review. The random-effects model was applied in computing the summary-effect estimates (EE and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI. RESULTS: Of 1505 studies screened, 19 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Household combustion of solid fuels resulted in an 86.43 g (95% CI: 55.49, 117.37 reduction in birth weight, and a 35% (EE = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.48 and 29% (EE = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.41 increased risk of LBW and stillbirth respectively. CONCLUSION: Combustion of solid fuels at home increases the risk of a wide range of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Access to clean household energy solutions is the surest way to combat HAP and mitigate their adverse effects.

  9. Household air pollution from solid fuel use and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegah, Adeladza K; Quansah, Reginald; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2014-01-01

    About 41% of households globally, mainly in developing countries rely on solid fuels for cooking with consequences for fetal growth and development. Previous reviews were limited in scope, assessing only two outcomes (birth weight, stillbirth). With important evidence accumulating, there is a need to improve the previous estimates and assess additional outcomes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the quality and strength of available evidence on household air pollution (HAP) and the whole range of adverse pregnancy outcomes. PubMed, Ovid Medline, Scopus and CINAHL were searched from their inception to the end of April 2013. All epidemiological study designs were eligible for inclusion in the review. The random-effects model was applied in computing the summary-effect estimates (EE) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Of 1505 studies screened, 19 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Household combustion of solid fuels resulted in an 86.43 g (95% CI: 55.49, 117.37) reduction in birth weight, and a 35% (EE = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.48) and 29% (EE = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.41) increased risk of LBW and stillbirth respectively. Combustion of solid fuels at home increases the risk of a wide range of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Access to clean household energy solutions is the surest way to combat HAP and mitigate their adverse effects.

  10. Causality between Stock Prices and Exchange Rates in Turkey: Empirical Evidence from the ARDL Bounds Test and a Combined Cointegration Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Türsoy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interaction between stock prices and real exchange rates by applying monthly data from Turkey for the period between January 2001 and September 2016. This study uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model and the Error Correction Model (ECM in order to investigate the existence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between the variables. The evidence reveals that there is a strong long-run cointegration. The robustness of the ARDL bounds test cointegration was confirmed using the newly-developed combined cointegration, which also provided the same evidence for a strong long-run relationship. The Granger causality test results indicate a long-run bidirectional causality between stock prices and real exchange rates, and also a unidirectional causality from the real exchange rates to the stock prices in the short-run. In order to analyze the validity and reliability of the test results, diagnostic tests were applied in both the short-run and long-run models.

  11. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  12. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    ANIMMA 2013 is the third of a series of conferences devoted to endorsing and promoting scientific and technical activities based on nuclear instrumentation and measurements. The main objective of ANIMMA conference is to unite the various scientific communities not only involved in nuclear instrumentation and measurements, but also in nuclear medicine and radiation. The conference is all about getting scientists, engineers and the industry to meet, exchange cultures and identify new scientific and technical prospects to help overcome both current and future unresolved issues. The conference provides scientists and engineers with a veritable opportunity to compare their latest research and development in different areas: physics, nuclear energy, nuclear fuel cycle, safety, security, future energies (GEN III+, GENIV, ITER, ...). The conference topics include instrumentation and measurement methods for: Fundamental physics; Fusion diagnostics and technology; Nuclear power reactors; Research reactors; Nuclear fuel cycle; Decommissioning, dismantling and remote handling; Safeguards, homeland security; Severe accident monitoring; Environmental and medical sciences; Education, training and outreach. This document brings together the abstracts of the presentations. Each presentation (full paper) is analysed separately and entered in INIS

  13. SENSE 2010, Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumsden, M.D.; Argyriou, D.N.; Inosov, D.

    2012-01-01

    The microscopic origin of unconventional superconductivity continues to attract the attention of the condensed matter community. Whereas rare-earth / actinide-based intermetallic and copper oxide-based high temperature superconductors are studied for more than twenty years, the iron-based superconductors have been in the focus of interest since their recent discovery. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments have been of particular importance for the understanding of the magnetic and superconducting properties of these compounds. With its 29 talks and 14 posters the workshop provided a forum for the 71 registered participants to review and discuss experimental achievements, recognize the observed synergy and differences as well as discuss theoretical efforts to identify the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter in addition to the coupling mechanisms of the Cooper pairs. The workshop covered different topics relevant for the study of unconventional superconductivity. Magnetization and lattice dynamics such as spin resonances, phonons, magnetic and other excitations as studied by spectroscopic methods were presented. Investigations of (doping, pressure and magnetic field dependent) phase diagrams, electronic states as well as vortex physics by the various diffraction techniques were also addressed. This document gathers only the abstracts of the papers. (authors)

  14. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  15. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  16. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package

  17. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The document contains abstracts of 24 review papers, 24 invited papers, 24 oral contributions and 120 posters. 10 review papers summarize the status of laser fusion research and progress in high-power laser facilities in major world laboratories. Four papers review research programs (laser-matter interaction studies and X-ray source development) based on KrF laser systems. Other review papers discuss the problems of laser energy conversion into X-rays in laser-heated cavities, X-ray lasing at shorter wavelengths, optimization of targets for inertial fusion. Two review papers are devoted to light ion fusion. The subjects of most invited papers are special problems of current laser plasma research, such as hot electron generation, nonlinear resonance absorption, energy accumulation limits, pellet ignition, conversion of laser light into X-rays, high-pressure plasma generation. Three invited papers review laser plasma research in Czechoslovakia, Poland and Spain. One paper suggests a new method of producing muonic superdense matter. The remaining inivited papers deal with the progress in XUV lasers and with laser plasma applications for further laser development. Of the papers accepted for oral presentation 12 papers discuss various problems of laser-plasma interaction; 4 papers deal with laser targets, 4 papers with laser-initiated X-ray sources, 3 papers with the diagnostics of laser-produced plasma. The last oral contribution presents the main principles of the excimer laser theory. The largest group of posters is related to laser-plasma interaction and energy absorption problems, to laser-target interaction and various methods of laser plasma diagnostics. The other posters deal with plasma applications in laser development, plasma mirrors, Brillouin and Raman scattering, X-ray emission, harmonic generation, electron acceleration, production of high-Z plasmas and other related problems. (J.U.)

  18. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-01-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport

  19. An Abstract Model of Historical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Poulshock

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model is presented which provides a way to simulate, at a very abstract level, power struggles in the social world. In the model, agents can benefit or harm each other, to varying degrees and with differing levels of influence. The agents interact over time, using the power they have to try to get more of it, while being constrained in their strategic choices by social inertia. The outcomes of the model are probabilistic. More research is needed to determine whether the model has any empirical validity.

  20. Linear and non-linear impact of Internet usage and financial deepening on electricity consumption for Turkey: empirical evidence from asymmetric causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Faisal; Tursoy, Turgut; Berk, Niyazi

    2018-02-09

    This study investigates the relationship between Internet usage, financial development, economic growth, capital and electricity consumption using quarterly data from 1993Q1 to 2014Q4. The integration order of the series is analysed using the structural break unit root test. The ARDL bounds test for cointegration in addition to the Bayer-Hanck (2013) combined cointegration test is applied to analyse the existence of cointegration among the variables. The study found strong evidence of a long-run relationship between the variables. The long-run results under the ARDL framework confirm the existence of an inverted U-shaped relationship between financial development and electricity consumption, not only in the long-run, but also in the short-run. The study also confirms the existence of a U-shaped relationship between Internet usage and electricity consumption; however, the effect is insignificant. Additionally, the influence of trade, capital and economic growth is examined in both the long run and short run (ARDL-ECM). Finally, the results of asymmetric causality suggest a positive shock in electricity consumption that has a positive causal impact on Internet usage. The authors recommend that the Turkish Government should direct financial institutions to moderate the investment in the ICT sector by advancing credits at lower cost for purchasing energy-efficient technologies. In doing so, the Turkish Government can increase productivity in order to achieve sustainable growth, while simultaneously reducing emissions to improve environmental quality.

  1. Selection in reported epidemiological risks: an empirical assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini K Kavvoura

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies may be subject to selective reporting, but empirical evidence thereof is limited. We empirically evaluated the extent of selection of significant results and large effect sizes in a large sample of recent articles.We evaluated 389 articles of epidemiological studies that reported, in their respective abstracts, at least one relative risk for a continuous risk factor in contrasts based on median, tertile, quartile, or quintile categorizations. We examined the proportion and correlates of reporting statistically significant and nonsignificant results in the abstract and whether the magnitude of the relative risks presented (coined to be consistently > or =1.00 differs depending on the type of contrast used for the risk factor. In 342 articles (87.9%, > or =1 statistically significant relative risk was reported in the abstract, while only 169 articles (43.4% reported > or =1 statistically nonsignificant relative risk in the abstract. Reporting of statistically significant results was more common with structured abstracts, and was less common in US-based studies and in cancer outcomes. Among 50 randomly selected articles in which the full text was examined, a median of nine (interquartile range 5-16 statistically significant and six (interquartile range 3-16 statistically nonsignificant relative risks were presented (p = 0.25. Paradoxically, the smallest presented relative risks were based on the contrasts of extreme quintiles; on average, the relative risk magnitude was 1.41-, 1.42-, and 1.36-fold larger in contrasts of extreme quartiles, extreme tertiles, and above-versus-below median values, respectively (p < 0.001.Published epidemiological investigations almost universally highlight significant associations between risk factors and outcomes. For continuous risk factors, investigators selectively present contrasts between more extreme groups, when relative risks are inherently lower.

  2. Traits across the personality hierarchy differentially relate to positive and negative affect: Evidence for the predictive validity of empirically derived meta-traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; Graf, Markus; Schreiber, Marc

    2017-05-01

    There is increasing interest in the construct validity of higher-order domains of the Big Five personality traits. A total of 831 persons from the Swiss population completed the International Personality Item Pool and an adaptation of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales. Using Goldberg's bass-ackwards method, we found evidence for the general factor of personality (GFP) and the two meta-traits of positive emotionality (blend of low neuroticism and high extraversion) and constraint (blend of high agreeableness and conscientiousness). In association with positive affect, the explanatory power of the GFP (r = 0.43) and positive emotionality (r = 0.37) was largely superior to extraversion (r = 0.24), conscientiousness (r = 0.18), agreeableness (r = 0.09) and openness (r = 0.04), although not neuroticism (r = -0.34). In association with negative affect, neuroticism (r = 0.41), the GFP (r = -0.36) and positive emotionality (r = -0.35) were the most powerful single predictors. We conclude that the higher-order structure of personality is best explained by the meta-traits of positive emotionality and constraint, which correspond closely to the well-established superfactors of internalizing and externalizing. We further demonstrate that these have substantial criterion validity when broad positive and negative affect is the outcome of interest. These findings help to relate Big Five meta-traits to pathological personality. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Healthy Life-Years Lost and Excess Bed-Days Due to 6 Patient Safety Incidents: Empirical Evidence From English Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Katharina D; Wang, Shaolin; Vincent, Charles; Smith, Peter C

    2017-02-01

    There is little satisfactory evidence on the harm of safety incidents to patients, in terms of lost potential health and life-years. To estimate the healthy life-years (HLYs) lost due to 6 incidents in English hospitals between the years 2005/2006 and 2009/2010, to compare burden across incidents, and estimate excess bed-days. The study used cross-sectional analysis of the medical records of all inpatients treated in 273 English hospitals. Patients with 6 types of preventable incidents were identified. Total attributable loss of HLYs was estimated through propensity score matching by considering the hypothetical remaining length and quality of life had the incident not occurred. The 6 incidents resulted in an annual loss of 68 HLYs and 934 excess bed-days per 100,000 population. Preventable pressure ulcers caused the loss of 26 HLYs and 555 excess bed-days annually. Deaths in low-mortality procedures resulted in 25 lost life-years and 42 bed-days. Deep-vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolisms cost 12 HLYs, and 240 bed-days. Postoperative sepsis, hip fractures, and central-line infections cost incidents is roughly comparable with the UK burden of Multiple Sclerosis (80 DALYs per 100,000), HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis (63 DALYs), and Cervical Cancer (58 DALYs). There were marked differences in the harm caused by the incidents, despite the public attention all of them receive. Decision makers can use the results to prioritize resources into further research and effective interventions.

  4. Teleconnection mechanisms of northeast Brazil droughts: modeling and empirical evidence Mecanismos de teleconexões do nordeste do Brasil: modelagem numérica e evidência epirica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Kucharski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Targeted numerical modelling experimaents are conducted to complement the previous empirical diagnostics of circulation mechanisms leading from sea surface temperature (SST departures in the equatorial Pacific in January to anomalies in the March-April rainy season of Brazil's Nordeste. A weak interhemispheric northward directed SST gradient in the Atlantic favors a more southerly position of the hydrostatically controlled low pressure trough, embedded in which is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, which is the main rainbearing system for the Nordeste. In addition, anomalously warm waters in the equatorial Pacific in January tend to be followed by Nordeste drought. The underlying chain of causalities has been explored by empirical diagnostics and numerical modelling. During El Nino years, an upper-tropospheric wave train extends from the equatorial eastern Pacific to the tropical North Atlantic, affecting the patterns of upper-tropospheric topography and divergence, and hence of vertical motion over the Atlantic. This leads to a weaker meridional pressure gradient on the equatorward flank of the North Atlantic subtropical high, weaker North Atlantic tradewinds, an anomalously far northerly ITCZ position and thus Nordeste drought. The previous empirical diagnostics are overall supported by the modelling experiments.Experimentos específicos de modelagem numérica foram conduzidos para complementar diagnósticos empíricos realizados anteriormente dos mecanismos da circulação que relacionam anomalias na temperatura das águas superficiais do Pacífico equatorial em janeiro com as chuvas subsequentes em março-abril no Nordeste. Um gradiente térmico fraco (no sentido norte no Atlântico favorece a uma posição mais meridional do cavado de baixa pressão, controlado hidrostaticamente, dentro do qual se encontra a Zona de Convergência Inter-Tropical (ITCZ, que é a principal fonte de chuvas para o norte do Nordeste. Além disso,

  5. Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth: Some Empirical Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe importance of entrepreneurship for achieving economic growth in contemporary economies is widely recognized, both by policy makers and economists. However, empirical evidence linking entrepreneurship to economic growth is scarce. This book investigates the relation between

  6. Grounding abstractness: Abstract concepts and the activation of the mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Borghi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth. While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  7. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna M; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  8. Poor Slaughterhouse Waste Management: Empirical Evidences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The compounding contribution of slaughterhouse wastes to waste management problems in developing countries is likely to continue into the future considering the growing quest for animal protein. Adequate knowledge and practice of waste management among slaughterhouse workers can help limit the associated effects ...

  9. Some empirical evidence for ecological dissonance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D I; Verhoek-Miller, N; Giesen, J M; Wells-Parker, E

    2000-04-01

    Using Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory as a model, the extension to Barker's ecological theory, referred to as ecological dissonance theory, was developed. Designed to examine the motivational dynamics involved when environmental systems are in conflict with each other or with cognitive systems, ecological dissonance theory yielded five propositions which were tested in 10 studies. This summary of the studies suggests operationally defined measures of ecological dissonance may correlate with workers' satisfaction with their jobs, involvement with their jobs, alienation from their work, and to a lesser extent, workers' conflict resolution behavior and communication style.

  10. Empirical evidence for inertial mass anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Siemieniec, G.

    1985-01-01

    A several attempts at measuring the possible deviations from inertial mass isotropy caused by a non-uniform distribution of matter are reviewed. A simple model of the inertial mass anisotropy and the results of the currently performed measurements concerning this effect are presented. 34 refs. (author)

  11. Supporting graduation programs through empirical evidence and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chiffrer le travail des femmes - économie sexiste sur le marché et au foyer. Les femmes ont accompli de grands progrès dans les sphères de l'économie et de la politique, mais elles n'ont pas encore rejoint les hommes. Voir davantageChiffrer le travail des femmes - économie sexiste sur le marché et au foyer ...

  12. Clan-based polarized voting: Empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gërxhani, K.; Schram, A.

    2008-01-01

    One must take country-specific institutional features into account when analyzing former communist countries’ transformation process to new political institutions. We do so for post-communist Albania, where the political influence of clans that has existed for centuries continues to be prominent,

  13. Empirical Evidence from Kaduna State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Madukwe

    DFID-FAO, 2002). In a study conducted by Ovie, Ladu, Sule, Olokor and. Bankole .... fisheries, women are mainly involved in processing and marketing (Uchola 2000 and Alamu 1999). Most (65.0%) of the respondents were married. Twenty three ...

  14. Competition versus regulation: some empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, J; McLaughlin, C

    1986-01-01

    In response to dramatic rises in health care costs, policymakers have been debating the relative merits of regulatory and competitive strategies as a means of containing costs. One major activity espoused by proponents of competition is the growth of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) which, in their opinion, will result in the market better determining efficient levels of utilization and costs. Extending this argument, the larger the percent of the population in a market area who enroll in HMOs, the greater the market-forcing effect of HMOs in reducing overall hospital expenditures; that is, if HMOs are providing lower-cost care, then the fee-for-service system will be forced to reduce costs in order to be competitive. The authors studied the 25 largest SMSAs from 1971-1981, and controlling for environmental conditions in each market, they examined the impact of both HMO growth and regulatory activity on costs and utilization. They conclude that neither competition nor regulation had a significant impact in reducing overall hospital costs. While there may have been some impact in specific communities, no generalizable effect could be observed. However, the authors did find that increases in costs and utilization were essentially driven by supply factors such as the number of hospital beds or medical specialists in a given community.

  15. Clientalism and polarized voting: empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gërxhani, K.; Schram, A.

    2009-01-01

    One must take country-specific institutional features into account when analyzing former communist countries’ transformation process to new political institutions. We do so for post-communist Albania, where the regional and cultural polarization that has existed for centuries has evolved to

  16. ENTREPRENEURS' MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloboda Prokić

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs are playing a major role in the economy of each country on the planet. Theycontribute to national economies by starting up and running small and medium sized enterprises(SMEs, which make more than 95% of the total number of enterprises and which are providing jobsto more than 60% of all employees within each country. The significance of entrepreneurship foreconomic development oblige goverments and all other relevant institutions within each country tocontinue to facilitate its growth by all means necessary. In order to do this, these institutions need tobe familiar with motives of entrepreneurs to start their own business. In this paper, results ofempirical research concerning motivational factors of entrepreneurs in Serbia are presented. Thisresearch presents a continuation of serie of research on this topic which were conducted in severalcountries, by using the same methodological approach.

  17. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts

  18. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denney, R.M. (ed.)

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  19. Logical Full Abstraction and PCF

    OpenAIRE

    Longley, John R; Plotkin, Gordon

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the concept of logical full abstraction, generalising the usual equational notion. We consider the language PCF and two extensions with “parallel” operations. The main result is that, for standard interpretations, logical full abstraction is equivalent to equational full abstraction together with universality; the proof involves constructing enumeration operators. We also consider restrictions on logical complexity and on the level of types.

  20. Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    direction, which is believed to lead to improved social life and welfare. This means that Ethiopian trade and economic ... holding better market share and customer satisfaction in their products and services. In addition, in both ...... 1995. Dominant Values and Parenting. Styles: Major Limiting Factors on the Development of.