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Sample records for abstinence rates compared

  1. Improvement of Smoking Abstinence Rates With Increased Varenicline Dosage: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

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    Karam-Hage, Maher; Kypriotakis, George; Robinson, Jason D; Green, Charles E; Mann, Gurtej; Rabius, Vance; Wippold, Rosario; Blalock, Janice A; Mouhayar, Elie; Tayar, Jean; Chaftari, Patrick; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2018-02-01

    It is unclear whether increasing the dose of varenicline beyond the standard dose of 2 mg/d would improve smoking abstinence. We examined the effect of 3 mg/d of varenicline on smoking abstinence among smokers who had reduced their smoking by 50% or more in response to 2 mg/d for at least 6 weeks but had not quit smoking. Of 2833 patients treated with varenicline, dosage of a subset of 73 smokers was increased to 3 mg/d after 6 weeks. We used a propensity score analysis involving multiple baseline covariates to create a comparative sample of 356 smokers who remained on 2 mg/d. All smokers received concurrent and similar smoking-cessation counseling. At 3 months, we found higher 7-day point prevalence smoking-abstinence rate in the 3-mg group (26%) than in the 2-mg group (11.5%, χ = 10.60, P < 0.001; risk ratio [RR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.6). The difference in abstinence rates remained significant at the 6-month (P < 0.001; RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.6-3.9) and 9-month follow-up (P < 0.001; RR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.3). A relatively small increase in the daily dose of varenicline seems to offer a benefit for those who are not able to achieve total abstinence after approximately 6 weeks of 2 mg/d.

  2. [Effect of sexual abstinence on pregnancy rates after an intrauterine insemination].

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    Kably-Ambe, Alberto; Carballo-Mondragón, Esperanza; Durán-Monterrosas, Leonor; Soriano-Ortega, Karla Patricia; Roque-Sánchez, Armando Miguel

    2015-02-01

    There are many studies showing that more days of sexual abstinence increased sperm concentration, however, the direct influence between the days of abstinence and pregnancy rates has not been evaluated. The usual recommendation is 3-4 days prior to intrauterine insemination; this based on the interval that maximizes the number of motile sperm in the ejaculate. There are some reports with better success rate when abstinence is less than three days. To evaluate the pregnancy rate post-intrauterine insemination according to days of sexual abstinence prior to obtaining semen sample. A retrospective, observational and transversal study in patients attending the Mexican Center for Fertility (CEPAM) to intrauterine insemination. For analysis patients were grouped by age group, success rate and days of sexual abstinence. Continuous variables are reported as means and standard deviations; to determine statistical significance univariate logistic regression was performed. Categorical variables were evaluated in frequencies and percentages. The calculations were performed using JMP software program. 3,123 couples were included and increased success rate for intrauterine insemination was obtained with less than seven days of sexual abstinence. The rate of sperm retrieval is inversely proportional to the days of abstinence. A better pregnancy rate in intrauterine insemination was achieved with less than seven days of sexual abstinence and sperm retrieval rate was also recorded with fewer days of abstinence.

  3. Rapid detoxification from opioid dependence under general anaesthesia versus standard methadone tapering : abstinence rates and withdrawal distress experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Paul F M; Koning, Jeroen P F; Heinen, Nadia; Laheij, Robert J F; van Cauter, R M Victory; De Jong, Cor A J

    The aim of this work was to study abstinence rates and withdrawal effects of rapid detoxification of opioid-dependents under general anaesthesia (RD-GA) compared to standard methadone tapering (SMT) using a prospective clinical trial with a follow-up of 3 months, as a preliminary study at the

  4. Rapid detoxification from opioid dependence under general anaesthesia versus standard methadone tapering: abstinence rates and withdrawal distress experiences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, P.F.M.; Koning, J.P.; Heinen, N.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Cauter, R.M.V. van; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study abstinence rates and withdrawal effects of rapid detoxification of opioid-dependents under general anaesthesia (RD-GA) compared to standard methadone tapering (SMT) using a prospective clinical trial with a follow-up of 3 months, as a preliminary study at the

  5. Lower hypoxic ventilatory response in smokers compared to non-smokers during abstinence from cigarettes.

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    Hildebrandt, Wulf; Sauer, Roland; Koehler, Ulrich; Bärtsch, Peter; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2016-11-24

    Carotid body O 2 -chemosensitivity determines the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) as part of crucial regulatory reflex within oxygen homeostasis. Nicotine has been suggested to attenuate HVR in neonates of smoking mothers. However, whether smoking affects HVR in adulthood has remained unclear and probably blurred by acute ventilatory stimulation through cigarette smoke. We hypothesized that HVR is substantially reduced in smokers when studied after an overnight abstinence from cigarettes i.e. after nicotine elimination. We therefore determined the isocapnic HVR of 23 healthy male smokers (age 33.9 ± 2.0 years, BMI 24.2 ± 0.5 kg m -2 , mean ± SEM) with a smoking history of >8 years after 12 h of abstinence and compared it to that of 23 healthy male non-smokers matched for age and BMI. Smokers and non-smokers were comparable with regard to factors known to affect isocapnic HVR such as plasma levels of glucose and thiols as well as intracellular levels of glutathione in blood mononuclear cells. As a new finding, abstinent smokers had a significantly lower isocapnic HVR (0.024 ± 0.002 vs. 0.037 ± 0.003 l min -1 % -1 BMI -1 , P = 0.002) compared to non-smokers. However, upon re-exposure to cigarettes the smokers' HVR increased immediately to the non-smokers' level. This is the first report of a substantial HVR reduction in abstinent adult smokers which appears to be masked by daily smoking routine and may therefore have been previously overlooked. A low HVR may be suggested as a novel link between smoking and aggravated hypoxemia during sleep especially in relevant clinical conditions such as COPD.

  6. Does smoking abstinence influence distress tolerance? An experimental study comparing the response to a breath-holding test of smokers under tobacco withdrawal and under nicotine replacement therapy.

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    Cosci, Fiammetta; Anna Aldi, Giulia; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-09-30

    Distress tolerance has been operationalized as task persistence in stressful behavioral laboratory tasks. According to the distress tolerance perspective, how an individual responds to discomfort/distress predicts early smoking lapses. This theory seems weakly supported by experimental studies since they are limited in number, show inconsistent results, do not include control conditions. We tested the response to a stressful task in smokers under abstinence and under no abstinence to verify if tobacco abstinence reduces task persistence, thus distress tolerance. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, cross-over design was used. Twenty smokers underwent a breath holding test after the administration of nicotine on one test day and a placebo on another test day. Physiological and psychological variables were assessed at baseline and directly before and after each challenge. Abstinence induced a statistically significant shorter breath holding duration relative to the nicotine condition. No different response to the breath holding test was observed when nicotine and placebo conditions were compared. No response to the breath holding test was found when pre- and post-test values of heart rate, blood pressure, Visual Analogue Scale for fear or discomfort were compared. In brief, tobacco abstinence reduces breath holding duration but breath holding test does not influence discomfort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of State-Mandated Abstinence-only Sexuality Education with Rates of Adolescent HIV Infection and Teenage Pregnancy.

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    Elliot, L M; Booth, M M; Patterson, G; Althoff, M; Bush, C K; Dery, M A

    2017-01-01

    Abstinence-only sexuality education (AOSE); is required in the public school systems of many states, raising public health concerns and perpetuating health disparities through school systems. This study aimed to determine the correlations between state-mandated AOSE and the rates of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy. Using publicly available data on all 50 United States' laws and policies on AOSE, states were ranked according to their level of abstinence emphasis on sexuality education (Level 0 - Level 3);. We calculated the relative proportion of Black students in public schools and the proportion of families below the federal poverty line then ranked them by state. We compared the states' ranks to the incidence of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy in those states to identify associations between variables. The majority of states (~44 percent ); have legally mandated AOSE policies (Level 3); and adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates were highest in these Level 3 states. There were significant, positive correlations between HIV incidence rates of 13-19 year olds, HIV rates of 20-24 year olds, teen pregnancy rates, and AOSE level, with the proportion of the population that lives below the federal poverty level, and whether they attended schools that had a greater than 50 percent of an African American population. These data show a clear association between state sexuality education policies and adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates not previously demonstrated. Our data further show that states that have higher proportions of at-risk populations, with higher adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates, are more likely to also have restrictive AOSE policies. These populations may be more likely to attend public schools where AOSE is taught, increasing their risk for HIV and teen pregnancy. The World Health Organization considers fact-based Comprehensive Sexuality Education a human right, and the authors believe it is past time to end harmful, discriminatory sexuality

  8. Does physical exercise in addition to a multicomponent smoking cessation program increase abstinence rate and suppress weight gain? An intervention study.

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    Jonsdottir, D; Jonsdottir, H

    2001-01-01

    Does physical exercise in addition to a multicomponent smoking cessation program increase abstinence rate and suppress weight gain? An intervention study Tobacco use is considered the single most preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. Smoking cessation programs aim at two interrelated purposes, to help people to give up smoking and to prevent relapse. A multicomponent intervention consisting of nicotine replacement therapy, health education, behaviour modification therapy and counselling is widely recommended in the health care literature. Smoking cessation studies from a nursing perspective are few. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare outcomes of two nurse-managed 1-year group smoking cessation interventions. Intervention 1 (n=34) was provided at a health care centre and consisted of nicotine replacement therapy, health education, behavioural modification and individual and group counselling. In intervention 2 (n=33), provided in a health club, physical exercise was added to the intervention provided in 1. Participants were self-referred with equal numbers in both interventions. A nonsignificant difference in lapse free abstinence time (LFAT) at 1 year was demonstrated between intervention 1 (20.6%, n=7) and intervention 2 (39.4%, n=13) (p=0.16, odds ratio=2.5). The difference in weight gain between intervention groups was also nonsignificant. Within intervention comparison between abstinent participants and smokers showed that abstinent participants had gained significantly more weight than smokers in intervention 2 (p=0.001), but in intervention 1 the difference was nonsignificant (p=0.2). The small sample size in the study detracts from the significance of the findings. However, a trend is observed showing that physical exercise increases the abstinence rate of participants. The conclusion is drawn that a multicomponent smoking cessation program that includes physical exercise might be an effective intervention, but

  9. Correlation and characteristics of self-rating and clinical rating of depression among alcoholics in the course of early abstinence

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    Mandić-Gajić Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Depression is an alcoholism relapse risk factor, but frequently stays underdiagnosed among treated alcoholics. The correlation and characteristics of self-reported and clinically assessed depression in the course of early alcohol abstinence were explored. Methods. A total of 100 inpatient, primary male alcoholics (20-60 years diagnosed according to Classificaton of Mental and Behavioural Disorders (ICD-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV were recruited consecutively. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were scored on admission (T1, after 4 weeks (T2 and after 8 weeks (T3. Student's t-test, repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson's correlation between the scores were done (p < 0.05. Factor analyses of symptoms were performed. Results: On HDRS T1, T2, T3 90,7%, 39.5%, 17.4% alcoholics were depressive, respectively. The mean HDRS vs BDI scores on T1, T2 and T3 were 15.16 ± 6.34, 7.35 ± 4.18, 4.23 ± 2.93 vs 14.20 ± 9.56, 8.14 ± 7.35, 5.30 ± 4.94, respectively. Depression severity significantly lowered in the course of abstinence (ANOVA. The HRDS and BDI correlations on T1, T2 and T3 were significant (r1 = 0.763, r2 = 0.684, r3 = 0.613 respectively. Dysphoric mood, anxious, vegetative and cognitive HDRS subscales on T1, T2 and T3 were detected, but not BDI factors, thus BDI symptoms were analysed. Conclusions. The majority of alcoholics had depression on admission. A predominant mild-degree with a significant lowering of depression severity and positive significant correlations between HRDS and BDI scores in the course of abstinence were detected. The dysphoric mood on the HDRS sub-scale, and self-blame, anhedonia and guilt BDI symptoms were most prominent and persisted. The BDI could be a useful tool not only for routine screening and reassessment of depression, but also for exploring emotional content during early abstinence and planning tailored

  10. Attendance Rates in a Workplace Predict Subsequent Outcome of Employment-Based Reinforcement of Cocaine Abstinence in Methadone Patients

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    Donlin, Wendy D.; Knealing, Todd W.; Needham, Mick; Wong, Conrad J.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed whether attendance rates in a workplace predicted subsequent outcome of employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence. Unemployed adults in Baltimore methadone programs who used cocaine (N = 111) could work in a workplace for 4 hr every weekday and earn $10.00 per hour in vouchers for 26 weeks. During an induction…

  11. Abstinence-Only Education and Teen Pregnancy Rates: Why We Need Comprehensive Sex Education in the U.S

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    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.; Hall, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued. Using the most recent national data (2005) from all U.S. states with information on sex education laws or po...

  12. Abstinence-only education and teen pregnancy rates: why we need comprehensive sex education in the U.S.

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    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F; Hall, David W

    2011-01-01

    The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued. Using the most recent national data (2005) from all U.S. states with information on sex education laws or policies (N = 48), we show that increasing emphasis on abstinence education is positively correlated with teenage pregnancy and birth rates. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic status, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.S. In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future.

  13. Abstinence-Only Education and Teen Pregnancy Rates: Why We Need Comprehensive Sex Education in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.; Hall, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued. Using the most recent national data (2005) from all U.S. states with information on sex education laws or policies (N = 48), we show that increasing emphasis on abstinence education is positively correlated with teenage pregnancy and birth rates. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic status, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.S. In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future. PMID:22022362

  14. Abstinence-only education and teen pregnancy rates: why we need comprehensive sex education in the U.S.

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    Kathrin F Stanger-Hall

    Full Text Available The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued. Using the most recent national data (2005 from all U.S. states with information on sex education laws or policies (N = 48, we show that increasing emphasis on abstinence education is positively correlated with teenage pregnancy and birth rates. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic status, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.S. In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future.

  15. Financial incentives for smoking cessation among depression-prone pregnant and newly postpartum women: effects on smoking abstinence and depression ratings.

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    Lopez, Alexa A; Skelly, Joan M; Higgins, Stephen T

    2015-04-01

    We examined whether pregnant and newly postpartum smokers at risk for postpartum depression respond to an incentive-based smoking-cessation treatment and how the intervention impacts depression ratings. This study is a secondary data analysis. Participants (N = 289; data collected 2001-2013) were smokers at the start of prenatal care who participated in 4 controlled clinical trials on the efficacy of financial incentives for smoking cessation. Women were assigned either to an intervention wherein they earned vouchers exchangeable for retail items contingent on abstaining from smoking or to a control condition wherein they received vouchers of comparable value independent of smoking status. Treatments were provided antepartum through 12-weeks postpartum. Depression ratings (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]-1A) were examined across 7 antepartum/postpartum assessments. Women who reported a history of prior depression or who had BDI scores ≥ 17 at the start of prenatal care were categorized as depression-prone (Dep+), while those meeting neither criterion were categorized as depression-negative (Dep-). The intervention increased smoking abstinence independent of depression status (p postpartum BDI ratings as well as the proportion of women scoring in the clinical range (≥17 and >21) compared with the control treatment (ps ≤ .05). Treatment effects on depression ratings were attributable to changes in Dep+ women. These results demonstrate that depression-prone pregnant and newly postpartum women respond well to this incentive-based smoking-cessation intervention in terms of achieving abstinence, and the intervention also reduces the severity of postpartum depression ratings in this at-risk population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

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    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  17. Achieving Drug and Alcohol Abstinence Among Recently Incarcerated Homeless Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Case Management With a Health Promotion Program.

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    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Smeltzer, Jolene; Salem, Benissa E; Yadav, Kartik; Ekstrand, Maria L; Turner, Susan F; Faucette, Mark

    Homeless female ex-offenders (homeless female offenders) exiting jail and prison are at a critical juncture during reentry and transitioning into the community setting. The purpose of the study was to compare the effect of a dialectical behavioral therapy-case management (DBT-CM) program with a health promotion (HP) program on achieving drug and alcohol abstinence among female parolees/probationers residing in the community. We conducted a multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial with 130 female parolees/probationers (aged 19-64 years) residing in the community randomly assigned to either DBT-CM (n = 65) or HP (n = 65). The trial was conducted in four community-based partner sites in Los Angeles and Pomona, California, from February 2015 to November 2016. Treatment assignment was carried out using a computer-based urn randomization program. The primary outcome was drug and alcohol use abstinence at 6-month follow up. Analysis was based on data from 116 participants with complete outcome data. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that the DBT-CM program remained an independent positive predictor of decrease in drug use among the DBT-CM participants at 6 months (p = .01) as compared with the HP program participants. Being non-White (p < .05) and having higher depressive symptom scores (p < .05) were associated with lower odds of drug use abstinence (i.e., increased the odds of drug use) at 6 months. DBT-CM increased drug and alcohol abstinence at 6-month follow-up, compared to an HP program.

  18. The State of Sex Education in North Carolina: Is Abstinence-Only Education Working?

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    Rebecca Bach

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy rates are falling in North Carolina. They are falling faster in counties where comprehensive sex education is allowed by law compared to those counties and cities where abstinence-only education is permitted.

  19. Sex differences in time perception during smoking abstinence.

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    Ashare, Rebecca L; Kable, Joseph W

    2015-04-01

    Nicotine withdrawal leads to impulsive decision-making, which reflects a preference for smaller, immediate rewards and often prompts a relapse to smoking. The mechanism by which nicotine withdrawal leads to impulsive decision-making is not well known. An essential dimension of decision-making is time perception. Impulsive decisions reflect intolerance of temporal delays and the perception that time is passing more slowly. Sex may be an important factor in impulsive decision-making and time perception, but no studies have investigated whether sex moderates the effects of nicotine withdrawal on impulsive decision-making and time perception. Thirty-three (12 female) adult smokers completed 2 laboratory sessions: following 24-hr abstinence and once smoking-as-usual (order counterbalanced, abstinence biochemically verified). Participants completed 2 time perception tasks, a decision-making task, and self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, and mood. During time reproduction, males overestimated time during abstinence compared to smoking, whereas there was no session effect for females. On the time discrimination task, smokers were less accurate during abstinence, and this effect tended to be stronger among females. In general, males had higher discounting rates compared with females, but there was no effect of abstinence. The current data suggest that the effect of abstinence on time perception may be stronger in males and that males generally exhibit steeper delay discounting rates. Time perception may be an important mechanism in smoking abstinence. Our future work will investigate the role of time perception in smoking relapse and whether this is moderated by sex. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of sustained abstinence among treated substance-abusing homeless persons on housing and employment.

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    Milby, Jesse B; Schumacher, Joseph E; Wallace, Dennis; Vuchinich, Rudy; Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Kertesz, Stefan G

    2010-05-01

    We examined whether cocaine-dependent homeless persons had stable housing and were employed 6, 12, and 18 months after they entered a randomized controlled trial comparing 2 treatments. One group (n = 103) received abstinence-contingent housing, vocational training, and work; another group (n = 103) received the same intervention plus cognitive behavioral day treatment. We examined baseline and early treatment variables for association with long-term housing and employment. Although the enhanced-treatment group achieved better abstinence rates, the groups did not differ in long-term housing and employment stability. However, consecutive weeks of abstinence during treatment (and to a lesser extent, older age and male gender) predicted long-term housing and employment stability after adjustment for baseline differences in employment, housing, and treatment. Our data showed a relationship of abstinence with housing stability. Contrasting these results with the increasingly popular Housing First interventions reveals important gaps in our knowledge to be addressed in future research.

  1. Effects of extended cannabis abstinence on clinical symptoms in cannabis dependent schizophrenia patients versus non-psychiatric controls.

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    Rabin, Rachel A; Kozak, Karolina; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Remington, Gary; George, Tony P

    2018-04-01

    Rates of cannabis use among patients with schizophrenia are high, however little is understood about clinical effects of continued cannabis use and cessation after illness onset. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 28-days of cannabis abstinence on psychotic and depressive symptomatology in cannabis dependent patients with schizophrenia. Males with cannabis dependence and co-morbid schizophrenia (n=19) and non-psychiatric controls (n=20) underwent 28-days of monitored cannabis abstinence. Clinical symptoms were assessed at baseline and then weekly. Abstinence was encouraged using weekly therapy sessions and contingency reinforcement, confirmed by twice-weekly urine assays. Forty-two percent (8/19) of patients and 55% (11/20) of controls achieved 28-days of sustained cannabis abstinence. In patients, PANSS subscores did not change over time irrespective of abstinence status. In contrast, patient abstainers demonstrated a more pronounced reduction in depression scores compared to non-abstainers, however, the Abstinence Status x Time interaction was non-significant. Short-term (28-days) cannabis abstinence is not associated with improvement in psychotic symptoms, but may be associated with improvement in depressive symptomatology in patients with schizophrenia. Future studies employing larger samples as well as a continuous cannabis-using group may help to better characterize the causal effects of cannabis on symptom outcomes in this disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychosocial findings in alcohol-dependent patients before and after three months of total alcohol abstinence

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    Anna Ferrulli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs may be associated with several psychological and affective disorders. It is controversial, however, if these symptoms are a cause or rather a consequence of alcohol dependence. There are few data testing simultaneously psychosocial and affective disorders before and after a period of alcohol abstinence. The aim of this study was to perform multiple psychometric evaluations in alcohol-dependent patients before and after 12 weeks of abstinence. Twenty-five alcohol-dependent patients were included in the study. The following psychometric tests were administered at baseline (T0 and after 12 weeks (T1: Addiction Severity Index (ASI, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Social Behaviour Scale (SBS, Sheehan Disability Scale (DISS, Aggression Questionnaire (AQ. At T1, 16 (64% patients were abstinent, 5 (20% patients dropped out and 4 (16% patients relapsed. Compared to T0, patients totally abstinent at T1 showed a significant reduction of the scores related to BPRS, BPRS-E and its subscales (except BPRS 5, ASI 1, ASI 2, ASI 3, ASI 6, ASI 7, BSM, AQ, DISS 1, DISS 2, DISS 3 (p<0.05. No significant changes in ASI 4, ASI 5, DISS 4 and DISS 5, BPRS 5 scores were found at T1 compared to T0. The present study indicates that total alcohol abstinence improves psychometric features, such as alcohol addiction severity, psychiatric rating, social behaviour, aggressiveness, and disability. Larger controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  3. Probing the Behavioral and Neurophysiological Effects of Acute Smoking Abstinence on Drug and Nondrug Reinforcement During a Cognitive Task.

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    Schlienz, Nicolas J; Hawk, Larry W

    2017-06-01

    Smoking abstinence is theorized to increase smoking reinforcement and decrease nondrug reinforcement. A separate literature demonstrates the detrimental effects of abstinence on cognition. The present study integrates these two areas by examining the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and smoking abstinence on behavior and a neurophysiological index of response monitoring (ie, error-related negativity [ERN]) during a cognitive task. After a screening visit, adult smokers attended two laboratory visits, once while smoking and once while abstinent. Participants completed a flanker task under cigarette-, money-, and no-reinforcement conditions. The initial 15 participants had an easier reaction time (RT) requirement; to ensure sufficient error rates for ERN computation, a harder RT deadline was employed for the remaining 21 participants. Smoking abstinence reduced speeded accuracy and ERN amplitude only among participants tested with the harder RT deadline. Cigarette and money reinforcement each increased speeded accuracy and ERN amplitude compared to no reinforcement. The effect of cigarette reinforcement tended to be greater during abstinence for speeded accuracy but not the ERN. The effect of money reinforcement was unaffected by abstinence. The impact of smoking abstinence on reinforcement may depend on task demands. However, the effects of cigarette and money reinforcement generalize well from operant paradigms to cognitive tasks, fostering integration between the two literatures. Results provided modest evidence of abstinence-induced increases in smoking reinforcement; the absence of abstinence-induced reductions in nondrug reinforcement is consistent with recent work in suggesting that such effects are limited to a subset of sensory reinforcers. This study draws attention to the need for greater integration of reinforcement and cognition to better understand the mechanisms that contribute to smoking relapse. Results emphasize thoughtful

  4. Maintenance pharmacotherapy normalizes the relapse curve in recently abstinent tobacco smokers with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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    Evins, A Eden; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Schoenfeld, David A; Hoeppner, Bettina B; Cather, Corinne; Pachas, Gladys N; Cieslak, Kristina M; Maravic, Melissa Culhane

    2017-05-01

    To compare the effect of maintenance pharmacotherapy on sustained abstinence rates between recently abstinent smokers with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (SBD) and general population smokers without psychiatric illness. We performed a person-level, pooled analysis of two randomized controlled trials of maintenance varenicline, conducted in adult smokers with SBD and general population smokers, controlling for severity of dependence. Smokers abstinent after 12-weeks of open varenicline treatment were randomly assigned to ≥12-weeks maintenance varenicline or identical placebo. In those assigned to maintenance placebo, the abstinence rate at week-24 was lower in those with SBD than for those without psychiatric illness (29.4±1.1% vs. 61.8±0.4%, OR:0.26, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.52, pmaintenance pharmacotherapy, however, there was no effect of diagnosis on abstinence rates at week-24 (87.2±0.8% vs. 81.9±0.2%, OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 0.53, 5.32, p=0.38). Time to first lapse was shortest in those with SBD assigned to maintenance placebo (Q1=12days, 95%CI: 4, 16), longer in those without psychiatric illness assigned to maintenance placebo (Q1=17days, 95%CI: 17, 29), still longer in general-population smokers assigned to maintenance varenicline (Q1=88, 95% CI:58,91, and longest in those with SBD who received maintenance varenicline (Q1>95days, 95%CI:non-est), (Χ 2 3df =96.99, pmaintenance varenicline treatment. Maintenance pharmacotherapy could improve longer-term tobacco abstinence rates and reduce known smoking-related health disparities in those with SMI. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Neurobiology of Successful Abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, H; Brennan, K.L.; Hester, R.; Whelan, R.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the neurobiological processes involved in achieving successful abstinence from drugs of abuse. While there is clinical and public health value in knowing if the deficits associated with drug use correct with abstinence, studying the neurobiology that underlies successful abstinence can also illuminate the processes that enable drug-dependent individuals to successfully quit. Here, we review studies on human addicts that assess the neurobiological changes that arise with abstinence and the neurobiological predictors of successfully avoiding relapse. The literature, while modest in size, suggests that abstinence is associated with improvement in prefrontal structure and function, which may underscore the importance of prefrontally-mediated cognitive control processes in avoiding relapse. Given the implication that the prefrontal cortex may be an important target for therapeutic interventions, we also review evidence indicating the efficacy of cognitive control training for abstinence. PMID:23510740

  6. Internet and Telephone Treatment for smoking cessation: mediators and moderators of short-term abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Amanda L; Papandonatos, George D; Cobb, Caroline O; Cobb, Nathan K; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B; Tinkelman, David G

    2015-03-01

    This study examined mediators and moderators of short-term treatment effectiveness from the iQUITT Study (Quit Using Internet and Telephone Treatment), a 3-arm randomized trial that compared an interactive smoking cessation Web site with an online social network (enhanced Internet) alone and in conjunction with proactive telephone counseling (enhanced Internet plus phone) to a static Internet comparison condition (basic Internet). The analytic sample was N = 1,236 participants with complete 3-month data on all mediating variables. The primary outcome was 30-day point prevalence abstinence (ppa) at 3 months. Recognizing the importance of temporal precedence in mediation analyses, we also present findings for 6-month outcomes. Purported mediators were treatment utilization and changes in psychosocial constructs. Proposed moderators included baseline demographic, smoking, and psychosocial variables. Mediation analyses examined the extent to which between-arm differences in 30-day ppa could be attributed to differential Web site utilization, telephone counseling, and associated changes in smoking self-efficacy and social support for quitting. Effect modification analyses fitted interactions between treatment and prespecified moderators on abstinence. Significant mediators of 30-day ppa were changes in smoking temptations, quitting confidence, and positive and negative partner support, which were strongly associated with increased Web site utilization. The addition of telephone counseling to an enhanced Web site further improved abstinence rates, partly via an association with increased quitting confidence. Baseline smoking rate was the only significant moderator. Increased treatment utilization and associated changes in several psychosocial measures yielded higher abstinence rates. Findings validate the importance of treatment utilization, smoking self-efficacy, and social support to promote abstinence. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  7. Gender differences in crime, drug addiction, abstinence, personality characteristics, and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gila

    2009-09-01

    The current study examined gender differences in personal and psychological characteristics among drug-abstinent Israeli inmates. The study focuses primarily on three personal variables: sense of coherence (SOC), anxiety, and hostility. Additional factors that were examined are demographic variables, which include background, crime, and drug addiction. The sample included 119 inmates (65 males and 54 females) who abstained from drugs use for two different time intervals--up to one year, and more than one year--and did not receive treatment. Overall, males and females shared similar backgrounds except for a higher rate of sexual abuse among female inmates. No gender differences were found in recidivism. These findings show that drug-addicted female inmates injected drugs to a greater extent than males. They also indicated that male inmates remained abstinent for longer periods than female inmates. Additionally, length of abstinence was related to higher SOC, lower trait anxiety, and less hostility among male inmates compared to female inmates. Among female inmates, length of abstinence was related to lower SOC, higher trait anxiety, and no change in hostility. These findings may indicate the need to require separate gender-oriented therapeutic interventions.

  8. Dysregulated responses to emotions among abstinent heroin users: correlation with childhood neglect and addiction severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerra, G; Somaini, L; Manfredini, M; Raggi, M A; Saracino, M A; Amore, M; Leonardi, C; Cortese, E; Donnini, C

    2014-01-03

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the subjective responses of abstinent heroin users to both neutral and negative stimuli and the related hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal reactions to emotional experience in relationship to their perception of childhood adverse experiences. Thirty male abstinent heroin dependents were included in the study. Emotional responses and childhood neglect perception were measured utilizing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Y-1 and the Child Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Neutral and unpleasant pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System and the Self-Assessment Manikin procedure have been used to determine ratings of pleasure and arousal. These ratings were compared with normative values obtained from healthy volunteers used as control. Blood samples were collected before and after the experimental sessions to determine both adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol plasma levels. Basal anxiety scores, cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were higher in abstinent heroin users than in controls. Tests showed that anxiety scores did not change in controls after the vision of neutral slides, whilst they did in abstinent heroin addicts, increasing significantly; and increased less significantly after the unpleasant task, in comparison to controls. Abstinent heroin users showed significantly higher levels of parent antipathy and childhood emotional neglect perception than controls for both the father and the mother. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels did not significantly increase after unpleasant slide set viewing among addicted individuals, because of the significantly higher basal levels characterizing the addicted subjects in comparison with controls. Multiple regression correlation showed a significant relationship between childhood neglect perception, arousal reaction, impaired hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response and addiction severity. Early adverse experiences

  9. Delayed emergence of methamphetamine's enhanced cardiovascular effects in nonhuman primates during protracted methamphetamine abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupel, D B; Schindler, C W; Chefer, S; Belcher, A M; Ahmet, I; Scheidweiler, K B; Huestis, M A; Stein, E A

    2016-02-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is linked with brain abnormalities, but its peripheral effects constitute an integral aspect of long-term methamphetamine use. Eight male rhesus monkeys with long histories of intravenous methamphetamine self-administration were evaluated 1 day, and 1, 4, 12, 26, and 52 weeks after their last methamphetamine self-administration session. On test days, isoflurane-anesthetized animals received a 0.35 mg/kg IV methamphetamine challenge. A control group consisted of 10 age and gender matched drug naïve monkeys. Cardiovascular responses to methamphetamine were followed for 2.5h. Echocardiograms were acquired at 3 and 12 months of abstinence and in the control animals. No pre-methamphetamine baseline differences existed among 7 physiological measures across all conditions and controls. As expected, methamphetamine increased heart rate and blood pressure in controls. However, immediately following the self-administration period, the blood pressure response to methamphetamine challenge was reduced when compared to control monkeys. The peak and 150-min average heart rate increases, as well as peak blood pressure increases following methamphetamine were significantly elevated between weeks 12 to 26 of abstinence. These data indicate the development of tolerance followed by sensitization to methamphetamine cardiovascular effects. Echocardiography demonstrated decreased left ventricular ejection fraction and cardiac output at 3 months of abstinence. Importantly, both cardiovascular sensitization and cardiotoxicity appeared to be reversible as they returned toward control group levels after 1 year of abstinence. Enhanced cardiovascular effects may occur after prolonged abstinence in addicts relapsing to methamphetamine and may underlie clinically reported acute cardiotoxic events. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Delayed emergence of methamphetamine’s enhanced cardiovascular effects in nonhuman primates during protracted methamphetamine abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupel, DB; Schindler, CW; Chefer, S; Belcher, AM; Ahmet, I; Scheidweiler, KB; Huestis, MA; Stein, EA

    2015-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine abuse is linked with brain abnormalities, but its peripheral effects constitute an integral aspect of long-term methamphetamine use. Methods Eight male rhesus monkeys with long histories of intravenous methamphetamine self-administration were evaluated 1 day, and 1, 4, 12, 26, and 52 weeks after their last methamphetamine self-administration session. On test days, isoflurane-anesthetized animals received a 0.35 mg/kg IV methamphetamine challenge. A control group consisted of 10 age and gender matched drug naïve monkeys. Cardiovascular responses to methamphetamine were followed for 2.5 h. Echocardiograms were acquired at 3 and 12 months of abstinence and in the control animals. Results No pre-methamphetamine baseline differences existed among 7 physiological measures across all conditions and controls. As expected, methamphetamine increased heart rate and blood pressure in controls. However, immediately following the self-administration period, the blood pressure response to methamphetamine challenge was reduced when compared to control monkeys. The peak and 150-min average heart rate increases, as well as peak blood pressure increases following methamphetamine were significantly elevated between weeks 12 to 26 of abstinence. These data indicate the development of tolerance followed by sensitization to methamphetamine cardiovascular effects. Echocardiography demonstrated decreased left ventricular ejection fraction and cardiac output at 3 months of abstinence. Importantly, both cardiovascular sensitization and cardiotoxicity appeared to be reversible as they returned toward control group levels after 1 year of abstinence. Conclusions Enhanced cardiovascular effects may occur after prolonged abstinence in addicts relapsing to methamphetamine and may underlie clinically reported acute cardiotoxic events. PMID:26775284

  11. Comparing BV solutions of rate independent processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Recupero, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 121-146 ISSN 0944-6532 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : variational inequalities * rate independence * convex sets Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.552, year: 2014 http://www.heldermann.de/JCA/JCA21/JCA211/jca21006.htm

  12. Systematic evaluation of "compliance" to prescribed treatment medications and "abstinence" from psychoactive drug abuse in chemical dependence programs: data from the comprehensive analysis of reported drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Han, David; Femino, John; Smith, David E; Saunders, Scott; Simpatico, Thomas; Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Gold, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    This is the first quantitative analysis of data from urine drug tests for compliance to treatment medications and abstinence from drug abuse across "levels of care" in six eastern states of America. Comprehensive Analysis of Reported Drugs (CARD) data was used in this post-hoc retrospective observational study from 10,570 patients, filtered to include a total of 2,919 patients prescribed at least one treatment medication during 2010 and 2011. The first and last urine samples (5,838 specimens) were analyzed; compliance to treatment medications and abstinence from drugs of abuse supported treatment effectiveness for many. Compared to non-compliant patients, compliant patients were marginally less likely to abuse opioids, cannabinoids, and ethanol during treatment although more likely to abuse benzodiazepines. Almost 17% of the non-abstinent patients used benzodiazepines, 15% used opiates, and 10% used cocaine during treatment. Compliance was significantly higher in residential than in the non-residential treatment facilities. Independent of level of care, 67.2% of the patients (n = 1963; Pabuse detected in either the first or last urine samples (abstinence). Moreover, in 2010, 16.9% of the patients (n = 57) were abstinent at first but not at last urine (deteriorating abstinence), the percentage dropped to 13.3% (n = 174) in 2011; this improvement over years was statistically significant. A longitudinal analysis for abstinence and compliance was studied in a randomized subset from 2011, (n = 511) representing 17.5% of the total cohort. A statistically significant upward trend (p = 2.353×10-8) of abstinence rates as well as a similar but stronger trend for compliance ((p = 2.200×10-16) was found. Being cognizant of the trend toward drug urine testing being linked to medical necessity eliminating abusive screening, the interpretation of these valuable results require further intensive investigation.

  13. E-cigarette use among treatment-seeking smokers: Moderation of abstinence by use frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subialka Nowariak, Emily N; Lien, Rebecca K; Boyle, Raymond G; Amato, Michael S; Beebe, Laura A

    2018-02-01

    Emerging literature suggests that frequency of use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be an important moderating variable in the relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation. However, few studies have focused specifically on treatment-seekers, a group that may differ in important ways from smokers in the general population. This study looks at the relationship between e-cigarette use frequency and abstinence among a sample of treatment-seeking tobacco users. Seven-month follow-up survey data from N=2760 treatment-seeking tobacco users who utilized statewide tobacco quitlines in three states were used to assess the relationship between 30-day point prevalence abstinence and e-cigarette use frequency at follow-up. E-cigarette use was examined in two ways. First, we looked at any use in the past 30days versus no use. Additionally, past 30-day e-cigarette use frequency was categorized into four groups: 0days, 1-5days - infrequent, 6-29days - intermediate, 30days - daily. Logistic regression models were constructed predicting 30-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence. Both infrequent (AOR=0.35; CI=0.20-0.59) and intermediate (AOR=0.50; CI=0.32-0.80) past 30-day e-cigarette use were associated with lower rates of tobacco abstinence versus no past 30-day use. However, daily e-cigarette users (AOR=1.16; CI=0.71-1.70) had similar 30-day abstinence when compared to non-users. Results from this study of treatment-seekers support findings from studies of general population tobacco users that suggest frequency of e-cigarette use is an important moderating variable in the relationship between e-cigarette use and tobacco cessation. Future studies should employ more refined measures of e-cigarette use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The predictive validity of the Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawayama Toru

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior such as positive alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking and perception of drinking problems are considered to have a significant influence on treatment effects and outcome in alcohol-dependent patients. However, the development of a rating scale on lack of perception or denial of drinking problems and impaired control over drinking has not been substantial, even though these are important factors in patients under abstinence-oriented treatment as well as participants in self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA. The Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale (DRCS is a new self-reported rating scale developed to briefly measure cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment, including positive alcohol expectancies, abstinence self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking, and perception of drinking problems. Here, we conducted a prospective cohort study to explore the predictive validity of DRCS. Methods Participants in this study were 175 middle-aged and elderly Japanese male patients who met the DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence. DRCS scores were recorded before and after the inpatient abstinence-oriented treatment program, and treatment outcome was evaluated one year after discharge. Results Of the 175 participants, 30 were not available for follow-up; thus the number of subjects for analysis in this study was 145. When the total DRCS score and subscale scores were compared before and after inpatient treatment, a significant increase was seen for both scores. Both the total DRCS score and each subscale score were significantly related to total abstinence, percentage of abstinent days, and the first drinking occasion during the one-year post-treatment period. Therefore, good treatment outcome was significantly predicted by low

  15. Smoking Abstinence, Eating Style, and Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…

  16. Effects of smoking abstinence on smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognition in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Joseph S.; Roley, Michelle E.; O’Brien, Benjamin; Blair, Justin; Lane, Scott D.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a more difficult time quitting smoking compared to their non-ADHD peers. Little is known about the underlying behavioral mechanisms associated with this increased risk. Objectives This study aims to assess the effects of 24-h smoking abstinence in adult smokers with and without ADHD on the following outcomes: smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognitive function. Methods Thirty-three (n=16 with ADHD, 17 without ADHD) adult smokers (more than or equal to ten cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Each participant completed two experimental sessions: one following smoking as usual and one following biochemically verified 24-h smoking abstinence. Smoking-reinforced responding measured via a progressive ratio task, smoking withdrawal measured via questionnaire, and cognition measured via a continuous performance test (CPT) were assessed at each session. Results Smoking abstinence robustly increased responding for cigarette puffs in both groups, and ADHD smokers responded more for puffs regardless of condition. Males in both groups worked more for cigarette puffs and made more commission errors on the CPT than females, regardless of condition. Smoking abstinence also increased ratings of withdrawal symptoms in both groups and smokers with ADHD, regardless of condition, reported greater symptoms of arousal, habit withdrawal, and somatic complaints. Across groups, smoking abstinence decreased inhibitory control and increased reaction time variability on the CPT. Abstinence-induced changes in inhibitory control and negative affect significantly predicted smoking-reinforced responding across groups. Conclusions Smokers with ADHD reported higher levels of withdrawal symptoms and worked more for cigarette puffs, regardless of condition, which could help explain higher levels of nicotine dependence and poorer cessation outcomes in this population. Abstinence-induced changes in smoking

  17. Anxiety, depression and tobacco abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadana Pacheco, Virginia; Gómez-Bastero Fernández, Ana Paulina; Valido Morales, Agustín; Luque Crespo, Estefanía; Monserrat, Soledad; Montemayor Rubio, Teodoro

    2017-09-29

    There is evidence of the relationship between mental illness and smoking and increased risk of depressive episodes after quitting smoking, even with specific treatments for abstinence. To assess the influence of a cessation program on the emotional state of patients by measuring levels of anxiety / depression and differences depending on the presence of psychiatric history. A prospective observational study of patients taking part in a combined program (pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral) for giving up smoking. Anxiety (A) and depression (D) were measured using the HADS questionnaire at baseline, first and third month of abstinence. Anxiety and depression showed significant and progressive improvement during treatment (A: baseline 9.2 ± 4.5, 5.9 ± 3.6 1 month, 3 months 4.5 ± 3.1, p.

  18. Abstinence, Sex, and Virginity: Do They Mean What We Think They Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Jason D.; Kimberly, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Ambiguous definitions concerning which behaviors constitute sex, abstinence, and virginity may lead to arbitrary interpretations of meaning or miscommunication, which could be particularly problematic in health care, educational, and research contexts. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare definitions of sex, abstinence, and…

  19. Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…

  20. Homelessness predicts attrition but not alcohol abstinence in outpatients experiencing co-occurring alcohol dependence and serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leickly, Emily; Skalisky, Jordan; Oluwoye, Oladunni; McPherson, Sterling M; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M; Ries, Richard K; McDonell, Michael G

    2017-11-21

    Adults experiencing homelessness and serious mental illnesses (SMI) are at an increased risk of poor mental health and treatment outcomes compared with stably housed adults with SMI. The additional issue of alcohol misuse further complicates the difficulties of those living with homelessness and SMI. In this secondary data analysis, the authors investigated the impact of homelessness on attrition and alcohol use in a contingency management (CM) intervention that rewarded alcohol abstinence in outpatients with SMI. The associations between housing status and attrition and alcohol abstinence during treatment, as assessed by ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests, were evaluated in 79 adults diagnosed with alcohol dependence and SMI. Thirty-nine percent (n = 31) of participants reported being homeless at baseline. Individuals who were homeless were more likely to drop out of CM (n = 10, 62.5%) than those who were housed (n = 4, 16.7%), χ 2 (1) = 8.86, P < .05. Homelessness was not associated with attrition in the noncontingent control group. Accounting for treatment group and prerandomization EtG levels, neither the effect of housing status nor the interaction of housing status and group were associated with EtG-assessed alcohol abstinence during treatment. Individuals experiencing homelessness and co-occurring alcohol dependence and SMI receiving CM had higher rates of attrition, relative to those who were housed. Homelessness was not associated with differences in biologically assessed alcohol abstinence.

  1. Behavioral factors predicting response to employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence in methadone patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtyn, August F; Washington, Wendy Donlin; Knealing, Todd W; Wong, Conrad J; Kolodner, Ken; Silverman, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    We sought to identify behavioral factors associated with response to an employment-based intervention, in which participants had to provide drug-free urine samples to gain access to paid employment. The present secondary analysis included data from a randomized clinical trial. The trial evaluated whether employment-based reinforcement could decrease cocaine use in community methadone patients. Participants (N=56) in the trial worked in a model workplace for 4 hr every weekday and earned about $10 per hr. After a 4-week baseline, participants were randomly assigned to an Abstinence & Work (n = 28) or Work Only (n = 28) condition and could work for an additional 26 weeks. Abstinence & Work participants had to provide cocaine-negative urine samples to work and maintain maximum pay. Work Only participants only had to work to earn pay. For Work Only participants, cocaine abstinence during baseline and the intervention period were significantly ( r s = .72, p workplace attendance was marginally correlated ( r s = .32, p = .098) with cocaine abstinence during the intervention period. Furthermore, participants who provided over 60% cocaine-negative urine samples during the intervention period (i.e., responders) had significantly higher baseline rates of opiate abstinence ( p workplace attendance ( p = .042) than non-responders. Employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence may be improved by increasing opiate abstinence and workplace attendance prior to initiating the cocaine-abstinence intervention.

  2. Abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that most teens are not having sex. A couple can still have a relationship without having sex. If you've made a decision not to have sex, it's an important personal choice and the people who care about you should ...

  3. Efeitos cardiovasculares da abstinência do fumo no repouso e durante o exercício submáximo em mulheres jovens fumantes Cardiovascular effects of smoking abstinence at rest and during submaximal exercise in young female smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demilto Yamaguchi da Pureza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o efeito da abstinência do fumo nas respostas cardiovasculares ao exercício físico progressivo submáximo em mulheres sedentárias fumantes. MÉTODOS: A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD e a freqüência cardíaca (FC foram medidas de forma não invasiva em mulheres jovens não fumantes (MNF, n = 7 e fumantes (MF, n = 7, sem e com abstinência do fumo por 24 horas, em repouso, durante a realização do teste submáximo em bicicleta ergométrica e na recuperação. RESULTADOS: Em repouso, a PAD e a FC foram maiores nas MF (76 ± 1mmHg e 86 ± 5bpm quando comparadas com as MNF (68 ± 2mmHg e 72 ± 2bpm. Após 24 horas sem o tabaco essas medidas foram normalizadas. Durante o exercício, a PAS e a FC aumentaram nos grupos estudados. A PAD foi maior nas MF (~15% em relação às MNF em todos os estágios do exercício. Na situação de abstinência, a PAD aumentou somente no último estágio de exercício. Na recuperação tanto a PAD quanto a FC foram maiores nas MF, na situação basal e com abstinência de 24h, quando comparadas as MNF. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados demonstram que mulheres jovens fumantes apresentam prejuízo em parâmetros hemodinâmicos em repouso e em resposta ao exercício submáximo, os quais, podem ser em parte revertidos pela abstinência em curto prazo do uso do tabaco.OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to verify the effect of tobacco smoking abstinence on cardiovascular responses to progressive submaximal physical exercise in sedentary female smokers. METHODS: Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and heart rate (HR were non-invasively measured in young non-smoking women (NSW, n = 7 and smoking women (SW, n = 7, with and without tobacco abstinence for 24 hours, at rest, during the accomplishment of a submaximal bicycle ergometric test and recovery period. RESULTS: At rest, DBP and HR were higher in the SW group

  4. To Compare Aneuploidy Rates Between ICSI and IVF Cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy rates.[3]. ICSI procedure can be cause asynchronous sperm condensation. This could introduce as a risk for aneuploidy. The ICSI technique also could ... compared with IVF. Natural selection mechanism was bypassed in ICSI and this could potentially lead to higher aneuploidy rates.[4,5]. Some studies were ...

  5. Comparing humans to automation in rating photographic aesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarala, Ramakrishna; Agrawal, Abhishek; Morales, Sandino

    2015-03-01

    Computer vision researchers have recently developed automated methods for rating the aesthetic appeal of a photograph. Machine learning techniques, applied to large databases of photos, mimic with reasonably good accuracy the mean ratings of online viewers. However, owing to the many factors underlying aesthetics, it is likely that such techniques for rating photos do not generalize well beyond the data on which they are trained. This paper reviews recent attempts to compare human ratings, obtained in a controlled setting, to ratings provided by machine learning techniques. We review methods to obtain meaningful ratings both from selected groups of judges and also from crowd sourcing. We find that state-of-the-art techniques for automatic aesthetic evaluation are only weakly correlated with human ratings. This shows the importance of obtaining data used for training automated systems under carefully controlled conditions.

  6. Dramatic Increases in Maternal Opioid Use and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Dramatic Increases in Maternal Opioid Use and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Email Facebook Twitter Text Description of Infographic Use of opiates during pregnancy can result in a drug withdrawal syndrome in newborns called neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). ...

  7. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  8. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chok, Jay; Qian, Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO) entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO) entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  9. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. NEONATAL ABSTINENCE SYNDROME - CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Matic

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS refers to the constellation of signs and symptoms exhibited by a newborn of drug-abusing mother. NAS is multisystemic disorder, most frequently involving central nervous and gastrointestinal systems with irritability, high-pitched cry, hyperactive reflexes, increased muscle tone, tremors, generalized convulsions, feeding and sleeping disorders, tachycardia, tachypnea, apnea, termolability and sweating, frequent hiccups, yawning and sneezing, vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration.Intrauterine narcotic disposition can give some other adverse effects beside NAS: fetal distress, premature birth, intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, increased incidence of congenital anomalies (cardiac and genitourinary anomalies, cleft palate, biliar atresia. Significantly increased risks of sudden infant’s death syndrome (SIDS, abnormalities in neurocognitive and behavioral development and deficiency in motor functions have also been noticed after the long-term surveys of these children.This paper is a case report of a newborn with developed clinical signs of NAS, but it also discusses diagnostics and management of such cases

  11. Accounting for rate variation among lineages in comparative demographic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Malaney, Jason L.; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analyses of contemporary populations can be used to estimate the demographic histories of species within an ecological community. Comparison of these demographic histories can shed light on community responses to past climatic events. However, species experience different rates of molecular evolution, and this presents a major obstacle to comparative demographic analyses. We address this problem by using a Bayesian relaxed-clock method to estimate the relative evolutionary rates of 22 small mammal taxa distributed across northwestern North America. We found that estimates of the relative molecular substitution rate for each taxon were consistent across the range of sampling schemes that we compared. Using three different reference rates, we rescaled the relative rates so that they could be used to estimate absolute evolutionary timescales. Accounting for rate variation among taxa led to temporal shifts in our skyline-plot estimates of demographic history, highlighting both uniform and idiosyncratic evolutionary responses to directional climate trends for distinct ecological subsets of the small mammal community. Our approach can be used in evolutionary analyses of populations from multiple species, including comparative demographic studies.

  12. Comparing audio and video data for rating communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kristine; Herman, Ruth; Bontempo, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Video recording has become increasingly popular in nursing research, adding rich nonverbal, contextual, and behavioral information. However, benefits of video over audio data have not been well established. We compared communication ratings of audio versus video data using the Emotional Tone Rating Scale. Twenty raters watched video clips of nursing care and rated staff communication on 12 descriptors that reflect dimensions of person-centered and controlling communication. Another group rated audio-only versions of the same clips. Interrater consistency was high within each group with Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) (2,1) for audio .91, and video = .94. Interrater consistency for both groups combined was also high with ICC (2,1) for audio and video = .95. Communication ratings using audio and video data were highly correlated. The value of video being superior to audio-recorded data should be evaluated in designing studies evaluating nursing care.

  13. Cue-elicited craving in heroin addicts at different abstinent time: an fMRI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Mingwu; Wang, Erlei; Shen, Yunxia; Wang, Jiping

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of short-term and long-term heroin abstinence on brain responses to heroin-related cues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eighteen male heroin addicts following short-term abstinence and 19 male heroin addicts following long-term abstinence underwent fMRI scanning while viewing heroin-related and neutral images. Cue-elicited craving and withdrawal symptoms in the subjects were measured. Following short-term abstinence, greater activation was found in response to heroin cues compared to neutral cues in bilateral temporal, occipital, posterior cingulate, anterior cingulate, thalamus, cerebellum, and left hippocampus. In contrast, activations in bilateral temporal and occipital and deactivations in bilateral frontal, bilateral parietal, left posterior cingulate, insula, thalamus, dorsal striatum, and bilateral cerebellum were observed following long-term abstinence. Direct comparisons between conditions showed greater brain reactivity in response to smoking cues following short-term abstinence. In addition, short-term abstinence had more serious withdrawal symptoms than the long-term. The present findings indicate that compared to short-term, long-term abstinence manifests less serious withdrawal symptoms and significantly decreases neural responses to heroin-related cues in brain regions subserving visual sensory processing, attention, memory, and action planning. These findings suggest that long-term abstinence can decrease the salience of conditioned cues, thereby reducing the risk of relapses. The study's limitations are noted.

  14. Systematic evaluation of "compliance" to prescribed treatment medications and "abstinence" from psychoactive drug abuse in chemical dependence programs: data from the comprehensive analysis of reported drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Blum

    Full Text Available This is the first quantitative analysis of data from urine drug tests for compliance to treatment medications and abstinence from drug abuse across "levels of care" in six eastern states of America. Comprehensive Analysis of Reported Drugs (CARD data was used in this post-hoc retrospective observational study from 10,570 patients, filtered to include a total of 2,919 patients prescribed at least one treatment medication during 2010 and 2011. The first and last urine samples (5,838 specimens were analyzed; compliance to treatment medications and abstinence from drugs of abuse supported treatment effectiveness for many. Compared to non-compliant patients, compliant patients were marginally less likely to abuse opioids, cannabinoids, and ethanol during treatment although more likely to abuse benzodiazepines. Almost 17% of the non-abstinent patients used benzodiazepines, 15% used opiates, and 10% used cocaine during treatment. Compliance was significantly higher in residential than in the non-residential treatment facilities. Independent of level of care, 67.2% of the patients (n = 1963; P<.001 had every treatment medication found in both first and last urine specimens (compliance. In addition, 39.2% of the patients (n = 1143; P<.001 had no substance of abuse detected in either the first or last urine samples (abstinence. Moreover, in 2010, 16.9% of the patients (n = 57 were abstinent at first but not at last urine (deteriorating abstinence, the percentage dropped to 13.3% (n = 174 in 2011; this improvement over years was statistically significant. A longitudinal analysis for abstinence and compliance was studied in a randomized subset from 2011, (n = 511 representing 17.5% of the total cohort. A statistically significant upward trend (p = 2.353×10-8 of abstinence rates as well as a similar but stronger trend for compliance ((p = 2.200×10-16 was found. Being cognizant of the trend toward drug urine testing being linked

  15. A comparative analysis of readmission rates after outpatient cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioton, Lauren M; Alghoul, Mohammed S; Kim, John Y S

    2014-02-01

    Despite the increasing scrutiny of surgical procedures, outpatient cosmetic surgery has an established record of safety and efficacy. A key measure in assessing surgical outcomes is the examination of readmission rates. However, there is a paucity of data on unplanned readmission following cosmetic surgery procedures. The authors studied readmission rates for outpatient cosmetic surgery and compared the data with readmission rates for other surgical procedures. The 2011 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data set was queried for all outpatient procedures. Readmission rates were calculated for the 5 surgical specialties with the greatest number of outpatient procedures and for the overall outpatient cosmetic surgery population. Subgroup analysis was performed on the 5 most common cosmetic surgery procedures. Multivariate regression models were used to determine predictors of readmission for cosmetic surgery patients. The 2879 isolated outpatient cosmetic surgery cases had an associated 0.90% unplanned readmission rate. The 5 specialties with the highest number of outpatient surgical procedures were general, orthopedic, gynecologic, urologic, and otolaryngologic surgery; their unplanned readmission rates ranged from 1.21% to 3.73%. The 5 most common outpatient cosmetic surgery procedures and their associated readmission rates were as follows: reduction mammaplasty, 1.30%; mastopexy, 0.31%; liposuction, 1.13%; abdominoplasty, 1.78%; and breast augmentation, 1.20%. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that operating time (in hours) was an independent predictor of readmission (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.81; P=.010). Rates of unplanned readmission with outpatient cosmetic surgery are low and compare favorably to those of other outpatient surgeries.

  16. Feeding Modalities and the Onset of the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony eLiu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBreast milk has been reported to ameliorate the severity and outcome of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS. The mechanism of this beneficial effect of breast milk on NAS remains unclear, as the negligible amount of methadone transmitted via breast milk is unlikely to have an impact on NAS. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of different feeding modalities on the onset of NAS.A retrospective medical record review was conducted on one hundred and ninety-four methadone maintained mother/infant dyads. Infants were categorized on the first 2 days of life as predominantly breastfed, fed expressed human breast milk or formula fed. The feeding categories were then analyzed using the onset of NAS as the outcome measure. After adjusting for confounders, there was no significant effect of the modality of feeding on the rates of NAS requiring treatment (p=0.11. Breastfeeding significantly delayed the onset of NAS (p=0.04The act of breastfeeding in the first two days of life had no effect on whether an infant required treatment for NAS when compared to those fed EBM or formula. This only suggests that the advantages of breastfeeding on NAS cannot be substantiated in a small cohort and should not discourage breastfeeding.

  17. Abstinence and neutrality: development and diverse views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, J

    1994-08-01

    Usually, Freud adopted a technical device for personal or practical reasons and only later formulated its theoretical basis. His conception of abstinence initially seemed designed to curb his own troublesome erotic countertransference. These speculations, while having no bearing on the clinical value of abstinence and related neutrality, do emphasise the necessity to assess their utility objectively, on the basis of clinical data. Diverse views of abstinence and neutrality persist in part because early inconsistencies in Freud's conceptions remain unresolved, and in part because these views are derived from the analyst's personality and character, are not based upon clinical data, but are buttressed by iteration. An approach to empirical assessment is suggested using multiple analyst-observers: (1) to develop reliable criteria for four analyst behaviours: abstinence, neutrality, gratification and suggestion; and (2) to evaluate enhancement or impairment of analytic work. Utilisation of this approach in the supervision of candidates would enhance analytic pedagogy and to some degree facilitate a research orientation in candidates.

  18. [Comparative assessment of aging rates in population from different cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negasheva, M A; Lapshina, N E; Sineva, I M; Gritchina, O I; Kharlova, A G; Okushko, R V

    437 people (214 men and 223 women) at the age of 50-90 years old, residents of different cities of Russia and Pridnestrovie (Moscow, Barnaul, Tiraspol) have been examined. Using a complex of morphofunctional characteristics, parameters of the biological age have been analyzed, and groups with delayed, moderate and accelerated aging rates have been outlined. Regional peculiarities in distribution of incidence of different variants of aging rates have been revealed. In Moscow men and women, the delayed variant of development of age involution changes is the most widespread. In Tiraspol women, compared to the Moscow group, incidence of people with accelerated aging rates is 2 times higher, which can be stipulated by influence of a complex of biosocial factors.

  19. Nursing magnet hospitals have better CMS hospital compare ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been conflicting data on whether Nursing Magnet Hospitals (NMH provide better care. Methods: NMH in the Southwest USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Nevada, and New Mexico were compared to hospitals not designated as NMH using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS hospital compare star designation. Results: NMH had higher star ratings than non-NMH hospitals (3.34 + 0.78 vs. 2.86 + 0.83, p<0.001. The hospitals were mostly large, urban non-critical access hospitals. Academic medical centers made up a disproportionately large portion of the NMH. Conclusions: Although NMH had higher hospital ratings, the data may favor non-critical access academic medical centers which are known to have better outcomes.

  20. Buprenorphine for the Treatment of the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Walter K; Adeniyi-Jones, Susan C; Chervoneva, Inna; Greenspan, Jay S; Abatemarco, Diane; Kaltenbach, Karol; Ehrlich, Michelle E

    2017-06-15

    Current pharmacologic treatment of the neonatal abstinence syndrome with morphine is associated with a lengthy duration of therapy and hospitalization. Buprenorphine may be more effective than morphine for this indication. In this single-site, double-blind, double-dummy clinical trial, we randomly assigned 63 term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation) who had been exposed to opioids in utero and who had signs of the neonatal abstinence syndrome to receive either sublingual buprenorphine or oral morphine. Infants with symptoms that were not controlled with the maximum dose of opioid were treated with adjunctive phenobarbital. The primary end point was the duration of treatment for symptoms of neonatal opioid withdrawal. Secondary clinical end points were the length of hospital stay, the percentage of infants who required supplemental treatment with phenobarbital, and safety. The median duration of treatment was significantly shorter with buprenorphine than with morphine (15 days vs. 28 days), as was the median length of hospital stay (21 days vs. 33 days) (Pbuprenorphine group and in 7 of 30 infants (23%) in the morphine group (P=0.36). Rates of adverse events were similar in the two groups. Among infants with the neonatal abstinence syndrome, treatment with sublingual buprenorphine resulted in a shorter duration of treatment and shorter length of hospital stay than treatment with oral morphine, with similar rates of adverse events. (Funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse; BBORN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01452789 .).

  1. Binge abstinence is associated with reduced energy intake after treatment in patients with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; Dorflinger, Lindsey M; Rolls, Barbara J; Mitchell, Diane C; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-12-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is strongly associated with obesity and related medical and psychiatric morbidities. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has consistently been shown to reduce binge eating frequency and improve psychological functioning, as well as to produce abstinence rates of roughly 50%. This study examined the relationship between binge abstinence and dietary and psychological outcomes after CBT for BED. Fifty adult patients with BED received 6-month treatments using a combination of CBT and dietary counseling. Trained interviewers conducted two 24-hour dietary recall interviews on randomly selected days at baseline and at 6 months. Participants had significant reductions in energy, macronutrient, and sugar intake and an increase in fruit intake. They reported significant reductions in BMI and binge eating frequency (from mean = 14.24 to mean = 1.90 binge eating episodes during the previous 28 days), as well as improvements in psychological functioning. Those who became binge abstinent reported eating roughly 400 fewer calories per day and experienced greater improvements in psychological functioning than those who did not. Findings from this study suggest that individuals who achieve complete cessation from binge eating have significantly improved dietary and psychological outcomes that could potentially improve weight status, compared with those who continue to binge eat post-treatment. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  2. Binge Abstinence is Associated with Reduced Energy Intake After Treatment in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M.; Dorflinger, Lindsey M.; Rolls, Barbara J.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Binge eating disorder (BED) is strongly associated with obesity and related medical and psychiatric morbidities. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has consistently been shown to reduce binge eating frequency and improve psychological functioning, as well as to produce abstinence rates of roughly 50%. This study examined the relationship between binge abstinence and dietary and psychological outcomes after CBT for BED. Methods Fifty adult patients with BED received 6-month treatments using a combination of CBT and dietary counseling. Trained interviewers conducted two 24-hour dietary recall interviews on randomly selected days at baseline and at 6 months. Results Participants had significant reductions in energy, macronutrient, and sugar intake and an increase in fruit intake. They reported significant reductions in BMI and binge eating frequency (from mean = 14.24 to mean = 1.90 binge eating episodes during the previous 28 days), as well as improvements in psychological functioning. Those who became binge abstinent reported eating roughly 400 fewer calories per day and experienced greater improvements in psychological functioning than those who did not. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that individuals who achieve complete cessation from binge eating have significantly improved dietary and psychological outcomes that could potentially improve weight status, compared with those who continue to binge eat post-treatment. PMID:27797154

  3. PERIPHERAL IMMUNE SYSTEM SUPPRESSION IN EARLY ABSTINENT ALCOHOL DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS: LINKS TO STRESS AND CUE-RELATED CRAVING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Helen C; Milivojevic, Verica; Angarita, Gustavo A; Stowe, Raymond; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    Background Peripheral immune system cytokines may play an integral role in underlying sensitized stress response and alcohol craving during early withdrawal. To date, the nature of these immune changes during early abstinence have not been examined. Methods Thirty-nine early abstinent, treatment-seeking alcohol dependent individuals and 46 socially drinking controls were exposed to three guided imageries: stress, alcohol cue and neutral. These were presented randomly across consecutive days. Plasma measures of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were collected at baseline, immediately after imagery and at various recovery time-points. Ratings of alcohol craving, negative mood and anxiety were also obtained at the same time-points. Results The alcohol group demonstrated decreased basal IL-10 compared with controls particularly following exposure to alcohol cue. They also showed a dampened TNFα and TNFR1 response to stress and cue, respectively, and a generalized suppression of IL-6. In the alcohol group, these immune system adaptations occurred alongside significant elevations in anxiety, negative mood and alcohol craving. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that broad immuno-suppression is still observed in alcohol dependent individuals after three weeks of abstinence and may be linked to motivation for alcohol. PMID:28675117

  4. Childhood Asthma Utilization Rates in a Nonsmoking Population of Utah Compared to State and National Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gren, Lisa H.; Taylor, Brooke; Lyon, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Risk factors, such as parental smoking, are commonly associated with increased asthma symptoms and hospitalizations of children. Deseret Mutual Benefits Administrators (DMBA) is the health insurer for employees of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and their families. Due to religious proscription, employees abstain from alcohol and tobacco use, creating a cohort of children not exposed to parental smoking. Calculation of hospitalization rates for DMBA, Utah, and the US were made in children to compare rates between a nonsmoking population and general populations. Compared to DMBA, rate ratios for asthma hospitalization and emergency department asthma visits were higher for the US and Utah. The incidence of hospital outpatient department and physician office visits was significantly greater for the US population compared to the DMBA. This study demonstrates a decreased need for health services used by children not exposed to second-hand smoke. PMID:22389787

  5. Sex differences in the reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking after forced abstinence in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eKucerova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Preventing relapse to drug abuse is one of the struggles faced by clinicians in order to treat patients with substance use disorders (DSM-5. There is a large body of clinical evidence suggesting differential characteristics of the disorder in men and women which is in line with preclinical findings as well. The aim of this study was to assess differences in relapse-like behavior in methamphetamine (METH seeking after a period of forced abstinence which simulates the real clinical situation very well. Findings from such study might add new insights in gender differences in relapse mechanisms to previous studies, which employ a classical drug or cue-induced reinstatement procedure following the extinction training.Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in IV self-administration procedure conducted in operant boxes using nose-poke operandi (Coulborn Instruments, USA. Active nose-poke resulted in activation of the infusion pump to deliver one intravenous infusion of METH (0.08 mg/kg. After baseline drug intake was established (maintenance phase, a period of forced abstinence was initiated and rats were kept singly in their home-cages for 14 days. Finally, one reinstatement session in operant boxes was conducted. Females were found to self-administer significantly lower dose of METH. The relapse rate was assessed as a number of active nose-pokes during the reinstatement session, expressed as a percentage of active nose-poking during the maintenance phase. Females displayed approximately 300 % of active nose-pokes compared to 48 % in males. This indicates higher vulnerability to relapse of METH seeking behavior in female rats. This effect was detected in all females, independently of current phase of their estrous cycle. Therefore, this paradigm using operant drug self-administration and reinstatement of drug-seeking after forced abstinence model can be used for preclinical screening for potential new anti-relapse medications specific for

  6. Abstinence-Related Word Associations and Definitions of Abstinence and Virginity among Missouri High School Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kelly L.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Menn, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Background: The ways in which adolescents define and view sex, abstinence, and virginity impact the efforts of sexuality educators and sexual health professionals. This study examined terminology used by nonsexually active high school students to define abstinence and virginity and identified words students associate with these terms. Purposes…

  7. Visual P300s in long-term abstinent chronic alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, George; Chang, Maria

    2006-12-01

    Evidence of reduced P3b amplitudes in chronic alcoholics and individuals at risk for developing alcoholism suggest that the P3b may be an endophenotypic marker for alcoholism. If this is the case, then long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAAs) should exhibit reduced P3b amplitudes. Thus far, P3b studies on chronic alcoholics have focused primarily on samples with relatively short-term abstinence (less than 15 months). This study examines the amplitude and latency of the P3b and P3a event-related brain electrical components in LTAAs compared with normal controls (NCs) and whether these measures are related to alcohol use and other subject variables. Electroencephalographs (EEGs) were recorded on 48 LTAAs (mean abstinence=6.7 years) compared with 48 age-matched and gender-matched NCs during a visual P300 experiment consisting of standard, target, and rare nontarget conditions. This paradigm elicited the P3b (target condition) and the P3a (rare nontarget condition) components. Long-term abstinent alcoholics had reduced P3b amplitudes and increased P3b latencies in comparison with NCs. Long-term abstinent alcoholics also exhibited delayed P3a components, but no P3a amplitude reductions. Alcohol use variables, a family history of alcohol problems, and the duration of alcohol abstinence were not associated with any amplitude or latency variables. Even after very prolonged abstinence, reduced P3b amplitudes are present in chronic alcoholics and are not associated with any family history or alcohol use variables. These results provide equivocal support for reduced P3b amplitude being an endophenotypic marker for alcoholism, but are also consistent with P3b being affected by a threshold of alcohol abuse, with the effect not resolving over long periods of abstinence.

  8. Subjective social status affects smoking abstinence during acute withdrawal through affective mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Li, Yisheng; Cao, Yumei; Businelle, Michael S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2010-05-01

    Direct and mediated associations between subjective social status (SSS), a subjective measure of socio-economic status, and smoking abstinence were examined during the period of acute withdrawal among a diverse sample of 421 smokers (33% Caucasian, 34% African American, 33% Latino) undergoing a quit attempt. Logistic regressions examined relations between SSS and abstinence, controlling for socio-demographic variables. Depression, stress, positive affect and negative affect on the quit day were examined as potential affective mediators of the SSS-abstinence association, with and without adjusting for pre-quit mediator scores. SSS predicted abstinence to 2 weeks post-quit. Abstinence rates were 2.6 (postquit week 1) and 2.4 (postquit week 2) times higher in the highest versus the lowest SSS quartile. Depression and positive affect mediated the SSS-abstinence relationships, but only depression maintained significance when adjusting for the baseline mediator score. Among a diverse sample of quitting smokers, low SSS predicted relapse during acute withdrawal after controlling for numerous covariates, an effect accounted for partially by quit day affective symptomatology. Smokers endorsing lower SSS face significant hurdles in achieving cessation, highlighting the need for targeted interventions encompassing attention to quit day mood reactivity.

  9. Sternal Pulse Rate Variability Compared with Heart Rate Variability on Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chreiteh, Shadi; Belhage, Bo; Hoppe, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) is a commonly used method to quantify the sympathetic and the parasympathetic modulation of the heart rate. HRV is mainly conducted on electrocardiograms (ECG). However, the use of photoplethysmography (PPG) as a marker of the autonomic tone is emerging....... In this study we investigated the feasibility of deriving pulse rate variability (PRV) using PPG signals recorded by a reflectance PPG sensor attached to the chest bone (sternum) and comparing it to HRV. The recordings were conducted on 9 healthy subjects being in a relaxed supine position and under forced...... respiration, where the subjects were asked to breathe following a visual scale with a rate of 27 breaths/min. HRV parameters such as the mean intervals (meanNN), the standard deviation of intervals (SDNN), the root mean square of difference of successive intervals (RMSSD), and the proportion of intervals...

  10. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement as a maintenance intervention for the treatment of cocaine dependence: post-intervention outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFulio, Anthony; Silverman, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Aims Due to the chronicity of cocaine dependence, practical and effective maintenance interventions are needed to sustain long-term abstinence. We sought to assess the effects of long-term employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence after discontinuation of the intervention. Design Participants who initiated sustained opiate and cocaine abstinence during a 6-month abstinence reinforcement and training program worked as data entry operators and were randomly assigned to a group that could work independent of drug use (Control, n = 24), or an abstinence-contingent employment (n = 27) group that was required to provide cocaine- and opiate-negative urine samples to work and maintain maximum rate of pay. Setting A nonprofit data entry business. Participants Unemployed welfare recipients who persistently used cocaine while in methadone treatment. Measurements Urine samples and self-reports were collected every six months for 30 months. Findings During the employment year, abstinence-contingent employment participants provided significantly more cocaine-negative samples than controls (82.7% and 54.2%; P = .01, OR = 4.61). During the follow-up year, the groups had similar rates of cocaine-negative samples (44.2% and 50.0%; P = .93), and HIV-risk behaviors. Participants’ social, employment, economic, and legal conditions were similar in the two groups across all phases of the study. Conclusions Employment-based reinforcement effectively maintains long-term cocaine abstinence, but many patients relapse to use when the abstinence contingency is discontinued, even after a year of abstinence-contingent employment. Relapse could be prevented in many patients by leaving employment-based abstinence reinforcement in place indefinitely, which could be facilitated by integrating it into typical workplaces. PMID:21226886

  11. Analytic neutrality, anonymity, abstinence, and elective self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, Merton A

    2004-01-01

    Recent contributions to the psychoanalytic literature propose new ways of understanding analytic neutrality, anonymity, abstinence, and self-disclosure. They advocate elective self-disclosure by the analyst as an antidote to the allegedly game-playing quality of transference and resistance analysis. The analytic relationship, they assert, becomes unreal when attempts are made to observe the principles of neutrality and abstinence. Both are seen as ill-conceived because of the irreducible subjectivity and unwarranted authority of the analyst. These relational and interactional views are criticized because (1) they ignore the fact that transference and resistance analysis have from Freud onward been accepted as minimal criteria qualifying a clinical process as psychoanalytic; (2) elective self-disclosure carries metapsychological implications dismissing not only Freud's theory of motivation but motivation as a basic feature of human personality; (3) they do not recognize interpersonal relations as mental events and so do not consider the ego's ability to create intrapsychic representations of object relations; (4) elective self-disclosures within the empathic parameters of the analytic situation are themselves unreal compared to the reality of the patient's experience with other objects. Abstinence and neutrality as ideals facilitate maintenance of an internal holding environment or container for the analyst's countertransference.

  12. Comparative assessment of clinical rating scales in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpert, Hanna M; Pfeiffenberger, Jan; Gröner, Jan B; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Gotthardt, Daniel N; Schäfer, Mark; Weiss, Karl Heinz; Weiler, Markus

    2017-07-21

    Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism resulting in multifaceted neurological, hepatic, and psychiatric symptoms. The objective of the study was to comparatively assess two clinical rating scales for WD, the Unified Wilson's Disease Rating Scale (UWDRS) and the Global Assessment Scale for Wilson's disease (GAS for WD), and to test the feasibility of the patient reported part of the UWDRS neurological subscale (termed the "minimal UWDRS"). In this prospective, monocentric, cross-sectional study, 65 patients (median age 35 [range: 15-62] years; 33 female, 32 male) with treated WD were scored according to the two rating scales. The UWDRS neurological subscore correlated with the GAS for WD Tier 2 score (r = 0.80; p < 0.001). Correlations of the UWDRS hepatic subscore and the GAS for WD Tier 1 score with both the Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (r = 0.44/r = 0.28; p < 0.001/p = 0.027) and the Child-Pugh score (r = 0.32/r = 0.12; p = 0.015/p = 0.376) were weak. The "minimal UWDRS" score significantly correlated with the UWDRS total score (r = 0.86), the UWDRS neurological subscore (r = 0.89), and the GAS for WD Tier 2 score (r = 0.86). The UWDRS neurological and psychiatric subscales and the GAS for WD Tier 2 score are valuable tools for the clinical assessment of WD patients. The "minimal UWDRS" is a practical prescreening tool outside scientific trials.

  13. Abstinence-Only Sex Education: College Students' Evaluations and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the abstinence-only sex education experiences of a small group of young adults in the southeastern USA. Most participants felt that their abstinence-only sex education had mixed value and low overall impact in their lives. Perceptions about abstinence, virginity, and marriage varied significantly from those stressed…

  14. Large-scale brain network coupling predicts acute nicotine abstinence effects on craving and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Caryn; Gu, Hong; Loughead, James; Ruparel, Kosha; Yang, Yihong; Stein, Elliot A

    2014-05-01

    Interactions of large-scale brain networks may underlie cognitive dysfunctions in psychiatric and addictive disorders. To test the hypothesis that the strength of coupling among 3 large-scale brain networks--salience, executive control, and default mode--will reflect the state of nicotine withdrawal (vs smoking satiety) and will predict abstinence-induced craving and cognitive deficits and to develop a resource allocation index (RAI) that reflects the combined strength of interactions among the 3 large-scale networks. A within-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging study in an academic medical center compared resting-state functional connectivity coherence strength after 24 hours of abstinence and after smoking satiety. We examined the relationship of abstinence-induced changes in the RAI with alterations in subjective, behavioral, and neural functions. We included 37 healthy smoking volunteers, aged 19 to 61 years, for analyses. Twenty-four hours of abstinence vs smoking satiety. Inter-network connectivity strength (primary) and the relationship with subjective, behavioral, and neural measures of nicotine withdrawal during abstinence vs smoking satiety states (secondary). The RAI was significantly lower in the abstinent compared with the smoking satiety states (left RAI, P = .002; right RAI, P = .04), suggesting weaker inhibition between the default mode and salience networks. Weaker inter-network connectivity (reduced RAI) predicted abstinence-induced cravings to smoke (r = -0.59; P = .007) and less suppression of default mode activity during performance of a subsequent working memory task (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, r = -0.66, P = .003; posterior cingulate cortex, r = -0.65, P = .001). Alterations in coupling of the salience and default mode networks and the inability to disengage from the default mode network may be critical in cognitive/affective alterations that underlie nicotine dependence.

  15. Associations between University Students' Reported Reasons for Abstinence from Illicit Substances and Type of Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Harold; Bonar, Erin E.; Pavlick, Michelle; Jones, Lance D.; Hoffmann, Erica; Murray, Shanna; Faigin, Carol Ann; Cabral, Kyle; Baylen, Chelsea

    2012-01-01

    We recruited 211 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 34 listed reasons for not taking drugs had influenced their abstinence from MDMA/ecstasy, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens. Participants rated reasons such as personal and family medical histories, religion, and physiological consequences of drug use as having little or no…

  16. A Comparative Study of the Drying Rate Constant, Drying Efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adoption of the drying techniques would ensure steady availability of these vegetables all the year round as well as reduce carbon emissions from the conventional drying methods and hence mitigate global warming. KEYWORDS: Solar drying, open- air sun drying, drying rate constant, falling rate, climate change, food ...

  17. Comparative Study of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    the rouleaux formation of erythrocyte all of which collectively permit circulation and formation of the blood constituent (Hall and Malia, 1998).Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) also called the Sed rate determination is a simple, inexpensive non-specific laboratory test that is frequently ordered in clinical medicine. The test ...

  18. Outcomes of adult heroin users v. abstinent users four years after presenting for heroin detoxification treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zureida Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are no studies in South Africa (SA on the outcomes following detoxification and psychosocial rehabilitation of heroin-dependent patients. Objective. To compare the demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data of active heroin users v. users who were abstinent at the time of interview 4 years after attending the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital in the Western Cape Province, SA.  Method. Participants included patients above the age of 16 years who had been admitted to the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital for heroin detoxification between July 2006 and June 2007. Participants were individually interviewed (either in person or tele­phonically using a structured self-report questionnaire to collect demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data 4 years following heroin detoxification treatment at this unit.  Results. Of the participants, 60% were abstinent and a large portion (34% attributed this to social support. Furthermore, there was a significant (p=0.04 difference in the longest period of abstinence between the past user group and active users, with more participants in the past user group being abstinent for 18 months or longer (n=24, 57% than in the active users group (n=8, 29%. Active users (n=18, 64% had significantly (p=0.03 more legal problems than abstinent users (n=14, 33%. Most participants (n=38, 54% relapsed within 3 months after index detoxification and rehabilitation.  Conclusion. Active users had more legal problems than abstinent users, with social support structures playing a pivotal role in abstinence. Future research should assess the impact of interventions such as post-discharge social support programmes on criminality and heroin use in those that relapse following treatment.

  19. Lobeline attenuates ethanol abstinence-induced depression-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roni, Monzurul Amin; Rahman, Shafiqur

    2017-06-01

    Evidence indicates that the brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) ligand lobeline reduces depression-like behaviors, ethanol drinking, and nicotine withdrawal-induced depression-like behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of lobeline on ethanol abstinence-induced depression-like behavior and associated neuroadaptive changes in mice. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were allowed to drink 10% ethanol for 4 weeks using a two-bottle choice procedure. Mice were tested after 24 h and 14 days of ethanol abstinence in a forced swim test (FST), a measure for depression-like behavior. Acute lobeline treatment (1 mg/kg) significantly reduced immobility time compared to controls after 24 h and 14 days of abstinence. In addition, abstinence from chronic ethanol exposure reduced serotonin levels in the hippocampus, which was reversed by acute lobeline treatment. Repeated lobeline treatment (1 mg/kg, once daily) for 14 days during ethanol abstinence also significantly reduced FST immobility in mice exposed to ethanol. Chronic ethanol exposure significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo 2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, indicating decreased hippocampal cell proliferation. Abstinence from chronic ethanol exposure also decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the dentate gyrus and CA3 region of the hippocampus. In contrast, repeated lobeline treatment significantly increased both BrdU- and BDNF-positive cells. Taken together, our results indicate that lobeline produced antidepressant-like effects, likely by targeting brain β2-containing nAChRs, serotonergic neurotransmission, and/or hippocampal cell proliferation. Therefore, lobeline may have therapeutic utility to treat alcohol abstinence-induced depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling naturalistic craving, withdrawal, and affect during early nicotine abstinence: A pilot ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O; Sheets, Erin S; Krull, Jennifer L; Guzman, Iris; Ray, Lara A

    2015-04-01

    Despite the critical role of withdrawal, craving, and positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in smoking relapse, relatively little is known about the temporal and predictive relationship between these constructs within the first day of abstinence. This pilot study aims to characterize dynamic changes in withdrawal, craving, and affect over the course of early abstinence using ecological momentary assessment. Beginning immediately after smoking, moderate and heavy smoking participants (n = 15 per group) responded to hourly surveys assessing craving, withdrawal, NA, and PA. Univariate and multivariate multilevel random coefficient modeling was used to describe the progression of craving, withdrawal/NA, and PA and to test correlations between these constructs at the subject level over the course of early abstinence. Heavy smokers reported greater craving from 1-4 hr of abstinence and greater withdrawal/NA after 3 or more hours as compared with moderate smokers. Level of withdrawal/NA was strongly positively associated with craving, and PA was negatively correlated with craving; however, the temporal dynamics of these correlations differed substantially. The association between withdrawal/NA and craving decreased over early abstinence, whereas the reverse was observed for PA. These findings can inform experimental studies of nicotine abstinence as well as their clinical applications to smoking cessation efforts. In particular, these results help to elucidate the role of PA in nicotine abstinence by demonstrating its independent association with nicotine craving over and above withdrawal/NA. If supported by future studies, these findings can refine experimental methods and clinical approaches for smoking cessation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Adolescent abstinence and unprotected sex in CyberSenga, an Internet-based HIV prevention program: randomized clinical trial of efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele L Ybarra

    Full Text Available Cost-effective, scalable programs are urgently needed in countries deeply affected by HIV.This parallel-group RCT was conducted in four secondary schools in Mbarara, Uganda. Participants were 12 years and older, reported past-year computer or Internet use, and provided informed caregiver permission and youth assent. The intervention, CyberSenga, was a five-hour online healthy sexuality program. Half of the intervention group was further randomized to receive a booster at four-months post-intervention. The control arm received 'treatment as usual' (i.e., school-delivered sexuality programming. The main outcome measures were: 1 condom use and 2 abstinence in the past three months at six-months' post-intervention. Secondary outcomes were: 1 condom use and 2 abstinence at three-month's post-intervention; and 6-month outcomes by booster exposure. Analyses were intention to treat.All 416 eligible youth were invited to participate, 88% (n = 366 of whom enrolled. Participants were randomized to the intervention (n = 183 or control (n = 183 arm; 91 intervention participants were further randomized to the booster. No statistically significant results were noted among the main outcomes. Among the secondary outcomes: At three-month follow-up, trends suggested that intervention participants (81% were more likely to be abstinent than control participants (74%; p = 0.08, and this was particularly true among youth who were abstinent at baseline (88% vs. 77%; p = 0.02. At six-month follow-up, those in the booster group (80% reported higher rates of abstinence than youth in the intervention, no booster (57% and control (55% groups (p = 0.15; they also reported lower rates of unprotected sex (5% compared to youth in the intervention, no booster (24% and control (21% groups (p = 0.21 among youth sexually active at baseline.The CyberSenga program may affect HIV preventive behavior among abstinent youth in the short term and, with the

  2. Effects of tiagabine in combination with intravenous nicotine in overnight abstinent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Mouratidis, Maria; Yoo, Sonah; Culligan, Kerry; Kosten, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that medications enhancing the brain gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) system attenuate the rewarding effects of stimulants including nicotine. These preclinical studies have not been followed up in systematic human studies. This study was conducted to examine the effects of a GABAergic medication, tiagabine, on acute physiological and subjective effects of intravenous (i.v.) nicotine and on tobacco withdrawal symptoms in overnight abstinent smokers. The proposed mechanism of action for tiagabine is selective inhibition of GABA transporter type I, which leads to increases in synaptic GABA levels. Eight male and four female smokers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. In each of three experimental sessions, participants were treated orally with a single 4- or 8-mg dose of tiagabine or placebo. Two hours following the medication treatment, participants received i.v. saline, followed 30 min later by 1.5 mg/70 kg i.v. nicotine. Tiagabine treatment did not affect the heart rate or blood pressure changes induced by nicotine. There was a significant treatment effect for the subjective responses to nicotine, such that tiagabine, compared to placebo, attenuated the ratings of "good effects" and "drug liking." Tiagabine treatment at 8 mg attenuated the craving for cigarettes and enhanced the cognitive performance in the Classical Stoop Tests, compared to placebo or 4 mg tiagabine condition. These results suggest that GABA enhancing medication tiagabine may reduce the rewarding effects of nicotine and improve cognitive performance in abstinent smokers. The utility of GABA medications for smoking cessation needs to be examined further in controlled clinical trials.

  3. Human rights of children with intellectual disabilities: comparing self-ratings and proxy ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huus, K; Granlund, M; Bornman, J; Lygnegård, F

    2015-11-01

    A child rights-based approach to research articulates well with Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and highlights the importance and value of including children's own views about aspects that concern them. The aim of this study is to compare children with intellectual disability's own ratings (as self-raters) to those of their primary caregivers (as proxy raters) regarding human rights of children. The study also aims to establish whether there is an inter-rater agreement between the self-raters and proxy raters concerning Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This study is nested in a larger study examining the human rights of children with intellectual disability in South Africa. In total, 162 children with intellectual disability from 11 schools across three provinces and their primary caregivers participated by answering parts of a Children's Rights Questionnaire (CRQ) developed by the researchers based on the United Nation's CRC. We compared the answers for six questions in the questionnaire that were addressed to self-raters (children) and proxy raters (primary caregivers) in the same way. Questions regarding basic needs, such as access to clean water or whether the child had food to eat at home, were answered similarly by self-raters and proxy raters. Larger differences were found when self-raters and proxy raters were asked about whether the child had things or friends to play with at home. Socio-economic variables seemed to affect whether self-raters and proxy raters answered similarly. The results underscore the importance of promoting children's rights to express themselves by considering the opinions of both the children as self-raters and their primary caregivers as proxy raters - not only the latter. The results indicate that it is especially important to include children's own voices when more complex needs are surveyed. Agreement between self- and proxy ratings could be affected by socio-economic circumstances.

  4. Corn nitrogen fertilization rate tools compared over eight Midwest states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publicly-available nitrogen (N) rate recommendation tools are utilized to help maximize yield in corn production. These tools often fail when N is over-applied and results in excess N being lost to the environment, or when N is under-applied and results in decreased yield and economic returns. Perfo...

  5. Effectiveness of Brief Abstinence for Modifying Problematic Internet Gaming Cognitions and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Kaptsis, Dean; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael

    2017-12-01

    This pilot study tested the efficacy of a voluntary 84-hour abstinence protocol for modifying problematic Internet gaming cognitions and behaviors METHOD: Twenty-four adults from online gaming communities, including 9 individuals who screened positively for Internet gaming disorder (IGD), abstained from Internet games for 84 hours. Surveys were collected at baseline, at daily intervals during abstinence, and at 7-day and 28-day follow-up RESULTS: Brief voluntary abstinence was successful in reducing hours of gaming, maladaptive gaming cognitions, and IGD symptoms. Abstinence was highly acceptable to participants with total compliance and no study attrition. Clinically significant improvement in IGD symptoms occurred in 75% of the IGD group at 28-day follow-up. Reliable improvement in maladaptive gaming cognitions occurred in 63% of the IGD group, whose cognition score reduced by 50% and was comparable to the non-IGD group at 28-day follow-up CONCLUSIONS: Despite limitations of sample size, this study provides promising support for brief abstinence as a simple, practical, and cost-effective treatment technique for modifying unhelpful gaming cognitions and reducing Internet gaming problems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Attentional bias in non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers, and abstinent pathological gamblers: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Maria; Nigro, Giovanna; Griffiths, Mark D; Cosenza, Marina; D'Olimpio, Francesca

    2016-12-01

    Attentional biases have been recognized as factors responsible for the maintenance of gambling problems. To date, no study has ever assessed the attentional biases among problem gamblers that have discontinued gambling (e.g., abstinent gamblers in treatment). The sample consisted of 75 participants comprising three groups: non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers, and abstinent pathological gamblers undergoing treatment. The groups were discriminated using South Oaks Gambling Screen scores, with the exception of the abstinent pathological gamblers that already had a DSM-5 diagnosis for gambling disorder. Participants carried out a modified Posner Task for the assessment of attentional bias for gambling stimuli and completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and the Gambling Craving Scale. Abstinent pathological gamblers showed an avoidance bias in the maintenance of attention, whereas problem gamblers exhibited a facilitation in detecting gambling stimuli. No biases were detected in non-problem gamblers. The results also demonstrated that compared to the other groups, abstinent pathological gamblers showed high emotional stress and problem gamblers reported a higher level of craving. The sample size limits the generalizability of results. The present study demonstrated that attentional biases affect the maintenance and the discontinuation of gambling activities, and that the subjective feeling of craving for gambling may facilitate problem gamblers' attention towards gambling stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A review of 21 curricula for abstinence-only-until-marriage programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kelly L; Goodson, Patricia; Pruitt, B E; Buhi, Eric; Davis-Gunnels, Emily

    2005-03-01

    The authors reviewed the content, methods, and overall quality of 21 curricula used in abstinence-only-until-marriage programs. Only materials designed for use in middle school grades (fifth to eighth) or with middle school-aged audiences (9-13 years of age), which presented the abstinence message in at least 40% of their content, were included. A rating instrument adapted from 2 sets of education guidelines structured the assessment of each curriculum. Four experienced teachers rated each curriculum. Curricula exhibited considerable variability in overall quality ratings. While on average, materials scored a 3.33 on a 1-to-5 scale (1 = Unacceptable; 5 = Excellent), 12 curricula received summative scores above the average, with 4 scoring 4.0 or higher. Eight curricula, however, received a below-average rating. While abstinence materials vary considerably in terms of overall quality, the values and world views underlying this sample of curricula were clear and consistent: those who develop abstinence education curricula value nonsexual antecedents of sexual behavior such as skills (goal setting, decision making, and assertiveness), ideals (fidelity, friendships), and psychological factors such as self-esteem.

  8. Altered orbitofrontal activity and dorsal striatal connectivity during emotion processing in dependent marijuana users after 28 days of abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Kaeli; Yao, Shuxia; Heinz, Marcel; Zhou, Feng; Dau, Wolfgang; Banger, Markus; Weber, Bernd; Hurlemann, René; Becker, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    Intact cognitive and emotional functioning is vital for the long-term success of addiction treatment strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests an association between chronic marijuana use and lasting alterations in cognitive brain function. Despite initial evidence for altered emotion processing in dependent marijuana users after short abstinence periods, adaptations in the domain of emotion processing after longer abstinence remain to be determined. Using task-based and resting state fMRI, the present study investigated emotion processing in 19 dependent marijuana users and 18 matched non-using controls after an abstinence period of > 28 days. Relative to the control subjects, negative emotional stimuli elicited increased medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) activity and stronger mOFC-dorsal striatal and mOFC-amygdala functional coupling in dependent marijuana users (p < 0.022, FWE-corrected). Furthermore, mOFC-dorsal striatal functional connectivity was increased at rest in marijuana users (p < 0.03, FWE-corrected). Yet, processing of positive stimuli and subjective ratings of valence and arousal were comparable in both groups. Together, the present findings provide the first evidence for persisting emotion processing alterations in dependent marijuana users. Alterations might reflect long-term neural adaptations as a consequence of chronic marijuana use or predisposing risk factors for the development of marijuana dependence.

  9. Psychological Symptoms are Associated with Both Abstinence and Risky Sex among Men with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol T.; Solomon, Sondra E.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Varni, Susan E.; Hodge, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual abstinence is often deemed the “safest behavior” in HIV prevention, but is sometimes associated with psychological symptoms (e.g., depression) just as sexually risky behavior is. This study explored whether sexual abstinence and risky sexual behavior among men with HIV are associated with similar constellations of psychological symptoms. Prior research has not addressed this issue because abstinent people often are not included in the sample, or when data are analyzed, researchers combine abstinent people with sexually active people who practice safer sex. Past research also neglects the co-morbidity of psychological symptoms. A latent class analysis of the psychological symptoms (assessed with the Symptom Check List 90-R; Derogatis, 1994) of 140 men with HIV, mostly from rural New England, revealed three latent classes; men who were asymptomatic on all symptom domains (28.8%), men who were symptomatic on all domains (34.1%), and men who were symptomatic on internalizing domains (37.1%), but were asymptomatic on the externalizing symptoms of hostility and paranoid ideation. Logistic regression showed that sexual behavior during the past 90 days of men in the all symptom class and the internalizing symptoms class was similar, with abstinence and risky sex predominating, and safer sex being relatively uncommon for both classes. The sexual behavior of men in the asymptomatic class differed, with safer sex being relatively more likely to occur compared to the symptomatic classes. These findings suggest that the psychological symptom profile of sexually abstinent people places them at risk for inconsistent condom use should they engage in sexual behavior. PMID:25614050

  10. Outcomes of adult heroin users v. abstinent users four years after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There are no studies in South Africa (SA) on the outcomes following detoxification and psychosocial rehabilitation of heroindependent patients. Objective. To compare the demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data of active heroin users v. users who were abstinent at the time of interview 4 years after ...

  11. Government Influence and Community Involvement on Abstinence-Only Programs in 1999 and 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusrang, Jamie L.; Cheng, Simon

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare federal government influence on abstinence-only programs in 1999 and 2003 to better see how shifts in the federal government's sex education polices impacted other government and community actors. Using data from the Sex Education in America Surveys (SEAS), we find that changes in federal policy, particularly after the…

  12. ABSTINENCE OF ILLICIT DRUGS, ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO IN THETREATMENT WITH METHADONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Čuk Rupnik

    2008-06-01

    In this research by the abstinence of heroin the program of CPTAID fits to successful ones.By smoking of tobacco the patients treated with methadone are very endangered population. The percentage of chronicaly infected by hepatitis C viruses is lower compared to themajority of other European countries

  13. Resting-State Neuroimaging and Neuropsychological Findings in Opioid Use Disorder during Abstinence: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieong, Hada Fong-Ha; Yuan, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Dependence to opiates, including illicit heroin and prescription pain killers, and treatment of the opioid use disorder (OUD) have been longstanding problems over the world. Despite intense efforts to scientific investigation and public health care, treatment outcomes have not significantly improved for the past 50 years. One reason behind the continuing use of heroin worldwide despite such efforts is its highly addictive nature. Brain imaging studies over the past two decades have made significant contribution to the understanding of the addictive properties as to be due in part to biological processes, specifically those in the brain structure and function. Moreover, traditional clinical neuropsychology studies also contribute to the account in part for the treatment-refractory nature of the drug abuse. However, there is a gap between those studies, and the rates of relapse are still high. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach is needed to understand the fundamental neural mechanism of OUD. How does the brain of an OUD patient functionally and cognitively differ from others? This brief review is to compare and contrast the current literature on non-invasive resting state neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychological studies with the focus on the abstinence stage in OUD. The results show as follow: Brain connectivity strength in the reward system, dysregulation of circuits associated with emotion and stress, enhanced beta and alpha power activity, and high impulsivity are induced by OUD.Some recovery signs in cognition are demonstrated in OUD subjects after prolonged abstinence, but not in the subjects undergoing methadone treatment.Normalization in the composition of brain oscillations especially in the temporal region is induced and restored by methadone treatment in roughly 6 months in mean duration for OUDs having a mean opioid-use history of 10 years. We hope that the review provides valuable implications for clinical research and practice and paves a new insight

  14. Voluntary co-consumption of alcohol and nicotine: Effects of abstinence, intermittency, and withdrawal in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Kyu Y; Touchette, Jillienne C; Hartell, Elizabeth C; Bade, Elizabeth J; Lee, Anna M

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often used together, and there is a high rate of co-occurrence between alcohol and nicotine addiction. Most animal models studying alcohol and nicotine interactions have utilized passive drug administration, which may not be relevant to human co-addiction. In addition, the interactions between alcohol and nicotine in female animals have been understudied, as most studies have used male animals. To address these issues, we developed models of alcohol and nicotine co-consumption in male and female mice that utilized voluntary, oral consumption of unsweetened alcohol, nicotine and water. We first examined drug consumption and preference in single-drug, sequential alcohol and nicotine consumption tests in male and female C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice. We then tested chronic continuous and intermittent access alcohol and nicotine co-consumption procedures. We found that male and female C57BL/6 mice readily co-consumed unsweetened alcohol and nicotine. In our continuous co-consumption procedures, we found that varying the available nicotine concentration during an alcohol abstinence period affected compensatory nicotine consumption during alcohol abstinence, and affected rebound alcohol consumption when alcohol was re-introduced. Consumption of alcohol and nicotine in an intermittent co-consumption procedure produced higher alcohol consumption levels, but not nicotine consumption levels, compared with the continuous co-consumption procedures. Finally, we found that intermittent alcohol and nicotine co-consumption resulted in physical dependence. Our data show that these voluntary co-consumption procedures can be easily performed in mice and can be used to study behavioral interactions between alcohol and nicotine consumption, which may better model human alcohol and nicotine co-addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effects of State-Mandated Abstinence-Based Sex Education on Teen Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jillian B; Packham, Analisa

    2017-04-01

    In 2011, the USA had the second highest teen birth rate of any developed nation, according to the World Bank, . In an effort to lower teen pregnancy rates, several states have enacted policies requiring abstinence-based sex education. In this study, we utilize a difference-in-differences research design to analyze the causal effects of state-level sex education policies from 2000-2011 on various teen sexual health outcomes. We find that state-level abstinence education mandates have no effect on teen birth rates or abortion rates, although we find that state-level policies may affect teen sexually transmitted disease rates in some states. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Perception of sleep and dreams in alcohol-dependent patients during detoxication and abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinig, Jana; Foraita, Ronja; Happe, Svenja; Heinze, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate sleep quality and the subjective dream experience in alcohol-dependent patients during withdrawal and abstinence compared with healthy controls. Thirty-seven patients with alcohol dependency and 35 healthy control subjects were asked to fill in several questionnaires and to give information about their subjective sleep and dream experiences. Twelve patients participated in a follow-up interview 4 weeks later. Sleep quality is impaired in alcohol-dependent patients during detoxication, and the subjective dream experience is more negatively toned compared with healthy controls. Both sleep quality and dream experience improves slightly after 4 weeks of abstinence. Patients with alcohol dependency during withdrawal and abstinence dream significantly more often about alcohol. However, none of the abstinent alcohol-dependent patients dreamed about alcohol during withdrawal. This study shows that the subjective sleep and dream quality is strongly impaired in patients with alcohol dependency. Differences in the dream experience between alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls are in accordance with the continuity hypotheses of dreaming. The hypothesis of dreaming about alcohol as a compensatory effect, however, could not be confirmed.

  17. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-17

    Jun 17, 2016 ... of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a ... of premarital sex and childbearing by young people (Kabiru &. Ezeh 2007). ... ing programs in reducing risky sexual behaviors among young people, with ...

  18. Abstinence And Faithfulness Programmes For Prevention Of Hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questions have been raised on whether abstinence and faithfulness programs work, particularly for young people. Research is needed for evidence-based documentation of the effectiveness or otherwise of abstinence and faithfulness programmes in young people. This review was conducted in three stages: identification ...

  19. UNZA Students as Leaders for Abstinence Programmes | Musepa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also found that presentations on career options were able to capture the attention of the pupils and engage them into discussions on HIV and AIDS and abstinence. Conclusion: Combined abstinence and comprehensive sex education should be used to help bring about delayed initiation of sexual activities, address ...

  20. Subjective social status predicts long-term smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; Li, Yisheng; Cao, Yumei; Castro, Yessenia; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2011-02-25

    The relationship between subjective social status (SSS), a person's perception of his/her relative position in the social hierarchy, and the ability to achieve long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence among 421 racially/ethnically diverse smokers undergoing a specific quit attempt, as well as the interactive effects of race/ethnicity and sex. The main effects and moderated relationships of SSS on biochemically-confirmed, continuous smoking abstinence through 26 weeks post-quit were examined using continuation ratio logit models adjusted for sociodemographics and smoking characteristics. Even after adjusting for the influence of socioeconomic status and other covariates, smokers endorsing lower SSS were significantly less likely to maintain long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt than those with higher SSS (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.28; p = 0.044). The statistical significance of this relationship, however, did not vary by race/ethnicity or sex. SSS independently predicts long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt. SSS may be a useful screener to identify smokers at elevated risk of relapse who may require additional attention to facilitate long-term abstinence. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence in order to appropriately tailor treatment to facilitate abstinence among lower SSS smokers.

  1. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to ...

  2. Assessment of the reduction in levels of exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents in Japanese subjects using a novel tobacco heating system compared with conventional cigarettes and smoking abstinence: A randomized controlled study in confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haziza, Christelle; de La Bourdonnaye, Guillaume; Merlet, Sarah; Benzimra, Muriel; Ancerewicz, Jacek; Donelli, Andrea; Baker, Gizelle; Picavet, Patrick; Lüdicke, Frank

    2016-11-01

    Smoking conventional cigarettes (CCs) exposes smokers to harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). The Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2), a candidate modified risk tobacco product, was developed to reduce or eliminate the formation of HPHCs, while preserving as much as possible the taste, sensory experience, nicotine delivery profile and ritual characteristics of CC. This randomized, controlled, open-label study in confinement for 5 day exposure aimed to demonstrate the reduction in exposure to selected HPHCs, to assess nicotine uptake and subjective effects, in participants switching to THS 2.2 (n = 80) compared to participants continuing smoking CCs (n = 40) and abstaining from smoking (n = 40). The subjects were randomized according to sex and daily CC consumption. The levels of biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs were significantly reduced in participants switching to THS 2.2, compared to CC use. More importantly, the magnitude of exposure reduction observed was close to that which was seen in participants who abstained from smoking for 5 days, while nicotine uptake was maintained. Reduction in urge-to-smoke was comparable between THS and CC groups, however THS 2.2 was slightly less satisfactory than CCs. The new, alternative tobacco product THS 2.2 was well tolerated. Copyright © 2016 Philip Morris Products S.A. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Personality in the big five model and maintaining abstinence after one year follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betkowska-Korpała, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    To compare Five-Factor personality traits in patients maintaining abstinence and relapsed patients (i.e. those who relapsed within a year after treatment), following eight weeks of in-house treatment and three months of out-patient treatment. In longitudinal studies, a sample of 190 patients was analysed (49 females and 141 males; mean age: 43). The patients participated in therapeutic programmes at several addiction treatment centres across Poland. Personality traits were measured using the NEO PI-R inventory proposed by Costa and McCrae (adapted into Polish by Jerzy Siuta) at the initial stage of the treatment. Abstinence was assessed based on the interview. As far as the main traits are concerned, abstinent patients have higher levels of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness than patients who relapsed within a year following the therapy. Moreover, they are characterised by higher levels of constituent traits: Straightforwardness, Ideas and Altruism, as well as higher levels of Order, Self-Discipline and Dutifulness. However, their levels of Hostility are lower compared to patients not maintaining abstinence. After one year follow-up, the group maintaining abstinence is characterised by a higher Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, which is beneficial for cooperation with others as well as undertaking and realising tasks. Moreover, lower constituent values of Neuroticism are linked to higher adaptability and greater therapy participation than in a relapsed group. An early identification of patients bearing traits linked to lower adaptability will decrease the possibility of relapse thanks to making a greater effort at enhancing treatment participation while paying special attention to any co-existing psychopathology.

  4. Neonatal abstinence syndrome: a never ending story!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes N. van den Anker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal Abstinence syndrome (NAS is the result of fetal exposure to illicit or prescription drugs (for example opioids, benzodiazepines, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors taken by the mother prenatally. NAS is a complex of symptoms, caused by acute withdrawal of the illicit drug(s used by their mothers during pregnancy, seen in neonates hours or days after being born. In the United States of America around 16% of teenagers and 7% of women between the ages of 18 and 25 use illicit drugs during their pregnancies. In this paper the treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy and treatment of NAS are presented. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  5. Offenders, Judges, and Officers Rate the Relative Severity of Alternative Sanctions Compared to Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nathan T.; May, David C.; Wood, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    Recent work suggests that offenders rate several alternatives as more severe than imprisonment. We build on this literature by comparing punishment exchange rates generated by criminal court judges with rates generated by offenders and their supervising officers. Findings reveal that none of the three groups rates prison as the most severe…

  6. Abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education and the initiation of sexual activity and teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Pamela K; Manhart, Lisa E; Lafferty, William E

    2008-04-01

    The role that sex education plays in the initiation of sexual activity and risk of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease (STD) is controversial in the United States. Despite several systematic reviews, few epidemiologic evaluations of the effectiveness of these programs on a population level have been conducted. Among never-married heterosexual adolescents, aged 15-19 years, who participated in Cycle 6 (2002) of the National Survey of Family Growth and reported on formal sex education received before their first sexual intercourse (n = 1719), we compared the sexual health risks of adolescents who received abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education to those of adolescents who received no formal sex education. Weighted multivariate logistic regression generated population-based estimates. Adolescents who received comprehensive sex education were significantly less likely to report teen pregnancy (OR(adj) = .4, 95% CI = .22- .69, p = .001) than those who received no formal sex education, whereas there was no significant effect of abstinence-only education (OR(adj) = .7, 95% CI = .38-1.45, p = .38). Abstinence-only education did not reduce the likelihood of engaging in vaginal intercourse (OR(adj) = .8, 95% CI = .51-1.31, p = .40), but comprehensive sex education was marginally associated with a lower likelihood of reporting having engaged in vaginal intercourse (OR(adj) = .7, 95% CI = .49-1.02, p = .06). Neither abstinence-only nor comprehensive sex education significantly reduced the likelihood of reported STD diagnoses (OR(adj) = 1.7, 95% CI = .57-34.76, p = .36 and OR(adj) = 1.8, 95% CI = .67-5.00, p = .24 respectively). Teaching about contraception was not associated with increased risk of adolescent sexual activity or STD. Adolescents who received comprehensive sex education had a lower risk of pregnancy than adolescents who received abstinence-only or no sex education.

  7. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement following inpatient detoxification in HIV-positive opioid and/or cocaine-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kelly E; Fingerhood, Michael; Wong, Conrad J; Svikis, Dace S; Nuzzo, Paul; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    Employment-based reinforcement interventions have been used to promote abstinence from drugs among chronically unemployed injection drug users. The current study used an employment-based reinforcement intervention to promote opioid and cocaine abstinence among opioid and/or cocaine-dependent, HIV-positive participants who had recently completed a brief inpatient detoxification. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to an abstinence and work group that was required to provide negative urine samples in order to enter the workplace and to earn incentives for work (n = 16), a work-only group that was permitted to enter the workplace and to earn incentives independent of drug use (n = 15), and a no-voucher control group that did not receive any incentives for working (n = 15) over a 26-week period. The primary outcome was urinalysis-confirmed opioid, cocaine, and combined opioid/cocaine abstinence. Participants were 78% male and 89% African American. Results showed no significant between-groups differences in urinalysis-verified drug abstinence or HIV risk behaviors during the 6-month intervention. The work-only group had significantly greater workplace attendance, and worked more minutes per day when compared to the no-voucher group. Several features of the study design, including the lack of an induction period, setting the threshold for entering the workplace too high by requiring immediate abstinence from several drugs, and increasing the risk of relapse by providing a brief detoxification that was not supported by any continued pharmacological intervention, likely prevented the workplace from becoming established as a reinforcer that could be used to promote drug abstinence. However, increases in workplace attendance have important implications for adult training programs.

  8. Changes in marijuana use symptoms and emotional functioning over 28-days of monitored abstinence in adolescent marijuana users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Escobar, Silvia; McKenna, Benjamin M; Hernandez, Margie Mejia; Bagot, Kara S; Taylor, Charles T; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2017-12-01

    Advancing marijuana prevention and intervention efforts are important given the decreasing perception of harm among adolescents and increasing marijuana legalization. This study evaluates how a monitored abstinence protocol may contribute to emotional functioning and changes in marijuana problems that can enhance successful outcomes for non-treatment-seeking adolescent marijuana users. Adolescent marijuana users (n = 26) and demographically matched controls (n = 30) completed 28 days of monitored abstinence confirmed by biweekly urine toxicology. Participants were given measures of emotional functioning, marijuana use symptoms, and reward sensitivity during monitored abstinence. All participants (n = 56) completed the protocol, and 69% of marijuana users (n = 18 of 26) were confirmed abstinent for 28 days, with all users showing decreasing marijuana use. Reductions in subsyndromal depression, positive marijuana use expectancies, and poor sleep quality were observed by the end of the monitored abstinence period (n = 26, p values < .05). Marijuana users also reported more attentional impulsivity and less responsiveness to reward stimuli during the second week of abstinence compared to controls. Later age of onset of regular marijuana use and more cumulative lifetime use were associated with a greater degree of emotional change and increased recognition of the negative effects of marijuana use. Monitored abstinence programs may be beneficial in reducing marijuana use, subsyndromal emotional distress symptoms, and changing beliefs about marijuana use. Future prevention and intervention efforts may consider targeting reward sensitivity and impulsivity, in addition to marijuana use, expectancies, and emotional functioning.

  9. Brief intermittent cocaine self-administration and abstinence sensitizes cocaine effects on the dopamine transporter and increases drug seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calipari, Erin S; Siciliano, Cody A; Zimmer, Benjamin A; Jones, Sara R

    2015-02-01

    Although traditional sensitization paradigms, which result in an augmentation of cocaine-induced locomotor behavior and dopamine (DA) overflow following repeated experimenter-delivered cocaine injections, are often used as a model to study drug addiction, similar effects have been difficult to demonstrate following cocaine self-administration. We have recently shown that intermittent access (IntA) to cocaine can result in increased cocaine potency at the DA transporter (DAT); however, traditional sensitization paradigms often show enhanced effects following withdrawal/abstinence periods. Therefore, we determined a time course of IntA-induced sensitization by examining the effects of 1 or 3 days of IntA, as well as a 7-day abstinence period on DA function, cocaine potency, and reinforcement. Here we show that cocaine potency is increased following as little as 3 days of IntA and further augmented following an abstinence period. In addition, IntA plus abstinence produced greater evoked DA release in the presence of cocaine as compared with all other groups, demonstrating that following abstinence, both cocaine's ability to increase DA release and inhibit uptake at the DAT, two separate mechanisms for increasing DA levels, are enhanced. Finally, we found that IntA-induced sensitization of the DA system resulted in an increased reinforcing efficacy of cocaine, an effect that was augmented after the 7-day abstinence period. These results suggest that sensitization of the DA system may have an important role in the early stages of drug abuse and may drive the increased drug seeking and taking that characterize the transition to uncontrolled drug use. Human data suggest that intermittency, sensitization, and periods of abstinence have an integral role in the process of addiction, highlighting the importance of utilizing pre-clinical models that integrate these phenomena, and suggesting that IntA paradigms may serve as novel models of human addiction.

  10. Factors Related to Abstinence from Drug Use and Seeking Help from Medical Services in Taiwanese Heroin and Methamphetamine Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Yen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the factors related to abstinence from heroin and methamphetamine (MAMP use and to seeking help from medical services in Taiwanese drug users. Atotal of 196 heroin users and 226 MAMP users were recruited in this study. Their experience of previous abstinence from drug use and the routes taken to seek help for abstinence were determined at interview. Demographic data, characteristics of drug use and reasons to abstain from drug use were compared between subjects who had and those who had never tried to abstain from drug use before, as well as between the subjects who had previously sought help from medical services and those who had tried to abstain from drug use by themselves. Those who had previously tried to abstain from heroin use had longer durations of heroin use, spent more money on getting heroin, were more likely to have a criminal record of illicit drug use and had longer durations of being detained due to illicit drug use compared with those who had never tried to abstain from heroin use. Those who had sought help from medical services for abstinence were more likely to be heroin users and to spend more money on getting illicit drugs, and tried to abstain due to concerns about relationships with family. Demographic data, characteristics of drug use and reasons to abstain from drug use were different between drug users who had different experiences of abstinence.

  11. Predictive value of casual ECG-based resting heart rate compared with resting heart rate obtained from Holter recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Dixen, Ulrik; Marott, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Assessment of heart rate (HR) from Holter recording may afford a more precise estimate of the effect of RHR on cardiovascular risk, as compared to casual RHR. Comparative analysis was carried...... and mean HR by Multivariate Cox regression was performed. RESULTS: A total of 57 composite endpoints occurred during 17.1 years of follow-up. Regression analysis suggests correlation between Casual RHR and Holter RHR. Multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for gender and age demonstrated hazard...... rates of 1.02 (p = 0.079) for casual RHR, 1.04 (p = 0.036*) for Holter RHR, and 1.03 (p = 0.093) for mean HR for each 10 beat increment in HR. CONCLUSIONS: In a comparative analysis on the correlation and significance of differing RHR measurement modalities RHR measured by 24-hour Holter recording...

  12. Home-based detoxification for neonatal abstinence syndrome reduces length of hospital admission without prolonging treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirk, Cameron L; Bowman, Ellen; Doyle, Lex W; Kamlin, Omar

    2014-06-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a drug withdrawal syndrome, secondary to in utero chemical exposure and characterised by tremor, irritability and feed intolerance. It often requires prolonged hospital treatment and separation of families. Outpatient therapy may reduce this burden, but current literature is sparse. This review aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of our home-based detoxification programme and compare it with standard inpatient care. Infants requiring treatment for NAS between January 2004 and December 2010 were reviewed. Data on demographics, drug exposure, length of stay and type of therapy were compared between infants selected for home-based therapy and those treated conventionally. Of the 118 infants who were admitted for treatment of NAS, 38 (32%) were managed at home. Infants receiving home-based detoxification had shorter hospital stays (mean 19 days vs. 39 days), with no increase in total duration of treatment (mean 36 days vs. 41 days), and were more likely to be breastfeeding on discharge from hospital care (45% vs. 22%). In selected infants, home-based detoxification is associated with reduced hospital stays and increased rates of breastfeeding, without prolonging therapy. Safety of the infants remains paramount, which precludes many from entering such a programme. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Exposure to and Views of Information about Sexual Abstinence among Older Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K.; Biddlecom, Ann E.

    2011-01-01

    There is scant research of adolescents' understanding of abstinence. We conducted interviews with a sample of 58 teens to find out their exposure to abstinence information from a range of sources. Most teens had received abstinence information or messages from school, family members, and friends. For many teens, information about abstinence, or…

  14. Addiction: from context-induced hedonia to appetite, based on transition of micro-behaviors in morphine abstinent tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eDuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDrug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP. To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies.

  15. Predictive value of casual ECG-based resting heart rate compared with resting heart rate obtained from Holter recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Dixen, Ulrik; Marott, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Assessment of heart rate (HR) from Holter recording may afford a more precise estimate of the effect of RHR on cardiovascular risk, as compared to casual RHR. Comparative analysis was carried...... HRs recorded and mean HR calculated from all daytime HRs. Follow-up was recorded from public registers. Outcome measure was hazard rate for the combined endpoint of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal heart failure and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Comparison of casual RHR, Holter RHR...... was found to be marginally superior as a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The results presented here do not however warrant the abandonment of a tested epidemiological variable....

  16. Social relations and smoking abstinence among ever-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke Riegels; Boesen, Sidsel Helle

    2013-01-01

    Relational strain may be a risk factor for relapse after smoking cessation whereas social support may be protective. This study aimed to assess which aspects of social relations were associated with smoking abstinence among ever-smokers.......Relational strain may be a risk factor for relapse after smoking cessation whereas social support may be protective. This study aimed to assess which aspects of social relations were associated with smoking abstinence among ever-smokers....

  17. Subjective social status predicts long-term smoking abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cofta-Woerpel Ludmila

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between subjective social status (SSS, a person's perception of his/her relative position in the social hierarchy, and the ability to achieve long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence among 421 racially/ethnically diverse smokers undergoing a specific quit attempt, as well as the interactive effects of race/ethnicity and sex. Methods The main effects and moderated relationships of SSS on biochemically-confirmed, continuous smoking abstinence through 26 weeks post-quit were examined using continuation ratio logit models adjusted for sociodemographics and smoking characteristics. Results Even after adjusting for the influence of socioeconomic status and other covariates, smokers endorsing lower SSS were significantly less likely to maintain long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt than those with higher SSS (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.28; p = 0.044. The statistical significance of this relationship, however, did not vary by race/ethnicity or sex. Conclusions SSS independently predicts long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt. SSS may be a useful screener to identify smokers at elevated risk of relapse who may require additional attention to facilitate long-term abstinence. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence in order to appropriately tailor treatment to facilitate abstinence among lower SSS smokers.

  18. Characterizing Smoking and Drinking Abstinence from Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamersoy, Acar; De Choudhury, Munmun; Chau, Duen Horng

    2015-09-01

    Social media has been established to bear signals relating to health and well-being states. In this paper, we investigate the potential of social media in characterizing and understanding abstinence from tobacco or alcohol use. While the link between behavior and addiction has been explored in psychology literature, the lack of longitudinal self-reported data on long-term abstinence has challenged addiction research. We leverage the activity spanning almost eight years on two prominent communities on Reddit: StopSmoking and StopDrinking. We use the self-reported "badge" information of nearly a thousand users as gold standard information on their abstinence status to characterize long-term abstinence. We build supervised learning based statistical models that use the linguistic features of the content shared by the users as well as the network structure of their social interactions. Our findings indicate that long-term abstinence from smoking or drinking (~one year) can be distinguished from short-term abstinence (~40 days) with 85% accuracy. We further show that language and interaction on social media offer powerful cues towards characterizing these addiction-related health outcomes. We discuss the implications of our findings in social media and health research, and in the role of social media as a platform for positive behavior change and therapy.

  19. Comparing School-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programming: Mixed Outcomes in an At-Risk State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Roy F.; Merritt, Breanca T.; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a national comprehensive teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) intervention to a national abstinence-only TPP intervention on middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to teen sexual behaviors in a state with high teen birth rates. Methods: Pre- and…

  20. The Assessment Of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies And Emotional Schemas In Men With Substance Abuse, Abstinent And Normal Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghaednia Jahromi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Substance abuse is a chronic recurring disorder who needs to manage therapy over time. The goal of current study was to assess the cognitive emotion regulation strategies and emotional schemas in men with substance abuse, abstinent and normal individuals.Materials and Methods: In the form of a causal-comparative design, using available sampling method 30 men with substance abuse, 30 abstinent and 30 normal individuals were selected and after matching on the base of age, education and the substance they used were assessed via cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and emotional schemas questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare the three groups.Results: In self-blame (P=0.0004 and catastrophizing (P=0.0008 maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies, the scores of individuals with substance abuse were higher than abstinent and normal individuals and in rumination (P=0.0007 individuals with substance abuse and abstinent obtained higher score in comparison with normal individuals. In refocusing on planning (P=0.0005 and positive reappraisal (P=0.00 adaptive strategies, normal individuals and abstinent in comparison with individuals with substance abuse obtained higher scores. In mental rumination (P=0.0008, blame (P=0.0008 and simplistic view of emotions (P=0.0009 individuals with substance abuse, abstinent had higher scores in comparison with normal individuals. In guilt (P=0.008 and uncontrolled (P=0.006 emotional schemas, individuals with substance abuse in comparison with normal individuals obtained higher scores.Conclusion: No effective emotional schemas and emotion regulation strategies can play a key role in substance abuse initiation, maintenance and relapse.

  1. Effect of preoperative abstinence on poor postoperative outcome in alcohol misusers: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Rosenberg, J; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    often in the intervention group. Surgical stress responses were lower in the intervention group (P LT / =0.05). CONCLUSIONS: One month of preoperative abstinence reduces postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers. The mechanism is probably reduced preclinical organ dysfunction and reduction......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of preoperative abstinence on postoperative outcome in alcohol misusers with no symptoms who were drinking the equivalent of at least 60 g ethanol/day. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 42 alcoholic patients without...... liver disease admitted for elective colorectal surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Withdrawal from alcohol consumption for 1 month before operation (disulfiram controlled) compared with continuous drinking. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postoperative complications requiring treatment within the first month after surgery...

  2. Food addiction: detox and abstinence reinterpreted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriner, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    The senior patient and/or the geriatrician are confronted with a confusing literature describing how patients interested in combating metabolic syndrome, diabesity (diabetes plus obesity) or simple obesity might best proceed. The present paper gives a brief outline of the basic disease processes that underlie metabolic pro-inflammation, including how one might go about devising the most potent and practical detoxification from such metabolic compromise. The role that dietary restriction plays in pro-inflammatory detoxification (detox), including how a modified fast (selective food abstinence) is incorporated into this process, is developed. The unique aspects of geriatric bariatric medicine are elucidated, including the concepts of sarcopenia and the obesity paradox. Important caveats involving the senior seeking weight loss are offered. By the end of the paper, the reader will have a greater appreciation for the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead for geriatric patients who wish to overcome food addiction and reverse pro-inflammatory states of ill-heath. This includes the toxic metabolic processes that create obesity complicated by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which collectively we call diabesity. In that regard, diabesity is often the central pathology that leads to the evolution of the metabolic syndrome. The paper also affords the reader a solid review of the neurometabolic processes that effectuate anorexigenic versus orexigenic inputs to obesity that drive food addiction. We argue that these processes lead to either weight gain or weight loss by a tripartite system involving metabolic, addictive and relational levels of organismal functioning. Recalibrating the way we negotiate these three levels of daily functioning often determines success or failure in terms of overcoming metabolic syndrome and food addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Toward a nonhuman model of contingency management: effects of reinforcing abstinence from nicotine self-administration in rats with an alternative nondrug reinforcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Mark G

    2009-03-01

    Reinforcing abstinence from drug use with alternative nondrug reinforcers (e.g., contingency management) is one of the most effective interventions for drug abuse. While nonhuman studies have also shown that access to alternative nondrug reinforcers reduces drug self-administration, this effect has not been examined in nicotine self-administration models. Moreover, abstinence contingencies per se under free-operant conditions have not been examined. The objective of this experiment was to begin development of a model of contingency management interventions by employing a differential-reinforcement-of-alternative-behavior (DRA) schedule of alternative nondrug reinforcement in rats self-administering nicotine. Two groups of rats were trained to self-administer nicotine under a multiple schedule of nicotine and sucrose delivery. The DRA-group was then exposed to an interlocking FR3 nicotine DRA t-sec sucrose schedule. Under this schedule, nicotine continued to be available under the FR schedule while a sucrose pellet was made available contingent upon every pause in self-administration responding (DRA interval) of 40, 80, or 160 s. The FT-group was exposed to noncontingent delivery of sucrose under fixed time (FT) schedules at an average rate equal to that obtained under the DRA schedule in the DRA-group. The DRA schedule significantly reduced NSA by 73, 69, and 59% at the DRA 40, 80, and 160 s intervals, respectively, compared to baseline, while noncontingent sucrose had no significant effect. The effect of the DRA schedule was apparent throughout the NSA sessions. The present assay approximates the abstinence contingencies arranged in contingency management interventions for drug abuse and provides a preliminary nonhuman model of such interventions.

  4. A Randomized Trial of Adjunct mHealth Abstinence Reinforcement With Transdermal Nicotine and Counseling for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Sheila M; Rash, Carla J; Petry, Nancy M

    2017-03-01

    Abstinence reinforcement is efficacious for improving smoking treatment outcomes, but practical constraints related to the need for multiple in-person carbon monoxide (CO) breath tests daily to verify smoking abstinence have limited its use. This study tested an mHealth procedure to remotely monitor and reinforce smoking abstinence in individuals' natural environment. Eligible treatment-seeking smokers (N = 90) were randomized to (1) usual care and ecological monitoring with abstinence reinforcement (mHealth reinforcement) or (2) without reinforcement (mHealth monitoring). Usual care was 8 weeks of transdermal nicotine and twice-weekly telephone counseling. Following training, an interactive voice response system prompted participants to conduct CO tests 1-3 daily at pseudorandom times (7 am to 10 pm) for 4 weeks. When prompted, participants used a study cell phone and CO monitor to complete a CO self-test, video record the process, and submit videos using multimedia messaging. mHealth reinforcement participants could earn prizes for smoking-negative on-time CO tests. The interactive voice response generated preliminary earnings immediately. Earnings were finalized by comparing video records against participants' self-reports. mHealth reinforcement was associated with a greater proportion of smoking-negative CO tests, longest duration of prolonged abstinence, and point-prevalence abstinence during the monitoring/reinforcement phase compared to mHealth monitoring (p < .01, d = 0.8-1.3). Follow-up (weeks 4-24) analyses indicated main effects of reinforcement on point-prevalence abstinence and proportion of days smoked (p ≤ .05); values were comparable by week 24. mHealth reinforcement has short-term efficacy. Research on methods to enhance and sustain benefits is needed. This study suggests that mHealth abstinence reinforcement is efficacious and may present temporal and spatial opportunities to research, engage, and support smokers trying to quit that do not exist

  5. Insular activation during reward anticipation reflects duration of illness in abstinent pathological gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke eTsurumi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling (PG is a chronic mental disorder characterized by a difficulty restraining gambling behavior despite negative consequences. Although brain abnormalities in patients with substance use disorders are caused by repetitive drug use and recover partly with drug abstinence, the relationship between brain activity and duration of illness or abstinence of gambling behavior in PG patients remains unclear. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain activity of 23 PG patients recruited from a treatment facility with 27 demographically-matched healthy control subjects during reward anticipation, and examined the correlations between brain activity and duration of illness or abstinence in PG patients. During reward anticipation, PG patients showed decreased activity compared to healthy controls in a broad range of the reward system regions, including the insula cortex. In PG patients, activation in the left insula showed a significant negative correlation with illness duration. Our findings suggest that insular activation during reward anticipation may serve as a marker of progression of pathological gambling.

  6. Effect of wheel-running during abstinence on subsequent nicotine-seeking in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Victoria; Moore, Catherine F; Brunzell, Darlene H; Lynch, Wendy J

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Exercise appears to be a promising non-pharmacological treatment for nicotine addiction that may be useful for the vulnerable adolescent population. Objectives To determine if wheel running, an animal model of aerobic exercise, during an abstinence period would decrease subsequent nicotine-seeking in rats that had extended access to nicotine self-administration during adolescence. Methods Male adolescent rats (n = 55) were trained to self-administer saline or nicotine infusions (5 or 10 μg/kg) under a fixed ratio 1 schedule with a maximum of 20 infusions/day beginning on postnatal day 30. After 5 days, access was extended to 23-hr/day with unlimited infusions for a total of 10 days. After the last self-administration session, rats were moved to polycarbonate cages for a 10-day abstinence period where they either had access to a locked or unlocked running wheel for 2-hr/day. Nicotine-seeking was examined following the 10th day of abstinence under a within-session extinction/cue-induced reinstatement paradigm. Results Intake was higher at the 10 μg/kg dose as compared to the 5 μg/kg dose; however, intake did not differ within doses prior to wheel assignment. Compared to saline controls, rats that self-administered nicotine at either dose showed a significant increase in drug-seeking during extinction, and consistent with our hypothesis, exercise during abstinence attenuated this effect. Nicotine led to modest, but significant levels of cue-induced reinstatement; however, in this adolescent-onset model, levels were variable and not affected by exercise. Conclusions Exercise may effectively reduce relapse vulnerability for adolescent-onset nicotine addiction. PMID:23371488

  7. Changes in cigarette and alcohol use during cannabis abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, David J; Dunlop, Adrian J; Saddler, Craig; Rivas, Gonzalo R; McGregor, Iain S; Copeland, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Cannabis causes lower mortality and morbidity than alcohol and tobacco so it is clinically important if quitting cannabis is associated with substitution with these substances. This study tests if cannabis is substituted with alcohol and/or tobacco during cannabis abstinence, and factors predicting such substitution. A secondary analysis of a prospective community based study quantified cannabis, alcohol and tobacco use with Timeline Follow-back during a two-week voluntary cannabis abstinence and at one-month follow-up in non-treatment seeking cannabis users (n=45). Cannabis use was verified by urine THC-COOH levels. Alcohol use increased by 8 standard units (SU; d=0.48)/week and cigarette use by 14 cigarettes/week (d=0.29) during cannabis abstinence. Those using less of each substance at baseline had greater increases during cannabis abstinence (alcohol Pcannabis use. Increased cigarette use was predicted by cannabis withdrawal related sleep difficulty (insomnia) (P=0.05), restlessness (P=0.03) and physical symptoms (P=0.02). Neither alcohol nor cigarette use increased significantly in those (13.3%, n=6) who remained abstinent from cannabis through to follow-up. Abstaining from cannabis was associated with increases in alcohol and tobacco use that decreased with resumption of cannabis use; however there were no increases in individuals who remained abstinent from cannabis at one-month follow-up. Tobacco use did not increase in those experiencing milder cannabis withdrawal symptoms. Research on substitution in treatment seekers during outpatient cannabis abstinence is needed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces negative affect but not cigarette craving in overnight abstinent smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansong eXu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS can enhance cognitive control functions including attention and top-down regulation over negative affect and substance craving in both healthy and clinical populations, including early abstinent (~1.5 h smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether tDCS modulates negative affect, cigarette craving, and attention of overnight abstinent tobacco dependent smokers. In this study, 24 smokers received a real and a sham session of tDCS after overnight abstinence from smoking on two different days. We applied anode to the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and cathode to the right supra orbital area for 20min with a current of 2.0mA. We used self-report questionnaires Profile of Mood State (POMS to assess negative affect and Urge to Smoke (UTS Scale to assess craving for cigarette smoking, and a computerized visual target identification task to assess attention immediately before and after each tDCS. Smokers reported significantly greater reductions in POMS scores of total mood disturbance and scores of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and confusion-bewilderment subscales after real relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this reduction in negative affect positively correlated with the level of nicotine dependence as assessed by Fagerström scale. However, reductions in cigarette craving after real vs. sham tDCS did not differ, nor were there differences in reaction time or hit rate change on the visual task. Smokers did not report significant side effects of tDCS. This study demonstrates the safety of tDCS and its promising effect in ameliorating negative affect in overnight abstinent smokers. Its efficacy in treating tobacco dependence deserves further investigation.

  9. Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshteyn, Erin; Hemenway, David

    2016-03-01

    Violent death is a serious problem in the United States. Previous research showing US rates of violent death compared with other high-income countries used data that are more than a decade old. We examined 2010 mortality data obtained from the World Health Organization for populous, high-income countries (n = 23). Death rates per 100,000 population were calculated for each country and for the aggregation of all non-US countries overall and by age and sex. Tests of significance were performed using Poisson and negative binomial regressions. US homicide rates were 7.0 times higher than in other high-income countries, driven by a gun homicide rate that was 25.2 times higher. For 15- to 24-year-olds, the gun homicide rate in the United States was 49.0 times higher. Firearm-related suicide rates were 8.0 times higher in the United States, but the overall suicide rates were average. Unintentional firearm deaths were 6.2 times higher in the United States. The overall firearm death rate in the United States from all causes was 10.0 times higher. Ninety percent of women, 91% of children aged 0 to 14 years, 92% of youth aged 15 to 24 years, and 82% of all people killed by firearms were from the United States. The United States has an enormous firearm problem compared with other high-income countries, with higher rates of homicide and firearm-related suicide. Compared with 2003 estimates, the US firearm death rate remains unchanged while firearm death rates in other countries decreased. Thus, the already high relative rates of firearm homicide, firearm suicide, and unintentional firearm death in the United States compared with other high-income countries increased between 2003 and 2010. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural Covariates of Homicide Rates : A European City Cross-National Comparative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCall, Patricia L.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most previous empirical comparative studies of homicide examine homicide rates across nations or subnational units within a single country. This study is the first in which a European cross-national city comparison is made. The article aims to provide insight into the extent that the homicide rates

  11. Peer Assessment in the Digital Age: A Meta-Analysis Comparing Peer and Teacher Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Xiong, Yao; Zang, Xiaojiao; Kornhaber, Mindy L.; Lyu, Youngsun; Chung, Kyung Sun; Suen, Hoi K.

    2016-01-01

    Given the wide use of peer assessment, especially in higher education, the relative accuracy of peer ratings compared to teacher ratings is a major concern for both educators and researchers. This concern has grown with the increase of peer assessment in digital platforms. In this meta-analysis, using a variance-known hierarchical linear modelling…

  12. Alcohol abstinence, non-hazardous use and hazardous use a decade after alcohol-related hospitalization: registry data linked to population-based representative postal surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahacic, Kozma; Kennison, Robert F; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2014-08-24

    Although there is evident association between alcohol-related hospitalization and alcohol use, the relationship has not been well examined. This study analyzed the extent of alcohol abstinence, non-hazardous use and hazardous use among people who had experienced alcohol-related hospitalization during the preceding decade. Registry data concerning alcohol-related hospitalizations between 1996 and 2007 were linked to two representative surveys, in 2006 and 2007, of residents of Stockholm County. Relevant contrasts were modeled, using logistic regression, in the pooled sample (n = 54 955). Ages were 23-84 years at follow-up. Among persons previously hospitalized (n = 576), half reported non-hazardous use. Non-hazardous use was less prevalent than in the general population--and the extent of non-hazardous use did not change over time following hospitalization. There were no significant age differences, but non-hazardous use was less frequent among people with repeated episodes of care. One in six was abstinent. Abstinence was more common among the old, while hazardous use (exceeding 14 drinks per week for men, and 9 drinks per week for women) decreased with age. Abstinence also increased over time; among persons hospitalized ten years ago, the abstinence rate was twice that of the general population. Associations with hazardous use over time were less conclusive. Hazardous use among those previously hospitalized decreased over time in one sample but not in the other. After pooling the data, there were indications of a decrease over time following hospitalization, but more prevalent hazardous use than in the general population. Following alcohol-related hospitalization, abstinence increased, and there was no evidence of regression towards the mean, i.e., towards non-hazardous use. Abstinence was also more widespread among previously hospitalized persons of older ages. With advancing age, changing hazardous alcohol habits among previously hospitalized appears to yield a

  13. Hospital Evaluations by Social Media: A Comparative Analysis of Facebook Ratings among Performance Outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, McKinley; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Choy, Garry; Prabhakar, Anand M; Pandharipande, Pari V; Gazelle, G Scott

    2015-10-01

    An increasing number of hospitals and health systems utilize social media to allow users to provide feedback and ratings. The correlation between ratings on social media and more conventional hospital quality metrics remains largely unclear, raising concern that healthcare consumers may make decisions on inaccurate or inappropriate information regarding quality. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which hospitals utilize social media and whether user-generated metrics on Facebook(®) correlate with a Hospital Compare(®) metric, specifically 30-day all cause unplanned hospital readmission rates. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted among all U.S. hospitals performing outside the confidence interval for the national average on 30-day hospital readmission rates as reported on Hospital Compare. Participants were 315 hospitals performing better than U.S. national rate on 30-day readmissions and 364 hospitals performing worse than the U.S. national rate. The study analyzed ratings of hospitals on Facebook's five-star rating scale, 30-day readmission rates, and hospital characteristics including beds, teaching status, urban vs. rural location, and ownership type. Hospitals performing better than the national average on 30-day readmissions were more likely to use Facebook than lower-performing hospitals (93.3 % vs. 83.5 %; p Facebook rating was associated with increased odds of the hospital belonging to the low readmission rate group by a factor of 5.0 (CI: 2.6-10.3, p Facebook-related variables. Hospitals with lower rates of 30-day hospital-wide unplanned readmissions have higher ratings on Facebook than hospitals with higher readmission rates. These findings add strength to the concept that aggregate measures of patient satisfaction on social media correlate with more traditionally accepted measures of hospital quality.

  14. The Hanford Site generic component failure-rate database compared with other generic failure-rate databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reardon, M.F.; Zentner, M.D.

    1992-11-01

    The Risk Assessment Technology Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), has compiled a component failure rate database to be used during risk and reliability analysis of nonreactor facilities. Because site-specific data for the Hanford Site are generally not kept or not compiled in a usable form, the database was assembled using information from a variety of other established sources. Generally, the most conservative failure rates were chosen from the databases reviewed. The Hanford Site database has since been used extensively in fault tree modeling of many Hanford Site facilities and systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reasonableness of the data chosen for the Hanford Site database by comparing the values chosen with the values from the other databases

  15. Mismatch Negativity and P50 Sensory Gating in Abstinent Former Cannabis Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J. Broyd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged heavy exposure to cannabis is associated with impaired cognition and brain functional and structural alterations. We recently reported attenuated mismatch negativity (MMN and altered P50 sensory gating in chronic cannabis users. This study investigated the extent of brain functional recovery (indexed by MMN and P50 in chronic users after cessation of use. Eighteen ex-users (median 13.5 years prior regular use; median 3.5 years abstinence and 18 nonusers completed (1 a multifeature oddball task with duration, frequency, and intensity deviants and (2 a P50 paired-click paradigm. Trend level smaller duration MMN amplitude and larger P50 ratios (indicative of poorer sensory gating were observed in ex-users compared to controls. Poorer P50 gating correlated with prior duration of cannabis use. Duration of abstinence was positively correlated with duration MMN amplitude, even after controlling for age and duration of cannabis use. Impaired sensory gating and attenuated MMN amplitude tended to persist in ex-users after prolonged cessation of use, suggesting a lack of full recovery. An association with prolonged duration of prior cannabis use may indicate persistent cannabis-related alterations to P50 sensory gating. Greater reductions in MMN amplitude with increasing abstinence (positive correlation may be related to either self-medication or an accelerated aging process.

  16. The Role of BMI Change on Smoking Abstinence in a Sample of HIV-Infected Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritz, Ellen R.; Kypriotakis, George; Arduino, Roberto C.; Vidrine, Damon J.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cigarette smoking among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is approximately 40%, significantly higher than that of the general population. Identifying predictors of successful smoking cessation for PLWHA is necessary to alleviate the morbidity and mortality associated with smoking in this population. Weight gain has been associated with smoking relapse in the general population, but has not been studied among PLWHA. Data from 474 PLWHA enrolled in a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial were analyzed to examine the effect of BMI change, from baseline to 3-month follow-up, on smoking outcomes using multiple logistic regression. The odds of 7-day smoking abstinence at 3-month follow-up were 4.22 (95% CI=1.65, 10.82) times higher for participants classified as BMI decrease and 4.22 (95% CI=1.62, 11.01) times higher for participants classified as BMI increase as compared to participants with a minimal increase or decrease in BMI. In this sample, both weight gain and loss following smoking cessation were significantly associated with abstinence at 3-month follow-up among HIV-infected smokers. Further research and a better understanding of predictors of abstinence will encourage more tailored interventions, with the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:26666313

  17. Reduced nicotine exposure and abstinence outcome in two nicotine fading methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, P G; Lando, H A

    1991-01-01

    Two methods of nicotine fading as a smoking cessation preparation technique were compared. A brand-switching procedure and a three-stage set of "Nicotine Faders" graduated filters were the preparation strategies. Both methods implemented a putative 30-50-80% nicotine exposure reduction schedule in three weekly phases. There were a total of 110 study participants (57 in brand switching) enrolled in eight clinic groups. Results indicated that at the 80% reduction level, meaningful reductions in nicotine (measured by its metabolite cotinine) and carbon monoxide (CO) exposure were measurable with both nicotine fading procedures. Overall pooled nicotine and CO exposure drops from baselines of 48.2% and 35.5%, respectively, were recorded. The abstinence outcome measures (pooled 1-year abstinence prevalence = 30.9%) were not significantly different between the two preparation strategies. Trends in nicotine and CO exposure drops, and abstinence outcome measures, however, were consistently in favor of the graduated filters. Potential advantages of filters in the context of a preparation-for-quitting strategy were suggested.

  18. A comparative study of heart rate variability tests and lipid profile in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: We found a decrease in values of HRV tests during the Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing in male individuals as compared with age- and Body Mass Index, BMI-matched females. VHeart Rate Variability tests during 30:15 R-R intervals Ratio in male individuals were significantly decreased as compared with ...

  19. Rural and Appalachian Disparities in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Incidence and Access to Opioid Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua D; Goodin, Amie J; Talbert, Jeffery C

    2018-12-01

    Incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is increasing due to the rise in opioid use. Rural states like Kentucky have been disproportionally impacted by opioid abuse, and this study determines NAS burden nationally and in Kentucky while quantifying differences in access to care between Appalachian and non-Appalachian counties. NAS rates were calculated using National (2013) and Kentucky (2008-2014) National Inpatient Sample discharge data. Births were identified using International Classification of Diseases v9 code 779.5 and live birth codes V30.x-V38.x. Counties were classified as rural, micropolitan, or metropolitan using census data. Proximity analysis was conducted via mapping from ZIP code centroid to nearest opioid treatment facility. Distance to treatment facilities was calculated and then compared using nonparametric testing for counties by rural and Appalachian status. NAS cases tripled from 2008 to 2014 in Kentucky counties, with a 2013 NAS rate more than double the national NAS rate. Rural and Appalachian counties experienced an NAS increase per 1,000 births that was 2-2.5 times higher than urban/non-Appalachian counties, with a greater number of NAS births overall in Appalachian counties. All opioid treatment facility types were further from rural patients than micropolitan/metropolitan patients (P < .001), as well as further for Appalachians versus non-Appalachians (P < .001, all facility types). NAS burden disparately affects rural and Appalachian Kentucky counties, while treatment options are disproportionately further away for these residents. Policy efforts to increase NAS prevention and encourage opioid abuse treatment uptake in pregnant women should address rural and Appalachian disparities. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  20. Effect of Buprenorphine Implants on Illicit Opioid Use Among Abstinent Adults With Opioid Dependence Treated With Sublingual Buprenorphine: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Richard N; Lofwall, Michelle R; Kim, Sonnie; Chen, Michael; Beebe, Katherine L; Vocci, Frank J

    2016-07-19

    , the use of buprenorphine implants compared with continued sublingual buprenorphine did not result in an inferior likelihood of remaining a responder. However, the study population had an exceptionally high response rate in the control group, and further studies are needed in broader populations to assess the efficacy in other settings. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02180659.

  1. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement promotes opiate and cocaine abstinence in out-of-treatment injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtyn, August F; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Strain, Eric C; Schwartz, Robert P; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    We examined the use of employment-based abstinence reinforcement in out-of-treatment injection drug users, in this secondary analysis of a previously reported trial. Participants (N = 33) could work in the therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based program for drug addiction, for 30 weeks and could earn approximately $10 per hr. During a 4-week induction, participants only had to work to earn pay. After induction, access to the workplace was contingent on enrollment in methadone treatment. After participants met the methadone contingency for 3 weeks, they had to provide opiate-negative urine samples to maintain maximum pay. After participants met those contingencies for 3 weeks, they had to provide opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples to maintain maximum pay. The percentage of drug-negative urine samples remained stable until the abstinence reinforcement contingency for each drug was applied. The percentage of opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples increased abruptly and significantly after the opiate- and cocaine-abstinence contingencies, respectively, were applied. These results demonstrate that the sequential administration of employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase opiate and cocaine abstinence among out-of-treatment injection drug users. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  2. Vaccination Rates among Adolescents in Minnesota as Compared with the United States: Not "Above Average".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; Rogacki, Brianna; Thompson, David M; Roberts, James R; Margolis, Benyamin; Darden, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Because adolescents make relatively few visits to clinics for preventive care, their vaccination rates suffer. We examined rates among Minnesota youths to see how they compared with those among teens throughout the United States. We used National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) data to estimate vaccination rates for 13- to 17-year-olds in Minnesota from 2008 through 2013 and compared them to national rates for MCV4, Tdap and HPV vaccines. We also examined rates of provider recommendation for each of the three vaccines and rates of parental intention to vaccinate against HPV. We found rates for all three vaccinations increased between 2008 and 2013, but they continue to be low for both MCV4 (69%) and HPV (38% of females and 9% of males completed the three-dose series in 2013). Fortunately, the percentage of Minnesota clinicians recommending those vaccines is increasing (the percentage recommending HPV vaccination for females increased from 55% in 2008 to 74% in 2013; however, only 44% recommended it for males in 2013). The percentage of parents in Minnesota reporting intent to vaccinate their female children against HPV rose from 52% in 2008 to 58% in 2013; the percentage intending to vaccinate their male children rose from 16% in 2010 to 47% in 2013. Clinicians and public health officials must address how we can improve HPV vaccination rates among adolescents.

  3. Autopsy rate in suicide is low among elderly in Denmark compared with Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup

    2014-01-01

    National differences in the legislation on cause and manner of death investigation are reflected in a high autopsy rate in suicides in Finland and a low corresponding rate in Denmark. The consequences for mortality statistics of these different investigation practices on deaths classified...... as suicides in Denmark and Finland, respectively, are not known in detail. The aim of this article was to analyse autopsy rates in deaths classified as suicides, and to identify any differences in investigation practices in deaths with a comparable cause of death, but classified as unnatural deaths other than...... suicide. Data from the mortality registries were summarised for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Autopsy rates (total, forensic and medical) were analysed with regard to deaths classified as suicide, and they were compared for three age groups (1-50 years, 51-70 years and ≥71 years) and for causes of death...

  4. Gratitude, abstinence, and alcohol use disorders: Report of a preliminary finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R

    2017-07-01

    Gratitude is a central component of addiction recovery for many, yet it has received scant attention in addiction research. In a sample of 67 individuals entering abstinence-based alcohol-use-disorder treatment, this study employed gratitude and abstinence variables from sequential assessments (baseline, 6months, 12months) to model theorized causal relationships: gratitude would increase pre-post treatment and gratitude after treatment would predict greater percent days abstinent 6months later. Neither hypothesis was supported. This unexpected result led to the theory that gratitude for sobriety was the construct of interest; therefore, the association between gratitude and future abstinence would be positive among those already abstinent. Thus, post-treatment abstinence was tested as a moderator of the effect of gratitude on future abstinence: this effect was statistically significant. For those who were abstinent after treatment, the relationship between gratitude and future abstinence was positive; for those drinking most frequently after treatment, the relationship between gratitude and future abstinence was negative. In this preliminary study, dispositional tendency to affirm that there is much to be thankful for appeared to perpetuate the status quo-frequent drinkers with high gratitude were drinking frequently 6months later; abstinent individuals with high gratitude were abstinent 6months later. Gratitude exercises might be contraindicated for clients who are drinking frequently and have abstinence as their treatment goal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intra-individual changes in Stroop-related activations linked to cigarette abstinence in adolescent tobacco smokers: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Sarah W; Balodis, Iris M; Carroll, Kathleen M; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is a crucial time for initiation of tobacco-smoking. Developing more effective treatment interventions for tobacco-smoking in youth is therefore critical to reduce smoking rates in both adolescent and adult populations. Elucidation of the neural mechanisms of successful behavioral change (abstinence) will allow for improvement of therapies based on known brain mechanisms. Twenty-one adolescent tobacco-smokers (14-19 years) participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of a cognitive control (Stroop) task prior to randomization to smoking cessation treatment (trial of combined nicotine replacement therapy/placebo and contingency management for attendance/abstinence; NCT01145001). Fourteen adolescents also participated in fMRI scanning following completion of the six-week trial. fMRI data were analyzed using random-effects models in SPM12. Paired t-tests were used to identify group-level changes (main effect of treatment exposure) in neural functional responses. Regression models were used to identify individual-level changes associated with treatment-outcomes (percent days abstinent, maximum days of consecutive abstinence). Main effects of Stroop task performance (contrast of incongruent versus congruent trials) were seen across a priori ROIs at both pre- and post-treatment (pFWEoptimal treatment responses in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physiological and endocrine reactions to psychosocial stress in alcohol use disorders: duration of abstinence matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starcke, K.; Holst, R.J. van; Brink, W. van den; Veltman, D.J.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research findings suggest that heavy alcohol use is associated with alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system function and that early abstinence is associated with blunted stress responsiveness. METHODS: This study investigated abstinent

  7. Physiological and Endocrine Reactions to Psychosocial Stress in Alcohol Use Disorders: Duration of Abstinence Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starcke, K.; van Holst, R.J.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research findings suggest that heavy alcohol use is associated with alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system function and that early abstinence is associated with blunted stress responsiveness. Methods: This study investigated abstinent

  8. Is self-rated health lower in refugees in the Netherlands compared to other migrants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devillé, W.; Groenewegen, P.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Self-rated health is a good predictor of morbidity, mortality and use of care. It can be measured by one simple question. As such it is included in many surveys in many countries, making general health measurements comparable between countries. Besides the four major migrant populations

  9. (2008) SWJ:21-25 Comparative Studies On the Dying rate Migration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON DYEING RATE MIGRATION AND WASH FASTNESS PROPERTIES OF AZO DYES. DERIVED FROM ..... The dyeing of Cellulose Fibres Publication thrust,. London. Standard methods for determination of fastness properties of textiles and leather, 4th Edition. 1978. Soceity of dyers and ...

  10. Comparing transfusion reaction rates for various plasma types: a systematic review and meta-analysis/regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadah, Nicholas H; van Hout, Fabienne M A; Schipperus, Martin R; le Cessie, Saskia; Middelburg, Rutger A; Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; van der Bom, Johanna G

    2017-09-01

    We estimated rates for common plasma-associated transfusion reactions and compared reported rates for various plasma types. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed articles that reported plasma transfusion reaction rates. Random-effects pooled rates were calculated and compared between plasma types. Meta-regression was used to compare various plasma types with regard to their reported plasma transfusion reaction rates. Forty-eight studies reported transfusion reaction rates for fresh-frozen plasma (FFP; mixed-sex and male-only), amotosalen INTERCEPT FFP, methylene blue-treated FFP, and solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma. Random-effects pooled average rates for FFP were: allergic reactions, 92/10 5 units transfused (95% confidence interval [CI], 46-184/10 5 units transfused); febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs), 12/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 7-22/10 5 units transfused); transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), 6/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 1-30/10 5 units transfused); transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), 1.8/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 1.2-2.7/10 5 units transfused); and anaphylactic reactions, 0.8/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 0-45.7/10 5 units transfused). Risk differences between plasma types were not significant for allergic reactions, TACO, or anaphylactic reactions. Methylene blue-treated FFP led to fewer FNHTRs than FFP (risk difference = -15.3 FNHTRs/10 5 units transfused; 95% CI, -24.7 to -7.1 reactions/10 5 units transfused); and male-only FFP led to fewer cases of TRALI than mixed-sex FFP (risk difference = -0.74 TRALI/10 5 units transfused; 95% CI, -2.42 to -0.42 injuries/10 5 units transfused). Meta-regression demonstrates that the rate of FNHTRs is lower for methylene blue-treated compared with FFP, and the rate of TRALI is lower for male-only than for mixed-sex FFP; whereas no significant differences are observed between plasma types for allergic reactions, TACO

  11. Comparing decay rates for accurate and false memories in the DRM paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbertr, Jorie M; McBride, Dawn M

    2007-10-01

    Although previous studies have consistently reported different forgetting rates for true and false memory when tested with recall, studies comparing the rates of decay for true and false recognition have reported inconsistent results. The present study attempted to clarify this inconsistency by comparing forgetting rates for true and false recognition in addition to addressing methodological differences among the previous studies. Recognition of list items and critical lures was assessed at six delays (2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min, and 2 days). A comparison of power function slopes across item type provided evidence of slope differences such that false recognition decayed more quickly than true recognition, which is inconsistent with predictions from activation/ source-monitoring and fuzzy tracetheories.

  12. Abstinence environment contributes to age differences in reinstatement of cocaine seeking between adolescent and adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Frantz, Kyle J

    2017-07-01

    Extinction responding and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking after 60-days of forced abstinence are attenuated in male rats that self-administered cocaine during adolescence, compared with adults. Given that environmental enrichment during abstinence decreases reinstatement among adults, a possible explanation for attenuated reinstatement among adolescents is that standard pair-housing in prior studies creates a more stimulating environment for younger rats. Therefore, we tested whether standard pair-housing is necessary for the attenuated reinstatement among adolescents by determining whether an impoverished environment during abstinence would increase reinstatement among adolescents, up to adult levels. Conversely, we also tested whether environmental enrichment could further decrease reinstatement among adolescents, and whether we could replicate effects of environmental enrichment to decrease reinstatement among adults down to adolescent levels (positive controls). Adolescent and adult male Wistar rats self-administered cocaine intravenously for 12days (fixed ratio 1; 0.36mg/kg per infusion; 2h sessions). Rats were then moved into enriched (grouped, large cages, novel toys), standard (pair-housed, shoebox cages), or impoverished (isolated, hanging cages) housing conditions. After 60days, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking were tested, followed by drug-primed reinstatement (0, 5, 10mg/kg cocaine, i.p.). Consistent with previous results, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement were attenuated in adolescent-onset groups compared with adults; this age difference also extended to drug-primed reinstatement. In support of the present hypothesis, an impoverished environment during abstinence increased reinstatement among adolescents to levels that were not different from adult standard-housing levels. These data suggest that abstinence environment influences the enduring effects of cocaine among adolescents as well as adults

  13. 2. UNZA students as leaders for abstinence programmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    activities by using UNZA students as role models. Method:The study targeted all ... (Abstinence, Be Faithful and Condom use).According to. 4 .... the right decisions;. “To begin with I would love to thank the. University of Zambia for having initiated this program. We as youths are always the victims of. HIV and AIDS so it's great ...

  14. Environmental enrichment facilitates cocaine abstinence in an animal conflict model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Scott; Ranaldi, Robert

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we sought to discover if housing in an enriched environment (EE) is an efficacious intervention for encouraging abstinence from cocaine seeking in an animal "conflict" model of abstinence. Sixteen Long-Evans rats were trained in 3-h daily sessions to self-administer a cocaine solution (1 mg/kg/infusion) until each demonstrated a stable pattern of drug-seeking. Afterward, half were placed in EE cages equipped with toys, obstacles, and a running wheel, while the other half were given clean, standard laboratory housing. All rats then completed daily 30-min sessions during which the 2/3 of flooring closest to the self-administration levers was electrified, causing discomfort should they approach the levers; current strength (mA) was increased after every day of drug seeking until the rat ceased activity on the active lever for 3 consecutive sessions (abstinence). Rats housed in EE abstained after fewer days and at lower current strengths than rats in standard housing. These results support the idea that EE administered after the development of a cocaine-taking habit may be an effective strategy to facilitate abstinence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Abstinence, Social Norms, and Drink Responsibly Messages: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Kruger, Jessica Sloan; Deakins, Bethany A.; Paprzycki, Peter; Blavos, Alexis A.; Hutzelman, Erin N.; Diehr, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which type of prevention message (abstinence, social norms, or responsible drinking) was most effective at reducing alcohol consumption. Participants: The subjects from this study included 194 college students from a public university. Methods: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design,…

  16. Role Of Parents In Supporting Youth Who Participate In Abstinence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, some parents, conservatives and religious critics of these programs are concerned that promoting condom use encourages promiscuity. This has apparently led to an increase in programs designed to promote abstinence from sex before marriage and faithfulness in relationships as safer and more moral ways to ...

  17. Development and Validation of the Sexual Abstinence Scale (SAS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sexual Abstinence Scale (SAS) is designed to assess healthy sexual behaviour among adolescents as a way to reduce the incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. This cross sectional study took place in two phases. The first phase comprised of 1030 adolescents randomly selected from senior ...

  18. Chick metabolic rate and growth in three species of albatross: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R A; Green, J A; Phalan, B; Croxall, J P; Butler, P J

    2003-05-01

    The relative importance of genetic vs. environmental factors in determining the pattern of avian post-embryonic development is much debated. Previous cross-fostering of albatrosses suggested that although inter-specific variation in growth rate was determined primarily by differences in dietary energy content, species-specific constraints might have evolved that could limit maximal growth, even in chicks fed at similar rates and on similar diets. This study aimed to determine whether intrinsic differences in resting metabolic rate were apparent during the linear phase of growth in chicks of three species (black-browed, grey-headed and light-mantled sooty albatrosses). There was a gradual increase in absolute, and a reduction in mass-specific metabolic rate from 5.0 W kg(-1) during the earliest part of linear growth, to 3.5 W kg(-1) by the time chicks reached peak mass. These values are considerably higher than in resting adults of comparable or lower mass, presumably reflecting the large size and high metabolic demand of organs involved in rapid nutrient processing and tissue synthesis by chicks. The lack of any detectable inter-specific variation in the pattern of metabolic rate changes casts some doubt on the existence of fundamental differences in growth rate that cannot be attributed simply to differences in dietary energy or nutrient delivery rate.

  19. Pretreatment measures of brain structure and reward-processing brain function in cannabis dependence: an exploratory study of relationships with abstinence during behavioral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Sarah W; DeVito, Elise E; Kober, Hedy; Worhunsky, Patrick D; Carroll, Kathleen M; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-07-01

    Cannabis is widely abused, and efficacies of therapeutics for cannabis dependence remain suboptimal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may aid in the identification of biological markers for successful treatment outcomes (i.e., abstinence). Twenty men with cannabis dependence and twenty non-substance-using healthy comparison (HC) men underwent MRI scanning. Cannabis-dependent individuals then participated in a 12-week randomized clinical trial of behavioral treatments (contingency management (CM), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or both). Pretreatment functional and structural data were compared between the cannabis-dependent and HC participants. In addition, individuals with cannabis dependence were subdivided based on the successful achievement of 21 days of consecutive abstinence during treatment to assess whether abstinent versus non-abstinent cannabis-dependent participants displayed different pretreatment functional and structural characteristics when compared to HC participants. In comparison to HC participants, cannabis-dependent participants demonstrated greater ventral striatal activation during the receipt of losing outcomes and smaller putamenal volumes. Cannabis-dependent participants who did not subsequently achieve 21 days of consecutive abstinence had increased activity within the striatum during the receipt of losing outcomes, relative to HC participants. Cannabis-dependent participants who did not achieve 21 days of abstinence had decreased bilateral putamen volumes prior to treatment, relative to HC participants. Individual differences in pretreatment striatal function and structure may relate to individual differences in treatment responses for cannabis dependence. While mechanisms underlying these associations require further exploration, the striatum might mediate treatment responses via its role in associative reward-learning (e.g., through skills training in CBT or reinforcement of abstinence in CM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  20. Autopsy rate in suicide is low among elderly in Denmark compared with Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup; Bøggild, Henrik; Lalu, Kaisa; Sajantila, Antti

    2014-11-01

    National differences in the legislation on cause and manner of death investigation are reflected in a high autopsy rate in suicides in Finland and a low corresponding rate in Denmark. The consequences for mortality statistics of these different investigation practices on deaths classified as suicides in Denmark and Finland, respectively, are not known in detail. The aim of this article was to analyse autopsy rates in deaths classified as suicides, and to identify any differences in investigation practices in deaths with a comparable cause of death, but classified as unnatural deaths other than suicide. Data from the mortality registries were summarised for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Autopsy rates (total, forensic and medical) were analysed with regard to deaths classified as suicide, and they were compared for three age groups (1-50 years, 51-70 years and ≥71 years) and for causes of death. Deaths classified as suicide were compared with other unnatural classifications, and comparable causes of death were coded into six subgroups: poisonings, suffocations/strangulations, firearm discharges, drowning/submersions, explosions/flames and other/unspecified causes. The total autopsy rate for suicides was 99.8% in Finland and 13.2% in Denmark. Almost all of these autopsies were conducted as forensic autopsies. In the age group ≥71 years, Danish suicides outnumbered Finnish suicides (410 versus 283). The total autopsy rate was lower in the more senior age group in Denmark (19.5%, 9.9%, 5.6%), whereas it was consistently high in Finland (99.8%, 99.9%, 99.6%). Among Danish deaths due to poisonings, the autopsy rate was 89.5% when these were classified as accidents, but only 20.7% for cases classified as suicides. The number of deaths in the two Danish subgroups was comparable (550 versus 553). In Denmark, the decision regarding the need, if any, for a forensic autopsy is made during the external forensic examination of the body. Our study showed that the limited use

  1. Perceptions about sexual abstinence and knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention among in-school adolescents in a western Nigerian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayemi Mojisola M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people are becoming increasingly exposed to the risk of HIV infection. According to the 2008 HIV/Syphilis sentinel survey in Nigeria, 3.3% of young people aged 15-19 years are infected. Primary prevention especially abstinence, remains one of the most realistic interventions for reducing further spread of the virus. However, the adoption of sexual abstinence as a prevention strategy among adolescents remains low and factors influencing its practice among urban young people in Nigeria are relatively unknown. The aim of the study was to document the sexual abstinence behaviour of in-school adolescents, the factors influencing or obstructing abstinence, and knowledge of HIV and AIDS in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. Methods The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of students in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area. A total of 420 respondents (52% males and 48% females, selected through a multistage sampling technique, completed a semi-structured questionnaire. This was supplemented with eight focus group discussions (FGDs which had an average of 9 respondents within the 10 and 19 years age group. The data from the FGDs were transcribed and summarized manually while the quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences to generate frequencies, cross tabulations of variables and logistic regression analysis. Results Twelve percent of the entire sample had ever had sex. Overall, knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention was high and most respondents favoured the promotion of abstinence as an HIV prevention strategy. A smaller proportion of male respondents (79% abstained compared with the females (98%. Major predictors of sexual abstinence were being a female, not having a boyfriend or girl friend, not using alcohol and having a positive attitude towards abstinence (P Sexual abstinence was also significantly associated with perceived self efficacy to refuse sex and negative

  2. Using incentives to encourage smoking abstinence among pregnant indigenous women? A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Walker, Natalie; Bauld, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the unborn child (Morton et al. 2010). Indigenous people often have a higher smoking prevalence during pregnancy than non-Indigenous populations. In New Zealand (NZ), the smoking rates among Indigenous Māori women who are pregnant have reduced since 1991 (68 %) but still remains high in 2007 (34 %) (Morton et al. 2010). The success rate of most smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers is low at products and services, and access to nicotine replacement therapy (control), (2) usual cessation support plus a retail voucher to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (voucher), or (3) usual cessation support plus product to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (product). Outcomes measures included weekly self-reported and monthly biochemically verified smoking status, and acceptability. Of the 74 referred women, 50 declined involvement in the study and 24 consented and were randomised (eight control, eight voucher and eight to product). The mean age of participants was 25 years old (±2.25). Overall 21 % (n = 5) of the women were abstinent from smoking for at least 6 weeks of the eight, one from the control, six from the product and three from the voucher. Our findings suggest that incentives, in particular a choice of products, may be an effective addition to usual care to increase smoking cessation among pregnant Māori women, which has the potential to improve health outcomes for both the mother and child.

  3. Comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Ferrario, Marco M; Chambless, Lloyd E

    2013-12-01

    In this article we focus on comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis, when longitudinal data are observed prior to the follow-up time. Motivational examples include the analysis of the association between changes in cardiovascular risk factors and subsequent onset of coronary events. We derive a measurement error model for the rate of change, estimated through subject-specific linear regression, assuming an additive measurement error model for the time-specific measurements. The rate of change is then included as a time-invariant variable in a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for the first time-specific measurement (baseline) and an error-free covariate. In a simulation study, we compared bias, standard deviation and mean squared error (MSE) for the regression calibration (RC) and the simulation-extrapolation (SIMEX) estimators. Our findings indicate that when the amount of measurement error is substantial, RC should be the preferred method, since it has smaller MSE for estimating the coefficients of the rate of change and of the variable measured without error. However, when the amount of measurement error is small, the choice of the method should take into account the event rate in the population and the effect size to be estimated. An application to an observational study, as well as examples of published studies where our model could have been applied, are also provided.

  4. Screw size and insertion technique compared with removal rates for calcaneal displacement osteotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Douglas E; Simpson, G Alexander; Berlet, Gregory C; Philbin, Terrence M; Smith, J Luke

    2015-04-01

    The calcaneal displacement osteotomy is frequently used by foot and ankle surgeons to correct hindfoot angular deformity. Headed compression screws are often used for this purpose, but a common complication is postoperative plantar heel pain from prominent hardware. We evaluated hardware removal rates after calcaneal displacement osteotomies and analyzed technical factors including screw size, position, and angle. We hypothesized that larger screws placed more plantarly would have been removed more frequently. We also believed that although 2 smaller screws cost more initially, when removal rates and cost are accounted for, savings would be demonstrated with this technique. We retrospectively collected data on type of fixation, cost of fixation, and frequency of removal. After exclusions we had 30 patients in our screw removal cohort and 119 in our screws retained cohort. A basic cost analysis and statistical analysis was performed. The small screw group had a hardware removal rate of 9% (4/43) compared to 25% (26/104) of the larger screw group (P = .032). While the cost of 2 smaller screws is more than that of 1 larger screw, when the cost of removal and the rates of doing so are considered, the smaller screws resulted in substantial cost savings. Technical considerations for the medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy, including the use of multiple smaller screws, provided for a lower rate of hardware removal and likely decreased long-term costs. Level III, comparative series. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Comparative evaluation of iohexol and inulin clearance for glomerular filtration rate determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, H.G.; Berg, U.B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have evaluated iohexol as a filtration marker in 150 children. The clearance of iohexol was compared with that of inulin or with a formula clearance. The single-sample clearance of iohexol showed a good correlation with the clearance of inulin. The clearance of iohexol correlated well with the formula clearance. The optimal blood sampling time for iohexol clearance determinations appears to be between 120 and 180 min after injection, at least in patient with relatively normal filtration rates. It is concluded that iohexol clearance is an accurate method of determining the glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice. 25 refs., 5 figs

  6. Toward a better understanding of the comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Hilton, Sterling C; Wiggins, Charles L; Sturgeon, Jared D

    2003-04-29

    This study assesses whether comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates among white men in Utah represent higher rates among members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons), who comprise about 70% of the state's male population, and considers the potential influence screening has on these rates. Analyses are based on 14,693 histologically confirmed invasive prostate cancer cases among men aged 50 years and older identified through the Utah Cancer Registry between 1985 and 1999. Cancer records were linked to LDS Church membership records to determine LDS status. Poisson regression was used to derive rate ratios of LDS to nonLDS prostate cancer incidence, adjusted for age, disease stage, calendar time, and incidental detection. LDS men had a 31% (95% confidence interval, 26%-36%) higher incidence rate of prostate cancer than nonLDS men during the study period. Rates were consistently higher among LDS men over time (118% in 1985-88, 20% in 1989-92, 15% in 1993-1996, and 13% in 1997-99); age (13% in ages 50-59, 48% in ages 60-69, 28% in ages 70-79, and 16% in ages 80 and older); and stage (36% in local/regional and 17% in unstaged). An age- and stage-shift was observed for both LDS and nonLDS men, although more pronounced among LDS men. Comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates among LDS men in Utah are explained, at least in part, by more aggressive screening among these men.

  7. Lower Cancer Rates Among Druze Compared to Arab and Jewish Populations in Israel, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzmon, Iris; Linn, Shai; Portnov, Boris A; Richter, Elihu; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2017-06-01

    The Druze are a small ethnic minority in Israel amounting to about 130,000 residents (or 1.7 % of the total population of the country). Unlike other population groups, the Druze strive to keep their own traditions and marry mainly inside their own community. During the last decade, cancer morbidity among both Jews and Arabs in Israel has been increasing, while data on the Druze are little known and have not been analyzed and compared to other population groups to date. To compare cancer morbidity rates among Druze, Arabs and Jews in Israel during 1999-2009, gender-specific and age-standardized incidence rates of all site cancers and specific cancers of three population groups (Jews, Arabs and Druze) were received from the Israel National Cancer Registry for the period 1999-2009. Based on these rates, periodical incidence rates were calculated and mutually compared across the groups stratified by gender. As the analysis shows, the Druze had significantly lower cancer rates compared to both Arabs and Jews. Thus, for all site cancers, there were significantly higher cancer rates in Jewish males versus Druze males (RR = 1.39, 95 % CI = 1.16-1.65) and in Jewish females versus Druze females (RR = 1.53, 95 % CI = 1.27-1.85), but not statistically significant for Arab males versus Druze males (RR = 1.12 95 % CI = 0.93-1.35). Lung cancer rates in Arab males were also higher compared to Druze males (RR = 1.84, 95 % CI = 1.13-3.00). Jewish males had statistically significant higher rates of prostate cancer compared to Druze males (RR = 2.47, 95 % CI = 1.55-3.91). For thyroid and colon cancers, risks were not significantly different at the 95 % CI level; however, the risks were significantly different at the 90 % CI level (RR = 3.62, 90 % CI 1.20-11.02 and RR = 1.69, 90 % CI = 1.03-2.77, respectively). Jewish females had significantly higher rates of invasive breast cancer (RR = 2.25, 95 % CI = 1.55-3.25), in situ cervical cancer (RR

  8. Experiments in a flighted conveyor comparing shear rates in compressed versus free surface flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Nicholas; Higgins, Hannah; Krupiarz, Kamila; O'Connor, Ryan

    2017-11-01

    Uniformity of granular flow rate is critical in industry. Experiments in a flighted conveyor system aim to fill a gap in knowledge of achieving steady mass flow rate by correlating velocity profile data with mass flow rate measurements. High speed images were collected for uniformly-shaped particles in a bottom-driven flow conveyor belt system from which the velocity profiles can be generated. The correlation of mass flow rates from the velocity profiles to the time-dependent mass measurements will determine energy dissipation rates as a function of operating conditions. The velocity profiles as a function of the size of the particles, speed of the belt, and outlet size, will be compared to shear rate relationships found in past experiments that focused on gravity-driven systems. The dimension of the linear shear and type of decaying transition to the stationary bed may appear different due to the compression versus dilation space in open flows. The application of this research can serve to validate simulations in discrete element modeling and physically demonstrate a process that can be further developed and customized for industry applications, such as feeding a biomass conversion reactor. Sponsored by NIU's Office of Student Engagement and Experiential Learning.

  9. American counselors' acceptance of non-abstinence outcome goals for clients diagnosed with co-occurring substance use and other psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan K; Rosenberg, Harold; Rosansky, Joseph A

    2017-11-01

    Previous research has examined clinicians' acceptance of non-abstinence for clients who have a substance use disorder (SUD), but many SUD clients also present with a psychiatric disorder. To evaluate the acceptability of non-abstinence as a final outcome goal for clients with co-occurring diagnoses, we recruited a nationwide sample of 751 American substance abuse counselors to complete a web-based questionnaire. Respondents rated the acceptability of limited/moderate consumption by clients diagnosed with each of 18 co-occurring disorders: three psychiatric disorders (Major Depressive Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Social Phobia) x three substances (alcohol, cannabis, opioids) x two levels of severity (DSM-5 Moderate SUD, DSM-5 Severe SUD). On average, non-abstinence was rated as unacceptable for clients with any of the 18 diagnostic pairs, although one-fourth to almost one-third rated limited/moderate use of cannabis somewhat or completely acceptable for clients diagnosed with a Moderate Cannabis Use Disorder when paired with any of the three psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, small proportions of respondents (13% to 20%) rated non-abstinence at least somewhat acceptable even when clients were diagnosed with a Severe SUD for any of the three substances and any co-occurring psychiatric disorder. Based on our findings, clients with co-occurring disorders who want to moderate their substance use will typically find their counselor does not accept that outcome goal. Because supporting non-abstinence respects client autonomy, could attract and retain clients in counseling, and is consistent with a recovery-oriented treatment model, we encourage continuing education about the benefits of non-abstinence as a treatment goal for clients with co-occurring disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing the intraoperative complication rate of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery to traditional phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the complication rate of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS and traditional phacoemulsification for the first 18mo of FLACS use at a private surgical center in Hawaii. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted from January 2012 to June 2013. The first 273 consecutive eyes receiving FLACS and 553 eyes receiving traditional phacoemulsification were examined. All surgeries were performed at a single surgical center in Hawaii. The presence of intraoperative complications was used as the main outcome measure. Approval was obtained from the institutional review board of the University of Hawaii. RESULTS: The overall complication rate for FLACS was 1.8%, while that of the traditional procedure was 5.8% (PCONCLUSION: FLACS is comparable in safety, if not safer, than traditional cataract surgery when performed by qualified cataract surgeons on carefully selected patients.

  11. Comparing primary production methods to better constrain historical, current and future rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, A. H.; Hamme, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding current primary production and carbon export rates to the deep ocean will provide insight into possible climate change scenarios, because carbon export is an important mechanism sequestering carbon from the surface and may change in the future. By using multiple methods, production rates can be better constrained. Each method has its own advantages, disadvantages, and assumptions. By pairing methods, biases can be taken into account for data interpretation. For example, removing phytoplankton from the environment could change the light levels and temperature of the water. In addition, phytoplankton can be affected by the sides of the incubation container. By including in situ methods, bottle effects are removed and integration times are lengthened. In situ methods have their own set of disadvantages; uncertainty is introduced with the gas exchange rate and if surface water mixes with deeper water. However, comparing methods is complicated since each measures a different fraction of production (e.g net community, net primary, gross production). We present simultaneous in situ (O2/Ar, triple oxygen isotope), in vitro (13C, 15NO3, 15NH4, and 18O incubations) and satellite measurements of primary production from the subarctic northeast Pacific Ocean, Labrador Sea, Baffin Bay, and Canadian Arctic Archipelago. By comparing net community production (NCP; O2/Ar) to gross production (18O incubation or triple oxygen isotope), we estimate ecosystem efficiency. Some methods have multiple ways the rates could be calculated, but by comparing methods it could be possible to select the best options. Our goal is to identify conditions where the methods have consistent differences so measurements can be converted between methods and so ecosystem efficiency can be determined. By finding a way of converting to a more relevant export term (NCP), a wealth of 14C and 13C data exists that could be used to determine historic, current and future export rates.

  12. Assessment of survival rates compared according to the Tamai and Yamano classifications in fingertip replantations

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Dadaci; Bilsev Ince; Zeynep Altuntas; Ozan Bitik; Haldun Onuralp Kamburoglu; Hakan Uzun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The fingertip is the most frequently injured and amputated segment of the hand. There are controversies about defining clear indications for microsurgical replantation. Many classification systems have been proposed to solve this problem. No previous study has simultaneously correlated different classification systems with replant survival rate. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of fingertip replantations according to Tamai and Yamano classifications. Materials a...

  13. Time-trends in method-specific suicide rates compared with the availability of specific compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. All suicides in Denmark between 1970 and 2000 were examined with regard to method used for suicide. Overall suicide mortality and method-specific suicide mortality was compared...... in the number of suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55% decrease in suicide rate....

  14. Graft Subsidence and Revision Rates Following Anterior Cervical Corpectomy: A Clinical Study Comparing Different Interbody Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael H; Fortin, Maryse; Shen, Jian; Tay, Bobby; Hu, Serena S; Berven, Sigurd; Burch, Shane; Chou, Dean; Ames, Christopher; Deviren, Vedat

    2017-11-01

    Retrospective cohort study. To assess the subsidence and revision rates associated with different interbody cages following anterior cervical corpectomy and reconstruction. Different interbody cages are currently used for surgical reconstruction of the anterior and middle columns of the spine following anterior cervical corpectomy. However, subsidence and delayed union/nonunion associated with allograft and cage reconstruction are common complications, which may require revision with instrumentation. We reviewed the cases of 75 patients who underwent cervical corpectomy and compared the radiographic graft subsidence and revision rates for fibula allograft, titanium mesh cage, titanium expandable cage, and carbon fiber cages. Subsidence was calculated by comparing the immediate postoperative lateral x-ray films to those obtained during follow-up visits. The average graft subsidence was 3 mm and revision rate was 25% for fibula allograft versus 2.9 mm and 11.1%, 2.9 mm and 18.8% for titanium mesh cages and titanium expandable cages, respectively. The average graft subsidence for carbon fiber cages was 0.7 mm with no revision surgery in this subset. Our findings suggest that subsidence and revision rates following anterior corpectomy and interbody fusion could be minimized with the use of a carbon fiber cage.

  15. Are Interpersonal Violence Rates Higher Among Young Women in College Compared With Those Never Attending College?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-05-01

    Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Fractures in indigenous compared to non-indigenous populations: A systematic review of rates and aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Vogrin, Sara; Leslie, William D; Kinsella, Rita; Toombs, Maree; Duque, Gustavo; Hosking, Sarah M; Holloway, Kara L; Doolan, Brianna J; Williams, Lana J; Page, Richard S; Pasco, Julie A; Quirk, Shae E

    2017-06-01

    Compared to non-indigenous populations, indigenous populations experience disproportionately greater morbidity, and a reduced life expectancy; however, conflicting data exist regarding whether a higher risk of fracture is experienced by either population. We systematically evaluate evidence for whether differences in fracture rates at any skeletal site exist between indigenous and non-indigenous populations of any age, and to identify potential risk factors that might explain these differences. On 31 August 2016 we conducted a comprehensive computer-aided search of peer-reviewed literature without date limits. We searched PubMed, OVID, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and reference lists of relevant publications. The protocol for this systematic review is registered in PROSPERO, the International Prospective Register of systematic reviews (CRD42016043215). Using the World Health Organization reference population as standard, hip fracture incidence rates were re-standardized for comparability between countries. Our search yielded 3227 articles; 283 potentially eligible articles were cross-referenced against predetermined criteria, leaving 27 articles for final inclusion. Differences in hip fracture rates appeared as continent-specific, with lower rates observed for indigenous persons in all countries except for Canada and Australia where the opposite was observed. Indigenous persons consistently had higher rates of trauma-related fractures; the highest were observed in Australia where craniofacial fracture rates were 22-times greater for indigenous compared to non-indigenous women. After adjustment for socio-demographic and clinical risk factors, approximately a three-fold greater risk of osteoporotic fracture and five-fold greater risk of craniofacial fractures was observed for indigenous compared to non-indigenous persons; diabetes, substance abuse, comorbidity, lower income, locality, and fracture history were independently associated with an increased risk of fracture

  17. Hospitalization Rates for Patients on Assisted Peritoneal Dialysis Compared with In-Center Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Matthew J; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed A; Dixon, Stephanie N; Perl, Jeffrey; Jain, Arsh K; Lavoie, Susan D; Nash, Danielle M; Paterson, J Michael; Lok, Charmaine E; Quinn, Robert R

    2016-09-07

    Assisted peritoneal dialysis is a treatment option for individuals with barriers to self-care who wish to receive home dialysis, but previous research suggests that this treatment modality is associated with a higher rate of hospitalization. The objective of our study was to determine whether assisted peritoneal dialysis has a different rate of hospital days compared to in-center hemodialysis. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study by linking a quality assurance dataset to administrative health data in Ontario, Canada. Subjects were accrued between January 1, 2004 and July 9, 2013. Individuals were grouped into assisted peritoneal dialysis (family or home care assisted) or in-center hemodialysis on the basis of their first outpatient dialysis modality. Inverse probability of treatment weighting using a propensity score was used to create a sample in which the baseline covariates were well balanced. The study included 872 patients in the in-center hemodialysis group and 203 patients in the assisted peritoneal dialysis group. Using an intention to treat approach, patients on assisted peritoneal dialysis had a similar hospitalization rate of 11.1 d/yr (95% confidence interval, 9.4 to 13.0) compared with 12.9 d/yr (95% confidence interval, 10.3 to 16.1) in the hemodialysis group (P=0.19). Patients on assisted peritoneal dialysis were more likely to be hospitalized for dialysis-related reasons (admitted for 2.4 d/yr [95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 3.2] compared with 1.6 d/yr [95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.3] in the hemodialysis group; P=0.04). This difference was partly explained by more hospital days because of peritonitis. Modality switching was associated with high rates of hospital days per year. Assisted peritoneal dialysis was associated with similar rates of all-cause hospitalization compared with in-center hemodialysis. Patients on assisted peritoneal dialysis who experienced peritonitis and technique failure had high rates of

  18. A randomized trial of employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence in injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Kenneth; Wong, Conrad J; Needham, Mick; Diemer, Karly N; Knealing, Todd; Crone-Todd, Darlene; Fingerhood, Michael; Nuzzo, Paul; Kolodner, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    High-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement can promote drug abstinence but can be difficult to finance. Employment may be a vehicle for arranging high-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement. This study determined if employment-based abstinence reinforcement could increase cocaine abstinence in adults who inject drugs and use cocaine during methadone treatment. Participants could work 4 hr every weekday in a workplace where they could earn about $10.00 per hour in vouchers; they were required to provide routine urine samples. Participants who attended the workplace and provided cocaine-positive urine samples during the initial 4 weeks were invited to work 26 weeks and were randomly assigned to an abstinence-and-work (n = 28) or work-only (n = 28) group. Abstinence-and-work participants had to provide urine samples showing cocaine abstinence to work and maintain maximum pay. Work-only participants could work independent of their urinalysis results. Abstinence-and-work participants provided more (p = .004; OR = 5.80, 95% CI = 2.03-16.56) cocaine-negative urine samples (29%) than did work-only participants (10%). Employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase cocaine abstinence.

  19. Interatrial septum pacing decreases atrial dyssynchrony on strain rate imaging compared with right atrial appendage pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuoka, Yoshinori; Abe, Haruhiko; Umekawa, Seiko; Katsuki, Keiko; Tanaka, Norio; Araki, Ryo; Imanaka, Takahiro; Matsutera, Ryo; Morisawa, Daisuke; Kitada, Hirokazu; Hattori, Susumu; Noda, Yoshiki; Adachi, Hidenori; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Miyatake, Kunio

    2011-03-01

    Interatrial septum pacing (IAS-P) decreases atrial conduction delay compared with right atrial appendage pacing (RAA-P). We evaluate the atrial contraction with strain rate of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) during sinus activation or with IAS-P or RAA-P. Fifty-two patients with permanent pacemaker for sinus node disease were enrolled in the study. Twenty-three subjects were with IAS-P and 29 with RAA-P. The time from end-diastole to peak end-diastolic strain rate was measured and corrected with RR interval on electrocardiogram. It was defined as the time from end-diastole to peak end-diastolic strain rate (TSRc), and the balance between maximum and minimum TSRc at three sites (ΔTSRc) was compared during sinus activation and with pacing rhythm in each group. There were no significant differences observed in general characteristics and standard echocardiographic parameters except the duration of pacing P wave between the two groups. The duration was significantly shorter in the IAS-P group compared with the RAA-P group (95 ± 34 vs 138 ± 41; P = 0.001). TSRc was significantly different between sinus activation and pacing rhythm (36.3 ± 35.7 vs 61.6 ± 36.3; P = 0.003) in the RAA-P group, whereas no significant differences were observed in the IAS-P group (25.4 ± 12.1 vs 27.7 ± 14.7; NS). During the follow-up (mean 2.4 ± 0.7 years), the incidence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) conversion to permanent AF was not significantly different between the two groups. IAS-P decreased the contraction delay on atrial TDI compared to RAA-P; however, it did not contribute to the reduction of AF incidence in the present study. ©2010, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparing Two Methods of Determining Infiltration Rates of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W.B.Nichols

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate infiltration through Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements (PICPs is critical to their hydraulic performance. Detected by monitoring infiltration performance, reduced infiltration rates can indicate that maintenance is required. Measurement of infiltration rates has previously been problematic on PICPs because of a lack of accepted standard methodologies and the practical difficulties in modifying existing testing methodologies. On large sites, standard methodologies necessitate multiple measurements to achieve accuracy. Standard methods also contend with practical issues such as sealing the rings to the surface to prevent lateral water flow. This study examined the performance of two PICP surface infiltration rate measurement methods: a modified double-ring infiltrometer (DRIT, and a specially designed rainfall simulation infiltrometer (RSIT. A positive correlation (R2 = 0.85 of results was found between the two, demonstrating that the RSIT was comparable to the DRIT. The modified DRIT produced surface infiltration results approximately 60% higher than the RSIT results. The RSIT provided lower variation between tests, requiring fewer measurements in large sites whilst still maintaining accuracy, thereby improving testing efficiency. The new RSIT method also eliminates some of the practical difficulties with existing methodologies such as unrealistic pressure heads artificially increasing infiltration rates, and the use of sealant under test measurement infiltration rings.

  1. Measuring Disability: Comparing the Impact of Two Data Collection Approaches on Disability Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabariego, Carla; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Posarac, Aleksandra; Bickenbach, Jerome; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Chatterji, Somnath; Officer, Alana; Coenen, Michaela; Chhan, Lay; Cieza, Alarcos

    2015-01-01

    The usual approach in disability surveys is to screen persons with disability upfront and then ask questions about everyday problems. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the impact of screeners on disability rates, to challenge the usual exclusion of persons with mild and moderate disability from disability surveys and to demonstrate the advantage of using an a posteriori cut-off. Using data of a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey (MDS) in Cambodia and the polytomous Rasch model, metric scales of disability were built. The conventional screener approach based on the short disability module of the Washington City Group and the a posteriori cut-off method described in the World Disability Report were compared regarding disability rates. The screener led to imprecise rates and classified persons with mild to moderate disability as non-disabled, although these respondents already experienced important problems in daily life. The a posteriori cut-off applied to the general population sample led to a more precise disability rate and allowed for a differentiation of the performance and needs of persons with mild, moderate and severe disability. This approach can be therefore considered as an inclusive approach suitable to monitor the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. PMID:26308039

  2. Measuring Disability: Comparing the Impact of Two Data Collection Approaches on Disability Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sabariego

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The usual approach in disability surveys is to screen persons with disability upfront and then ask questions about everyday problems. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the impact of screeners on disability rates, to challenge the usual exclusion of persons with mild and moderate disability from disability surveys and to demonstrate the advantage of using an a posteriori cut-off. Using data of a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey (MDS in Cambodia and the polytomous Rasch model, metric scales of disability were built. The conventional screener approach based on the short disability module of the Washington City Group and the a posteriori cut-off method described in the World Disability Report were compared regarding disability rates. The screener led to imprecise rates and classified persons with mild to moderate disability as non-disabled, although these respondents already experienced important problems in daily life. The a posteriori cut-off applied to the general population sample led to a more precise disability rate and allowed for a differentiation of the performance and needs of persons with mild, moderate and severe disability. This approach can be therefore considered as an inclusive approach suitable to monitor the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

  3. Positive environmental modification of depressive phenotype and abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in female C57BL/6J mice during abstinence from chronic ethanol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Y Pang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a commonly reported co-morbidity during rehabilitation from alcohol use disorders and its presence is associated with an increased likelihood of relapse. Interventions which impede the development of depression could be of potential benefit if incorporated into treatment programs. We previously demonstrated an ameliorative effect of physical exercise on depressive behaviours in a mouse model of alcohol abstinence. Here, we show that environmental enrichment (cognitive and social stimulation has a similar beneficial effect. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is a key physiological system regulating stress responses and its dysregulation has been separably implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and addiction disorders. We performed a series of dexamethasone challenges and found that mice undergoing 2 weeks of alcohol abstinence had significantly greater corticosterone and ACTH levels following a DEX-CRH challenge compared to water controls. Environmental enrichment during alcohol abstinence corrected the abnormal DEX-CRH corticosterone response despite a further elevation of ACTH levels. Examination of gene expression revealed abstinence-associated alterations in glucocorticoid receptor (Gr, corticotrophin releasing hormone (Crh and pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc1 mRNA levels which were differentially modulated by environmental enrichment. Overall, our study demonstrates a benefit of environmental enrichment on alcohol abstinence-associated depressive behaviours and HPA axis dysregulation.

  4. Does concurrent in utero exposure to buprenorphine and antidepressant medications influence the course of neonatal abstinence syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Alane B; O'Brien, Liam; Alto, William A; Wong, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether concurrent in utero exposure to buprenorphine and antidepressants impacts the course of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in infants. A retrospective cohort study of 148 infants who were exposed to buprenorphine during pregnancy. Univariate and bivariate analyses were used to examine associations between concurrent maternal use of buprenorphine and antidepressants as compared to maternal use of buprenorphine alone. The time to onset of NAS resolution was significantly longer in infants exposed to both buprenorphine and antidepressants during pregnancy when compared to those exposed to buprenorphine alone (129.8 h versus 70.2 h, p = 0.042). Women who are prescribed both antidepressants and buprenorphine during pregnancy should be counseled about the possibility of a prolonged course of neonatal abstinence syndrome.

  5. Comparative study of heart rate variability between healthy human subjects and healthy dogs, rabbits and calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, A; Ootaki, Y; Ootaki, C; Kamohara, K; Fukamachi, K

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have been performed to assess heart rate variability (HRV) in several species such as humans, dogs, pigs, calves, rabbits and rats. However, haemodynamic parameters are totally different in each animal, and optimal animal models for studying HRV corresponding to human HRV are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess HRV in human subjects and to compare those HRV data with canine, bovine and rabbit HRV data. The heart rate in the human subjects (62.8 +/- 7.4 bpm) was significantly lower than that in dogs (124.2 +/- 18.8 bpm, P 217.3 +/- 21.5 bpm, P Hz) and high-frequency waves (HF) (33.8 +/- 49.1 ms(2)/Hz) in rabbits were significantly lower than human LF (1216.3 +/- 1220.7 ms(2)/Hz, P Hz, P Hz and 547.0 +/- 256.9 ms(2)/Hz, respectively), HF (702.1 +/- 394.1 ms(2)/Hz and 601.0 +/- 666.6 ms(2)/Hz, respectively) and LF/HF (2.0 +/- 1.3 and 2.5 +/- 1.9, respectively) when compared with the human data. The present study shows that dogs and calves revealed similar HRV values as those which relate to humans. Large deviation of the HRV values in rabbits compared with humans might be considered when conducting animal studies using those animals to reflect human clinical situations.

  6. Basal metabolic rate in women with PCOS compared to eumenorrheic controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Sara J; Wang, Erica T; Bhasin, Gaisu; Alexander, Carolyn; Bresee, Catherine; Pall, Marita; Azziz, Ricardo; Mathur, Ruchi; Pisarska, Margareta D

    2015-09-01

    PCOS is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Efforts have focused on whether an abnormal energy homeostasis contributes to the development of obesity in these patients. There are conflicting results in the literature regarding whether women with PCOS have an altered basal metabolic rate (BMR), thereby leading to difficulties in weight loss. The objective of this study is to compare basal metabolic rate (BMR) in women with PCOS and controls. Cross-sectional study. One hundred and twenty-eight PCOS patients diagnosed by original NIH consensus criteria and 72 eumenorrheic, non-hirsute controls were recruited from an academic medical centre. Assessment of BMR using the InBody portable bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) device and insulin resistance by HOMA-IR indices. PCOS women were younger than controls. As expected, PCOS subjects had higher body mass index (BMI), serum androgens and estimated insulin resistance. After adjusting for age and BMI, there was no significant difference in BMR between PCOS subjects (adjusted mean 5807 kJ/day, 95% CI 5715-5899) and controls (adjusted mean 5916 kJ/day, 95% CI 5786-6046) (P = 0·193). BMR was also comparable in a secondary analysis comparing PCOS women with and without insulin resistance. After adjusting for age and BMI, there was no difference in BMR between PCOS women and controls. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The rate of progression of renal disease may not be slower in women compared with men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jafar, Tazeen H; Schmid, Christopher H; Stark, Paul C

    2003-01-01

    patient characteristics, and changes from baseline to follow-up systolic blood pressure (SBP) and urine protein (UP) excretion. RESULTS: The total number of patients was 1860: 645 (35%) females and 1215 (65%) males. Mean duration of follow-up was 2.2 years. The proportions randomized to ACEI (51%), mean...... ACEIs and baseline UP, and 1.36 (1.06-1.75) after adjusting for baseline variables and changes in SBP and UP during follow-up. Similar results were found for the outcome of ESRD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the rate of renal disease progression may not be slower, and may even be faster...... in women compared with men, after adjusting for other factors associated with a faster rate of progression. We caution that most women in our database were of post-menopausal age, and thus our findings may not extend to younger women....

  8. Young South Africans' views on, and perceptions of, abstinence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young people have strong views on abstaining from sexual intercourse, as 83% said that it was possible not to have sex for as long as you can. There was also strong support for abstinence, as 78.5% said that not having sex was the best way of preventing infection with HIV. In total, 68.1% of the youths said that the media ...

  9. Comparing 30-day all-cause readmission rates between tibiotalar fusion and total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Robert K; Ferrandino, Rocco M; Hoffman, Ryan; Ndu, Anthony; Shaffer, Gene W

    2018-01-12

    End-stage ankle arthritis is a debilitating condition that negatively impacts patient quality of life. Tibiotalar fusion and total ankle replacement are treatment options for managing ankle arthritis. Few studies have examined short term readmission rates of these two procedures. The objective of this study was compare all-cause 30-day readmission rates between patients undergoing tibiotalar fusion vs. total ankle replacement. This study queried the Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD) from 2013-2014 and used international classification of disease, 9th revision (ICD-9) procedure codes to identify all patients who underwent a tibiotalar fusion or a total ankle replacement. Comorbidities, insurance status, hospital characteristics, and readmission rates were statistically compared between the two cohorts. Risk factors were then identified for 30-day readmission. A total of 5660 patients were analyzed with 2667 in the tibiotalar fusion cohort and 2993 in the total ankle replacement cohort. Univariate analysis revealed that the readmission rate after tibiotalar fusion (4.4%) was statistically greater than after total ankle replacement (1.4%). Multivariable regression analysis indicated that deficiency anemia (OR 2.18), coagulopathy (OR 3.51), renal failure (OR 2.83), other insurance relative to private (OR 3.40), and tibiotalar fusion (OR 2.51) were all statistically significant independent risk factors for having a readmission within 30-days. These findings suggest that during the short-term period following discharge from the hospital, patients who received a tibiotalar fusion are more likely to experience a 30-day readmission. These findings are important for decision making when a surgeon encounters a patient with end stage ankle arthritis. Level III, cohort study. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A Comparative Study of Data Mining Algorithms for High Detection Rate in Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Ashraf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fast growth and tradition of the internet over the last decades, the network security problems are increasing vigorously. Humans can not handle the speed of processes and the huge amount of data required to handle network anomalies. Therefore, it needs substantial automation in both speed and accuracy. Intrusion Detection System is one of the approaches to recognize illegal access and rare attacks to secure networks. In this proposed paper, Naive Bayes, J48 and Random Forest classifiers are compared to compute the detection rate and accuracy of IDS. For experiments, the KDD_NSL dataset is used.

  11. The control of abstinence in the treatment of alcohol dependence: the use of acamprosate in relapse prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Venturella; Anna Asaro; Guido Faillace; Gianpaolo Spinnato; Danila Di Majo; Maurizio La Guardia; Marco Giammanco; Stefania Aiello

    2014-01-01

    Treatment with acamprosate is a valid tool to complement psychotherapy as it does not cause addiction, abuse or withdrawal of its suspension and does not interfere with other medications that patients often alcoholics must take. To evaluate the effectiveness, our study evaluated the effects of Acamprosate compared to γ-hydroxybutyrate in clinical-physiological and social health in a way indicator of a possible therapeutic success in terms of abstinence from alcohol and social reintegrat...

  12. Comparison of Hemodynamic Effects and Negative Predictive Value of Normal Adenosine Gated Myocardial Perfusion Scan With or Without Caffeine Abstinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, Maseeh uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Zaman, Areeba; Zaman, Unaiza; Tahseen, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    For vasodilator stress, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with at least 12-h caffeine abstinence is recommended, as it attenuates cardiovascular hyperemic response of adenosine and dipyridamole. However, many published conflicting results have shown no significant effect upon perfusion abnormalities in MPI performed without caffeine abstinence. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic changes and negative predictive value (NPV) of normal MPIs with adenosine stress performed with or without caffeine abstinence. This was a prospective study that accrued 50 patients from May 2013 till September 2013 and followed till November 2014. These patients had a normal adenosine-gated MPI (GMPI) with technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) after 12-h caffeine abstinence (no-caffeine). Next day, all patients had a repeat adenosine stress within 60 min after ingestion of a cup of coffee (about 80 mg of caffeine) followed by no MPI in 30 patients due to concern about radiation dose (prior-caffeine adenosine—no MPI; group A). Twenty patients opted for a repeat MPI (prior-caffeine adenosine—MPI; group B). Adenosine-induced hemodynamic response and NPV of the normal MPI with no-caffeine and prior-caffeine protocols were compared. The mean age of the study cohort was 57 ± 9 years with a male-to-female ratio of 76:24% and mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.915 ± 4.121 kg/m 2 . Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and positive family history were 76%, 20%, 22%, and 17%, respectively. Comparison of group A with group B revealed no significant difference in demographic parameters, hemodynamic or electrocardiography (ECG) parameters, or left ventricular (LV) function parameters during adenosine intervention with prior-caffeine and no-caffeine protocols. During the follow-up, no fatal myocardial infarction (MI) was reported but 6 nonfatal MIs were reported based upon the history of short hospitalization for chest pain but without biochemical

  13. Differences in Quit Attempts and Cigarette Smoking Abstinence Between Whites and African Americans in the United States: Literature Review and Results From the International Tobacco Control US Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, Jessica A; Cornelius, Monica E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Giovino, Gary A

    2016-04-01

    While cigarette smoking prevalence is declining among US adults, quit rates may differ between white and African American smokers. Here, we summarize the literature on smoking cessation behaviors in whites and African Americans across four study designs and report the findings of new analyses of International Tobacco Control (ITC) US Survey cohort data. We reviewed 32 publications containing 39 relevant analyses that compared quit attempts and abstinence between US whites and African Americans. Two additional longitudinal analyses were conducted on 821 white and 76 African American cigarette smokers from Waves 7 and 8 of the ITC US Survey (mean follow-up = 19 months). Of 17 total analyses of quit attempts, nine (including the ITC US Survey) observed that African American smokers were more likely than whites to attempt to quit during a given year; seven found no differences. Whites were more likely than African Americans to be abstinent in five of six retrospective cohort analyses and in two of five considered community- and population-based cohort studies. Four of these 11 analyses, including one from the ITC US Survey, found no differences. Of 11 population- or community-based analyses, all seven that found significant differences indicated that whites were more likely to quit than African Americans. These findings, combined with the similar results from population-based birth cohort analyses, support the conclusion that white smokers are more likely to quit than African American smokers. Efforts to encourage and support quitting among all tobacco users remain a priority. This article provides a review of the literature on smoking cessation among African American and white smokers, and adds new analyses that compare quit attempts and abstinence between US African Americans and whites. Results demonstrate a clear distinction between the findings of cross-sectional and retrospective cohort studies with those of cohort studies. Reasons for these differences merit

  14. High-rate activated sludge communities have a distinctly different structure compared to low-rate sludge communities, and are less sensitive towards environmental and operational variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerburg, Francis A; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Roume, Hugo; Seuntjens, Dries; Pieper, Dietmar H; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Boon, Nico

    2016-09-01

    High-rate activated sludge processes allow for the recovery of organics and energy from wastewaters. These systems are operated at a short sludge retention time and high sludge-specific loading rates, which results in a higher sludge yield and better digestibility than conventional, low-rate activated sludge. Little is known about the microbial ecology of high-rate systems. In this work, we address the need for a fundamental understanding of how high-rate microbial communities differ from low-rate communities. We investigated the high-rate and low-rate communities in a sewage treatment plant in relation to environmental and operational variables over a period of ten months. We demonstrated that (1) high-rate and low-rate communities are distinctly different in terms of richness, evenness and composition, (2) high-rate community dynamics are more variable and less shaped by deterministic factors compared to low-rate communities, (3) sub-communities of continuously core and transitional members are more shaped by deterministic factors than the continuously rare members, both in high-rate and low-rate communities, and (4) high-rate community members showed a co-occurrence pattern similar to that of low-rate community members, but were less likely to be correlated to environmental and operational variables. These findings provide a basis for further optimization of high-rate systems, in order to facilitate resource recovery from wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inpatient Addiction Consultation for Hospitalized Patients Increases Post-Discharge Abstinence and Reduces Addiction Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Sarah E; Metlay, Joshua P; Chang, Yuchiao; Herman, Grace E; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol and drug use results in substantial morbidity, mortality, and cost. Individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders are overrepresented in general medical settings. Hospital-based interventions offer an opportunity to engage with a vulnerable population that may not otherwise seek treatment. To determine whether inpatient addiction consultation improves substance use outcomes 1 month after discharge. Prospective quasi-experimental evaluation comparing 30-day post-discharge outcomes between participants who were and were not seen by an addiction consult team during hospitalization at an urban academic hospital. Three hundred ninety-nine hospitalized adults who screened as high risk for having an alcohol or drug use disorder or who were clinically identified by the primary nurse as having a substance use disorder. Addiction consultation from a multidisciplinary specialty team offering pharmacotherapy initiation, motivational counseling, treatment planning, and direct linkage to ongoing addiction treatment. Addiction Severity Index (ASI) composite score for alcohol and drug use and self-reported abstinence at 30 days post-discharge. Secondary outcomes included 90-day substance use measures and self-reported hospital and ED utilization. Among 265 participants with 30-day follow-up, a greater reduction in the ASI composite score for drug or alcohol use was seen in the intervention group than in the control group (mean ASI-alcohol decreased by 0.24 vs. 0.08, p drug decreased by 0.05 vs. 0.02, p = 0.003.) There was also a greater increase in the number of days of abstinence in the intervention group versus the control group (+12.7 days vs. +5.6, p drug, and days abstinent all remained statistically significant after controlling for age, gender, employment status, smoking status, and baseline addiction severity (p = 0.018, 0.018, and 0.02, respectively). In a sensitivity analysis, assuming that patients who were lost to follow-up had no change from baseline

  16. Methadone dose and neonatal abstinence syndrome-systematic review and meta-analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    AIM: To determine if there is a relationship between maternal methadone dose in pregnancy and the diagnosis or medical treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and PsychINFO were searched for studies reporting on methadone use in pregnancy and NAS (1966-2009). The relative risk (RR) of NAS was compared for methadone doses above versus below a range of cut-off points. Summary RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using random effects meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses explored the impact of limiting meta-analyses to prospective studies or studies using an objective scoring system to diagnose NAS. RESULTS: A total of 67 studies met inclusion criteria for the systematic review; 29 were included in the meta-analysis. Any differences in the incidence of NAS in infants of women on higher compared with lower doses were statistically non-significant in analyses restricted to prospective studies or to those using an objective scoring system to diagnose NAS. CONCLUSIONS: Severity of the neonatal abstinence syndrome does not appear to differ according to whether mothers are on high- or low-dose methadone maintenance therapy.

  17. Semen says: assessing the accuracy of adolescents' self-reported sexual abstinence using a semen Y-chromosome biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2017-03-01

    Researchers often assess condom use only among participants who report recent sexual behaviour, excluding participants who report no recent vaginal sex or who did not answer questions about their sexual behaviour, but self-reported sexual behaviour may be inaccurate. This study uses a semen Y-chromosome biomarker to assess semen exposure among participants who reported sexual abstinence or did not report their sexual behaviour. This prospective cohort study uses data from 715 sexually active African-American female adolescents in Atlanta, surveyed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Participants completed a 40 min interview and were tested for semen Y-chromosome with PCR from a self-administered vaginal swab. We predicted Y-chromosome test results from self-reported sexual behaviour using within-subject panel regression. Among the participants who reported abstinence from vaginal sex in the past 14 days, 9.4% tested positive for semen Y-chromosome. Among item non-respondents, 6.3% tested positive for semen Y-chromosome. Women who reported abstinence and engaged in item non-response regarding their sexual behaviour had respectively 62% and 78% lower odds of testing positive for Y-chromosome (OR 0.38 (0.21 to 0.67), OR 0.22 (0.12 to 0.40)), controlling for smoking, survey wave and non-coital sexual behaviours reported during abstinence. Adolescents who report sexual abstinence under-report semen exposure. Research should validate self-reported sexual behaviour with biomarkers. Adolescents who engage in item non-response regarding vaginal sex test positive for semen Y-chromosome at similar rates, which supports the practice of grouping non-respondents with adolescents reporting abstinence in statistical analysis. NCT00633906. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Comparing Occupational Health and Safety Management System Programming with Injury Rates in Poultry Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autenrieth, Daniel A; Brazile, William J; Douphrate, David I; Román-Muñiz, Ivette N; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Effective methods to reduce work-related injuries and illnesses in animal production agriculture are sorely needed. One approach that may be helpful for agriculture producers is the adoption of occupational health and safety management systems. In this replication study, the authors compared the injury rates on 32 poultry growing operations with the level of occupational health and safety management system programming at each farm. Overall correlations between injury rates and programming level were determined, as were correlations between individual management system subcomponents to ascertain which parts might be the most useful for poultry producers. It was found that, in general, higher levels of occupational health and safety management system programming were associated with lower rates of workplace injuries and illnesses, and that Management Leadership was the system subcomponent with the strongest correlation. The strength and significance of the observed associations were greater on poultry farms with more complete management system assessments. These findings are similar to those from a previous study of the dairy production industry, suggesting that occupational health and safety management systems may hold promise as a comprehensive way for producers to improve occupational health and safety performance. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of such systems to reduce farm work injuries and illnesses. These results are timely given the increasing focus on occupational safety and health management systems.

  19. Comparing the Accuracy Rate of Two Different Universal Primers in Enteric Pathogen Diagnosis From Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Soleimani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detecting enteric bacteria in blood by culture is a slow assay with low accuracy rate. PCR might be a suitable alternative assay but as several species can cause bacteremia, it is necessary to use universal primers. Objectives: In this study we evaluated and compared two pairs of universal primers in detecting four enteric bacteria in blood, which are common causes of bacteremia in human. Materials and Methods: Standard strains of E. faecalis, S. typhi, E. coli, and S. Aeruginosa, were used in this study. A serially diluted bacterial suspension of all strains was made for inoculation to four sets of defibrinated sheep blood which were used to prepare blood specimens with different bacterial contents for performing routine assay and PCR. PCR was performed using two different universal primers designed from two ribosomal genes, 16sr RNA and 23sr RNA. Results: PCR with 16sr RNA universal primer showed more accuracy rate than both blood culture and PCR with 23sr RNA universal primer. Mean time for performing PCR assay and blood culture was eight and 48 hours, respectively. Conclusions: Both PCR with 16sr RNA and 23sr RNA universal primers have more accuracy rate than blood culture and are faster in detection of bacteremia. PCR with 16sr RNA universal primer is more accurate than both PCR with 16sr RNA universal primer and blood culture for diagnosis of bacteremia.

  20. The theory of planned behavior as applied to preoperative smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Ehlers, Shawna; Warner, David O

    2014-01-01

    Abstinence from smoking on the morning of surgery may improve outcomes. This study examined the explicatory power of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict smoking behavior on the morning of surgery, testing the hypothesis that the constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) will predict intent to abstain from smoking the morning of surgery, and that intent will predict behavior. TPB constructs were assessed in 169 pre-surgical patients. Smoking behavior on the morning of surgery was assessed by self-report and CO monitoring. Correlations and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to determine associations between measures and behavior. All TPB measures, including intent as predicted by the TPB, were correlated with both a lower rate of self-reported smoking on the morning of surgery and lower CO levels. The SEM showed a good fit to the data. In the SEM, attitude and PBC, but not subjective norm, were significantly associated with intent to abstain, explaining 46% of variance. The effect of PBC on CO levels was partially mediated by intent. The amount of variance in behavior explained by these TPB constructs was modest (10% for CO levels). Thus, attitude and perceived behavioral control explain a substantial portion of the intent to maintain preoperative abstinence on the morning of elective surgery, and intent and perceived behavioral control explain a more modest but significant amount of the variance in actual smoking behavior. Clinical Trials.gov registration: NCT01014455.

  1. [Effects of TeenSTAR, an abstinence only sexual education program, on adolescent sexual behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Pilar; Riquelme, Rosa; Rivadeneira, Rosario; Aranda, Waldo

    2005-10-01

    Urgent measures are required to stop the increase in the frequency of pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers. A means of facing this problem is promoting sexual abstinence among youngsters. There are studies that confirm the efficacy of this approach. To show the results of the application of a holistic sexuality program (TeenSTAR) among Chilean teenagers. Students attending basic or high school were divided into a control or study group. The control group (342 students) received the usual education on sexuality given by their schools and the study group (398 students) participated in twelve TeenSTAR sessions lasting 1.5 hours each, given by a trained professor. Assessment of achievements was made using an anonymous questionnaire answered at the start and end of the program. The rates of sexual initiation among control and study groups were 15 and 6.5%, respectively. Among sexually active students, 20% of those in the study group and 9% of those in the control group discontinued sexual activity. A higher proportion of students in the TeenSTAR program retarded their sexual initiation or discontinued sexual activity and found more reasons to maintain sexual abstinence than control students.

  2. Predictors of 3-month abstinence in smokers attending stop-smoking clinics in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Lei Hum; West, Robert; Bulgiba, Awang; Shahab, Lion

    2011-02-01

    Much is known about the predictors of success in quitting smoking. In particular, nicotine dependence, but not strength of motivation to stop, appears to predict abstinence. However, to date, studies have come almost exclusively from Western countries. More data are needed on the cross-cultural generalizability of these findings. One hundred and ninety-eight smokers attending 5 stop-smoking clinics in Malaysia completed a questionnaire prior to their target quit date and were followed up 3 months after this date. Predictors included sociodemographic variables, smoking patterns, past history of quitting, characteristics of current quit attempt, and smoking motives as well as nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence [FTND]) and self-rated strength of motivation of stop. At 3-month follow-up, 35.4% (95% CI: 28.7-42.0) of participants reported being abstinent. A backward elimination multiple logistic regression identified a number of significant predictors of success, including strength of motivation to stop (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 3.05, 95% CI: 1.28-7.25). FTND did not predict success. Motivation and nicotine dependence may play different roles in explaining variation in ability to stop smoking in different cultures.

  3. NEUROPEPTIDE Y (NPY) SUPPRESSES ETHANOL DRINKING IN ETHANOL-ABSTINENT, BUT NOT NON-ETHANOL-ABSTINENT, WISTAR RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Gilpin, N.W.; Stewart, R.B.; Badia-Elder, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    In outbred rats, increases in brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) activity suppress ethanol consumption in a variety of access conditions, but only following a history of ethanol dependence. NPY reliably suppresses ethanol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats and this effect is augmented following a period of ethanol abstinence. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of NPY on 2-bottle choice ethanol drinking and feeding in Wistar rats that had undergone chronic ethanol vapor exp...

  4. Assessment of survival rates compared according to the Tamai and Yamano classifications in fingertip replantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaci, Mehmet; Ince, Bilsev; Altuntas, Zeynep; Bitik, Ozan; Kamburoglu, Haldun Onuralp; Uzun, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The fingertip is the most frequently injured and amputated segment of the hand. There are controversies about defining clear indications for microsurgical replantation. Many classification systems have been proposed to solve this problem. No previous study has simultaneously correlated different classification systems with replant survival rate. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of fingertip replantations according to Tamai and Yamano classifications. 34 consecutive patients who underwent fingertip replantation between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed with respect to the Tamai and Yamano classifications. The medical charts from record room were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 36.2 years. There were 30 men and 4 women. All the injuries were complete amputations. Of the 34 fingertip amputations, 19 were in Tamai zone 2 and 15 were in Tamai zone 1. When all the amputations were grouped in reference to the Yamano classification, 6 were type 1 guillotine, 8 were type 2 crush and 20 were type 3 crush avulsions. Of the 34 fingertips, 26 (76.4%) survived. Ten (66.6%) of 15 digits replanted in Tamai zone 1 and 16 (84.2%) of 19 digits replanted in Tamai zone 2 survived. There were no replantation failures in Yamano type 1 injuries (100%) and only two failed in Yamano type 2 (75%). Replantation was successful in 14 of 20 Yamano type 3 injuries, but six failed (70%). The percentage of success rates was the least in the hybridized groups of Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 2 and Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 3. Although clinically distinct, the survival rates between the groups were not statistically significantly different. The level and mechanism of injury play a decisive role in the success of fingertip replantation. Success rate increases in proximal fingertip amputations without crush injury.

  5. Assessment of survival rates compared according to the Tamai and Yamano classifications in fingertip replantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Dadaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fingertip is the most frequently injured and amputated segment of the hand. There are controversies about defining clear indications for microsurgical replantation. Many classification systems have been proposed to solve this problem. No previous study has simultaneously correlated different classification systems with replant survival rate. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of fingertip replantations according to Tamai and Yamano classifications. Materials and Methods: 34 consecutive patients who underwent fingertip replantation between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed with respect to the Tamai and Yamano classifications. The medical charts from record room were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 36.2 years. There were 30 men and 4 women. All the injuries were complete amputations. Of the 34 fingertip amputations, 19 were in Tamai zone 2 and 15 were in Tamai zone 1. When all the amputations were grouped in reference to the Yamano classification, 6 were type 1 guillotine, 8 were type 2 crush and 20 were type 3 crush avulsions. Results: Of the 34 fingertips, 26 (76.4% survived. Ten (66.6% of 15 digits replanted in Tamai zone 1 and 16 (84.2% of 19 digits replanted in Tamai zone 2 survived. There were no replantation failures in Yamano type 1 injuries (100% and only two failed in Yamano type 2 (75%. Replantation was successful in 14 of 20 Yamano type 3 injuries, but six failed (70%. The percentage of success rates was the least in the hybridized groups of Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 2 and Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 3. Although clinically distinct, the survival rates between the groups were not statistically significantly different. Conclusions: The level and mechanism of injury play a decisive role in the success of fingertip replantation. Success rate increases in proximal fingertip amputations without crush injury.

  6. Strain rate influence on human cortical bone toughness: A comparative study of four paired anatomical sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Rémy; Follet, Hélène; Langer, Max; Meille, Sylvain; Chevalier, Jérôme; Rongiéras, Frédéric; Peyrin, Françoise; Mitton, David

    2017-07-01

    Bone fracture is a major health issue worldwide and consequently there have been extensive investigations into the fracture behavior of human cortical bone. However, the fracture properties of human cortical bone under fall-like loading conditions remains poorly documented. Further, most published research has been performed on femoral diaphyseal bone, whereas it is known that the femoral neck and the radius are the most vulnerable sites to fracture. Hence, the aim of this study is to provide information on human cortical bone fracture behavior by comparing different anatomical sites including the radius and the femoral neck acquired from 32 elderly subjects (50 - 98 y.o.). In order to investigate the intrinsic fracture behavior of human cortical bone, toughness experiments were performed at two different strain rates: standard quasi-static conditions, and a higher strain rate representative of a fall from a standing position. The tests were performed on paired femoral neck, femoral, tibial and radius diaphyseal samples. Linear elastic fracture toughness and the non-linear J-integral method were used to take into account both the elastic and non-elastic behavior of cortical bone. Under quasi-static conditions, the radius presents a significantly higher toughness than the other sites. At the higher strain rate, all sites showed a significantly lower toughness. Also, at the high strain rate, there is no significant difference in fracture properties between the four anatomical sites. These results suggest that regardless of the anatomical site (femur, femoral neck, tibia and radius), the bone has the same fracture properties under fall loading conditions. This should be considered in biomechanical models under fall-like loading conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rating

    OpenAIRE

    Karas, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Charakteristika ratingu. Dělení a druhy ratingu (rating emise × rating emitenta; dlouhodobý rating × krátkodobý rating; mezinárodní rating × lokální rating). Obecné požadavky kladené na rating. Proces tvorby ratingu. Vyžádaný rating. Nevyžádaný rating. Ratingový proces na bázi volně přístupných informací. Uplatňované ratingové systémy. Ratingová kriteria. Využití a interpretace ratingové známky. Funkce ratingu. Rating v souvislosti s BASEL II. Rating v souvislosti s hospodářskými krizemi....

  8. Pretreatment measures of brain structure and reward-processing brain function in cannabis dependence: An exploratory study of relationships with abstinence during behavioral treatment*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Sarah W.; DeVito, Elise E.; Kober, Hedy; Worhunsky, Patrick D.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cannabis is widely abused, and efficacies of therapeutics for cannabis dependence remain suboptimal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may aid in the identification of biological markers for successful treatment outcomes (i.e., abstinence). Methods Twenty men with cannabis dependence and twenty non-substance-using healthy comparison (HC) men underwent MRI scanning. Cannabis-dependent individuals then participated in a 12-week randomized clinical trial of behavioral treatments (contingency management (CM), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or both). Pretreatment functional and structural data were compared between the cannabis-dependent and HC participants. In addition, individuals with cannabis dependence were subdivided based on the successful achievement of 21 days of consecutive abstinence during treatment to assess whether abstinent versus nonabstinent cannabis-dependent participants displayed different pretreatment functional and structural characteristics when compared to HC participants. Results In comparison to HC participants, cannabis-dependent participants demonstrated greater ventral striatal activation during the receipt of losing outcomes and smaller putamenal volumes. Cannabis-dependent participants who did not subsequently achieved 21 days of consecutive abstinence had increased activity within the striatum during the receipt of losing outcomes, relative to HC participants. Cannabis-dependent participants who did not achieve 21 days of abstinence had decreased bilateral putamen volumes prior to treatment, relative to HC participants. Conclusions Individual differences in pretreatment striatal function and structure may relate to individual differences in treatment responses for cannabis dependence. While mechanisms underlying these associations require further exploration, the striatum might mediate treatment responses via its role in associative reward-learning (e.g., through skills training in CBT or reinforcement of abstinence in CM

  9. Guanfacine enhances inhibitory control and attentional shifting in early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Helen; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-03-01

    Attenuation of adrenergic drive and cognitive enhancement, via stimulation of alpha2 pre- and post-synaptic receptors, may selectively enhance executive performance in early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals. As these cognitive processes underpin important treatment-related behaviors, the alpha2 agonist, guanfacine HCl, may represent an effective pharmaco-therapeutic intervention. Twenty-five early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals were administered a battery of neurocognitive tasks on entry into treatment (baseline) and again following 3 weeks of either placebo or guanfacine treatment (up to 3 mg). Tasks included: Stop Signal, Stroop, 3-Dimentional Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional (IDED) task, Spatial Working Memory (SWM), Paired Associates Learning (PAL), Verbal Fluency and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Compared with placebo, the guanfacine group demonstrated attenuated anxiety and negative affect as well as improved performance on selective executive tests. This included fewer directional errors on the stop signal task, fewer errors on the extra-dimensional shift component of the IDED task and better attentional switching during verbal fluency. Guanfacine did not improve strategic working memory or peripheral memory. Guanfacine improves selective cognitive processes which may underlie salient treatment-related regulatory behaviors. Alpha2 agonists may therefore represent important agents for cocaine dependence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Pulse oximetry measures a lower heart rate at birth compared with electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vonderen, Jeroen J; Hooper, Stuart B; Kroese, Jacco K; Roest, Arno A W; Narayen, Ilona C; van Zwet, Erik W; te Pas, Arjan B

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of time after birth on heart rate (HR) measured by pulse oximetry (PO) (HRPO) and electrocardiography (ECG) (HRECG). HRECG and HRPO (collected at maximum sensitivity) were assessed in 53 term and preterm infants at birth. ECG electrodes and a PO sensor were attached as soon as possible and HRECG and HRPO were compared every 30 seconds from 1-10 minutes after birth. Data were compared using a Wilkinson signed-rank test. Clinical relevance (eg, HR <100 beats per minute [bpm] was tested using a McNemar test). Seven hundred fifty-five data pairs were analyzed. Median (IQR) gestational age was 37 (31-39) weeks. Mean (SD) starting time of PO and ECG data collection was 99 (33) vs 82 (26) seconds after birth (P = .001). In the first 2 minutes after birth, HRPO was significantly lower compared with HRECG (94 (67-144) vs 150 (91-153) bpm at 60 seconds (P < .05), 81 (60-109) vs 148 (83-170) bpm at 90 seconds (P < .001) and 83 (67-145) vs 158 (119-176) at 120 seconds (P < .001). A HR <100 bpm was more frequently observed with a PO than ECG in the first 2 minutes (64% vs 27% at 60 seconds (P = .05), 56% vs 26% at 90 seconds (P < .05) and 53% vs 21% at 120 seconds (P < .05). HR by ECG was verified by ultrasound for outflow from a subset of infants. In infants at birth, HRPO is significantly lower compared with ECG with clinically important differences in the first minutes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Data-driven soft sensor design with multiple-rate sampled data: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Bao; Recke, Bodil; Schmidt, Torben M.

    2009-01-01

    , including the numerical interpolation, polynomial transformation, data lifting, and weighted partial least squares (WPLS). Two modifications to the original data lifting approach are proposed in this paper: reformulating the extraction of a fast model as an optimization problem and ensuring the desired......Multirate systems are common in industrial processes where quality measurements have slower sampling rates than other process variables. Since intersample information is desirable for effective quality control, different approaches have been reported to estimate the quality between samples...... model properties through Tikhonov Regularization. A comparative investigation of the four approaches is performed. Their applicability, accuracy, and robustness to process noise are evaluated with a single-input single-output (SISO) system. The modified data lifting and WPLS approaches are implemented...

  12. The Comparative Study of the Rate of Social Capital among Addicted and non-Addicted Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heydarnejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to compare the rate of social capital among addicted and non-addicted youth in Mashhad. Method: The samples included of 160 addicted and 160 non-addicted men selected by cluster random sampling. Both groups matched on age, and marital status. The social capital questionnaire designed by researcher administered among selected samples. Results: The results showed that social capital of young addicts was significantly lower than their counterparts. Also, results showed that the indicators of social capital, the idea of social participation, social trust, and social networks were significantly lower than their counterparts. Conclusion: With consideration of positive effects of social participation, social trust, social connection networks in addicted people, they should have appropriate conditions and headstock for tendency to involve to social events like developing of organizations, and voluntaries’ and non government societies should be more attended.

  13. Comparing crystal-melt interfacial free energies through homogeneous nucleation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xianming; Li Mo

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we compared several available crystal-melt interfacial free energies via homogeneous nucleation rates in a pure Lennard-Jones model system using both model fitting and numerical methods. We examined the homogeneous nucleation temperature obtained from the classical nucleation theory using the available interfacial free energies from three different methods as inputs, i.e. the free energy integration method, the interface fluctuation method and the classical nucleation theory based method. We found that the critical temperature obtained by using the interfacial free energy calculated recently (Bai and Li 2006 J. Chem. Phys. 124 124707) is in better agreement with that obtained from spontaneous crystallization in an independent molecular dynamics simulation. The discrepancies among the interface energies are discussed in light of these results

  14. [Comparative rate of regional metastasis of high differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, N N; Evmenova, T D; Drozdova, D É

    2014-01-01

    The rate of metastasis of high differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid glands to the neck lymph nodes was studied in people of Kemerovo Region. The metastatic lesions of pretracheal lymph nodes (VI group) were detected in 49.5% patients with papillary carcinoma and 21.0% of patients with follicular cancer. Metastases in jungular lymph nodes were revealed in 37.3% patients with papillary carcinoma. It was noted that an extension of metastatic lesions of regional lymph nodes was observed in the case of primary tumour foci spread beyond borders of the capsula glandularis in patients with papillary carcinoma. There wasn't such a relation in a case of follicular cancer. Metastases in regional lymph nodes were detected more often (67.6%) in the case of papillary carcinoma in uncontaminated zone of the thyroid gland compared with other thyroid pathology (31.7%).

  15. A comparative assessment and gap analysis of commonly used team rating scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Carla M; Cohen, Elaine R; Kwan, Calvin; Cannon-Bowers, Janice A

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article was to conduct a gap analysis of important team constructs that may be absent in widely used team assessments. Two assessment tools with known validity evidence (1) Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) and (2) the Cannon-Bowers Scale were used to evaluate 11 teams of surgical residents (n = 33) performing simulated laparoscopic hernia repairs. Faculty raters' scores were used to compare the surveys and assess validity and reliability. Raters' detailed observation notes were used to indicate important behavioral constructs that were missing from the team rating scales. When assessing inter-item correlations (reliability) four of five NOTSS' scale items had significant correlations (r = 0.9-1.0, P scales. When evaluating the gap, key emerging themes included the need to focus on critical team errors, individual team member contributions, task performance, and overall team performance. These gaps, plus items from the NOTSS and Cannon-Bowers scales, were incorporated into a new rating scale. Despite continued evidence of validity and reliability, there were several behavioral constructs that were not represented when using the NOTSS and Cannon-Bowers scales. Critical team errors, individual team member contributions, task performance, and overall team performance appear important in our ability to understand teams and teamwork. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Market Conditions and Performance in the Nursing Home Compare Five-Star Rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ae-Sook

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have documented that market conditions affect nursing home performance; however, the evidence is inconsistent and conflicting. This study introduces three groups of county market conditions and a peer effect variable, and tests their impacts on the Nursing Home Compare (NHC) Five-Star overall rating. Indiana nursing home data and county characteristics are taken mainly from the NHC and Census Bureau websites. The result of the ordered logistic regression analysis indicates that nursing homes in excess demand markets, namely those that are highly concentrated and have fewer nursing homes, tend to perform better than their counterparts in both excess supply and balanced markets. In addition, a peer effect variable, measured as the average overall rating of the competitors, promotes performance improvement. These findings imply that small markets enable consumers to be well informed about a provider's reputation for quality, consequently enhancing performance. Furthermore, not only consumers but also providers seem to seek performance information on the report card to understand their relative position in the market, which thus affects their market strategies and subsequently performance. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  17. Influence of the discount rate when comparing costs of different nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dars, A.; Loaec, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    The article describes the methodology and technical economic results obtained by Cea in the DERECO project. This project was aimed at evaluating ground-breaking and intricate scenarios of the nuclear fuel cycle, and developed on the long term (150 years), in the context of France. All 5 scenarios studied assume that the reliance on nuclear energy will continue in order to satisfy the electricity demand. Despite uncertainties, the trends are breaking free from the analysis. It appears that the scenarios in which fourth generation fast reactors take part are globally more economical than the keeping to the present strategy of plutonium mono-recycling in PWR. The scenario in which fuel reprocessing is stopped has a total cost concerning the fuel cycle similar to that of the present strategy but the disposal cost is twice as high because of the necessity of disposing spent fuels directly in geological formations. The comparative costs of the different scenarios are set out and the influence of the discount rate is highlighted. One must keep in mind that the actualization theory entails a diminishing value for long term costs due to an unavoidable mechanical effect of the discount rate

  18. Current major depression is associated with greater sensitivity to the motivational effect of both negative mood induction and abstinence on tobacco-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; Mathew, Amanda R; Hitsman, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Although depression and smoking commonly co-occur, the mechanisms underpinning this association are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that depression promotes tobacco dependence, persistence and relapse by increasing sensitivity to acute negative mood and abstinence induced tobacco-seeking behavior. Twenty nine daily smokers of >10 cigarettes per day, nine with major depression and 20 without, completed two laboratory sessions one week apart, smoking as normal prior to session 1 (sated session), and 6h abstinent prior to session 2 (abstinent session). In both sessions, tobacco-seeking was measured at baseline by preference to view smoking versus food images. Negative mood was then induced by negative ruminative statements and sad music, before tobacco-seeking was measured again at test. In the sated session, negative mood induction produced a greater increase in tobacco choice from baseline to test in depressed (pchoice between the sated and abstinent sessions in depressed (p=0.002, η p 2 =0.771) compared to non-depressed smokers (p=0.22, η p 2 =0.089, interaction: p=0.023, η p 2 =0.189). These mood and abstinence induced increases in tobacco choice were positively associated with depression symptoms across the sample as a whole (ps≤0.04, η p 2 ≥0.159), and correlated with each other (r=0.67, pmood and abstinence induced tobacco-seeking behavior. Treatments should seek to break the association between adverse states and smoking to cope. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative analyses of basal rate of metabolism in mammals: data selection does matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoud, Michel; Isler, Karin; Martin, Robert D

    2018-02-01

    Basal rate of metabolism (BMR) is a physiological parameter that should be measured under strictly defined experimental conditions. In comparative analyses among mammals BMR is widely used as an index of the intensity of the metabolic machinery or as a proxy for energy expenditure. Many databases with BMR values for mammals are available, but the criteria used to select metabolic data as BMR estimates have often varied and the potential effect of this variability has rarely been questioned. We provide a new, expanded BMR database reflecting compliance with standard criteria (resting, postabsorptive state; thermal neutrality; adult, non-reproductive status for females) and examine potential effects of differential selectivity on the results of comparative analyses. The database includes 1739 different entries for 817 species of mammals, compiled from the original sources. It provides information permitting assessment of the validity of each estimate and presents the value closest to a proper BMR for each entry. Using different selection criteria, several alternative data sets were extracted and used in comparative analyses of (i) the scaling of BMR to body mass and (ii) the relationship between brain mass and BMR. It was expected that results would be especially dependent on selection criteria with small sample sizes and with relatively weak relationships. Phylogenetically informed regression (phylogenetic generalized least squares, PGLS) was applied to the alternative data sets for several different clades (Mammalia, Eutheria, Metatheria, or individual orders). For Mammalia, a 'subsampling procedure' was also applied, in which random subsamples of different sample sizes were taken from each original data set and successively analysed. In each case, two data sets with identical sample size and species, but comprising BMR data with different degrees of reliability, were compared. Selection criteria had minor effects on scaling equations computed for large clades

  20. Impact of the Choosing the Best Program in Communities Committed to Abstinence Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lieberman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available States vary in standards for sex education, some requiring an emphasis on abstinence. Schools seek to identify curricula that reflect local community values and meet state standards. Choosing the Best (CTB, a classroom-based abstinence education curriculum, has been implemented in 75 Georgia school districts since 1995. CTB Inc., sought to determine if this popular program had an impact on abstinence attitudes, intentions, and behavior. Six Georgia public schools (1,143 ninth graders participated in the study in 2009-2010. Four randomly assigned schools received the CTB curriculum, taught by trained CTB staff. Two control schools received their usual textbook-based abstinence lessons. Surveys were conducted at the beginning and end of 9th grade, and the beginning of 10th grade. Data demonstrated significant impact of CTB at the end of 9th grade on commitment to abstinence, proabstinence beliefs and attitudes, intentions to maintain abstinence, and lower onset of sexual intercourse, and at the beginning of 10th grade on proabstinence attitudes. In two communities that sought an abstinence education approach, CTB had a short-term impact on abstinence attitudes, commitment, and behaviors, and a longer term impact on abstinence attitudes only.

  1. One month of cocaine abstinence potentiates rapid dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Courtney M; Wightman, R Mark; Carelli, Regina M

    2016-12-01

    Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that is difficult to treat in part because addicts relapse even after extended periods of abstinence. Given the importance of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system in drug addiction, we sought to characterize cocaine abstinence induced changes in rapid DA signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine for 14 consecutive days, then divided into two groups. Day 1 rats (D1; n = 7) underwent 24 h of abstinence; Day 30 rats (D30; n = 7) underwent one month of abstinence. After abstinence, all rats underwent a single extinction session. Immediately after, rats were deeply anesthetized and fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) was used to measure DA release and uptake dynamics in the NAc core before and following a single cocaine injection. We show that one month of cocaine abstinence potentiates the peak concentration of electrically evoked DA in the NAc core following an acute injection of cocaine. This potentiation is not related to alterations in DA uptake parameters, which are unchanged following abstinence, but may reflect alterations in release. These results further support the abundance of literature showing that cocaine abstinence induces neuroplasticity in brain areas implicated in drug reward and relapse. The present findings also demonstrate critical differences between abstinence-induced neuroadaptations in DA signaling and those caused by drug exposure itself. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Osteoprotegerin Levels Decrease in Abstinent Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Peter; von Gleissenthall, Gabriele; Gasser, Rudolf W; Moncayo, Roy; Giesinger, Johannes M; Mechtcheriakov, Sergei

    2016-06-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a parameter of increasing interest in the search for pathophysiological mechanisms of reduced bone mineral density (BMD). It has been shown to be increased in alcohol-dependent subjects. In our study, we wanted to examine whether changes in OPG and receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) levels during an 8-week abstinence period in alcohol-dependent patients treated in an alcohol rehabilitation clinic would occur and whether alcohol-related variables, smoking, status, or physical activity prior to the study served as an influence on BMD and on OPG/RANKL levels. Forty-three patients, who were abstinent not longer than a week, were included in the study. OPG and RANKL as well as other markers of bone metabolism were measured at baseline, and after 8 weeks of treatment, BMD was measured once. OPG levels decreased significantly, while osteocalcin, a marker of bone formation, increased significantly. RANKL as well as RANKL/OPG ratio, Serum CrossLaps, and all examined hormones showed no significant changes over time. Inflammatory parameters showed a significant reduction after 8 weeks. We detected no influence of potentially confounding variables of alcohol dependency on the course of OPG or other laboratory values. Our results could point to the well-known risk for reduced BMD in these patients being reversible with abstinence through an excess of bone formation. We also confirmed earlier findings that inflammatory processes play a role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced disturbances in bone metabolism. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. [Evaluation of educational effects on drug dependence abstinence for convicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Tomoko; Nishikawa, Kyoko; Tanaka, Takanori

    2011-06-01

    The object of this study is to evaluate the educational effects of group work sessions on drug dependence abstinence for convicts in Fukui Prison. Questionnaire surveys were conducted among participants on the first and last session. The results of surveys were analyzed quantitatively. The average ages of 50 respondents were 39 years. 95.9% of them used methamphetamine among drugs and the majority has used drugs for the past 5 years. 93.9% of respondents had no medical treatment histories and 95.8% of them have not used any formal consultations. The survey result before the sessions showed that 75.5% of respondents showed positive stances towards participations on educational group work sessions. The survey after the sessions showed 67.4% of respondents were able to talk their drug problems in group meetings and 87.0% responded that group work sessions were helpful for solving drug problems. Also, 80.0% responded that they can stop using drugs and the percentage dropped by 11.0% from the first session. In terms of the participation in self-help groups after releases from the prison, the majority responded negatively, although 78.0% showed positive responses to using consultation services. The outcomes by means of evaluation scale also showed a significant improvement on denial and no relevant change on interpersonal trusts. This study revealed that it was possible to confirm the effectiveness of drug abstinence education through group work. It is important to consider three points in further studies; 1) cooperation between judicial and medical institutions for introducing consultation and medical treatments among convicts; 2) follow-up programs for reinforcing education on drug abstinence; 3) social welfare services in cooperation with educational effects to prevent repeated offences.

  4. The Relationship between Dissociative Experiences and the Success of Treatment through Abstinence from Opioid-Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Kianpoor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dissociation is a defense mechanism by which people under stress detach their thoughts, emotions and behaviors from the normal stream of consciousness in order to protect themselves against the threats imposed on their ego. The phenomenon of dissociation is associated with a group of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders (SUDs, and leads individuals to incline towards drugs. This study examines the relationship between the dissociation symptoms prior to abstinence treatment and the abstinence success.Materials and Methods: 128 opioid dependent males were selected randomly and examined using Dissociative Experience Scale (DES questionnaire and a self-administered questionnaire. After two months, the subjects were divided, in terms of abstinence success, into three groups of rehabilitated (successfully-rehabilitated, recurrence, and non-referral groups. The three groups were compared to each other with regard to the DES mean score, demographic characteristics, drug use history, self-destruction, and self-mutilation history, using statistical methods of χ2, t-test, and one-way ANOVA.Results: The results showed that 39% of the subjects obtained a dissociation score of 15 and above in DES scale. There was a significant negative correlation between the dissociation score and abstinence success (p=0.001. There was no significant relationship between the DES score and demographic factors such as education level, residential location, and marital status. Moreover, the treatment follow-up of individuals showed that there was no significant relationship among the three groups in terms of age and education level.Conclusion: The extent of dissociative phenomena in drug dependent individuals who decide to discontinue drug abuse is effective in the sense of treatment outcome. Hence, the individuals are recommended to be examined for dissociative symptoms prior to drug treatment, and receive the proper treatment.

  5. Effective brain network analysis with resting-state EEG data: a comparison between heroin abstinent and non-addicted subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Dong, Qunxi; Hao, Yanrong; Zhao, Qinglin; Shen, Jian; Zheng, Fang

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Neuro-electrophysiological tools have been widely used in heroin addiction studies. Previous studies indicated that chronic heroin abuse would result in abnormal functional organization of the brain, while few heroin addiction studies have applied the effective connectivity tool to analyze the brain functional system (BFS) alterations induced by heroin abuse. The present study aims to identify the abnormality of resting-state heroin abstinent BFS using source decomposition and effective connectivity tools. Approach. The resting-state electroencephalograph (EEG) signals were acquired from 15 male heroin abstinent (HA) subjects and 14 male non-addicted (NA) controls. Multivariate autoregressive models combined independent component analysis (MVARICA) was applied for blind source decomposition. Generalized partial directed coherence (GPDC) was applied for effective brain connectivity analysis. Effective brain networks of both HA and NA groups were constructed. The two groups of effective cortical networks were compared by the bootstrap method. Abnormal causal interactions between decomposed source regions were estimated in the 1-45 Hz frequency domain. Main results. This work suggested: (a) there were clear effective network alterations in heroin abstinent subject groups; (b) the parietal region was a dominant hub of the abnormally weaker causal pathways, and the left occipital region was a dominant hub of the abnormally stronger causal pathways. Significance. These findings provide direct evidence that chronic heroin abuse induces brain functional abnormalities. The potential value of combining effective connectivity analysis and brain source decomposition methods in exploring brain alterations of heroin addicts is also implied.

  6. Kappa opioid receptor antagonism and chronic antidepressant treatment have beneficial activities on social interactions and grooming deficits during heroin abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanne, L; Ayranci, G; Filliol, D; Gavériaux-Ruff, C; Befort, K; Kieffer, B L; Lutz, P-E

    2017-07-01

    Addiction is a chronic brain disorder that progressively invades all aspects of personal life. Accordingly, addiction to opiates severely impairs interpersonal relationships, and the resulting social isolation strongly contributes to the severity and chronicity of the disease. Uncovering new therapeutic strategies that address this aspect of addiction is therefore of great clinical relevance. We recently established a mouse model of heroin addiction in which, following chronic heroin exposure, 'abstinent' mice progressively develop a strong and long-lasting social avoidance phenotype. Here, we explored and compared the efficacy of two pharmacological interventions in this mouse model. Because clinical studies indicate some efficacy of antidepressants on emotional dysfunction associated with addiction, we first used a chronic 4-week treatment with the serotonergic antidepressant fluoxetine, as a reference. In addition, considering prodepressant effects recently associated with kappa opioid receptor signaling, we also investigated the kappa opioid receptor antagonist norbinaltorphimine (norBNI). Finally, we assessed whether fluoxetine and norBNI could reverse abstinence-induced social avoidance after it has established. Altogether, our results show that two interspaced norBNI administrations are sufficient both to prevent and to reverse social impairment in heroin abstinent animals. Therefore, kappa opioid receptor antagonism may represent a useful approach to alleviate social dysfunction in addicted individuals. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Comparing facility-level methane emission rate estimates at natural gas gathering and boosting stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Vaughn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coordinated dual-tracer, aircraft-based, and direct component-level measurements were made at midstream natural gas gathering and boosting stations in the Fayetteville shale (Arkansas, USA. On-site component-level measurements were combined with engineering estimates to generate comprehensive facility-level methane emission rate estimates (“study on-site estimates (SOE” comparable to tracer and aircraft measurements. Combustion slip (unburned fuel entrained in compressor engine exhaust, which was calculated based on 111 recent measurements of representative compressor engines, accounts for an estimated 75% of cumulative SOEs at gathering stations included in comparisons. Measured methane emissions from regenerator vents on glycol dehydrator units were substantially larger than predicted by modelling software; the contribution of dehydrator regenerator vents to the cumulative SOE would increase from 1% to 10% if based on direct measurements. Concurrent measurements at 14 normally-operating facilities show relative agreement between tracer and SOE, but indicate that tracer measurements estimate lower emissions (regression of tracer to SOE = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.83–0.99, R2 = 0.89. Tracer and SOE 95% confidence intervals overlap at 11/14 facilities. Contemporaneous measurements at six facilities suggest that aircraft measurements estimate higher emissions than SOE. Aircraft and study on-site estimate 95% confidence intervals overlap at 3/6 facilities. The average facility level emission rate (FLER estimated by tracer measurements in this study is 17–73% higher than a prior national study by Marchese et al.

  8. Early detection of pharmacovigilance signals with automated methods based on false discovery rates: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ismaïl; Thiessard, Frantz; Miremont-Salamé, Ghada; Haramburu, Françoise; Kreft-Jais, Carmen; Bégaud, Bernard; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale

    2012-06-01

    Improving the detection of drug safety signals has led several pharmacovigilance regulatory agencies to incorporate automated quantitative methods into their spontaneous reporting management systems. The three largest worldwide pharmacovigilance databases are routinely screened by the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval of proportional reporting ratio (PRR₀₂.₅), the 2.5% quantile of the Information Component (IC₀₂.₅) or the 5% quantile of the Gamma Poisson Shrinker (GPS₀₅). More recently, Bayesian and non-Bayesian False Discovery Rate (FDR)-based methods were proposed that address the arbitrariness of thresholds and allow for a built-in estimate of the FDR. These methods were also shown through simulation studies to be interesting alternatives to the currently used methods. The objective of this work was twofold. Based on an extensive retrospective study, we compared PRR₀₂.₅, GPS₀₅ and IC₀₂.₅ with two FDR-based methods derived from the Fisher's exact test and the GPS model (GPS(pH0) [posterior probability of the null hypothesis H₀ calculated from the Gamma Poisson Shrinker model]). Secondly, restricting the analysis to GPS(pH0), we aimed to evaluate the added value of using automated signal detection tools compared with 'traditional' methods, i.e. non-automated surveillance operated by pharmacovigilance experts. The analysis was performed sequentially, i.e. every month, and retrospectively on the whole French pharmacovigilance database over the period 1 January 1996-1 July 2002. Evaluation was based on a list of 243 reference signals (RSs) corresponding to investigations launched by the French Pharmacovigilance Technical Committee (PhVTC) during the same period. The comparison of detection methods was made on the basis of the number of RSs detected as well as the time to detection. Results comparing the five automated quantitative methods were in favour of GPS(pH0) in terms of both number of detections of true signals and

  9. Comparative Paleomagnetic Study of the Quaternary-Pliocene Sedimentation Rates in the Arctic Basin: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkina, D.; Piskarev, A.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate dating of marine sediments from the Arctic Basin continues to remain a subject of great debates over the last decades. Due to the lack of adequate materials for biostratigraphy, and isotope analyses, paleomagnetic reconstructions came on line here but still yielded ambivalent interpretations. Moreover, sedimentation rates, estimated for isolated morphological features in the Arctic Ocean, are often extended to the whole Basin and, therefore, lead to significant approximations of the sedimentation pattern distribution. Paleomagnetic study of two sediment cores up to 8 meter long, collected at the Mendeleev Rise, and the Lomonosov Ridge, have provided the opportunity to compare sedimentation regimes on these two profound structures of the Arctic Basin. Cores PS72/396 and PS87/023 were carried out along the cruises of RV Polarstern at the Mendeleev Rise (Stein et. al, 2010), and the Lomonosov Ridge (Stein, 2015) respectively. Measurements of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and anhysteretic remanence (ARM) acquisition with the following alternating field (AF) demagnetization were performed on u-channel samples, obtained from the cores, at the Center for Geo-Environmental Research and Modeling (GEOMODEL) of the Research Park, St. Petersburg State University. According to preliminary results, core PS72/396 has shown a change from positive to negative inclinations at ca. 120 cm below sea floor (cmbsf), prevailed up to ca. 360 cmbsf where it gets back to the positive ones. This trend is comparable with some previous paleomagnetic results, conducted on cores from the Mendeleev Rise (Piskarev et al., 2013; Elkina, 2014). In contrast, for core PS87/023, a relevant drop to negative inclinations can be observed only after 330 cmbsf. That could signify a dramatic difference in sedimentation rates between the sites during the Quaternary and Pliocene. Nevertheless, a rather complicated picture of the AF data assumes effects of secondary overprints, having influenced

  10. Short implants had lower survival rates in posterior jaws compared to standard implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Gary L

    2016-12-01

    Data sourcesPubMed/Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases supplemented by searches of the journals; Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Dentistry, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Oral Implantology, Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Journal of Periodontology, Periodontology 2000.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective studies with at least ten patients, published in the last ten years that compared short and standard implants and published in English were considered.Data extraction and synthesisA single author abstracted data with checking by a second reviewer. Methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad Scale and the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated for implant survival rates, complications and prostheses failures and marginal bone loss was evaluated using mean difference (MD).ResultsThirteen studies consisting of ten RCTs and three prospective studies were included. The ten RCTs were considered to be of high quality. Two thousand six hundred and thirty-one implants were placed in 1269 patients (981 short and 1650 standard implants). Thirty-eight short implants failed (3.87%) and 45 standard implants (2.72%). Random effects meta-analysis found no statistically significant difference between standard implants and short implants placed in the posterior regions; RR =1.35 (95% CI; 0.82-2.22: P=0.24). Marginal bone loss was evaluated in nine studies and no differences in marginal bone loss were observed. Complications were reported by seven studies and no significant difference was seen between standard and short implants; RR= 0.54 (95% CI; 0.27-1.09: P = 0.08). There was also no significant difference in prosthesis failures between standard and short implants; RR= 0.96 (95

  11. Perceived racial discrimination, heavy episodic drinking, and alcohol abstinence among African American and White college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jeannette; Peralta, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that White college students are more likely to drink alcohol at a greater frequency and quantity compared to their African American counterparts. Examining race-related factors that structure alcohol use among college students remains an important area of research. In this study, we specifically examine perceived discrimination and its association with both heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol abstinence among college students. Items that measured perceived racial discrimination in alcohol use contexts and demographic characteristics were used as independent and control variables. African American students were more likely to abstain from alcohol and less likely to engage in HED compared to their White counterparts. Results also suggest that students who believe their drinking will solicit race-based police bias have lower odds of engaging in HED and greater odds of alcohol abstention. We conclude that unsolicited policing, experienced by African Americans generally, and White Americans on campuses, explains effect sizes.

  12. A comparative analysis of massed vs. distributed practice on basic math fact fluency growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Greg M; Duhon, Gary J; Solomon, Benjamin G; Poncy, Brian C; Moore, Kathryn; Story, Bailey

    2015-04-01

    To best remediate academic deficiencies, educators need to not only identify empirically validated interventions but also be able to apply instructional modifications that result in more efficient student learning. The current study compared the effect of massed and distributed practice with an explicit timing intervention to evaluate the extent to which these modifications lead to increased math fact fluency on basic addition problems. Forty-eight third-grade students were placed into one of three groups with each of the groups completing four 1-min math explicit timing procedures each day across 19 days. Group one completed all four 1-min timings consecutively; group two completed two back-to-back 1-min timings in the morning and two back-to-back 1-min timings in the afternoon, and group three completed one, 1-min independent timing four times distributed across the day. Growth curve modeling was used to examine the progress throughout the course of the study. Results suggested that students in the distributed practice conditions, both four times per day and two times per day, showed significantly higher fluency growth rates than those practicing only once per day in a massed format. These results indicate that combining distributed practice with explicit timing procedures is a useful modification that enhances student learning without the addition of extra instructional time when targeting math fact fluency. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Comparative Study of Neural Networks and ANFIS for Forecasting Attendance Rate of Soccer Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Şahin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to develop and apply a neural network (NN approach and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS model for forecasting the attendance rates at soccer games. The models were designed based on the characteristics of the problem. Past real data was used. Training data was used for training the models, and the testing data was used for evaluating the performance of the forecasting models. The obtained forecasting results were compared to the actual data and to each other. To evaluate the performance of the models, two statistical indicators, Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD and mean absolute percent error (MAPE, were used. Based on the results, the proposed neural network approach and the ANFIS model were shown to be effective in forecasting attendance at soccer games. The neural network approach performed better than the ANFIS model. The main contribution of this study is to introduce two effective techniques for estimating attendance at sports games. This is the first attempt to use an ANFIS model for that purpose.

  14. Born Into Addiction: Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome and Pediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Jennifer L

    2017-09-15

    Drug overdose and opioid-involved deaths continue to increase across the United States. An end-condition related to opioid abuse is neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). The implications for pregnant or post-partum women using an opioid, whether prescribed or illicit, can have significant effects on their infant. First described in the 1970s, NAS is defined as a postnatal drug withdrawal syndrome that primarily occurs in opioid-exposed infants. There are no nationally accepted, evidence-based treatment protocols for these infants. Pediatric dentists should be cognizant of potential dental development issues and developmental delays in children with NAS. Basic behavior guidance techniques, such as tell-show-do, may not be as effective. In addition, adherence to prescription drug monitoring programs can help identify patients who may have received multiple opioids, alerting the provider to possible misuse or abuse. The purpose of this paper was to provide background information on the incidences and potential dental implications for children with neonatal abstinence syndrome.

  15. Biased Perception of Mean Emotion in Abstinent Heroin Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xuan; Hu, Chun; Liao, Huayu; Yang, Tong; Shen, Mowei

    2015-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that drug abusers exhibit biases when coding individual emotional facial expressions, little is known about how they process multiple expressions simultaneously. The present study evaluated the mean emotions perceived by abstinent heroin abusers. Male abstinent heroin abusers (AHs) and healthy controls (HCs) were randomly assigned into three emotional conditions (happy, sad, or angry), viewed sets of four faces (Experiment 1) or individual faces (Experiment 2) that varied in emotionality (neutral to happy/sad/angry), and judged whether a test face presented later was more/less emotional than the preceding stimuli. Average points of subjective equality were calculated to reflect participants' biases in perceiving emotions of sets or single faces. Relative to HCs, AHs overestimated mean emotions for sad and angry faces in Experiment 1; however, no such biases were found in Experiment 2. This suggests biased ensemble coding towards negative emotional facial expressions in AHs. Furthermore, when controlling for depression and anxiety, AHs' enhanced perception of mean emotion for angry or sad faces in Experiment 1 decreased, indicating a possible mediating effect of these psychopathological variables in the relationship between drug addiction history and abnormal ensemble processing for sets of emotional expressions.

  16. The effects of caffeine abstinence on sleep: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shuk Ching; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether caffeine abstinence in the evening could improve the sleep quality of those who habitually consume coffee. A double-blind control group design (caffeine and caffeine-free groups). A university. A convenience sampling of 10 students (mean age 21.4 years). It was a 14-day experiment. For the first 7 days, all participants consumed caffeinated coffee. In the following 7 days, subjects consumed caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee according to their assigned group. Sleep-wake parameters, self-reported sleep quality and level of refreshment. There were no significant differences (p>.05) among the data of the two groups identified. No significant changes (p>.05) were found in the sleep quality of either group during the study. This study confirms that caffeine abstinence in the evening might not be helpful in sleep promotion. It highlights the need to implement evidence-based practice in health promotion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Altered pain responses in abstinent (±)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Una D; Edwards, Robert R; Smith, Michael T; Kelley, Kristen; Wilson, Michael; Sgambati, Francis; Ricaurte, George

    2011-10-01

    (±)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a popular recreational drug that has potential to damage brain serotonin (5-HT) neurons in humans. Brain 5-HT neurons play a role in pain modulation, yet little is known about long-term effects of MDMA on pain function. Notably, MDMA users have been shown to have altered sleep, a phenomenon that can lead to altered pain modulation. This study sought to assess pain processing in MDMA users using objective methods, and explore potential relationships between pain processing and sleep indices. Forty-two abstinent MDMA users and 43 age-matched controls participated in a 5-day inpatient study. Outcome measures included standardized measures of pain, sleep polysomnograms, and power spectral measures of the sleep EEG. When differences in psychophysiological measures of pain were found, the relationship between pain and sleep measures was explored. MDMA users demonstrated lower pressure pain thresholds, increased cold pain ratings, increased pain ratings during testing of diffuse noxious inhibitory control, and decreased Stage 2 sleep. Numerous significant relationships between sleep and pain measures were identified, but differences in sleep between the two groups were not found to mediate altered pain perception in MDMA users. Abstinent MDMA users have altered pain perception and sleep architecture. Although pain and sleep outcomes were related, differences in sleep architecture in MDMA users did not mediate altered pain responses. It remains to be determined whether alterations in pain perception in MDMA users are secondary to neurotoxicity of 5-HT-mediated pain pathways or alterations in other brain processes that modulate pain perception.

  18. Economic Recession, Alcohol, and Suicide Rates: Comparative Effects of Poverty, Foreclosure, and Job Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Kaplan, Mark S; Huguet, Nathalie; Caetano, Raul; Giesbrecht, Norman; McFarland, Bentson H

    2017-04-01

    Suicide rates and the proportion of alcohol-involved suicides rose during the 2008-2009 recession. Associations between county-level poverty, foreclosures, and unemployment and suicide rates and proportion of alcohol-involved suicides were investigated. In 2015, National Violent Death Reporting System data from 16 states in 2005-2011 were utilized to calculate suicide rates and a measure of alcohol involvement in suicides at the county level. Panel models with year and state fixed effects included county-level measures of unemployment, foreclosure, and poverty rates. Poverty rates were strongly associated with suicide rates for both genders and all age groups, were positively associated with alcohol involvement in suicides for men aged 45-64 years, and negatively associated for men aged 20-44 years. Foreclosure rates were negatively associated with suicide rates for women and those aged ≥65 years but positively related for those aged 45-64 years. Unemployment rate effects on suicide rates were mediated by poverty rates in all groups. Population risk of suicide was most clearly associated with county-level poverty rates, indicating that programs addressing area poverty should be targeted for reducing suicide risk. Poverty rates were also associated with increased alcohol involvement for men aged 45-64 years, indicating a role for alcohol in suicide for this working-aged group. However, negative associations between economic indicators and alcohol involvement were found for four groups, suggesting that non-economic factors or more general economic effects not captured by these indicators may have played a larger role in alcohol-related suicide increases. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The exercise heart rate profile in master athletes compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Osung; Park, Saejong; Kim, Young-Joo; Min, Sun-Yang; Kim, Yoo Ri; Nam, Gi-Byoung; Choi, Kee-Joon; Kim, You-Ho

    2016-07-01

    Endurance exercise protects the heart via effects on autonomic control of heart rate (HR); however, its effects on HR indices in healthy middle-aged men are unclear. This study compared HR profiles, including resting HR, increase in HR during exercise and HR recovery after exercise, in middle-aged athletes and controls. Fifty endurance-trained athletes and 50 controls (all male; mean age, 48·7 ± 5·8 years) performed an incremental symptom-limited exercise treadmill test. The electrocardiographic findings and HR profiles were evaluated. Maximal O2 uptake (52·6 ± 7·0 versus 34·8 ± 4·5 ml kg(-1)  min(-1) ; Pexercise than controls (110·1 ± 11·0 versus 88·1 ± 15·4 bpm; Pexercise (22·9 ± 5·6 versus 21·3 ± 6·7 bpm; P = 0·20). Additionally, athletes showed a lower incidence of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) during exercise (0·0% versus 24·0%; PHealthy middle-aged men participating in regular endurance exercise showed more favourable exercise HR profiles and a lower incidence of PVCs during exercise than sedentary men. These results reflect the beneficial effect of endurance training on autonomic control of the heart. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Comparative Study on Fetal Heart Rates Estimated from Fetal Phonography and Cardiotocography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Emad A.; Al Awar, Shamsa; Balayah, Zuhur H.; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J.; Khandoker, Ahsan H.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate that fetal heart rates (fHR) extracted from fetal phonocardiography (fPCG) could convey similar information of fHR from cardiotocography (CTG). Four-channel fPCG sensors made of low cost (34 weeks of gestation). A novel multi-lag covariance matrix-based eigenvalue decomposition technique was used to separate maternal breathing, fetal heart sounds (fHS) and maternal heart sounds (mHS) from abdominal phonogram signals. Prior to the fHR estimation, the fPCG signals were denoised using a multi-resolution wavelet-based filter. The proposed source separation technique was first tested in separating sources from synthetically mixed signals and then on raw abdominal phonogram signals. fHR signals extracted from fPCG signals were validated using simultaneous recorded CTG-based fHR recordings.The experimental results have shown that the fHR derived from the acquired fPCG can be used to detect periods of acceleration and deceleration, which are critical indication of the fetus' well-being. Moreover, a comparative analysis demonstrated that fHRs from CTG and fPCG signals were in good agreement (Bland Altman plot has mean = −0.21 BPM and ±2 SD = ±3) with statistical significance (p < 0.001 and Spearman correlation coefficient ρ = 0.95). The study findings show that fHR estimated from fPCG could be a reliable substitute for fHR from the CTG, opening up the possibility of a low cost monitoring tool for fetal well-being. PMID:29089896

  1. A Comparative Study on Fetal Heart Rates Estimated from Fetal Phonography and Cardiotocography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A. Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate that fetal heart rates (fHR extracted from fetal phonocardiography (fPCG could convey similar information of fHR from cardiotocography (CTG. Four-channel fPCG sensors made of low cost (<$1 ceramic piezo vibration sensor within 3D-printed casings were used to collect abdominal phonogram signals from 20 pregnant mothers (>34 weeks of gestation. A novel multi-lag covariance matrix-based eigenvalue decomposition technique was used to separate maternal breathing, fetal heart sounds (fHS and maternal heart sounds (mHS from abdominal phonogram signals. Prior to the fHR estimation, the fPCG signals were denoised using a multi-resolution wavelet-based filter. The proposed source separation technique was first tested in separating sources from synthetically mixed signals and then on raw abdominal phonogram signals. fHR signals extracted from fPCG signals were validated using simultaneous recorded CTG-based fHR recordings.The experimental results have shown that the fHR derived from the acquired fPCG can be used to detect periods of acceleration and deceleration, which are critical indication of the fetus' well-being. Moreover, a comparative analysis demonstrated that fHRs from CTG and fPCG signals were in good agreement (Bland Altman plot has mean = −0.21 BPM and ±2 SD = ±3 with statistical significance (p < 0.001 and Spearman correlation coefficient ρ = 0.95. The study findings show that fHR estimated from fPCG could be a reliable substitute for fHR from the CTG, opening up the possibility of a low cost monitoring tool for fetal well-being.

  2. 77 FR 42768 - Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: An ONDCP Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence...

  3. Physiological and endocrine reactions to psychosocial stress in alcohol use disorders: duration of abstinence matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starcke, Katrin; van Holst, Ruth J.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Goudriaan, Anna E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research findings suggest that heavy alcohol use is associated with alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system function and that early abstinence is associated with blunted stress responsiveness. This study investigated abstinent alcohol-dependent

  4. Worth the Wait? The Consequences of Abstinence-Only Sex Education for Marginalized Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Sharon E.; Hoefer, Richard

    2017-01-01

    "Abstinence-only" sex education, which is still widely used across the United States, does not prepare students to engage in healthy adult relationships. Prior research evidence indicates that abstinence-only education is less effective at preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than comprehensive sex education.…

  5. Neoliberal Narratives and the Logic of Abstinence Only Education: Why Are We Still Having This Conversation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lauren; Stitzlein, Sarah M.

    2018-01-01

    Given the lack of citizen or medical support for abstinence-only education, we ask how abstinence-education maintains such a stronghold in America and other Western democracies' public policy and consciousness. Our response has three parts. In the first, we outline the disproportionately negative health outcomes of sex education experienced by…

  6. Relative importance of abstinence in clients' and clinicians' perspectives of recovery from drug and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffina, Lauren; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey C B; Crowe, Trevor P; Kelly, Peter J

    2013-06-01

    This study collected data on drug and alcohol workers' (n = 55) and clients' (n = 139) perspectives on what constitutes a "recovery" from substance use disorder. Data were collected during 2010 from four residential faith-based treatment programs across the east coast of Australia. Self-report surveys specifically designed for this study were administered. Responses were compared using nonparametric test. Abstinence was seen as an important component of recovery but nonabstinent factors were also seen as having an important role. Staff placed more emphasis on clients taking responsibility for their problems and on the role of spiritual development. The importance of nonabstinence components was positively associated with a person's time in treatment and recovery. Implications, limitations, and future directions are noted.

  7. Somatosensory and auditory processing in opioid-exposed newborns with neonatal abstinence syndrome: a magnetoencephalographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivistö, K; Nevalainen, P; Lauronen, L; Tupola, S; Pihko, E; Kivitie-Kallio, S

    2015-01-01

    Opioid exposure during pregnancy is a potential risk factor for the developing central nervous system of the fetus. We studied evoked responses in buprenorphine-exposed newborns who displayed neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) to elucidate the possible alterations in functioning of the somatosensory and auditory systems. We compared somatosensory (SEFs) and auditory evoked magnetic fields (AEFs), recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG), of 11 prenatally buprenorphine-exposed newborns with those of 12 healthy newborns. Peak latencies, source strength and location of SEFs or AEFs were recorded. AEFs were present in all buprenorphine-exposed newborns without significant differences from those of healthy newborns. In contrast, though no group level differences in SEFs existed, at individual level the response deviated from the typical neonatal morphology in four buprenorphine-exposed newborns. Although buprenorphine exposure during pregnancy does not seem to cause constant deficiencies in somatosensory or auditory processing, in some newborns the typical development of somatosensory networks may be - at least transiently - disrupted.

  8. Comparability of the Social Skills Improvement System to the Social Skills Rating System: A Norwegian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamst-Klaussen, Thor; Rasmussen, Lene-Mari P.; Svartdal, Frode; Strømgren, Børge

    2016-01-01

    The Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS) is a multi-informant instrument assessing social skills and problem behavior in children and adolescents. It is a revised version of the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS). A Norwegian translation of the SSRS has been validated, but this has not yet been done for the Norwegian…

  9. A comparative study on the rate of bone decalcification at varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the rate of bone decalcification at varying temperatures, decalcification fluid and fluid concentrations. A decalcification methodology was adopted using modern household microwave oven to accelerate the decalcification rate of rabbit compact bone sample. Bone biopsy was obtained from a rabbit limb ...

  10. Comparative rates of wind versus water erosion from a small semiarid watershed in southern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both wind erosion and water erosion can be serious land degradation processes in semi-arid dry-lands. However, the relative erosion rates of wind and water erosion have rarely been studied simultaneously and are poorly quantified. In this study, wind erosion and water erosion rates were simultaneous...

  11. A comparative study of United States and China exchange rate behavior: A co integration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shafi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rates always affect the prices of the imports and export of products and services in which countries are trading with other parts of the world. Therefore, exchange rate calculation is one of the essential issues for making appropriate policies. This research investigates the determinants of trade, i.e. import, export, industrial growth, consumption level and oil prices fluctuation, which bring changes in exchange rate and their influence eventually on balance of payments. Data of defined variables was collected on yearly basis for China and USA for thirty one years. By applying cointegration, it is estimated that there existed a long run relationship in both countries. USA and China had significant and correct signs on the short run dynamic and some of the factors did not. Exchange rate did not granger cause balance of payment and balance of payment did not granger cause exchange rate. In conclusion, we found that determinants of balance of trade could affect the exchange rates, also, these rates had considerable effect (positive or negative on balance of payments. In this twofold study, we found relationship of exchange rate with selected determinants of trade, and also examined their bilateral effect, and then made contrast of both countries.

  12. A comparative study between different pain rating scales in patients of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohammed Shakeel Mohammed; Khade, Ajay; Borkar, Praful; Saleem, Mohammed; Lingaswamy, Vanteddu; Reddy, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Study was conducted to assess the sensitivity and simplicity of various pain rating scales in patients of osteoarthritis with chronic pain so that most appropriate scale can be identified. Scales included were Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale (WBS), Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), Faces Pain Scale- Revised (FPS-R), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Verbal Rating Scale (VRS). Patients were asked to indicate their pain on these scales and comment about the simplicity of scales. Median mark for WBS, NRS, FPS-R, VAS and VRS was 10, 10, 10, 9.1 and 10 respectively. P value between WBS, NRS, FPS-R, VAS and VRS was insignificant. Most simple, easy to answer scale (83%) was WBS followed by FPS-R (17%). We conclude that all the scales are sensitive for assessment of the chronic osteoarthritis pain and are not different from each others. The most simple and preferred pain rating scale is WBS for the regional population.

  13. Facets of impulsivity in the relationship between antisocial personality and abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Marsha N; Bornovalova, Marina A; Trotman, Adria J-M; Fishman, Shira; Lejuez, Carl W

    2012-03-01

    Most individuals who enter drug treatment programs are unable to maintain long-term abstinence. This problem is especially relevant for those presenting with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD). In examining potential mechanisms underlying the relationship between ASPD and abstinence, one factor that may be especially useful is the personality variable of impulsivity. Thus, the current study examined ASPD status in relation to longest abstinence attempt among 117 substance use treatment-seeking individuals, considering the mediating role of five facets of impulsivity: urgency, perseverance, premeditation, control, and delay discounting. Results indicated that individuals with ASPD evidenced shorter previous abstinence attempts and lower levels of perseverance and control than those without ASPD. Further, lower levels of control were associated with shorter abstinence attempts. Finally, control mediated the relationship between ASPD and longest quit attempt. These results suggest the potential value of multiple facets of impulsivity in efforts to understand relapse and subsequent treatment development efforts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Abstinence Memorable Message Narratives: A New Exploratory Research Study Into Young Adult Sexual Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke-Jackson, Angela; Orbe, Mark P; Johnson, Amber L; Kauffman, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Abstinence for most adolescent-aged college students relates to several factors, including strong religious beliefs, an aversion to taking risks, high career expectations, or limited attractiveness. Young adults receive hundreds of messages from various sources; therefore, understanding their memorable sexual messages is essential. This exploratory research uses an interpretive method to unravel the memorable sexual narratives of 65 virgin respondents. Findings yield two primary themes: involuntary abstinence, and conscious abstinence, which demonstrate that messages of abstinence are important yet often imbue punitive internal attitudes and beliefs derived from mainstream media and peer relationships. The article concludes with a recommendation for health practitioners and communication scholars to create positive open spaces where young adults can discuss sexuality, sexual relationships, and sexual behaviors. Additionally, understanding stigmas related to abstinence helps reframe normative sex communication messages and promote constructive short- and long-term sexual health behaviors.

  15. Analysis of municipal waste generation rate in Poland compared to selected European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klojzy-Karczmarczyk, Beata; Makoudi, Said

    2017-10-01

    The generated municipal waste rates provided in the planning documents are a tool for forecasting the mass of waste generated in individual waste management regions. An important issue is the decisive separation of two concepts: waste generated and waste collected. The study includes analysis of the generation rate for Poland with division into urban and rural areas. The estimated and projected rate of municipal waste generation for Poland provided in subsequent editions of National Waste Management Plans (KPGO) changed since 2000 within wide range from about 300 to more than 500 kg per capita in an individual year (kg/pc/year). Currently, the National Waste Management Plan for the years 2017-2022 estimates municipal waste generation rate at approx. 270 kg/per capita/year with a projected increase to 330 kg/per capita/year in 2030. Most European countries adopt higher municipal waste generation rate, often exceeding 600 kg/per capita/year. The objective of the paper is therefore to analyze the causes of this difference in the declared values. The morphological composition of municipal waste stream in Poland and in selected European countries (e.g. France, Belgium, Switzerland) was analyzed. At present it is not possible to balance the value of the generation rate with the rate of waste collection in Poland. The conducted analyzes allow for determining a number of reasons for variation of the rate value in particular countries, mostly morphological composition of municipal waste, inclusion of household-like waste from infrastructure facilities or not and amount of waste collected in rural areas. The differences in the generation rates and provided possible reasons indicate the need to harmonize the methodology for estimating rates of municipal waste generation in various countries, including Poland.

  16. Analysis of municipal waste generation rate in Poland compared to selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klojzy-Karczmarczyk Beata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The generated municipal waste rates provided in the planning documents are a tool for forecasting the mass of waste generated in individual waste management regions. An important issue is the decisive separation of two concepts: waste generated and waste collected. The study includes analysis of the generation rate for Poland with division into urban and rural areas. The estimated and projected rate of municipal waste generation for Poland provided in subsequent editions of National Waste Management Plans (KPGO changed since 2000 within wide range from about 300 to more than 500 kg per capita in an individual year (kg/pc/year. Currently, the National Waste Management Plan for the years 2017-2022 estimates municipal waste generation rate at approx. 270 kg/per capita/year with a projected increase to 330 kg/per capita/year in 2030. Most European countries adopt higher municipal waste generation rate, often exceeding 600 kg/per capita/year. The objective of the paper is therefore to analyze the causes of this difference in the declared values. The morphological composition of municipal waste stream in Poland and in selected European countries (e.g. France, Belgium, Switzerland was analyzed. At present it is not possible to balance the value of the generation rate with the rate of waste collection in Poland. The conducted analyzes allow for determining a number of reasons for variation of the rate value in particular countries, mostly morphological composition of municipal waste, inclusion of household-like waste from infrastructure facilities or not and amount of waste collected in rural areas. The differences in the generation rates and provided possible reasons indicate the need to harmonize the methodology for estimating rates of municipal waste generation in various countries, including Poland.

  17. Buprenorphine Medication versus Voucher Contingencies in Promoting Abstinence from Opioids and Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Mohit P.; Landes, Reid D.; Gatchalian, Kirstin M; Jackson, Lisa C.; Buchhalter, August R; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Marsch, Lisa A.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the relative efficacy of two contingency management (CM) interventions versus standard care. During a 12-week intervention, opioid dependent participants (N = 120) were maintained on thrice-a-week (M, W, F) buprenorphine plus therapist and computer-based counseling. They were randomized to receive: (a) medication contingencies (MC= thrice weekly dosing schedule vs. daily attendance and single-day 50% dose reduction imposed upon submission of an opioid and/or cocaine positive urine sample); (b) voucher contingency (VC=escalating schedule for opioid and/or cocaine negative samples with reset for drug-positive samples); or (c) standard care (SC), with no programmed consequences for urinalysis results. Voucher reinforcement resulted in better 12-week retention (85%) compared to contingent medication (58%; p=0.009), but neither differed from standard care (76% retained). The groups submitted a similar overall percentage of opioid and cocaine-free urines (MC = 79%, VC = 76%, SC = 69%). After adjusting for baseline differences in employment, the medication contingency group achieved 1.5 more continuous weeks of combined opioid/cocaine abstinence than standard care (p=0.030), while the voucher group had 2 more total weeks of abstinence than standard care (p=0.048). Drug use results suggest that the two interventions were both efficacious, with effects seen primarily in opioid rather than cocaine test results. Findings should be interpreted in light of the greater attrition associated with medication-based contingencies versus the greater monetary costs of voucher-based contingencies. PMID:19653788

  18. Accelerating finite-rate chemical kinetics with coprocessors: Comparing vectorization methods on GPUs, MICs, and CPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Christopher P.; Alferman, Andrew T.; Niemeyer, Kyle E.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate and efficient methods for solving stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are a critical component of turbulent combustion simulations with finite-rate chemistry. The ODEs governing the chemical kinetics at each mesh point are decoupled by operator-splitting allowing each to be solved concurrently. An efficient ODE solver must then take into account the available thread and instruction-level parallelism of the underlying hardware, especially on many-core coprocessors, as well as the numerical efficiency. A stiff Rosenbrock and a nonstiff Runge-Kutta ODE solver are both implemented using the single instruction, multiple thread (SIMT) and single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) paradigms within OpenCL. Both methods solve multiple ODEs concurrently within the same instruction stream. The performance of these parallel implementations was measured on three chemical kinetic models of increasing size across several multicore and many-core platforms. Two separate benchmarks were conducted to clearly determine any performance advantage offered by either method. The first benchmark measured the run-time of evaluating the right-hand-side source terms in parallel and the second benchmark integrated a series of constant-pressure, homogeneous reactors using the Rosenbrock and Runge-Kutta solvers. The right-hand-side evaluations with SIMD parallelism on the host multicore Xeon CPU and many-core Xeon Phi co-processor performed approximately three times faster than the baseline multithreaded C++ code. The SIMT parallel model on the host and Phi was 13%-35% slower than the baseline while the SIMT model on the NVIDIA Kepler GPU provided approximately the same performance as the SIMD model on the Phi. The runtimes for both ODE solvers decreased significantly with the SIMD implementations on the host CPU (2.5-2.7 ×) and Xeon Phi coprocessor (4.7-4.9 ×) compared to the baseline parallel code. The SIMT implementations on the GPU ran 1.5-1.6 times faster than the baseline

  19. Incubation of Methamphetamine but not Heroin Craving After Voluntary Abstinence in Male and Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venniro, Marco; Zhang, Michelle; Shaham, Yavin; Caprioli, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    We recently introduced an animal model of incubation of methamphetamine craving after choice-based voluntary abstinence in male rats. Here we studied the generality of this phenomenon to (1) female rats, and (2) male and female rats with a history of heroin self-administration. We first trained rats to self-administer palatable food pellets for 6 days (6 h per day) for either methamphetamine (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) or heroin (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) for 12 days (6 h/day). We then assessed relapse to drug seeking under extinction conditions after 1 and 21 abstinence days. Between tests, the rats underwent either voluntary abstinence (achieved via a discrete choice procedure between drug and palatable food; 20 trials/day) or home-cage forced abstinence. We found no sex differences in methamphetamine self-administration or in the strong preference for the palatable food over methamphetamine during the choice-based voluntary abstinence. In both sexes, methamphetamine seeking in the relapse tests was higher after 21 days of either voluntary or forced abstinence than after 1 day (incubation of methamphetamine craving). We also found no sex differences in heroin self-administration or the strong preference for the palatable food over heroin during the choice-based voluntary abstinence. However, male and female rats with a history of heroin self-administration showed incubation of heroin craving after forced but not voluntary abstinence. Our results show that incubation of methamphetamine craving after voluntary abstinence generalizes to female rats. Unexpectedly, prolonged voluntary abstinence prevented the emergence of incubation of heroin craving in both sexes.

  20. Attentional bias to negative affect moderates negative affect's relationship with smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Paul E; Waters, Andrew J; Lam, Cho; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2016-08-01

    To examine whether initial orienting (IO) and inability to disengage (ITD) attention from negative affective stimuli moderate the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence during a quit attempt. Data were from a longitudinal cohort study of smoking cessation (N = 424). A negative affect modified Stroop task was administered 1 week before and on quit day to measure IO and ITD. Ecological Momentary Assessments were used to create negative affect intercepts and linear slopes for the week before quitting and on quit day. Quit day and long-term abstinence measures were collected. Continuation ratio logit model analyses found significant interactions for prequit negative affect slope with prequit ITD, odds ratio (OR) = 0.738 (0.57, 0.96), p = .02, and for quit day negative affect intercept with quit day ITD, OR = 0.62 (0.41, 950), p = .03, predicting abstinence. The Prequit Negative Affect Intercept × Prequit IO interaction predicting quit day abstinence was significant, OR = 1.42 (1.06, 1.90), p = .02, as was the Quit Day Negative Affect Slope × Quit Day IO interaction predicting long-term abstinence, OR = 1.45 (1.02, 2.08), p = .04. The hypothesis that the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence would be moderated by ITD was generally supported. Among individuals with high ITD, negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with lower levels of ITD. Unexpectedly, among individuals with low IO, negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with higher levels of ITD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Attentional Bias to Negative Affect Moderates Negative Affect’s Relationship with Smoking Abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Paul E.; Waters, Andrew J.; Lam, Cho; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether initial orienting (IO) and inability to disengage attention (ITD) from negative affective stimuli moderate the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence during a quit attempt. Methods Data were from a longitudinal cohort study of smoking cessation (N=424). A negative affect modified Stroop was administered one week before and on quit day to measure IO and ITD. Ecological Momentary Assessments were used to create negative affect intercepts and linear slopes for the week before quitting and on quit day. Quit day and long-term abstinence measures were collected. Results Continuation ratio (CR) logit model analyses found significant interactions of pre-quit negative affect slope with pre-quit ITD [OR = .738(.57, .96), p= .02] and quit day negative affect intercept with quit day ITD [OR = .62(.41, 950), p= .03] predicting abstinence. The interaction of pre-quit negative affect intercept and pre-quit IO predicting quit day abstinence was significant [OR = 1.42(1.06, 1.90), p= .02], as was the interaction of quit day negative affect slope and quit day IO predicting long-term abstinence [OR = 1.45(1.02, 2.08), p= .04]. Conclusions The hypothesis that the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence would be moderated by ITD was generally supported. Among individuals with high ITD, negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with lower levels of ITD. Unexpectedly, among individuals with low IO negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with higher levels of ITD. PMID:27505211

  2. Differences in reported satisfaction ratings by consumptive and nonconsumptive recreationists: A comparative analysis of three decades of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer M. Roemer; Jerry J. Vaske

    2012-01-01

    This paper updates a previous comparative analysis article (Vaske et al. 1982) by analyzing differences in satisfaction ratings reported by consumptive and nonconsumptive recreationists over a 30-year period.

  3. Event rates, hospital utilization, and costs associated with major complications of diabetes: a multicountry comparative analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Clarke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes imposes a substantial burden globally in terms of premature mortality, morbidity, and health care costs. Estimates of economic outcomes associated with diabetes are essential inputs to policy analyses aimed at prevention and treatment of diabetes. Our objective was to estimate and compare event rates, hospital utilization, and costs associated with major diabetes-related complications in high-, middle-, and low-income countries.Incidence and history of diabetes-related complications, hospital admissions, and length of stay were recorded in 11,140 patients with type 2 diabetes participating in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease (ADVANCE study (mean age at entry 66 y. The probability of hospital utilization and number of days in hospital for major events associated with coronary disease, cerebrovascular disease, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and nephropathy were estimated for three regions (Asia, Eastern Europe, and Established Market Economies using multiple regression analysis. The resulting estimates of days spent in hospital were multiplied by regional estimates of the costs per hospital bed-day from the World Health Organization to compute annual acute and long-term costs associated with the different types of complications. To assist, comparability, costs are reported in international dollars (Int$, which represent a hypothetical currency that allows for the same quantities of goods or services to be purchased regardless of country, standardized on purchasing power in the United States. A cost calculator accompanying this paper enables the estimation of costs for individual countries and translation of these costs into local currency units. The probability of attending a hospital following an event was highest for heart failure (93%-96% across regions and lowest for nephropathy (15%-26%. The average numbers of days in hospital given at least one admission were greatest for stroke (17-32 d across

  4. Cue-Elicited Craving in Heroin Addicts at Different Abstinent Time: An fMRI Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Mingwu; Wang, Erlei; Shen, Yunxia; Wang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effect of short-term and long-term heroin abstinence on brain responses to heroin-related cues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Eighteen male heroin addicts following short-term abstinence and 19 male heroin addicts following long-term abstinence underwent fMRI scanning while viewing heroin-related and neutral images. Cue-elicited craving and withdrawal symptoms in the subjects were measured. Results: Following short-term abstinence, gre...

  5. Comparative influence of dose rate and radiation nature, on lethality after big mammals irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destombe, C.; Le Fleche, Ph.; Grasseau, A.; Reynal, A.

    1997-01-01

    For the same dose and the 30 days lethality as biological criterion, the dose rate influence is more important than the radiation nature on the results of an big mammals total body irradiation. (authors)

  6. Comparative investigation of three dose rate meters for their viability in pulsed radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotz, M; Karsch, L; Pawelke, J

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed radiation fields, characterized by microsecond pulse duration and correspondingly high pulse dose rates, are increasingly used in therapeutic, diagnostic and research applications. Yet, dose rate meters which are used to monitor radiation protection areas or to inspect radiation shielding are mostly designed, characterized and tested for continuous fields and show severe deficiencies in highly pulsed fields. Despite general awareness of the problem, knowledge of the specific limitations of individual instruments is very limited, complicating reliable measurements. We present here the results of testing three commercial dose rate meters, the RamION ionization chamber, the LB 1236-H proportional counter and the 6150AD-b scintillation counter, for their response in pulsed radiation fields of varied pulse dose and duration. Of these three the RamION proved reliable, operating in a pulsed radiation field within its specifications, while the other two instruments were only able to measure very limited pulse doses and pulse dose rates reliably. (paper)

  7. Dynamic structure of stock communities: a comparative study between stock returns and turnover rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li-Ling; Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Li, Sai-Ping; Zhong, Li-Xin; Ren, Fei

    2017-07-01

    The detection of community structure in stock market is of theoretical and practical significance for the study of financial dynamics and portfolio risk estimation. We here study the community structures in Chinese stock markets from the aspects of both price returns and turnover rates, by using a combination of the PMFG and infomap methods based on a distance matrix. An empirical study using the overall data set shows that for both returns and turnover rates the largest communities are composed of specific industrial or conceptional sectors and the correlation inside a sector is generally larger than the correlation between different sectors. However, the community structure for turnover rates is more complex than that for returns, which indicates that the interactions between stocks revealed by turnover rates may contain more information. This conclusion is further confirmed by the analysis of the changes in the dynamics of community structures over five sub-periods. Sectors like banks, real estate, health care and New Shanghai take turns to comprise a few of the largest communities in different sub-periods, and more interestingly several specific sectors appear in the communities with different rank orders for returns and turnover rates even in the same sub-period. To better understand their differences, a comparison between the evolution of the returns and turnover rates of the stocks from these sectors is conducted. We find that stock prices only had large changes around important events while turnover rates surged after each of these events relevant to specific sectors, which shows strong evidence that the turnover rates are more susceptible to exogenous shocks than returns and its measurement for community detection may contain more useful information about market structure.

  8. Clinical presentation and management of neonatal abstinence syndrome: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordean A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alice Ordean,1 Brian C Chisamore21Department of Family Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, St Joseph's Health Centre, and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Exposure to prescription medications and illicit drug use during pregnancy has been associated with neonatal abstinence syndrome. The clinical presentation consists of neurological respiratory, gastrointestinal, and vasomotor disturbances. All infants require observation and supportive care to ensure appropriate adaptation and growth in the newborn period. A smaller percentage may also require additional pharmacotherapy, depending on the specific gestational substance exposure. Women should be counseled antenatally about the possible neonatal effects, and mother–baby dyad care should be implemented for this particular patient population.Keywords: neonatal withdrawal, opioids, marijuana, cocaine, benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

  9. Alcohol and pregnancy: do abstinence policies have unintended consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Colleen M

    2012-01-01

    Most policies and guidelines recommend that women abstain from alcohol during pregnancy. This can be difficult to achieve in developed nations where the majority of women consume alcohol and almost half of pregnancies are unplanned, leading to many pregnancies being exposed to alcohol prior to pregnancy awareness. Concerns have been raised that abstinence policies may lead women in this situation to terminate their pregnancy out of fear that they have harmed their baby; however, the evidence is limited. A recent study found that while few women reported alcohol as the reason for seeking an abortion, in almost all cases where alcohol was the reason, the women were either binge drinking or reported alcohol-related problems and the pregnancy was unplanned.

  10. Emotional intelligence, risk perception in abstinent cocaine dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Ayuso, Dulce; Mayoral-Gontán, Yolanda; Triviño-Juárez, José-Matías

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine is now responsible for the second-highest number of cessation intervention requests. In this study we analyze the different skills of emotional intelligence in cocaine- dependent patients maintaining abstinence. The Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) were administered to 50 subjects (25 individuals with no history of drug use and 25 individuals in treatment at the Addictive Behaviors Unit in a state of withdrawal at the time of evaluation). The results showed differences between these groups in overall emotional intelligence quotient, strategic emotional intelligence, understanding emotions and emotional management. Cocaine-addicted participants showed difficulties in analyzing complex emotions and regulating their emotional response, aspects that can interfere with interactions in daily life.

  11. Comparing geographic area-based and classical population-based incidence and prevalence rates, and their confidence intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Geng Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the HIV epidemic, the classical population-based prevalence and incidence rates (P rates are the two most commonly used measures used for policy interventions. However, these P rates ignore the heterogeneity of the size of geographic region where the population resides. It is intuitive that with the same P rates, the likelihood for HIV can be much greater to spread in a population residing in a crowed small urban area than the same number of population residing in a large rural area. With this limitation, Chen and Wang (2017 proposed the geographic area-based rates (G rates to complement the classical P rates. They analyzed the 2000–2012 US data on new HIV infections and persons living with HIV and found, as compared with other methods, using G rates enables researchers to more quickly detect increases in HIV rates. This capacity to reveal increasing rates in a more efficient and timely manner is a crucial methodological contribution to HIV research. To enhance this newly proposed concept of G rates, this article presents a discussion of 3 areas for further development of this important concept: (1 analysis of global HIV epidemic data using the newly proposed G rates to capture the changes globally; (2 development of the associated population density-based rates (D rates to incorporate the heterogeneities from both geographical area and total population-at-risk; and (3 development of methods to calculate variances and confidence intervals for the P rates, G rates, and D rates to capture the variability of these indices.

  12. Comparative evaluation of heart rate-based monitors: Apple Watch vs Fitbit Charge HR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Hibbing, Paul; Mantis, Constantine; Welk, Gregory J

    2017-12-06

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the validity of energy expenditure (EE), steps, and heart rate measured with the Apple Watch 1 and Fitbit Charge HR. Thirty-nine healthy adults wore the two monitors while completing a semi-structured activity protocol consisting of 20 minutes of sedentary activity, 25 minutes of aerobic exercise, and 25 minutes of light intensity physical activity. Criterion measures were obtained from an Oxycon Mobile for EE, a pedometer for steps, and a Polar heart rate strap worn on the chest for heart rate. For estimating whole-trial EE, the mean absolute percent error (MAPE) from Fitbit Charge HR (32.9%) was more than twice that of Apple Watch 1 (15.2%). This trend was consistent for the individual conditions. Both monitors accurately assessed steps during aerobic activity (MAPE Apple : 6.2%; MAPE Fitbit : 9.4%) but overestimated steps in light physical activity. For heart rate, Fitbit Charge HR produced its smallest MAPE in sedentary behaviors (7.2%), followed by aerobic exercise (8.4%), and light activity (10.1%). The Apple Watch 1 had stronger validity than the Fitbit Charge HR for assessing overall EE and steps during aerobic exercise. The Fitbit Charge HR provided heart rate estimates that were statistically equivalent to Polar monitor.

  13. Associations Between Personality and Drinking Motives Among Abstinent Adult Alcoholic Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher Ruiz, Susan; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Kemppainen, Maaria I; Valmas, Mary M; Sawyer, Kayle S

    2017-07-01

    Men and women differ in personality characteristics and may be motivated to use alcohol for different reasons. The goals of the present study were to characterize personality and drinking motives by gender and alcoholism status in adults, and to determine how alcoholism history and gender are related to the associations between personality traits and drinking motivation. Personality characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, which includes Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism and Lie (Social Conforming) scales. To evaluate drinking motivation, we asked abstinent long-term alcoholic men and women, and demographically similar nonalcoholic participants to complete the Drinking Motives Questionnaire, which includes Conformity, Coping, Social and Enhancement scales. Patterns of personality scale scores and drinking motives differed by alcoholism status, with alcoholics showing higher psychopathology and stronger motives for drinking compared with controls. Divergent gender-specific relationships between personality and drinking motives also were identified, which differed for alcoholics and controls. Alcoholic and control men and women differed with respect to the associations between personality traits and motives for drinking. A better understanding of how different personality traits affect drinking motivations for alcoholic men and women can inform individualized relapse prevention strategies. Men and women differed in their personality traits and their motivations for drinking, and these relationships differed for abstinent alcoholic and control groups. Additionally, alcoholics scored higher on Neuroticism and Psychoticism personality traits, and had lower Enhancement and Social Conformity drinking motives than nonalcoholic controls. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. [A comparison of self-esteem in alcohol-dependent women and women who have become abstinent, against a control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Angélique; Chauveau-Clerc, Charlyne; Courtois, Robert; Bacq, Yannick; Maugé, Damien; Ballon, Nicolas; Gaillard, Philippe

    2012-09-01

    Women's addiction to alcohol remains a taboo subject, whereas one third of alcohol-dependent people are female. Social representations concerning them are very unfavorable. Their alcoholism is usually accompanied by strong feelings of guilt, depreciation and lowered self-esteem. There is little existing work about self-esteem in women who have become abstinent. This study's goal is to compare the self-esteem of women who are alcohol-dependent and the self-esteem of women who have become abstinent in various domains (social, familial, professional). The sample contained 71 women divided into three groups: 31 alcohol-dependent women (average age of 44.9); 20 alcohol-dependent women who had become abstinent for at least two months (average age of 44.7) and 20 women who formed the control group (average age of 44.4). The material was put together from the Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI, adult version of Coopersmith 1981). It includes 58 items divided into four sub-categories (general self-esteem, social, familial and professional) and a scale for falsehoods. The SEI was self-administered. The statistics were produced entirely with non-parametric tests: Mann-Whitley U Test for the comparison of two independent samples and Kruskal-Wallis Anova for the comparison of three independent samples. A significant difference was found for general self-esteem (P=0.001), familial (P=0.01) and professional (P=0.03) between the three groups of women (alcohol-dependent, alcohol-dependent who had become abstinent and women from the control group). There was no statistical difference for social self-esteem or the lying scale. There was a difference between alcohol-dependent women and the control group in general self-esteem (P=0.0001), familial self-esteem (P=0.01) and professional self-esteem (P=0.002), as well as between women who had become abstinent and women from the control group in general self-esteem (P=0.02), familial self-esteem (P=0.005) and professional self-esteem (P=0.07; ns

  15. A comparative study of different methods for calculating electronic transition rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananenka, Alexei A.; Sun, Xiang; Schubert, Alexander; Dunietz, Barry D.; Geva, Eitan

    2018-03-01

    We present a comprehensive comparison of the following mixed quantum-classical methods for calculating electronic transition rates: (1) nonequilibrium Fermi's golden rule, (2) mixed quantum-classical Liouville method, (3) mean-field (Ehrenfest) mixed quantum-classical method, and (4) fewest switches surface-hopping method (in diabatic and adiabatic representations). The comparison is performed on the Garg-Onuchic-Ambegaokar benchmark charge-transfer model, over a broad range of temperatures and electronic coupling strengths, with different nonequilibrium initial states, in the normal and inverted regimes. Under weak to moderate electronic coupling, the nonequilibrium Fermi's golden rule rates are found to be in good agreement with the rates obtained via the mixed quantum-classical Liouville method that coincides with the fully quantum-mechanically exact results for the model system under study. Our results suggest that the nonequilibrium Fermi's golden rule can serve as an inexpensive yet accurate alternative to Ehrenfest and the fewest switches surface-hopping methods.

  16. Altmetrics for the Humanities: Comparing Goodreads reader ratings with citations to history books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuccala, Alesia Ann; Verleysen, Frederik; Cornacchia, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses the value of Goodreads reader ratings as an altmetric research tool for measuring the wider impact of scholarly books published in the field of History. Design/methodology/approach: Book titles were extracted from the reference lists of articles that appeared in 604...... history journals indexed in Scopus (2007-2011). The titles were cleaned and matched using an API in WorldCat.org (for publisher information) as well as Goodreads (for reader ratings). A set of N=8,538 books was first filtered based on Dewey Decimal Classification class 900 ‘History and Geography...

  17. The Rate of Return to Educational Investment in China: A Comparative Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengliang; Zhao, Yandong; Morgan, W. John

    2011-01-01

    This article comments on several features of the rate of return (ROR) to educational investment in China: first, the ROR to educational investment has increased with the expansion of educational provision since the 1980s. Second, the greater the educational provision, the greater the ROR. Third, the ROR in urban areas is more than that in rural…

  18. Comparative evaluation of quantitative glomerular filtration rate measured by isotopic and nonisotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, S.; Toguri, A.G.; Petrusick, T.W.; Abbott, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Good correlation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured isotopically from plasma disappearance of Tc-99m-DTPA (Sn) was shown with inulin clearance, creatinine clearance, and graded radionuclide imaging. The isotopic GFR is a simple, urineless technique not requiring continuous infusion that enables one to perform simultaneous renal imaging with one radiotracer

  19. Comparing artificial and natural selection in rate of adaptation to genetic stress in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoustra, S.E.; Slakhorst-Wandel, S.M.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    In an experimental study of adaptation to negative pleiotropic effects of a major fungicide resistance mutation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans we have investigated the relative effectiveness of artificial selection vs. natural selection on the rate of compensatory evolution. Using

  20. A Comparative Trend Analysis of Institutional Variables and Retention Rates in Publicly Funded Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Jenna L.

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on student retention trends in institutional spending and student retention rates. The research also investigated the relationship between student retention and the student-to-faculty ratio. The sample was comprised of 14 publicly funded higher education institutions that had an M1Carnegie classification and were located in one…

  1. International Ranking of Infant Mortality Rates: Taiwan Compared with European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Wen Liang

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: The ranking of Taiwan was similar (11th vs. 12th according the two definitions. However, after consideration of the confidence interval, only six countries (Sweden, Finland, Czech Republic, Belgium, Austria, and Germany had infant mortality rates statistically significantly lower than those of Taiwan in 2004.

  2. Measuring Creative Capacity in Gifted Students: Comparing Teacher Ratings and Student Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Todd; Bower, Janessa

    2017-01-01

    Creativity and giftedness are frequently associated, and schools may use measures of creativity for identifying gifted and talented students. The researchers examined three aspects of elementary student creativity: (a) the relationship between a teacher's rating of student creativity and rubric-scored student writing samples, (b) group differences…

  3. Phylogeny and comparative substitution rates of frogs inferred from sequences of three nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegg, Simone; Vences, Miguel; Brinkmann, Henner; Meyer, Axel

    2004-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among major clades of anuran amphibians were studied using partial sequences of three nuclear protein coding genes, Rag-1, Rag-2, and rhodopsin in 26 frog species from 18 families. The concatenated nuclear data set comprised 2,616 nucleotides and was complemented by sequences of the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA genes for analyses of evolutionary rates. Separate and combined analyses of the nuclear markers supported the monophyly of modern frogs (Neobatrachia), whereas they did not provide support for the monophyly of archaic frog lineages (Archaeobatrachia), contrary to previous studies based on mitochondrial data. The Neobatrachia contain two well supported clades that correspond to the subfamilies Ranoidea (Hyperoliidae, Mantellidae, Microhylidae, Ranidae, and Rhacophoridae) and Hyloidea (Bufonidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, and Pseudidae). Two other families (Heleophrynidae and Sooglossidae) occupied basal positions and probably represent ancient relicts within the Neobatrachia, which had been less clearly indicated by previous mitochondrial analyses. Branch lengths of archaeobatrachians were consistently shorter in all separate analyses, and nonparametric rate smoothing indicated accelerated substitution rates in neobatrachians. However, relative rate tests confirmed this tendency only for mitochondrial genes. In contrast, nuclear gene sequences from our study and from an additional GenBank survey showed no clear phylogenetic trends in terms of differences in rates of molecular evolution. Maximum likelihood trees based on Rag-1 and using only one neobatrachian and one archaeobatrachian sequence, respectively, even had longer archaeobatrachian branches averaged over all pairwise comparisons. More data are necessary to understand the significance of a possibly general assignation of short branches to basal and species-poor taxa by tree-reconstruction algorithms.

  4. Systematic review of abstinence-plus HIV prevention programs in high-income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Underhill

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abstinence-plus (comprehensive interventions promote sexual abstinence as the best means of preventing HIV, but also encourage condom use and other safer-sex practices. Some critics of abstinence-plus programs have suggested that promoting safer sex along with abstinence may undermine abstinence messages or confuse program participants; conversely, others have suggested that promoting abstinence might undermine safer-sex messages. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the effectiveness of abstinence-plus interventions for HIV prevention among any participants in high-income countries as defined by the World Bank. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cochrane Collaboration systematic review methods were used. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of abstinence-plus programs for HIV prevention among any participants in any high-income country; trials were included if they reported behavioural or biological outcomes. We searched 30 electronic databases without linguistic or geographical restrictions to February 2007, in addition to contacting experts, hand-searching conference abstracts, and cross-referencing papers. After screening 20,070 abstracts and 325 full published and unpublished papers, we included 39 trials that included approximately 37,724 North American youth. Programs were based in schools (10, community facilities (24, both schools and community facilities (2, health care facilities (2, and family homes (1. Control groups varied. All outcomes were self-reported. Quantitative synthesis was not possible because of heterogeneity across trials in programs and evaluation designs. Results suggested that many abstinence-plus programs can reduce HIV risk as indicated by self-reported sexual behaviours. Of 39 trials, 23 found a protective program effect on at least one sexual behaviour, including abstinence, condom use, and unprotected sex (baseline n = 19,819. No trial found adverse program effects on any

  5. Protracted abstinence from distinct drugs of abuse shows regulation of a common gene network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Merrer, Julie; Befort, Katia; Gardon, Olivier; Filliol, Dominique; Darcq, Emmanuel; Dembele, Doulaye; Becker, Jerome A J; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2012-01-01

    Addiction is a chronic brain disorder. Prolonged abstinence from drugs of abuse involves dysphoria, high stress responsiveness and craving. The neurobiology of drug abstinence, however, is poorly understood. We previously identified a unique set of hundred mu-opioid receptor-dependent genes in the extended amygdala, a key site for hedonic and stress processing in the brain. Here we examined these candidate genes either immediately after chronic morphine, nicotine, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or alcohol, or following 4 weeks of abstinence. Regulation patterns strongly differed among chronic groups. In contrast, gene regulations strikingly converged in the abstinent groups and revealed unforeseen common adaptations within a novel huntingtin-centered molecular network previously unreported in addiction research. This study demonstrates that, regardless the drug, a specific set of transcriptional regulations develops in the abstinent brain, which possibly contributes to the negative affect characterizing protracted abstinence. This transcriptional signature may represent a hallmark of drug abstinence and a unitary adaptive molecular mechanism in substance abuse disorders. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Predictors of early versus late smoking abstinence within a 24-month disease management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Wick, Jo A; Nazir, Niaman; Cupertino, A Paula; Mussulman, Laura M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Ellerbeck, Edward F

    2011-03-01

    Standard smoking cessation treatment studies have been limited to 6- to 12-month follow-up, and examination of predictors of abstinence has been restricted to this timeframe. The KanQuit study enrolled 750 rural smokers across all stages of readiness to stop smoking and provided pharmacotherapy management and/or disease management, including motivational interviewing (MI) counseling every 6 months over 2 years. This paper examines differences in predictors of abstinence following initial (6-month) and extended (24-month) intervention. Baseline variables were analyzed as potential predictors of self-reported smoking abstinence at Month 6 and at Month 24. Chi-square tests, 2-sample t tests, and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of abstinence among 592 participants who completed assessment at baseline and Months 6 and 24. Controlling for treatment group, the final regression models showed that male gender and lower baseline cigarettes per day predicted abstinence at both 6 and 24 months. While remaining significant, the relative advantage of being male decreased over time. Global motivation to stop smoking, controlled motivation, and self-efficacy predicted abstinence at 6 months but did not predict abstinence at Month 24. In contrast, stage of change was strongly predictive of 24-month smoking status. While the importance of some predictors of successful smoking cessation appeared to diminish over time, initial lack of interest in cessation and number of cigarettes per day strongly predicted continued smoking following a 2-year program.

  7. Assessing alcohol abstinence self-efficacy in undergraduate students: psychometric evaluation of the alcohol abstinence self-efficacy scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozah, Franklin N; Adu, Nana Ama Takyibea; Komesuor, Joyce

    2015-11-25

    Alcohol use is a major public health concern with respect to its impact on youth morbidity and mortality. Self-efficacy to abstain from alcohol use in young people is an important prevention and intervention strategy in future alcohol dependence. However, research on the assessment of self-efficacy to abstain from alcohol use among undergraduate students is almost non-existent in Ghana, apparently due to the unavailability of a standardised testing instrument. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor validity, structure, and reliability of the 20-item Alcohol Abstinence Self-efficacy Scale (AASES) in undergraduate students in Ghana. Two hundred and fifteen undergraduate students studying in a private university with a mean age of 23.5 years participated in the study by completing the AASES. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis showed that the data did not fit the initial four-factor AASES model. Subsequent exploratory factor analysis showed that the AASES is a unidimensional construct (in the total sample and a subsample of drinkers), contrary to findings found in western cultures. The AASES also had a high Cronbach's alpha. Although the AASES was unidimensional in this study, each of the original four-factor model also had high and acceptable Cronbach's alpha. The original AASES structure was not confirmed in this study but a unidimensional factor was found suggesting that the AASES could be used as an instrument for assessing alcohol abstinence self-efficacy in undergraduate students in Ghana, although further validation research is needed in larger as well as in different samples.

  8. Using poisson regression to compare rates of unsatisfactory pap smears among gynecologists and to evaluate a performance improvement plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Mitchell S; Hatley, Warren G; de Riese, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate impact of a performance improvement (PI) plan implemented after initial analysis, comparing 7 gynecologists working in 2 clinics. From January to October 2005, unsatisfactory rates for gynecologists and clinics were calculated. A PI plan was instituted at the end of the first quarter of 2006. Unsatisfactory rates for each quarter of 2006 and the first quarter of 2007 were calculated. Poisson regression analyzed results. A total of 100 ThinPrep Pap smears initially deemed unsatisfactory underwent reprocessing and revaluation. The study's first part evaluated 2890 smears. Clinic unsatisfactory rates, 2.7% and 2.6%, were similar (p > 0.05). Gynecologists' unsatisfactory rates were 4.8-0.6%; differences between each of the highest 2 and lowest rates were significant (p improvement. Reprocessing ThinPrep smears is an important means of reducing unsatisfactory rates but should not be a substitute for attention to quality in sampling.

  9. Rearrest Rates After Incarceration for DWI: A Comparative Study in a Southwestern US County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitz, Stephen J.; Woodall, W. Gill; Zhao, Hongwei; Wheeler, Denise R.; Lillis, Robert; Rogers, Everett

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study was undertaken to assess a 28-day detention and treatment program’s effect, in a multiethnic county with high rates of alcohol-related arrests and crashes, on first-time offenders sentenced for driving while impaired (DWI). Methods. We used comparison of baseline characteristics, survival curves of subsequent arrest, and Cox proportional hazards regression to examine probability of rearrest of those sentenced and those not sentenced to the program. Results. Probability of not being rearrested was significantly higher for the treatment group after adjustment for covariates. At 5 years, probability of not being rearrested for the treatment vs the nontreatment group was 76.6% vs 59.9%. Conclusions. Results suggest that this county’s program has significantly affected rearrest rates for Native Americans, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites. PMID:12406816

  10. Exploration of central dopamine transporter and D2 receptor in morphine abstinent rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Wang Bocheng; Wang Shizhen; Ding Shiyu; Chen Zhengping; Zhang Manda

    2006-01-01

    The experiment was designed to investigate the variation of DAT and D2 receptor in morphine administered and 1,2,3 day abstinent rats. Morphine exposure was induced by repeated morphine (i.p.) treatment for 8 days. Conditioned place preference test was conducted to evaluate the drug seeking behaviour and morphine dependence of rats with morphine exposure. Biodistribution of the imaging agents 125 I-β-CIT and 125 I-IBZM was used to evaluate the central DAT and D2 receptor during morphine exposure and 1,2,3 day's abstinence. Results reveal the following facts. (1) The morphine abstinent rats showed diarrhea and body-shake 1 day after morphine withdrawal. (2) For morphine group, 125 I-β-CIT %ID/g in ST and NAC was higher than that of the 1,2,3 day's abstinent rats and control (P 0.05). (3) 125 I-IBZM %ID/g in ST, NAC and HIP in morphine rats were lower than those of the abstinent and control rats (P 125 I-IBZM %ID/g in ST and NAC gradually increased with the abstinent days. While in ST the %ID/g among the abstinent rats was all lower than that of the control rats, in NAC the %ID/g was still lower in 1 day's abstinent rats (P 0.05), indicating the reduction of hyper-activated DAT and the increase of down-regulatory D2 receptor induced by morphine during morphine withdrawal. Our results confirmed that the dopamine system, especially DAT and D2 receptor in mesolimbic and meso-striatum pathway, has been implicated in morphine treatment. The rewarding properties of morphine and the somatic expression of morphine abstinence were related to changes in mesolimbic and meso-striatum dopaminergic activity. (authors)

  11. Comparing Sexual Assult Survey Prevalence Rates at Military Service Academies and U.S. Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    physical harm or promised rewards, or 4) failure to obtain affirmative consent. The study also collected data on sexual harassment , stalking, and...nonconforming,” or as something not listed on the survey. This group had high rates of being victims of nonconsensual sexual contact and harassment . However...Military Service Academies and U.S. Colleges 13 13 Other Gender-Related Behaviors The AAU study provides results on sexual harassment since the

  12. Comparing Response Times and Error Rates in a Simultaneous Masking Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hermens

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In simultaneous masking, performance on a foveally presented target is impaired by one or more flanking elements. Previous studies have demonstrated strong effects of the grouping of the target and the flankers on the strength of masking (e.g., Malania, Herzog & Westheimer, 2007. These studies have predominantly examined performance by measuring offset discrimination thresholds as a measure of performance, and it is therefore unclear whether other measures of performance provide similar outcomes. A recent study, which examined the role of grouping on error rates and response times in a speeded vernier offset discrimination task, similar to that used by Malania et al. (2007, suggested a possible dissociation between the two measures, with error rates mimicking threshold performance, but response times showing differential results (Panis & Hermens, 2014. We here report the outcomes of three experiments examining this possible dissociation, and demonstrate an overall similar pattern of results for error rates and response times across a broad range of mask layouts. Moreover, the pattern of results in our experiments strongly correlates with threshold performance reported earlier (Malania et al., 2007. Our results suggest that outcomes in a simultaneous masking paradigm do not critically depend on the outcome measure used, and therefore provide evidence for a common underlying mechanism.

  13. Comparing ligo merger rate observations with theory: distribution of star-forming conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belczynski, Kryzysztof [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kopparapu, R [LSU; O' Shaughnessy, R [PSU

    2008-01-01

    Within the next decade, ground based gravitational wave detectors are in principle capable of determining the compact object merger rate per unit volume of the local universe to better than 20% with more than 30 detections. Though these measurements can constrain our models of stellar, binary, and cluster evolution in the nearby present-day and ancient universe, we argue that the universe is sufficiently heterogeneous (in age and metallicity distribution at least) and that merger rates predicted by these models can be sufficiently sensitive to those heterogeneities so that a fair comparison of models per unit similar star forming mass necessarily introduces at least an additional 30%--50% systematic error into any constraints on compact binary evolution models. Without adding new electromagnetic constraints on massive binary evolution or relying on more information from each merger (e.g. , binary masses and spins), as few as the {approx_equal}5 merger detections could exhaust the information available in a naive comparison to merger rate predictions. As a concrete example immediately relevant to analysis of initial and enhanced LIGO results, we use a nearby-universe catalog to demonstrate that no one tracer of stellar content can be consistently used to constrain merger rates without introducing a systematic error of order 0(30%) at 90% confidence (depending on the type of binary involved). For example, though binary black holes typically take many Gyr to merge, binary neutron stars often merge rapidly; different tracers of stellar content are required for these two types. More generally, we argue that theoretical binary evolution can depend sufficiently sensitively on star-forming conditions -- even assuming no uncertainty in binary evolution model -- that the distribution of star forming conditions must be incorporated to reduce the systematic error in merger rate predictions below roughly 40%. We emphasize that the degree of sensitivity to star

  14. rsfMRI effects of KB220Z™ on Neural Pathways in Reward Circuitry of Abstinent Genotyped Heroin Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yarong; Zhang, Yi; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Smolen, Andrew; Febo, Marcelo; Han, David; Simpatico, Thomas; Cronjé, Frans J; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Gold, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Recently Willuhn et al. reported that cocaine use and even non-substance related addictive behavior, increases, as dopaminergic function is reduced. Chronic cocaine exposure has been associated with decreases in D2/D3 receptors, also associated with lower activation to cues in occipital cortex and cerebellum in a recent PET study from Volkow’s group. Therefore, treatment strategies, like dopamine agonist therapy, that might conserve dopamine function may be an interesting approach to relapse prevention in psychoactive drug and behavioral addictions. To this aim, we evaluated the effect of KB220Z™ on reward circuitry of ten heroin addicts undergoing protracted abstinence, an average 16.9 months. In a randomized placebo-controlled crossover study of KB220Z™ five subjects completed a triple blinded–experiment in which the subject, the person administering the treatment and the person evaluating the response to treatment were blinded as to which treatment any particular subject was receiving. In addition, nine subjects total were genotyped utilizing the GARSRX™ test. We preliminarily report that KB220Z ™ induced an increase in BOLD activation in caudate-accumbens-dopaminergic pathways compared to placebo following one-hour acute administration. Furthermore, KB220Z™ also reduced resting state activity in the putamen of abstinent heroin addicts. In the second phase of this pilot study of all ten abstinent heroin-dependent subjects, three brain regions of interest (ROIs) we observed to be significantly activated from resting state by KB220Z compared to placebo (P addiction by direct or indirect dopaminergic interaction. Due to small sample size, we caution definitive interpretation of these preliminary results and confirmation with additional research and ongoing rodent and human studies of KB220Z, is required. PMID:25526228

  15. Prevalence rates of chronic diseases: the Netherlands and the United Kingdom compared.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellevis, F.G.; Fleming, D.M.; Linden, M.W. van der; Westert, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Information about the European population’s health origins from different sources. For some chronic diseases general practice is the most useful source for prevalence data. On the European level comparability of data from general practice is complicated by differences in the position of

  16. Natural Firing Patterns Imply Low Sensitivity of Synaptic Plasticity to Spike Timing Compared with Firing Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, Michael; Wallisch, Pascal; Ostojic, Srdjan

    2016-11-02

    Synaptic plasticity is sensitive to the rate and the timing of presynaptic and postsynaptic action potentials. In experimental protocols inducing plasticity, the imposed spike trains are typically regular and the relative timing between every presynaptic and postsynaptic spike is fixed. This is at odds with firing patterns observed in the cortex of intact animals, where cells fire irregularly and the timing between presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes varies. To investigate synaptic changes elicited by in vivo-like firing, we used numerical simulations and mathematical analysis of synaptic plasticity models. We found that the influence of spike timing on plasticity is weaker than expected from regular stimulation protocols. Moreover, when neurons fire irregularly, synaptic changes induced by precise spike timing can be equivalently induced by a modest firing rate variation. Our findings bridge the gap between existing results on synaptic plasticity and plasticity occurring in vivo, and challenge the dominant role of spike timing in plasticity. Synaptic plasticity, the change in efficacy of connections between neurons, is thought to underlie learning and memory. The dominant paradigm posits that the precise timing of neural action potentials (APs) is central for plasticity induction. This concept is based on experiments using highly regular and stereotyped patterns of APs, in stark contrast with natural neuronal activity. Using synaptic plasticity models, we investigated how irregular, in vivo-like activity shapes synaptic plasticity. We found that synaptic changes induced by precise timing of APs are much weaker than suggested by regular stimulation protocols, and can be equivalently induced by modest variations of the AP rate alone. Our results call into question the dominant role of precise AP timing for plasticity in natural conditions. Copyright © 2016 Graupner et al.

  17. Validation of the Tranquillity Rating Prediction Tool (TRAPT: comparative studies in UK and Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watts Greg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Tranquillity Rating Prediction Tool (TRAPT has been used to make predictions of the quality of tranquility in outdoor urban areas using two significant factors i.e. the average level of anthropogenic noise and the percentage of natural features in view. The method has a number of applications including producing tranquillity contours that can inform decisions regarding the impact of new anthropogenic noise sources or developments causing visual intrusion. The method was intended for use in mainly outdoor areas and yet was developed using responses from UK volunteers to video clips indoors. Because the volunteers for this study were all UK residents it was important to calibrate responses for other ethnic groups who may respond differently depending on cultural background. To address these issues further studies were performed in Hong Kong using the same video recording played back under the same conditions as the study in the UK. The HK study involved recruiting three groups i.e. residents from Hong Kong, Mainland China and a diverse group from 16 different nations. There was good agreement between all these groups with average tranquillity ratings for the different locations differing by less than one scale point in most cases.

  18. Reduced heart rate variability in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, D S; Westlye, L T; Kaufmann, T; Rustan, Ø G; Brandt, C L; Haatveit, B; Steen, N E; Andreassen, O A

    2016-01-01

    Despite current diagnostic systems distinguishing schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) as separate diseases, emerging evidence suggests they share a number of clinical and epidemiological features, such as increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. It is not well understood if poor cardiac autonomic nervous system regulation, which can be indexed non-invasively by the calculation of heart rate variability (HRV), contributes to these common CVD risk factors in both diseases. We calculated HRV in 47 patients with SZ, 33 patients with BD and 212 healthy controls. Measures of symptom severity were also collected from the patient groups. Heart rate variability was significantly reduced in both these disorders in comparison with the healthy participants; however, there were no HRV differences between disorders. Importantly, these reductions were independent of the medication, age or body mass index effects. There was also preliminary evidence that patients with reduced HRV had increased overall and negative psychosis symptom severity regardless of SZ or BD diagnosis. We suggest that HRV may provide a possible biomarker of CVD risk and symptom severity in severe mental illness. Thus, our results highlight the importance of cardiometabolic screening across SZ and bipolar spectrum disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comparing Jupiter and Saturn: dimensionless input rates from plasma sources within the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliūnas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative significance for a planetary magnetosphere of plasma sources associated with a moon of the planet can be assessed only by expressing the plasma mass input rate in dimensionless form, as the ratio of the actual mass input to some reference value. Traditionally, the solar wind mass flux through an area equal to the cross-section of the magnetosphere has been used. Here I identify another reference value of mass input, independent of the solar wind and constructed from planetary parameters alone, which can be shown to represent a mass input sufficiently large to prevent corotation already at the source location. The source rate from Enceladus at Saturn has been reported to be an order of magnitude smaller (in absolute numbers than that from Io at Jupiter. Both reference values, however, are also smaller at Saturn than at Jupiter, by factors ~40 to 60; expressed in dimensionless form, the estimated mass input from Enceladus may be larger than that from Io by factors ~4 to 6. The magnetosphere of Saturn may thus, despite a lower mass input in kg s−1, intrinsically be more heavily mass-loaded than the magnetosphere of Jupiter.

  20. Comparing Jupiter and Saturn: dimensionless input rates from plasma sources within the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliūnas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative significance for a planetary magnetosphere of plasma sources associated with a moon of the planet can be assessed only by expressing the plasma mass input rate in dimensionless form, as the ratio of the actual mass input to some reference value. Traditionally, the solar wind mass flux through an area equal to the cross-section of the magnetosphere has been used. Here I identify another reference value of mass input, independent of the solar wind and constructed from planetary parameters alone, which can be shown to represent a mass input sufficiently large to prevent corotation already at the source location. The source rate from Enceladus at Saturn has been reported to be an order of magnitude smaller (in absolute numbers than that from Io at Jupiter. Both reference values, however, are also smaller at Saturn than at Jupiter, by factors ~40 to 60; expressed in dimensionless form, the estimated mass input from Enceladus may be larger than that from Io by factors ~4 to 6. The magnetosphere of Saturn may thus, despite a lower mass input in kg s−1, intrinsically be more heavily mass-loaded than the magnetosphere of Jupiter.

  1. Comparative cryopreservation of avian spermatozoa: effects of freezing and thawing rates on turkey and sandhill crane sperm cryosurvival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Juan M; Long, Julie A; Gee, George; Wildt, David E; Donoghue, Ann M

    2012-03-01

    A comparative approach was used to evaluate semen cooling rates, thawing rates and freezing volume on the cryosurvival of avian sperm. Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) sperm were cryopreserved with dimethylacetamide (DMA) concentrations ranging from 6% to 26%. Experiments evaluated the efficacy of (1) rapid, moderate and slow cooling rates, (2) rapid and slow thawing rates, and (3) final volume of semen frozen (0.2 mL compared to 0.5 mL). For crane sperm only, additional experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of sucrose on cryosurvival. The functionality of frozen/thawed crane sperm was evaluated by fertility trials. For all studies, sperm viability was assessed using the nigrosin-eosin stain. Higher percentages of crane and turkey sperm maintained intact membranes when frozen with moderate or slow cooling rates compared to rapid cooling rates (P0.05). Crane sperm viability was only affected by thawing rate for the 24% DMA treatment, where moderate thawing was better than slow thawing (P0.05). The percentage of membrane-intact crane sperm at lower DMA concentrations was improved by addition of 0.1M sucrose (Pcrane semen was 57.5%, and 71.4% of the fertile eggs hatched. The viability of crane sperm was always greater than turkey sperm, regardless of cooling rate, thawing rate or volume of semen frozen. These data verify avian-specific differences in sperm cryosurvival, further emphasize the need for species specific studies to optimize cryopreservation protocols. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A comparative review of estimates of the proportion unchanged genes and the false discovery rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broberg Per

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the analysis of microarray data one generally produces a vector of p-values that for each gene give the likelihood of obtaining equally strong evidence of change by pure chance. The distribution of these p-values is a mixture of two components corresponding to the changed genes and the unchanged ones. The focus of this article is how to estimate the proportion unchanged and the false discovery rate (FDR and how to make inferences based on these concepts. Six published methods for estimating the proportion unchanged genes are reviewed, two alternatives are presented, and all are tested on both simulated and real data. All estimates but one make do without any parametric assumptions concerning the distributions of the p-values. Furthermore, the estimation and use of the FDR and the closely related q-value is illustrated with examples. Five published estimates of the FDR and one new are presented and tested. Implementations in R code are available. Results A simulation model based on the distribution of real microarray data plus two real data sets were used to assess the methods. The proposed alternative methods for estimating the proportion unchanged fared very well, and gave evidence of low bias and very low variance. Different methods perform well depending upon whether there are few or many regulated genes. Furthermore, the methods for estimating FDR showed a varying performance, and were sometimes misleading. The new method had a very low error. Conclusion The concept of the q-value or false discovery rate is useful in practical research, despite some theoretical and practical shortcomings. However, it seems possible to challenge the performance of the published methods, and there is likely scope for further developing the estimates of the FDR. The new methods provide the scientist with more options to choose a suitable method for any particular experiment. The article advocates the use of the conjoint information

  3. A comparative study of oxygen transmission rates through polymer films based on fluorescence quenching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siró, Istvan; Plackett, David; Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Information on oxygen permeability through polymer films is essential for some applications, especially in food packaging where the control of oxygen levels can be critical in avoiding food spoilage. A permeability testing device using fluorescence-based optical oxygen sensing was developed...... as a potential new instrument for measuring the oxygen permeability of packaging films. The fluorescence-based permeability tester was validated against two existing commercial oxygen permeability measuring devices, the Mocon Ox-Tran 2/20 and PBI-Dansensor OPT-5000. Oxygen transmission rates (OTR) of polylactide...... (PLA) and nanoclay-reinforced PLA films, as well as polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PE/PET) and polypropylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PP/PET) laminated films were determined at 23°C and 50% relative humidity using each of these instruments. No significant differences were observed...

  4. Mg and Mg alloys: how comparable are in vitro and in vivo corrosion rates? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Sanchez, Adela Helvia; Luthringer, Bérengère J C; Feyerabend, Frank; Willumeit, Regine

    2015-02-01

    Due to their biodegradability, magnesium and magnesium-based alloys could represent the third generation of biomaterials. However, their mechanical properties and time of degradation have to match the needs of applications. Several approaches, such as choice of alloying elements or tailored microstructure, are employed to tailor corrosion behaviour. Due to the high electrochemical activity of Mg, numerous environmental factors (e.g. temperature and surrounding ion composition) influence its corrosion behaviour, making it unpredictable. Nevertheless, the need of reliable in vitro model(s) to predict in vivo implant degradation is increasing. In an attempt to find a correlation between in vitro and vivo corrosion rates, this review presents a systematic literature survey, as well as an attempt to correlate the different results. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heart rate, blood pressure and repolarization effects of an energy drink as compared to coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, R Matthew; Christmas, Kevin M; Patik, Jordan C; Bhella, Paul S

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of energy drinks on haemodynamic and cardiac physiology. Comparisons were made to coffee as well as water consumption. In Protocol #1 the caffeine content was normalized to body weight to represent a controlled environment. Heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac QTc interval were assessed in 15 participants, on 4 days, prior to and for 6·5 h postconsumption of (i) energy drink (2 mg caffeine per kg body weight; low dose), (ii) energy drink (3 mg caffeine per kg body weight; medium dose), (iii) coffee (2 mg caffeine per kg body weight) and (iv) 250 ml water. In Protocol #2, the beverages were consumed in volumes that they are purchased to represent real-life conditions. The aforementioned measurements were repeated in 15 participants following (i) 1 16 oz can of energy drink (16 oz Monster), (ii) 1 24 oz can of energy drink (24 oz Monster), (iii) 1 packet of Keurig K-Cup Starbucks coffee (coffee) and (iv) 250 ml water. The order of the beverages was performed in a randomized double-blinded fashion. For both protocols, QTc interval, heart rate and systolic blood pressure were unchanged in any condition (P>0·05). Diastolic blood pressure and mean blood pressure were slightly elevated in Protocol #1 (P0·05). These findings suggest that acute consumption of these commonly consumed beverages has no negative effect on cardiac QTc interval. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Maintien de l'abstinence chez les patients alcoolo-dependants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maintien de l'abstinence chez les patients alcoolo-dependants: étude comparee de la disponibilite et du cout du traitement par le baclofene, l'acamprosate, et la naltrexone a Cotonou (Benin) et a Lome (Togo)

  7. Assessment of Executive Functions in Methamphetamineaddicted Individuals: Emphasis on Duration of Addiction and Abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Farhadian

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that although executive functions may be improved by protracted abstinence, executive dysfunctions are not completely relieved, and specific attention to planning and implementation of intervention programs are necessary.

  8. Recovery of neurocognitive functions following sustained abstinence after substance dependence and implications for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, Mieke H J; Cousijn, Janna; den Uyl, Tess E; Goudriaan, Anna E; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Schilt, Thelma; Wiers, Reinout W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) have been associated with impaired neurocognitive functioning, which may (partly) improve with sustained abstinence. New treatments are emerging, aimed at improving cognitive functions, and being tested. However, no integrated review is available regarding

  9. Comparing Evapotranspiration Rates Estimated from Atmospheric Flux and TDR Soil Moisture Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelde, Kirsten; Ringgaard, Rasmus; Herbst, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of water vapor fluxes using eddy covariance (EC) and measurements of root zone soil moisture depletion using time domain reflectometry (TDR) represent two independent approaches to estimating evapotranspiration. This study investigated the possibility of using TDR to provide a lower...... limit estimate (disregarding dew evaporation) of evapotranspiration on dry days. During a period of 7 wk, the two independent measuring techniques were applied in a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) field, and six dry periods were identified. Measurements of daily root zone soil moisture depletion were...... compared with daily estimates of water vapor loss. During the first dry periods, agreement between the two approaches was good, with average daily deviation between estimates below 1.0 mm d-1 Toward the end of the measurement period, the estimates of the two techniques tended to deviate due to different...

  10. Comparative Study of Genome Divergence in Salmonids with Various Rates of Genetic Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Shubina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is a comparative investigation of changes that certain genome parts undergo during speciation. The research was focused on divergence of coding and noncoding sequences in different groups of salmonid fishes of the Salmonidae (Salmo, Parasalmo, Oncorhynchus, and Salvelinus genera and the Coregonidae families under different levels of reproductive isolation. Two basic approaches were used: (1 PCR-RAPD with a 20–22 nt primer design with subsequent cloning and sequencing of the products and (2 a modified endonuclease restriction analysis. The restriction fragments were shown with sequencing to represent satellite DNA. Effects of speciation are found in repetitive sequences. The revelation of expressed sequences in the majority of the employed anonymous loci allows for assuming the adaptive selection during allopatric speciation in isolated char forms.

  11. Comparing Observed with Predicted Weekly Influenza-Like Illness Rates during the Winter Holiday Break, United States, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongjiang; Wong, Karen K; Zheteyeva, Yenlik; Shi, Jianrong; Uzicanin, Amra; Rainey, Jeanette J

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, influenza season typically begins in October or November, peaks in February, and tapers off in April. During the winter holiday break, from the end of December to the beginning of January, changes in social mixing patterns, healthcare-seeking behaviors, and surveillance reporting could affect influenza-like illness (ILI) rates. We compared predicted with observed weekly ILI to examine trends around the winter break period. We examined weekly rates of ILI by region in the United States from influenza season 2003-2004 to 2012-2013. We compared observed and predicted ILI rates from week 44 to week 8 of each influenza season using the auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method. Of 1,530 region, week, and year combinations, 64 observed ILI rates were significantly higher than predicted by the model. Of these, 21 occurred during the typical winter holiday break period (weeks 51-52); 12 occurred during influenza season 2012-2013. There were 46 observed ILI rates that were significantly lower than predicted. Of these, 16 occurred after the typical holiday break during week 1, eight of which occurred during season 2012-2013. Of 90 (10 HHS regions x 9 seasons) predictions during the peak week, 78 predicted ILI rates were lower than observed. Out of 73 predictions for the post-peak week, 62 ILI rates were higher than observed. There were 53 out of 73 models that had lower peak and higher post-peak predicted ILI rates than were actually observed. While most regions had ILI rates higher than predicted during winter holiday break and lower than predicted after the break during the 2012-2013 season, overall there was not a consistent relationship between observed and predicted ILI around the winter holiday break during the other influenza seasons.

  12. Comparing tagging strategies: Effects of tags on retention rate, mortality rate and growth in hatchery-reared juvenile meagre, Argyrosomus regius (Pisces: Sciaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Gil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different tags (T-bar anchor tags, internal anchor tags and visible implant elastomers implanted into juvenile meagre, Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801 for a restocking programme conducted in the Balearic Islands. Effectiveness was assessed in terms of tag loss, fish survival and fish growth by means of a tank experiment. The internal anchor tags showed the highest retention rate (100%, but the tagging mortality was also high (40%. The tagging mortality of T-bar tags was negligible. However, another tank experiment with different food rates showed the tag retention rate of the T-bar tag to be highly variable, ranging from 35% to 95%. In contrast with other reported results, the retention rate of visible implant elastomers was low (48%. Finally, none of the tested tags affected growth. In summary, the T-bar anchor tags showed the best trade-off between short-term tag retention and fish mortality, and seem to be the most suitable tagging method for meagre juveniles.

  13. Comparative rate and risk factors of recurrent urethral stricture during different surgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Pushkar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective – to identify the major risk factors leading to worse results of surgical treatment in patients with urethral stricture.Subjects and methods. Two hundred and forty-eight patients with urethral stricture underwent different surgical interventions: internal optical urethrotomy (IOU for strictures of different portions of the urethra in 157 patients (the operation was made once in 121 patients, twice in 24 patients, and thrice or more in 12; replacement urethroplasty using a buccal mucosa graft for strictures of the anterior urethra in 46 patients; Turner-Warwick’s anastomotic urethroplasty modified by Webster for strictures (distraction defects of the posterior urethra in 45 patients. The results of surgical treatment were studied using urethrography, uroflowmetry, urethrocystoscopy, the international prostate symptom score, quality of life (QoL questionnaire, and the international index of erectile function (IIEF questionnaire. The role of risk factors for postoperative recurrent urethral stricture was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses.Results. The rate of recurrent urethral stricture after IOU was 66.9 % (59.5, 87.5, and 100 % after the first, second, third or more subsequent operations, respectively; 12.1 % after all types of urethroplasty, 15.2 % after augmentation urethroplasty, and 8.9 % after anastomotic urethroplasty. The major risk factors of recurrent urethral stricture after IOU were recognized to be the location of urethral stricture in the penile or bulbomembranous portions, a urethral stricture length of > 1 cm, severe urethral lumen narrowing, and performance of 2 or more operations; those after augmentation urethroplasty were previous ineffective treatment, a stricture length of > 4 cm, lichen sclerosus, and smoking; those after anastomotic urethroplasty were previous ineffective treatment, smoking, and a stricture length of > 4 cm.Conclusion. The results of the investigation have shown that only

  14. Comparative rate and risk factors of recurrent urethral stricture during different surgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Pushkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – to identify the major risk factors leading to worse results of surgical treatment in patients with urethral stricture.Subjects and methods. Two hundred and forty-eight patients with urethral stricture underwent different surgical interventions: internal optical urethrotomy (IOU for strictures of different portions of the urethra in 157 patients (the operation was made once in 121 patients, twice in 24 patients, and thrice or more in 12; replacement urethroplasty using a buccal mucosa graft for strictures of the anterior urethra in 46 patients; Turner-Warwick’s anastomotic urethroplasty modified by Webster for strictures (distraction defects of the posterior urethra in 45 patients. The results of surgical treatment were studied using urethrography, uroflowmetry, urethrocystoscopy, the international prostate symptom score, quality of life (QoL questionnaire, and the international index of erectile function (IIEF questionnaire. The role of risk factors for postoperative recurrent urethral stricture was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses.Results. The rate of recurrent urethral stricture after IOU was 66.9 % (59.5, 87.5, and 100 % after the first, second, third or more subsequent operations, respectively; 12.1 % after all types of urethroplasty, 15.2 % after augmentation urethroplasty, and 8.9 % after anastomotic urethroplasty. The major risk factors of recurrent urethral stricture after IOU were recognized to be the location of urethral stricture in the penile or bulbomembranous portions, a urethral stricture length of > 1 cm, severe urethral lumen narrowing, and performance of 2 or more operations; those after augmentation urethroplasty were previous ineffective treatment, a stricture length of > 4 cm, lichen sclerosus, and smoking; those after anastomotic urethroplasty were previous ineffective treatment, smoking, and a stricture length of > 4 cm.Conclusion. The results of the investigation have shown that only

  15. Genetic markers associated with abstinence length in alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate

    OpenAIRE

    Karpyak, V M; Biernacka, J M; Geske, J R; Jenkins, G D; Cunningham, J M; R?egg, J; Kononenko, O; Leontovich, A A; Abulseoud, O A; Hall-Flavin, D K; Loukianova, L L; Schneekloth, T D; Skime, M K; Frank, J; N?then, M M

    2014-01-01

    Acamprosate supports abstinence in some alcohol-dependent subjects, yet predictors of response are unknown. To identify response biomarkers, we investigated associations of abstinence length with polymorphisms in candidate genes in glycine and glutamate neurotransmission pathways and genes previously implicated in acamprosate response. Association analyses were conducted in the discovery sample of 225 alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate for 3 months in community-based treatmen...

  16. Systematic review on the effectiveness of caffeine abstinence on the quality of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Celia W M; Ho, Jacqueline S C; Chung, Joanne W Y

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to review the effects of caffeine abstinence on the quality of sleep. Insomnia is a common problem and abstinence from caffeine is the most popular component in sleep hygiene advice. However, there have been inconsistent results relating to the effectiveness of caffeine abstinence in improving sleep. Systematic review. We browsed several electronic databases and reference lists of articles about the correlation of caffeine consumption and sleep deprivation. We selected the articles according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two reviewers assessed the quality of trials, which were selected according to the Jadad quality assessment scale. We included the trials scoring three or above in the systematic review and extracted their data. We assessed the heterogeneity of the studies before we considered whether or not to combine the studies' results. Three randomised control trials fulfilled the selection criteria among which two trials scored > or =3 on the Jadad scale. We included these two trials in our systematic review. The designs and outcome measurements of these two trials were not homogeneous, therefore, we did not combine their results. Instead, we conducted a critical appraisal. In one trial, caffeine abstinence was associated with significant lengthening of sleep duration (p sleep quality (p caffeine abstinence for a whole day could improve sleep quality. Thus, health practitioners were recommended to include caffeine abstinence in the instructions for sleep hygiene. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of caffeine abstinence in improving sleep quality. It provides evidence for the practice of including caffeine abstinence in sleep hygiene advice.

  17. Teen clinics: missing the mark? Comparing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections rates among enrolled and non-enrolled adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Souradet Y; Metge, Colleen; Taylor, Carole; Chartier, Mariette; Charette, Catherine; Lix, Lisa; Santos, Rob; Sarkar, Joykrishna; Nickel, Nathan C; Burland, Elaine; Chateau, Dan; Katz, Alan; Brownell, Marni; Martens, Patricia J

    2016-06-21

    In Manitoba, Canada, school-based clinics providing sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents have been implemented to address high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and pregnancies. The objectives of this population-based study were to compare pregnancy and STI rates between adolescents enrolled in schools with school-based clinics, those in schools without clinics, and those not enrolled in school. Data were from the PATHS Data Resource held in the Population Health Research Data Repository housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Adolescents aged 14 to 19 between 2003 and 2009 were included in the study. Annualized rates of pregnancies and positive STI tests were estimated and Poisson regression models were used to test for differences in rates amongst the three groups. As a proportion, pregnancies among non-enrolled female adolescents accounted for 55 % of all pregnancies in this age group during the study period. Pregnancy rates were 2-3 times as high among non-enrolled female adolescents. Compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without school-based clinics, age-adjusted STI rates were 3.5 times (p pregnancies and STIs were observed among non-enrolled adolescents. Although provision of reproductive and health services to in-school adolescents should remain a priority, program planning and design should consider optimal strategies to engage out of school youth.

  18. Comparative Cryopreservation of Avian Spermatozoa: Effects of Cooling and Thawing Rates on Turkey and Sandhill Crane Sperm Cryosurvival

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative approach using Sandhill crane (Grus Canadensis) and the domestic white turkey (Meleagridis gallopavo) was used to determine the possible benefits of variation in cooling and thawing rates and semen volume on cryoprotective efficiency. Sperm was frozen in cryovials using a range of dime...

  19. Low incidence rate of overt hypothyroidism compared with hyperthyroidism in an area with moderately low iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Bülow Pedersen, I; Pedersen, K M

    1999-01-01

    In areas with relatively high iodine intake, the incidence rate of hypothyroidism is several-fold higher than that of hyperthyroidism. Recently, we found a similarly high prevalence rate of subclinical hypothyroidism compared with hyperthyroidism in a high iodine intake area, while a relatively low...... prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was observed in a low iodine intake area. In the present study we compared the incidence rate (newly diagnosed in primary care and at hospital) of overt hypothyroidism with that of hyperthyroidism in a well-defined geographical area in Jutland, Denmark, with an iodine...... intake around 60 microg/day. The number of personsxyears studied was 569,108. Data on hyperthyroidism have been published previously. The overall incidence of hypothyroidism was 13.5/100,000 per year (F/M 22.9/3.6), hyperthyroidism 38.7/100.000 per year (F/M 63.0/13.0). The incidence of hypothyroidism...

  20. Analytical method for determining rill detachment rate of purple soil as compared with that of loess soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-yan; Huang, Yu-han; Zhao, Yu; Mo, Bin; Mi, Hong-xing; Huang, Chi-hua

    2017-06-01

    Rill detachment is an important process in rill erosion. The rill detachment rate is the fundamental basis for determination of the parameters of a rill erosion model. In this paper, an analytical method was proposed to estimate the rill detachment rate. The method is based on the exact analytical solution of rill erosion to the differential equation of rill detachment. The rill sediment concentration distribution as a function of rill length was identified through laboratory experiments under different slope gradients and flow rates. The sediment concentration processes from experiments on loess and purple rills were considered to estimate the rill detachment rates of both soils analytically. They were respectively used as a function of rill length and sediment concentration. The analytical detachment rates were compared with the numerically determined values to verify the analytical methods. The rill detachment rates of the two soils under different flow rates and slope gradients estimated by the analytical method were further compared on the basis of detachment-sediment function and detachment-rill length function. Results indicated that the analytically estimated values were very close to the numerically estimated values. Numerical and analytical methods were equally useful for rill detachment rate estimation. Therefore, the analytical method was verified to be rational and applicable for the rapid determination of the rill detachment rates based on either sediment concentration or rill length. The analytical detachment values of purple and loess soils suggested that the detachment rates of loess soil were significantly and considerably higher than those of purple soil. The erosion potentials of loess soil were also significant higher than those of purple soil. The differences in the erosion of the two soils decreased as the slope gradient and flow rate increased. These observations implied that the degree of loess soil erosion was greater than that of purple

  1. Comparative dosimetric study in the estimation of the dose rate of the Transelektro LGI-01 irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco A, H.; Urena N, F.F.

    2004-01-01

    The 60 Co TRANSELEKTRO, model LGI-0 1, Hungarian, is similar to the Canadian Gamma cell. The evaluation of the dose ratio in the geometric center of the exposition chamber of the LGI-0 1 is presented in this paper. In order to do this two types of dosimeters were used: the alanine, and the L8-C 1 red acrylic (Canadian). Three dosimeters of each type were irradiated at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 h. The respective intensities and absorbencies were measured and used to determine the proper absorbed doses and the dose ratio. The results obtained with both dosimeters were compared with the ratio dose that was reported by the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of the Metrology Department of the ININ, which used a ionization chamber for the calibration of the LGI-0 1. The alanine dosemeter showed a ± 1.3% dispersion while with the acrylic dosemeter the dispersion was of ± 3.2%, with respect to the value reported by the authorized Calibration Laboratory. This paper was also used to update the calibration table of the L8-C1 red acrylic. (Author)

  2. The effect of financial incentives on top of behavioral support on quit rates in tobacco smoking employees: study protocol of a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, F A; Nagelhout, G E; Winkens, B; Evers, S M A A; Kotz, D; Chavannes, N H; van Schayck, C P

    2016-10-06

    Stimulating successful tobacco cessation among employees has multiple benefits. Employees who quit tobacco are healthier, more productive, less absent from work, and longer employable than employees who continue to use tobacco. Despite the evidence for these benefits of tobacco cessation, a successful method to stimulate employees to quit tobacco is lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether adding a financial incentive to behavioral support (compared with no additional incentive) is effective and cost-effective in increasing abstinence rates in tobacco smoking employees participating in a smoking cessation group training. In this cluster-randomized trial employees in the intervention and control group both participate in a smoking cessation group training consisting of seven weekly counseling sessions of ninety minutes each. In addition to the training, employees in the intervention group receive a voucher as an incentive for being abstinent from smoking at the end of the training (€50), after three months (€50), after six months (€50), and after one year (€200). The control group does not receive any incentive. The primary outcome is carbon monoxide validated 12-month continuous abstinence from smoking (Russel's standard). Additionally, an economic evaluation is performed from a societal and an employer perspective. The present paper describes the methods and design of this cluster-randomized trial in detail. We hypothesize that the financial incentive for abstinence in the form of vouchers increases abstinence rates over and above the group training. The results of this study can provide important recommendations for enhancement of employee tobacco cessation. Dutch Trial Register: NTR5657 . First received 27-01-2016.

  3. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  4. Comparing the birth rate of stellar black holes in binary black hole mergers and long gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteia, J.-L.; Dezalay, J.-P.; Godet, O.; Klotz, A.; Turpin, D.; Bernardini, M. G.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Gravitational wave interferometers have proven the existence of a new class of binary black hole (BBH) weighing tens of solar masses, and have provided the first reliable measurement of the rate of coalescing black holes (BHs) in the local Universe. Furthermore, long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected with gamma-ray satellites are believed to be associated with the birth of stellar-mass BHs, providing a measure of the rate of these events across the history of the Universe, thanks to the measure of their cosmological redshift. These two types of sources, which are subject to different detection biases and involve BHs born in different environments with potentially different characteristics, provide complementary information on the birth rate of stellar BHs. Aim. We compare the birth rates of BHs found in BBH mergers and in long GRBs. Methods: We construct a simple model that makes reasonable assumptions on the history of GRB formation, and takes into account some major uncertainties, like the beaming angle of GRBs or the delay between the formation of BBHs and their coalescence. We use this model to evaluate the ratio of the number of stellar mass BHs formed in BBH mergers to those formed in GRBs. Results: We find that in our reference model the birth rate of stellar BHs in BBH mergers represents a significant fraction of the rate of long GRBs and that comparable birth rates are favored by models with moderate beaming angles. These numbers, however, do not consider subluminous GRBs, which may represent another population of sources associated with the birth of stellar mass BHs. We briefly discuss this result in view of our understanding of the progenitors of GRBs and BBH mergers, and we emphasize that this ratio, which will be better constrained in the coming years, can be directly compared with the prediction of stellar evolution models if a single model is used to produce GRBs and BBH mergers with the same assumptions.

  5. Cocaine abstinence induces emotional impairment and brain region-specific upregulation of the oxytocin receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Polymnia; Zanos, Panos; Hourani, Susanna; Kitchen, Ian; Bailey, Alexis

    2016-10-01

    The key problem in treating cocaine addiction is the maintenance of a drug-free state as negative emotional symptoms during abstinence often trigger relapse. The mechanisms underpinning the emotional dysregulation during abstinence are currently not well-understood. There is evidence suggesting a role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in the modulation of drug addiction processes. However, its involvement during long-term abstinence from cocaine use remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to behaviourally characterize a mouse model of long-term cocaine withdrawal and assess the effect of chronic cocaine administration and long-term cocaine abstinence on the central oxytocinergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Fourteen-day escalating-dose cocaine administration (3 × 15-30 mg/kg/day) and 14-day withdrawal increased plasma corticosterone levels and oxytocin receptor (OTR) binding in piriform cortex, lateral septum and amygdala. A specific cocaine withdrawal-induced increase in OTR binding was observed in the medial septum. These biochemical alterations occurred concomitantly with the emergence of memory impairment, contextual psychomotor sensitization and an anhedonic and anxiogenic phenotype during withdrawal. Our study established a clear relationship between cocaine abstinence and emotional impairment in a novel translationally relevant model of cocaine withdrawal and demonstrated for the first time brain region-specific neuroadaptations of the oxytocin system, which may contribute to abstinence-induced negative emotional state. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN ABSTINENTS AND VOTERS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Puhalo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research aims to find out if there is a difference between women voters and abstinents in Bosnia and Herzegovina, considering certain socio-psychological characteristics. For the purpose of this research we used Likert scales to measure: tolerance to other ideas, nationalism, ethical superiority, attitude towards leader, conformism, liberalism/conservativism and locus of control. This research was con-ducted in May 2007 on the sample of 547 women voters and 214 women abstinents. Results show that socio-demographic characteristics differ potential women voters from women abstinents. Women who are more active (educated, employed or mem-bers of some political party in their everyday life are more likely to go to the electi-ons and vote. Discriminative analysis showed that women voters and abstinents significantly differed at four of total seven variables. The difference between women voters and abstinents is in ethical superiority, acceptance of nationalism, tolerance to other ideas and attitude towards leader. Therefore it seems that women abstinents have greater democratic potential than women voters.

  7. Comparative pooled survival and revision rate of Austin-Moore hip arthroplasty in published literature and arthroplasty register data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoghi, Patrick; Thaler, Martin; Janda, Wolfgang; Hübl, Michael; Leithner, Andreas; Labek, Gerold

    2013-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the pooled survival and revision rate of Austin-Moore hip arthroplasty (AMHA) in published literature and arthroplasty register data. A comprehensive literature analysis of clinical publications and register reports was conducted with the main endpoints revision surgery and revision rate. Sixteen relevant clinical studies have been found to significantly underestimate revision rates by a ratio of 2.15 compared to register data sets. The medium-term outcome of AMHA showed significantly worse outcomes than the use of other bipolar implants, or modular cervicocephalic prostheses and data of journal publications on revision rates deviate significantly from data of arthroplasty registers. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. An analytical means of comparing the rates of different agglomeration mechanisms, and its application to a PWR containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, J.F.B.; Skyrme, G.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, agglomeration behaviour is described analytically and this quantitative description is used as a means of comparing the rates of different agglomeration mechanisms. The comparison depends on the average particle size but does not require detailed knowledge of the particle size distribution. The method is applied to the agglomeration of an aerosol suspended in the atmosphere of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment building. The rate of turbulent agglomeration in the PWR containment depends upon the degree of turbulence at each point in the fluid, expressed as the turbulent energy dissipation rate, ε. An approximate model of the containment flow is solved to obtain a satisfactory estimate of the functions of ε needed in evaluating turbulent agglomeration rates. (Author)

  9. Effects of tolcapone on working memory and brain activity in abstinent smokers: A proof-of-concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashare, Rebecca L.; Wileyto, E. Paul; Ruparel, Kosha; Goelz, Patricia M.; Hopson, Ryan D.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Gur, Ruben C.; Loughead, James; Lerman, Caryn

    2014-01-01

    Background Dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are thought to play an important role in cognitive function and nicotine dependence. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor tolcapone, an FDA-approved treatment for Parkinson’s disease, increases prefrontal dopamine levels, with cognitive benefits that may vary by COMT genotype. We tested whether tolcapone alters working memory-related brain activity and performance in abstinent smokers. Methods In this double-blind crossover study, 20 smokers completed 8 days of treatment with tolcapone and placebo. In both medication periods, smokers completed blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI scans while performing a working memory N-back task after 24 h of abstinence. Smokers were genotyped prospectively for the COMT val158met polymorphism for exploratory analysis. Results Compared to placebo, tolcapone modestly improved accuracy (p = 0.017) and enhanced suppression of activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) (p = 0.002). There were no effects of medication in other a priori regions of interest (dorsolateral PFC, dorsal cingulate/medial prefrontal cortex, or posterior cingulate cortex). Exploratory analyses suggested that tolcapone led to a decrease in BOLD signal in several regions among smokers with val/val genotypes, but increased or remained unchanged among met allele carriers. Tolcapone did not attenuate craving, mood, or withdrawal symptoms compared to placebo. Conclusions Data from this proof-of-concept study do not provide strong support for further evaluation of COMT inhibitors as smoking cessation aids. PMID:24095246

  10. The Impact of Exercise On Depression and Anxiety Symptoms Among Abstinent Methamphetamine-Dependent Individuals in A Residential Treatment Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Richard A; Chudzynski, Joy; Gonzales, Rachel; Mooney, Larissa; Dickerson, Daniel; Ang, Alfonso; Dolezal, Brett; Cooper, Christopher B

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports data from a study designed to determine the impact of an 8-week exercise program on depression and anxiety symptoms among newly abstinent methamphetamine (MA)-dependent individuals in residential treatment. One hundred thirty-five MA-dependent individuals, newly enrolled in residential treatment, were randomly assigned to receive either a 3-times-per-week, 60-minute structured exercise program for 8 weeks (24 sessions) or an equivalent number of health education sessions. Using mixed-modeling repeated-measures regression, we examined changes in weekly total depression and anxiety scores as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory over the 8-week study period. Mean age of participants was 31.7 (SD = 6.9); 70.4% were male and 48% Latino. Analyses indicate a significant effect of exercise on reducing depression (β = -0.63, P = 0.001) and anxiety (β = -0.95, P=0.001) symptoms (total scores) over the 8-week period compared to a health education control group. A significant dose interaction effect between session attendance and exercise was found as well on reducing depression (β = -0.61, P < 0.001) and anxiety symptoms (β = -0.22, P=0.009) over time compared to the control group. Results support the role of a structured exercise program as an effective intervention for improving symptoms of depression and anxiety associated with MA abstinence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparing tailored and untailored text messages for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Ringgaard, L W; Dalum, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were...... consecutively randomized to versions of the program that offered either tailored or untailored text messages. Thirty-day point abstinence from smoking was measured self-reportedly at 12-months follow-up. Response rates were 36.3% and 38.1% in the tailored and untailored group, respectively. We analyzed...

  12. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability in cynomolgus monkeys in safety pharmacology studies: comparative study with beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeroux, Pascal; Martel, Eric; Jude, Sebastien; Laigot, Christine; Laveissière, Arnaud; Weyn-Marotte, Andrée-Anne; Fowler, John Sinclair Lawrence; Maurin, Anne; Richard, Serge; Babuty, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability is a tool known to provide information of interest on the autonomic control of heart rate in human. However, its use and its conditions of application and interpretation for safety purposes are not well defined for cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies. Likewise, data of power spectral analysis of heart rate variability in cynomolgus monkeys, a species often appropriate for use as second non rodent species in preclinical safety programmes, are not available. This study was designed to evaluate the relevance of this biomarker in this non human primate species, and to compare results with those from beagle dogs under the conditions of safety evaluation studies. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was performed on data collected in both species by telemetry following a standard design for cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies. Various pharmacological agents were tested in order to compare the profile of responses in both species after modifying the autonomic nervous balance. Heart rate variability in cynomolgus monkeys is mainly driven by the parasympathetic nervous system as in beagle dogs although vagal tone is less than in dogs. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability allows detection of interaction with the autonomic nervous system in both species in all investigated situations, i.e. sympatholytic/sympathomimetic and parasympatholytic/parasympathomimetic drug induced effects. However, due to species difference in the autonomic control of heart rate, cynomolgus monkeys are likely to be more sensitive than beagle dogs for assessment of sympatholytic properties. This study confirms that power spectral analysis of heart rate variability from data derived from ECG recordings in telemetry studies is applicable in cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies and may provide relevant information about possible interaction with the autonomic nervous system when new drug entities are evaluated

  13. A music quality rating test battery for cochlear implant users to compare the FSP and HDCIS strategies for music appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Valerie; Winter, Philip; Anderson, Ilona; Sucher, Catherine

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a music quality rating test battery (MQRTB) and pilot test it by comparing appraisal ratings from cochlear implant (CI) recipients using the fine-structure processing (FSP) and high-definition continuous interleaved sampling (HDCIS) speech processing strategies. The development of the MQRTB involved three stages: (1) Selection of test items for the MQRTB; (2) Verification of its length and complexity with normally-hearing individuals; and (3) Pilot testing with CI recipients. Part 1 involved 65 adult listeners, Part 2 involved 10 normally-hearing adults, and Part 3 involved five adult MED-EL CI recipients. The MQRTB consisted of ten songs, with ratings made on scales assessing pleasantness, naturalness, richness, fullness, sharpness, and roughness. Results of the pilot study, which compared FSP and HDCIS for music, indicated that acclimatization to a strategy had a significant effect on ratings (p genre on ratings. Overall the results suggest that the use of FSP as the default strategy for MED-EL recipients would have a positive effect on music appreciation, and that the MQRTB is an effective tool for assessing music sound quality.

  14. Harm minimization or abstinence: an evaluation of current policies and practices in the treatment and control of intravenous drug using groups in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennings, C J

    The past decade has seen Australia cited as a significant leader in the development of harm-minimization policies towards illicit drug use. Such policies have been developed on the premise that harm minimization would lead to substantial long-term gains to society in the areas of: (1) decreased health costs for intravenous drug users (IDU); (2) decreased mortality rates for IDU groups; (3) increases in social productivity of IDU (through such things as gaining and retaining employment); and (4) decreased criminal activity leading to substantial gains in law enforcement budgets, and reduced community crime costs (theft and burglaries, etc. Evaluation of the success of harm minimization is notoriously difficult. By its nature success often means there are no ways of comparing potential losses against potential gains. An alternative to harm minimization, abstinence models, exist. In Australia the harm minimization policy has come under review in some States, and has never been fully implemented in the Northern Territory. This paper reviews the merits and demerits of both approaches, and initiates discussion regarding the development of future services for IDU groups in Australian society.

  15. Comparable contributions of structural-functional constraints and expression level to the rate of protein sequence evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2008-10-01

    that are either joined in multidomain proteins or contained in distinct proteins. Substantial homogenization of evolutionary rates in multidomain proteins was, indeed, observed in both animals and plants, although highly significant differences between domain-specific rates remained. The contributions of the translation rate, as determined by the effect of the fusion of a pair of domains within a multidomain protein, and intrinsic, domain-specific structural-functional constraints appear to be comparable in magnitude. Conclusion Fusion of domains in a multidomain protein results in substantial homogenization of the domain-specific evolutionary rates but significant differences between domain-specific evolution rates remain. Thus, the rate of translation and intrinsic structural-functional constraints both exert sizable and comparable effects on sequence evolution. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Sergei Maslov, Dennis Vitkup, Claus Wilke (nominated by Orly Alter, and Allan Drummond (nominated by Joel Bader. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' Reports section.

  16. The effect of immediate postpartum compared to delayed postpartum and interval etonogestrel contraceptive implant insertion on removal rates for bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Luu Doan; Goyal, Vinita; Raker, Christina A; Murray, Anne; Allen, Rebecca H

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether the discontinuation rate of the etonogestrel contraceptive implant due to irregular vaginal bleeding among women with immediate postpartum insertion is increased compared to delayed postpartum and interval placement. This retrospective cohort study compared women who underwent immediate postpartum etonogestrel contraceptive implant insertion (within 96 h of delivery) to delayed postpartum (6 to 12 weeks postpartum) and interval insertion between January 2008 and December 2010. Charts were reviewed for date and reason for removal. A chi-squared test was used to compare discontinuation due to bleeding between cohorts. Baseline characteristics predictive of implant removal were evaluated by simple logistic regression. There were 259 women in the immediate postpartum group, 49 in the delayed postpartum group and 106 in the interval group. Average age at insertion was 22.6 (±5.5) years. Overall, 19.3% of women in the immediate postpartum group requested removal due to irregular bleeding compared to 18.4% in the delayed postpartum group [odds ratio (OR) 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-2.33] and 20.8% in the interval group (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.52-1.60). There was no difference between groups in premature removal rates for any side effect. There were no sociodemographic or clinical characteristics predictive of removal in any group. One-fifth of etonogestrel contraceptive implant users requested premature removal due to irregular bleeding. Immediate postpartum implant insertion does not lead to increased removal rates and may help reduce unintended pregnancy. Mechanisms to help women manage irregular bleeding due to the implant are needed. Immediate postpartum insertion of the etonogestrel contraceptive implant does not lead to increased removal rates due to vaginal bleeding compared to delayed postpartum or interval insertion. Immediate postpartum implant insertion may increase uptake of long-acting reversible contraception and help reduce

  17. Methadone versus morphine for treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M S; Hayes, M J; Thornton, L M

    2015-04-01

    Compare duration of treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome between methadone and morphine. A prospective, double-masked, randomized trial at a single site. Randomization of methadone or morphine was stratified for maternal treatment with methadone or buprenorphine. Inclusion criteria were (i) maternal treatment with prescribed methadone or buprenorphine, (ii) withdrawal treatment criteria, (iii) adjusted gestational age ⩾35(0/7) weeks and (iv) medically stable. Primary outcome was length of opioid treatment. From January 2011 through October 2012, 78 infants were eligible for the study: 41 methadone-exposed and 37 buprenorphine-exposed. Consent was obtained from 31 mothers, 13/41 (32%) methadone-treated and 18/37 (49%) buprenorphine-treated. Length of opioid treatment was significantly shorter for methadone than morphine treatment, median 14 versus 21 days (P=0.008). Methadone had a shorter length of neonatal withdrawal treatment compared with morphine. Owing to the smaller sample size and single site, a larger randomized study is needed.

  18. Outpatient Management of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Kim T; Nguyen, Jacqueline; Miladinovic, Branko; Lilly, Carol M; Ashmeade, Terri L; Balakrishnan, Maya

    2016-11-01

    An increasing number of infants are diagnosed with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). The study's primary objectives were to describe an academic medical center's level IV neonatal ICU's (NICU's) comprehensive outpatient NAS management effort, measure guideline compliance, and assess its safety. Secondary objectives were to describe the duration and cumulative methadone exposure, and to improve parent and provider knowledge of NAS. The study included 22 infants having a gestational age of 35-41 weeks, diagnosed with NAS, and discharged for outpatient methadone management. Discharges spanned 10 months and included 3 improvement periods. The outpatient program includes comprehensive discharge planning, a focused electronic health record (EHR) template, management guidelines, and parent and provider education. Providers complied with using the outpatient management guideline and EHR template, and assessed weight, NAS symptoms, and methadone dose during appointments. Two infants required NAS-related hospital readmission in the study period. From improvement period 1 to period 3 there was no difference in total outpatient days on methadone (58, 53, 74 days, respectively) or cumulative methadone dose (2.7, 2.6, 3.1mg/kg, respectively). A downward trend pattern in cumulative methadone exposure was noted in improvement period 2. Pre- and postimplementation surveys revealed that after implementation, parents had better understanding of NAS before delivery (71% vs. 100%, p = 0.009), while providers had increased comfort with outpatient management (24% vs. 67%, p management can be safe when a comprehensive management program is implemented and can result in provider compliance with the program. Copyright 2016 The Joint Commission.

  19. Neonatal abstinence syndrome: Diagnostic dilemmas in the maternity ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić-Mitrović Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS refers to a newborn neurological, gastrointestinal and/or respiratory disorder if a newborn was exposed to psychoactive substances in the intrauterine period. NAS is difficult to diagnose due to unreliability of the data on addictive substances use during pregnancy, limited possibilities of the prenatal exposure diagnosis and postnatal substance detection, which all lead to diagnostic dilemmas. Objective. The aim of this study was to indicate the problems in patients with early NAS diagnosis in the maternity ward and the importance of clinical presentation used as a guide toward the diagnosis. Methods. This retrospective study included five term eutrophic newborns with high Apgar score, good adaptation in the first day and with clinical presentation of NAS during the second day of life. The clinical presentation was dominated by irritability, increased wakefulness, increased muscle tone, shrilly crying, tremors, problems with accepting food, tachypnea, subfebrility and hyperhidrosis. Finnegan scale was introduced in order to diagnose NAS and apply the therapy. Single-medication therapy of phenobarbitone was applied in four cases and a combination of phenobarbitone and morphine in one case. For toxicological analysis newborns’ urine samples were used. Results. Conditions such as perinatal asphyxia, infection, hunger, polycythemia, hypoglycemia or hypocalcemia were excluded. Finnegan score implied that pharmacological treatment had to be administered. The discrepancy between the NAS anamnesis and toxicological analysis existed. Response to the treatment was positive in all cases. Conclusion. NAS is a multisystemic disorder and should be suspected when it is noticed that children exhibit characteristic signs. However, other pathological conditions have to be excluded. Quantification according to the adopted scales for NAS leads toward appropriate treatment and recovery of the newborns.

  20. Trends in teenage fertility, abortion, and pregnancy rates in Iceland compared with other Nordic countries, 1976-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Sóley; Geirsson, Reynir T; Kosunen, Elise

    2003-01-01

    Iceland is often considered very similar to the other Nordic countries. The purpose of this study was to explore trends in teenage fertility, abortion, and pregnancy rates in Iceland, compare these trends with corresponding rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden during the period 1976-99, and to evaluate similarities and dissimilarities. The study is based on data about fertility, abortion, and pregnancy rates obtained from the Icelandic and Nordic national population and abortion registers for the age group 15-19 years years. Teenage fertility and pregnancy rates in the five Nordic countries declined over the study period by 57-67% and 31-50%, respectively, and in Iceland they remained significantly higher than in the Nordic countries. In 1999 almost every other teenage pregnancy in Iceland (45.9/1000) resulted in a childbirth (24.4/1000). Regional fertility rates were highest in the countryside. While the abortion rate has been declining in the four Nordic countries by 20-41%, they have concurrently been rising in Iceland by 133% (9.4/1000 in 1976-80, 21.9/1000 in 1996-99) and are presently higher than in the other Nordic countries. Regionally, abortion rates in Iceland were highest in the Capital area. The teenage pregnancy rate is higher in Iceland than in the other Nordic countries. This may be explained by cultural norms in Iceland's society regarding childbearing, early initiation of sexual intercourse, more limited sex education, and less effective delivery and use of contraceptive methods. There is a need to promote sexual and reproductive health to young people in Iceland by combining diverse preventive approaches.

  1. Transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 is increased following abstinence from cocaine self-administration, but not cocaine sensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Gancarz-Kausch

    Full Text Available The addicted phenotype is characterized as a long-lasting, chronically relapsing disorder that persists following long periods of abstinence, suggesting that the underlying molecular changes are stable and endure for long periods even in the absence of drug. Here, we investigated Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Type I receptor (TGF-β R1 expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc following periods of withdrawal from cocaine self-administration (SA and a sensitizing regimen of non-contingent cocaine. Rats were exposed to either (i repeated systemic injections (cocaine or saline, or (ii self-administration (cocaine or saline and underwent a period of forced abstinence (either 1 or 7 days of drug cessation. Withdrawal from cocaine self-administration resulted in an increase in TGF-β R1 protein expression in the NAc compared to saline controls. This increase was specific for volitional cocaine intake as no change in expression was observed following a sensitizing regimen of experimenter-administered cocaine. These findings implicate TGF-β signaling as a novel potential therapeutic target for treating drug addiction.

  2. Comparative Study of the Cultural Effective Factors on Women’s Total Fertility Rate in Fertile Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohyla Reshadat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Fertility is one of the important elements of population growth. Objectives The aim of this study was comparative surveying of the cultural effective factors on TFR (total fertility rate in Kermanshah in 1996, 2006 and 2011. Materials and Methods In this quantitative study, data were prepared from Iran statistics center, health center and registration center. Structural equation models were used for modeling in AMOS software. Results Men’s average marriage age in 1996 and women schooling rate in 2006 and 2011, coefficients was equals 0.05, 0.08 and 0.19 respectively, have had the highest effects on fertility decrease. Conclusions In this study women schooling rate had the highest effect on fertility decrease.

  3. Clonidine improved laboratory-measured decision-making performance in abstinent heroin addicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impulsivity refers to a wide spectrum of actions characterized by quick and nonplanned reactions to external and internal stimuli, without taking into account the possible negative consequences for the individual or others, and decision-making is one of the biologically dissociated impulsive behaviors. Changes in impulsivity may be associated with norepinephrine. Various populations of drug addicts all performed impulsive decision making, which is a key risk factor in drug dependence and relapse. The present study investigated the effects of clonidine, which decreased norepinephrine release through presynaptic alpha-2 receptor activation, on the impaired decision-making performance in abstinent heroin addicts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Decision-making performance was assessed using the original version of Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. Both heroin addicts and normal controls were randomly assigned to three groups receiving clonidine, 0, 75 µg or 150 µg orally under double blind conditions. Psychiatric symptoms, including anxiety, depression and impulsivity, were rated on standardized scales. Heroin addicts reported higher scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and exhibited impaired decision-making on the IGT. A single high-dose of clonidine improved the decision-making performance in heroin addicts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest clonidine may have a potential therapeutic role in heroin addicts by improving the impaired impulsive decision-making. The current findings have important implications for behavioral and pharmacological interventions targeting decision-making in heroin addiction.

  4. Is imprisonment criminogenic. A comparative study of recidivism rates associated whith terms of imprisonment and suspended prison sentences

    OpenAIRE

    Cid Moliné, Josep

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the effects of custodial versus non-custodial sentences on recidivism. An 8-year follow-up study was conducted to track and compare rates of recidivism between former prisoners and offenders who had served a suspended prison sentence. Drawing upon a representative sample of 483 offenders sentenced in 1998 by the Criminal Courts of Barcelona, two subpopulations of offenders were selected. The first group consisted of offenders who were sentenced to prison (n=179) while th...

  5. Tracks FAQs: How Do Heart Attack Hospitalization Rates In My Community Compare With Other Counties Or States?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-01

    In this podcast, CDC Tracking experts discuss how to compare heart attack hospitalization rates in your community with other counties or states. Do you have a question for our Tracking experts? Please e-mail questions to trackingsupport@cdc.gov.  Created: 9/1/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Environmental Health Tracking Branch.   Date Released: 9/1/2011.

  6. Time-trends in method-specific suicide rates compared with the availability of specific compounds. The Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. All suicides in Denmark between 1970 and 2000 were examined with regard to method used for suicide. Overall suicide mortality and method-specific suicide mortality was compared...... in the number of suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55% decrease in suicide rate...

  7. The online outpatient booking system 'Choose and Book' improves attendance rates at an audiology clinic: a comparative audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Vijal; Large, Ann; Madden, Colm; Das, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    The 'Choose and Book' system provides an online booking service which primary care professionals can book in real time or soon after a patient's consultation. It aims to offer patients choice and improve outpatient clinic attendance rates. An audit comparing attendance rates of new patients booked into the Audiological Medicine Clinic using the 'Choose and Book' system with that of those whose bookings were made through the traditional booking system. Data accrued between 1 April 2008 and 31 October 2008 were retrospectively analysed for new patient attendance at the department, and the age and sex of the patients, method of appointment booking used and attendance record were collected. Patients were grouped according to booking system used - 'Choose and Book' or the traditional system. The mean ages of the groups were compared by a t test. The standard error of the difference between proportions was used to compare the data from the two groups. A P value of Book' patients had a significantly better rate of attendance than traditional appointment patients, P 0.1 (95% CI-3.0, 16.2%). The 'Choose and Book' patients, however, were significantly older than the traditional appointment patients, P book outpatient clinic appointments online it improves outpatient attendance.

  8. Long-term mortality rates (>8-year) improve as compared to the general and obese population following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telem, Dana A; Talamini, Mark; Shroyer, A Laurie; Yang, Jie; Altieri, Maria; Zhang, Qiao; Gracia, Gerald; Pryor, Aurora D

    2015-03-01

    Sparse data are available on long-term patient mortality following bariatric surgery as compared to the general population. The purpose of this study was to assess long-term mortality rates and identify risk factors for all-cause mortality following bariatric surgery. New York State (NYS) Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) longitudinal administrative data were used to identify 7,862 adult patients who underwent a primary laparoscopic bariatric surgery from 1999 to 2005. The Social Security Death Index database identified >30-day mortalities. Risk factors for mortality were screened using a univariate Cox proportional hazard (PH) model and analyzed using a multiple PH model. Based on age, gender, and race/ethnicity, actuarial projections for NYS mortality rates obtained from Centers of Disease Control were compared to the actual post-bariatric surgery mortality rates observed. The mean bariatric mortality rate was 2.5 % with 8-14 years of follow-up. Mean time to death ranged from 4 to 6 year and did not differ by operation (p = 0.073). From 1999 to 2010, the actuarial mortality rate predicted for the general NYS population was 2.1 % versus the observed 1.5 % for the bariatric surgery population (p = 0.005). Extrapolating to 2013, demonstrated the actuarial mortality predictions at 3.1 % versus the bariatric surgery patients' observed morality rate of 2.5 % (p = 0.01). Risk factors associated with an earlier time to death included: age, male gender, Medicare/Medicaid insurance, congestive heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary circulation disorders, and diabetes. No procedure-specific or perioperative complication impact for time-to-death was found. Long-term mortality rate of patients undergoing bariatric surgery significantly improves as compared to the general population regardless of bariatric operation performed. Additionally, perioperative complications do not increase long-term mortality risk. This study did identify specific patient

  9. Gene expression changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens following abstinence from cocaine self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Willard M; Lull, Melinda E; Patel, Kruti M; Brucklacher, Robert M; Morgan, Drake; Roberts, David C S; Vrana, Kent E

    2010-02-26

    Many studies of cocaine-responsive gene expression have focused on changes occurring during cocaine exposure, but few studies have examined the persistence of these changes with cocaine abstinence. Persistent changes in gene expression, as well as alterations induced during abstinence may underlie long-lasting drug craving and relapse liability. Whole-genome expression analysis was conducted on a rat cocaine binge-abstinence model that has previously been demonstrated to engender increased drug seeking and taking with abstinence. Gene expression changes in two mesolimbic terminal fields (mPFC and NAc) were identified in a comparison of cocaine-naïve rats with rats after 10 days of cocaine self-administration followed by 1, 10, or 100 days of enforced abstinence (n = 6-11 per group). A total of 1,461 genes in the mPFC and 414 genes in the NAc were altered between at least two time points (ANOVA, p genes can be subdivided into: 1) changes with cocaine self-administration that do not persist into periods of abstinence, 2) changes with cocaine self-administration that persist with abstinence, 3) and those not changed with cocaine self-administration, but changed during enforced abstinence. qPCR analysis was conducted to confirm gene expression changes observed in the microarray analysis. Together, these changes help to illuminate processes and networks involved in abstinence-induced behaviors, including synaptic plasticity, MAPK signaling, and TNF signaling.

  10. Relations between in-treatment and follow-up abstinence among cocaine-dependent homeless persons in three clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchinich, Rudy; Wallace, Dennis; Milby, Jesse B; Schumacher, Joseph E; Mennemeyer, Stephen; Kertesz, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    Clinical trials with cocaine-dependent outpatients have found a strong relation between in-treatment and follow-up abstinence, and the strength of this relation is constant across treatment conditions with variable efficacy in generating abstinence. The authors conducted secondary analyses of data from 3 clinical trials to determine whether this relation generalizes to cocaine-dependent homeless persons. The 3 trials (total N = 543) were conducted in a community health care facility for homeless people. The 7 treatment arms across the 3 trials were combinations of day treatment, abstinence-contingent housing, and vocational training. Drug use was measured with urine toxicology testing. Consecutive weeks of abstinence during treatment were strongly related to abstinence at the 12-month follow-up, whether or not missing 12-month data were included in the analysis. The treatment arms differed in their efficacy in generating abstinence, but the relation between in-treatment and follow-up abstinence did not differ across treatment arms. These results replicate earlier reports of these relations and extend them to a population of homeless people. The lack of differences between treatment arms in the in-treatment-follow-up abstinence relation implies that that relation is independent of the treatment-specific intervention components that generate group differences in abstinence.

  11. Comparing the measured basal metabolic rates in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness to the estimated basal metabolic rate calculated from common predictive equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guizhen; Xie, Qiuyou; He, Yanbin; Wang, Ziwen; Chen, Yan; Jiang, Mengliu; Ni, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Qinxian; Murong, Min; Guo, Yequn; Qiu, Xiaowen; Yu, Ronghao

    2017-10-01

    Accurately predicting the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of patients in a vegetative state (VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) is critical to proper nutritional therapy, but commonly used equations have not been shown to be accurate. Therefore, we compared the BMR measured by indirect calorimetry (IC) to BMR values estimated using common predictive equations in VS and MCS patients. Body composition variables were measured using the bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) technique. BMR was measured by IC in 82 patients (64 men and 18 women) with VS or MCS. Patients were classified by body mass index as underweight (BMR was estimated for each group using the Harris-Benedict (H-B), Schofield, or Cunningham equations and compared to the measured BMR using Bland-Altman analyses. For the underweight group, there was a significant difference between the measured BMR values and the estimated BMR values calculated using the H-B, Schofield, and Cunningham equations (p BMR values estimated using the H-B and Cunningham equations were different significantly from the measured BMR (p BMR in the normal-weight group. The Schofield equation showed the best concordance (only 41.5%) with the BMR values measured by IC. None of the commonly used equations to estimate BMR were suitable for the VS or MCS populations. Indirect calorimetry is the preferred way to avoid either over or underestimate of BMR values. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Spend today, clean tomorrow: predicting methamphetamine abstinence in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling Murtaugh, Kimberly; Krishnamurti, Tamar; Davis, Alexander L; Reback, Cathy J; Shoptaw, Steven

    2013-09-01

    This secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial tested two behavioral economics mechanisms (substitutability and delay discounting) to explain outcomes using contingency management (CM) for methamphetamine dependence. Frequency and purchase type (hedonic/utilitarian and consumable/durable) of CM payments were also examined. A total of 82 methamphetamine-dependent gay/bisexual men randomly assigned to conditions delivering CM received monetary vouchers in exchange for stimulant-negative urine samples in a 16-week trial requiring thrice weekly visits (Shoptaw et al., 2005). At any visit participants could redeem vouchers for goods. A time-lagged counting process Cox Proportional Hazards model for recurrent event survival analysis examined aspects of the frequency and type of these CM purchases. After controlling for severity of baseline methamphetamine use and accumulated CM wealth, as measured by cumulative successful earning days, participants who redeemed CM earnings at any visit ("spenders") were significantly more likely to produce stimulant-negative urine samples in the subsequent visit, compared with those who did not redeem ("savers") 1.011* [1.005, 1.017], Z = 3.43, p economic concept of substitutability of CM purchases and explain trial outcomes as a function of frequency of CM purchases rather than frequency or accumulated total CM earnings. Promotion of frequent purchases in incentive-based programs should facilitate substitution for the perceived value of methamphetamine and improve abstinence outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Contingency management is effective in promoting abstinence and retention in treatment among crack cocaine users in Brazil: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, André Q C; Madruga, Clarice S; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Yamauchi, Rodolfo; Simões, Viviane; da Silva, Claudio J; McPherson, Sterling; Roll, John M; Laranjeira, Ronaldo R

    2016-08-01

    Crack cocaine dependence has become a severe public health problem in Brazil, and current psychosocial approaches to this problem have shown little or no effectiveness. Although contingency management is among the most effective behavioral treatments for substance use disorders, it has never been applied in the treatment of crack cocaine-dependent individuals in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of incorporating contingency management into standard outpatient treatment for crack cocaine dependence, as well as the impact that doing so has on treatment attendance, retention in treatment, maintenance of abstinence, and the frequency of substance use. We evaluated 65 treatment-seeking, crack cocaine-dependent individuals, randomized to receive 12 weeks of standard treatment plus contingency management (STCM; n = 33) or 12 weeks of standard treatment alone (STA; n = 32). Those in the STCM group received monetary incentives for being abstinent, earning up to US$235.50 if they remained abstinent throughout the entire treatment period. The STCM group participants attended a mean of 19.5 (SD = 14.9) treatment sessions, compared with 3.7 (SD = 5.9) for the STA group participants (p negative samples for crack cocaine, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and alcohol (p management showed efficacy in a sample of Brazilian crack cocaine users. The intervention holds promise for broader application in international settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Working Memory Deficits Predict Short-term Smoking Resumption Following Brief Abstinence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Freda; Jepson, Christopher; Loughead, James; Perkins, Kenneth; Strasser, Andrew A.; Siegel, Steven; Frey, Joseph; Gur, Ruben; Lerman, Caryn

    2009-01-01

    As many as one-half of smokers relapse in the first week following a quit attempt, and subjective reports of cognitive deficits in early abstinence are associated with increased relapse risk. This study examined whether objective cognitive performance after three days of abstinence predicts smoking resumption in a 7-day simulated quit attempt. Sixty-seven treatment-seeking smokers received either varenicline or placebo (randomized double-blind) for 21 days. Following medication run-up (days 1-10), there was a 3-day mandatory (biochemically confirmed) abstinence period (days 11-13) during which working memory (Letter-N-Back Task) and sustained attention (Continuous Performance Task) were assessed (day 13). Participants were then exposed to a scheduled smoking lapse and instructed to try to remain abstinent for the next 7 days (days 15-21). Poorer cognitive performance (slower correct reaction time on Letter-N-Back task) during abstinence predicted more rapid smoking resumption among those receiving placebo (p=.038) but not among those receiving varenicline. These data lend further support for the growing recognition that cognitive deficits involving working memory are a core symptom of nicotine withdrawal and a potential target for the development of pharmacological and behavioral treatments. PMID:19733449

  15. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment alters cerebral metabolism in dopaminergic reward regions. Bromocriptine enhances recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clow, D.W.; Hammer, R.P. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    2-[14C]deoxyglucose autoradiography was used to determine local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) in rats following chronic cocaine treatment and subsequent abstinence. lCGU was examined in 43 discrete brain regions in animals which had received daily injections of cocaine for 14 days (10 mg/kg) followed by 3 days of saline or bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) treatment. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment significantly reduced lCGU in several regions including mesocorticolimbic structures such as ventral tegmental area, medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Within the NAc, however, only the rostral pole showed significant reduction. In contrast, when bromocriptine treatment accompanied abstinence, lCGU was no longer reduced in mesocorticolimbic and most other regions, implying that metabolic recovery was enhanced by bromocriptine treatment during early abstinence following chronic cocaine treatment. These data suggest that cerebral metabolism is decreased during cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment in critical brain regions, and that this alteration can be prevented by treatment with direct-acting dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine

  16. Marijuana abstinence effects in marijuana smokers maintained in their home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, A J; Hughes, J R; Moore, B A; Novy, P L

    2001-10-01

    Although withdrawal symptoms are commonly reported by persons seeking treatment for marijuana dependence, the validity and clinical significance of a marijuana withdrawal syndrome has not been established. This controlled outpatient study examined the reliability and specificity of the abstinence effects that occur when daily marijuana users abruptly stop smoking marijuana. Twelve daily marijuana smokers were assessed on 16 consecutive days during which they smoked marijuana as usual (days 1-5), abstained from smoking marijuana (days 6-8), returned to smoking marijuana (days 9-13), and again abstained from smoking marijuana (days 14-16). An overall measure of withdrawal discomfort increased significantly during the abstinence phases and returned to baseline when marijuana smoking resumed. Craving for marijuana, decreased appetite, sleep difficulty, and weight loss reliably changed across the smoking and abstinence phases. Aggression, anger, irritability, restlessness, and strange dreams increased significantly during one abstinence phase, but not the other. Collateral observers confirmed participant reports of these symptoms. This study validated several specific effects of marijuana abstinence in heavy marijuana users, and showed they were reliable and clinically significant. These withdrawal effects appear similar in type and magnitude to those observed in studies of nicotine withdrawal.

  17. Understanding Motivations for Abstinence among Adolescent Young Women: Insights into Effective Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents’ motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 15–19 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893

  18. Spatial conservation prioritization for mobile top predators in French waters: Comparing encounter rates and predicted densities as input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavenne, J.; Lepareur, F.; Witté, I.; Touroult, J.; Lambert, C.; Pettex, E.; Virgili, A.; Siblet, J.-P.

    2017-07-01

    EU member states have to develop their Natura 2000 networks in their national waters to fulfill their conservation obligations regarding species and habitats listed in the Birds and Habitats directives. In France, a coastal network of Natura 2000 areas exists since 2008 but it had to be completed in offshore waters for some marine megafauna species. The SAMM aerial surveys (Aerial Census of Marine Megafauna) which occurred in winter 2011 and summer 2011-2012 over a large area comprising the whole metropolitan French Economic Exclusive Zone produced sighting data for species listed in the Birds and Habitats directives. These data produced different types of species distribution data: encounter rates and predicted densities by kriging and habitat modelling. Using these species distribution data, the aim of the present study was to compare these different types of inputs in the same conservation prioritization process to complete the existing Natura 2000 network in French waters. We ran prioritization analyses using the encounter rates only (scenario 1) then using the predicted densities provided by kriging and habitat modelling (scenario 2). We then compared the outputs of the two prioritization processes. The prioritization outputs were different but not in contradiction, with similar areas appearing as important to reach the conservation targets. Habitat models were thought to provide better pictures of seasonal species distributions and informed scientists about the phenology and ecology of species. However, the use of encounter rates as input data for the prioritization process in the Natura 2000 program is acceptable provided that sufficient survey effort is available.

  19. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang [Center for General Education, Chang Gung University,Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, 333, Taiwan (China); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Fei-Fan [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lee, Feng-Shiuh [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Guey-Lin [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tsung-Che [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Yang, Yi [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-22

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(ν-bar)+p→ν(ν-bar)+p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), ν-bar{sub e}+p→n+e{sup +}, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of ν-bar{sub e} flux with the ν-bar{sub x} (x=μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  20. Gender differences in scalp hair growth rates are maintained but reduced in pattern hair loss compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, D J J; Rushton, D H

    2016-08-01

    Hair loss is related to follicular density, programmed regrowth and hair productivity. The dissatisfaction with hair growth in patients experiencing hair loss might be due to slower linear hair growth rate (LHGR). LHGR and hair diameter was evaluated in Caucasian controls and patients with patterned hair loss employing the validated non-invasive, contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram with exogen collection. We evaluated 59,765 anagen hairs (controls 24,609, patients 35,156) and found thinner hairs grew slower than thicker hairs. LHGR in normal women was generally higher than in normal men. LHGR correlates with hair diameter (P growth rates. Compared with hair of equal thickness in controls, subjects affected with patterned hair loss showed reduced hair growth rates, an observation found in both male and female patients. Males with pattern hair loss showed further reduction in growth rates as clinical severity worsened. However, sample size limitations prevented statistical evaluation of LHGR in severely affected females. Caucasian ethnicity. In pattern hair loss, LHGR significantly contributes to the apparent decrease in hair volume in affected areas. In early onset, LHRG might have a prognostic value in females but not in males. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Paying the full cost of power : an indicative comparative analysis of residential electricity rates across Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, A.J.; Sabatier, G.

    2005-01-01

    This study was commissioned to review electricity rates charged to residential consumers across Canada and to determine how the basics of ratemaking change from province to province. Rates in each province vary significantly due to differences in the industry structure and their resource base. It was noted that direct comparisons are difficult because some rates reflect the financing, fuel and opportunity costs of power. For that reason, a simple adjustment factor was developed for fair comparison between jurisdictions. This assessment compared the all-in cost to final consumers which includes power generation, transmission, distribution and all other charges, as calculated by Statistics Canada. It was revealed that Alberta is Canada's only province where prices to final consumers reflect the market value of the underlying commodity. Ratepayers have the advantage of not being responsible for bad investment choices in the power sector and there are no hidden subsidies due to provincial ownership of power resources. Another consumer advantage is that they receive appropriate price signals in terms of energy consumption and conservation. This report suggests that low electricity rates in other provinces can be expected to rise much more rapidly than those in Alberta in the coming decade as consumers may be charged the full value of the electricity they use. 18 refs., 9 figs

  2. Sample size for comparing negative binomial rates in noninferiority and equivalence trials with unequal follow-up times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongqiang

    2017-05-25

    We derive the sample size formulae for comparing two negative binomial rates based on both the relative and absolute rate difference metrics in noninferiority and equivalence trials with unequal follow-up times, and establish an approximate relationship between the sample sizes required for the treatment comparison based on the two treatment effect metrics. The proposed method allows the dispersion parameter to vary by treatment groups. The accuracy of these methods is assessed by simulations. It is demonstrated that ignoring the between-subject variation in the follow-up time by setting the follow-up time for all individuals to be the mean follow-up time may greatly underestimate the required size, resulting in underpowered studies. Methods are provided for back-calculating the dispersion parameter based on the published summary results.

  3. Higher Rate of Tuberculosis in Second Generation Migrants Compared to Native Residents in a Metropolitan Setting in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Florian M.; Fiebig, Lena; Hauer, Barbara; Brodhun, Bonita; Glaser-Paschke, Gisela; Haas, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background In Western Europe, migrants constitute an important risk group for tuberculosis, but little is known about successive generations of migrants. We aimed to characterize migration among tuberculosis cases in Berlin and to estimate annual rates of tuberculosis in two subsequent migrant generations. We hypothesized that second generation migrants born in Germany are at higher risk of tuberculosis compared to native (non-migrant) residents. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. All tuberculosis cases reported to health authorities in Berlin between 11/2010 and 10/2011 were eligible. Interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire including demographic data, migration history of patients and their parents, and language use. Tuberculosis rates were estimated using 2011 census data. Results Of 314 tuberculosis cases reported, 154 (49.0%) participated. Of these, 81 (52.6%) were first-, 14 (9.1%) were second generation migrants, and 59 (38.3%) were native residents. The tuberculosis rate per 100,000 individuals was 28.3 (95CI: 24.0–32.6) in first-, 10.2 (95%CI: 6.1–16.6) in second generation migrants, and 4.6 (95%CI: 3.7–5.6) in native residents. When combining information from the standard notification variables country of birth and citizenship, the sensitivity to detect second generation migration was 28.6%. Conclusions There is a higher rate of tuberculosis among second generation migrants compared to native residents in Berlin. This may be explained by presumably frequent contact and transmission within migrant populations. Second generation migration is insufficiently captured by the surveillance variables country of birth and citizenship. Surveillance systems in Western Europe should allow for quantifying the tuberculosis burden in this important risk group. PMID:26061733

  4. Comparing Coronary Atheroma Progression Rates and Coronary Events in the United States, Canada, Latin America, and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Rishi; Nicholls, Stephen J; St John, Julie; Tuzcu, E Murat; Kapadia, Samir R; Uno, Kiyoko; Kataoka, Yu; Wolski, Kathy; Nissen, Steven E

    2016-12-01

    We explored for geographic variations in coronary atheroma progression rates in the United States compared to other world regions (Canada, Latin America, Western Europe, and Central-Eastern Europe) and sought to ascertain if this associated with regional differences in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization). Across 7 randomized trials with a global recruitment pattern, 5,451 participants with angiographic coronary disease underwent serial coronary intravascular ultrasonography during 18 or 24 months, with adjudicated MACE. Change in coronary percent atheroma volume (ΔPAV) and MACE in the United States versus other world regions were assessed. Despite similar baseline angiographic and plaque characteristics across participants and regions, following propensity-weighted and multivariate analysis, US (n = 3,706) versus non-US (n = 1,745) participants demonstrated marginal but significantly greater annualized ΔPAV (least-square means ± SE: 0.27 ± 0.14% vs 0.062 ± 0.14%, p = 0.005). However, MACE rates were disproportionately higher in US compared to non-US participants (23.5% vs 10.9%, p <0.001), driven by a doubling in crude rates of coronary revascularization procedures (16.1% vs 7.8%, p <0.001). The US participants hospitalized with unstable angina demonstrated more significant disease progression than their non-US counterparts (ΔPAV: 0.57 ± 0.19% vs -0.30 ± 0.36%, p = 0.033) and greater MACE (9.1% vs 4.8%, p <0.001). A US geographic disposition independently associated with MACE (hazard ratio 1.53, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.92, p <0.001). In conclusion, in participants with stable coronary disease, coronary atheroma progression rates are modestly higher in US-based compared to non-US-based participants. Elective coronary revascularization rates however are disproportionately greater in US-based participants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of complications in a prospective randomized trial comparing two brachytherapy low dose rates in cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-30

    The analysis of complications in a prospective randomized trial comparing two preoperative brachytherapy low-dose rates in early stage cervical cancer is presented. The objective of this trial was to determine the benefits, if any, of the higher-dose rate within the therapeutic aresenal for this patient population, in terms of survival, local control, and complications. Overall survival, 85% at 2 years and local control, 93% at 2 years, were similarly distributed between the two groups. Regardless of their nature and severity, 139 and 175 complications were observed among 63% and 75% of patients, in the 0.4 and 0.8 Gy/h dose rate groups respectively. Gynecologic and urinary complications were the most frequent (38% and 28% of all complications), followed by vascular (15%), digestive (10%), nervous (5%), and cutaneous (5%). A total of 14 and 17 severe complications (Grade 3) were observed in 7% and 13% of patients, respectively in the 0.4 and 0.8 Gy/h dose rate groups (p = 0.12) Nonparametric survival methods used to compare the time to the first complication did not show a significant difference between the two groups: 62% and 72% at 2 years (p = 0.27). When the first complication and its evolution were considered (early complications), the prevalence of complications was not significantly different between the two groups: 28% vs. 34% at 2 years (p = 0.31). In this prospective trial, patients were regularly followed-up and complications of varying nature and severity were observed in succession during follow-up. When successive complications and their evolution were taken into account, the prevalence of complications was significantly greater in the higher-dose rate group: 30% vs 45% at 2 years (p = 0.03). The results of this trial showed that long-term effects of treatment, when represented by prevalence of complications over time, were more frequent in the higher dose rate group. 33 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Preliminary investigation comparing a detomidine continuous rate infusion combined with either morphine or buprenorphine for standing sedation in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Joanna J.; Macfarlane, Paul D.; Love, Emma J.; Tremaine, Henry; Taylor, Polly M; Murrell, Joanna C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare sedative and analgesic properties of buprenorphine or morphine for standing procedures combined with a detomidine continuous rate infusion (CRI). Study design: Blinded, prospective, randomized clinical pilot study. Animals: Ten horses presented for dental or sinus procedures. Methods: Horses received 0.02 mg kg-1 acepromazine intravenously (IV), followed 30 minutes later by detomidine 10 μg kg-1 IV. Five minutes later, buprenorphine 0.01 mg kg-1 (n = 6) or morphine 0.1 m...

  7. Increasing live birth rate by preimplantation genetic screening of pooled polar bodies using array comparative genomic hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Feichtinger

    Full Text Available Meiotic errors during oocyte maturation are considered the major contributors to embryonic aneuploidy and failures in human IVF treatment. Various technologies have been developed to screen polar bodies, blastomeres and trophectoderm cells for chromosomal aberrations. Array-CGH analysis using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC arrays is widely applied for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD using single cells. Recently, an increase in the pregnancy rate has been demonstrated using array-CGH to evaluate trophectoderm cells. However, in some countries, the analysis of embryonic cells is restricted by law. Therefore, we used BAC array-CGH to assess the impact of polar body analysis on the live birth rate. A disadvantage of polar body aneuploidy screening is the necessity of the analysis of both the first and second polar bodies, resulting in increases in costs for the patient and complex data interpretation. Aneuploidy screening results may sometimes be ambiguous if the first and second polar bodies show reciprocal chromosomal aberrations. To overcome this disadvantage, we tested a strategy involving the pooling of DNA from both polar bodies before DNA amplification. We retrospectively studied 351 patients, of whom 111 underwent polar body array-CGH before embryo transfer. In the group receiving pooled polar body array-CGH (aCGH analysis, 110 embryos were transferred, and 29 babies were born, corresponding to live birth rates of 26.4% per embryo and 35.7% per patient. In contrast, in the control group, the IVF treatment was performed without preimplantation genetic screening (PGS. For this group, 403 embryos were transferred, and 60 babies were born, resulting in live birth rates of 14.9% per embryo and 22.7% per patient. In conclusion, our data show that in the aCGH group, the use of aneuploidy screening resulted in a significantly higher live birth rate compared with the control group, supporting the benefit of PGS for IVF couples in

  8. [Volumes of services supplied by Italian Stop-Smoking Services and their characteristics predictive of abstinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe; Ameglio, Matteo; Martini, Andrea; Bosi, Sandra; Laezza, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    to evaluate differences in terms of smokers' attendance to National Health System (NHS) Stop-Smoking Services with a prevalent individual approach (SSSi), and to those with a prevalent group approach (SSSg). To identify predictive characteristics of success, in terms of quit rates at the end of treatment (QR0) and after 6 months (QR1), according to SSS type (SSSi/SSSg), treatment (individual/ group counseling with/without pharmacologic treatments), 5 SSS scores: type of structure (S), number and hours per week of SSS health professionals (P), SSS involvement in local tobacco control networks (N), and type of smokers' assessment (A); and 3 principal components of SSS characteristics. survey to 19 SSSs, and survey to smokers attending these SSSs, with a six month follow-up. 1,276 smokers attending 19 SSSs (664 at 7 SSSi; 612 at 12 SSSg) in 9 months in the period 2008-2010. smokers' attendance to scheduled sessions; QR0; QR1. even though SSSi treated more smokers per month (12 vs. 8 in SSSg), SSSi scheduled fewer treatment sessions (7 vs. 9 sessions) in a wider treatment period (3 months vs. 2 in SSSg). SSSg recorded lower P and higher A scores. Four out of 5 smokers attending SSSg and 2/5 of smokers attending SSSi completed treatment protocols. Considering all smokers, QR1 in both types of SSS were around 36%. Smokers treated with pharmacotherapy, those more motivated and with high self-efficacy, and those non-living together with smokers were more likely to recorded higher QR1. the most relevant interventions in order to increase the number of smokers treated at SSS and to improve cessation rates among them were: for SSSi, increasing completion to treatment protocol; for SSSg, improving the P scores to increase the number of treated smokers; for all SSS, increasing the use of pharmacotherapy in combination with individual/group counseling to sustain abstinence.

  9. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome in West Virginia Substate Regions, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabler, Meagan E; Long, D Leann; Chertok, Ilana R A; Giacobbi, Peter R; Pilkerton, Courtney; Lander, Laura R

    2017-01-01

    The opioid epidemic is a public health threat with consequences affecting newborns. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is a constellation of withdrawal symptoms resulting primarily from in utero opioid exposure. The purpose of this study was to examine NAS and drug-specific trends in West Virginia (WV), where rurality-related issues are largely present. The 2007-2013 WV Health Care Authority, Uniform Billing Data were analyzed for 119,605 newborn admissions with 1,974 NAS diagnoses. NAS (ICD9-CM 779.5) and exposure diagnostic codes for opioids, hallucinogens, and cocaine were utilized as incidence rate (IR) per 1,000 live births. Between 2007 and 2013, NAS IR significantly increased from 7.74 to 31.56 per 1,000 live births per year (Z: -19.10, P < .0001). During this time period, opioid exposure increased (Z: -9.56, P < .0001), while cocaine exposure decreased (Z: 3.62, P = .0003). In 2013, the southeastern region of the state had the highest NAS IR of 48.76 per 1,000 live births. NAS infants were more likely to experience other clinical conditions, longer hospital stay, and be insured by Medicaid. Statewide NAS IR increased 4-fold over the study period, with rates over 3 times the national annual averages. This alarming trend is deleterious for the health of WV mother-child dyads and it strains the state's health care system. Therefore, WV has a unique need for prenatal public health drug treatment and prevention resources, specifically targeting the southeastern region. Further examination of maternal drug-specific trends and general underutilization of neonatal exposure ICD-9-CM codes is indicated. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  10. Motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and abstinence maintenance among treated Spanish smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; López-Durán, Ana; Del Río, Elena Fernández; Martínez, Úrsula; Brandon, Thomas H; Becoña, Elisardo

    2016-02-01

    Although quitting motivation predicts smoking cessation, there have been inconsistent findings regarding motivation predicting long-term maintenance of abstinence. Moreover, most such research has been conducted in North America and the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to examine motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and of abstinence maintenance in a Spanish sample. The sample comprised 286 Spanish smokers undergoing psychological treatment for smoking cessation. Motivation to quit was assessed pre-treatment and post-treatment with the Readiness to Quit Ladder. Abstinence post-treatment and at 6month follow-up was biochemically verified. Participants with higher levels of pre-treatment and post-treatment motivation were more likely to be abstinent at the end of the treatment (OR=1.36) and at 6month follow-up (OR=4.88). Among abstainers at the end of the treatment (61.9%), higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment predicted maintaining abstinence at 6months (OR=2.83). Furthermore, participants who failed to quit smoking reported higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment than they had pretreatment (pMotivation to quit smoking predicted short and long-term cessation, and also predicted long-term maintenance of abstinence. These results have implications for understanding motivational processes of smoking cessation in general, while extending research to Spanish smokers. They may also help in the design of cessation and relapse-prevention interventions. Specifically, the results suggest that motivational enhancement is important throughout the cessation and maintenance periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Racial Discipline Disproportionality in Montessori and Traditional Public Schools: A Comparative Study Using the Relative Rate Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie E. Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research from the past 40 years indicates that African American students are subjected to exclusionary discipline, including suspension and expulsion, at rates two to three times higher than their White peers (Children’s Defense Fund, 1975; Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002. Although this phenomenon has been studied extensively in traditional public schools, rates of racially disproportionate discipline in public Montessori schools have not been examined. The purpose of this study is to examine racial discipline disproportionality in Montessori public elementary schools as compared to traditional elementary schools. The Relative Rate Index (RRI is used as a measure of racially disproportionate use of out-of-school suspensions (Tobin & Vincent, 2011. Suspension data from the Office of Civil Rights Data Collection was used to generate RRIs for Montessori and traditional elementary schools in a large urban district in the Southeast. While statistically significant levels of racial discipline disproportionality are found in both the Montessori and traditional schools, the effect is substantially less pronounced in Montessori settings. These findings suggest that Montessori schools are not immune to racially disproportionate discipline and should work to incorporate more culturally responsive classroom management techniques. Conversely, the lower levels of racially disproportionate discipline in the Montessori schools suggests that further study of discipline in Montessori environments may provide lessons for traditional schools to promote equitable discipline.

  12. Aneuploidy screening by array comparative genomic hybridization improves success rates of in vitro fertilization: A multicenter Indian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Kotdawala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective, multicenter study including 235 PGS cycles following intracytoplasmic sperm injection performed at six different infertility centers from September 2013 to June 2015. Patients were divided as per maternal age in several groups (40 years and as per indication for undergoing PGS. Indications for performing PGS were recurrent miscarriage, repetitive implantation failure, severe male factor, previous trisomic pregnancy, and advanced maternal age (≥35. Day 3 embryo biopsy was performed and analyzed by aCGH followed by day 5 embryo transfer in the same cycle or the following cycle. Outcomes such as pregnancy rates (PRs/transfer, implantation rates, miscarriage rates, percentage of abnormal embryos, and number of embryos with more than one aneuploidy and chaotic patterns were recorded for all the treated subjects based on different age and indication groups. Results: aCGH helped in identifying aneuploid embryos, thus leading to consistent implantation (range: 33.3%-42.9% and PRs per transfer (range: 31.8%-54.9% that were obtained for all the indications in all the age groups, after performing PGS. Conclusion: Aneuploidy is one of the major factors which affect embryo implantation. aCGH can be successfully employed for screening of aneuploid embryos. When euploid embryos are transferred, an increase in PRs can be achieved irrespective of the age or the indication.

  13. Online assessment of ALS functional rating scale compares well to in-clinic evaluation: a prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, André; Holm, Teresa; Wicks, Paul; Steinfurth, Laura; Linke, Peter; Münch, Christoph; Meyer, Robert; Meyer, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Self-assessment of symptom progression in chronic diseases is of increasing importance in clinical research, patient management and specialized outpatient care. Against this background, we developed a secure internet platform (ALShome.de) that allows online assessment of the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) and other established self-assessment questionnaires. We developed a secure and closed internet portal to assess patient reported outcomes. In a prospective, controlled and stratified study, patients conducted a web-based self-assessment of ALSFRS-R compared to on-site assessment. On-site and online assessments were compared at baseline (n = 127) and after 3.5 months (n = 81, 64%). Results showed that correlation between on-site evaluation and online testing of ALSFRS-R was highly significant (r = 0.96; p online vs. on-site) was excellent (mean interval, 8.8 days). The adherence to online rating was high; 75% of patients tested on-site completed a follow-up online visit (mean 3.5 months, SD 1.7). We conclude that online self-assessment of ALS severity complements the well-established face-to-face application of the ALSFRS-R during on-site visits. The results of our study support the use of online administration of ALSFRS-R within clinical trials and for managing the care of ALS patients.

  14. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) in Southwestern Border States: Examining Trends, Population Correlates, and Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Khaleel S; Garcia Saavedra, Luigi F

    2018-03-23

    Introduction Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is withdrawal syndrome in newborns following birth and is primarily caused by maternal drug use during pregnancy. This study examines trends, population correlates, and policy implications of NAS in two Southwest border states. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional analysis of Hospital Inpatient Discharge Data (HIDD) was utilized to examine the incidence of NAS in the Southwest border states of Arizona (AZ) and New Mexico (NM). All inpatient hospital births in AZ and NM from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2013 with ICD9-CM codes for NAS (779.5), cocaine (760.72), or narcotics (760.75) were extracted. Results During 2008-2013 there were 1472 NAS cases in AZ and 888 in NM. The overall NAS rate during this period was 2.83 per 1000 births (95% CI 2.68-2.97) in AZ and 5.31 (95% CI 4.96-5.66) in NM. NAS rates increased 157% in AZ and 174% in NM. NAS newborns were more likely to have low birth weight, have respiratory distress, more likely to have feeding difficulties, and more likely to be on state Medicaid insurance. AZ border region (border with Mexico) had NAS rates significantly higher than the state rate (4.06 per 1000 births [95% CI 3.68-4.44] vs. 2.83 [95% CI 2.68-2.97], respectively). In NM, the border region rate (2.09 per 1000 births [95% CI 1.48-2.69]) was significantly lower than the state rate (5.31 [95% CI 4.96-5.66]). Conclusions Despite a dramatic increase in the incidence of NAS in the U.S. and, in particular, the Southwest border states of AZ and NM, there is still scant research on the overall incidence of NAS, its assessment in the southwest border, and associated long-term outcomes. The Healthy Border (HB) 2020 binational initiative of the U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission is an initiative that addresses several public health priorities that not only include chronic and degenerative diseases, infectious diseases, injury prevention, maternal and child health but also mental health and

  15. Effects of therapeutic goal management (TGM) on treatment attendance and drug abstinence among men with co-occurring substance use and axis I mental disorders who are homeless: results of the Birmingham EARTH program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Anna; Jensen, Michael; Burgess, Emilee; Stevens, Angee; Hayes, Lauren; Sieweke, Susan; Stough, Karen; Wright, Anne; McCarty, Robin; Eddleman, Lillian; Kim, Young-Il; Milby, Jesse B; Schumacher, Joseph E

    2013-10-27

    This study describes the implementation and impact of Therapeutic Goal Management (TGM) in a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)-sponsored demonstration project entitled Enhanced Addiction Recovery through Housing (EARTH). The sample included 28 male participants followed at six months who completed some treatment. Forty-three percent were Caucasian, and 57% were African American. The average age of participants was 42 years. The relationships between TGM goal achievement, treatment attendance, and drug abstinence outcomes were studied among EARTH program participants who were homeless and met criteria for co-occurring substance use and severe DSM-IV Axis I mental disorders. The results revealed an overall drug abstinence rate of 72.4% over six months and significant positive relationships between TGM goal achievement and drug abstinence (r=0.693) and TGM goal achievement and treatment attendance (r=0.843). This research demonstrated the relationship and potential positive impact of systematically setting, monitoring, and reinforcing personalized goals in multiple life areas on drug abstinence and treatment attendance outcomes among persons who are homeless with co-occurring substance use and other Axis I disorders in a integrated community service delivery program.

  16. Eradication rates of helicobacter pylori infection with second-line treatment: non-ulcer dyspepsia compared to peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Su Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Nayoung; Jung, Sook Hyang; Kim, Jin Wook; Hwang, Jin Hyeok; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Kwang Hyuk; Jung, Hyun Chae; Song, In Sung

    2007-06-01

    Initial proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is less effective in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) than those with peptic ulcer disease (PUD). To date, there have been no studies on the difference in eradication rates in NUD compared to PUD with regard to second-line therapy. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the difference in eradication rates of a second-line quadruple therapy for NUD and PUD patients. Between June 2003 and December 2005, patients who failed to respond to initial PPI-based triple therapy, received 7 days of quadruple therapy (PPI b.i.d., bismuth 300mg q.i.d., metronidazole 500mg t.i.d., tetracycline 500mg q.i.d.) as a second-line treatment regimen. Four weeks after the completion of the course of medication, a 13C-urea breath test was performed for detection of H. pylori. A total of 87 patients received second-line quadruple therapy. Of these, 43 patients had NUD and 44 patients had PUD (19 gastric ulcers, 23 duodenal ulcers, 2 both ulcers). The eradication rates were 76.7% (33/43) in the NUD group and 90.9% (40/44) in the PUD group by per-protocol analysis. Therefore, the eradication rates in the NUD group were significantly lower than those in the PUD group (p = 0.034). A 7-day bismuth-based second-line quadruple therapy for H. pylori infection was less effective in patients with NUD than those with PUD. Therefore, a more potent second-line treatment regimen or extension of treatment duration of quadruple therapy should be considered for the eradication of H. pylori in patients with NUD.

  17. Abstinence and Relapse Rates Following a College Campus-Based Quit & Win Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; An, Larry; Luo, Xianghua; Scherber, Robyn M.; Berg, Carla J.; Golden, Dave; Ehlinger, Edward P.; Murphy, Sharon E.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To conduct and evaluate Quit & Win contests at 2 2-year college and 2 4-year university campuses. Participants: During Spring semester, 2006, undergraduates (N = 588) interested in quitting smoking signed up for a Quit & Win 30-day cessation contest for a chance to win a lottery prize. Methods: Participants (N = 588) completed a…

  18. Adult Discrimination against Children: The Case of Abstinence-Only Education in Twenty-First-Century USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greslé-Favier, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses abstinence-only education programmes and discourses within the frame of theories of adult discrimination against children. To begin with, a definition of abstinence-only programmes and of the political context in which they were created will be provided. These programmes will then be analysed through the lens of children's…

  19. EEG coherence related to fMRI resting state synchrony in long-term abstinent alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A. Cardenas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests that faulty co-activation or synchrony of multiple brain regions comprising “networks,” or an imbalance between opposing brain networks, is important in alcoholism. Previous studies showed higher fMRI resting state synchrony (RSS within the executive control (inhibitory control and emotion regulation networks and lower RSS within the appetitive drive network in long-term (multi-year abstinent alcoholics (LTAA vs. non substance abusing controls (NSAC. Our goal was to identify EEG networks that are correlated with the appetitive drive and executive function networks identified with fMRI in our previous alcohol studies. We used parallel ICA for multimodal data fusion for the 20 LTAA and 21 NSAC that had both usable fMRI and 64-channel EEG data. Our major result was that parallel ICA identified a pair of components that significantly separated NSAC from LTAA and were correlated with each other. Examination of the resting-state fMRI seed-correlation map component showed higher bilateral nucleus accumbens seed-correlation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex bilaterally and lower seed-correlation in the thalamus. This single component thus encompassed both the executive control and appetitive drive networks, consistent with our previous work. The correlated EEG coherence component showed mostly higher theta and alpha coherence in LTAA compared to NSAC, and lower gamma coherence in LTAA compared to NSAC. The EEG theta and alpha coherence results suggest enhanced top-down control in LTAA and the gamma coherence results suggest impaired appetitive drive in LTAA. Our results support the notion that fMRI RSS is reflected in spontaneous EEG, even when the EEG and fMRI are not obtained simultaneously.

  20. A Cohort Comparison of Buprenorphine versus Methadone Treatment for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eric S; Isemann, Barbara T; Wexelblatt, Scott L; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiles, Jason R; Harvey, Sharon; Akinbi, Henry T

    2016-03-01

    To compare the duration of opioid treatment and length of stay among infants treated for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) by using a pilot buprenorphine vs conventional methadone treatment protocol. This retrospective cohort analysis evaluated infants who received pharmacotherapy for NAS at 6 hospitals in Southwest Ohio from January 2012 through August 2014. A single neonatology provider group used a standardized methadone protocol across all 6 hospitals. However, at one of the sites, infants were managed with a buprenorphine protocol unless they had experienced chronic in utero exposure to methadone. Linear mixed models were used to calculate adjusted mean duration of opioid treatment and length of inpatient hospitalization with 95% CIs in infants treated with oral methadone compared with sublingual buprenorphine. The use of adjunct therapy was examined as a secondary outcome. A total of 201 infants with NAS were treated with either buprenorphine (n = 38) or methadone (n = 163) after intrauterine exposure to short-acting opioids or buprenorphine. Buprenorphine therapy was associated with a shorter course of opioid treatment of 9.4 (CI 7.1-11.7) vs 14.0 (12.6-15.4) days (P methadone therapy. No difference was detected in the use of adjunct therapy (23.7% vs 25.8%, P = .79) between treatment groups. The choice of pharmacotherapeutic agent is an important determinant of hospital outcomes in infants with NAS. Sublingual buprenorphine may be superior to methadone for management of NAS in infants with select intrauterine opioid exposures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preliminary investigation comparing a detomidine continuous rate infusion combined with either morphine or buprenorphine for standing sedation in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Joanna J; MacFarlane, Paul D; Love, Emma J; Tremaine, Henry; Taylor, Polly M; Murrell, Joanna C

    2016-03-01

    To compare sedative and analgesic properties of buprenorphine or morphine for standing procedures combined with a detomidine continuous rate infusion (CRI). Blinded, prospective, randomized clinical pilot study. Ten horses presented for dental or sinus procedures. Horses received 0.02 mg kg(-1) acepromazine intravenously (IV), followed 30 minutes later by detomidine 10 μg kg(-1) IV. Five minutes later, buprenorphine 0.01 mg kg(-1) (n = 6) or morphine 0.1 mg kg(-1) (n = 4) was administered IV. Detomidine was administered by CRI (0.2 μg kg(-1) minute(-1)) and adjusted to maintain appropriate sedation. Heart rate, respiratory frequency, gastrointestinal motility and rectal temperature were measured; pain, ataxia and sedation were scored. Sedation, pain scores and ataxia scores were analysed using a mixed linear model. Detomidine dose and procedure success scores were compared using Wilcoxon's rank sum test. Complications between groups were analysed using Fisher's exact test. Two horses had incomplete data. Weights and ages were not different between groups (p = 0.15 and p = 0.42, respectively). The dose rate for detomidine was not different between groups (0.33 ± 0.02 μg kg(-1) minute(-1) in the buprenorphine group and 0.33 ± 0.05 μg kg(-1) minute(-1), in the morphine group p = 0.89). Intraoperative visual analogue scale scores were greater after buprenorphine than morphine (mean ± SD, buprenorphine 48 ± 4, morphine 40 ± 5, p = 0.0497). Procedure duration was not different between groups (buprenorphine 142 ± 33, morphine 140 ± 12 minutes). All horses treated with buprenorphine experienced complications compared with none in the morphine group (p = 0.0286). At the doses used, buprenorphine produced greater sedation but more post-operative complications than morphine. However, Type I or Type II errors cannot be excluded and larger studies are required to confirm these findings. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of

  2. Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic, daily Cannabis smokers during sustained, monitored abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dayong; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J; Goodwin, Robert S; Hirvonen, Jussi; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-08-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is an accepted alternative biological matrix for drug treatment, workplace, and DUID (driving under the influence of drugs) investigations, but establishing the cannabinoid OF detection window and concentration cutoff criteria are important. Cannabinoid concentrations were quantified in OF from chronic, daily cannabis smokers during monitored abstinence. Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)(3), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) were determined in daily OF samples collected with the Quantisal™ device. GC-MS limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.5 μg/L for THC and CBD, 1 μg/L for CBN, and 7.5 ng/L for THCCOOH. After providing written informed consent for this institutional review board-approved study, 28 participants resided from 4 to 33 days on the secure research unit and provided 577 OF specimens. At the LOQ, THC was generally quantifiable for 48 h, whereas CBD and CBN were detected only at admission. Median THCCOOH detection time was 13 days (CI 6.4-19.6 days). Mean THC detection rates decreased from 89.3% at admission to 17.9% after 48 h, whereas THCCOOH gradually decreased from 89.3% to 64.3% within 4 days. Criteria of THC ≥2 μg/L and THCCOOH ≥20 ng/L reduced detection to THC ratio ≤4 ng/μg or presence of CBD or CBN may indicate more recent smoking. THC, THCCOOH, CBD, and CBN quantification in confirmatory OF cannabinoid testing is recommended. Inclusion of multiple cannabinoid cutoffs accounted for residual cannabinoid excretion in OF from chronic, daily cannabis smokers and could reduce the potential for positive test results from passive cannabis smoke exposure and lead to greatly improved test interpretation.

  3. [Methods in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS): results of a nationwide survey in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchinger, S; Sapetschnig, I; Danda, M; Sommer, C; Resch, B; Urlesberger, B; Raith, W

    2015-08-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) occurs in neonates whose mothers have taken addictive drugs or were under substitution therapy during pregnancy. Incidence numbers of NAS are on the rise globally, even in Austria NAS is not rare anymore. The aim of our survey was to reveal the status quo of dealing with NAS in Austria. A questionnaire was sent to 20 neonatology departments all over Austria, items included questions on scoring, therapy, breast-feeding and follow-up procedures. The response rate was 95%, of which 94.7% had written guidelines concerning NAS. The median number of children being treated per year for NAS was 4. Finnegan scoring system is used in 100% of the responding departments. Morphine is being used most often, in opiate abuse (100%) as well as in multiple substance abuse (44.4%). The most frequent forms of morphine preparation are morphine and diluted tincture of opium. Frequency as well as dosage of medication vary broadly. 61.1% of the departments supported breast-feeding, regulations concerned participation in a substitution programme and general contraindications (HIV, HCV, HBV). Our results revealed that there is a big west-east gradient in patients being treated per year. NAS is not a rare entity anymore in Austria (up to 50 cases per year in Vienna). Our survey showed that most neonatology departments in Austria treat their patients following written guidelines. Although all of them base these guidelines on international recommendations there is no national consensus. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent to…

  5. Comorbidades psiquiátricas em dependentes químicos em abstinência em ambiente protegido Psychiatric comorbidities in abstinent drug addict in a protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Raquel Binsfeld Hess

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar a frequência de comorbidades psiquiátricas, utilizando Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, em diferentes grupos de dependentes químicos em abstinência, em ambiente protegido, classificados de acordo com o tipo de droga utilizada: (1 grupo controle (n = 37; (2 dependentes em abstinência de álcool (n = 8; (3 dependentes em abstinência de álcool, maconha e crack/cocaína (n = 24; e (4 dependentes em abstinência de múltiplas substâncias psicoativas (n=25, ou seja, indivíduos que faziam uso de vários tipos de drogas sem apresentar uma droga de escolha. Participaram 94 homens, com idade média de 30,41 anos (DP = 9,88. O período de abstinência variou entre 30 e 240 dias. A maioria dos participantes tinha baixa escolaridade e era solteira. Os resultados apontaram maior ocorrência de psicopatologias e risco de suicídio nos grupos formados por pacientes com histórico de consumo múltiplo de substâncias, sugerindo a importância da avaliação de outros transtornos associados à dependência química.The objective of this research was to determine the frequency of psychiatric comorbidity, using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, in different groups of former drug addicts, classified according to the type of drug used: (1 control group (n = 37, (2 ex-users of alcohol only (n = 8, (3 former users of alcohol, marijuana and crack /cocaine (n = 24, and (4 ex-poly drug users (n = 25, in other words, individuals who use various types of drugs without a clear drug of choice. Participants comprised 94 men, mean age 30.41 years (SD = 9.88. The withdrawal period varied between 30 and 240 days. Most participants had little schooling and were single. The results showed a higher incidence of psychopathology and suicide risk in the groups formed by patients with a history of multiple substance use, suggesting the importance of evaluation of other disorders associated with addiction.

  6. Prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing adenoma detection rate in colonoscopy using water exchange, water immersion, and air insufflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Hu, Chi-Tan; Koo, Malcolm; Leung, Felix W

    2017-07-01

    Adenoma detection rate (ADR), defined as the proportion of patients with at least one adenoma of any size, is a quality indicator. We tested the hypothesis that water exchange (WE) improves ADR but water immersion (WI) has no adverse effect on ADR compared with air insufflation (AI). A prospective study was conducted at the Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital in southern Taiwan and the Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital in eastern Taiwan on patients randomly assigned to WE, WI, or AI with stratification by the 3 study colonoscopists. The primary outcome was ADR. From July 2013 to December 2015, 651 patients were recruited and randomized into 3 groups with a 1:1:1 ratio (217 patients per group). Overall, ADR met quality standards: WE 49.8% (95% CI, 43.2%-56.4%), AI 37.8% (95% CI, 31.6%-44.4%), and WI 40.6% (95% CI, 34.2%-47.2%). Compared with AI, WE significantly increased ADR (P = .016). There was no difference between WI and WE. ADRs of WI and AI were comparable. Compared with AI, WE confirmed a longer insertion time, higher cleanliness score, but similar adenoma per positive colonoscopy (APPC) and withdrawal time with polypectomy. Subgroup analysis found WE significantly increased ADR in propofol-sedated patients. Multivariate generalized linear mixed model analysis revealed that age ≥50 years, WE (vs AI), colonoscopy indication, no previous history of colonoscopy, and withdrawal time >8 minutes were significant predictors of increased ADR. Confirmation of prior reports showing WE, but not WI, increased ADR further strengthened the validity of our observations. WE significantly increased ADR in propofol-sedated patients. The outcome differences justify assessment of the role of WE in colorectal cancer prevention. Similar APPC and withdrawal times suggest that adequate inspection was performed on colonoscope withdrawal in each of the study arms. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT01894191.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk-free assets: Are they truly risk-free? A comparative study of South African rates and instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosthuizen, A.V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Determining the price of a financial instrument is something that happens every day in the financial markets. Every price starts off with a spot price adjusted for interest until maturity of the particular instrument. The interest is usually described as risk-free interest. The price so determined is the most basic price that an investor is willing to pay if not risk is involved. Risk-free assets, then, are securities of which the future rates of return are known with certainty. An exceptional degree of confidence in the issuer of the security brings about this certainty. Risk-free assets are normally in the fixed income securities (capital markets investment category or in the liquid money market instruments such as treasury bills, category. This study attempts to determine whether the risk-free rates used by treasury managers and traders in South Africa to formulate their bond yield curves and which are used in valuation models, may be deemed risk-free. The study specifies certain criteria that an asset must satisfy in order to be used as a risk-free asset. Short term and long term South African instruments are compared to the US counterpart instruments, to gain an understanding of the South African instruments relative to the US ones. The behaviour of the risk-free instruments used in South Africa is also compared to the FTSE/JSE All Share Index and gold spot prices, which are perceived to be a risky asset classes. To gain some understanding of the behaviour of these instruments, analyses were done from different angles. The standard deviations of the daily percentage changes of the R157 were significantly lower than that of the ALSI and the gold spot price change. Compared to the ALSI and gold spot price, therefore, the R157 may be deemed a “low risk” instrument. The JIBAR was even less volatile that the R157. Interestingly, the US instruments were substantially more risky than the SA instruments over the analysis period. Also the JIBAR

  8. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Meeting MTM Eligibility Criteria Based on Star Ratings Compared with the Medicare Modernization Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Christina A; Wang, Junling; Qiao, Yanru; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Wan, Jim Y; Kuhle, Julie; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Cushman, William C; Chisholm-Burns, Marie

    2018-02-01

    Previous research found racial and ethnic disparities in meeting medication therapy management (MTM) eligibility criteria implemented by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) in accordance with the Medicare Modernization Act (MMA). To examine whether alternative MTM eligibility criteria based on the CMS Part D star ratings quality evaluation system can reduce racial and ethnic disparities. This study analyzed the Beneficiary Summary File and claims files for Medicare beneficiaries linked to the Area Health Resource File. Three million Medicare beneficiaries with continuous Parts A, B, and D enrollment in 2012-2013 were included. Proposed star ratings criteria included 9 existing medication safety and adherence measures developed mostly by the Pharmacy Quality Alliance. Logistic regression and the Blinder-Oaxaca approach were used to test disparities in meeting MMA and star ratings eligibility criteria across racial and ethnic groups. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether there was a disparity reduction by comparing individuals who were MTM-eligible under MMA but not under star ratings criteria and those who were MTM-eligible under star ratings criteria but not under the MMA. Concerning MMA-based MTM criteria, main and sensitivity analyses were performed to represent the entire range of the MMA eligibility thresholds reported by plans in 2009, 2013, and proposed by CMS in 2015. Regarding star ratings criteria, meeting any 1 of the 9 measures was examined as the main analysis, and various measure combinations were examined as the sensitivity analyses. In the main analysis, adjusted odds ratios for non-Hispanic blacks (backs) and Hispanics to non-Hispanic whites (whites) were 1.394 (95% CI = 1.375-1.414) and 1.197 (95% CI = 1.176-1.218), respectively, under star ratings. Blacks were 39.4% and Hispanics were 19.7% more likely to be MTM-eligible than whites. Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to be MTM-eligible than whites in some

  9. Comparable high rates of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in birds of prey from Germany and Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Sebastian; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Stamm, Ivonne; Bethe, Astrid; Semmler, Torsten; Stubbe, Annegret; Stubbe, Michael; Batsajkhan, Nyamsuren; Glupczynski, Youri; Wieler, Lothar H; Ewers, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Frequent contact with human waste and liquid manure from intensive livestock breeding, and the increased loads of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that result, are believed to be responsible for the high carriage rates of ESBL-producing E. coli found in birds of prey (raptors) in Central Europe. To test this hypothesis against the influence of avian migration, we initiated a comparative analysis of faecal samples from wild birds found in Saxony-Anhalt in Germany and the Gobi-Desert in Mongolia, regions of dissimilar human and livestock population characteristics and agricultural practices. We sampled a total of 281 wild birds, mostly raptors with primarily north-to-south migration routes. We determined antimicrobial resistance, focusing on ESBL production, and unravelled the phylogenetic and clonal relatedness of identified ESBL-producing E. coli isolates using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and macrorestriction analyses. Surprisingly, the overall carriage rates (approximately 5%) and the proportion of ESBL-producers among E. coli (Germany: 13.8%, Mongolia: 10.8%) were similar in both regions. Whereas bla(CTX-M-1) predominated among German isolates (100%), bla(CTX-M-9) was the most prevalent in Mongolian isolates (75%). We identified sequence types (STs) that are well known in human and veterinary clinical ESBL-producing E. coli (ST12, ST117, ST167, ST648) and observed clonal relatedness between a Mongolian avian ESBL-E. coli (ST167) and a clinical isolate of the same ST that originated in a hospitalised patient in Europe. Our data suggest the influence of avian migratory species in the transmission of ESBL-producing E. coli and challenge the prevailing assumption that reducing human influence alone invariably leads to lower rates of antimicrobial resistance.

  10. Sleep-Wake Differences in Relative Regional Cerebral Metabolic Rate for Glucose among Patients with Insomnia Compared with Good Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B.; Karim, Helmet T.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Hasler, Brant P.; Wilckens, Kristine A.; James, Jeffrey A.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Price, Julie C.; Rosario, Bedda L.; Kupfer, David J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica H.; Franzen, Peter L.; Nofzinger, Eric A.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The neurobiological mechanisms of insomnia may involve altered patterns of activation across sleep-wake states in brain regions associated with cognition, self-referential processes, affect, and sleep-wake promotion. The objective of this study was to compare relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) in these brain regions across wake and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep states in patients with primary insomnia (PI) and good sleeper controls (GS). Methods: Participants included 44 PI and 40 GS matched for age (mean = 37 y old, range 21–60), sex, and race. We conducted [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography scans in PI and GS during both morning wakefulness and NREM sleep at night. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test for group (PI vs. GS) by state (wake vs. NREM sleep) interactions in relative rCMRglc. Results: Significant group-by-state interactions in relative rCMRglc were found in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior/superior parietal lobules, left lingual/fusiform/occipital gyri, and right lingual gyrus. All clusters were significant at Pcorrected sleep and wakefulness. Significant group-by-state interactions in relative rCMRglc suggest that insomnia is associated with impaired disengagement of brain regions involved in cognition (left frontoparietal), self-referential processes (precuneus/posterior cingulate), and affect (left middle frontal, fusiform/lingual gyri) during NREM sleep, or alternatively, to impaired engagement of these regions during wakefulness. Citation: Kay DB, Karim HT, Soehner AM, Hasler BP, Wilckens KA, James JA, Aizenstein HJ, Price JC, Rosario BL, Kupfer DJ, Germain A, Hall MH, Franzen PL, Nofzinger EA, Buysse DJ. Sleep-wake differences in relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose among patients with insomnia compared with good sleepers. SLEEP 2016;39(10):1779–1794. PMID:27568812

  11. Underdiagnosis and Lower Rates of Office Visits for Overweight/Obese Pediatric Patients in Rural Compared with Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanGiovanni, Christine; McElligott, James; Morella, Kristen; Basco, William

    2017-07-01

    This study compared the number of children enrolled in Medicaid in rural and urban areas of South Carolina with an overweight/obesity diagnosis and the mean rates of office visits with overweight/obesity diagnosed. Medicaid claims data from 2012 for children in three South Carolina counties, categorized as urban, rural high resource, and rural low resource, were used to identify those who had been diagnosed as being overweight/obese during any encounter. Logistic and Poisson regressions were performed to predict whether overweight/obese children in each county would receive an overweight/obesity visit diagnosis and to calculate the mean rate of total office visits with an overweight/obesity diagnosis in each county. A total of 1233 children enrolled in Medicaid were diagnosed as being overweight/obese at any encounter in the designated counties. Well visits with overweight/obesity diagnosed varied significantly, with 42.6%, 28%, and 11% in urban, rural high-resource counties, and rural low-resource counties, respectively ( P overweight/obese at a well visit. All of the children had a low number of total office visits with overweight/obesity diagnosed. When comparing the counties, urban children (1.22 visits per year) had more visits than rural low-resource children (0.75 visits per year, P Overweight/obesity is underdiagnosed in rural children enrolled in Medicaid in South Carolina, which affects the number of children who receive help to manage their weight. Interventions to overcome barriers of diagnosis and management are necessary to address childhood obesity properly.

  12. The logic of comparative life history studies for estimating key parameters, with a focus on natural mortality rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, John M; Then, Amy Y.-H.; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Hall, Norman G.; Hewitt, David A.; Hesp, Sybrand A.

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of key parameters in population dynamics that are difficult to estimate, such as natural mortality rate, intrinsic rate of population growth, and stock-recruitment relationships. Often, these parameters of a stock are, or can be, estimated indirectly on the basis of comparative life history studies. That is, the relationship between a difficult to estimate parameter and life history correlates is examined over a wide variety of species in order to develop predictive equations. The form of these equations may be derived from life history theory or simply be suggested by exploratory data analysis. Similarly, population characteristics such as potential yield can be estimated by making use of a relationship between the population parameter and bio-chemico–physical characteristics of the ecosystem. Surprisingly, little work has been done to evaluate how well these indirect estimators work and, in fact, there is little guidance on how to conduct comparative life history studies and how to evaluate them. We consider five issues arising in such studies: (i) the parameters of interest may be ill-defined idealizations of the real world, (ii) true values of the parameters are not known for any species, (iii) selecting data based on the quality of the estimates can introduce a host of problems, (iv) the estimates that are available for comparison constitute a non-random sample of species from an ill-defined population of species of interest, and (v) the hierarchical nature of the data (e.g. stocks within species within genera within families, etc., with multiple observations at each level) warrants consideration. We discuss how these issues can be handled and how they shape the kinds of questions that can be asked of a database of life history studies.

  13. Prospective study comparing functional outcomes and revision rates between hip resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty: preliminary results for 2 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Pailhé

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a need of independent prospective studies about modern generation of hip resurfacing implants. The aim of this propective observational study was to compare the functional outcomes and revision rates with hip resurfacing arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty and to present the preliminary results at 2 years. Patients included were recruited prospectively in the Partial Pelvic Replacement Hip Project by a single surgeon between January 2007 and January 2010. Patients were assessed with the Harris Hip Score (HHS and Postel-Merle d’Aubigné (MDA score and Devane Score. The end point of the study was reoperation for any cause related to the prosthesis. At a mean follow up of 38.6 months there were a total of 142 patients with hip resurfacing (group 1 [100 Durom® (Zimmer Inc., Warsaw, IN, USA and 42 Birmingham Hip Resurfacing® (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA] and 278 patients with total hip arthroplasty (group 2. The results showed significantly greater gain of HHS, MDA and Devane score with hip resurfacing procedures. However, considering all the complications, the rate was significantly higher in group 16.4% vs 1.79% in group 2 (P<0.0001. In group 1 we observed 6 complications only concerned males with Durom® implants. The follow up of this cohort is still on going and may deliver more information on the evolution of these results in time.

  14. A comparative analysis of infiltration rates below a pasture and a secondary forest on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ozouville, N.; Pryet, A.; Tournebize, J.; Chaumont, C.; Gonzáles, A.; Dominguez, C.; Fuente-Tomai, P.; Fernandez, J.; Violette, S.

    2011-12-01

    The potential effects of land use changes on groundwater recharge are being investigated on the windward side of Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Comparative studies allow the identification of the processes (evaporation, transpiration, soil water storage) at the vegetation/soil interface leading to contrasting recharge rates under different land covers. During one year, we monitored soil water dynamics under two adjacent study plots differing only by their vegetation cover: a pasture and a secondary forest. Climatic variables were monitored above the pasture and completed by throughfall monitoring under the forest. Tensiometers provide a direct measurement of the driving force of water dynamics in the soil: the hydraulic head gradient. In the two plots, tensiometers were set up in vertical profiles together with soil water content probes and connected to an automatic acquisition device. The forest stand has a higher canopy storage capacity and aerodynamic resistance, which causes evaporation losses to be higher. This is confirmed by throughfall measurements: only ca. 80% of gross precipitation reaches the ground. Expectedly, soil water tension profiles present clearly different behaviors in the pasture and in the forest. Despite high uncertainties on estimated recharge rates, we show that parallel monitoring of soil hydrodynamics in these two study plots provides valuable insights and may help to manage or anticipate the potential effect of deforestation or invasion by introduced plants on the hydrology of Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.

  15. Effective tax rate for income from employment in the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic – a comparative study

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    Karel Brychta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is primarily to compare and describe the development of the effective tax rate (relative tax burden on the taxpayer earning only income from employment and emoluments in the Czech and Slovak Republics. The reason for choosing this type of income has been its importance in terms of the volume of tax collection in the area of natural persons income tax in the Czech Republic. The actual comparison has been performed for the years 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all cases, the legal status was considered that was valid and effective as of 31. 12. of particular year. Comparison of the effective tax rate was performed not only between the individual countries themselves, but also chronologically for individual countries (the Czech and Slovak Republics, respectively. After the general introduction, the relevant legislation as to incomes from employment and emoluments in both countries is explained. A separate chapter discusses the specification of the applied methodology, within which basic starting points and the simplifications applied are defined. Another part of the paper contains outputs from compiled mathematical models. These are presented in the form of graphic outputs and supplemented with commentary.

  16. Effects of Initial Abstinence and Programmed Lapses on the Relative Reinforcing Effects of Cigarette Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Laura L.; Higgins, Stephen T.; Heil, Sarah H.; Proskin, Rebecca W.; Thomas, Colleen S.

    2008-01-01

    Fifty-eight smokers received abstinence-contingent monetary payments for 1 (n = 15) or 14 (n = 43) days. Those who received contingent payments for 14 days also received 0, 1, or 8 experimenter-delivered cigarette puffs on 5 evenings. The relative reinforcing effects of smoking were assessed in a 3-hr session on the final study day, when…

  17. Spinal cord thyrotropin releasing hormone receptors of morphine tolerant-dependent and abstinent rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, N.H.; Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The effect of chronic administration of morphine and its withdrawal on the binding of 3H-(3-MeHis2)thyrotropin releasing hormone (3H-MeTRH) to membranes of the spinal cord of the rat was determined. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with either 6 placebo or 6 morphine pellets (each containing 75-mg morphine base) during a 7-day period. Two sets of animals were used. In one, the pellets were left intact at the time of sacrificing (tolerant-dependent) and in the other, the pellets were removed 16 hours prior to sacrificing (abstinent rats). In placebo-pellet-implanted rats, 3H-MeTRH bound to the spinal cord membranes at a single high affinity binding site with a Bmax of 21.3 +/- 1.6 fmol/mg protein, and an apparent dissociation constant Kd of 4.7 +/- 0.8 nM. In morphine tolerant-dependent or abstinent rats, the binding constants of 3H-MeTRH to spinal cord membranes were unaffected. Previous studies from this laboratory indicate that TRH can inhibit morphine tolerance-dependence and abstinence processes without modifying brain TRH receptors. Together with the present results, it appears that the inhibitory effect of TRH on morphine tolerance-dependence and abstinence is probably not mediated via central TRH receptors but may be due to its interaction with other neurotransmitter systems.

  18. Psychosocial factors related to gambling abstinence and relapse in members of gamblers anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Tian P S; Gordon, Leon M

    2008-03-01

    Problem gamblers account for almost one-third of the industry's total revenue with the adverse effects of problem gambling including significant financial loss, legal and occupational difficulties, family problems, psychological distress and suicide. As such, it is important to understand the influential factors in gambling abstinence and relapse, which will assist in the development of relapse prevention methods in therapeutic treatment regimes. This paper reported the role of a set of seven predictors in distinguishing between abstinent and relapsed gamblers among 75 Gambling Anonymous (GA) members (55 males; 20 females; Mean age 45 years) in Southeast Queensland. The measures taken were meeting Attendance and Participation, Social Support, God Belief, Belief in a Higher Power, Working the 12-steps of Recovery, Gambling Urges and Erroneous Cognitions. Discriminant analysis revealed that the variables separating the two groups were significant, suggesting that GA members achieving abstinence could be distinguished from those who relapsed, with Attendance and Participation, and Social Support contributing the greatest influence on member's ability to abstain from gambling. The findings suggested that GA member's involvement in meetings, and support from family and friends had significant impact on their gambling abstinence. In contrast, increased gambling urges and erroneous cognitions increased the chance of relapse.

  19. Drug-related decrease in neuropsychological functions of abstinent drug users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holst, Ruth Janke; Schilt, Thelma

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews neuropsychological performance in frequent users of cocaine, (meth)amphetamines, ecstasy, opiates, alcohol, and cannabis. We searched the scientific literature published in the last five years, focusing on studies that required at least 2 weeks of abstinence from drug use, and

  20. Attacking the Personal Fable: Role-Play and Its Effect on Teen Attitudes toward Sexual Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, Eli; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines role playing as a tool for changing teenagers' attitudes about sex behavior and the consequences of teen pregnancy. A sample of 267 ninth-grade students attending a high-risk urban school participated. Role playing and watching videos of friends' role playing significantly increased favorable attitudes toward abstinence in girls but not…

  1. Adolescents' Thoughts about Abstinence Curb the Return of Marijuana Use during and after Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin M.; Chung, Tammy; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite evidence showing that readiness to change substance use predicts reductions in substance use among treated adolescents, there is little research on changes in thoughts about abstinence and marijuana use during and after treatment. The current study tested whether time-varying changes in adolescents' motivation to abstain and perceived…

  2. Subjective social status predicts quit-day abstinence among homeless smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Kendzor, Darla E; Cao, Yumei; Businelle, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Smoking prevalence is alarmingly high among the homeless. Few studies have focused on predictors of smoking abstinence in this population. Subjective social status, a person's ranking of their own social standing relative to others in the United States or in their own self-defined communities, has predicted smoking cessation among domiciled smokers in analyses adjusted for objective socioeconomic status and other demographic variables. This study examined if subjective social status predicted quit-day abstinence among homeless smokers making a quit attempt. Longitudinal study using self-reported survey data. Transitional homeless shelter in Dallas, Texas. A total of 57 homeless smokers enrolled in a cessation program. Predictors were the Subjective Social Status-U.S (SSS-U.S.) and the Subjective Social Status-Community (SSS-Community) ladders measured 1 week pre quit. Covariates were sociodemographics and tobacco dependence measured 1 week pre quit. The outcome was self-reported and biochemically verified smoking abstinence on the quit day. Analysis . Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models. Higher rankings on the SSS-U.S. ladder, but not the SSS-Community ladder, predicted abstinence on the quit day (p = .005). Lower rankings on the SSS-U.S. ladder predicted increased risk of relapse on the quit day or the inability to quit at all. The SSS-U.S. ladder might be useful in identifying homeless smokers needing additional preparation and intervention before initiating a quit attempt.

  3. Attitudes toward harm reduction and abstinence-only approaches to alcohol misuse among Alaskan college students

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    Monica C. Skewes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Harm reduction is a public health approach that aims to guide hazardous drinkers to change unsafe drinking and minimize alcohol-related consequences without requiring abstinence. In contrast, abstinence-based interventions are designed for people with more severe alcohol problems and they aim to eliminate consequences via complete abstinence from alcohol. Current best practices for treating college student alcohol misuse involve harm reduction strategies, but no research has been conducted examining students’ perceptions of these strategies. Objective. Understanding attitudes is critical prior to the implementation of an intervention in a new setting, particularly when attitudes may serve as barriers to treatment enrolment and retention. For this reason, we sought to examine attitudes toward contrasting alcohol misuse interventions among college students in two large public universities in the circumpolar north. Design. A web-based survey was conducted with 461 students from two public universities in Alaska. Participants completed questionnaires assessing attitudes toward alcohol treatment, current drinking behaviour, and demographic information. Results. Findings indicated that emerging adult (18–25 years old students who would be targets of future interventions (hazardous drinkers evidenced more positive attitudes toward harm reduction than abstinence-only approaches. Conclusion. This research provides support for the implementation of harm reduction intervention strategies for Alaskan college students who misuse alcohol. It is likely that harm reduction will be acceptable in this population.

  4. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Abstinence Education: An Update. No. 2372

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christine C.; Rector, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Teen sexual activity is costly, not just for teens, but also for society. Teens who engage in sexual activity risk a host of negative outcomes including STD infection, emotional and psychological harm, and out-of-wedlock childbearing. Genuine abstinence education is therefore crucial to the physical and psycho-emotional well-being of the nation's…

  5. Examination of anonymous canine faecal samples provides data on endoparasite prevalence rates in dogs for comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinney, Barbara; Gottwald, Michaela; Moser, Jasmine; Reicher, Bianca; Schäfer, Bhavapriya Jasmin; Schaper, Roland; Joachim, Anja; Künzel, Frank

    2017-10-15

    Several endoparasites of dogs cannot only be detrimental to their primary host but might also represent a threat to human health because of their zoonotic potential. Due to their high dog population densities, metropolitan areas can be highly endemic for such parasites. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of endoparasites in dogs in the Austrian capital of Vienna by examining a representative number of canine faecal samples and to compare the prevalences with two neighbouring peri-urban and rural regions. In addition we analysed whether the density of dog populations and cleanliness of dog zones correlated with parasite occurrence. We collected 1001 anonymous faecal samples from 55 dog zones from all 23 districts of the federal state of Vienna, as well as 480 faecal samples from the Mödling district and Wolkersdorf with a peri-urban and rural character, respectively. Faeces were examined by flotation and by Baermann technique. Additionally we evaluated 292 Viennese, 102 peri-urban and 50 rural samples for Giardia and Cryptosporidium by GiardiaFASTest ® and CryptoFASTest ® . Samples from "clean" dog zones were compared to samples from "dirty" zones. The infection rate of Toxocara was surprisingly low, ranging from 0.6% to 1.9%. Trichuris was the most frequent helminth (1.8-7.5%) and Giardia the most frequent protozoan (4.0-10.8%). Ancylostomatidae, Crenosoma, Capillaria, Taeniidae, Cystoisospora and Sarcocystis were found in 1.8-2.2%, 0-0.9%, 0-0.9%, 0-0.6%, 0.3-3.1% and 0-0.6% of the samples, respectively. Samples from "dirty" dog zones in Vienna showed a significantly higher rate of parasites overall (p=0.003) and of Trichuris (p=0.048) compared to samples from "clean" dog zones. There were no statistically significant differences in densely vs. less densely populated areas of Vienna. Samples from the rural region of Wolkersdorf had significantly higher overall parasite, Trichuris and Cystoisospora prevalences than the peri-urban Mödling district and Vienna (p

  6. Comparing different estimated glomerular filtration rate equations in assessing glomerular function in children based on creatinine and cystatin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkar, Seçil; Mir, Sevgi; Karaslan, Fatma Nur; Hakverdi, Gülden

    2018-02-27

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the best marker used to assess renal function. Estimated GFR (eGFR) equations have been developed, and the ideal formula is still under discussion. We wanted to find the most practical and reliable GFR in eGFR formulas. We compared serum creatinine (Scr)- and cystatin C (cysC)-based eGFR formulas in the literature. We also aimed to determine the suitability and the reliability of cysC for practical use in determining GFR in children. We have enrolled 238 children in the study. Measurement of 24-hour creatinine clearance was compared with eGFR equations which are based on Scr, cysC, and creatinine plus cysC. Of the patients (n = 238), 117 were males (49.2%), and 121 (50.8%) were females with a median age of 9.0 years. The areas under the ROC curves of Counahan-Barratt and Bedside Schwartz were equal and 0.89 (with a 95% CI 0.80-0.97). The areas under the ROC curves were not significantly different in all cystatin C-based eGFR equations. The highest AUC values for differentiating normal vs abnormal renal functions according to CrCl 24 were for the CKiD-cysC and CKiD-Scr-cysC equations. In our study, compared with creatinine-based ones, the cystatin C-based formulas did not show much superiority in predicting eGFR. Still, we think Bedside Schwartz is a good formula to provide ease of use because, in this equation, the constant k is same for all age groups. However, the most valuable equations in determining chronic kidney disease are the CKiD-cysC and CKiD-Scr-cysC equations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The use of crowdsourcing for dietary self-monitoring: crowdsourced ratings of food pictures are comparable to ratings by trained observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Helander, Elina E; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Perez-Macias, Jose Maria; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2015-04-01

    Crowdsourcing dietary ratings for food photographs, which uses the input of several users to provide feedback, has potential to assist with dietary self-monitoring. This study assessed how closely crowdsourced ratings of foods and beverages contained in 450 pictures from the Eatery mobile app as rated by peer users (fellow Eatery app users) (n = 5006 peers, mean 18.4 peer ratings/photo) using a simple 'healthiness' scale were related to the ratings of the same pictures by trained observers (raters). In addition, the foods and beverages present in each picture were categorized and the impact on the peer rating scale by food/beverage category was examined. Raters were trained to provide a 'healthiness' score using criteria from the 2010 US Dietary Guidelines. The average of all three raters' scores was highly correlated with the peer healthiness score for all photos (r = 0.88, pcrowdsourcing holds potential to provide basic feedback on overall diet quality to users utilizing a low burden approach. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Abstinent Heroin Addicts Tend to Take Risks: ERP and Source Localization

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    Qinglin Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal decision making is a behavioral characteristic of drug addiction. Indeed, drug addicts prefer immediate rewards at the expense of future interests. Assessing the neurocognitive basis of decision-making related to drug dependence, combining event-related potential (ERP analysis and source localization techniques, may provide new insights into understanding decision-making deficits in drug addicts and further guide withdrawal treatment. In this study, EEG was performed in 20 abstinent heroin addicts (AHAs and 20 age-, education- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs while they participated in a simple two-choice gambling task (99 vs. 9. Our behavioral results showed that AHAs tend to select higher-risk choices compared with HCs (i.e., more “99” choices than “9”. ERP results showed that right hemisphere preponderance of stimulus-preceding negativity was disrupted in AHAs, but not in HCs. Feedback-related negativity of difference wave was higher in AHAs than HCs, with the P300 amplitude associated with risk magnitude and valence. Using source localization that allows identification of abnormal brain activity in consequential cognitive stages, including the reward expectation and outcome evaluation stages, we found abnormalities in both behavioral and neural responses on gambling in AHAs. Taken together, our findings suggest AHAs have risk-prone tendency and dysfunction in adaptive decision making, since they continue to choose risky options even after accruing considerable negative scores, and fail to shift to a safer strategy to avoid risk. Such abnormal decision-making bias to risk and immediate reward seeking may be accompanied by abnormal reward expectation and evaluation in AHAs, which explains their high risk-seeking and impulsivity.

  9. Differences in biomarkers of crack-cocaine adolescent users before/after abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianca, Thiago Gatti; Rosa, Ronaldo Lopes; Ceresér, Keila Maria Mendes; de Aguiar, Bianca Wollenhaupt; de Abrahão, Rafaela Carvalho; Lazzari, Patrícia Mafra; Kapczinski, Flávio; Pechansky, Flávio; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Szobot, Cláudia Maciel

    2017-08-01

    To measure the variation in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and interleukin (IL) levels in crack-cocaine dependent adolescents after 21days of abstinence, comparing to levels found in a group of healthy controls. Cross-sectional nested on a short follow-up study. Two inpatient treatment units for adolescents, and a low-income neighborhood. 90 adolescents, of both genders, with diagnosis of crack cocaine dependence, and 81 healthy adolescents. Serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, TBARS and BDNF were assessed on admission and discharge. Drug addiction severity was assessed by the Addiction Severity Index - Teen Version (T-ASI) and Cocaine Craving Questionnaire - Brief version (CCQ-b). Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed by the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to estimate the IL-6, IL-10, TBARS and BDNF levels, adjusted for confounders. Hedges' g was used to estimate effect size. TBARS (p=0.005, d=0.04), IL-6 (p=0.027, d=0.40) and IL-10 (p=0.025, d=0.41) were elevated and BDNF (p<0.001, d=0.62) was reduced (p<0.001), in patients, in comparison to controls, at admission time. Variation in those levels between admission and discharge were not significant. Crack-cocaine use seems to be associated with inflammatory and oxidative imbalances in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Attentional dysfunction in abstinent long-term cannabis users with and without schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentzsch, Johannes; Stadtmann, Ada; Montag, Christiane; Kunte, Hagen; Plöckl, Doris; Hellweg, Rainer; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kronenberg, Golo; Jockers-Scherübl, Maria Christiane

    2016-08-01

    Long-term cannabis use may confer cognitive deficits and increased risk of psychosis. However, the relationship between cannabis use and schizophrenia is complex. In particular, little is known about the effects of chronic cannabis use on the attention-related electric brain response in schizophrenia. We investigated auditory novelty and oddball P300 evoked potentials in a mixed sample of first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients and healthy controls with (SZCA, n = 20; COCA, n = 20, abstinence ≥28 days) or without (SZ, n = 20; CO, n = 20) chronic cannabis use. Duration of regular cannabis use was 8.3 ± 5.6 (SZCA) and 9.1 ± 7.1 (COCA) years. In general, schizophrenic patients showed reduced P300 amplitudes. Cannabis use was associated with both a reduced early and late left-hemispheric novelty P300. There was a significant 'diagnosis × cannabis' interaction for the left-hemispheric late novelty P300 in that cannabis use was associated with a reduced amplitude in the otherwise healthy but not in the schizophrenic group compared with their relative control groups (corrected p  0.9, respectively). The left-hemispheric late novelty P300 in the otherwise healthy cannabis group correlated inversely with amount and duration of cannabis use (r = -0.50, p = 0.024; r = -0.57, p = 0.009, respectively). Our study confirms attentional deficits with chronic cannabis use. However, cannabis use may lead to different cognitive sequelae in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls, possibly reflecting preexisting alterations in the endocannabinoid system in schizophrenia.

  11. Trajectories of abstinence-induced Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms: A prospective pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kaptsis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD is positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The IGD criteria refer to withdrawal symptoms, including irritability, anxiety, or sadness, that follow cessation of Internet gaming (APA, 2013. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the nature of Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms, if they occur, under gaming abstinence conditions. This study employed a repeated-measures protocol to examine the cognitive-affective reactions of participants undertaking an 84-h Internet gaming abstinence period. The sample included individuals who met the IGD criteria as well as those who regularly played Internet games but did not meet the IGD criteria. Outcome variables included affect (positive and negative, psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress, and Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms (craving/urge, thoughts about gaming, inability to resist gaming. A total of 24 participants (Mage = 24.6 years, SD = 5.8 were recruited from online gaming communities, and completed a series of online surveys before, during, and after abstaining from Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO games. Both the IGD group and the non-IGD group experienced an abstinence-induced decline in withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect, and psychological distress. The IGD group experienced its largest decline in withdrawal symptomatology within the first 24 h of abstinence. These preliminary data suggest that gaming withdrawal symptoms may follow, at least initially, negative linear and quadratic trends. Further prospective work in larger samples involving longer periods of abstinence is required to verify and expand upon these observations.

  12. Electric propulsion reliability: Statistical analysis of on-orbit anomalies and comparative analysis of electric versus chemical propulsion failure rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Joseph Homer; Geng, Fan; Ku, Michelle; Walker, Mitchell L. R.

    2017-10-01

    With a few hundred spacecraft launched to date with electric propulsion (EP), it is possible to conduct an epidemiological study of EP's on orbit reliability. The first objective of the present work was to undertake such a study and analyze EP's track record of on orbit anomalies and failures by different covariates. The second objective was to provide a comparative analysis of EP's failure rates with those of chemical propulsion. Satellite operators, manufacturers, and insurers will make reliability- and risk-informed decisions regarding the adoption and promotion of EP on board spacecraft. This work provides evidence-based support for such decisions. After a thorough data collection, 162 EP-equipped satellites launched between January 1997 and December 2015 were included in our dataset for analysis. Several statistical analyses were conducted, at the aggregate level and then with the data stratified by severity of the anomaly, by orbit type, and by EP technology. Mean Time To Anomaly (MTTA) and the distribution of the time to (minor/major) anomaly were investigated, as well as anomaly rates. The important findings in this work include the following: (1) Post-2005, EP's reliability has outperformed that of chemical propulsion; (2) Hall thrusters have robustly outperformed chemical propulsion, and they maintain a small but shrinking reliability advantage over gridded ion engines. Other results were also provided, for example the differentials in MTTA of minor and major anomalies for gridded ion engines and Hall thrusters. It was shown that: (3) Hall thrusters exhibit minor anomalies very early on orbit, which might be indicative of infant anomalies, and thus would benefit from better ground testing and acceptance procedures; (4) Strong evidence exists that EP anomalies (onset and likelihood) and orbit type are dependent, a dependence likely mediated by either the space environment or differences in thrusters duty cycles; (5) Gridded ion thrusters exhibit both

  13. A socio-hydrological comparative assessment explaining regional variances in suicide rate amongst farmers in Maharashtra, India

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    N. I. den Besten

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Maharashtra is one of the states in India that has witnessed one of the highest rates of farmer suicides as proportion of total number of suicides. Most of the farmer suicides in Maharashtra are from semi-arid divisions such as Marathwada where cotton has been historically grown. Other dominant crops produced include cereals, pulses, oilseeds and sugarcane. Cotton (fibers, oilseeds and sugarcane providing highest value addition per unit cultivated area and cereals and pulses the least. Hence it is not surprising that smallholders take risks growing high value crops without “visualising” the risks it entails such as those corresponding to price and weather shocks.We deploy recently developed smallholder socio-hydrology modelling framework to understand the underlying dynamics of the crisis. It couples the dynamics of six main variables that are most relevant at the scale of a smallholder: water storage capacity (root zone storage and other ways of water storage, capital, livestock, soil fertility and fodder biomass. The hydroclimatic variability is accounted for at sub-annual scale and influences the socio-hydrology at annual scale. The model incorporates rule-based adaptation mechanisms (e.g., adjusting expenditures on food and fertilizers, selling livestocks of smallholders when they face adverse conditions, such as high variability in rainfall or in agricultural prices. The model is applied to two adjoining divisions of Maharashtra: Marathwada and Desh. The former is the division with relatively higher farmer suicide rates than the latter. Diverse spatial data sets of precipitation, potential evaporation, soil, agricultural census based farm inputs, cropping pattern and prices are used to understand the dynamics of small farmers in these divisions, and to attribute farmer distress rates to soil types, hydroclimatic variability and crops grown.Comparative socio-hydrologic assessment across the two regions confirms existing narratives: low

  14. A socio-hydrological comparative assessment explaining regional variances in suicide rate amongst farmers in Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Besten, Nadja I.; Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-05-01

    Maharashtra is one of the states in India that has witnessed one of the highest rates of farmer suicides as proportion of total number of suicides. Most of the farmer suicides in Maharashtra are from semi-arid divisions such as Marathwada where cotton has been historically grown. Other dominant crops produced include cereals, pulses, oilseeds and sugarcane. Cotton (fibers), oilseeds and sugarcane providing highest value addition per unit cultivated area and cereals and pulses the least. Hence it is not surprising that smallholders take risks growing high value crops without "visualising" the risks it entails such as those corresponding to price and weather shocks.We deploy recently developed smallholder socio-hydrology modelling framework to understand the underlying dynamics of the crisis. It couples the dynamics of six main variables that are most relevant at the scale of a smallholder: water storage capacity (root zone storage and other ways of water storage), capital, livestock, soil fertility and fodder biomass. The hydroclimatic variability is accounted for at sub-annual scale and influences the socio-hydrology at annual scale. The model incorporates rule-based adaptation mechanisms (e.g., adjusting expenditures on food and fertilizers, selling livestocks) of smallholders when they face adverse conditions, such as high variability in rainfall or in agricultural prices. The model is applied to two adjoining divisions of Maharashtra: Marathwada and Desh. The former is the division with relatively higher farmer suicide rates than the latter. Diverse spatial data sets of precipitation, potential evaporation, soil, agricultural census based farm inputs, cropping pattern and prices are used to understand the dynamics of small farmers in these divisions, and to attribute farmer distress rates to soil types, hydroclimatic variability and crops grown.Comparative socio-hydrologic assessment across the two regions confirms existing narratives: low (soil) water storage

  15. Pregnancy rate of gonadotrophin therapy and laparoscopic ovarian electrocautery in polycystic ovary syndrome resistant to clomiphene citrate: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafarnegad M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common cause of ovulation insufficiency and then infertility. Therapeutic options to induce ovulation in anovulatory PCOS patients are clomiphene citrate, metformin, tamoxifen, dopamine agonists (bromocriptin, Gonadotrophin and laparoscopic ovarian electrocautery (LOE. Gonadotrophin and LOE are important options in anovulatory clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOS. Literature data regarding compare of the efficacy of these two treatments are few. Therefore we aimed to study the pregnancy rates of these treatments in infertile clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOS."n"nMethods: A randomized clinical trial study was carried out in infertile clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOS, referred to infertility clinic of Mirza Koochackhan Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Science in Tehran, Iran, between 2003 and 2008."n"nResults: A total of 100 patients women were randomly allocated in two groups. There were no differences in age and pimary and secondary infertility duration. In LOE treatment group, eight cases (16% were pregnant and all delivered at term. in gonadotrophin treatment 14 cases (28% were pregnant, 10 cases (20% delivered at term

  16. Comparative Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Medications: A National Prospective Cohort From Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yin Chang

    Full Text Available Relative effectiveness of smoking cessation medications-varenicline, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT-remains unclear among smokers in real-world settings. Evidence in females and smokers with light/moderate nicotine dependence is particularly insufficient. This study compared the effectiveness of varenicline, bupropion or NRT gum relative to NRT patch, in achieving abstinence among recent quitters.In a national smoking cessation program in Taiwan (2012-2015, a cohort of 11,968 participants received varenicline (n = 5,052, bupropion (n = 823, NRT gum (n = 1944 or NRT patch (n = 4,149. The 7-day, 1-month or 6-month point-prevalence was calculated based on self-reported last smoking event via telephone interview after 6 months. Logistic regression modellings estimated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for achieving abstinence using different modalities (NRT patch as referent. Models included age, sex, education, marital status, geographic region, smoke-years, nicotine-dependence level, medical institution, number of clinic visits and medication use duration. Analyses were further stratified by sex and dependence severity.Participants were predominantly male (83% with a mean age of 43.7±12.6 years. Varenicline users were more likely than NRT patch users to achieve abstinence, based on 7-day point-prevalence (OR = 1.30, CI: 1.19-1.44, 1-month point-prevalence (OR = 1.36, CI: 1.24-1.50 or 6-month point-prevalence (OR = 1.30, CI: 1.14-1.47. Compared with NRT patch, varenicline was associated with greater odds of being abstinent in women (OR = 1.29, CI: 1.01-1.65, men (OR = 1.31, CI: 1.18-1.46, those with light/moderate dependence (OR = 1.42, CI: 1.24-1.63 or smokers with severe dependence (OR = 1.19, CI: 1.04-1.37, based on 7-day point-prevalence. Differences in effectiveness were not observed between users of bupropion, NRT gum and NRT patch.In smoking cessation clinics in Taiwan, varenicline users reported higher

  17. Comparative response of dogs and monkeys to sublethal acute and continuous low dose-rate gamma-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, J.F.; Holland, L.M.; Johnson, O.S.; LaBauve, P.M.; London, J.E.; Prine, J.R.; Vigil, E.A.

    1977-02-01

    Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and dogs (beagle) were given thirteen 100-rad gamma-ray doses at 28-day intervals. The comparative response (injury and recovery) of the hematopoietic system of the two species was observed at 7-day intervals during the exposure regime. At 84 days after the thirteenth gamma-ray dose, the 1300-rad conditioned and control dogs and monkeys were challenged continuously with 35 R/day until death to determine the amount of radiation-induced injury remaining in conditioned animals as a reduction in mean survival time. Dogs (50 percent) and monkeys (8 percent) died from injury incurred during the conditioning exposures. Thus, the comparative response of dogs and monkeys to dose protraction by acute dose fractionation was similar to what might be expected from a single acute dose. Mean survival times for nonconditioned dogs and monkeys during continuous exposure at 35 R/day were the same (approximately 1400 h). Thus, hematopoietic response of the two species by this method of dose protraction was not significantly different. Mean survival times of conditioned dogs and monkeys during the continuous 35 R/day gamma-ray challenge exposure were greater than for their control counterparts. Thus, the long-term radiation-induced injury was not measurable by this method. Conditioning doses of more than four times the acute LD 50 - 30 in dogs and approximately two times that of monkeys served only to increase both mean survival time and variance in a gamma-ray stress environment with a dose rate of 35 R/day

  18. Comparative response of dogs and monkeys to sublethal acute and continuous low dose-rate gamma-ray exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, J.F.; Holland, L.M.; Johnson, O.S.; LaBauve, P.M.; London, J.E.; Prine, J.R.; Vigil, E.A.

    1977-02-01

    Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and dogs (beagle) were given thirteen 100-rad gamma-ray doses at 28-day intervals. The comparative response (injury and recovery) of the hematopoietic system of the two species was observed at 7-day intervals during the exposure regime. At 84 days after the thirteenth gamma-ray dose, the 1300-rad conditioned and control dogs and monkeys were challenged continuously with 35 R/day until death to determine the amount of radiation-induced injury remaining in conditioned animals as a reduction in mean survival time. Dogs (50 percent) and monkeys (8 percent) died from injury incurred during the conditioning exposures. Thus, the comparative response of dogs and monkeys to dose protraction by acute dose fractionation was similar to what might be expected from a single acute dose. Mean survival times for nonconditioned dogs and monkeys during continuous exposure at 35 R/day were the same (approximately 1400 h). Thus, hematopoietic response of the two species by this method of dose protraction was not significantly different. Mean survival times of conditioned dogs and monkeys during the continuous 35 R/day gamma-ray challenge exposure were greater than for their control counterparts. Thus, the long-term radiation-induced injury was not measurable by this method. Conditioning doses of more than four times the acute LD/sub 50/-/sub 30/ in dogs and approximately two times that of monkeys served only to increase both mean survival time and variance in a gamma-ray stress environment with a dose rate of 35 R/day.

  19. Comparing maximum autonomic activity of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures and epileptic seizures using heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Jesper; Beniczky, Sándor; Johansen, Peter; Sidenius, Per; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2016-04-01

    The semiology of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) can resemble epileptic seizures, and differentiation between epileptic seizures with no EEG-correlate and PNES can be challenging even for trained experts. Therefore, there has been a search for a quantitative measure, other than EEG and semiology that could distinguish PNES from epileptic seizures. We used ECG to measure heart rate variability (HRV) in order to compare maximum autonomic activity of epileptic seizures and PNES. These comparisons could potentially serve as biomarkers for distinguishing these types of clinical episodes. Forty-nine epileptic seizures from 17 patients and 24 PNES from 7 patients with analyzable ECG were recorded during long-term video-EEG monitoring. Moving windows of 100 R-R intervals throughout each seizure were used to find maximum values of Cardiac Sympathetic Index (CSI) (sympathetic tonus) and minimum values of Cardiac Vagal Index (CVI), Root-Mean-Square-of-Successive-Differences (RMSSD) and HF-power (parasympathetic tonus). In addition, non-seizure recordings of each patient were used to compare HRV-parameters between the groups. The maximum CSI for epilepsy seizures were higher than PNES (P=0.015). The minimum CVI, minimum RMSSD and HF-power did not show significant difference between epileptic seizures and PNES (P=0.762; P=0.152; P=0.818). There were no statistical difference of non-seizure HRV-parameters between the PNES and epilepsy patients. We found the maximum sympathetic activity accompanying the epileptic seizures to be higher, than that during the PNES. However, the great variation of autonomic response within both groups makes it difficult to use these HRV-measures as a sole measurement in distinguishing epileptic seizures from PNES. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impaired response inhibition in the rat 5 choice continuous performance task during protracted abstinence from chronic alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Irimia

    Full Text Available Impaired cognitive processing is a hallmark of addiction. In particular, deficits in inhibitory control can propel continued drug use despite adverse consequences. Clinical evidence shows that detoxified alcoholics exhibit poor inhibitory control in the Continuous Performance Task (CPT and related tests of motor impulsivity. Animal models may provide important insight into the neural mechanisms underlying this consequence of chronic alcohol exposure though pre-clinical investigations of behavioral inhibition during alcohol abstinence are sparse. The present study employed the rat 5 Choice-Continuous Performance Task (5C-CPT, a novel pre-clinical variant of the CPT, to evaluate attentional capacity and impulse control over the course of protracted abstinence from chronic intermittent alcohol consumption. In tests conducted with familiar 5C-CPT conditions EtOH-exposed rats exhibited impaired attentional capacity during the first hours of abstinence and impaired behavioral restraint (increased false alarms during the first 5d of abstinence that dissipated thereafter. Subsequent tests employing visual distractors that increase the cognitive load of the task revealed significant increases in impulsive action (premature responses at 3 and 5 weeks of abstinence, and the emergence of impaired behavioral restraint (increased false alarms at 7 weeks of abstinence. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the emergence of increased impulsive action in alcohol-dependent rats during protracted alcohol abstinence and suggest the 5C-CPT with visual distractors may provide a viable behavioral platform for characterizing the neurobiological substrates underlying impaired behavioral inhibition resulting from chronic intermittent alcohol exposure.

  1. Comparable cortisol, heart rate and milk let-down in nurse sows and non-nurse sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdi, C.; Moustsen, V. A.; Oxholm, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing litter size in hyperprolific sows has led to the need for management systems for surplus piglets, one of which is the use of nurse sows. The aim of this study was to investigate physiological changes in salivary cortisol, heart rate and number of milk let-downs in nurse sows compared...... to non-nurse sows. Sows were divided into three treatments: 1) control (non-nurse) sows nursed their own piglets until weaning at 26 days of age; 2) nurse1 sows had their own piglets removed and replaced with newborn piglets (between 6−24 h old) at Day 7, these were weaned at Day 33 of the sow......'s lactation period and 3) nurse2 sows weaned their own piglets at Day 21 and received a litter of 7 day old piglets from a nurse1 sow. These new piglets were weaned at Day 40 of the nurse2 sow's lactation period. Saliva samples were collected for cortisol analyses and the sows were fitted with pulse belts...

  2. Visualising variation in mortality rates across the life course and by sex, USA and comparator states, 1933-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbloemen, Laura; Dorling, Danny; Minton, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Previous research showed that younger adult males in the USA have, since the 1950s, died at a faster rate than females of the same age. In this paper, we quantify this difference, and explore possible explanations for the differences at different ages and in different years. Using data from the Human Mortality Database (HMD), the number of additional male deaths per 10 000 female deaths was calculated for each year from 1933 to 2010, and for each year of age from 0 to 60 years, for the USA, and a number of other countries for comparison. The data were explored visually using shaded contour plots. Gender differences in excess mortality have increased. Coming of age (between the ages of 15 and 25 years of age) is especially perilous for men relative to women now compared with the past in the USA; the visualisations highlight this change as important. Sex differences in mortality risks at various ages are not static. While women may today have an advantage when it comes to life expectancy, in the USA, this has greatly increased since the 1930s. Just as young adulthood for women has been made safer through safer antenatal and childbirth practices, changes in public policy can make the social environment safer for men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Melanoma Incidence Rates in Active Duty Military Personnel Compared With a Population-Based Registry in the United States, 2000-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    later in life, especially among those with fair skin pigmentation, light eye and hair color, and propensity to freckle.’*"^ Studies comparing melanoma ...Naval Health Research Center Melanoma Incidence Rates in Active-Duty Military Personnel Compared With A Population-based Registry in the United...San Diego, California 92106-3521 MILITARY MEDICINE, 179, 3:247, 2014 Melanoma Incidence Rates in Active Duty Military Personnel Compared With a

  4. Should the threshold for expired-air carbon monoxide concentration as a means of verifying self-reported smoking abstinence be reduced in clinical treatment programmes? Evidence from a Malaysian smokers' clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Lei-Hum; West, Robert; Mariapun, Jeevitha; Chan, Caryn Mei-Hsien; Bulgiba, Awang; Peramalah, Devi; Jit, Swinder

    2015-08-01

    It has been proposed that the expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) threshold for confirming smoking abstinence in clinical practice be reduced below 10 ppm. Optimal thresholds may vary across regions. Data are needed to assess the impact of such a change on claimed success. A total of 253 smokers who attended the Tanglin quit smoking clinic in Malaysia were followed-up 1, 3 and 6 months after the target quit date. All participants received a standard behavioural support programme and were prescribed either varenicline or nicotine replacement therapy. Expired-air CO was measured at every visit. Respondents' smoking status was assessed using a range of different CO thresholds (3, 5 and 10 ppm) and the impact on quit rates was calculated. Predictors of success as defined using the different thresholds were assessed. The 6-month abstinence rates were: 1 month - 54.9% at 10 ppm, 54.9% at 5 ppm and 48.6% at 3 ppm; 3 months - 36.0% at 10 ppm, 35.2% at 5 ppm and 30.4% at 3 ppm; 6 months - 24.1% at 10 ppm, 24.1% at 5 ppm and 20.6% at 3 ppm. Older smokers were more likely to be recorded as abstinent at 6 months regardless of the threshold used. Reducing the threshold for expired-air carbon monoxide concentrations to verify claimed smoking abstinence from 10 ppm to 5 ppm makes minimal difference to documented success rates in Malaysian smoker's clinic patients. Reducing to 3 ppm decreases success rates slightly. Predictors of success at stopping appear to be unaffected by the threshold used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Employment-Based Abstinence Reinforcement as a Maintenance Intervention for the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFulio, Anthony; Donlin, Wendy D.; Wong, Conrad J.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Context: Due to the chronic nature of cocaine dependence, long-term maintenance treatments may be required to sustain abstinence. Abstinence reinforcement is among the most effective means of initiating cocaine abstinence. Practical and effective means of maintaining abstinence reinforcement programs over time are needed. Objective: Determine whether employment-based abstinence reinforcement can be an effective long-term maintenance intervention for cocaine dependence. Design: Participants (N=128) were enrolled in a 6-month job skills training and abstinence initiation program. Participants who initiated abstinence, attended regularly, and developed needed job skills during the first six months were hired as operators in a data entry business and randomly assigned to an employment only (Control, n = 24) or abstinence-contingent employment (n = 27) group. Setting: A nonprofit data entry business. Participants: Unemployed welfare recipients who persistently used cocaine while enrolled in methadone treatment in Baltimore. Intervention: Abstinence-contingent employment participants received one year of employment-based contingency management, in which access to employment was contingent on provision drug-free urine samples under routine and then random drug testing. If a participant provided drug-positive urine or failed to provide a mandatory sample, then that participant received a temporary reduction in pay and could not work until urinalysis confirmed recent abstinence. Main Outcome Measure: Cocaine-negative urine samples at monthly assessments across one year of employment. Results: During the one-year of employment, abstinence-contingent employment participants provided significantly more cocaine-negative urine samples than employment only participants (79.3% and 50.7%, respectively; p = 0.004, OR = 3.73, 95% CI = 1.60 – 8.69). Conclusions: Employment-based abstinence reinforcement that includes random drug testing is effective as a long-term maintenance

  6. Comparative determinants of 4-year cardiovascular event rates in stable outpatients at risk of or with atherothrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Deepak L; Eagle, Kim A; Ohman, E Magnus; Hirsch, Alan T; Goto, Shinya; Mahoney, Elizabeth M; Wilson, Peter W F; Alberts, Mark J; D'Agostino, Ralph; Liau, Chiau-Suong; Mas, Jean-Louis; Röther, Joachim; Smith, Sidney C; Salette, Geneviève; Contant, Charles F; Massaro, Joseph M; Steg, Ph Gabriel

    2010-09-22

    Clinicians and trialists have difficulty with identifying which patients are highest risk for cardiovascular events. Prior ischemic events, polyvascular disease, and diabetes mellitus have all been identified as predictors of ischemic events, but their comparative contributions to future risk remain unclear. To categorize the risk of cardiovascular events in stable outpatients with various initial manifestations of atherothrombosis using simple clinical descriptors. Outpatients with coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral arterial disease or with multiple risk factors for atherothrombosis were enrolled in the global Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry and were followed up for as long as 4 years. Patients from 3647 centers in 29 countries were enrolled between 2003 and 2004 and followed up until 2008. Final database lock was in April 2009. Rates of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. A total of 45,227 patients with baseline data were included in this 4-year analysis. During the follow-up period, a total of 5481 patients experienced at least 1 event, including 2315 with cardiovascular death, 1228 with myocardial infarction, 1898 with stroke, and 40 with both a myocardial infarction and stroke on the same day. Among patients with atherothrombosis, those with a prior history of ischemic events at baseline (n = 21,890) had the highest rate of subsequent ischemic events (18.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 17.4%-19.1%); patients with stable coronary, cerebrovascular, or peripheral artery disease (n = 15,264) had a lower risk (12.2%; 95% CI, 11.4%-12.9%); and patients without established atherothrombosis but with risk factors only (n = 8073) had the lowest risk (9.1%; 95% CI, 8.3%-9.9%) (P < .001 for all comparisons). In addition, in multivariable modeling, the presence of diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.36-1.53; P < .001), an ischemic event in the previous year (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1

  7. Exacerbations and duration of smoking abstinence are associated with the annual loss of FEV1 in individuals with PiZZ alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähndrich, Sebastian; Bernhard, Nikolas; Lepper, Philipp M; Vogelmeier, Claus; Seibert, Martina; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Bals, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a genetic disorder that is associated with a higher risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. The annual declines in lung function (FEV 1 ) and transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) predict all-cause mortality. We investigated the longitudinal follow-up data over 11 years (mean follow-up period of 4.89 years) from the German AATD registry and analyzed the relationship between annual loss of FEV 1 and TLCO and sex, age, body mass index (BMI), nicotine consumption, occupational dust exposure, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score, baseline FEV 1 or TLCO, alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) serum level, exacerbation frequency and the duration of smoking abstinence by multiple linear generalized estimating equations models (GEE-models). We evaluated the data of 100 individuals with post-bronchodilator FEV 1 measurements and from 116 individuals with TLCO measurements. The mean overall decline was -54.06 ± 164.62 ml/year in FEV 1 and -0.17 ± 0.70 mmol/min/kPa/year in TLCO. Accelerated deterioration of FEV 1 was associated with occupational dust exposure (p = 0.026), shorter duration of smoking abstinence (p = 0.008), higher baseline FEV 1 (p = 0.003), higher annual exacerbation frequency (p = 0.003) and higher frequency of glucocorticoids intake (p = 0.004). Furthermore, patients with an elevated decline in TLCO showed significant impaired health-related quality of life at baseline (p = 0.039) and lower AAT serum levels (p < 0.001) in multivariate analysis. Annual decline in FEV 1 is related to the exacerbation rate, occupational dust exposure and the duration of smoking abstinence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparative examination of tuberculosis immigration medical screening programs from selected countries with high immigration and low tuberculosis incidence rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) in migrants is an ongoing challenge in several low TB incidence countries since a large proportion of TB in these countries occurs in migrants from high incidence countries. To meet these challenges, several countries utilize TB screening programs. The programs attempt to identify and treat those with active and/or infectious stages of the disease. In addition, screening is used to identify and manage those with latent or inactive disease after arrival. Between nations, considerable variation exists in the methods used in migration-associated TB screening. The present study aimed to compare the TB immigration medical examination requirements in selected countries of high immigration and low TB incidence rates. Methods Descriptive study of immigration TB screening programs Results 16 out of 18 eligible countries responded to the written standardized survey and phone interview. Comparisons in specific areas of TB immigration screening programs included authorities responsible for TB screening, the primary objectives of the TB screening program, the yield of detection of active TB disease, screening details and aspects of follow up for inactive pulmonary TB. No two countries had the same approach to TB screening among migrants. Important differences, common practices, common problems, evidence or lack of evidence for program specifics were noted. Conclusions In spite of common goals, there is great diversity in the processes and practices designed to mitigate the impact of migration-associated TB among nations that screen migrants for the disease. The long-term goal in decreasing migration-related introduction of TB from high to low incidence countries remains diminishing the prevalence of the disease in those high incidence locations. In the meantime, existing or planned migration screening programs for TB can be made more efficient and evidenced based. Cooperation among countries doing research in the areas outlined in this study should

  9. Sleep-Wake Differences in Relative Regional Cerebral Metabolic Rate for Glucose among Patients with Insomnia Compared with Good Sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B; Karim, Helmet T; Soehner, Adriane M; Hasler, Brant P; Wilckens, Kristine A; James, Jeffrey A; Aizenstein, Howard J; Price, Julie C; Rosario, Bedda L; Kupfer, David J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica H; Franzen, Peter L; Nofzinger, Eric A; Buysse, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms of insomnia may involve altered patterns of activation across sleep-wake states in brain regions associated with cognition, self-referential processes, affect, and sleep-wake promotion. The objective of this study was to compare relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMR glc ) in these brain regions across wake and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep states in patients with primary insomnia (PI) and good sleeper controls (GS). Participants included 44 PI and 40 GS matched for age (mean = 37 y old, range 21-60), sex, and race. We conducted [ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography scans in PI and GS during both morning wakefulness and NREM sleep at night. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test for group (PI vs. GS) by state (wake vs. NREM sleep) interactions in relative rCMR glc . Significant group-by-state interactions in relative rCMR glc were found in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior/superior parietal lobules, left lingual/fusiform/occipital gyri, and right lingual gyrus. All clusters were significant at P corrected Insomnia was characterized by regional alterations in relative glucose metabolism across NREM sleep and wakefulness. Significant group-by-state interactions in relative rCMR glc suggest that insomnia is associated with impaired disengagement of brain regions involved in cognition (left frontoparietal), self-referential processes (precuneus/posterior cingulate), and affect (left middle frontal, fusiform/lingual gyri) during NREM sleep, or alternatively, to impaired engagement of these regions during wakefulness. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. Evaluation of Invisalign treatment effectiveness and efficiency compared with conventional fixed appliances using the Peer Assessment Rating index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiafeng; Tang, Jack Shengyu; Skulski, Brennan; Fields, Henry W; Beck, F Michael; Firestone, Allen R; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Deguchi, Toru

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case-control study was to compare the treatment effectiveness and efficiency of the Invisalign system with conventional fixed appliances in treating orthodontic patients with mild to moderate malocclusion in a graduate orthodontic clinic. Using the peer assessment rating (PAR) index, we evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment records of 48 Invisalign patients and 48 fixed appliances patients. The 2 groups of patients were controlled for general characteristics and initial severity of malocclusion. We analyzed treatment outcome, duration, and improvement between the Invisalign and fixed appliances groups. The average pretreatment PAR scores (United Kingdom weighting) were 20.81 for Invisalign and 22.79 for fixed appliances (P = 1.0000). Posttreatment weighted PAR scores between Invisalign and fixed appliances were not statistically different (P = 0.7420). On average, the Invisalign patients finished 5.7 months faster than did those with fixed appliances (P = 0.0040). The weighted PAR score reduction with treatment was not statistically different between the Invisalign and fixed appliances groups (P = 0.4573). All patients in both groups had more than a 30% reduction in the PAR scores. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of achieving "great improvement" in the Invisalign group were 0.329 times the odds of achieving "great improvement" in the fixed appliances group after controlling for age (P = 0.0150). Our data showed that both Invisalign and fixed appliances were able to improve the malocclusion. Invisalign patients finished treatment faster than did those with fixed appliances. However, it appears that Invisalign may not be as effective as fixed appliances in achieving "great improvement" in a malocclusion. This study might help clinicians to determine appropriate patients for Invisalign treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparative examination of tuberculosis immigration medical screening programs from selected countries with high immigration and low tuberculosis incidence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagebiel Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB in migrants is an ongoing challenge in several low TB incidence countries since a large proportion of TB in these countries occurs in migrants from high incidence countries. To meet these challenges, several countries utilize TB screening programs. The programs attempt to identify and treat those with active and/or infectious stages of the disease. In addition, screening is used to identify and manage those with latent or inactive disease after arrival. Between nations, considerable variation exists in the methods used in migration-associated TB screening. The present study aimed to compare the TB immigration medical examination requirements in selected countries of high immigration and low TB incidence rates. Methods Descriptive study of immigration TB screening programs Results 16 out of 18 eligible countries responded to the written standardized survey and phone interview. Comparisons in specific areas of TB immigration screening programs included authorities responsible for TB screening, the primary objectives of the TB screening program, the yield of detection of active TB disease, screening details and aspects of follow up for inactive pulmonary TB. No two countries had the same approach to TB screening among migrants. Important differences, common practices, common problems, evidence or lack of evidence for program specifics were noted. Conclusions In spite of common goals, there is great diversity in the processes and practices designed to mitigate the impact of migration-associated TB among nations that screen migrants for the disease. The long-term goal in decreasing migration-related introduction of TB from high to low incidence countries remains diminishing the prevalence of the disease in those high incidence locations. In the meantime, existing or planned migration screening programs for TB can be made more efficient and evidenced based. Cooperation among countries doing research in the areas

  12. A comparative examination of tuberculosis immigration medical screening programs from selected countries with high immigration and low tuberculosis incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gonzalo G; Gushulak, Brian; Abu Rumman, Khaled; Altpeter, Ekkehardt; Chemtob, Daniel; Douglas, Paul; Erkens, Connie; Helbling, Peter; Hamilton, Ingrid; Jones, Jane; Matteelli, Alberto; Paty, Marie-Claire; Posey, Drew L; Sagebiel, Daniel; Slump, Erika; Tegnell, Anders; Valín, Elena Rodríguez; Winje, Brita Askeland; Ellis, Edward

    2011-01-04

    Tuberculosis (TB) in migrants is an ongoing challenge in several low TB incidence countries since a large proportion of TB in these countries occurs in migrants from high incidence countries. To meet these challenges, several countries utilize TB screening programs. The programs attempt to identify and treat those with active and/or infectious stages of the disease. In addition, screening is used to identify and manage those with latent or inactive disease after arrival. Between nations, considerable variation exists in the methods used in migration-associated TB screening. The present study aimed to compare the TB immigration medical examination requirements in selected countries of high immigration and low TB incidence rates. Descriptive study of immigration TB screening programs. 16 out of 18 eligible countries responded to the written standardized survey and phone interview. Comparisons in specific areas of TB immigration screening programs included authorities responsible for TB screening, the primary objectives of the TB screening program, the yield of detection of active TB disease, screening details and aspects of follow up for inactive pulmonary TB. No two countries had the same approach to TB screening among migrants. Important differences, common practices, common problems, evidence or lack of evidence for program specifics were noted. In spite of common goals, there is great diversity in the processes and practices designed to mitigate the impact of migration-associated TB among nations that screen migrants for the disease. The long-term goal in decreasing migration-related introduction of TB from high to low incidence countries remains diminishing the prevalence of the disease in those high incidence locations. In the meantime, existing or planned migration screening programs for TB can be made more efficient and evidenced based. Cooperation among countries doing research in the areas outlined in this study should facilitate the development of improved

  13. Comparative full-band Monte Carlo study of Si and Ge with screened pseudopotential-based phonon scattering rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Hoa; Hofmann, Karl R.; Paasch, Gernot

    2003-07-01

    In a previous article [J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5359 (2002)], we presented a combination of a full-band Monte Carlo method using an advanced band structure and a variable Brillouin zone discretization, with phonon scattering rates based on the screened pseudopotential considering the positions of the atoms in the elementary cell. To make the method suitable for sufficiently fast applications, such as device simulations, the simplest wave number dependent approximation was introduced. It contains an average of the cell structure factor, and only two fit parameters: The acoustic and the optical deformation potentials. As the pseudopotential, the Ashcroft model potential is chosen, and screening is taken into account using the Lindhard dielectric function. In the present article, based on the study of the influence of the two deformation potentials on the electron and hole drift velocities in Si and Ge, we show how to select the deformation potentials. Depending on the targeted agreement with experimental results, the pairs of deformation potentials for electrons and holes can be used uniformly for a wide temperature range or separately for different temperatures. For Ge, we achieve remarkable quantitative agreement with the temperature, field, and orientation dependencies of experimental electron and hole drift velocities in the wide temperature range from 77 to 300 K with a single set of the two deformations potentials for each carrier type. A detailed comparative simulation of the transport properties in Ge and Si at different temperatures is presented which is comprised of the steady-state dependence of the drift velocity on the electric field, the low-field mobility, and transient transport. Peculiarities of the drift velocity-field dependencies, such as the anisotropy, and a negative differential mobility are discussed in terms of the different band structures in connection with the field dependence of the simulated distribution functions. For doped materials, ionized

  14. Comparative oxygen consumption rates of subitaneous and delayed hatching eggs of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    rate is correlated to the time for the individual egg to hatch. Subitaneous eggs exhibited higher initial oxygen consumption rates than DHE and there were no pattern in initial oxygen consumption rates vs. time to hatch or die from the eggs. Variability in initial oxygen consumption rates within...... consumption rate, embryogenesis took place with unpredicted rates and most eggs eventually hatched. Based on our observations and theoretical considerations we suggest that DHE follow a U shape metabolism pattern with time as described for true diapause eggs. DHE strategy (oligopause) is an important life...... produce diapause eggs requiring a long refractory phase. Delayed hatching eggs (DHE; maternally determined oligopause eggs hatching within > 72 h to a month) have been described as a state between diapause and subitaneous (hatching within 24–72 h) because of their very short refractory phase. We used...

  15. Síndrome de abstinência associada à interrupção da infusão de fentanil e midazolam em pediatria Withdrawal syndrome associated with cessation of fentanyl and midazolam in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Bicudo

    1999-03-01

    test to compare the groups with and without abstinence syndrome. Dose accumulated of fentanyl total (5732.7 ± 5114.91 vs 624.2 ± 591.2 mcg, p < 0.005, dose daily of fentanyl (98.54 ± 6.12 vs 36.23 ± 23.42 mcg/Kg/dia, p < 0.005, velocity of infusion of the fentayl (4.09 ± 2.75 vs 1.5 ± 0.95 mcg/Kg/hora, p < 0.005, time of use of the fentanyl (10.2 ± 5.1 vs 3.16 ± 1.09 days, p < 0.005, dose accumulated of midazolam total (118.8 ± 86.97 vs 20.03 ± 14.79 mg, p < 0.005, dose daily of midazolam (2.32 ± 0.86 vs 1.21 ± 0.68 mg/Kg/dia, p < 0.005, velocity of midazolam infusion (0.13 ± 0.16 vs 0.05 ± 0.02 mg/Kg/hora, p < 0.005 and time of use of the midazolam (9.20 ± 4.67 vs 2.55 ± 1.54 days, p < 0.005 they were considered significant. CONCLUSION: The abstinence syndrome presents an elevated incidence in children interned in PICU owing to the interruption of the fentanyl infusion and midazolam and in these patients it was related with the dose and the time of use.

  16. 47 CFR 54.316 - Rate comparability review and certification for areas served by non-rural carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... most recent average urban rate plus two weighted standard deviations. The benchmark shall be calculated using the average urban rate and standard deviation shown in the most recent annual Reference Book of...., Washington, D.C. 20554 and on the Commission Web site at www.fcc.gov/wcb/iatd/lec.html. (c) Definition of...

  17. The Knowledge Gap Versus the Belief Gap and Abstinence-Only Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Douglas Blanks; Yan, Changmin

    2015-08-01

    The knowledge gap hypothesis predicts widening disparities in knowledge of heavily publicized public affairs issues among socioeconomic status groups. The belief gap hypothesis extends the knowledge gap hypothesis to account for knowledge and beliefs about politically contested issues based on empirically verifiable information. This analysis of 3 national surveys shows belief gaps developed between liberals and conservatives regarding abstinence-only sex education; socioeconomic status-based knowledge gaps did not widen. The findings partially support both belief gap and knowledge gap hypotheses. In addition, the unique contributions of exposure to Fox News, CNN, and MSNBC in this process were investigated. Only exposure to Fox News was linked to beliefs about abstinence-only sex education directly and indirectly through the cultivation of conservative ideology.

  18. Cannabis withdrawal in chronic, frequent cannabis smokers during sustained abstinence within a closed residential environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dayong; Schroeder, Jennifer R; Karschner, Erin L; Goodwin, Robert S; Hirvonen, Jussi; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic, frequent cannabis smokers may experience residual and offset effects, withdrawal, and craving when abstaining from the drug. We characterized the prevalence, duration, and intensity of these effects in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during abstinence on a closed research unit. Non-treatment-seeking participants (N = 29 on admission, 66% and 34% remaining after 2 and 4 weeks) provided subjective effects data. A battery of five instruments was computer-administered daily to measure psychological, sensory, and physical symptoms associated with cannabinoid intoxication and withdrawal. Plasma and oral fluid specimens were concurrently collected and analyzed for cannabinoids. Outcome variables were evaluated as change from admission (Day 0) with regression models. Most abstinence effects, including irritability and anxiety were greatest on Days 0-3 and decreased thereafter. Cannabis craving significantly decreased over time, whereas decreased appetite began to normalize on Day 4. Strange dreams and difficulty getting to sleep increased over time, suggesting intrinsic sleep problems in chronic cannabis smokers. Symptoms likely induced by residual drug effects were at maximum intensity on admission and positively correlated with plasma and oral fluid cannabinoid concentrations on admission but not afterward; these symptoms showed overall prevalence higher than cannabis withdrawal symptoms. The combined influence of residual/offset drug effects, withdrawal, and craving was observed in chronic cannabis smokers during monitored abstinence. Abstinence symptoms were generally more intense in the initial phase, implying importance of early intervention in cannabis quit attempts. Sleep disturbance persisting for an extended period suggests that hypnotic medications could be beneficial in treating cannabis dependence. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  19. The DRD4 exon III VNTR, bupropion, and associations with prospective abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Andrew W; Javitz, Harold S; Su, Li; He, Yungang; Conti, David V; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F; Lerman, Caryn; Swan, Gary E

    2013-07-01

    DRD4 Exon III Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) variation was found to interact with bupropion to influence prospective smoking abstinence, in a recently published longitudinal analyses of N = 331 individuals from a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of bupropion and intensive cognitive-behavioral mood management therapy. We used univariate, multivariate, and longitudinal logistic regression to evaluate gene, treatment, time, and interaction effects on point prevalence and continuous abstinence at end of treatment, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively, in N = 416 European ancestry participants in a double-blind pharmacogenetic efficacy trial randomizing participants to active or placebo bupropion. Participants received 10 weeks of pharmacotherapy and 7 sessions of behavioral therapy, with a target quit date 2 weeks after initiating both therapies. VNTR genotypes were coded with the long allele dominant resulting in 4 analysis categories. Covariates included demographics, dependence measures, depressive symptoms, and genetic ancestry. We also performed genotype-stratified secondary analyses. We observed significant effects of time in longitudinal analyses of both abstinence outcomes, of treatment in individuals with VNTR long allele genotypes for both abstinence outcomes, and of covariates in some analyses. We observed non-significantly larger differences in active versus placebo effect sizes in individuals with VNTR long allele genotypes than in individuals without the VNTR long allele, in the directions previously reported. VNTR by treatment interaction differences between these and previous analyses may be attributable to insufficient size of the replication sample. Analyses of multiple randomized clinical trials will enable identification and validation of factors mediating treatment response.

  20. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Andrew W.; Michel, Martha; Nishita, Denise; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S.; Conneely, Karen N.; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Hops, Hyman; Zhu, Andy Z. X.; Baurley, James W.; McClure, Jennifer B.; Hall, Sharon M.; Baker, Timothy B.; Conti, David V.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Swan, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3’-hydroxycotinine and cotinine), has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3). Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis. PMID:26132489

  1. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Bergen

    Full Text Available The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine, has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3. Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis.

  2. Mismatch Negativity and P50 Sensory Gating in Abstinent Former Cannabis Users

    OpenAIRE

    Broyd, Samantha J.; Greenwood, Lisa-marie; van Hell, Hendrika H.; Croft, Rodney J.; Coyle, Hannah; Lee-Bates, Ben; Todd, Juanita; Johnstone, Stuart J.; Michie, Patricia T.; Solowij, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged heavy exposure to cannabis is associated with impaired cognition and brain functional and structural alterations. We recently reported attenuated mismatch negativity (MMN) and altered P50 sensory gating in chronic cannabis users. This study investigated the extent of brain functional recovery (indexed by MMN and P50) in chronic users after cessation of use. Eighteen ex-users (median 13.5 years prior regular use; median 3.5 years abstinence) and 18 nonusers completed (1) a multifeatu...

  3. Changes in emotional reactivity and distress tolerance among heavy drinking adolescents during sustained abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winward, Jennifer L; Bekman, Nicole M; Hanson, Karen L; Lejuez, Carl W; Brown, Sandra A

    2014-06-01

    Negative affect and low distress tolerance have been associated with increased likelihood of alcohol consumption and relapse. This study utilized the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test - Computerized Version (PASAT-C) to examine affective reactivity, cognitive performance, and distress tolerance during early abstinence among heavy drinking adolescents. Participants, ages 16 to 18 (50% female), were 23 heavy episodic drinking youth (HED) and 23 demographically matched, nondrinking teens (CON). Both groups were drawn from the same schools and assessed at 3 time points: HED was first studied within 10 days (M = 4.26, SD = 4.4) of heavy episodic drinking and then at two 2-week intervals over 4 subsequent weeks of abstinence from alcohol and drugs. CON were studied at the same 2-week intervals. From the findings, it was observed that HED responded with greater emotional response to the PASAT-C (i.e., greater increases in frustration and irritability and greater decreases in happiness) at the initial assessment, but their affective responses diminished with sustained abstinence. CON and HED task performance did not differ at the initial assessment or across time. HED showed faster task discontinuation times to the PASAT-C at the first assessment, and both groups reduced task persistence across testings. Among HED, greater lifetime and recent alcohol consumption, alcohol-induced blackouts, and withdrawal symptoms were associated with increases in negative affect with PASAT-C exposure. Earlier age of onset of alcohol use was linked to poorer performance. Heavy episodic drinking adolescents demonstrated heightened emotional reactivity and poorer distress tolerance to a cognitively challenging task during early abstinence. The combination of elevated negative affect and low distress tolerance may place adolescents at a heightened risk of escalations in or return to alcohol involvement. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Estimating Accuracy at Exercise Intensities: A Comparative Study of Self-Monitoring Heart Rate and Physical Activity Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Erin E; Golaszewski, Natalie M; Bartholomew, John B

    2017-03-16

    Physical activity tracking wearable devices have emerged as an increasingly popular method for consumers to assess their daily activity and calories expended. However, whether these wearable devices are valid at different levels of exercise intensity is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) validity of 3 popular wrist-worn activity monitors at different exercise intensities. A total of 62 participants (females: 58%, 36/62; nonwhite: 47% [13/62 Hispanic, 8/62 Asian, 7/62 black/ African American, 1/62 other]) wore the Apple Watch, Fitbit Charge HR, and Garmin Forerunner 225. Validity was assessed using 2 criterion devices: HR chest strap and a metabolic cart. Participants completed a 10-minute seated baseline assessment; separate 4-minute stages of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity treadmill exercises; and a 10-minute seated recovery period. Data from devices were compared with each criterion via two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Bland-Altman analysis. Differences are expressed in mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). For the Apple Watch, HR MAPE was between 1.14% and 6.70%. HR was not significantly different at the start (P=.78), during baseline (P=.76), or vigorous intensity (P=.84); lower HR readings were measured during light intensity (P=.03), moderate intensity (P=.001), and recovery (P=.004). EE MAPE was between 14.07% and 210.84%. The device measured higher EE at all stages (PApple Watch, and Garmin Forerunner 225. An advantage and novel approach of the study is the examination of HR and EE at specific physical activity intensities. Establishing validity of wearable devices is of particular interest as these devices are being used in weight loss interventions and could impact findings. Future research should investigate why differences between exercise intensities and the devices exist. ©Erin E Dooley, Natalie M Golaszewski, John B Bartholomew. Originally published in JMIR

  5. Relationships Between Craving Beliefs and Abstinence Self-Efficacy are Mediated by Smoking Motives and Moderated by Nicotine Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Elizabeth D; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2016-01-01

    Decreased abstinence self-efficacy is linked to increased craving and negative affect, as well as poorer smoking outcomes, such as lapse, relapse, and withdrawal symptom severity. Research suggests that beliefs and cognitions concerning ourselves and the world orient us toward specific goals and thus impact our judgments and behavior. This study serves to investigate whether motives for smoking mediate the relationship between beliefs about craving and abstinence self-efficacy judgments and whether this may differ by nicotine dependence. In a sample of 198 smokers (M age = 34.96, 51.8% female, 81.8% Caucasian), self-report measures of craving beliefs, situational abstinence self-efficacy, and smoking motives were measured. We examined the effect of beliefs on abstinence self-efficacy in both craving and negative affect situations, with craving and negative reinforcement smoking motives as mediators, and nicotine dependence as a moderator. Results indicate that craving beliefs predict lower abstinence self-efficacy judgments in craving situations indirectly through increased craving motives. However, this relationship was only significant for less dependent smokers. Additionally, regardless of nicotine dependence, craving beliefs predicted lower abstinence self-efficacy in negative affect situations via increased negative reinforcement smoking motives. These findings suggest that beliefs concerning the specific nature of craving correlate with smoking motives (ie, smoking goals) and thus abstinence self-efficacy judgments. Furthermore, these associations are stronger for less dependent smokers. Such findings suggest the importance of addressing craving beliefs during smoking cessation treatment, especially for less dependent smokers whose craving beliefs are associated with abstinence self-efficacy across multiple situations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved

  6. Nigerian secondary school adolescents’ perspective on abstinence-only sexual education as an effective tool for promotion of sexual health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mfrekemfon P; Inyang, Obonganyie P

    2013-01-01

    The success of any type of sexual education programme depends on the knowledge and preparedness for practice by adolescents. A recent study has found that an ‘abstinence-only’ sexual education programme is effective in reducing sexual activity among adolescents. Knowledge of abstinence-only sexual education and preparedness for practice as an effective tool for promotion of sexual health among Nigerian secondary school adolescents was studied. An analytic descriptive survey design was used for the study. The research population comprised of all public secondary schools in three southern geopolitical zones of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 2020 senior secondary school (SS1-SS3) students as sample for the study. A partially self-designed and partially adapted questionnaire from an 'abstinence-only versus comprehensive sex education' debate, from debatepedia (http://wiki.idebate.org/), entitled 'Questionnaire on Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents’ Perspective on Abstinence-Only Sexual Education (QNSSAPAOSE)' was used in eliciting information from respondents. Hypotheses were formulated and tested. Frequency counts, percentage and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were used in analysing data. A greater proportion of secondary school adolescents in this study lacked knowledge of sexual education. About 80% of the respondents could not define sexual education. The general perspective on abstinence-only sexual education was negative, as revealed by the larger number of respondents who demonstrated unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. Specifically, of those who responded in favour of abstinence-only sexual education, the youngest group of adolescents (11-13 years) and the male respondents were more likely to accept this type of education than the other groups. Poor knowledge of sexual education could be responsible for unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. Sexual

  7. Messages About Abstinence, Delaying Sexual Debut and Sexual Decision-Making in Conversations Between Mothers and Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Kanika; Morrison, Penelope; Gold, Melanie A; Akers, Aletha Y

    2018-04-01

    Little is known about the information shared during family discussions about sexuality. From a public health perspective, abstinence is one of the most important sexuality topics parents can talk about with adolescents. We sought to characterize the messages mothers communicate to young adolescents regarding abstinence. Content analysis of dyadic discussions that occurred between June 2011-December 2012 between mothers and their 10- to 14-year-old adolescent sons and daughters. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and a grounded theory approach to content analysis performed. Urban city in Western Pennsylvania. Twenty-one dyads; 15 mother-daughter dyads and 6 mother-son dyads. None. None. Four key themes emerged reflecting the high priority mothers placed on abstinence, delaying their adolescent's sexual debut, and nurturing sexual decision-making skills. Theme 1 focused on ensuring that adolescents understand what abstinence means. In defining abstinence, only 1 mother explained what sex is. The 3 remaining themes emphasized sexual decision-making and emphasized when it is acceptable to stop being abstinent (theme 2), why abstinence is important (theme 3), and mothers' desire to engage in ongoing discussions, particularly when an adolescent was considering becoming sexually active (theme 4). Messages did not vary according to mothers' age or according to adolescent age, gender, or race. Mothers convey complex information about abstinence and sexual decision-making to young, non-sexually active adolescents. Message tailoring on the basis of the adolescents' age or sex was not observed. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intolerance for smoking abstinence among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeroth, Lisa J; Baker, Nathaniel L; Saladin, Michael E

    2018-03-20

    The Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Discomfort Questionnaire (IDQ-S) assesses distress tolerance specific to nicotine withdrawal. Though developed to assess withdrawal-related distress, the IDQ-S has not been validated among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers. The present study extended previous research by examining the predictive utility of the IDQ-S among abstinent, motivated-to-quit smokers. Abstinent, treatment-seeking smokers completed the IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance and Lack of Cognitive Coping scales, assessments of nicotine dependence and reinforcement, and smoking history at baseline. At baseline and at 24-h, 2-week, and 1-month follow-up, participants completed a smoking cue-reactivity task (collection of cue-elicited craving and negative affect), and assessments of cigarettes per day (CPD; daily diaries at follow-up), carbon monoxide (CO), and cotinine. Greater IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance was associated with younger age, higher nicotine dependence and reinforcement, and less smoking years (ps  .10). Withdrawal intolerance and lack of cognitive coping did not predict smoking outcomes among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers, but were associated with smoking characteristics, including nicotine dependence and reinforcement. Withdrawal intolerance and lack of cognitive coping may not be especially useful in predicting craving and smoking behavior, but future studies should replicate the present study's findings and assess the stability of the IDQ-S before forming firm conclusions about its predictive utility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Qualitative Exploration of the Role of Vape Shop Environments in Supporting Smoking Abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Ward

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are the most popular method of quitting smoking in England and most are purchased in specialist vape shops. This qualitative study explores how the vape shop environment is experienced by quitters to support smoking abstinence. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted to elicit experiences of e-cigarette use, including experiences of vape shops, in 40 people who had used e-cigarettes in a quit attempt. Observations of six shops in a range of locations were also undertaken. Interview and observation data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis and triangulated. At an individual level, smoking abstinence was supported through shop assistants’ attempts to understand customers’ smoking preferences in order to: (i tailor advice about the most appropriate product; and (ii offer an ongoing point of contact for practical help. At an interpersonal level, shops offered opportunity to socialise and reinforce a vaping identity, although the environment was perceived as intimidating for some (e.g., new and female users. At a structural level, shops ensured easy access to products perceived to be good value by customers and had adapted to legislative changes. Vape shops can provide effective behavioural support to quitters to maintain smoking abstinence. Health professionals could capitalise on this through partnership working with shops, to ensure best outcomes for clients wanting to use e-cigarettes to quit smoking.

  10. A Qualitative Exploration of the Role of Vape Shop Environments in Supporting Smoking Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Emma; Cox, Sharon; Dawkins, Lynne; Jakes, Sarah; Holland, Richard; Notley, Caitlin

    2018-02-09

    E-cigarettes are the most popular method of quitting smoking in England and most are purchased in specialist vape shops. This qualitative study explores how the vape shop environment is experienced by quitters to support smoking abstinence. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted to elicit experiences of e-cigarette use, including experiences of vape shops, in 40 people who had used e-cigarettes in a quit attempt. Observations of six shops in a range of locations were also undertaken. Interview and observation data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis and triangulated. At an individual level, smoking abstinence was supported through shop assistants' attempts to understand customers' smoking preferences in order to: (i) tailor advice about the most appropriate product; and (ii) offer an ongoing point of contact for practical help. At an interpersonal level, shops offered opportunity to socialise and reinforce a vaping identity, although the environment was perceived as intimidating for some (e.g., new and female users). At a structural level, shops ensured easy access to products perceived to be good value by customers and had adapted to legislative changes. Vape shops can provide effective behavioural support to quitters to maintain smoking abstinence. Health professionals could capitalise on this through partnership working with shops, to ensure best outcomes for clients wanting to use e-cigarettes to quit smoking.

  11. Comparison of comprehensive and abstinence-only sexuality education in young African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Lindsay M; Sly, Kaye F; Girard, Jeffrey M

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of sexual behavior and condom use in African American adolescents, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of comprehensive sexuality and abstinence-only education to reduce adolescent sexual behavior and increase condom use. Participants included 450 adolescents aged 12-14 years in the southern United States. Regression analyses showed favorable attitudes toward sexual behavior and social norms significantly predicted recent sexual behavior, and favorable attitudes toward condoms significantly predicted condom usage. Self-efficacy was not found to be predictive of adolescents' sexual behavior or condom use. There were no significant differences in recent sexual behavior based on type of sexuality education. Adolescents who received abstinence-only education had reduced favorable attitudes toward condom use, and were more likely to have unprotected sex than the comparison group. Findings suggest that adolescents who receive abstinence-only education are at greater risk of engaging in unprotected sex. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical predictors of gaming abstinence in help-seeking adult problematic gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Adair, Cam; Saunders, John B; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2018-03-01

    Research into the effectiveness of interventions for problematic gaming has been limited by a lack of data concerning the clinical characteristics of voluntary treatment-seekers; the nature and history of their gaming problems; and, their reasons for seeking help. The study aimed to identify variables predictive of short-term commitment to gaming abstinence following initial voluntary contact with an online help service. A total of 186 adult gamers with gaming-related problems were recruited online. Participants completed the DSM-5 Internet gaming disorder (IGD) checklist, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21, Internet Gaming Cognition Scale, Gaming Craving Scale, and Gaming Quality of Life Scale. A one-week follow up survey assessed adherence with intended gaming abstinence. Abstainers were less likely to have withdrawal symptoms and less likely to play action shooting games. Participants with mood symptoms (40% of the total) reported significantly more IGD symptoms, stronger maladaptive gaming cognitions (e.g., overvaluing game rewards), more previous occurrences of gaming problems, and poorer quality of life. However, mood symptoms did not predict abstinence from or continuation of gaming. Adults with gaming disorder seeking help to reduce their gaming may benefit initially from strategies that manage withdrawal and psychoeducation about riskier gaming activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Project Impact: a pharmacotherapy pilot trial investigating the abstinence and treatment adherence of Latino light smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, Marcel A; Anderson, Bradley J; Stanton, Cassandra; Audet, Daniel A; Stein, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Light smoking is particularly prevalent among Latino smokers. Nicotine replacement (NRT) and varenicline are effective medications for smoking cessation for moderate-heavy smokers but have not been tested in light smokers, and thus, there are no treatment guidelines for use with light smokers. This pilot trial tested the efficacy of NRT and varenicline in increasing smoking abstinence among Latino light smokers. A 3-group (NRT, varenicline, and varenicline-placebo) randomized design was used, and Latino light smokers (≤10 cigarettes per day) received 12 weeks of treatment, which included a culturally informed behavioral health session and ongoing medication management visits. At follow-up, there were no abstinent participants in the placebo and NRT groups. However, 30% of participants in the varenicline group were abstinent at the 3-, 4-, and 6-month follow-up. This study represents the only investigation that specifically targets Latino light smokers using these treatments and characterizing their treatment adherence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Care of the infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome: strength of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Denise

    2014-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence that guides management of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome. The standard of care first described in the 1970s is still prevalent today, although it has never been tested in this population. Standard of care interventions include decreasing external stimulation, holding, nonnutritive sucking, swaddling, pressure/rubbing, and rocking. These interventions meet the goals of nonpharmacologic interventions, which are to facilitate parental attachment and decrease external stimuli. Many nursing interventions used in infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome have been tested in low-birth-weight infants, whose treatment often includes the same goals. Those interventions include music therapy, kangaroo care, massage, and use of nonoscillating water beds. Nursing attitude has also been shown to be impactful on parental attachment. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends breast-feeding in infants whose mothers are on methadone who do not have any other contraindication. It also provides guidelines for pharmacologic management but cannot provide specific recommendations about a standard first dose, escalation, or weaning schedule. Buprenorphine has some evidence about its safety in newborns with neonatal abstinence syndrome, but high-powered studies on its efficacy are currently lacking. There are many opportunities for both evidence-based projects and nursing research projects in this population.

  15. Drinking, abstinence, and academic motives: Relationships among multiple motivational domains and alcohol use in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Ladd, Benjamin O; Anderson, Kristen G

    2016-04-01

    Drinking, abstinence, and academic motives have been previously linked with alcohol consumption in high school and college students; however, little research has examined the impact of such sources of motivations concurrently. Drawing from self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), the current study tested the hypothesis that alcohol-related and academic motives would be associated with one another along internal vs. external focused dimensions. We also examined the relative influence of these motives on alcohol consumption. College students (N=226) completed self-report measures assessing drinking motives, abstinence motives, academic motives, and alcohol-related outcomes. Findings suggest that drinking motives are related to abstinence motives but not academic motives. Both forms of alcohol-related motives were related to alcohol use and consequences; no associations between academic motives and alcohol variables were observed. The lack of associations among academic motives, alcohol-related motives, and alcohol variables departs from previous findings suggesting that academic motives impact alcohol use. The current findings indicate a greater understanding of the interplay of motivational sets related to salient issues for youth, such as academics, is needed in order to expand intervention models for alcohol use in such populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanistic Population Pharmacokinetics of Morphine in Neonates With Abstinence Syndrome After Oral Administration of Diluted Tincture of Opium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Lewis, Tamorah; Gauda, Estelle; Gobburu, Jogarao; Ivaturi, Vijay

    2016-08-01

    Conducting and analyzing clinical trials in vulnerable neonates are extremely challenging. The aim of this analysis is to develop a morphine population pharmacokinetics (PK) model using data collected during a randomized control trial in neonates with abstinence syndrome (NAS). A 3-compartment morphine structural PK model after intravenous (IV) administration from previously published work was utilized as prior, whereas an allometric scaling method with physiological consideration was used to extrapolate a PK profile from adults to pediatrics. The absorption rate constant and bioavailability were estimated in NAS after oral administration of diluted tincture of opium (DTO). Goodness-of-fit plots along with normalized prediction distribution error and bootstrap method were performed for model evaluation. We successfully extrapolated the PK profile from adults to pediatrics after IV administration. The estimated first-order absorption rate constant and bioavailability were 0.751 hour(-1) and 48.5%, respectively. Model evaluations showed that the model can accurately and precisely describe the observed data. The population pharmacokinetic model we derived for morphine after oral administration of DTO is reasonable and acceptable; therefore, it can be used to describe the PK and guide future studies. The integration of the previous population PK knowledge as prior information successfully overcomes the logistic and practical issue in vulnerable neonate population. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  17. Model-based estimates of annual survival rate are preferable to observed maximum lifespan statistics for use in comparative life-history studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, D.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of longevity are available for many animals, and are commonly used in comparative life-history analyses. We suggest that annual survival rate is more appropriate life history parameter for most comparative life history analyses. Observed maximum longevities were not correlated with the annual survival rate estimates and appear to be unstable over time. We recommend that observed maximum lifespans not be used in life history analyses.

  18. Distinct Mu, Delta, and Kappa Opioid Receptor Mechanisms Underlie Low Sociability and Depressive-Like Behaviors During Heroin Abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Pierre-Eric; Ayranci, Gulebru; Chu-Sin-Chung, Paul; Matifas, Audrey; Koebel, Pascale; Filliol, Dominique; Befort, Katia; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2014-01-01

    Addiction is a chronic disorder involving recurring intoxication, withdrawal, and craving episodes. Escaping this vicious cycle requires maintenance of abstinence for extended periods of time and is a true challenge for addicted individuals. The emergence of depressive symptoms, including social withdrawal, is considered a main cause for relapse, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we establish a mouse model of protracted abstinence to heroin, a major abused opiate, where both emotional and working memory deficits unfold. We show that delta and kappa opioid receptor (DOR and KOR, respectively) knockout mice develop either stronger or reduced emotional disruption during heroin abstinence, establishing DOR and KOR activities as protective and vulnerability factors, respectively, that regulate the severity of abstinence. Further, we found that chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine prevents emergence of low sociability, with no impact on the working memory deficit, implicating serotonergic mechanisms predominantly in emotional aspects of abstinence symptoms. Finally, targeting the main serotonergic brain structure, we show that gene knockout of mu opioid receptors (MORs) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) before heroin exposure abolishes the development of social withdrawal. This is the first result demonstrating that intermittent chronic MOR activation at the level of DRN represents an essential mechanism contributing to low sociability during protracted heroin abstinence. Altogether, our findings reveal crucial and distinct roles for all three opioid receptors in the development of emotional alterations that follow a history of heroin exposure and open the way towards understanding opioid system-mediated serotonin homeostasis in heroin abuse. PMID:24874714

  19. Gene expression changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens following abstinence from cocaine self-administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Drake

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of cocaine-responsive gene expression have focused on changes occurring during cocaine exposure, but few studies have examined the persistence of these changes with cocaine abstinence. Persistent changes in gene expression, as well as alterations induced during abstinence may underlie long-lasting drug craving and relapse liability. Results Whole-genome expression analysis was conducted on a rat cocaine binge-abstinence model that has previously been demonstrated to engender increased drug seeking and taking with abstinence. Gene expression changes in two mesolimbic terminal fields (mPFC and NAc were identified in a comparison of cocaine-naïve rats with rats after 10 days of cocaine self-administration followed by 1, 10, or 100 days of enforced abstinence (n = 6-11 per group. A total of 1,461 genes in the mPFC and 414 genes in the NAc were altered between at least two time points (ANOVA, p Conclusions Together, these changes help to illuminate processes and networks involved in abstinence-induced behaviors, including synaptic plasticity, MAPK signaling, and TNF signaling.

  20. Abstinence and teenagers: prevention counseling practices of health care providers serving high-risk patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Cynthia C; Henderson, Jillian T; Schalet, Amy; Becker, Davida; Stratton, Laura; Raine, Tina R

    2010-06-01

    Abstinence-only education has had little demonstrable impact on teenagers' sexual behaviors, despite significant policy and funding efforts. Given the struggle over resources to improve teenagers' reproductive health outcomes, the views of clinicians serving teenagers at high risk for unintended pregnancy and STDs merit particular attention. In 2005, a qualitative study with 31 clinicians serving low-income, at-risk patients was conducted. A semistructured interview guide was used to ask clinicians about adolescent pregnancy, HIV and STD prevention counseling, and when they include abstinence. Thematic content analysis was used to examine the content of the counseling and the techniques used in different situations. Providers reported offering comprehensive counseling, presenting abstinence as a choice for teenagers, along with information about contraceptives and condoms. Several providers mentioned that with young, sexually inexperienced teenagers, they discuss delaying sexual activity and suggest other ways to be affectionate, while giving information on condoms. Providers explained how they assess whether teenagers feel ready to be sexually active and try to impart skills for healthy relationships. Some described abstinence as giving teenagers a way to opt out of unwanted sexual activity. Many support abstinence if that is the patient's desire, but routinely dispense condoms and contraceptives. Overall, providers did not give abstinence counseling as a rigid categorical concept in their preventive practices, but as a health tool to give agency to teenagers within a harm reduction framework. Their approach may be informative for adolescent policies and programs in the future.

  1. Significance of electronic health records: A comparative study of vaccination rates in patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korur, Asli; Asma, Süheyl; Gereklioglu, Cigdem; Solmaz, Soner; Boga, Can; Ozsahin, Akatlı Kürsat; Kut, Altug

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of electronic health records (EHR) and electronic vaccination schedule applications on the vaccination status of patients who were admitted to our Center for the treatment of sickle cell disease (SCD). The vaccination status against influenza and pneumococcus infection was determined in 93 patients who were admitted to the hematology outpatient clinic, Baskent University Adana Hospital from April 2004 to March 2009. The vaccination status was then re-evaluated following establishment of EHR and electronic vaccination schedules in 2012. Of the 93 patients with SCD 21.5% (n = 20) were vaccinated against pneumococcus and 21.5% (n = 20) were regularly vaccinated against influenza. When the vaccination rates of 59 of 93 patients who presented for their regular control examinations were analyzed following establishment of EHR and vaccination schedules in 2012, these rates were 49.2% (n = 29) and 50.8% (n = 30) for influenza and pneumococcus, respectively, after EHR; there were 23.7% (n = 14) and 20.3% (n = 12), respectively, before EHR. A statistically significant difference was found between the vaccination rates before and after EHR (p < 0.05). Although viral and bacterial infections are life-threatening health problems in patients with SCD, the vaccination rates were low in high-risk patients. However, these rates increased after application of electronic vaccination schedules.

  2. Global dynamics and transition state theories: Comparative study of reaction rate constants for gas-phase chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Li-Ping; Han, Ke-Li; Zhang, John Z H

    2009-01-30

    In this review article, we present a systematic comparison of the theoretical rate constants for a range of bimolecular reactions that are calculated by using three different classes of theoretical methods: quantum dynamics (QD), quasi-classical trajectory (QCT), and transition state theory (TST) approaches. The study shows that the difference of rate constants between TST results and those of the global dynamics methods (QD and QCT) are seen to be related to a number of factors including the number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF), the density of states at transition state (TS), etc. For reactions with more DOF and higher density of states at the TS, it is found that the rate constants from TST calculations are systematically higher than those obtained from global dynamics calculations, indicating large recrossing effect for these systems. The physical insight of this phenomenon is elucidated in the present review. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. HIGHER PRECISION OF HEART RATE COMPARED WITH VO2 TO PREDICT EXERCISE INTENSITY IN ENDURANCE-TRAINED RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Reis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of oxygen uptake with heart rate regression during track running in highly-trained runners. Twelve national and international level male long-distance road runners (age 30.7 ± 5.5 yrs, height 1.71 ± 0.04 m and mass 61.2 ± 5.8 kg with a personal best on the half marathon of 62 min 37 s ± 1 min 22 s participated in the study. Each participant performed, in an all-weather synthetic track five, six min bouts at constant velocity with each bout at an increased running velocity. The starting velocity was 3.33 m·s-1 with a 0.56 m·s-1 increase on each subsequent bout. VO2 and heart rate were measured during the runs and blood lactate was assessed immediately after each run. Mean peak VO2 and mean peak heart rate were, respectively, 76.2 ± 9.7 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 181 ± 13 beats·min-1. The linearity of the regressions between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 were all very high (r > 0.99 with small standard errors of regression (i.e. Sy.x < 5% at the velocity associated with the 2 and 4 mmol·L-1 lactate thresholds. The strong relationships between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 found in this study show that, in highly trained runners, it is possible to have heart rate as an accurate indicator of energy demand and of the running speed. Therefore, in this subject cohort it may be unnecessary to use VO2 to track changes in the subjects' running economy during training periods.

  4. Cortical thickness, surface area, and volume of the brain reward system in alcohol dependence: relationships to relapse and extended abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Tosun, Duygu; Buckley, Shannon; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Mon, Anderson; Fryer, Susanna L; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2011-06-01

    At least 60% of those treated for an alcohol use disorder will relapse. Empirical study of the integrity of the brain reward system (BRS) is critical to understanding the mechanisms of relapse as this collection of circuits is implicated in the development and maintenance of all forms of addictive disorders. This study compared thickness, surface area, and volume in neocortical components of the BRS among nonsmoking light-drinking controls (controls), individuals who remained abstinent and those who relapsed after treatment. Seventy-five treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals (abstinent for 7±3 days) and 43 controls completed 1.5T proton magnetic resonance imaging studies. Parcellated morphological data were obtained for following bilateral components of the BRS: rostral and caudal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), rostral and caudal middle and superior frontal gyri, amygdala and hippocampus as well as for 26 other bilateral neocortical regions. Alcohol-dependent participants were followed over 12-months after baseline study and were classified as abstainers (no alcohol consumption; n=24) and relapsers (any alcohol consumption; n=51) at follow-up. Relapsers and abstainers demonstrated lower cortical thickness in the vast majority of BRS regions as well as lower global thickness compared to controls. Relapsers had lower total BRS surface area than both controls and abstainers, but abstainers were not significantly different from controls on any surface area measure. Relapsers demonstrated lower volumes than controls in the majority of regions, while abstainers showed lower volumes than controls in the superior frontal gyrus, insula, amygdala, and hippocampus, bilaterally. Relapsers exhibited smaller volumes than abstainers in the right rostral middle and caudal middle frontal gyri and the lateral OFC, bilaterally. In relapsers, lower baseline volumes and surface areas in multiple regions were associated with

  5. Estimating glomerular filtration rate: Cockcroft-Gault and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formulas compared to renal inulin clearance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botev, R.; Mallie, J.P.; Couchoud, C.; Schuck, O.; Fauvel, J.P.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Lee, N.; Santo, N.G. De; Cirillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of renal function by estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is very important for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formulas are the

  6. Racial Discipline Disproportionality in Montessori and Traditional Public Schools: A Comparative Study Using the Relative Rate Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katie E.; Steele, Aimy S. L.

    2015-01-01

    Research from the past 40 years indicates that Black students in primary and secondary school settings are subjected to exclusionary discipline, including suspension and expulsion, at rates two to three times higher than their White peers (Children's Defense Fund, 1975; Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002). Although this phenomenon has…

  7. Comparing VO2max determined by using the relation between heart rate and acceleormetry with submaximal estimated VO2max

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tönis, Thijs; Gorter, K.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    AIM: An exploratory study to identify parameters that can be used for estimating a subject’s cardio-respiratory physical fitness level, expressed as VO2max, from a combination of heart rate and 3D accelerometer data. METHODS: Data were gathered from 41 healthy subjects (23 male, 18 female) aged

  8. Comparing the Rates of Early Childhood Victimization across Sexual Orientations: Heterosexual, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Mostly Heterosexual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zou

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the rates of childhood victimization among individuals who identify as "mostly heterosexual" (MH in comparison to other sexual orientation groups. For the present study, we utilized a more comprehensive assessment of adverse childhood experiences to extend prior literature by examining if MH individuals' experience of victimization more closely mirrors that of sexual minority individuals or heterosexuals. Heterosexual (n = 422 and LGB (n = 561 and MH (n = 120 participants were recruited online. Respondents completed surveys about their adverse childhood experiences, both maltreatment by adults (e.g., childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction and peer victimization (i.e., verbal and physical bullying. Specifically, MH individuals were 1.47 times more likely than heterosexuals to report childhood victimization experiences perpetrated by adults. These elevated rates were similar to LGB individuals. Results suggest that rates of victimization of MH groups are more similar to the rates found among LGBs, and are significantly higher than heterosexual groups. Our results support prior research that indicates that an MH identity falls within the umbrella of a sexual minority, yet little is known about unique challenges that this group may face in comparison to other sexual minority groups.

  9. Randomized trial comparing mindfulness training for smokers to a matched control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James M.; Manley, Alison R.; Goldberg, Simon B.; Smith, Stevens S.; Jorenby, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking continues to take an enormous toll on society, and although most smokers would like to quit, most are unsuccessful using existing therapies. These findings call on researchers to develop and test therapies that provide higher rates of long-term smoking abstinence. We report results of a randomized controlled trial comparing a novel smoking cessation treatment using mindfulness training to a matched control based on the American Lung Association's Freedom From Smoking program. Data were collected on 175 low socioeconomic status smokers in 2011-2012 in a medium sized Midwestern city. A significant difference was not found in the primary outcome; intent-to-treat biochemically confirmed 6-month smoking abstinence rates were Mindfulness = 25.0%, Control= 17.9% (p = 0.35). Differences favoring the mindfulness condition were found on measures of urges and changes in mindfulness, perceived stress, and experiential avoidance. While no significant differences were found in quit rates, the mindfulness intervention resulted in positive outcomes. PMID:24957302

  10. Subjective social status and trajectories of self-rated health status: a comparative analysis of Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Fujiwara, Takeo; Nakayama, Takeo; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-11-28

    Japanese society is more egalitarian than the United States as is reflected by the lower degree of prevalence of social inequalities in health. We examined whether subjective socioeconomic status is associated with different trajectories of self-rated health (SRH), and whether this relationship differs between the United States and Japan. We analyzed the responses of 3968 Americans from the survey Mid